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Sample records for group discussions key

  1. Summary of group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  2. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  3. Small Group Discussion as a Key Component in Online Assessment Training for Enhanced Student Learning in Web-Based Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of online assessment training, with synchronous group discussion as a key component, on subsequent web-based peer assessment results. Participants included 81 college students, mostly women, taking a business writing class. After initial submission of a draft counter-offer letter, they completed…

  4. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  5. Discussion groups on the Internet: journaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, J E

    1995-09-01

    Interactive communication on the Internet, as illustrated by the e-mail-based breast cancer discussion group, provides an alternative to the telephone, the fax machine and regular mail, and is a resource for communications research, the potential of which is only beginning to be appreciated. At least some of the messages posted to such discussion groups could be regarded as a form of "journaling". Such messages are eminently suitable for qualitative data analysis.

  6. Summaries of discussion groups and closeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Beam Instrumentation Workshop registrants selected the following topics for group discussions: Commercial technology and beam instrumentation, 4th generation light source instrumentation, feedback systems, beam loss monitors, calibration methods, high resolution and highly stable BPM methods, challenges in beam profiling. Summaries of these discussion sessions are listed in the article that follows

  7. Group Discussion and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…

  8. How to conduct focus groups: researching group priorities through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Focus groups serve to uncover priorities and beliefs of a target group, but health project designers do not always take the time to seek this information beforehand. Focus groups also allow various local subgroups to communicate their concerns before the project starts. Focus groups can also breed ideas and dialogue that individual interviews cannot and they provide baseline information so managers can determine if attitudes or priorities have resulted from the project. Diverse people have different beliefs, e.g., women who have young children view oral rehydration therapy differently from women with no children. Project designers can use these basic differences to arrive at some conclusions about general attitudes. Focus group facilitators should have a discussion outline to help keep the group on the topic of concern. They should limit sessions to 60-90 minutes. Each focus groups should include 8-10 people. It is important to have members of various community subgroups in each group. Yet group designers should be careful not to include within the same group, those who may intimidate other people in the group, e.g., in situations where farmers depend on middlemen, farmers may not be open if middlemen are also in the focus group. Facilitators should launch each session with an attempt to encourage the members to be open and to feel comfortable. For example, in Malawi, a facilitator leads her focus group discussions with songs. Stories are another icebreaker. It is important that all focus groups centering around a certain project discuss the same topics. Facilitators need to stress to the group that all discussions are to be kept confidential. The designers should also carefully word the questions so that facilitators will not impart their bias. Facilitators should not direct the group to certain conclusions, but instead keep the discussions focused.

  9. Student decision making in large group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  10. Synthesis of the working group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The workshop was an important step in the establishment of a strategy to review the part of SKB's safety case that is devoted to the demonstration of the isolation function of a future spent fuel repository. The emphasis was on identification rather than resolution of issues in this workshop synthesis. Subsequent steps therefore have to be taken within the Swedish regulatory bodies to follow up on this report and suggest activities within the regulators research programmes, as well as organise more detailed issue evaluation for different experts group. Ongoing and planned activities within the SKB programme that are related to the issues identified in this report would have to be reviewed in detail. The great emphasis of isolation of spent nuclear fuel rather than, e.g., radionuclide retardation and dilution, featured in the SR97 performance assessment, suggests that the Swedish regulators have to be prepared to review this part of the coming PAs in greater detail. The specific features of the workshop that contributed to the rather comprehensive description of issues relevant for future licensing activities are: The combined consideration of the areas of the copper canister and bentonite buffer, the assessment of both chemical and mechanical aspects of EBS and canister integrity, the use of a published comprehensive performance assessment (SR-97) as a basis for discussions, the active participation by SKB providing additional information on recent developments. There is an educational value for external consultants and researchers, as well as SKI staff, in addressing the broad subject areas relevant for the EBS isolation function. However, a broad coverage to some extent necessitates rather superficial view of the various issues under consideration. It should be noted that the descriptions in this synthesis can by no means be regarded as fully comprehensive, and that additional key issues may be identified in the SKB programme as well as future regulatory

  11. Focus group discussion in mathematical physics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.

  12. Noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag

    2011-09-01

    We study the noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading wireless channels, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI). We present two results. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    We study the noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading wireless channels, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI). We present two results. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  15. [Key ethic discussions in hospice/palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusić, Anica

    2008-12-01

    The goal of palliative care is to provide the best possible quality of life for patients and their families in the process of dying as well as before, during the course of illness. Emphasis is on the role of team approach in every aspect of patient care. The moral principles of sacredness of life and the right of personal autonomy may occasionally come in conflict. The basic principle of the respect of life prohibits killing, which has been accepted in one way or another by all societies - for the reasons of survival. Similar to this, modern morality supports the principle of respecting autonomy and self-management based on informed, conscious personality of an individual. Still, if the needs of another person appear to be more important or desirable than reaching certain individual goals, then the right of an individual regarding autonomy may be legitimately limited. Decisions on not applying or terminating certain procedures must be based on thorough discussion and consideration of the nature and expected result of treatment. If the patient is not competent, then the discussion should involve a team providing care for the patient and a representative of the patient. When the physician and the team can clearly see that unfavorable effects of treatment will outweigh therapeutic benefits, then, according to medical ethics of the respecting beneficiary, the team is not obliged to provide that form of treatment. Except for palliative care, there is no medical treatment that is always obligatory. A physician that does not accept the patient's request to be killed does not limit the patient's autonomy. Autonomy is self-management and capability of the patient to kill him/herself is not limited by the physician's refusal to do so. Even in those cases when patients for various reasons say that death will be a relief, it does not mean that the physician is obliged to terminate life. The superior obligation of physicians is to alleviate pain. If euthanasia would be legal

  16. Searching for Intertextual Connections in Small Group Text Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the sources for and intentions of intertextuality made by 10 groups of Taiwanese university students in the process of discussing two American stories. Two types of data, small group text discussions and oral interviews, were gathered. The results indicated that participants used diverse sources of intertextual links, and with…

  17. Dynamical networks of influence in small group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Noriega Campero, Alejandro; Almaatouq, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    In many domains of life, business and management, numerous problems are addressed by small groups of individuals engaged in face-to-face discussions. While research in social psychology has a long history of studying the determinants of small group performances, the internal dynamics that govern a group discussion are not yet well understood. Here, we rely on computational methods based on network analyses and opinion dynamics to describe how individuals influence each other during a group discussion. We consider the situation in which a small group of three individuals engages in a discussion to solve an estimation task. We propose a model describing how group members gradually influence each other and revise their judgments over the course of the discussion. The main component of the model is an influence network-a weighted, directed graph that determines the extent to which individuals influence each other during the discussion. In simulations, we first study the optimal structure of the influence network that yields the best group performances. Then, we implement a social learning process by which individuals adapt to the past performance of their peers, thereby affecting the structure of the influence network in the long run. We explore the mechanisms underlying the emergence of efficient or maladaptive networks and show that the influence network can converge towards the optimal one, but only when individuals exhibit a social discounting bias by downgrading the relative performances of their peers. Finally, we find a late-speaker effect, whereby individuals who speak later in the discussion are perceived more positively in the long run and are thus more influential. The numerous predictions of the model can serve as a basis for future experiments, and this work opens research on small group discussion to computational social sciences.

  18. Professional Discussion Groups: Informal Learning in a Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explored two discussion groups and discovered Third Space elements such as cultural hybridity, counterscript, and sharing of experiences and resources contributed to a safe learning environment existing at the boundaries between participant personal and professional spaces. The groups operated under the auspices of a…

  19. Sharing and Discussing News in Private Social Media Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    and their associated following, sharing and discussion practices. Specifically, it studies the role of news in six focus groups consisting of people who know each other offline and simultaneously communicate regularly through private Facebook or WhatsApp groups, and who interact primarily in relation...

  20. Discussions of the uranium geology working groups IGC, Sydney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The report is divided into six working group discussions on the following subjects: 1) Chemical and physical mechanisms in the formation of uranium mineralization, geochronology, isotope geology and mineralogy; 2) Sedimentary basins and sandstone-type uranium deposits; 3) Uranium in quartz-pebble conglomerates; 4) Vein and similar type deposits (pitchblende); 5) Other uranium deposits; 6) Relation of metallogenic, tectonic and zoning factors to the origin of uranium deposits. Each working group paper contains a short introductory part followed by a discussion by the working group members

  1. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  2. THE APPLICABILITY OF SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION IN ENGLISH READING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Success of learning is not only a matter of using an appropriate teaching resources, instead, the interference of teaching method is found to be essential to determine the students’ learning achievement. Teacher as a captain of class has the right to choose type of method used in the classroom for sake of students’ improvement. This study was designed as an attempt to help Master Students from a well established private university improve their reading comprehension skill through small group discussion. This study was participated by 30 students, later divided into two classes and served differently as an experimental group for the class A and a control group for the class B. Referring to the final data analysis of the study, it is found that there is an improving learning achievement in the experimental group, indicated by higher performance of posttest (20.333 than the pretest. Apart from this, further analysis was also conducted to find out whether or not small group discussion was able to show better performance than another teaching method applied in another different class. Based on the result of statistical calculation, it shows that small group discussion got better result 12.334 than that of another group. As a result, some suggestions were made by referring to result of the study.

  3. Discussion as media and tool in PBL project-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2013-01-01

    on the discussions which groups undertake in their pursuit of problem-solutions fulfilling assessed real-world needs as well as meeting the requirements of the educational program, it is concluded that discussions serve as a media for achieving learning and as a tool for developing skills essential for professional......The Aalborg PBL Model encourages project-management as a way for students to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in their study-projects. This paper looks into how the development of conversation skills relates to project-management as well as other factors. Through analysis of interviews focusing...

  4. A Model for Establishing an Astronomy Education Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Grace; Hayes-Gehrke, M.; Zauderer, B. A.; Bovill, M. S.; DeCesar, M.

    2010-01-01

    In October 2005, a group of astronomy faculty and graduate students met to establish departmental support for participants in the UM Center for Teaching Excellence University Teaching and Learning Program. This program seeks to increase graduate students’ understanding of effective teaching methods, awareness of student learning, and appreciation of education as a scholarly pursuit. Our group has facilitated the submission of successful graduate student educational development grant proposals to the Center for Teaching Excellence (CTE). Completion of the CTE program results in a notation on the graduate student's transcript. Our discussion group met monthly during the first two years. The Astronomy Education Review, The Physics Teacher, The Washington Post, The Chronicle of Higher Education, and National Research Council publications were used to provide background for discussion. Beginning in 2007, the group began sponsoring monthly astronomy education lunches during the academic year to which the entire department was invited. Over the past two years, speakers have included graduate students, faculty, and guests, such as Jay Labov from the National Research Council. Topics have included the Astronomy Diagnostic Test, intelligent design versus evolution, active learning techniques, introducing the use of lecture tutorials, using effective demonstrations, confronting student misconceptions, engagement through clickers (or cards), and fostering critical thinking with ranking tasks. The results of an informal evaluation will be presented.

  5. Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Veteläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.

  6. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  7. Partial Key Grouping: Load-Balanced Partitioning of Distributed Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Muhammad Anis Uddin; Morales, Gianmarco De Francisci; Garcia-Soriano, David; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Serafini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of load balancing in distributed stream processing engines, which is exacerbated in the presence of skew. We introduce PARTIAL KEY GROUPING (PKG), a new stream partitioning scheme that adapts the classical “power of two choices” to a distributed streaming setting by leveraging two novel techniques: key splitting and local load estimation. In so doing, it achieves better load balancing than key grouping while being more scalable than shuffle grouping. We test PKG on severa...

  8. Online Group Discussion pada Mata Kuliah Teknologi Pembelajaran Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuberti Yuberti

    2015-10-01

    penawaran akses internet yang menggiurkan demi menarik minat penggunanya. Beberapa fenomena tersebut menunjukkan semakin banyak kalangan yang memanfaatkan internet dan menjadikanya sebagai gaya hidup untuk berintaksi, bersosialisasi, belajar dan mendapatkan informasi. Meluasnya pemanfaatan internet bisa menjadi potensi besar dalam pengembangan pembelajaran dengan sistem online memungkinkan pebelajar untuk mengakses infromasi secara fleksibel tanpa terbatas waktu dan tempat. Diskusi tidak lagi terjadi secara tatap muka, namun dapat terus berlangsung meskipun dalam lingkungan maya. Sebagaimana pelaksanaan metode pembelajaran maya lainnya. Pelaksanaannya diskusi online itu sendiri pada dasarnya mengadopsi dari metode pembelajaran diskusi tatap muka. Kata kunci: online group discussion, teknologi pembelajaran

  9. Secret-Key Agreement with Public Discussion subject to an Amplitude Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of secret-key agreement with public discussion subject to a peak power constraint A on the channel input. The optimal input distribution is proved to be discrete with finite support. To overcome the computationally heavy search for the optimal discrete distribution, several suboptimal schemes are proposed and shown numerically to perform close to the capacity. Moreover, lower and upper bounds for the secret-key capacity are provided and used to prove that the secret-key capacity converges for asymptotic high values of A, to the secret-key capacity with an average power constraint A2. Finally, when the amplitude constraint A is small (A ! 0), the secret-key capacity is proved to be asymptotically equal to the capacity of the legitimate user with an amplitude constraint A and no secrecy constraint.

  10. Secret-Key Agreement with Public Discussion subject to an Amplitude Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2016-04-06

    This paper considers the problem of secret-key agreement with public discussion subject to a peak power constraint A on the channel input. The optimal input distribution is proved to be discrete with finite support. To overcome the computationally heavy search for the optimal discrete distribution, several suboptimal schemes are proposed and shown numerically to perform close to the capacity. Moreover, lower and upper bounds for the secret-key capacity are provided and used to prove that the secret-key capacity converges for asymptotic high values of A, to the secret-key capacity with an average power constraint A2. Finally, when the amplitude constraint A is small (A ! 0), the secret-key capacity is proved to be asymptotically equal to the capacity of the legitimate user with an amplitude constraint A and no secrecy constraint.

  11. Special Collections in ARL Libraries: A Discussion Report from the ARL Working Group on Special Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This discussion report identifies key issues in the management of special collections material in the 21st century. The report uses a broad definition of "special collections," which encompasses distinctive material in all media and attendant library services. The group's main focus was on 19th- and 20th-century materials, including…

  12. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  13. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  14. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  15. Gender diversity and motivation in collaborative learning groups : the mediating role of group discussion quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Chappin, M.M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835056; Jansen, Rob J. G.

    Collaborative learning is often used in higher education to help students develop their teamwork skills and acquire curricular knowledge. In this paper we test a mediation model in which the quality of group discussions mediates the impact of gender diversity and group motivation on collaborative

  16. Gender diversity and motivation in collaborative learning groups : The mediating role of group discussion quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, Petre; Chappin, M.M.H.; Jansen, R.J.G.

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative learning is often used in higher education to help students develop their teamwork skills and acquire curricular knowledge. In this paper we test a mediation model in which the quality of group discussions mediates the impact of gender diversity and group motivation on collaborative

  17. The "Us" in Discuss: Grouping in Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one middle school teacher's use of literature circles using heterogeneous grouping. It begins with a brief rationale for using literature circles in the language arts classroom. Next, it describes techniques to form literature circles. Then, it shares how to build and establish a supportive environment within each group. It…

  18. Heisenberg Groups as Platform for the AAG key-exchange protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Kahrobaei, Delaram; Lam, Ha T.

    2014-01-01

    Garber, Kahrobaei, and Lam studied polycyclic groups generated by number field as platform for the AAG key-exchange protocol. In this paper, we discuss the use of a different kind of polycyclic groups, Heisenberg groups, as a platform group for AAG by submitting Heisenberg groups to one of AAG's major attacks, the length-based attack.

  19. Social capital as norms and resources: Focus groups discussing alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from......The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between peer-group social capital and the use of alcohol among young people – as this relationship is expressed in focus group interviews. The main point to be made is that social capital affects alcohol use in two different ways: it incites...... focus group interviews with 18–19-year-old Danes. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/16066351003725776...

  20. Non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag

    2011-06-01

    We study the Rayleigh fading non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of any channel. We present two results. At high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low-SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    We study the Rayleigh fading non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of any channel. We present two results. At high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low-SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Highlights from panel discussion on key issues for future developments in microwave processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gac, F.D.; Iskander, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on highlights from a panel discussion on Key Issues for Future Development in Microwave Processing. Although the panelists represented a mix of individuals from government, academia, and industry, only one aspect of industry was represented, namely microwave system manufacturers. For further panel discussions, it is recommended that the materials manufacturing (i.e., microwave user) sector also be represented. Three important points emerged from the panel discussion. The first deals with the credibility and usability of information, be it dielectric property measurements, experimental procedures, or microwave processing results. Second, a considerable communication and education gap continues to exist between the materials community and microwave engineers. Finally, a more realistic approach should be taken in identifying where microwave processing makes sense

  3. The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…

  4. [Discussion on appraisal methods and key technologies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and medicinal plant symbiosis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanping; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Yang, Li; Huang, Luqi

    2011-11-01

    Applications of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in research of medicinal plant cultivation are increased in recent years. Medicinal plants habitat is complicated and many inclusions are in root, however crop habitat is simple and few inclusions in root. So appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of crop and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can't completely suitable for the symbiotic system of medicinal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article discuss the appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of medicinal plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from the isolation and identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the appraisal of colonization intensity. This article provides guidance for application research of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cultivation of medicinal plants.

  5. Scalable Multi-group Key Management for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Benmalek , Mourad; Challal , Yacine; Bouabdallah , Abdelmadjid

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is composed of systems and networks to incorporate changes for modernizing the electricity grid, reduce peak loads, and meet energy efficiency targets. AMI is a privileged target for security attacks with potentially great damage against infrastructures and privacy. For this reason, Key Management has been identified as one of the most challenging topics in AMI development. In this paper, we propose a new Scalable multi-group key ...

  6. Authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevassut, Olivier [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals A and B, communicating over a public network, and each holding a pair of matching public/private keys to agree on a session key. Protocols designed to deal with this problem ensure A (B resp.)that no other principals aside from B (A resp.) can learn any information about this value. These protocols additionally often ensure A and B that their respective partner has actually computed the shared secret value. A natural extension to the above cryptographic protocol problem is to consider a pool of principals agreeing on a session key. Over the years several papers have extended the two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange to the multi-party setting but no formal treatments were carried out till recently. In light of recent developments in the formalization of the authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange we have in this thesis laid out the authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange on firmer foundations.

  7. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  8. Constant round group key agreement protocols: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makri, E.; Konstantinou, Elisavet

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to review and evaluate all constant round Group Key Agreement (GKA) protocols proposed so far in the literature. We have gathered all GKA protocols that require 1,2,3,4 and 5 rounds and examined their efficiency. In particular, we calculated each protocol’s computation and

  9. Identifying key features of effective active learning: the effects of writing and peer discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Debra L; Pangle, Wiline M; Wyatt, Kevin H; Powell, Karli N; Sherwood, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. © 2014 D. L. Linton et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-01-01

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model

  11. MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Leslie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This paper includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on Chemical Detection and Monitoring of mycotoxins and on the role of genetics and biodiversity in mycotoxin production. Discussions were managed by using the nominal group discussion technique, which generates numerous ideas and provides a ranking for those identified as the most important. Four questions were posed for each research area, as well as two questions that were common to both discussions. Test kits, usually antibody based, were one major focus of the discussions at the Chemical Detection and Monitoring roundtable because of their many favorable features, e.g., cost, speed and ease of use. The second area of focus for this roundtable was multi-mycotoxin detection protocols and the challenges still to be met to enable these protocols to become methods of choice for regulated mycotoxins. For the genetic and biodiversity group, both the depth and the breadth of trending research areas were notable. For some areas, e.g., microbiome studies, the suggested research questions were primarily of a descriptive nature. In other areas, multiple experimental approaches, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, RNAi and gene deletions, are needed to understand the regulation of toxin production and mechanisms underlying successful biological controls. Answers to the research questions will provide starting points for developing acceptable prevention and remediation processes. Forging a partnership between scientists and appropriately-placed communications experts was recognized by both groups as an essential step to communicating risks, while retaining overall confidence in the safety of the food supply and the integrity of the food production chain.

  12. MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Veronica; Cary, Jeffrey; Chulze, Sofia N.; Gerardino, Annamaria; Liao, Yu-Cai; Maragos, Chris M.; Meca, Giuseppe; Moretti, Antonio; Munkvold, Gary; Mulè, Giuseppina; Njobeh, Patrick; Pecorelli, Ivan; Pietri, Amedeo; Proctor, Robert H.; Rahayu, Endang S.; Ramírez, Maria L.; Samson, Robert; Stroka, Jörg; Sumarah, Mark; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Hao; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2018-01-01

    MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This paper includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on Chemical Detection and Monitoring of mycotoxins and on the role of genetics and biodiversity in mycotoxin production. Discussions were managed by using the nominal group discussion technique, which generates numerous ideas and provides a ranking for those identified as the most important. Four questions were posed for each research area, as well as two questions that were common to both discussions. Test kits, usually antibody based, were one major focus of the discussions at the Chemical Detection and Monitoring roundtable because of their many favorable features, e.g., cost, speed and ease of use. The second area of focus for this roundtable was multi-mycotoxin detection protocols and the challenges still to be met to enable these protocols to become methods of choice for regulated mycotoxins. For the genetic and biodiversity group, both the depth and the breadth of trending research areas were notable. For some areas, e.g., microbiome studies, the suggested research questions were primarily of a descriptive nature. In other areas, multiple experimental approaches, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, RNAi and gene deletions, are needed to understand the regulation of toxin production and mechanisms underlying successful biological controls. Answers to the research questions will provide starting points for developing acceptable prevention and remediation processes. Forging a partnership between scientists and appropriately-placed communications experts was recognized by both groups as an essential step to communicating risks, while retaining overall confidence in the safety of the food supply and the integrity of the food production chain. PMID:29494529

  13. Managing and developing key supplier relationships : An introduction to the special issue, discussion and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, B.; van de Vijver, M.A.R.; Vos, G.C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to this special issue on managing and developing key supplier relationships. Key suppliers are increasingly seen as strategic assets of buying companies which need careful nurturing to fully utilize their potential for value creation. The six articles of this

  14. The communication of social stereotypes: the effects of group discussion and information distribution on stereotypic appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, M; Judd, C M; Jacquelin, V

    2001-09-01

    Stereotypes are fundamentally social constructs, formulated and modified through discussion and interaction with others. The present studies examined the impact of group discussion on stereotypes. In both studies, groups of participants discussed their impressions about a hypothetical target group after having read behaviors performed by target group members. These behaviors included both stereotypic and counterstereotypic examples, and the distribution of these behaviors varied across discussion group members. In some groups only 1 member knew of the counterstereotypic behaviors; in other groups this information was distributed across all group members. In general, discussion led to a polarization of the target group stereotypes, but this effect was lessened when the counterstereotypic behaviors were concentrated in 1 group member. In this case, these counterstereotypic behaviors were discussed more and retained better.

  15. Connecting the Dots: A Discussion on Key Concepts in Contemporary Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, Gustav; Kurczewska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to justify, elaborate and elucidate the concepts of action, experience and reflection, and how they are intertwined when discussing contemporary entrepreneurship education. These concepts have been given a meaning in entrepreneurship education, but have not been discussed in-depth, and by that have been…

  16. The influence of group discussion on performance judgments: rating accuracy, contrast effects, and halo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jerry K; Loveland, James M

    2008-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of group discussion, such as may occur formally in panel interview scenarios, assessment centers, or 360-degree feedback situations, on judgments of performance. Research on group polarization suggests that the effect of group discussion combined with raters' preexisting impressions of ratees or interviewees should result in an extremitization of impressions. Thus, the authors hypothesized that group discussion would (a) make ratings less accurate, (b) polarize impressions that were already good or poor as reflected by greater contrast effects, and (c) increase positive halo. Results indicated that group discussion resulted in less accurate ratings and greater contrast effects. Additional analyses suggested that group discussion increased positive halo. The authors discuss implications for research on group or panel judgments.

  17. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  18. Climate Change and Its Causes, A Discussion About Some Key Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the limits of the Anthropogenic Global Warming Theory advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A phenomenological theory of climate change based on the physical properties of the data themselves is proposed. At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system. A climatic stabilization or cooling until 2030-2040 is forecast by the phenomenological model.

  19. [Discussion on the key points of building modern theory of acupuncture treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang

    2013-10-01

    Acupuncture treatment is different from treatment of materia medica. However, syndrome differentiation system of internal medicine is adopted all the time for the present acupuncture textbooks. It is held that the characteristics of acupuncture can not be fully reflexed, and advantages of acupuncture can not be brought into full play. Therefore, it's urgent to build up a modem theory on acupuncture treatment which is fit for the clinical practice of acupuncture and can give a better play for the treatment of acupuncture. A clear target is one of the characteristics of acupuncture treatment. And it is based on the understanding of the location of disease, therefore, disease differentiation is held as the basis of acupuncture treatment. The aim of meridian differentiation is to select distal effective points on the base of diseases differentiation, which is also taken as the characteristics of acupuncture treatment. Syndrome differentiation is a process of understanding the general pathological states of the human body, it is an important process to enhance the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. Thus, the key point for establishing the modern acupuncture theory is clarifying the values of disease differentiation, meridian differentiation and syndrome differentiation.

  20. Improving Study Habits of Junior High School Students Through Self-Management versus Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.

    1975-01-01

    Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)

  1. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  2. Key Elements of Strategy in the Telecommunication Industry – Overview of Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Možný

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine current empirical and theoretical approaches to the strategies of companies operating in the telecommunication industry and to identify important strategy elements for the telecommunication industry. These elements are systematically categorized into the overall strategic framework. Strategic elements not covered in current literature are identified as topics for future research. As the first conclusion, the article identifies the most frequent strategic element discussed in connection with the strategy in the telecommunication industry which is Market offering/Value proposition including its more detailed structure. Highly debated elements of Market offering are Price and Product and their features. On the other hand, only limited attention is paid to Resources and no attention at all is paid to Value chain in the selected articles. Thus, there is space for future research regarding strategy in telecommunications mainly in the areas of Value chain and Resources (both tangible and intangible. Even Market offering is highly debated, the strategic element Availability (sales and service channels from the Market offering/Value proposition is covered only marginally and thus it should be a subject for future research.

  3. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  4. MycoKey round table discussions of future directions in research on chemical detection methods, genetics and biodiversity of mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This presentation includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on the role of Genetics and Biodiversity in mycotoxin product...

  5. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the A new two-round dynamic authenticated contributory group key ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Computer Science, S V K P and Dr K S R Arts and Science College, ... curve key of a given length provides the same level of security as a 1,024-bit ...... Kwon T, Cheon J H, Kim Y and Lee J 2006 Privacy protection in PKIs: A ...

  6. Advances and bottlenecks in modelling the greenhouse climate: summary of a group discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, I.; Bakker, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of a group discussion at the symposium 'Models in protected cultivation' held in Wageningen, August 1997. The discussion focused on the reasons for the relatively limited acceptance and application of greenhouse climate models, especially in commercial practice. The

  7. Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology with Small Group, Peer-led Discussions of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genya Coffey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review examines research of computer-mediated small group discussion of literature. The goal of this review is to explore several instructional formats for integrating print-based and new literacies skills. First, the theoretical foundations for the shift from teacher-led to student led discussion are outlined. Research exploring ways in which technology has been infused into several common elements of literature discussion groups are presented next. Benefits and challenges of such integration are highlighted and suggestions for future research are presented.

  8. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  9. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Chan, C. -H.; Crevel, R.

    2015-01-01

    to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry...... and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices....... The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated...

  10. On the Ergodic Secret-Key Agreement over Spatially Correlated Multiple-Antenna Channels with Public Discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-09-28

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fast-fading channels under correlated environment. We assume that transmit, legitimate receiver and eavesdropper antennas are correlated. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the correlation matrices. First, we derive the expression of the secret-key capacity under the considered setup. We prove that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the secret-key capacity consists in transmitting independent Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution to a numerical optimization problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming (i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode) to be capacity-achieving is derived. Moreover, we analyze the impact of correlation matrices on the system performance. Finally, we study the system’s performance in the two extreme power regimes. In the high-power regime, we provide closed-form expressions of the gain/loss due to correlation. In the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, we investigate the energy efficiency of the system by determining the minimum energy required for sharing a secret-key bit and the wideband slope while highlighting the impact of correlation matrices.

  11. The efficacy of focus group discussion in teaching ESP speaking skill for prospective vocational school teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmasitah, Sita; Faridi, Abdurrachman; Utomo, Aryo Baskoro; Astuti, Pudji

    2018-03-01

    The aims of the study were to implement the focus group discussion in teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) speaking skill for prospective Vocational School teacher and also to find out its effectiveness in improving their English speaking skill in ESP course. Quasi-experimental design was employed in this research. Thirty students of Family Welfare Vocational Education Study Program who were taking ESP course, were divided into two classes; experimental and control class. The research data were collected through interview, observation and the students' speaking assessment. The result showed that the implementation of focus group discussion method in the experimental class effectively increased the students' speaking skill compared to the control class.

  12. The Hampstead Clinic at work. Discussions in the Diagnostic Profile Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Minutes of the Hampstead Clinic's Diagnostic Profile Research Group during a fifteen-month period (1964-1965) are reviewed and discussed. A wide range of topics were considered and discussed, with a special focus on the affective life, object relations, and ego function of atypical children in comparison to the early ego functions and differentiation of normal and neurotic children. These lively clinical and theoretical discussions and their implications for therapeutic work with a wide range of children, demonstrate the multifaceted leadership and contributions of Anna Freud as teacher, clinician, and thinker, and of the Hampstead Clinic as a major center for psychoanalytic studies.

  13. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  14. Effects of communication strategy training on EFL students’ performance in small-group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Benson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006. This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the strategies, affected the interactional sequences and overall group discussion performance of EFL students at a university in Japan. Pre and posttreatment small-group discussions were recorded for assessment, and a stimulated recall interview was administered to determine the participants’ perceptions of their learning and language use. Posttest results reveal that the experimental groups that were taught predetermined phrases aimed at clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation employed such phrases more frequently than the control group. However, this employment of phrases did not lead to higher gains in group discussion skills as the control group enjoyed the largest gains from pre to posttest. The researchers consider the findings in light of previous research, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the topic with special regard to research design.

  15. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: Group-tests and mind-maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls, M.; de Kramer, D.; Maj, B.; Pytlak, M.; Swoboda, E.

    2008-01-01

    In an explorative research project, teachers experimented with new ideas to make their students discuss (i.e. show, explain, justify and reconstruct their work) their mathematical ideas with each other. Two kind of special tasks were developed: group tests and mind maps. Also, the role of the

  16. Shaping Understanding of HIV through Negotiation and Conflict Resolution during Peer Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L.; Branch, Timothy; Gutnik, Lily; Arocha, Jose F.

    2006-01-01

    High-risk behavior in youths related to HIV transmission continues to occur despite large-scale efforts to disseminate information about safe sexual practices through education. Our study examined the relationships among knowledge, decision-making strategies, and risk assessment about HIV by youths during peer group focused discussions. Two focus…

  17. Interteaching: The Effects of Discussion Group Size on Undergraduate Student Performance and Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Interteaching is a college teaching method grounded in the principles of applied behavior analysis. Research on interteaching demonstrates that it improves academic performance, and students report greater satisfaction with interteaching as compared to traditional teaching styles. The current study investigates whether discussion group size, a…

  18. Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

  19. Effect of interactive group discussion among physicians to promote rational prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garjani, A; Salimnejad, M; Shamsmohamadi, M; Baghchevan, V; Vahidi, R G; Maleki-Dijazi, N; Rezazadeh, H

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of an educational intervention (interactive group discussion) on the prescribing behaviour of 51 general physicians from the north-west of Tabriz. Prescriptions were analysed pre-intervention and post-intervention (control and intervention groups) using a proforma with 8 indicators of correct prescribing. The mean number of drugs per prescription pre-intervention was 3.82. The percentage of prescriptions with antibiotics, corticosteroids and injections were 40.8%, 25.9% and 58.0%, respectively. Following the intervention there were slight but not significant changes in the indicators in both intervention and control groups compared with pre-intervention results.

  1. EFEKTIVITAS FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION UNTUK MENGURANGI STRES PADA SISWA SMA YANG AKAN MENGHADAPI UJIAN AKHIR NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Aprilia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to find the effectivity of Focus Group Discussion (FGD to decrease the feeling stress for senior high school students (SMA who will face the national final examination (UAN. Stress on SMA students is a circumstance which gets negative assessment. It intimidates and pushes the students, in this case is UAN would appear a reaction such as emotional disorder, cognition, physiology and behavior disorder of SMA students. This research concerned 21 SMA students in grade XII, who had high stress level in facing UAN. The subjects were divided into two groups. First group was the experiment group (include 11 students and it was the group who got the FGD treatment. The second group was control group (include 10 students and this group didn’t get the FGD treatment. Collecting data was done by using Stress Scale in facing UAN. It was given (a before FGD (pre-test and (b after FGD (post-test. The hypothesis is examined by using difference examination (t-test by comparing mean pre-test and post-test. The result showed that there was a significant influence to decrease the stress in SMA students who were in experiment group (t = 6,540, p < 0,01 after they got FGD treatment. Experiment group had decreased the stress score to face UAN (Mean=7,476.

  2. Secret-key agreement over spatially correlated fast-fading multiple-antenna channels with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-06-14

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fast-fading channels under correlated environment. We assume that transmit, legitimate receiver and eavesdropper antennas are correlated. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the correlation matrices. First, we derive the expression of the secret-key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we prove that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the secret-key capacity consists in transmitting independent Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution to a numerical optimization problem that we derive. A necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming (i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode) to be capacity-achieving is derived. Finally, we analyze the impact of correlation matrices on the system performance and provide closed-form expressions of the gain/loss due to correlation in the high power regime.

  3. Facebook Discussion Groups Provide a Robust Worldwide Platform for Free Pathology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Amer, Sadiq M; Yahia, Nejib Ben; Costa, Felipe D'Almeida; Noatay, Manu; Qiao, Jian-Hua; Rosado, Flavia G; Rosen, Yale; Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Gardner, Jerad M

    2017-05-01

    - Facebook (Menlo Park, California) is one of many online sites that provide potential educational tools for pathologists. We have each founded Facebook groups dedicated to anatomic pathology, in which members can share cases, ask questions, and contribute to discussions. - To report our experiences in founding and maintaining these Facebook groups and to characterize the contributed content. - We circulated a survey among the group founders, then compiled and analyzed the responses. - The groups varied in membership and in the quality of member contribution. Most posts were of pathology cases, although other topics (such as research articles) were also shared. All groups remained active and received posts from users all over the world, although all groups had many noncontributing members and received unwanted messages (which were screened and removed). Most founders were glad they had founded the groups because they provided an opportunity to both teach and learn. - Each analyzed Facebook group had a different character, and some downsides exist, but the groups all provided a no-cost way for pathologists and others across the world to interact online with many colleagues.

  4. Focus group discussions on the coverage of the southern separatist movement crisis in Yemeni newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majdhoub, Fatima Mohamed; Hamzah, Azizah Binti; Ariffin, Moh Yahya

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative method using focus group discussions (FGDs) was applied in this study to identify people's perceptions on newspaper reporting pertaining to the Southern Separatist Movement (SSM) by different Yemeni newspapers. This paper also looked into the attitudes towards the movement and the popularity of the issue of Yemeni unification. Five FGD groups with a total of 30 participants discussed the subject and some other aspects related to it. The findings of the focu19 groups showed that the southern crisis and SSM had shaken the people's trust on the current form of the unity. The discussion with the groups revealed that media in general and the selected four papers from various political persuasions have no credibility and objectivity, but these papers are trying to instill democratic values which is consistent with their ideology, which have a serious impact on the value of liberal democracy. The participants assured that reporting on the southern cause and the SSM indicated the absence of professional journalism in the media and the political discourse in general.

  5. Adding to the mix: Students use of Facebook groups and blackboard discussion forums in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student

  6. Traditional male circumcision in Uganda: a qualitative focus group discussion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet Sarvestani, Amir; Bufumbo, Leonard; Geiger, James D; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2012-01-01

    The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC) providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.

  7. Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from India, with key to species and discussion of tuberculate setae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sudhir; Martin, Jon H

    2014-11-03

    The genus Acanthaleyrodes Takahashi is reported for the first time from India. Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. is described from Bridelia retusa in Kerala, India, with a key to puparia of Acanthaleydes species. The new species differs in its exceptionally elevated eighth abdominal tergite, circular vasiform orifice and eight pairs of subdorsal setae. The generic characteristics of Acanthaleyrodes are redefined and distinguished from those of Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi. A. styraci Takahashi is re-described in detail with illustrations of puparia and immatures from Hong Kong. A lectotype puparium is designated for A. callicarpae Takahashi. The development of tuberculate setae is discussed, in whitefly puparia and earlier nymphal instars, and considered to be subject to environmental modification.

  8. What Factors Influence Well-being of Students on Performing Small Group Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulanyani, N. M. S.; Vembriati, N.

    2018-01-01

    Generally, Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University applied Small Group Discussion (SGD) in its learning process. If group problem solving succeeds, each individual of the group will individually succeed. However, the success is also determined by each individual’s level of psychological well-being. When the students are in the high level of wellbeing, they will feel comfortable in small group discussion, and teamwork will be effective. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a research which investigates how psychological factors, such as traits, needs, cognitive, and social intelligence, influence students’ wellbeing in performing SGD. This research is also initiated by several cases of students who prefer individual learning and take SGD merely to fulfill attendance requirement. If the students have good wellbeing, they will take the SGD process optimally. The subject of this research was 100 students of Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University. This survey research used psychological test assessment, Psychological well-being scale, and Social Intelligence scale to gain data analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that all aspects of traits together with aspects ‘need for rules and supervision’ affect social intelligence. Furthermore, social intelligence factor with cognitive factors influence wellbeing of the students in the process of SGD.

  9. Testing an empirically derived mental health training model featuring small groups, distributed practice and patient discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, Rachael C; Byrne, Mitchell K; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2009-02-01

    Internationally, family doctors seeking to enhance their skills in evidence-based mental health treatment are attending brief training workshops, despite clear evidence in the literature that short-term, massed formats are not likely to improve skills in this complex area. Reviews of the educational literature suggest that an optimal model of training would incorporate distributed practice techniques; repeated practice over a lengthy time period, small-group interactive learning, mentoring relationships, skills-based training and an ongoing discussion of actual patients. This study investigates the potential role of group-based training incorporating multiple aspects of good pedagogy for training doctors in basic competencies in brief cognitive behaviour therapy (BCBT). Six groups of family doctors (n = 32) completed eight 2-hour sessions of BCBT group training over a 6-month period. A baseline control design was utilised with pre- and post-training measures of doctors' BCBT skills, knowledge and engagement in BCBT treatment. Family doctors' knowledge, skills in and actual use of BCBT with patients improved significantly over the course of training compared with the control period. This research demonstrates preliminary support for the efficacy of an empirically derived group training model for family doctors. Brief CBT group-based training could prove to be an effective and viable model for future doctor training.

  10. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  11. Qualitative findings from focus group discussions on hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-10-01

    It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. THE USE OF FACEBOOK GROUP DISCUSSION TO IMPROVE READING STRATEGIES, AN ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Yuliani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology influence people‘s life in many aspects including the process of teaching and learning in university, school etc. Some social medias are popular in society, one of them is Facebook. This social networking can be used for any purposes Such as interacting, marketing, publishing, learning etc. The study aims to prove whether Facebook‘s group discussion can be effectively used to improve reading strategies which are normally developed through classroom interaction. It is an action research design involving one group consisting of 37 students randomly sampled out from a population of 198 students. A plan-act-observe-reflect design of the study will be carried out in two cycles. Each cycle involves pretest, treatment and post test. Cycle 1 is undertaken to see if there is a significant difference between the pretest and post test upon treatment. The indicator of success of the treatment is that the post test outscores the pretest. If it does, then Cycle 2 will be conducted to convince the results. If the two cycles show an increase in the mean scores, it can be claimed that the method is effective. In other words, Facebook‘s group discussion can be effectively used to improve reading strategies.

  13. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  14. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  15. Implementation of small group discussion as a teaching method in earth and space science subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, N. P.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    In Physics Department Universitas Negeri Semarang, Earth and Space Science subject is included in the curriculum of the third year of physics education students. There are various models of teaching earth and space science subject such as textbook method, lecturer, demonstrations, study tours, problem-solving method, etc. Lectures method is the most commonly used of teaching earth and space science subject. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of two ways interaction between lecturers and students. This research used small group discussion as a teaching method in Earth and Space science. The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions under which an efficient discussion may be initiated and maintained while students are investigating properties of earth and space science subjects. The results of this research show that there is an increase in student’s understanding of earth and space science subject proven through the evaluation results. In addition, during the learning process, student’s activeness also increase.

  16. Activities in a social networking-based discussion group by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Na; Wang, Xiangping; Zhang, Rongchun; Liu, Zhiguo; Liang, Shuhui; Yao, Shaowei; Tao, Qin; Jia, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2017-10-01

    Online social networking is increasingly being used among medical practitioners. However, few studies have evaluated its use in therapeutic endoscopy. Here, we aimed to analyze the shared topics and activities of a group of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) doctors in a social networking-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography discussion group (EDG). Six ERCP trainers working in Xijing Hospital and 48 graduated endoscopists who had finished ERCP training in the same hospital were invited to join in EDG. All group members were informed not to divulge any private information of patients when using EDG. The activities of group members on EDG were retrospectively extracted. The individual data of the graduated endoscopists were collected by a questionnaire. From June 2014 to May 2015, 6924 messages were posted on EDG, half of which were ERCP related. In total, 214 ERCP-related topics were shared, which could be categorized into three types: sharing experience/cases (52.3%), asking questions (38.3%), and sharing literatures/advances (9.3%). Among the 48 graduated endoscopists, 21 had a low case volume of less than 50 per year and 27 had a high volume case volume of 50 or more. High-volume graduated endoscopists posted more ERCP-related messages (P=0.008) and shared more discussion topics (P=0.003) compared with low-volume graduated endoscopists. A survey showed that EDG was useful for graduated endoscopists in ERCP performance and management of post-ERCP complications, etc. A wide range of ERCP-related topics were shared on the social networking-based EDG. The ERCP-related behaviors on EDG were more active in graduated endoscopists with an ERCP case volume of more than 50 per year.

  17. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  18. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  19. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  20. Simple group password-based authenticated key agreements for the integrated EPR information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    The security and privacy are important issues for electronic patient records (EPRs). The goal of EPRs is sharing the patients' medical histories such as the diagnosis records, reports and diagnosis image files among hospitals by the Internet. So the security issue for the integrated EPR information system is essential. That is, to ensure the information during transmission through by the Internet is secure and private. The group password-based authenticated key agreement (GPAKE) allows a group of users like doctors, nurses and patients to establish a common session key by using password authentication. Then the group of users can securely communicate by using this session key. Many approaches about GAPKE employ the public key infrastructure (PKI) in order to have higher security. However, it not only increases users' overheads and requires keeping an extra equipment for storing long-term secret keys, but also requires maintaining the public key system. This investigation presents a simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE) protocol for the integrated EPR information system. The proposed SGPAKE protocol does not require using the server or users' public keys. Each user only remembers his weak password shared with a trusted server, and then can obtain a common session key. Then all users can securely communicate by using this session key. The proposed SGPAKE protocol not only provides users with convince, but also has higher security.

  1. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The dipteran family Celyphidae in the New World, with discussion of and key to world genera (Insecta, Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Gaimari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The family Celyphidae (Diptera, Lauxanioidea is verified as part of the New World fauna, with a second specimen discovered of a species described from French Guiana in 1844 by P.J.M. Macquart. As this species possesses characteristics that clearly suggest a separate lineage from the Old World celyphids, a new genus is proposed, Atopocelyphus gen. n., with the type species, Celyphus ruficollis Macquart, in the new combination Atopocelyphus ruficollis (Macquart, comb. n. A key to world genera of Celyphidae is presented, along with discussion of generic concepts. Chamaecelyphus Frey is synonymized under Spaniocelyphus Hendel, syn. n., resulting in the following 10 new combinations: Spaniocelyphus africanus (Walker, comb. n.; S. dichrous (Bezzi, comb. n.; S. gutta (Speiser, comb. n.; S. halticinus (Frey, comb. n.; S. kalongensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. ruwenzoriensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. straeleni (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. upembaensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. violaceus (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. vrydaghi (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n. The subgenera of Celyphus Dalman are elevated to genus rank, as Paracelyphus Bigot, stat. rev., and Hemiglobus Frey, stat. rev., resulting in the following 17 new and revised combinations: Hemiglobus cheni (Shi, comb. n.; H. eos (Frey, comb. n.; H. lacunosus Frey, comb. rev.; H. pellucidus Frey, comb. rev.; H. planitarsalis (Shi, comb. n.; H. porosus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. pulchmaculatus (Liu & Yang, comb. n.; H. quadrimaculatus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. resplendens Frey, comb. rev.; H. rugosus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. testaceus (Malloch, comb. n.; H. trichoporis (Shi, comb. n.; H. unicolor Frey, comb. rev.; H. violaceus Chen, comb. rev.; Paracelyphus hyacinthus Bigot, comb. rev.; P. medogis (Shi, comb. n.; P. vittalis (Shi, comb. n.

  3. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  4. Parental presence on neonatal intensive care unit clinical bedside rounds: randomised trial and focus group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Danette; Broom, Margaret; Smith, Judith; Davis, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited data to inform the choice between parental presence at clinical bedside rounds (PPCBR) and non-PPCBR in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Methods We performed a single-centre, survey-based, crossed-over randomised trial involving parents of all infants who were admitted to NICU and anticipated to stay >11 days. Parents were randomly assigned using a computer-generated stratified block randomisation protocol to start with PPCBR or non-PPCBR and then crossed over to the other arm after a wash-out period. At the conclusion of each arm, parents completed the ‘NICU Parental Stressor Scale’ (a validated tool) and a satisfaction survey. After completion of the trial, we surveyed all healthcare providers who participated at least in one PPCBR rounding episode. We also offered all participating parents and healthcare providers the opportunity to partake in a focus group discussion regarding PPCBR. Results A total of 72 parents were enrolled in this study, with 63 parents (87%) partially or fully completing the trial. Of the parents who completed the trial, 95% agreed that parents should be allowed to attend clinical bedside rounds. A total of 39 healthcare providers’ surveys were returned and 35 (90%) agreed that parents should be allowed to attend rounds. Nine healthcare providers and 8 parents participated in an interview or focus group, augmenting our understanding of the ways in which PPCBR was beneficial. Conclusions Parents and healthcare providers strongly support PPCBR. NICUs should develop policies allowing PPCBR while mitigating the downsides and concerns of parents and healthcare providers such as decreased education opportunity and confidentiality concerns. Trial registration number Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register number, ACTRN12612000506897. PMID:25711125

  5. Mr. Traore introduces team supervision. Case scenarios for training and group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This supplement to "The Family Planning Manager" presents a case example and five case discussion questions to illustrate the concept of team supervision. In contrast to traditional supervision, where an emphasis is placed on inspection and the uncovering of deficiencies, team supervision uses a facilitative, advocacy-oriented approach. Problem-solving and decision-making responsibilities are assumed by the clinic staff, who identify and analyze problems in group meetings. Thus, the focus shifts from assessing individual performance to evaluating how well they meet clinic objectives as a team. In the team meetings, the visiting supervisor asks the team as a whole to analyze clinic problems and ensures that all staff members are aware of the significance of their contributions. The supervisor also clarifies the division of labor required for implementing solutions and performance standards. Staff are asked if they have concerns they would like communicated to the next organizational level. The supervisory report of the visit can serve as a guide for implementing the recommendations. This approach may require that supervisors and clinic managers receive training in problem solving, motivating staff, team building, and providing constructive feedback.

  6. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  7. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Northridge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Methods Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR, this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents, executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. Results While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24 and numbers of participants (n = 194. Conclusions This study adds to the

  8. Engaging in Online Group Discussions Using Facebook to Enhance Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. T.

    2012-08-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions participated more frequently and responded more quickly than students using a traditional online discussion forum.

  9. Concurrently Deniable Group Key Agreement and Its Application to Privacy-Preserving VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengke Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available VANETs need secure communication. Authentication in VANETs resists the attack on the receipt of false information. Authenticated group key agreement (GKA is used to establish a confidential and authenticated communication channel for the multiple vehicles. However, authentication incurs privacy leakage, that is, by using digital signature. Therefore, the deniability is deserved for GKA (which is termed as DGKA due to the privacy protection. In the DGKA protocol, each participant interacts with intended partners to establish a common group session key. After this agreement session, each participant can not only be regarded as the intended sender but also deny that it has ever participated in this session. Therefore, under this established key, vehicles send confidential messages with authentication property and the deniability protects the vehicles privacy. We present a novel transformation from an unauthenticated group key agreement to a deniable (authenticated group key agreement without increasing communication round. Our full deniability is achieved even in the concurrent setting which suits the Internet environment. In addition, we design an authenticated and privacy-preserving communication protocol for VANETs by using the proposed deniable group key agreement.

  10. Gaussian elimination in split unitary groups with an application to public-key cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Mahalanobis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian elimination is used in special linear groups to solve the word problem. In this paper, we extend Gaussian elimination to split unitary groups. These algorithms have an application in building a public-key cryptosystem, we demonstrate that.

  11. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-18

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European

  12. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seung-Jae; Lee, Young-Gu; Lee, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Jun, Moon-Seog

    2011-01-01

    These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes. PMID:22164072

  13. Qualitative Assessment of Learning Strategies among Medical Students Using Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anuradha Sujai; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak; Varma, Jagdish; Singh, Praveen; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Singh, Tejinder

    2017-12-01

    Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. The objective is to identify effective learning strategies used by medical students. This study was carried out among the MBBS students of Final Professional Part I. Students were categorized into three groups namely: high, average, and low rankers based on overall academic performance in second Professional University examination. First, a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended questions was administered to students, to find their learning strategies. Subsequently, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted for high- and low-rankers. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Key statements were highlighted, collated, and categorized into general themes and sub-themes. Evident themes which emerged as effective strategies were hard work in the form of regularity of studies, meticulous preparation of notes, constructive use of time, utilization of e-learning, learning styles and deep learning approach and regular ward visits. Intrinsic motivation, family support, balancing physical activities and studies, guidance by seniors, teachers, dealing with nonacademic issues such as language barriers and stress were also identified as important strategies. Disseminating effective learning strategies in a systematic manner may be helpful to students in achieving better academic outcomes. Furthermore, educationists need to modulate their teaching strategies based on students' feedback.

  14. Using the Leaderless Group Discussion Technique for the Selection of Residence Hall Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W.; McCormick, Jane E.

    1969-01-01

    Describes successful effort to involve head residents in selection responsibilities. Discusses use of Record of Previous Leadership Experience, behavior ratings adapted from Interview and LGD Rating Scale (T. W. Banta) recommendation from head resident as selection criteria. (CJ)

  15. The embeddedness of academic online groups in offline social networks : reputation gain as a stimulus for online discussion participation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, U.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the conditions under which members of academic Internet discussion groups (IDGs) are motivated to provide help and answers to colleagues during group discussions on the Internet. It presents a simple microeconomic model that specifies mechanisms by which the embeddedness of

  16. Laughter and Forgetting: Using Focus Groups to Discuss Smoking and Motherhood in Low-Income Areas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude

    2009-01-01

    This article considers previously ignored aspects of verbal communication, humor and laughter, as critical components of social interaction within group discussions. Drawing on data from focus groups, Robinson uses a feminist perspective to explore how mothers living in areas of poverty in Liverpool, UK, use humor and laughter to discuss their…

  17. Social Reform Groups and the Legal System: Enforcement Problems. Discussion Paper No. 209-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Joel F.

    During the last two decades, there has been a great increase in the use of litigation by social reform groups. This activity has been stimulated by the hospitality of the courts to the demands of social reform groups and the availability of subsidized young, activist lawyers. The paper examines the uses of the legal system by social reform groups…

  18. The Influence of Collaborative Group Work on Students' Development of Critical Thinking: The Teacher's Role in Facilitating Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…

  19. [Discussion on developing a data management plan and its key factors in clinical study based on electronic data capture system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-na; Huang, Xiu-ling; Gao, Rui; Lu, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Data management has significant impact on the quality control of clinical studies. Every clinical study should have a data management plan to provide overall work instructions and ensure that all of these tasks are completed according to the Good Clinical Data Management Practice (GCDMP). Meanwhile, the data management plan (DMP) is an auditable document requested by regulatory inspectors and must be written in a manner that is realistic and of high quality. The significance of DMP, the minimum standards and the best practices provided by GCDMP, the main contents of DMP based on electronic data capture (EDC) and some key factors of DMP influencing the quality of clinical study were elaborated in this paper. Specifically, DMP generally consists of 15 parts, namely, the approval page, the protocol summary, role and training, timelines, database design, creation, maintenance and security, data entry, data validation, quality control and quality assurance, the management of external data, serious adverse event data reconciliation, coding, database lock, data management reports, the communication plan and the abbreviated terms. Among them, the following three parts are regarded as the key factors: designing a standardized database of the clinical study, entering data in time and cleansing data efficiently. In the last part of this article, the authors also analyzed the problems in clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine using the EDC system and put forward some suggestions for improvement.

  20. Qualitative assessment of student-teacher communication using focus group discussion in a Dental College in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.

  1. Using Facebook Groups to Encourage Science Discussions in a Large-Enrollment Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; McGinnis, Gene; Bryant, Dana; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Stovall, Kyndra; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the instructional development, impact, and lessons learned regarding the use of Facebook as an educational tool within a large enrollment Biology class at Spelman College (Atlanta, GA). We describe the use of this social networking site to (a) engage students in active scientific discussions, (b) build community within the…

  2. "I Totally Agree with You": Gender Interactions in Educational Online Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiller, J.; Durndell, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from an extensive project examining gender, language and computer-mediated communication (CMC) in the context of undergraduate psychology courses. The contributions of 197 introductory psychology students (148 females, 49 males) participating in asynchronous CMC as part of their course were collated and coded for…

  3. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  4. Teaching Group Counseling in Botswana: Two U.S.-Trained Counselors Discuss Experiences and Share Cultural Considerations for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Majuta, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of teaching group counseling within an African context. In this article we describe and reflect on our experiences teaching group counseling at an institution of higher learning in the country of Botswana. We discuss cultural traditions and strengths that support an environment of group work in Botswana,…

  5. Social Influence in Online Health Discussions: An Evaluation of Online Graduate Student Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin Kay

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a field experimental design assessing online support groups testing hypotheses derived from the social identification model of deindividuation effects (SIDE; Lea & Spears, 1992) and social information processing theory (SIP; Walther, 1992). Specifically, it is predicted that individuals in an online support…

  6. Let's Talk about Race: Evaluating a College Interracial Discussion Group on Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Kimberly M.; Collins, Dana L.; Helms, Janet E.; Manlove, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    The authors evaluate Dialogues on Race, an interracial group intervention in which undergraduate student facilitators led conversations about race with their peers. The evaluation process is described, including developing collaborative relationships, identifying program goals, selecting measures, and analyzing and presenting results. The authors…

  7. Asynchronous Group Key Distribution on top of the CC2420 Security Mechanisms for Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    2009-01-01

    scheme with no time synchronization requirements. The scheme decreases the number of key updates by providing them on an as needed basis according to the amount of network traffic. We evaluate the CC2420 radio security mechanism and show how to use it as a basis to implement secure group communication......A sensor network is a network consisting of small, inexpensive, low-powered sensor nodes that communicate to complete a common task. Sensor nodes are characterized by having limited communication and computation capabilities, energy, and storage. They often are deployed in hostile environments...... creating a demand for encryption and authentication of the messages sent between them. Due to severe resource constraints on the sensor nodes, efficient key distribution schemes and secure communication protocols with low overhead are desired. In this paper we present an asynchronous group key distribution...

  8. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...

  9. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  10. Women On-Line: Cultural and Relational Aspects of Women's Communication in On-line Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    1996-01-01

    Women's online communication often mirrors that of face-to-face communication, linguistically and relationally. Women-only online communities, however, provide an opportunity to develop a distinct relational and cultural style. Discusses gender differences in face-to-face language use, and in mixed gender online discussion groups. Describes…

  11. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  12. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  13. Listening to Women: Focus group discussions of what women want from postnatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WA Butchart

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum care is an essential part of the experience of childbirth and parenthood. This study explores what women want from postnatal care. Three focus groups, using a semi-structured format, were conducted. A total of 12 mothers, up to six weeks postpartum, participated in the study, which was conducted in two clinics in the Western Cape Metropole. Data was transcribed from taped sessions and analysed using Burnard’s (1991 model of “thematic content analysis” . Seven major categories were identified: Information, Support, Organisation of services, Attitudes of the health team, Contact with other mothers, Practical assistance and Other services. Listening to women is an essential element in the provision of flexible and responsive postnatal care that meets the felt needs of women and families.

  14. A proposal for Rio Blanco region. Case scenarios for training and group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This supplement to "The Family Planning Manager" presents a case example and four related discussion questions to advance administrative staff's ability to prepare a pilot project proposal and budget. In the hypothetical scenario, the Ministry of Health has requested proposals for projects from each region that would increase contraceptive prevalence and reduce discontinuation by a national average of 15%. Outlined, in this document, is a two-year project that would use outreach workers to visit the homes of recent discontinuers and attempt to understand their concerns. The goal was to improve the health of mothers and children in the region by reducing the discontinuation rate among first-time users of contraceptives, while the objective was to reduce the discontinuation rate among first-time users from 27% to 15% by the end of the project. Also developed is a budget for the first year of the project that itemizes expenditures for salaries and wages, benefits, fees, general administration, travel and associated expenses, supplies and equipment, purchased services, and education and training. Finally, the supplement presents a sample summary sheet for the proposed project.

  15. Media Memories in Focus Group Discussions - Methodological Reflections Instancing the Global Media Generations Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Hug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medienereignisse wie auch die Einführung und Verbreitung neuer Medientechnologien und Formate bringen mannigfaltige Wege des „Eintretens von Medien ins Leben“ mit sich. Im Projekt Globale Mediengenerationen (GMG wurden Medienerinnerungen aus der Kindheit im Kontext von Gruppendiskussionen am Beispiel dreier Generationen aus verschiedenen Ländern aller Kontinente untersucht. Dabei wurden medienbezogene Wissensbestände von drei Alterskohorten globaler Generationen analysiert. Der Artikel diskutiert methodologische Aspekte des Projekts und komplexe und selektive Prozesse des Erinnerns vergangener Ereignisse. Er untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede des GMG-Ansatzes mit dem dokumentarischen Ansatz von Ralf Bohnsack, die beide in der Wissenssoziologie von Karl Mannheim verwurzelt sind. Darüber hinaus wird Medialität als basale methodologische Kategorie in Erwägung gezogen, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Klärung begrifflicher Grundlagen, sondern auch als inhärente Dimension von Forschungsprozessen. Media events in general and the introduction and divulgence of new media technologies and formats in particular implicate various (new ways of “media entering life.” In the Global Media Generations (GMG research project, articulation of individuals’ memories of childhood experiences with the media was afforded by context of focus groups of three generations in different countries of six continents. In this project media related knowledge segments of different age cohorts have been analyzed and interpreted. The article deals with methodological questions of the project and complex processes of ‘remembering’ past events. It explores commonalities and differences of the GMG approach with Ralf Bohnsack’s documentary approach, both rooted in the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim. Furthermore, mediality is taken into consideration as a basic methodological category, which means that it is perceived not only as subject matter to

  16. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Seog Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes.

  17. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  18. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  19. Identifying Key Stakeholder Groups for Implementing a Place Branding Policy in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulibanova V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional brands have become a valuable intangible asset and a crucial competitive resource for forging partnerships. An effective place branding policy is impossible without a precise understanding of the interests of stakeholder groups. It is essential to realize that each region is unique in its own way. Territories differ in the structure of stakeholders, their influence on regional development, and the range of leverages over regional decision-makers. This study aims to give a more precise definition of key groups of stakeholders in Saint Petersburg place branding, and to identify them. The authors employ the method of theoretical and empirical typology of a territory’s stakeholders within a theoretical framework proposed by E. Freeman, P. Kotler, S. Zenker, and E. Brown. The article defines the concept of key regional stakeholders and identifies them. The proposed target audience (stakeholder group model for a place branding policy is tested on the case of Saint Petersburg. The authors show that each target audience of place marketing requires an individual policy. This is explained by the fact that each group enjoys its unique features that should be taken into account when creating and transmitting messages.

  20. Perspectives on Positioning, Interaction, and Learning in Small-Group Discussion: Possibilities for Extending the Analytic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Wilson, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this forum piece, we respond to Karin Due's study of social dynamics in groups of students in physics class and gender issues that play out in this context. We discuss two threads that appear in Due's paper: one pertains to patterns of talk within groups and how these patterns open up possibilities for learning, the other pertains to…

  1. Functional group diversity is key to Southern Ocean benthic carbon pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K A Barnes

    Full Text Available High latitude benthos are globally important in terms of accumulation and storage of ocean carbon, and the feedback this is likely to have on regional warming. Understanding this ecosystem service is important but difficult because of complex taxonomic diversity, history and geography of benthic biomass. Using South Georgia as a model location (where the history and geography of benthic biology is relatively well studied we investigated whether the composition of functional groups were critical to benthic accumulation, immobilization and burial pathway to sequestration-and also aid their study through simplification of identification. We reclassified [1], [2] morphotype and carbon mass data to 13 functional groups, for each sample of 32 sites around the South Georgia continental shelf. We investigated the influence on carbon accumulation, immobilization and sequestration estimate by multiple factors including the compositions of functional groups. Functional groups showed high diversity within and between sites, and within and between habitat types. Carbon storage was not linked to a functional group in particular but accumulation and immobilization increased with the number of functional groups present and the presence of hard substrata. Functional groups were also important to carbon burial rate, which increased with the presence of mixed (hard and soft substrata. Functional groups showed high surrogacy for taxonomic composition and were useful for examining contrasting habitat categorization. Functional groups not only aid marine carbon storage investigation by reducing time and the need for team size and speciality, but also important to benthic carbon pathways per se. There is a distinct geography to seabed carbon storage; seabed boulder-fields are hotspots of carbon accumulation and immobilization, whilst the interface between such boulder-fields and sediments are key places for burial and sequestration.

  2. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  3. The Nature of Students' Efferent or Aesthetic Responses to Nonfiction Texts in Small, Peer-Led Literature Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Tema Leah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth exploration and describe the nature of fourth graders' responses to nonfiction text in the context of small, peer-led literature discussion groups. This study took place in the teacher researcher's daily, forty-five minute, pull-out intervention time. The participants for this study consisted of…

  4. Combining focus group discussions and choice experiments for economic valuation of peatland restoration : A case study in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.; van Beukering, P. J.H.; Oskolokaite, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of combining results of qualitative focus group discussions (FGDs) with a quantitative choice experiment (CE) in a low-income country context. The assessment addresses the compensation needed by local communities in Central Kalimantan to cooperate in peatland

  5. Discussion and group work design in O2O teaching of applied optics: questions, strategies and extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiangdong; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-08-01

    Applied optics course in Zhejiang University is a National Excellent Resource Sharing Course in China, and the online to offline teaching strategies have been implemented and shared with dozens of universities and colleges in China. Discussion is an important activity in teaching. In this paper our main consideration is designing the discussion questions and group works so as to develop the students' critical thinking, cooperative and sharing spirits, and communication abilities in the cosmopolitan era. Typical questions that connect different chapters and help the students to understand the relationship between each sub-system in both field of view and aperture are given for discussion. We inspire the students to complete group works such as ray trace programming by cooperation and then make presentations. All of these create a circumstance for sharing thoughts and developing intelligence and knowledge. A poll shows that the students pay more attention to optical design than before and have made progress in conversation and cooperation.

  6. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  7. Who is the competent physics student? A study of students' positions and social interaction in small-group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-06-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.

  8. Gay-Straight Alliances as Settings to Discuss Health Topics: Individual and Group Factors Associated with Substance Use, Mental Health, and Sexual Health Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. P.; Heck, N. C.; Yoshikawa, H.; Calzo, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning; LGBQ) and gender minority (e.g. transgender) youth experience myriad health risks. Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based settings where they may have opportunities to discuss substance use, mental health, and sexual health issues in ways that are safe and tailored to their…

  9. Bilingual asynchronous online discussion groups: design and delivery of an eLearning distance study module for nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Mai, Van Anh Thi; Gray, Genevieve

    2012-04-01

    The advent of eLearning has seen online discussion forums widely used in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education. This paper reports an Australian university experience of design, delivery and redevelopment of a distance education module developed for Vietnamese nurse academics. The teaching experience of Vietnamese nurse academics is mixed and frequently limited. It was decided that the distance module should attempt to utilise the experience of senior Vietnamese nurse academics - asynchronous online discussion groups were used to facilitate this. Online discussion occurred in both Vietnamese and English and was moderated by an Australian academic working alongside a Vietnamese translator. This paper will discuss the design of an online learning environment for foreign correspondents, the resources and translation required to maximise the success of asynchronous online discussion groups, as well as the rationale of delivering complex content in a foreign language. While specifically addressing the first iteration of the first distance module designed, this paper will also address subsequent changes made for the second iteration of the module and comment on their success. While a translator is clearly a key component of success, the elements of simplicity and clarity combined with supportive online moderation must not be overlooked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  11. The role of individualism and the Five-Factor Model in the prediction of performance in a leaderless group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, David A; Atwater, Leanne E; Davidson, Ronald A

    2004-02-01

    Personality has seen a resurgence in the work performance literature. The Five-Factor Model (FFM) represents a set of personality factors that has received the most attention in recent years. Despite its popularity, the FFM may not be sufficiently comprehensive to account for relevant variation across performance dimensions or tasks. Accordingly, the present study also considers how individualism may predict additional variance in performance beyond the FFM. The study involved 152 undergraduate students who experienced a leaderless group discussion (LGD) exercise. Results showed that while the FFM accounted for variance in students' LGD performance, individualism (independence) accounted for additional, unique variance. Furthermore, analyses of the group compositions revealed curvilinear relationships between the relative amount of extraversion, conscientiousness, and individualism in relation to group-level performance.

  12. Selective traditions in group discussions: teachers' views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Sund, Per

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers. In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as "good" science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers' views. The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider. The findings show that `resistance' to including SSI is not just an issue for individual teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge

  13. Same but different? Measurement invariance of the PIAAC motivation-to-learn scale across key socio-demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC revealed that countries systematically differ in their respondents’ literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in technology-rich environments skills; skill levels also vary by gender, age, level of education or migration background. Similarly, systematic differences have been documented with respect to adults’ participation in education, which can be considered as a means to develop and maintain skills. From a psychological perspective, motivation to learn is considered a key factor associated with both skill development and participation in (further education. In order to account for motivation when analyzing PIAAC data, four items from the PIAAC background questionnaire were recently compiled into a motivation-to-learn scale. This scale has been found to be invariant (i.e., showing full weak and partial strong measurement invariance across 21 countries. Methods This paper presents further analyses using multiple-group graded response models to scrutinize the validity of the motivation-to-learn scale for group comparisons. Results Results indicate at least partial strong measurement invariance across gender, age groups, level of education, and migration background in most countries under study (all CFI > .95, all RMSEA < .08. Thus, the scale is suitable for comparing both means and associations across these groups. Conclusions Results are discussed in light of country characteristics, challenges of measurement invariance testing, and potential future research using PIAAC data.

  14. Group assessment of key indicators of sustainable waste management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, Bojana; Vujić, Goran; Srđević, Zorica; Ubavin, Dejan; Russo, Mário Augusto Tavares

    2017-09-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are struggling to solve the present problems of solid waste management. Prioritisation and ranking of the most important indicators that influence the waste management system is very useful for any decision maker for the future planning and implementation of a sustainable waste management system. The aim of this study is to evaluate key indicators and their related sub-indicators in a group decision-making environment. In order to gain insight into the subject it was necessary to obtain the qualified opinions of decision makers from different countries who understand the situation in the sector of waste management in developing countries. An assessment is performed by 43 decision makers from both developed and developing countries, and the applied methodology is based on a combined use of the analytic hierarchy process, from the multi-criteria decision-making set of tools, and the preferential voting method known as Borda Count, which belongs to social choice theory. Pairwise comparison of indicators is performed with the analytic hierarchy process, and the ranking of indicators once obtained is assessed with Borda Count. Detailed analysis of the final results showed that the Institutional-Administrative indicator was the most important one, with the maximum weight as derived by both groups of decision makers. The results also showed that the combined use of the analytic hierarchy process and Borda Count contributes to the credibility and objectivity of the decision-making process, allowing its use in more complex waste management group decision-making problems to be recommended.

  15. Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth: gendered norms and perceived family health risks. Focus group discussions in a Tanzanian suburb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbekenga, Columba K; Pembe, Andrea B; Darj, Elisabeth; Christensson, Kyllike; Olsson, Pia

    2013-01-15

    Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth is a socio-cultural practice with health implications, and is described in several African countries, including Tanzania. This study explored discourses on prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence in relation to family health after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data for the discourse analysis were collected through focus group discussions with first-time mothers and fathers and their support people in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this setting, prolonged sexual abstinence intended at promoting child health was the dominant discourse in the period after childbirth. Sexual relations after childbirth involved the control of sexuality for ensuring family health and avoiding the social implications of non-adherence to sexual abstinence norms. Both abstinence and control were emphasised more with regard to women than to men. Although the traditional discourse on prolonged sexual abstinence for protecting child health was reproduced in Ilala, some modern aspects such as the use of condoms and other contraceptives prevailed in the discussion. Discourses on sexuality after childbirth are instrumental in reproducing gender-power inequalities, with women being subjected to more restrictions and control than men are. Thus, interventions that create openness in discussing sexual relations and health-related matters after childbirth and mitigate gendered norms suppressing women and perpetuating harmful behaviours are needed. The involvement of males in the interventions would benefit men, women, and children through improving the gender relations that promote family health.

  16. Editorial research and the publication process in biomedicine and health: Report from the Esteve Foundation Discussion Group, December 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Ana; Malički, Mario; von Elm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that there are more than twenty thousand biomedical journals in the world, research into the work of editors and publication process in biomedical and health care journals is rare. In December 2012, the Esteve Foundation, a non-profit scientific institution that fosters progress in pharmacotherapy by means of scientific communication and discussion organized a discussion group of 7 editors and/or experts in peer review biomedical publishing. They presented findings of past editorial research, discussed the lack of competitive funding schemes and specialized journals for dissemination of editorial research, and reported on the great diversity of misconduct and conflict of interest policies, as well as adherence to reporting guidelines. Furthermore, they reported on the reluctance of editors to investigate allegations of misconduct or increase the level of data sharing in health research. In the end, they concluded that if editors are to remain gatekeepers of scientific knowledge they should reaffirm their focus on the integrity of the scientific record and completeness of the data they publish. Additionally, more research should be undertaken to understand why many journals are not adhering to editorial standards, and what obstacles editors face when engaging in editorial research. PMID:24969914

  17. Redescription of four species of Mehdiella from Testudinidae, with a key to the species and discussion on the relationships among the species of this genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouamer S.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species of the genus Mehdiella Seurat, 1918 are redescribed: M. cristata Petter, 1966 and M. stylosa dollfusi Petter, 1966, parasite of Pyxix arachnoides Bell, 1827 from Madagascar, M. s. stylosa (Thapar, 1 925 and M. uncinata (Drasche, 1884, parasite of Testudo graeca Linneaus, 1758, Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 and Testudo horsfieldii (Gray, 1844 from Palaearctic region. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies revealed new informations on the morphology of these species. On the basis of this morphological study, the sub-species Mehdiella stylosa dollfusi and M. s. stylosa are raised to level of species. The position of Mehdiella cristata among the species of the genus Mehdiella and the relationships among the species of the genus Mehdiella are discussed. A key to the eight valid species Mehdiella is given.

  18. Redescription of four species of Mehdiella from Testudinidae, with a key to the species and discussion on the relationships among the species of this genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamer, S; Morand, S; Kara, M

    2003-12-01

    Four species of the genus Mehdiella Seurat, 1918 are redescribed: M. cristata Petter, 1966 and M. stylosa dollfusi Petter, 1966, parasite of Pyxix arachnoides Bell, 1827 from Madagascar, M. s. stylosa (Thapar, 1925) and M. uncinata (Drasche, 1884), parasite of Testudo graeca Linneaus, 1758, Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 and Testudo horsfieldii (Gray, 1844) from Palaearctic region. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed new informations on the morphology of these species. On the basis of this morphological study, the sub-species Mehdiella stylosa dollfusi and M. s. stylosa are raised to level of species. The position of Mehdiella cristata among the species of the genus Mehdiella and the relationships among the species of the genus Mehdiella are discussed. A key to the eight valid species Mehdiella is given.

  19. Evaluating HIV prevention strategies for populations in key affected groups: The example of Cabo Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G.; Galea, Sandro; Flanigan, Timothy; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Friedman, Samuel R.; Marshall, Brandon DL

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We used an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical prevention interventions on HIV incidence trajectories in a concentrated, mixed epidemic setting from 2011 to 2021, and using Cabo Verde as an example. Methods Simulations were conducted to evaluate the extent to which early HIV treatment and optimization of care, HIV testing, condom distribution, and substance abuse treatment could eliminate new infections (i.e., reduce incidence to less than 10 cases per 10,000 person-years) among non-drug users, female sex workers (FSW), and people who use drugs (PWUD). Results Scaling up all four interventions resulted in the largest decreases in HIV, with estimates ranging from 1.4 (95%CI:1.36–1.44) per 10,000 person-years among non-drug users to 8.2 (95%CI:7.8–8.6) per 10,000 person-years among PWUD in 2021. Intervention scenarios targeting FWS and PWUD also resulted in HIV incidence estimates at or below 10 per 10,000 person-years by 2021 for all population sub-groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that scaling up multiple interventions among entire population is necessary to achieve elimination. However, prioritizing key populations with this combination prevention strategy may also result in a substantial decrease in total incidence. PMID:25838121

  20. Evaluating HIV prevention strategies for populations in key affected groups: the example of Cabo Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Galea, Sandro; Flanigan, Timothy; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Friedman, Samuel R; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2015-05-01

    We used an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical prevention interventions on HIV incidence trajectories in a concentrated, mixed epidemic setting from 2011 to 2021, and using Cabo Verde as an example. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the extent to which early HIV treatment and optimization of care, HIV testing, condom distribution, and substance abuse treatment could eliminate new infections (i.e., reduce incidence to less than 10 cases per 10,000 person-years) among non-drug users, female sex workers (FSW), and people who use drugs (PWUD). Scaling up all four interventions resulted in the largest decreases in HIV, with estimates ranging from 1.4 (95 % CI 1.36-1.44) per 10,000 person-years among non-drug users to 8.2 (95 % CI 7.8-8.6) per 10,000 person-years among PWUD in 2021. Intervention scenarios prioritizing FWS and PWUD also resulted in HIV incidence estimates at or below 10 per 10,000 person-years by 2021 for all population sub-groups. Our results suggest that scaling up multiple interventions among entire population is necessary to achieve elimination. However, prioritizing key populations with this combination prevention strategy may also result in a substantial decrease in total incidence.

  1. Key Informant Models for Measuring Group-Level Variables in Small Groups: Application to Plural Subject Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algesheimer, René; Bagozzi, Richard P.; Dholakia, Utpal M.

    2018-01-01

    We offer a new conceptualization and measurement models for constructs at the group-level of analysis in small group research. The conceptualization starts with classical notions of group behavior proposed by Tönnies, Simmel, and Weber and then draws upon plural subject theory by philosophers Gilbert and Tuomela to frame a new perspective…

  2. Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Group Key Management Integrated with Adaptive Intrusion Detection in Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    applications in wireless networks such as military battlefields, emergency response, mobile commerce , online gaming, and collaborative work are based on the...www.elsevier.com/locate/peva Performance analysis of hierarchical group key management integrated with adaptive intrusion detection in mobile ad hoc...Accepted 19 September 2010 Available online 26 September 2010 Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks Intrusion detection Group communication systems Group

  3. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  4. Discussion group networks in occupational medicine: A tool for continuing education to promote the integration of workers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsky-Halivni, Lilah; Lerman, Yehuda

    2018-04-01

    Despite their legal rights, individuals with disabilities face numerous obstacles to integration in the workplace which can result in their discharge from the labor force. Currently occupational physicians have few resources to help decide whether to integrate disabled workers in pre-placement, or in cases of return-to-work. A network of 13 discussion groups comprised of the occupational physicians of each regional clinic of a large Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in Israel was created to deal with disability management dilemmas. A moderator compiles and shares the physicians' opinions and experiences with all network members thus assisting the consulting physician in decision-making. Successful management of three representative cases is described to illustrate real-life implementations of this network. The network enables both the consulting and other physicians to tap a large knowledge base and decision-making experience concerning cases of occupational disability management, contributing to professional development and improved service delivery. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world’s population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. Method An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. Results A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. Conclusions This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to

  6. [Development of clinical trial education program for pharmaceutical science students through small group discussion and role-playing using protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2010-08-01

    The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.

  7. Group discussions with the health care team--a method of improving care of hypertension in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorian, D; Silverberg, D S; Tomer, D; Wamosher, Z

    1990-06-01

    A management-by-objective approach was used by the health care administration of the Kupat Holim Sick Fund to improve care of hypertension in 20 family practices in the city of Ashdod in central Israel. The doctor-nurse teams in these clinics met jointly on a regular basis with a physician-instructor, reviewed the results of their care of hypertension and discussed ways of improving it. Over a seven-year period, until 1988, the percentage of the population treated increased from 4.0% to 9.2% and percentage of treated patients who had diastolic pressure of 100 mmHg or more fell from 29.6% to 13.4%. Dropout rate ranged from 2.3% to 3.1% per year over the whole period. In 20 other practices in the Ashdod area in 1988 used for comparison, only 5.9% of the population was treated and the per cent treated was less than Ashdod for all age groups above 30. Dropout rate was higher, averaging 9.8% per year, and the percentage of patients with diastolic pressures of 100 mmHg or more was higher (18.1%). Thus the use of regular discussions with feedback to the health care team was associated with better detection, treatment and follow-up of hypertension.

  8. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong T.; Ho, Cuong T.; Trinh, Quan H.; Trinh, Duc A.; Luu, Minh T. N.; Tran, Hai S.; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L.; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  9. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores <26 were excluded. Participants were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up on the ADIS, a brief measure of well-being, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Both conditions resulted in significant improvements over time on all diagnostic, symptom and wellbeing measures. Significant group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  10. Women's Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Qureshi, Zeshan; Mannell, Jenevieve; Baruwal, Manju; Sharma, Neha; Rehfuess, Eva; Saville, Naomi M; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David

    2018-02-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions.

  11. Use of eyeglasses among children in elementary school: perceptions, behaviors, and interventions discussed by parents, school nurses, and teachers during focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjebacheva, Gergana Damianova; Maliski, Sally; Coleman, Anne L

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the perceptions, behaviors, and recommendations that parents, school nurses, and teachers have regarding children's use of eyeglasses. Focus groups with parents, school nurses, and teachers were conducted. The study took place in one Southern California school district. There were 39 participants, including 24 parents, seven school nurses, and eight teachers. An experienced moderator guided the focus group discussions. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Participants perceive visual impairment as a serious problem in the development of children. The lack of eyeglasses may lead to problems such as tiredness, headaches, inability to focus on school work, and decreased reading speed. Participants experienced disappointment, unhappiness, worry, and concern when they realized they needed eyeglasses at a young age. Negative societal perceptions toward eyeglasses, lack of eye doctors in minority communities, parental perceptions that children do not need eyeglasses, and peer bullying of children wearing eyeglasses are key obstacles to children's use of eyeglasses. Participants suggest school and national campaigns featuring respected public figures who wear eyeglasses to promote positive attitudes toward eyeglasses. Parents and teachers who closely follow the academic development of children have observed that visual impairment has negative consequences for the scholastic achievement of children. They recommend interventions to promote the attractiveness of eyeglasses in society. The participants discuss the need for a national preventative message for eye care similar to the message for dental care. The public health message should emphasize the importance of embracing and respecting differences among individuals.

  12. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  13. Renormalization group invariance and optimal QCD renormalization scale-setting: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Quan; Fu, Hai-Bing; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-12-01

    A valid prediction for a physical observable from quantum field theory should be independent of the choice of renormalization scheme—this is the primary requirement of renormalization group invariance (RGI). Satisfying scheme invariance is a challenging problem for perturbative QCD (pQCD), since a truncated perturbation series does not automatically satisfy the requirements of the renormalization group. In a previous review, we provided a general introduction to the various scale setting approaches suggested in the literature. As a step forward, in the present review, we present a discussion in depth of two well-established scale-setting methods based on RGI. One is the ‘principle of maximum conformality’ (PMC) in which the terms associated with the β-function are absorbed into the scale of the running coupling at each perturbative order; its predictions are scheme and scale independent at every finite order. The other approach is the ‘principle of minimum sensitivity’ (PMS), which is based on local RGI; the PMS approach determines the optimal renormalization scale by requiring the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of the PMC and PMS procedures by analyzing two physical observables R e+e- and Γ(H\\to b\\bar{b}) up to four-loop order in pQCD. At the four-loop level, the PMC and PMS predictions for both observables agree within small errors with those of conventional scale setting assuming a physically-motivated scale, and each prediction shows small scale dependences. However, the convergence of the pQCD series at high orders, behaves quite differently: the PMC displays the best pQCD convergence since it eliminates divergent renormalon terms; in contrast, the convergence of the PMS prediction is questionable, often even worse than the conventional prediction based on an arbitrary guess for the renormalization scale. PMC predictions also have the property that any residual dependence on

  14. A Round-Efficient Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Extended Chaotic Maps for Group Cloud Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Hung; Tsung, Chen-Kun; Lee, Tian-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Bo

    2017-12-03

    The security is a critical issue for business purposes. For example, the cloud meeting must consider strong security to maintain the communication privacy. Considering the scenario with cloud meeting, we apply extended chaotic map to present passwordless group authentication key agreement, termed as Passwordless Group Authentication Key Agreement (PL-GAKA). PL-GAKA improves the computation efficiency for the simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE) proposed by Lee et al. in terms of computing the session key. Since the extended chaotic map has equivalent security level to the Diffie-Hellman key exchange scheme applied by SGPAKE, the security of PL-GAKA is not sacrificed when improving the computation efficiency. Moreover, PL-GAKA is a passwordless scheme, so the password maintenance is not necessary. Short-term authentication is considered, hence the communication security is stronger than other protocols by dynamically generating session key in each cloud meeting. In our analysis, we first prove that each meeting member can get the correct information during the meeting. We analyze common security issues for the proposed PL-GAKA in terms of session key security, mutual authentication, perfect forward security, and data integrity. Moreover, we also demonstrate that communicating in PL-GAKA is secure when suffering replay attacks, impersonation attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen-verifier attacks. Eventually, an overall comparison is given to show the performance between PL-GAKA, SGPAKE and related solutions.

  15. A Round-Efficient Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Extended Chaotic Maps for Group Cloud Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The security is a critical issue for business purposes. For example, the cloud meeting must consider strong security to maintain the communication privacy. Considering the scenario with cloud meeting, we apply extended chaotic map to present passwordless group authentication key agreement, termed as Passwordless Group Authentication Key Agreement (PL-GAKA. PL-GAKA improves the computation efficiency for the simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE proposed by Lee et al. in terms of computing the session key. Since the extended chaotic map has equivalent security level to the Diffie–Hellman key exchange scheme applied by SGPAKE, the security of PL-GAKA is not sacrificed when improving the computation efficiency. Moreover, PL-GAKA is a passwordless scheme, so the password maintenance is not necessary. Short-term authentication is considered, hence the communication security is stronger than other protocols by dynamically generating session key in each cloud meeting. In our analysis, we first prove that each meeting member can get the correct information during the meeting. We analyze common security issues for the proposed PL-GAKA in terms of session key security, mutual authentication, perfect forward security, and data integrity. Moreover, we also demonstrate that communicating in PL-GAKA is secure when suffering replay attacks, impersonation attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen-verifier attacks. Eventually, an overall comparison is given to show the performance between PL-GAKA, SGPAKE and related solutions.

  16. Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2007-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.

  17. Key Ethical Issues Discussed at CDC-Sponsored International, Regional Meetings to Explore Cultural Perspectives and Contexts on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Aun; Thomas, James C; Barrett, Drue H; Ortmann, Leonard W; Herrera Guibert, Dionisio J

    2016-05-17

    Recognizing the importance of having a broad exploration of how cultural perspectives may shape thinking about ethical considerations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded four regional meetings in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Eastern Mediterranean to explore these perspectives relevant to pandemic influenza preparedness and response. The meetings were attended by 168 health professionals, scientists, academics, ethicists, religious leaders, and other community members representing 40 countries in these regions. We reviewed the meeting reports, notes and stories and mapped outcomes to the key ethical challenges for pandemic influenza response described in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidance, Ethical Considerations in Developing a Public Health Response to Pandemic Influenza: transparency and public engagement, allocation of resources, social distancing, obligations to and of healthcare workers, and international collaboration. The important role of transparency and public engagement were widely accepted among participants. However, there was general agreement that no "one size fits all" approach to allocating resources can address the variety of economic, cultural and other contextual factors that must be taken into account. The importance of social distancing as a tool to limit disease transmission was also recognized, but the difficulties associated with this measure were acknowledged. There was agreement that healthcare workers often have competing obligations and that government has a responsibility to assist healthcare workers in doing their job by providing appropriate training and equipment. Finally, there was agreement about the importance of international collaboration for combating global health threats. Although some cultural differences in the values that frame pandemic preparedness and response efforts were observed, participants generally agreed on the key ethical principles discussed in the WHO's guidance

  18. A discussion of key values to inform the design and delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Davies, Natasha; Cooke, Ian; Kaida, Angela; Mergler, Reid; van der Poel, Sheryl; Cohen, Craig R; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2015-01-01

    HIV-affected women and couples often desire children and many accept HIV risk in order to attempt pregnancy and satisfy goals for a family. Risk reduction strategies to mitigate sexual and perinatal HIV transmission include biomedical and behavioural approaches. Current efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services offer prime opportunities to incorporate strategies for HIV risk reduction during pregnancy attempts. Key client and provider values about services to optimize pregnancy in the context of HIV risk provide insights for the design and implementation of large-scale "safer conception" programmes. Through our collective experience and discussions at a multi-disciplinary international World Health Organization-convened workshop to initiate the development of guidelines and an algorithm of care to support the delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, we identified four values that are key to the implementation of these programmes: (1) understanding fertility care and an ability to identify potential fertility problems; (2) providing equity of access to resources enabling informed decision-making about reproductive choices; (3) creating enabling environments that reduce stigma associated with HIV and infertility; and (4) creating enabling environments that encourage disclosure of HIV status and fertility status to partners. Based on these values, recommendations for programmes serving HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy include the following: incorporation of comprehensive reproductive health counselling; training to support the transfer and exchange of knowledge between providers and clients; care environments that reduce the stigma of childbearing among HIV-affected women and couples; support for safe and voluntary disclosure of HIV and fertility status; and increased efforts to engage men in reproductive decision-making at times that align with women's desires. Programmes, policies and guidelines

  19. Voices from School and Home: Arkansas Parents and Students Talk about Preparing for the World of Work and the Potential for Youth Apprenticeship. A Report on Focus Group Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.

    This report summarizes several group discussions with parents of high school students, high school students, and nursing students regarding the world of work and the advantages and disadvantages of a youth apprenticeship program. Section I is an executive summary that describes the methodology, summarizes key attitudes toward youth apprenticeships…

  20. Perceptions of northeast Thai breastfeeding mothers regarding facilitators and barriers to six-month exclusive breastfeeding: focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepha, Thiwawan; Marais, Debbie; Bell, Jacqueline; Muangpin, Somjit

    2018-01-01

    The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in the Northeast region of Thailand has recently significantly decreased in contrast to all other regions in Thailand. The factors that have influenced this decrease remain unknown. Hence, it is suggested that an investigation into factors that could improve or hinder EBF for 6 months in Northeast Thailand may be required to inform the development of relevant interventions to improve this situation. This study aimed to identify perceived facilitators and barriers to providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in Northeast Thailand among breastfeeding mothers. Six focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 30 mothers aged 20 to 40 years who had children aged between 4 and 6 months and were currently breastfeeding or had breastfeeding experience. Participants were recruited through self-selection sampling from Khonkaen hospital (urban), Numphong hospital (peri-urban) and private hospitals (urban) in Khonkaen, Thailand. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. Five main themes, with 10 sub-themes, were identified as either facilitators (+) or barriers (-), or in some cases, as both (+/-). Breastfeeding knowledge, perceptions, maternal circumstances, support, and traditional food were the main identified themes. Mother's breastfeeding knowledge, intention to breastfeed, and social media were perceived as facilitators. Perceptions, employment, and formula milk promotion were perceived as barriers. Family, healthcare, and traditional food were perceived as both facilitators and barriers. The perception that social media was a way to access breastfeeding knowledge and support mothers in Northeast Thailand emerged as a new facilitating factor that had not previously been identified in Thai literature relating to facilitators and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Intention to breastfeed, family support, healthcare support and traditional food were mentioned by all groups, whereas mothers from urban

  1. From Loose Groups to Effective Teams: The Nine Key Factors of the Team Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, A. G.; Kakabadse, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    A loose group of individuals working on a task differs from an effective team on nine factors: clearly defined goals, priorities, roles and responsibilities, self-awareness, leadership, group dynamics, communications, content, and infrastructure. Ways to eliminate barriers and speed formation of effective teams could be based on those factors.…

  2. Luminescence Dating Work From The Heidelberg Group: A Key Technology In Geoarchaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G. A.; Kadereit, A.

    Geoarchaeology is a growing discipline in archaeological science. It aims at the natural environment as context of past human societies and at the interaction between both, the environment and man as part of a joint ecosystem. This topic is also of considerable concern of present societies. Like other historic sciences, geoarchaeology requires accurate chronologies. Since one deals in geoarchaeology predominantly with sediments and rocks, luminescence methods play a key role. This is demonstrated in two case studies from Phlious in southern Greece and Nasca in southern Peru. The results show clearly climatically triggered social developments and feedbacks to the environment.

  3. Review and Discussion on the Key Assumptions and Challenges Surrounding the Use of {sup 7}Be as a Soil and Sediment Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabit, L. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, IAEA (Austria); Taylor, A.; Blake, W. H. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Smith, H. G. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Keith-Roach, M. J. [Kemakta Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-01-15

    Full text: The assumptions and challenges surrounding the use of {sup 7}Be to investigate soil and sediment in river basins have recently been reviewed (Taylor et al., 2013) to support the Coordinated Research Project D1.20.11 on Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area Wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion. This paper analyses the assumptions made in the context of hillslope erosion studies and additional implications for the use of {sup 7}Be as a tracer at a catchment-scale. A key assumption in hillslope erosion studies is that {sup 7}Be fallout is spatially uniform for a typical field or location. It is also important to assume that rainfall received prior to a study event is non-eroding to maintain a uniform inventory and enable estimates of soil redistribution to be attributed to a particular event. This requirement is well recognised by researchers in this field and these conditions have been met in studies shown in the literature. Little attention, however, has been given to the effects of other factors (e.g. atmospheric processes affecting the rainfall field across a site, topographic factors including the influence of vegetation cover), which could influence the uniformity of fallout and therefore the spatial variability of the {sup 7}Be inventory. Assumptions of spatially uniform fallout at the microscale has not been adequately supported by previous research. Studies demonstrated for example the variability in raindrop size distribution across short distances (i.e. 250 m). These factors are, however, likely to translate into minimal gradients in {sup 7}Be inventories and it is more likely that factors affecting the direct transfer of {sup 7}Be to soil, such as rain shadowing (by e.g. vegetation and topography) and interception by vegetation, will have a greater influence on spatial uniformity. These factors could present a fundamental challenge to the application of {sup 7}Be

  4. Key environmental challenges for food groups and regions representing the variation within the EU, Ch.3 Salmon Aquaculture Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., Ólafsdóttir; Andrade, Grace Patricia Viera; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The report is aimed to give a thorough review of different environmental impacts that the food and drink sector are producing along the whole chain, from fork to farm and to assess which of them are the key environmental challenges for Europe. A representative range of product groups have been ch...... chosen: • Orange juice • Beef and dairy • Aquaculture (salmon)...

  5. Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Koper, R. (2005) Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges. In E-Journal of Educational Research, Assessment and Evaluation, vol. 11, issue 2 [www.uv.es/RELIEVE]. Available at

  6. What do Polish and Dutch consumers think about dried fruit and products with them - creaiwe group discussions as a means of recognittion consumers'perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; P¿ocharski, W.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to get insight into consumers' perception towards dried fruit and products with them, thus the exploratory study designed as a group discussion took place. While group discussions association (as one of the projective technique) and Kelly repertory grid were used to

  7. Self-esteem and anxiety: key issues in an abused women's support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpey, M L

    1989-01-01

    A support group was organized for women who sought help to cope with physical and emotional abuse from their male partners. Women who have lived through the cycle of violence may experience a stress response that includes fear, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. High anxiety can interfere with problem solving and with developing new coping patterns. Low self-esteem can accompany depression and intensify the sense of helplessness and powerlessness abused women feel. A descriptive study was conducted to determine to what extent women in the group experienced high anxiety and low self-esteem. Results indicated that high levels of anxiety and low self-esteem were present in the group. Anxiety reduction strategies and techniques to enhance self-esteem were developed.

  8. A Group Based Key Sharing and Management Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Shafi Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs are one special type of ad hoc networks that involves vehicles on roads. Typically like ad hoc networks, broadcast approach is used for data dissemination. Blind broadcast to each and every node results in exchange of useless and irrelevant messages and hence creates an overhead. Unicasting is not preferred in ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic topology and the resource requirements as compared to broadcasting. Simple broadcasting techniques create several problems on privacy, disturbance, and resource utilization. In this paper, we propose media mixing algorithm to decide what information should be provided to each user and how to provide such information. Results obtained through simulation show that fewer number of keys are needed to share compared to simple broadcasting. Privacy is also enhanced through this approach.

  9. A quick needs assessment of key stakeholder groups on the role of family medicine in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sanders

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Zambia is a nation of nine million people, and has too few physicians to meet the country’s health needs. Following the strategy of other sub-Saharan countries, Zambia has developed a training programme in family medicine to help improve the medical competencies of its physician workforce. A needs assessment was undertaken to better understand the landscape into which Zambian family medicine is being placed. Methods. In 2014, a nine-question survey in Likert-scale format was developed, validated, and then delivered to four stakeholder groups: (i practicing clinical physicians, (ii the general public, (iii the University of Zambia’s School of Medicine’s academic faculty and (iv medical students. The needs assessment was delivered through several different mechanisms: via web-based service, to respondents’ email addresses; in paper form, to population samples of convenience; and verbally, through face-to-face encounters. Results. The number of stakeholders from each group who responded to the needs assessment were: clinical physicians, 27; general public, 15; academic faculty, 14; and medical students, 31. Five of the nine survey statements achieved super-majority consensus, with >66% of stakeholders in each group agreeing. Two additional statements achieved a simple-majority consensus with >50% agreement within each stakeholder group. Conclusion. This survey suggests that there is a broad-based a priori understanding of family medicine in Zambia, and general agreement that its presence would be valuable to Zambia’s healthcare system.

  10. Modelling the exposure of wildlife to radiation: key findings and activities of IAEA working groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, LM2E, Cadarache (France); Johansen, Mathew P. [ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Menai, NSW (Australia); Goulet, Richard [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Environmental Risk Assessment Division, 280 Slater, Ottawa, K1A0H3 (Canada); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins (United States); Stark, Karolina; Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Andersson, Pal [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16, Stockholm (Sweden); Copplestone, David [Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Yankovich, Tamara L.; Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    In total, participants from 14 countries, representing 19 organisations, actively participated in the model application/inter-comparison activities of the IAEA's EMRAS II programme Biota Modelling Group. A range of models/approaches were used by participants (e.g. the ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, the ICRP Framework). The agreed objectives of the group were: 'To improve Member State's capabilities for protection of the environment by comparing and validating models being used, or developed, for biota dose assessment (that may be used) as part of the regulatory process of licensing and compliance monitoring of authorised releases of radionuclides.' The activities of the group, the findings of which will be described, included: - An assessment of the predicted unweighted absorbed dose rates for 74 radionuclides estimated by 10 approaches for five of the ICRPs Reference Animal and Plant geometries assuming 1 Bq per unit organism or media. - Modelling the effect of heterogeneous distributions of radionuclides in sediment profiles on the estimated exposure of organisms. - Model prediction - field data comparisons for freshwater ecosystems in a uranium mining area and a number of wetland environments. - An evaluation of the application of available models to a scenario considering radioactive waste buried in shallow trenches. - Estimating the contribution of {sup 235}U to dose rates in freshwater environments. - Evaluation of the factors contributing to variation in modelling results. The work of the group continues within the framework of the IAEA's MODARIA programme, which was initiated in 2012. The work plan of the MODARIA working group has largely been defined by the findings of the previous EMRAS programme. On-going activities of the working group, which will be described, include the development of a database of dynamic parameters for wildlife dose assessment and exercises involving modelling the exposure of organisms in the marine coastal

  11. Agricultural producers’ groups in the Czech Republic: introductory review and discussion of the problem area economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company is surrounded by the micro- and macro-environment affecting also its economic performance. These factors are not only individual accounting entries, but also analytical inputs as the internal company processes, management of costs or short-term financial decisions and specifically in the case of agriculture within the EU also the public subsidy schemes implemented through the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Groups of agricultural producers are created as a response to current market dynamics and the opportunity for each agricultural enterprise regardless the size. In this paper, the basis for agricultural cooperation is provided, traditional economic performance measures are presented and their applicability on the sample of agricultural producers’ groups and wholesale entities is empirically verified. Wholesale entities are analysed by its business activity and performance features to consider whether they are suitable peer group for comparing economic performance of examined agricultural producers’ group. Since the economic performance of agricultural producers’ groups directly affects the economic performance of all participating entities, and vice versa, their economic performance measurement may involve specific constraints. According to the structure and characteristics of agricultural producers’ groups may be inferred that whilst the common performance measurement techniques are applicable on the majority of companies, agricultural producers’ groups represent specific entities and therefore need adjusted performance measurement approach.

  12. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L

    2017-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived experiences of a supported social group. Data were analysed using descriptive phenomenology. Two themes emerged (i) supported engagement fosters wellbeing, and (ii) developing social belonging and connectedness. Participants not only acknowledged the support that they needed to participate, but also that the social group had changed their lives in many ways. Adults with intellectual disability want to socialise, have friends and be part of their community. For this to be achieved, they recognise the need to seek some form of support. With appropriate and targeted support, adults with intellectual disability can move from social exclusion towards supported inclusion and experience richer lives. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Urban adolescent high-risk sexual behavior: corroboration of focus group discussions through pile-sorting. The AIDS Youth Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Aronson, R; Borgatti, S; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1993-01-01

    Risk activities for acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain prevalent among urban adolescents. While interdisciplinary approaches to examine the variables contributing to risk/protective behaviors have been promoted, strategies for such explorations require further formulation. Recently we employed focus group discussions to explore factors placing urban adolescents at risk for engaging in HIV risk behaviors. The focus group format enables substantial interaction on a topic in a limited time period, but does not always provide expression of the full range of behavioral options. In this study we investigated the use of pile-sorts for confirmation of impressions from focus group discussions among 57 urban youths aged 10-14. The pile-sorts revealed some support for most of the views expressed in the group discussions. However, the sorts revealed more variability in views than was expressed in the group discussions. Substantial gender and age-based differences in perceptions were revealed with potentially important intervention implications.

  14. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…

  15. An oral epidemiological comparison of Chinese and New Zealand adults in 2 key age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songlin; Thomson, William Murray

    2018-04-01

    To use recent national survey data to compare dentition status and oral diseases in China and New Zealand (NZ), with a particular focus on differences by sex and education level. We undertook secondary analysis of representative data from oral health surveys conducted in 2009 in Sichuan (China) and NZ. Both surveys had an oral examination component and collected detailed demographic data. Socioeconomic position in this analysis was represented by the highest level of education completed. Participants were allocated to 1 of 3 comparable ordinal categories of years of education (primary, middle or tertiary). Analyses used survey weights. The proportion of Chinese who had been educated to only primary level was 3 times higher than that among their NZ counterparts, and the proportion with a tertiary education was correspondingly lower. In the 35-44 age group, the dentate proportions were similar, although the mean number of teeth was higher in China than in NZ. There were substantial differences in dental caries experience, with the mean DMFT in NZ being almost 3 times that observed in China. New Zealanders had more filled teeth, but the prevalence of 1+ missing teeth was lower. Periodontitis was more common in the NZ sample than in the Chinese one, although the extent of bleeding on probing was almost 3 times higher among the latter. For the 65-74 age group, there were significant differences in dentition status, with greater tooth retention among Chinese people. There were also significant differences in dental caries experience, with Chinese 65- to 74-year-olds having more decayed teeth but fewer filled or missing teeth, and lower DMFT scores, on average. Periodontal health was better among the New Zealanders. There were notable differences by sex and education level. The differences observed in this study provide strong support for using broader sociocultural models of oral health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Investigation of the effects of group discussion on the empowerment of patients with hypertension who were referred to two health centers in Tehran in 1390

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Kheibar

    2014-04-01

    Results: The average age of the subjects was 54 ± 8.4 years and 34.4% of the participants had a history of hypertension for 5 years. Group discussions could lead to improve the average empowerment of individuals (P=0.04. Furthermore, among all the aspects of empowerment, group discussions had the greatest impact on the perception and sensitivity levels (P=0.001 and P=0.02 respectively. Conclusion: In patients with hypertension, group discussions can lead to increased perception and sensitivity levels and also enhance the ability of individuals to control their lifestyles.

  17. Hamming's "open doors" and group creativity as keys to scientific excellence: the example of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Charlton used diverse approaches to identify research institutions which provided home to outstanding scientists and work. One intriguing example of long-lasting scientific excellence is Cambridge with 19 Nobel laureates who worked at the University or at the MRC Molecular Biology Unit when they received the prize between 1947 and 2006. With specific reference to Cambridge, I would like to complement the primarily quantitative assessment and offer considerations as to why and how research achievements may have clustered in space and time. Indeed, observations voiced by the mathematician Richard Hamming as to how great research can be pursued offer explanations for the series of great science in the UK. In my view, the most important determinant of the clustering may be illustrated by Hamming's fitting picture of "open doors": working in environments with the doors open allows constant interactions with peers with various disciplinary backgrounds, and thus fast avoidance of detours or dead ends in science and, ultimately, a focus on and the solution of problems of paramount, rather than of tangential, importance. Narrative insights into a strong argumentative tradition at Cambridge provided by Drs. Watson and Magueijo between 1968 and 2003 are in line with Hamming's suggestion and the value of group creativity. In the internet age with abundant interactions beyond home institutions we should not be surprised if clusters of great science were no longer confined to the usual suspect institutions which were awarded disproportionally with Nobel prizes in the past.

  18. What are the key food groups to target for preventing obesity and improving nutrition in schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A C; Swinburn, B A

    2004-02-01

    To determine differences in the contribution of foods and beverages to energy consumed in and out of school, and to compare consumption patterns between school canteen users and noncanteen users. Cross-sectional National Nutrition Survey, 1995. Australia. SUBJECTS ON SCHOOL DAYS: A total of 1656 children aged 5-15 y who had weekday 24-h dietary recall data. An average of 37% of total energy intake was consumed at school. Energy-dense foods and beverages such as fat spreads, packaged snacks, biscuits and fruit/cordial drinks made a greater contribution to energy intake at school compared to out of school (Pfoods and soft drinks contributed 11 and 3% of total energy intake; however, these food groups were mostly consumed out of school. Fruit intake was low and consumption was greater in school. In all, 14% of children purchased food from the canteen and they obtained more energy from fast food, packaged snacks, desserts, milk and confectionary (Pfoods and beverages are over-represented in the Australian school environment. To help prevent obesity and improve nutrition in schools, biscuits, snack bars and fruit/cordial drinks brought from home and fast food, packaged snacks, and confectionary sold at canteens should be replaced with fruit and water.

  19. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Sheila; Lincoln, Michelle; Smith, Tony

    2012-06-22

    Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD); the impact of management; and career progression. 'Pull factors' favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. 'Push factors' discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel); limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by informants. While personal factors affecting recruitment and

  20. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, with a key to the species of the megalostigma group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favizia Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided.

  1. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane Sheila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Methods Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Results Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD; the impact of management; and career progression. ‘Pull factors’ favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. ‘Push factors’ discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel; limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by

  2. Leave your logo at the door. A (Internet) discussion group with a difference on the interaction between nuclear and fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel Alain; Maden, Claire; Mole, Ted

    1999-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the treatment of nuclear energy in literature and cinema, to focus as much as possible on the civil applications of nuclear energy while at the same time trying not to stifle or suppress anything which contributors may feel relevant. We insisted and still do that the purpose was to have a forum for individual not for corporate views, thus the motto: Leave your logo at the door. The question we are dealing with is more related to emotions than anything else: corporations have no emotions. The Internet and e mails still allow fast and personal exchange. The site of the Uranium Institute hosted The Primary Circuit, the 'Internet pub that feeds your mind'. The idea was to have a discussion site for ideas on nuclear energy, the arts (particularly literature) and public perception. The largest body of nuclear related literature is that now known as Survivalist fiction. The separation between military applications and 'Atoms for Peace' was never a fact in people's mind

  3. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  4. A secure effective dynamic group password-based authenticated key agreement scheme for the integrated EPR information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanga Odelu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of the Internet, a lot of electronic patient records (EPRs have been developed for e-medicine systems. The security and privacy issues of EPRs are important for the patients in order to understand how the hospitals control the use of their personal information, such as name, address, e-mail, medical records, etc. of a particular patient. Recently, Lee et al. proposed a simple group password-based authenticated key agreement protocol for the integrated EPR information system (SGPAKE. However, in this paper, we show that Lee et al.’s protocol is vulnerable to the off-line weak password guessing attack and as a result, their scheme does not provide users’ privacy. To withstand this security weakness found in Lee et al.’s scheme, we aim to propose an effective dynamic group password-based authenticated key exchange scheme for the integrated EPR information system, which retains the original merits of Lee et al.’s scheme. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme provides users’ privacy, perfect forward security and known-key security, and also protects online and offline password guessing attacks. Furthermore, our scheme efficiently supports the dynamic group password-based authenticated key agreement for the integrated EPR information system. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks.

  5. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  6. The Effect of Group Discussion-based Education on Self-management of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Compared with Usual Care: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Hosein; Sofiani, Akbar; Alilu, Leyla; Gillespie, Mark

    2017-11-01

    We sought to determine the effect of group discussion-based education on the self-management capability of patients with type 2 diabetes in Iran. This randomized control trial was conducted on 90 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were allocated randomly into one of two groups; intervention and control. The intervention group received the group discussion-based education while the control group received routine care only. The Lin's self-management questionnaire was completed at baseline and three months post-intervention. Statistical analysis, including the use of independent t -test, identified that in comparison to the control group, significant increases were observed in the scores of self-organization ( t =11.24, p health experts ( t = 7.31, p diet ( t = 5.22, p diabetes.

  7. Identification of mistakes and their correction by a small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Sridhar, M G; Soundravally, R; Setiya, Sajita; Babu, M Sathish; Niranjan, G

    2014-01-01

    Graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. The Medical Council of India (MCI) encourages group discussions among students. We evaluated the effect of identifying mistakes in a given set of wrong statements and their correction by a small group discussion by graduate medical students as a revision exercise. At the end of a module, a pre-test consisting of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was conducted. Later, a set of incorrect statements related to the topic was given to the students and they were asked to identify the mistakes and correct them in a small group discussion. The effects on low, medium and high achievers were evaluated by a post-test and delayed post-tests with the same set of MCQs. The mean post-test marks were significantly higher among all the three groups compared to the pre-test marks. The gain from the small group discussion was equal among low, medium and high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among low, medium and high achievers after 15 days. Identification of mistakes in statements and their correction by a small group discussion is an effective, but unconventional revision exercise in biochemistry. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  8. A multicenter prospective cohort study on camera navigation training for key user groups in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafland, Maurits; Bok, Kiki; Schreuder, Henk W R; Schijven, Marlies P

    2014-06-01

    Untrained laparoscopic camera assistants in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) may cause suboptimal view of the operating field, thereby increasing risk for errors. Camera navigation is often performed by the least experienced member of the operating team, such as inexperienced surgical residents, operating room nurses, and medical students. The operating room nurses and medical students are currently not included as key user groups in structured laparoscopic training programs. A new virtual reality laparoscopic camera navigation (LCN) module was specifically developed for these key user groups. This multicenter prospective cohort study assesses face validity and construct validity of the LCN module on the Simendo virtual reality simulator. Face validity was assessed through a questionnaire on resemblance to reality and perceived usability of the instrument among experts and trainees. Construct validity was assessed by comparing scores of groups with different levels of experience on outcome parameters of speed and movement proficiency. The results obtained show uniform and positive evaluation of the LCN module among expert users and trainees, signifying face validity. Experts and intermediate experience groups performed significantly better in task time and camera stability during three repetitions, compared to the less experienced user groups (P < .007). Comparison of learning curves showed significant improvement of proficiency in time and camera stability for all groups during three repetitions (P < .007). The results of this study show face validity and construct validity of the LCN module. The module is suitable for use in training curricula for operating room nurses and novice surgical trainees, aimed at improving team performance in minimally invasive surgery. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Review: Ralf Bohnsack, Aglaja Przyborski & Burkhard Schäffer (Eds. (2010. Das Gruppendiskussionsverfahren in der Forschungspraxis [The Group Discussion Technique in Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Schmidt-Pfister

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This edited volume comprises a range of studies that have employed a group discussion technique in combination with a specific strategy for reconstructive social research—the so-called documentary method. The latter is an empirical research strategy based on the meta-theoretical premises of the praxeological sociology of knowledge, as developed by Ralf BOHNSACK. It seeks to access practice in a more appropriate manner, namely by differentiating between various dimensions of knowledge and sociality. It holds that habitual collective orientations, in particular, are best accessed through group discussions. Thus this book does not address the group discussion technique in general, as might be expected from the title. Instead, it presents various contributions from researchers interpreting transcripts of group discussions according to the documentary method. The chapters are grouped into three main sections, representing different frameworks of practice and habitual orientation: childhood, adolescence, and organizational or societal context. A fourth section includes chapters on further, potentially useful ways of employing this particular technique and approach, as well as a chapter on teaching it in a meaningful way. Each chapter is structured in the same way: introduction to the research field and focus; methodological discussion; exemplary interpretation of group discussions; and concluding remarks. Whilst the transcripts referred to by the authors are very helpfully presented in the chapters, there is a lack of methodological reflection on the group discussion technique itself, which, as mentioned above, is only evaluated in regard to the documentary method. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110225

  10. The clinical role of lecturers in nursing in Ireland: perceptions from key stakeholder groups in nurse education on the role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskell, Pauline; Murphy, Kathleen; Shaw, David

    2009-10-01

    The clinical role of lecturers in nursing has been a focus of debate since the integration of nurse education into higher education institutions. The purpose of this paper is to report the findings from the preliminary phase of a study, undertaken to investigate the perceptions of key stakeholder groups in nurse education, regarding the current clinical role of nurse lecturers in Ireland. A descriptive exploratory design was used involving focus group and individual interviews, soliciting views of purposefully selected educationalists, clinicians, policy formulators and students. The issue was examined from a policy perspective, aiming to collectively represent views of all participant groups. This approach facilitated a more complete picture of perceptions of the role to emerge, to better inform future decision making. Twenty two focus group interviews and twenty one individual interviews were conducted. Content analysis was used to identify themes. All groups were in agreement that role definition was urgently required to dispel ambiguities surrounding what the clinical role should involve. Conflicting views were evident among groups regarding lecturers' clinical credibility, visibility and teaching effectiveness. Findings highlight the essential nature of nurse lecturers engaging with clinical areas to maintain their skills, demonstrate a value for the practice component of the role and provide a link between education and practice.

  11. Evaluation of electronic discussion groups as a teaching/learning strategy in an evidence-based medicine course: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, C; Glicken, A; Hall, M; Quarantillo, B; Merenstein, G

    2001-01-01

    As course directors, we wished to incorporate small group learning into our Evidence-based Medicine course for students to get feedback on the development of a well constructed, researchable clinical question. Scheduling of these groups was problematic. We sought to evaluate computer-mediated communication as an alternative to face-to-face small groups. Students were randomly assigned to either face-to-face small groups or asynchronous, electronic, small groups. Final examination scores were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were differences in student performance based on group type. Student survey items were analyzed using Fisher's Exact test to determine if there were differences in student attitudes based on group type. There were no significant differences found in overall student performance. Significant differences in student attitudes were found to exist with respect to: (1) participation in discussions, with face-to-face groups reporting greater participation; (2) putting more thought into comments, with electronic groups reporting more thought put into comments; and (3) difficulty relating to other students in the class, with electronic groups reporting more difficulty. We found electronic discussion groups (computer-mediated communication) to be a viable teaching/learning strategy with no adverse effects on student performance or attitudes.

  12. The Effect of Group Discussion-based Education on Self-management of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Compared with Usual Care: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Habibzadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to determine the effect of group discussion-based education on the self-management capability of patients with type 2 diabetes in Iran. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted on 90 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were allocated randomly into one of two groups; intervention and control. The intervention group received the group discussion-based education while the control group received routine care only. The Lin’s self-management questionnaire was completed at baseline and three months post-intervention. Results: Statistical analysis, including the use of independent t-test, identified that in comparison to the control group, significant increases were observed in the scores of self-organization (t =11.24, p < 0.001, self-adjustment (t = 7.53, p < 0.001, interaction with health experts (t = 7.31, p < 0.001, blood sugar self-monitoring (t = 6.42, p < 0.001, adherence to the proposed diet (t = 5.22, p < 0.001, and total self-management (t = 10.82, p < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Sharing experiences through group discussions and receiving instructive feedback can improve the ability to self-manage diabetes.

  13. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw

    2013-10-24

    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  14. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  15. Effects of Education Based on Focus Group Discussions on Menstrual Health Behaviors of Female Adolescents in Boarding Centers of the Welfare Organization, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Shirzadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Problems caused by menstruation are common among women. Focus group discussions are a method of data collection in which a small group of participants discuss a specified topic or issue. This study mainly aimed to determine the effects of health education based on focus group discussions on the promotion of health behaviors of female adolescents residing boarding centers of the Welfare Organization (Tehran, Iran during their menstruation periods. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental interventional study recruited all eligible 12-19-year-old female residents (n=61 of the boarding centers affiliated to the Welfare Organization, Tehran, Iran. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including demographic information and puberty health behaviors (health behaviors during the menstruation period. The questionnaires were completed through interviews before and one month after training. The educational intervention lasted for three months. Data were analyzed using paired t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests in SPSS16. Results: The mean scores of performance increased from 12.11±4.43 before the intervention to 16.50±2.79 after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusion: Since the educational intervention based on focus group discussions had positive effects on the participants’ puberty health, such discussions are recommended to educate adolescent girls about puberty issues.

  16. Effects of a group-based reproductive management extension programme on key management outcomes affecting reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, Tom S; Morton, John M; Heuer, Cord; McDougall, Scott

    2015-02-01

    A group-based reproductive management extension programme has been designed to help managers of dairy herds improve herd reproductive performance. The aims of this study were, firstly, to assess effects of participation by key decision makers (KDMs) in a farmer action group programme in 2009 and 2010 on six key management outcomes (KMOs) that affect reproductive performance over 2 years (2009-2010 and 2010-2011), and secondly, to describe KDM intentions to change management behaviour(s) affecting each management outcome after participation in the programme. Seasonal calving dairy herds from four regions of New Zealand were enrolled in the study. Intentions to modify management behaviour were recorded using the formal written action plans developed during the extension programme. KMOs assessed were calving pattern of the herd, pre-calving heifer liveweight, pre-calving and premating body condition score (BCS), oestrus detection, anoestrus cow management and bull management. Participation was associated with improvements in heifer liveweight, more heifers calving in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal calving period, premating BCS and oestrus detection. No significant effects were observed on anoestrus cow management or bull management. KDMs with greater numbers of proposed actions had lower 6 week in-calf rates in the second study year than KDMs who proposed fewer actions. A more effective strategy to ensure more appropriate objectives is proposed. Strategies to help KDMs to implement proposed actions more successfully should be investigated to improve the programme further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing Transferable Skills Inventory for Assessing Students Using Group Discussion: A Case Study of First Year Electrical and Electronics Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejaswani, K.; Madhuri, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Employability skills among engineering graduates have been a concern due to their inability to perform on a professional platform to the employer's expected level. As they are higher cognitive skills, they are to be nurtured during the graduation period. Keeping this in view, group discussions are identified as one of the methods to elicit…

  18. A Focus Group Study of African American Students' Experiences with Classroom Discussions about Race at a Predominantly White University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Jill K.; Hall, Scott S.

    2018-01-01

    Past research has drawn attention to the unique challenges for students of color attending predominantly white colleges and universities, yet few have focused on the classroom as a micro-context in which race-related discussions often occur. Using a focus group methodology, 22 African American undergraduate students from a variety of academic…

  19. Consumption of key food groups during the postpartum period in low-income, non-Hispanic black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Wasser, Heather; Adair, Linda S; Thompson, Amanda L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Bentley, Margaret E

    2017-10-01

    The postpartum period can impact diet quality and subsequently place women at greater risk for overweight or obesity. This study examined consumption of key food groups during the first 2 years postpartum among low income, non-Hispanic black, first-time mothers. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 mother-infant dyads, followed from 3 to 18 months postpartum, collected from 2003 to 2007. At each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months) 24-h dietary recalls were collected. Consumption levels were compared to those recommended from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) for each of the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, whole grains, protein foods and dairy, as well as an estimated upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. At each time point, mothers met recommended intake levels for grains and protein foods only. In random-intercept logistic regression models, no demographic or household characteristics were associated with a likelihood of consuming recommended levels for any of the food groups according to the DGAs. Given the low intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein foods and high intake of SSBs and refined grains, interventions targeting women's diet during the postpartum period are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Educational Software, Video Modelling and Group Discussion on Social-Skill Acquisition Among Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit E; Banin, Irit

    2017-07-01

    People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often demonstrate difficulties in social skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive intervention program on the acquisition of social skills among students with mild IDD. Single subject multiple baseline design across situations was used for teaching five school-age children with mild IDD social skills embedded in school-based situations. Results demonstrate that the intervention program that included video modelling and games embedded with group discussions and simulations increased the level and use of adequate social behaviours within the school's natural environment. Results demonstrate the unique attribution of a comprehensive interactive program for acquisition and transfer of participants' social skills such as language pragmatics and social rules within the school environment. Group discussions and simulations were beneficial and enabled both group and personalized instruction through the unique application of the program designed for the study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n., a new species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from China, with a key to the Chinese members of the group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aenictus is the most species-rich genus of army ants in the subfamily Dorylinae and one of the most species rich ant genera in China and the world. In this paper, a new species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group, Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n., is described and illustrated based on the worker caste. The new species occurs in the subtropical forests of south-east China and is morphologically most similar to A. henanensis Li & Wang, 2005 and A. wudangshanensis Wang, 2006. Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n. can be distinguished from both species by the shape of the subpetiolar process. The new species also resembles Aenictus lifuiae Terayama 1984 and A. thailandianus Terayama & Kubota, 1993 but clearly differs in various features of the cuticular sculpture. A key to the Chinese species of the A. ceylonicus group based on the worker caste is provided, which may help to reassess and clarify the taxonomic status of the abundant Chinese records of the true A. ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866, a species which almost certainly does not occur in China. Several new locality records are given, among them the first record of A. watanasiti Jaitrong & Yamane, 2013 from China.

  2. Description of 23 new species of the Exocelina ekari-group from New Guinea, with a key to all representatives of the species group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Shaverdo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are described herein: E. bewaniensis sp. n., E. bismarckensis sp. n., E. craterensis sp. n., E. gorokaensis sp. n., E. herowana sp. n., E. jimiensis sp. n., E. kisli sp. n., E. ksionseki sp. n., E. lembena sp. n., E. mantembu sp. n., E. michaelensis sp. n., E. pinocchio sp. n., E. pseudoastrophallus sp. n., E. pseudobifida sp. n., E. pseudoedeltraudae sp. n., E. pseudoeme sp. n., E. sandaunensis sp. n., E. simbaiarea sp. n., E. skalei sp. n., E. tabubilensis sp. n., E. tariensis sp. n., E. vovai sp. n., and E. wannangensis sp. n. All of them have been found to belong to the E. ekari-group. An identification key to all known species of the group is provided, and important diagnostic characters (habitus, color, male antennae, protarsomeres 4–5, median lobes, and parameres are illustrated. Data on the distribution of the new species and some already described species are given.

  3. Monomorium dryhimi sp. n., a new ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of the M. monomorium group from Saudi Arabia, with a key to the Arabian Monomorium monomorium-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Aldawood

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new ant species, Monomorium dryhimi, is described based on workers from a single colony collected in Al Bahah, Asir Province, Saudi Arabia. This is the fourth species of the Monomorium monomorium-group collected from Arabian Peninsula, and appears to be closely related to Monomorium holothir Bolton, 1987, from Kenya. It can be distinguished by the following characters: head in profile with a weakly convex dorsal surface and a clearly convex ventral surface; eyes of moderate size with maximum diameter EL 0.19–0.25 × HW and with 6 ommatidia in the longest row; body colour yellow to light brownish yellow. In some individuals, head and gaster slightly but conspicuously darker than rest of body. Second halves of first and second gastral tergites with two characteristic brownish transverse bands. An identification key to the workers of the Arabian species of the Monomorium monomorium-group is presented. Scanning electron micrographs are given to illustrate the new species.

  4. Regulatory good practices relating to inspection and enforcement. A compilation of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group

  5. Regulatory good practices relating to inspection and enforcement. A compilation of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group

  6. The C8 side chain is one of the key functional group of Garcinol for its anti-cancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Ying; Cao, Jing; Han, Chao-Ming; Li, Shu-Wen; Zhang, Chen; Du, Yin-Duan; Zhou, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Garcinol from the fruit rind of Garcinia indica shows anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, but its mechanism and key functional groups were still need to be identified. Our previous computer modeling suggested that the C8 side chain of Garcinol is so large that it may influence the bioactivity of the compound. 8-Me Garcinol, a derivative of Garcinol in which the bulky side chain at the C8 position of Garcinol is replaced with a much smaller methyl group, was synthesized through a 12-step procedure starting from 1,3-cyclohexanedione. The antitumor activity of Garcinol and 8-Me Garcinol was evaluated in vitro by MTT, cell cycle and cell apoptosis assays. The results showed that 8-Me Garcinol had weaker inhibitory activity on cells proliferation, and little effects on cell cycle and apoptosis in oral cancer cell line SCC15 cells when compared with Garcinol. All of the results indicated 8-Me Garcinol exerts weaker antitumor activity than Garcinol, and the C8 side chain might be an important active site in Garcinol. Changing the C8 side chain will affect the inhibitory effect of Garcinol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Setting on Findings Produced in Qualitative Health Research: A Comparison between Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Groups about HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Graffigna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus their analysis in this article on online focus groups (FGs, in an attempt to describe how the setting shapes the conversational features of the discussion and influences data construction. Starting from a review of current dominant viewpoints, they compare face-to-face discussion groups with different formats of online FGs about AIDS, from a discourse analysis perspective. They conducted 2 face-to-face FGs, 2 chats, 2 forums, and 2 forums+plus+chat involving 64 participants aged 18 to 25 and living in Italy. Their findings seem not only to confirm the hypothesis of a general difference between a face-to-face discussion setting and an Internet-mediated one but also reveal differences among the forms of online FG, in terms of both the thematic articulation of discourse and the conversational and relational characteristics of group exchange, suggesting that exchanges on HIV/AIDS are characterized by the setting. This characterization seems to be important for situating the choice of tool, according to research objectives, and for better defining the technical aspects of the research project.

  8. "I would like to discuss it further with an expert": a focus group study of Finnish adults' perspectives on genetic secondary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, M; Aktan-Collan, K; Hallowell, N; Konttinen, H; Kääriäinen, H; Haukkala, A

    2018-01-16

    Lowered costs of genomic sequencing facilitate analyzing large segments of genetic data. Ethical debate has focused on whether and what kind of incidental or secondary findings (SFs) to report, and how to obtain valid informed consent. However, people's support needs after receiving SFs have received less attention. We explored Finnish adults' perspectives on reporting genetic SFs. In this qualitative study which included four focus group discussions (N = 23) we used four vignette letters, each reporting a genetic SF predisposing to a different disease: familial hypercholesterolemia, long QT syndrome, Lynch syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Transcribed focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Major themes were immediate shock, dealing with worry and heightened risk, fear of being left alone to deal with SFs, disclosing to family, and identified support needs. Despite their willingness to receive SFs, participants were concerned about being left alone to deal with them. Empathetic expert support and timely access to preventive care were seen as essential to coping with shock and worry, and disclosing SFs to family. Discussion around SFs needs to concern not only which findings to report, but also how healthcare systems need to prepare for providing timely access to preventive care and support for individuals and families.

  9. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  10. Effects of supportive-expressive discussion groups on loneliness, hope and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Fatemeh Moghaddam; Radfar, Moloud; Taei, Zeynab

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the effect of supportive expressive discussion groups on loneliness, hope and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. A randomized control trial including breast cancer patients who had completed chemotherapy and randomly allocated into two groups: intervention (n = 41) and control (n = 40). The intervention consisted of twelve weekly 90-min sessions for groups of six to eight breast cancer survivors. Data were obtained pre-to -post the intervention and at 8-week follow-up. The data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed a significant reduction in loneliness scores (F = 69.85, p hope (F = 20.8, p life from pre- to post-intervention, and then over the 8-week follow-up period in the intervention group, while scores of control participants did not show this pattern during the study. The strongest effects were found for global quality of life (effect size) = 0.59), for future perspectives (effect size = 0.51), emotional functioning (effect size = 0.35) and social functioning (effect size = 0.31). The intervention was effective on loneliness, hope and quality of life in the intervention group. The intervention needs further evaluation in a larger study and with other cancer types. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Why aren't women choosing STEM academic jobs? Observations from a small-group discussion at the 2016 American Society for Microbiology annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    This commentary summarizes a small-group discussion that recently occurred at the American Society for Microbiology annual general meeting, ASM Microbe, in Boston, Massachusetts, on 16-20 June 2016, on the topic 'why are so few women choosing to become academics?' Specifically, the discussion focused on asking what the actual and perceived barriers to academic STEM careers women face, and possible solutions to address them which would make women more likely to seek out academic careers. The conclusions reached suggest that, despite improvement in recent years, women and minorities still face complex barriers to STEM academic careers, and further research is needed to determine the best solutions to this problem. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients: a consensus from the Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society of Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hara, G. Levy; Kanj, S.S.; Pagani, L.; Abbo, L.; Endimiani, A.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Amabile-Cuevas, C.; Tattevin, P.; Mehtar, S.; Cardoso, F.; Unal, S.; Gould, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society for Chemotherapy propose ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospital settings. (i) Get appropriate microbiological samples before antibiotic administration and carefully interpret the results:

  13. Conference Report: Drug Metabolism Discussion Group Short Meeting: microsampling--the next big thing. Alderley Park, Macclesfield, UK, 14 March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Addie, Kirsty; Woods, Karen; Muir, Allan; Smith, Christopher; Higton, David

    2012-12-01

    On behalf of the Drug Metabolism Discussion Group, Regulatory Bioanalysis AstraZeneca (UK) recently organized and hosted an extremely successful Drug Metabolism Discussion Group Short Meeting on 'microsampling--the next big thing'. This attracted over 140 delegates and a strong line up of presenters of respected scientists within the field. This meeting focused on the impact of taking a reduced sample (5-20 µl) from an animal, or later in the clinic, particularly neonates. The agenda covered the spectrum of microsampling, from capillary plasma microsampling, as championed by Ove Jonsson and Kristian Königsson, through to dried blood spots. The day was split up in to three sections, the morning concentrating on the sampling aspects from animals. A highlight of the first section was the 'poster blitz' where four poster presenters gave a quick overview of their work. This introduced the poster session and created a good atmosphere for general debate between the delegates. The mid-session saw the bioanalytical challenges discussed from the discovery to the preclinical stage. To encourage interaction between the presenters and the audience, a panel discussion was used that led to interesting insights into study design from toxicological and bioanalytical viewpoints. The final session was left to clinical aspects of microsampling and a particularly interesting presentation from Hitesh Pandya from the Pediatric Respiratory Medicine Department (University of Leicester, Leicester, UK). An eloquent and hard-hitting presentation put into perspective the importance of advancements in this field that enables sample to be taken in a noninvasive manner. The meeting was well received with excellent feedback from all concerned.

  14. Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men--a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pohl

    Full Text Available Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.

  15. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Delan Devakumar; Zeshan Qureshi; Jenevieve Mannell; Manju Baruwal; Neha Sharma; Eva Rehfuess; Naomi M. Saville; Dharma S. Manandhar; David Osrin

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the ...

  16. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  17. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly consists of a presentation of the

  18. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly

  19. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  20. Questions and Advice to the Swedish Radiation Authority in their Current Work on Radiation Safety from Participants in Focus Group Discussions in the Municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2003-01-01

    In connection to their work on developing a 'general advice document', based on the radiation protection law, the Swedish Radiation Authority (SSI) initiated a process in 2002 that welcomed comments and suggestions from the general public, specifically representatives and interested parties involved in the work related to a Swedish repository for high level nuclear wastes. The authority held a seminar in September, and presented the forthcoming task. The present paper summarises and exemplifies discussions in focus groups in October 2002, when participants from the municipalities of Oskarshamn and Oesthammar met to give their input to the authority's ongoing work. The questions and suggestions emerging from the focus groups are classified into three major areas in this presentation: 1. Issues related specifically to radiation and radioactivity. 2. Issues of comprehension of terminology, measurements, risk, and safety. 3. Issues concerning the information process and the transfer of knowledge. The discussion highlights that issues and comments raised by the public are not constrained to specific knowledge questions, e.g. on radiation or risk, but may relate to legal, strategic and political considerations, as well as the basics of the performed analyses and the related assumptions and evaluations. Ideas for improving public knowledge and for facilitating an exchange of information are outlined below

  1. PEACE JOURNALISM PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHEAST OF NIGERIA: FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION WITH SOME MEMBERS OF NTA CORRESPONDENTS’ DAMATURU, YOBE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aondover Eric Msughter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peace journalism is fundamental like in any type of reporting. Thus, it facilitates reporters to disseminate information that would help attune to the development of a nation. Base on the available literature, the study discovered that the media have been variously blamed for their role in the exacerbation of different conflicts in complex and heterogeneous countries like Nigeria. The study uses social responsibility theory as a guiding principle. Likewise, Focus Group Discussions (FGD is applied as a methodological approach in data gathering among some selected members of NTA correspondents’ Damaturu, Yobe State. A total number of 10 practicing journalists were randomly selected in NTA, Damaturu. They discussed peace journalism practice and development in the Northeast of Nigeria. Arising from the discussions, the study concludes that all media organisations should imbibe the appropriate way of reporting peace journalism and development in the country, especially in the Northeast of Nigeria where cases of ethnic, religious, political and other types of conflicts have taken the lead.

  2. [Practical nursing training in the University School of Nursing of the Community of Madrid. Opinion of students and health professionals. Qualitative study with discussion groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Alameda Cuesta, Almudena; Albéniz Lizarraga, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    In the nursing schools, the contrast between what is taught in the classrooms and what is practiced at the health care centers usually creates a great deal of confusion on the part of the students. The objective of this research is to ascertain the opinion of the students and of the professionals at the health care centers where they are doing their training with regard thereto in order to detect their problems and see what differences exist between primary and specialized care. This research was conducted throughout the first half of 2000 employing qualitative methodology, by means of four discussion groups comprised of students, former students, primary care training advisors and nursing professionals at the hospitals where the students of the school in question are doing their nursing training. The initial involvement employed was indirect. The comments of the nursing students and of their training advisors with regard to the practice nursing during the diploma studies reveal dissatisfaction on the part of both of these groups. In all of the groups point out anxiety as the leading factor involved in their teaching as well as learning activities and during professional training. The lack of identification as a group of professionals seems to be related to the lack of recognition on the part of the others, the demand for a degree being granted for their college studies and for the setting up of specialities would contribute to their social recognition and, as a result thereof, to their identification as a professional group. Until a solution is provided to the anxiety which the nursing professionals feel with regard to their professional practice, which they pass on to their students during nursing training, it will not be possible to achieve a higher degree of satisfaction with nursing training experiences either on the part of the training advisors or on the part of the students.

  3. Summary discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  4. Waking the health plan giant: Group Health Cooperative stops counting sheep and starts counting key tobacco indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, T

    1998-01-01

    Implementing a comprehensive approach to decreasing tobacco use in a large health plan requires hard work and commitment on the part of many individuals. We found that major organisational change can be accomplished and sustained. Keys to our success included our decision to remove access barriers to our cessation programmes (including cost); obtaining top leadership buy-in; identifying accountable individuals who owned responsibility for change; measuring key processes and outcomes; and finally keeping at it tenaciously through multiple cycles of improvement.

  5. Manifestations of Differential Cultural Capital in a University Classroom: Views from Classroom Observations and Focus Group Discussions in a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmore Mutekwe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based predominantly on Pierre Bourdieu’s social and cultural reproduction theory, particularly his notions of cultural capital and symbolic violence, this paper explores how first year post graduate Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE university students from diverse socio-linguistic backgrounds differ in the levels at which they understand and express themselves in classroom activities. The paper’s thesis is that the diverse nature of South African classrooms presents a number of challenges not only for students but also for educators in terms of the use of English as a medium of instruction or the language for learning and teaching (LOLT. Owing to the fact that the South African Language in Education Policy (LiEP of 1997 empowers both learners and educators in schools to use any of the eleven South African official languages as a LOLT wherever that is reasonably possible, students whose English backgrounds were deficient in enculturating them in the use of English as a learning tool often encounter challenges in expressing their ideas in the classroom, whether in writing or in oral presentations. The discussion is anchored in the data elicited through two data collection methods, lesson observations in a Diploma in Higher Education, Research class composed of students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and through focus group discussion sessions with 40 multi-ethnic Diploma in Higher Education students from the same classroom. The data management and analysis for this study was done thematically, with views emerging from the observations and focus group discussions being clustered into superordinate themes for convenience of the discussion of the findings. The findings of this study were that students from affluent socio-economic backgrounds who enter university with a rich and relevant English linguistic capital, values and attitudes enjoy an enormous advantage compared to their counterparts whose social class and linguistic

  6. Key practical issues in strengthening safety culture. INSAG-15. A report by the International Safety Advisory Group [Russian Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the essential practical issues to be considered by organizations aiming to strengthen safety culture. It is intended for senior executives, managers and first line supervisors in operating organizations. Although safety culture cannot be directly regulated, it is important that members of regulatory bodies understand how their actions affect the development of attempts to strengthen safety culture and are sympathetic to the need to improve the less formal human related aspects of safety. The report is therefore of relevance to regulators, although not intended primarily for them. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) introduced the concept of safety culture in its INSAG-4 report in 1991. Since then, many papers have been written on safety culture, as it relates to organizations and individuals, its improvement and its underpinning prerequisites. Variations in national cultures mean that what constitutes a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. However, INSAG seeks to provide pragmatic and practical advice of wide applicability in the principles and issues presented in this report. Nuclear and radiological safety are the prime concerns of this report, but the topics discussed are so general that successful application of the principles should lead to improvements in other important areas, such as industrial safety, environmental performance and, in some respects, wider business performance. This is because many of the attitudes and practices necessary to achieve good performance in nuclear safety, including visible commitment by management, openness, care and thoroughness in completing tasks, good communication and clarity in recognizing major issues and dealing with them as a priority, have wide applicability

  7. Key practical issues in strengthening safety culture. INSAG-15. A report by the International Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the essential practical issues to be considered by organizations aiming to strengthen safety culture. It is intended for senior executives, managers and first line supervisors in operating organizations. Although safety culture cannot be directly regulated, it is important that members of regulatory bodies understand how their actions affect the development of attempts to strengthen safety culture and are sympathetic to the need to improve the less formal human related aspects of safety. The report is therefore of relevance to regulators, although not intended primarily for them. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) introduced the concept of safety culture in its INSAG-4 report in 1991. Since then, many papers have been written on safety culture, as it relates to organizations and individuals, its improvement and its underpinning prerequisites. Variations in national cultures mean that what constitutes a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. However, INSAG seeks to provide pragmatic and practical advice of wide applicability in the principles and issues presented in this report. Nuclear and radiological safety are the prime concerns of this report, but the topics discussed are so general that successful application of the principles should lead to improvements in other important areas, such as industrial safety, environmental performance and, in some respects, wider business performance. This is because many of the attitudes and practices necessary to achieve good performance in nuclear safety, including visible commitment by management, openness, care and thoroughness in completing tasks, good communication and clarity in recognizing major issues and dealing with them as a priority, have wide applicability

  8. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  9. Do we have a moral responsibility to compensate for vulnerable groups? A discussion on the right to health for LGBT people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-09-01

    Vulnerability is a broad concept widely addressed in recent scholarly literature. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are among the vulnerable populations with significant disadvantages related to health and the social determinants of health. Medical ethics discourse tackles vulnerability from philosophical and political perspectives. LGBT people experience several disadvantages from both perspectives. This article aims to justify the right to health for LGBT people and their particular claims regarding healthcare because they belong to a vulnerable group. Rawls' theory of justice and Norman Daniels' normal functioning approach will be discussed in this context. Despite the fact that the right to health can be justified by Daniels' normal functioning approach, there is still a theoretical gap in justifying the right to health for particular vulnerable populations such as LGBT peopleand discussing society's duty to compensate for these disadvantages. In search of solid theoretical grounds for the justification of the right to health for LGBT people, the present author takes the opportunity to utilize Daniels' flexible definition of normal functioning to show that normal functioning not only varies by age but also by different states of human existence, including sexual orientation and gender identity, and to propose replacing the life span approach with normal states of human existence.

  10. A new species of Scheloribates (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae) from Vietnam, with key to the striolatus-group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, January (2017), s. 14-21 ISSN 2337-0173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : morphology * new species * Scheloribatidae * systematics * Vietnam * key Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology

  11. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delan Devakumar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions.

  12. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Zeshan; Mannell, Jenevieve; Baruwal, Manju; Sharma, Neha; Rehfuess, Eva; Manandhar, Dharma S.; Osrin, David

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions. PMID:29389909

  13. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  14. Rodas de conversa sobre o trabalho na rua: discutindo saúde mental Conversation groups on outreach work: discussing mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Rios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo narra uma experiência de ensino com agentes comunitários de saúde em uma unidade do Programa de Saúde da Família da periferia de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de discutir temas de Saúde Mental relevantes para o trabalho cotidiano desses profissionais, criou-se um espaço de aprendizagem e construção de sentido para esses agentes. Em grupos de encontro quinzenais com uma psiquiatra e cerca de 20 agentes, discutiam-se casos clínicos e situações de vida e trabalho a partir dos quais era possível aprender conceitos básicos de Saúde Mental e pensar o papel e a identidade desses profissionais na comunidade. Ao final de um ano de experiência, avaliou-se que tal atividade é fundamental como apoio para o desenvolvimento do trabalho desses profissionais, e para o aprendizado de como lidar com aspectos subjetivos próprios e dos usuários, especialmente na periferia de grandes centros urbanos.This article describes a teaching experience with health community agents in a Family Health Program unit. In order to discuss important everyday mental health themes, a space for these agents was created, intended for learning and building up senses. Groups of 20 agents and a psychiatrist met every two weeks, to discuss clinical cases, and life and work situations which helped apprehend basic Mental Health concepts and to reflect on the role and identity of these professionals in the community. After one year, this activity was considered fundamental to support the work developed by the agents and to help them learn how to deal with their and the users' subjective aspects, especially in the periphery of large urban centers.

  15. Insights of health district managers on the implementation of primary health care outreach teams in Johannesburg, South Africa: a descriptive study with focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Derese, Anselme; Peersman, Wim

    2017-01-21

    Primary health care (PHC) outreach teams are part of a policy of PHC re-engineering in South Africa. It attempts to move the deployment of community health workers (CHWs) from vertical programmes into an integrated generalised team-based approach to care for defined populations in municipal wards. There has little evaluation of PHC outreach teams. Managers' insights are anecdotal. This is descriptive qualitative study with focus group discussions with health district managers of Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa. This was conducted in a sequence of three meetings with questions around implementation, human resources, and integrated PHC teamwork. There was a thematic content analysis of validated transcripts using the framework method. There were two major themes: leadership-management challenges and human resource challenges. Whilst there was some positive sentiment, leadership-management challenges loomed large: poor leadership and planning with an under-resourced centralised approach, poor communications both within the service and with community, concerns with its impact on current services and resistance to change, and poor integration, both with other streams of PHC re-engineering and current district programmes. Discussion by managers on human resources was mostly on the plight of CHWs and calls for formalisation of CHWs functioning and training and nurse challenges with inappropriate planning and deployment of the team structure, with brief mention of the extended team. Whilst there is positive sentiment towards intent of the PHC outreach team, programme managers in Johannesburg were critical of management of the programme in their health district. Whilst the objective of PHC reform is people-centred health care, its implementation struggles with a centralising tendency amongst managers in the health service in South Africa. Managers in Johannesburg advocated for decentralisation. The implementation of PHC outreach teams is also limited by

  16. Preparing for human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in Kenya: implications from focus-group and interview discussions with caregivers and opinion leaders in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Oruko, Kelvin O; Habel, Melissa A; Ford, Jessie; Kinsey, Jennine; Odhiambo, Frank; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Wang, Susan A; Collins, Tabu; Laserson, Kayla F; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-08-16

    Cervical cancer claims the lives of 275,000 women each year; most of these deaths occur in low-or middle-income countries. In Kenya, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women of reproductive age. Kenya's Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation has developed a comprehensive strategy to prevent cervical cancer, which includes plans for vaccinating preteen girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) by 2015. To identify HPV vaccine communication and mobilization needs, this research sought to understand HPV vaccine-related perceptions and concerns of male and female caregivers and community leaders in four rural communities of western Kenya. We conducted five focus groups with caregivers (n = 56) and 12 key-informant interviews with opinion leaders to explore cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, as well as acceptability of HPV vaccination for 9-12 year-old girls. Four researchers independently reviewed the data and developed codes based on questions in interview guides and topics that emerged organically, before comparing and reconciling results through a group consensus process. Cervical cancer was not commonly recognized, though it was understood generally in terms of its symptoms. By association with cancer and genital/reproductive organs, cervical cancer was feared and stigmatized. Overall acceptability of a vaccine that prevents cervical cancer was high, so long as it was endorsed by trusted agencies and communities were sensitized first. Some concerns emerged related to vaccine safety (e.g., impact on fertility), program intent, and health equity. For successful vaccine introduction in Kenya, there is a need for communication and mobilization efforts to raise cervical cancer awareness; prompt demand for vaccination; address health equity concerns and stigma; and minimize potential resistance. Visible endorsement by government leaders and community influencers can provide reassurance of the vaccine's safety

  17. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Kedenge

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred.Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups.This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  18. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedenge, Sarah V; Kangwana, Beth P; Waweru, Evelyn W; Nyandigisi, Andrew J; Pandit, Jayesh; Brooker, Simon J; Snow, Robert W; Goodman, Catherine A

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred. Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups. This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  19. Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  20. Anemia and its determinants among women of reproductive age of a slum in Kolkata: A focus group discussion among health workers in a slum of Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Dasgupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. Aims: We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. Settings and Design: This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC, Chetla. Subjects and Methods: A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla. Analysis Used: A thematic analysis of the transcript was performed. Results: We found that socioeconomic factors like poverty and social neglect, diet and nutrition related factors, lack of personal hygiene, and worm infestation contributed to the burden of anemia, and this was reinforced by factors related to service delivery, such as lack of supply of drugs and supplements, and inadequate training of health workers as well as poor media accountability. Conclusions: Because of easy reversibility and implementation, health service delivery-related issues should be addressed closely through monitoring and evaluation and appropriate and timely action should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the services.

  1. Conformational differences between the methoxy groups of QA and QB site ubisemiquinones in bacterial reaction centers: a key role for methoxy group orientation in modulating ubiquinone redox potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Alexander T; O'Malley, Patrick J; Wraight, Colin A; Dikanov, Sergei A

    2013-07-09

    Ubiquinone is an almost universal, membrane-associated redox mediator. Its ability to accept either one or two electrons allows it to function in critical roles in biological electron transport. The redox properties of ubiquinone in vivo are determined by its environment in the binding sites of proteins and by the dihedral angle of each methoxy group relative to the ring plane. This is an attribute unique to ubiquinone among natural quinones and could account for its widespread function with many different redox complexes. In this work, we use the photosynthetic reaction center as a model system for understanding the role of methoxy conformations in determining the redox potential of the ubiquinone/semiquinone couple. Despite the abundance of X-ray crystal structures for the reaction center, quinone site resolution has thus far been too low to provide a reliable measure of the methoxy dihedral angles of the primary and secondary quinones, QA and QB. We performed 2D ESEEM (HYSCORE) on isolated reaction centers with ubiquinones (13)C-labeled at the headgroup methyl and methoxy substituents, and have measured the (13)C isotropic and anisotropic components of the hyperfine tensors. Hyperfine couplings were compared to those derived by DFT calculations as a function of methoxy torsional angle allowing estimation of the methoxy dihedral angles for the semiquinones in the QA and QB sites. Based on this analysis, the orientation of the 2-methoxy groups are distinct in the two sites, with QB more out of plane by 20-25°. This corresponds to an ≈50 meV larger electron affinity for the QB quinone, indicating a substantial contribution to the experimental difference in redox potentials (60-75 mV) of the two quinones. The methods developed here can be readily extended to ubiquinone-binding sites in other protein complexes.

  2. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depczynski Julie C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex

  3. Beyond 50. Challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragar, Lyn J; Depczynski, Julie C

    2011-02-21

    The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the

  4. Barriers to Eating Traditional Foods Vary by Age Group in Ecuador With Biodiversity Loss as a Key Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penafiel, Daniela; Termote, Celine; Lachat, Carl; Espinel, Ramon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Damme, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    To document the perceptions of indigenous peoples for the sustainable management of natural resources against malnutrition. Initially 4 and then 12 interviews were conducted with 4 different age groups. Eight rural villages in Guasaganda, central Ecuador, were studied in 2011-2012. A total of 75 people (22 children, 18 adolescents, 20 adults, and 15 elders). Benefits, severity, susceptibility, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy of eating traditional foods. Qualitative content analysis was completed using NVivo software. Initial analysis was inductive, followed by a content analysis directed by the Health Belief Model. Coding was completed independently by 2 researchers and kappa statistics (κ ≥ 0.65) were used to evaluate agreement. Healthy perceptions toward traditional foods existed and differed by age. Local young people ate traditional foods for their health benefits and good taste; adults cultivated traditional foods that had an economic benefit. Traditional knowledge used for consumption and cultivation of traditional foods was present but needs to be disseminated. Nutrition education in schools is needed that supports traditional knowledge in younger groups and prevents dietary changes toward unhealthy eating. Increased production of traditional food is needed to address current economic realities. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How will ocean acidification affect Baltic sea ecosystems? an assessment of plausible impacts on key functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenhand, Jonathan N

    2012-09-01

    Increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean pH to fall-a process known as 'ocean acidification'. Scenario modeling suggests that ocean acidification in the Baltic Sea may cause a ≤ 3 times increase in acidity (reduction of 0.2-0.4 pH units) by the year 2100. The responses of most Baltic Sea organisms to ocean acidification are poorly understood. Available data suggest that most species and ecologically important groups in the Baltic Sea food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrozoobenthos, cod and sprat) will be robust to the expected changes in pH. These conclusions come from (mostly) single-species and single-factor studies. Determining the emergent effects of ocean acidification on the ecosystem from such studies is problematic, yet very few studies have used multiple stressors and/or multiple trophic levels. There is an urgent need for more data from Baltic Sea populations, particularly from environmentally diverse regions and from controlled mesocosm experiments. In the absence of such information it is difficult to envision the likely effects of future ocean acidification on Baltic Sea species and ecosystems.

  6. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity among Rural Adults in Montana, United States: Views from Built Environment Audits, Resident Focus Groups, and Key Informant Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Lo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural populations in the United States have lower physical activity levels and are at a higher risk of being overweight and suffering from obesity than their urban counterparts. This paper aimed to understand the environmental factors that influence physical activity among rural adults in Montana. Eight built environment audits, 15 resident focus groups, and 24 key informant interviews were conducted between August and December 2014. Themes were triangulated and summarized into five categories of environmental factors: built, social, organizational, policy, and natural environments. Although the existence of active living features was documented by environmental audits, residents and key informants agreed that additional indoor recreation facilities and more well-maintained and conveniently located options were needed. Residents and key informants also agreed on the importance of age-specific, well-promoted, and structured physical activity programs, offered in socially supportive environments, as facilitators to physical activity. Key informants, however, noted that funding constraints and limited political will were barriers to developing these opportunities. Since building new recreational facilities and structures to support active transportation pose resource challenges, especially for rural communities, our results suggest that enhancing existing features, making small improvements, and involving stakeholders in the city planning process would be more fruitful to build momentum towards larger changes.

  7. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity among Rural Adults in Montana, United States: Views from Built Environment Audits, Resident Focus Groups, and Key Informant Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Brian K; Morgan, Emily H; Folta, Sara C; Graham, Meredith L; Paul, Lynn C; Nelson, Miriam E; Jew, Nicolette V; Moffat, Laurel F; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-10-04

    Rural populations in the United States have lower physical activity levels and are at a higher risk of being overweight and suffering from obesity than their urban counterparts. This paper aimed to understand the environmental factors that influence physical activity among rural adults in Montana. Eight built environment audits, 15 resident focus groups, and 24 key informant interviews were conducted between August and December 2014. Themes were triangulated and summarized into five categories of environmental factors: built, social, organizational, policy, and natural environments. Although the existence of active living features was documented by environmental audits, residents and key informants agreed that additional indoor recreation facilities and more well-maintained and conveniently located options were needed. Residents and key informants also agreed on the importance of age-specific, well-promoted, and structured physical activity programs, offered in socially supportive environments, as facilitators to physical activity. Key informants, however, noted that funding constraints and limited political will were barriers to developing these opportunities. Since building new recreational facilities and structures to support active transportation pose resource challenges, especially for rural communities, our results suggest that enhancing existing features, making small improvements, and involving stakeholders in the city planning process would be more fruitful to build momentum towards larger changes.

  8. Unified Compact ECC-AES Co-Processor with Group-Key Support for IoT Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Encarnación; López-Ramos, Juan A.; Morales, Diego P.

    2018-01-01

    Security is a critical challenge for the effective expansion of all new emerging applications in the Internet of Things paradigm. Therefore, it is necessary to define and implement different mechanisms for guaranteeing security and privacy of data interchanged within the multiple wireless sensor networks being part of the Internet of Things. However, in this context, low power and low area are required, limiting the resources available for security and thus hindering the implementation of adequate security protocols. Group keys can save resources and communications bandwidth, but should be combined with public key cryptography to be really secure. In this paper, a compact and unified co-processor for enabling Elliptic Curve Cryptography along to Advanced Encryption Standard with low area requirements and Group-Key support is presented. The designed co-processor allows securing wireless sensor networks with independence of the communications protocols used. With an area occupancy of only 2101 LUTs over Spartan 6 devices from Xilinx, it requires 15% less area while achieving near 490% better performance when compared to cryptoprocessors with similar features in the literature. PMID:29337921

  9. Unified Compact ECC-AES Co-Processor with Group-Key Support for IoT Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla, Luis; Castillo, Encarnación; López-Ramos, Juan A; Álvarez-Bermejo, José A; García, Antonio; Morales, Diego P

    2018-01-16

    Security is a critical challenge for the effective expansion of all new emerging applications in the Internet of Things paradigm. Therefore, it is necessary to define and implement different mechanisms for guaranteeing security and privacy of data interchanged within the multiple wireless sensor networks being part of the Internet of Things. However, in this context, low power and low area are required, limiting the resources available for security and thus hindering the implementation of adequate security protocols. Group keys can save resources and communications bandwidth, but should be combined with public key cryptography to be really secure. In this paper, a compact and unified co-processor for enabling Elliptic Curve Cryptography along to Advanced Encryption Standard with low area requirements and Group-Key support is presented. The designed co-processor allows securing wireless sensor networks with independence of the communications protocols used. With an area occupancy of only 2101 LUTs over Spartan 6 devices from Xilinx, it requires 15% less area while achieving near 490% better performance when compared to cryptoprocessors with similar features in the literature.

  10. Unified Compact ECC-AES Co-Processor with Group-Key Support for IoT Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Parrilla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is a critical challenge for the effective expansion of all new emerging applications in the Internet of Things paradigm. Therefore, it is necessary to define and implement different mechanisms for guaranteeing security and privacy of data interchanged within the multiple wireless sensor networks being part of the Internet of Things. However, in this context, low power and low area are required, limiting the resources available for security and thus hindering the implementation of adequate security protocols. Group keys can save resources and communications bandwidth, but should be combined with public key cryptography to be really secure. In this paper, a compact and unified co-processor for enabling Elliptic Curve Cryptography along to Advanced Encryption Standard with low area requirements and Group-Key support is presented. The designed co-processor allows securing wireless sensor networks with independence of the communications protocols used. With an area occupancy of only 2101 LUTs over Spartan 6 devices from Xilinx, it requires 15% less area while achieving near 490% better performance when compared to cryptoprocessors with similar features in the literature.

  11. What is CCZN-armalcolite? A crystal-chemical discussion and an ad-hoc incursion in the crichtonite-minerals group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril Sabau

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The status of CCZN-armalcolite, commonly still believed to be a variety of armalcolite s.s., is questionable in view of partial evidence suggesting that it would represent a distinct phase, as initially claimed by its discoverers. Because of the rarity of the mineral, combined with its habitual small grain-size, no successful structural investigation could be undertaken so far. Therefore we attempted a chemical overview of existing and original data pertaining to CCZN-armalcolite. With the view of systematizing structure-composition relationships, we analyzed the topology of large cations – bearing close-packed oxides, while extending the nomenclature in use in order to accommodate further topologies. By using relevant chemical plots, a fair compositional match between CCZN-armalcolite and the crichtonite group minerals was demonstrated, as well as a chemical incompatibility with armalcolite. Stoichiometric crichtonite compositions and matching optical properties allowed identification of at least part of “CCZN-armalcolites” with the mineral loveringite of the crichtonite group. A detailed inspection of structure-composition relationships in crichtonites allowed an insight in their trends and range of chemical variation, as well as a comparison between them and a group of “CCZN-armalcolites” slightly differing from known crichtonites. These “CCZN-armalcolites” departing from normal chemical trends in crichtonites either represent an ordered variety of non-stoichiometric crichtonite or a new group of close-packed oxides. Their composition clustering around formula AM16O30 is temptingly consistent with an hypothetical structure intermediate between magnetoplumbites and crichtonites, based on close-packed stacking of layers made up by triangular clusters of octahedra, stuffed with large cations. A model of such a structure, not encountered so far in minerals, is outlined, displaying a hexagonal symmetry P , with a ≈ 7.45Å and c

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 1: Plenary Sessions, Technology Focus Groups, Discussion Groups and Research Papers, Oral Reports and Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This volume contains the full text of 2 plenary papers and 26 research reports. In addition, brief, usually one-page, reports are provided for 6 discussion groups, 10 technology focus groups, 7 symposiums, 7 oral presentations, and 17 position sessions. The two full plenary reports are: (1) "Problems of Reification: Representations and…

  13. Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis

    2009-12-01

    Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.

  14. 浅议陕西煤化集团并购重组工作%Discussion of mergers and acquisitions work in Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹贵武

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the main methods of mergers and acquisitions work , summarized the experiences of mergers and acquisitions work and analyzed the effects of mergers and acquisitions work during the development process of Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group .%介绍了陕煤化集团在发展过程中,实施并购重组工作的主要做法,总结了开展并购重组工作经验,并以具体实例说明了集团实施并购重组工作的效果。

  15. A new species of the gamasid mite genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata, Ascidae from Russia with a key to the multidentatus species-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Makarova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new gamasid mite species belonging to the genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 is described from Russia. Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n. is distributed in the plain and mountain tundras from Khibiny Mountains to Chukotka on the north and to West Sayan Mountains on the south. A diagnosis and a key for identification of species comprising the multidentatus species-group (A. multidentatus Evans, 1955; Arctoseius wisniewskii Gwiazdowicz & Kamczyc, 2009; A. sexsetus Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; A. haarlovi Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; and A. koltschaki sp. n. are given.

  16. A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode:Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut; David, Pointcheval

    2005-10-01

    The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networkinginfrastructures and enable employers to accesscorporate networks whiletraveling. These standards provide two modes of communication calledinfrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity andfirmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc modeneeds to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in thisdirection. It leverages the latest developments in the area ofpassword-based authentication and (group) Diffie-Hellman key exchange todevelop a provably-secure key-exchange protocol for IEEE 802.11's ad-hocmode. The protocol allows users to securely join and leave the wirelessgroup at time, accommodates either a single-shared password orpairwise-shared passwords among the group members, or at least with acentral server; achieves security against dictionary attacks in theideal-hash model (i.e. random-oracles). This is, to the best of ourknowledge, the first such protocol to appear in the cryptographicliterature.

  17. How do adolescent girls and boys perceive symptoms suggestive of endometriosis among their peers? Findings from focus group discussions in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Cardoso, Lauren F; Harris, Courtney S; Dance, Arielle D; Seckin, Tamer; Baker, Nina; Ferguson, Yvonne O

    2018-06-04

    Symptoms of endometriosis, including pelvic pain, back and nerve pain, and gastrointestinal pain, often begin in adolescence. Yet, research on the experience of these debilitating symptoms among young people is scarce. Of particular concern is the influence of adolescent girls' social context. This study qualitatively examined how, among adolescents, endometriosis and symptoms suggestive of endometriosis is perceived at the family, peer/school and community/society levels. Eight focus groups were conducted; vignettes were used to elicit participants' perceptions of factors that may shape girls' experiences of endometriosis. Data were analysed using constant comparison analysis. An ethnically diverse sample of girls and boys ages 14-18 (n=54) residing in New York City. Fifteen themes emerged and were distilled to eight cross-cutting factors that influence perceptions of endometriosis at different levels of the ecological model: distrust of community healthcare providers, societal stigma of menstruation, peer stigma of endometriosis symptoms, distrust of school healthcare providers, lack of endometriosis knowledge among peers and school personnel, inequitable gender norms, invisibility of symptoms and the stigma of teen sex among parents. Further, these factors may compound symptoms' impact on individual girl's social, educational and emotional well-being. Findings underscore the importance of understanding the social environment of girls experiencing symptoms suggestive of endometriosis and educating and engaging their peers, family and school personnel to create a supportive, informed social climate. Efforts should specifically include stigma reduction campaigns targeted towards female and male adolescents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Description of two new species of the Exocelina broschii-group from Papua New Guinea, with revision and key to all representatives of this species group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaverdo, Helena; Sagata, Katayo; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from Papua New Guinea are described herein: Exocelina mondmillensis sp. n. and Exocelina pseudomarinae sp. n. They are placed into the Exocelina broschii-group based on the shovel/fork-like ventral sclerites of their median lobe. While the former has rather distinct combination of the morphological characters (inconspicuous dorsal punctation, thin apex of the median lobe and ventral sclerite of the median lobe with two tips of different length), the latter is very similar to already described species Exocelina marinae (Shaverdo, Sagata & Balke, 2005). All described species of the group are revised and a key to their identification is provided. Important diagnostic characters (habitus, color, protarsomeres 4-5, median lobes, and parameres) are illustrated. Data on the distribution of all species of the group are given showing that its representatives occur only in Papua New Guinea and most of them are widely distributed in it central part.

  19. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Abbasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.

  20. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture; La realizacion de grupos de discuion en un proceso combinado de evaluacion interna de cultura de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  1. Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of

  2. Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of

  3. Ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients: a consensus from the Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society of Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Hara, Gabriel; Kanj, Souha S; Pagani, Leonardo; Abbo, Lilian; Endimiani, Andrea; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos; Tattevin, Pierre; Mehtar, Shaheen; Lopes Cardoso, Fernando; Unal, Serhat; Gould, Ian

    2016-09-01

    The Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society for Chemotherapy propose ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospital settings. (i) Get appropriate microbiological samples before antibiotic administration and carefully interpret the results: in the absence of clinical signs of infection, colonisation rarely requires antimicrobial treatment. (ii) Avoid the use of antibiotics to 'treat' fever: use them to treat infections, and investigate the root cause of fever prior to starting treatment. (iii) Start empirical antibiotic treatment after taking cultures, tailoring it to the site of infection, risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria, and the local microbiology and susceptibility patterns. (iv) Prescribe drugs at their optimal dosing and for an appropriate duration, adapted to each clinical situation and patient characteristics. (v) Use antibiotic combinations only where the current evidence suggests some benefit. (vi) When possible, avoid antibiotics with a higher likelihood of promoting drug resistance or hospital-acquired infections, or use them only as a last resort. (vii) Drain the infected foci quickly and remove all potentially or proven infected devices: control the infection source. (viii) Always try to de-escalate/streamline antibiotic treatment according to the clinical situation and the microbiological results. (ix) Stop unnecessarily prescribed antibiotics once the absence of infection is likely. And (x) Do not work alone: set up local teams with an infectious diseases specialist, clinical microbiologist, hospital pharmacist, infection control practitioner or hospital epidemiologist, and comply with hospital antibiotic policies and guidelines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae. Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van Achterberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 (Braconidae: Rogadinae are described and illustrated: A. abraxanae sp. n., A. angustipterus sp. n., A. artesiariae sp. n., A. carminatus sp. n., A. diarsianae sp. n., A. leptofemur sp. n., and A. ryrholmi sp. n. A neotype is designated for each of Aleiodes circumscriptus (Nees, 1834 and A. pictus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, and both species are redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes ochraceus Hellén, 1927 (not A. ochraceus (Curtis, 1834 is renamed as A. curticornis nom. n. & stat. rev., and redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman, 1917, A. nigriceps Wesmael, 1838, and A. reticulatus (Noskiewicz, 1956, are re-instated as valid species. A lectotype is designated for Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman. An illustrated key is given to some distinctive species and the residual species groups along which further parts of an entire revision of western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes and Heterogamus will be organised. Biology, host associations and phenology are discussed for the keyed species (in addition to the above, A. albitibia (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, A. apiculatus (Fahringer, 1932, A. arcticus (Thomson, 1892, A. cantherius (Lyle, 1919, A. esenbeckii (Hartig, 1834, A. jakowlewi (Kokujev, 1898, A. modestus (Reinhard, 1863, A. nigricornis Wesmael, 1838, A. pallidator (Thunberg, 1822, A. praetor (Reinhard, 1863, A. seriatus (Herrich- Schäffer, 1838 sensu lato, A. testaceus (Telenga, 1941, A. ungularis (Thomson, 1892, and A. varius (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 which are dealt with in full here (with the exception of A. seriatus s.l. which is, however, included in the key. The experimental methodology covering the revision as a whole, which involves some behavioural investigation, is outlined.

  5. Do medical students generate sound arguments during small group discussions in problem-based learning?: an analysis of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to a framework of hypothetico-deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Yoon, Bo Young

    2017-06-01

    Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) is an essential learning activity and a learning outcome in problem-based learning (PBL). It is important for medical students to engage in the HDR process through argumentation during their small group discussions in PBL. This study aimed to analyze the quality of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to each phase of HDR in PBL. Participants were 15 first-year preclinical students divided into two small groups. A set of three 2-hour discussion sessions from each of the two groups during a 1-week-long PBL unit on the cardiovascular system was audio-recorded. The arguments constructed by the students were analyzed using a coding scheme, which included four types of argumentation (Type 0: incomplete, Type 1: claim only, Type 2: claim with data, and Type 3: claim with data and warrant). The mean frequency of each type of argumentation according to each HDR phase across the two small groups was calculated. During small group discussions, Type 1 arguments were generated most often (frequency=120.5, 43%), whereas the least common were Type 3 arguments (frequency=24.5, 8.7%) among the four types of arguments. The results of this study revealed that the students predominantly made claims without proper justifications; they often omitted data for supporting their claims or did not provide warrants to connect the claims and data. The findings suggest instructional interventions to enhance the quality of medical students' arguments in PBL, including promoting students' comprehension of the structure of argumentation for HDR processes and questioning.

  6. Regional chiefs meet to discuss key issues / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Stockholmis toimunud Põhja- ja Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel räägiti energiajulgeolekust, praegusest majandusolukorrast ja detsembris toimuva ÜRO kliimakonverentsi ettevalmistustest. Andrus Ansip rõhutas uue rahvusvahelise kliimalepingu tähtsust

  7. Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria

    2017-06-06

    To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Two focus group discussions were performed. Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The Patient-Reported Information Multidimensional Exploration (PRIME) Framework for Investigating Emotions and Other Factors of Prostate Cancer Patients with Low Intermediate Risk Based on Online Cancer Support Group Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, Tharindu; Ranasinghe, Weranja; Adikari, Achini; de Silva, Daswin; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Alahakoon, Damminda; Persad, Raj; Bolton, Damien

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to use the Patient Reported Information Multidimensional Exploration (PRIME) framework, a novel ensemble of machine-learning and deep-learning algorithms, to extract, analyze, and correlate self-reported information from Online Cancer Support Groups (OCSG) by patients (and partners of patients) with low intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and active surveillance (AS), and to investigate its efficacy in quality-of-life (QoL) and emotion measures. From patient-reported information on 10 OCSG, the PRIME framework automatically filtered and extracted conversations on low intermediate-risk PCa with active user participation. Side effects as well as emotional and QoL outcomes for 6084 patients were analyzed. Side-effect profiles differed between the methods analyzed, with men after RP having more urinary and sexual side effects and men after EBRT having more bowel symptoms. Key findings from the analysis of emotional expressions showed that PCa patients younger than 40 years expressed significantly high positive and negative emotions compared with other age groups, that partners of patients expressed more negative emotions than the patients, and that selected cohorts ( 70 years, partners of patients) have frequently used the same terms to express their emotions, which is indicative of QoL issues specific to those cohorts. Despite recent advances in patient-centerd care, patient emotions are largely overlooked, especially in younger men with a diagnosis of PCa and their partners. The authors present a novel approach, the PRIME framework, to extract, analyze, and correlate key patient factors. This framework improves understanding of QoL and identifies low intermediate-risk PCa patients who require additional support.

  9. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Martina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Interactive, student-centered teaching methods have replaced traditional teacher-centered didactic formats in many modern medical curricula in the past few years. However, in the natural sciences such as biochemistry, interactive teaching methods are not well proven. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of the teaching format on the performance of undergraduate students in biochemistry and their evaluation of the respective format. Methods: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion. At the end of each lesson, students performed a multiple-choice test and completed a questionnaire. The same MCQ test was repeated 4–6 weeks after the last lesson. Results: Students who were taught in a lecture-like format performed significantly better in the first MCQ test immediately after the lesson than students taught in the interactive format. However, in the second MCQ test, there was no difference between the two groups. In the questionnaire, students rated the lecture-based course significantly better than the interactive group discussion. Conclusion: One reason why students prefer a didactic lecture to an interactive group discussion might be due to the subject biochemistry, which is strongly knowledge-based. Students perceived that the transfer of knowledge by a professional lecturer was more effective than the knowledge obtained in a student-centered discussion group. Other reasons might be the method of assessment and the overall design of the curriculum. [german] Zielsetzung: Interaktive, Lerner-orientierte Unterrichtsmethoden werden vielfach mit moderner und guter Lehre in Verbindung gebracht und ersetzen zunehmend konventionellen, Lehrer-zentrierten Frontalunterricht. In naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern, wie Biochemie, sind interaktive

  10. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  11. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  12. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  13. A new genus of Eastern Hemisphere stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae), with a key to the supraspecific groups of Indomalayan and Australasian Meliponini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Engel, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    and is more closely related to Lepidotrigona Moure. The species is transferred to Wallacetrigona Engel and Rasmussen, new genus, and differentiated from Geniotrigona proper as well as all other meliponines occurring in Sundaland, Wallacea, and Sahul (Australinea). The new genus occurs east of the Wallace Line...... and separate from the distribution of Geniotrigona, which is otherwise restricted to Sundaland, but Wallacetrigona is presently not known beyond the Weber Line. A hierarchical classification of Indomalayan and Australasian stingless bees is tabulated and a revised key to the genera and subgenera provided......, as well as an appendix tabulating the species and synonyms. The following new combinations are established: Wallacetrigona incisa (Sakagami and Inoue), Homotrigona (Lophotrigona) canifrons (Smith), Homotrigona (Odontotrigona) haematoptera (Cockerell), Homotrigona (Tetrigona) apicalis (Smith), H. (T...

  14. Key cytokines of adaptive immunity are differentially induced in rainbow trout kidney by a group of structurally related geranyl aromatic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Beatriz; Obreque, Javiera; Soto-Aguilera, Sarita; Maisey, Kevin; Imarai, Mónica; Modak, Brenda

    2016-02-01

    Filifolinone is a semi-synthetic terpenoid derivative obtained from Heliotropium filifolium that increases the expression level of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in kidney cells of salmon. Because cytokines are produced in response to a foreign organism and by distinct other signals modulating immune responses, we further studied the potential immunomodulatory effects of a group of structural related terpenoid derivatives from H. filifolium on salmonids to determine the relationship between the chemical structure of the derivatives and their ability to modify cytokine expression and the lymphoid content. The resin and four 3H-spiro 1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane derivatives were tested in vivo in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by quantifying the transcript levels of antiviral and T helper-type cytokines and T and B cells in the kidney. Three of the four terpenoids differ only in the C-7'substituent of the cyclohexane and the presence of the ketone group at this position in Filifolinone appeared responsible of an important up-regulation of IFN-α1, IFN-γ, IL-4/13A and IL-17D in the kidney of the treated trout. In addition, the absence of a methoxy group in carbon 7 of the benzene ring, found in all compounds but not in Folifolinoic acid, produced a significant reduction of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-4/13A transcripts. B cells were not affected by the compound treatment but Filifolinoic acid and the resin induced a significant reduction of T cells. Altogether, results showed that immunomodulating responses observed in the trout by effect of 3H-spiro 1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane derivatives is related to the presence of the ketone group in the carbon 7' and the methoxy group in carbon 7 of the benzene ring, being Filifolinone the most active immunostimulatory compound identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Meetings and discussions

    CERN Document Server

    O'Driscoll, Nina

    1992-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  16. Mono-uridylation of pre-microRNA as a key step in the biogenesis of group II let-7 microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Inha; Ha, Minju; Lim, Jaechul; Yoon, Mi-Jeong; Park, Jong-Eun; Kwon, S Chul; Chang, Hyeshik; Kim, V Narry

    2012-10-26

    RNase III Drosha initiates microRNA (miRNA) maturation by cleaving a primary miRNA transcript and releasing a pre-miRNA with a 2 nt 3' overhang. Dicer recognizes the 2 nt 3' overhang structure to selectively process pre-miRNAs. Here, we find that, unlike prototypic pre-miRNAs (group I), group II pre-miRNAs acquire a shorter (1 nt) 3' overhang from Drosha processing and therefore require a 3'-end mono-uridylation for Dicer processing. The majority of let-7 and miR-105 belong to group II. We identify TUT7/ZCCHC6, TUT4/ZCCHC11, and TUT2/PAPD4/GLD2 as the terminal uridylyl transferases responsible for pre-miRNA mono-uridylation. The TUTs act specifically on dsRNAs with a 1 nt 3' overhang, thereby creating a 2 nt 3' overhang. Depletion of TUTs reduces let-7 levels and disrupts let-7 function. Although the let-7 suppressor, Lin28, induces inhibitory oligo-uridylation in embryonic stem cells, mono-uridylation occurs in somatic cells lacking Lin28 to promote let-7 biogenesis. Our study reveals functional duality of uridylation and introduces TUT7/4/2 as components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Key Ingredients-Target Groups, Methods and Messages, and Evaluation-of Local-Level, Public Interventions to Counter Stigma and Discrimination: A Lived Experience Informed Selective Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Laura J; Gordon, Sarah E; Reeves, Racheal A

    2018-04-01

    A proliferation of recent literature provides substantial direction as to the key ingredients-target groups, messages and methods, and evaluation-of local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination. This paper provides a selective narrative review of that literature from the perspective or standpoint of anti-stigma experts with lived experience of mental distress, the key findings of which have been synthesised and presented in diagrammatic overviews (infographics). These are intended to guide providers in planning, delivering and evaluating lived experience-directed local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination in accord with current best practice.

  18. Final plenary discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federline, M.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this seminar was 'Strategy Selection for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities' and it was clear throughout that safety of D and D operations continues to be of importance in that selection, particularly in regard to the condition of the site and the risk it represents. In this context, it was specifically noted that a safety case for D and D needs to be kept under continuous review and needs to be flexible enough to accommodate appropriate modification as the work progresses and the nature of the risk changes. It was also noted that the hazard presented by a facility in decommissioning is normally significantly less than during the operating phase (for a reactor, for example, the fuel has been removed, there are no pressurised systems and no high operating temperatures). The changing plant configuration and the reduced hazard potential lead to the observation that the safety management arrangements also need appropriate adjustment from those employed during the operating phase. It was recalled that a Task Group of the WPDD is addressing safety issues on an ongoing basis. It was also clear from the detailed presentations that techniques for D and D are already available and that they have been successfully demonstrated in practice. Nevertheless, because the costs of dismantling nuclear facilities make up at least a third of the overall D and D costs, there seemed to be a strong case for continuing R and D in this area in order to improve the cost effectiveness of such techniques. It was noted, however, that the extent of such R and D is now somewhat limited and that further work is first required to identify the most effective areas for future R and D projects. Also, throughout the seminar, it was emphasised that strategy selection must remain flexible since it is highly dependent on financing, societal input, technical feasibility, waste management options, and regulatory processes. Against this well-established background, Allan Duncan, as

  19. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  20. National platform electromobility. Working group 4 - Key issue paper standardization and certification; Nationale Plattform Elektromobilitaet. AG 4 - Eckpunktepapier Normung, Standardisierung und Zertifizierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelk, Stephanie [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). I/EM-1

    2010-07-01

    On behalf of the working group 4 ''Standardization and certification ''of the national platform electromobility arranged by the Federal Government, the ''German standardization roadmap electromobility'' was compiled. This gives a survey of the existing structures and definitions of the standardization and designates substantial demands and recommendations for action in order to contribute to the break-through of the electromobility in Europe and in the world. The position paper summarizes the central asking of the standardization roadmap. It identifies necessary basic conditions, appoints concrete recommendations for action and shows the further demand for action for the standardization.

  1. National platform electromobility. Working group 4 - Key issue paper standardization and certification; Nationale Plattform Elektromobilitaet. AG 4 - Eckpunktepapier Normung, Standardisierung und Zertifizierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelk, Stephanie (comp.) [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). I/EM-1

    2010-07-01

    On behalf of the working group 4 ''Standardization and certification ''of the national platform electromobility arranged by the Federal Government, the ''German standardization roadmap electromobility'' was compiled. This gives a survey of the existing structures and definitions of the standardization and designates substantial demands and recommendations for action in order to contribute to the break-through of the electromobility in Europe and in the world. The position paper summarizes the central asking of the standardization roadmap. It identifies necessary basic conditions, appoints concrete recommendations for action and shows the further demand for action for the standardization.

  2. Carbon fluxes within the epipelagic zone of the Humboldt Current System off Chile: The significance of euphausiids and diatoms as key functional groups for the biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Humberto E.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, José L.; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Menschel, Eduardo; Barría, Claudio; Pantoja, Silvio; Lizárraga, Lorena

    2009-12-01

    The information from 54 drifting sediment traps deployed between 1997 and 2006 along the Humboldt Current System off Chile (from 19.9°S to 42.2°S) was analyzed to contribute to unveiling the recurrent global-ocean issue of the lack of relationship between gross primary production (GPP) and particulate organic carbon (POC) export below 50 m depth. When the proportion of carbon that effectively sinks is relatively low compared to the carbon being fixed through GPP, a significant amount (average of 32%) of the sinking organic matter is composed of diatoms, regardless of GPP rates. Such a fraction seems to be affected by the physiological state of phytoplankton. In contrast, when the fraction of carbon sinking is high relative to GPP, most of sinking organic matter is composed of euphausid faecal strings. Such a situation occurs at relatively low values of GPP and chlorophyll-a. Most of these high sinking rates of pellets and low phytoplankton biomass occur during summer, when physical conditions favour the presence of phytoplankton blooms, and when the GPP/Biomass ratio indicates healthy phytoplankton physiological conditions. All this evidence supports the assessment of the relevance of euphausiids as key species in the Humboldt Current System pointing to (i) the top-down control that euphausiids are capable of exerting over primary producer biomass, and (ii) euphausiids‘ paramount role on total organic carbon flux over the Concepción continental shelf, regarding both POC export to the sediments and possibly the channelling of GPP directly to higher trophic levels.

  3. Key role of group v secreted phospholipase A2 in Th2 cytokine and dendritic cell-driven airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Henderson

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that disruption of the gene for group X secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-X markedly diminishes airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in a mouse asthma model. With the large number of additional sPLA2s in the mammalian genome, the involvement of other sPLA2s in the asthma model is possible - in particular, the group V sPLA2 (sPLA2-V that like sPLA2-X is highly active at hydrolyzing membranes of mammalian cells.The allergen-driven asthma phenotype was significantly reduced in sPLA2-V-deficient mice but to a lesser extent than observed previously in sPLA2-X-deficient mice. The most striking difference observed between the sPLA2-V and sPLA2-X knockouts was the significant impairment of the primary immune response to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA in the sPLA2-V(-/- mice. The impairment in eicosanoid generation and dendritic cell activation in sPLA2-V(-/- mice diminishes Th2 cytokine responses in the airways.This paper illustrates the diverse roles of sPLA2s in the immunopathogenesis of the asthma phenotype and directs attention to developing specific inhibitors of sPLA2-V as a potential new therapy to treat asthma and other allergic disorders.

  4. Intake of key micronutrients and food groups in patients with late-stage age-related macular degeneration compared with age-sex-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Liew, Gerald; Russell, Joanna; Cosatto, Victoria; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the risk factor profile of patients presenting with late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) could help identify the most frequent modifiable AMD precursors among people who are referred for treatment. We aimed to assess dietary behaviours by comparing adjusted mean intakes of micronutrients and major food groups (fruits, vegetables, fish) among patients with AMD and a sample of age-sex-matched controls. Cross-sectional analysis of 480 late AMD cases and 518 population-based age-sex-matched controls with no AMD signs. AMD cases (aged 60+ years) were those presenting for treatment to a hospital eye clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2012-2015. The comparator group were obtained from a cohort study (Blue Mountains Eye Study; Sydney, Australia) during 2002-2009. Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. AMD lesions were assessed from retinal photographs. After multivariable adjustment, patients with late-stage AMD compared with controls had significantly lower intakes of vitamin E (7.4 vs 9.8 mg/day; p<0.0001), beta-carotene (6232 vs 7738 μg/day; p<0.0001), vitamin C (161 vs 184 mg/day; p=0.0002) and folate (498.3 vs 602 μg/day; p<0.0001); but had higher intakes of zinc (13.0 vs 11.9 mg/day; p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients with late AMD met the recommended intake of vegetables than controls: 52.9% versus 64.5%; p=0.0002. This study showed significant differences in intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, folate and vegetables between patients with late-stage AMD and healthy controls, and thus has provided a better understanding of the nutritional intake of patients presenting with advanced AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  6. Learning through Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  7. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  8. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  9. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  10. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  11. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  12. Key Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Y Rieger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A few months ago, while I was participating in a conference about open access infrastructures, a delegate from a governmental agency asked, “Why does each library need to maintain a repository for their own scientists?” He was rightfully wondering if a broad collaboration in building a network of archives will provide a durable and extensible technology and service framework for ever-increasing digital scholarly content. The ensuing discussion did not offer a plausible response but accentuated that we do not have in place a plan for building an expandable infrastructure to facilitate communication and exchange of information among rapidly proliferating distinct instances of institutional and subject repositories.

  13. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  14. Discussion on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  15. Summary of discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  16. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  17. Summary and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  18. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  19. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  20. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  1. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  2. A Distributed Shared Key Generation Procedure Using Fractional Keys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poovendran, Radha; Corson, M. S; Baras, J. S

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of distributed key generation and recovery algorithms suitable for group communication systems where the group membership is either static or slowly time-varying, and must be tightly controlled...

  3. Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Maurer, V.; Galea, F.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Amsler, Z.; Visscher, J.; Vermeij, I.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The

  4. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  5. Discussion Club "Profitable Heritage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.

  6. Energy research and development in the United Kingdom. Report of the Group set up by the Council of the Royal Society to examine, discuss and report on the Department of Energy Paper 'Energy R and D in the United Kingdom - A discussion document' (Energy Paper no. 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Following an Introduction and Summary, the report is in sections, entitled: energy supply and demand, and possible economic futures in the United Kingdom; energy sources available to the United Kingdom (coal; offshore oil; nuclear fission power; nuclear fusion power; alternative power sources, e.g. wave power, solar energy, tidal power); energy conservation; consequential energy R and D strategy. In connection with nuclear fission power it is the opinion of the group that sufficient approval for the UK single commercial fast breeder reactor project should be given so that all the necessary planning and practical studies can be started immediately. Safety and environmental problems should be intensively studied. The group would like to see a much stronger R and D programme concerned with the disposal of nuclear wastes. (U.K.)

  7. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  8. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  9. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Cassidy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF, 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema.Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender, their family members (eight groups, community members (four groups and program volunteers (four groups who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector.Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF.

  10. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  11. Results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  12. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  13. Summary of presentations and discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence discussed its theme entitled 'Link between research, development and demonstration (RD and D) and stakeholder confidence'. It was remarked that regulators need a technical demonstration to aid in evaluating the safety case. Local stakeholders appreciate the opportunity to visualise technological arrangements. In both cases, demonstration adds to confidence in the feasibility of solutions. Some believe there is an important role for analogues in communication with stakeholders, if handled with integrity. To explore and benchmark current practices, it was decided to hold a topical session at the 9. regular meeting of the FSC on 4 June 2008 regarding the use of analogues for confidence building. The session opened with an introductory presentation by the session rapporteur. This incorporated input provided for the purpose by FSC members in cooperation with their country's representative to the NEA RWMC 'Integration Group on the Safety Case'. Three speakers then presented the various uses of analogues by implementers, regulators and scientists to build their own confidence; a fourth speaker dealt with the experience of using natural analogues in public information. The presentations addressed the use of analogues in the field of geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level (ILW-LL) radioactive waste. Then the FSC participants split into two working groups for discussion. The outcome of these discussions was reported in plenary on 6 June 2008 and it was agreed to publish proceedings of the session. The present summary, prepared by the session rapporteur with input from the NEA Secretariat, captures the main points heard in the course of the event. It combines data from the formal presentations and remarks made in discussion. The latter represent viewpoints expressed by a group whose primary focus is not natural analogues but rather stakeholder interests. The summary and viewpoints

  14. Stakeholder discussion to reduce population-wide sodium intake and decrease sodium in the food supply: a conference report from the American Heart Association Sodium Conference 2013 Planning Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Elliott M; Appel, Lawrence J; Balentine, Douglas; Johnson, Rachel K; Steffen, Lyn M; Miller, Emily Ann; Pappas, Antigoni; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-06-24

    A 2-day interactive forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing sodium in the food supply and to identify opportunities for stakeholder collaboration. Participants included 128 stakeholders engaged in food research and development, food manufacturing and retail, restaurant and food service operations, regulatory and legislative activities, public health initiatives, healthcare, academia and scientific research, and data monitoring and surveillance. Presentation topics included scientific evidence for sodium reduction and public health policy recommendations; consumer sodium intakes, attitudes, and behaviors; food technologies and solutions for sodium reduction and sensory implications; experiences of the food and dining industries; and translation and implementation of sodium intake recommendations. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted to allow for sharing of current practices, insights, and expertise. A well-established body of scientific research shows that there is a strong relationship between excess sodium intake and high blood pressure and other adverse health outcomes. With Americans getting >75% of their sodium from processed and restaurant food, this evidence creates mounting pressure for less sodium in the food supply. The reduction of sodium in the food supply is a complex issue that involves multiple stakeholders. The success of new technological approaches for reducing sodium will depend on product availability, health effects (both intended and unintended), research and development investments, quality and taste of reformulated foods, supply chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference facilitated an exchange of ideas and set the stage for potential collaboration opportunities among stakeholders with mutual interest in reducing sodium in the food supply and in Americans' diets. Population-wide sodium reduction remains a critically important component of

  15. Grouping and Organizing for Instruction in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Flexibility is a key term to emphasize when grouping students for instruction, since a student might be in a different group for one academic area as compared to another academic area. This paper describes grouping for different methods of reading instruction and other disciplines. The paper discusses the following: using basal readers, using…

  16. WHO Working Group discussion on revision of the WHO recommendations for the production and control of poliomyelitis vaccines (oral): TRS Nos. 904 and 910. Report of Meeting held on 20-22 July 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Javier; Milne, Catherine; Minor, Philip; Chumakov, Konstantin; Baca-Estrada, Maria; Caruana, Jacqueline Fournier; Zhou, Tiequn

    2011-09-02

    Oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) is a critical part of the polio eradication programme. A high number of doses are administered each year with an impact on billions of citizens worldwide. It is therefore essential that written standards concerning OPV are up to date and widely available. The World Health Organization (WHO) publishes technical guidance on the quality, safety and efficacy of vaccines intended to assist national regulatory authorities (NRAs), national control laboratories (NCLs) and manufacturers. As part of its programme, on 20-22 July 2010 WHO convened a working group meeting to initiate the revision of the WHO recommendations on the production and control of OPV as presently outlined in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) issues Nos. 904 and 910 [1,2]. The attendees included experts from academia, NRAs/NCLs and industry involved in the study, manufacture, and authorization and testing/release of OPV from countries around the world including representatives from China, the European Union, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, and the USA. The objective was to review the state of knowledge concerning production and control of OPV, with a focus on neurovirulence testing, to determine how the existing guidelines should be updated and what recommendations should be made for the future. The outcomes of this meeting will be taken into consideration in future revision of the WHO TRS. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question

  18. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  19. Unbelievable security : Matching AES using public key systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Boyd, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) provides three levels of security: 128, 192, and 256 bits. Given a desired level of security for the AES, this paper discusses matching public key sizes for RSA and the ElGamal family of protocols. For the latter both traditional multiplicative groups of finite

  20. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  1. Sharing and Discussing News in Private Social Media Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    to their membership in a particular (1) location-based (2) work-related or (3) leisure-oriented community. It finds that communication within social media communities whose members consider their ties as weak generally tended to be more news-centred. Even more significant was perceived control over privacy......Social media platforms are an increasingly dominant medium through which people encounter news in everyday life. Yet while we know more-and-more about frequency of use and sharing, content preferences and network configurations around news use on social media, the social experiences associated...... with such practices remain relatively unexplored. This paper addresses this gap to consider if and how news facilitates conversations in everyday contexts where social media play a communicative role. It investigates how people engage with current affairs collectively in different social formations...

  2. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasova, A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  3. Research on diabetic retinopathy prevention and control of key target groups%糖尿病视网膜病变防治重点目标人群的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 胡雅国; 陈芳建; 郑美霞

    2013-01-01

    目的:为了解糖尿病人群相关危险因素对糖尿病视网膜病变(DR)发病的影响,从而为开展DR的防治工作提供对策和依据.方法:收集588例2型糖尿病患者的眼底检查情况及其它临床资料.根据眼底检查结果将患者分为糖尿病无视网膜病变(NDR)组398例及糖尿病视网膜病变(DR)组190例,并检测相关生化指标.结果:两组间比较,DR组病程较长,且收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2h血糖(P2BG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)均高于NDR组(P<0.05).结论:应加强DR防治知识的普及,尤其是病程较长,SBP、DBP、FPG、P2BG和HbA1c较高的糖尿病患者应作为重点目标人群.%Objective;To understand the risk factors of the diabetic population on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy ( DR), so as to provide the basis for the prevention of the DR. Methods; Fundus examination and other clinical data of 588 patients with type 2 diabetes were collected. According to fundus examination results, they were divided into diabetic patients without retinopathy (NDR) group (398 cases) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) group (190 cases), and detected chemical and biological indicators. Results; Compared with the NDR group, the DR group showed the longer course and the indicators including systolic blood pressure ( SBP) , diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 - hour postprandial glucose (2hPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) increased,which were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion; The popularity of DR prevention knowledge should be strengthened for the key target population, especially the diabetic patients with the longer course and the higher SBP, DBP, FPG,2hPG and HbAlc.

  4. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  5. Discussion of manage mode for nuclear power construcation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mingshi; Chen Hua

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development status of management mode for NPP construction and nuclear power engineering companies. Considering the national development plan of nuclear power, and making reference of the experiences of the successful construction of NPPs, the management mode for NPP construction in which the nuclear engineering companies are the main factors have been discussed. This paper proposed that EPC/TurnKey as the management mode for the nuclear power construction, led by the owner, and constructed by engineering companies according to the contracts, so as to establish a construction group with expertise knowledge. (authors)

  6. Comunidades virtuales, grupos y proyectos de investigación sobre ims learning design. Status quo, factores clave y retos inmediatos [Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burgos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We carry out a report showing the state of the art about virtual communities, research groups and projects focused on the e-learning specification IMS Learning Design or directly related to it. This specification is currently becoming the most flexible and supported de facto standard for modelling full learning processes, as a complement for any structure of educational contents. Afterwards, as a consequence of the previous study, we develop a reading and a further analysis of the current panorama, and describe the key factors that show the relevance and impact of IMS Learning Design and also the main forthcoming challenges. Realizamos una descripción del estado del arte sobre las comunidades virtuales, los grupos de trabajo y los proyectos de investigación centrados en la especificación de e-learning IMS Learning Design o desarrollados en torno a ella. Esta especificación se está convirtiendo de facto en el estándar más versátil y respaldado para modelar procesos completos de aprendizaje como complemento de estructuras de contenidos educativos. Posteriormente, y como consecuencia del estudio, desarrollamos un análisis y lectura del panorama actual con una indicación de los factores clave que muestran su impacto y relevancia y los principales retos a abordar en un futuro inmediato.

  7. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  8. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  9. Communication in different keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souwer, Corinne

    1995-01-01

    This paper is based on a study for which the research has been conducted by Esther van der Draai, trainee at ECN - Nuclear Energy, Dutch member of the NucNet board, delegation member of the European Task Force Group - 10th Anniversary of Chernobyl. The complete study is presented to WIN. It explains how to attune communication to the target group, and discusses the communication theory analogue language, which does not only include the typical non-verbal signals, such as eye contact, facial expression, gestures, etc., but also smiling, blushing, sighing, clothing, smell. In short, analogue language is always there and always influences other parties

  10. Discussion Meetings | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Academy supports discussion meetings of small groups of scientists from within India and outside organized by a ... Conference on Physics and Chemistry of Spintronic Materials ... Recent advances in operator theory and operator algebras

  11. The High/Scope Preschool Key Experiences: Essential Elements of Young Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Discusses High/Scope's preschool key experiences (a set of 58 statements that describe young children's social, cognitive, and physical development). The key experiences are grouped into 10 major developmental areas (creative representation, language and literacy, social relations, movement, music, classification, seriation, number, space, and…

  12. Three state quantum key distribution for small keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)

  13. Online discussion: Enhancing students' critical thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathakrishnan, Mohan; Ahmad, Rahayu; Suan, Choo Ling

    2017-10-01

    Online discussion has become one of the important strategies for the teacher to teach the students to think critically when conveying their ideas and become more proactive and creative. In this paper, padlet online discussion communication was conducted to examine its effectiveness in enhancing critical thinking. In this study, there are two types of critical thinking: macro and micro critical thinking. A total of 70 Universiti Utara Malaysia Management Foundation Programme students involved in this experimental research design. The students in treatment class are divided to few groups. Every group uses padlet online discussion to discuss the topic given. All the group members discuss and write their ideas in padlet. Ideas that are posted in padlet will be displayed in front of the class so that the entire group in the treatment class could see the given ideas. Paul's (1993) model was used to analyze student's macro and micro critical thinking in padlet online discussion and communication. The finding shows that students who used padlet online discussion backchannel communication have greater macro and micro critical thinking level than students who do not use online discussion.

  14. Group formation in early clinical project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge

    Research shows that getting involved is a key aspect of learning, and a way of getting involved is through study groups [1]. Forming groups are always a theme that is discussed, both amongst faculty and students. There is a different approach at different semesters regarding this formation...

  15. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  16. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  17. Case-based discussion supporting learning and practice in optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Alison; Barnes, Emma; Ryan, Barbara; Sheen, Nik

    2014-09-01

    To enhance continuing professional development and address the risk that professional isolation poses, the UK General Optical Council introduced a requirement for all optometrists to engage in at least one case-based discussion per 3 year cycle of continuing education. In this paper, we explore participants' impression of the acceptability, effectiveness and long-term impact-on-practice of case-based discussion as a mode of continuing education. Case-based discussion participants attended an evening session comprising a lecture and a group discussion. They completed three questionnaires: prior to the session, immediately post-session and 3-4 months post-session. We coded the questionnaires to allow matching. Seventy-five case-based discussion groups were held with 379 participants; 377 completed both pre- and post-questionnaires and 331 (88%) returned a follow-up questionnaire. Case-based discussions were an acceptable method of learning, with many preferring it to distance-learning. Prior to the event, women, employees and part-time workers were more likely to have concerns about participating. In terms of learning, gaps in knowledge were more likely to be revealed in those who work in isolation. The respondents highlighted social aspects, reassurance of practice as well as new learning. Participants significantly improved self-confidence ratings in all key learning areas. At three months post-session, the majority (75%) self-reported that they had implemented their intended changes to practice. The evaluation showed that participants felt that case-based discussion developed their knowledge, notably for sole practitioners, and influenced later workplace practice. The peer interaction of this mode of continuing education can combat professional isolation. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  18. Round Table Discussion on EASTWEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion is focused on various aspects of interrelations between East and West. Its participants discuss the problems of the increasing tourist flows from China and the specific characteristics of Chinese tourists. The future development of tourism in the Baikal region is formulated, and the peculiarities of ethno tourism and its prospects are discussed.

  19. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    reverse engineering, security, malware , blackhat) were labeled as cyber and posts on non- cyber topics (e.g., astronomy, electronics, beer, biology, mu...firewall, hash, infect, inject, install, key, malicious, malware , network, obfuscate, overflow, packet, password, payload, request, risk, scan, script...cyber vulnerabilities (e.g., malware , overflow, attack). The keyword system lacked the keywords used in Heartbleed discussions, and thus suffered from

  20. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  1. Key Working for Families with Young Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop. Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders. All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals

  2. Discussion on Papers 11 - 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  3. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  4. [Computer mediated discussion and attitude polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Endo, Kimihisa; Yoshida, Fujio

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that computer mediated discussions lead to more extreme decisions than face-to-face (FTF) meeting. Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire (1984) claimed that computer mediated communication (CMC) tended to be relatively uninhibited, as seen in 'flaming', and that group decisions under CMC using Choice Dilemma Questionnaire tended to be more extreme and riskier than FTF meetings. However, for the same reason, CMC discussions on controversial social issues for which participants initially hold strongly opposing views, might be less likely to reach a consensus, and no polarization should occur. Fifteen 4-member groups discussed a controversial social issue under one of three conditions: FTF, CMC, and partition. After discussion, participants rated their position as a group on a 9-point bipolar scale ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement. A stronger polarization effect was observed for FTF groups than those where members were separated with partitions. However, no extreme shift from their original, individual positions was found for CMC participants. There results were discussed in terms of 'expertise and status equalization' and 'absence of social context cues' under CMC.

  5. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  6. Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo

    2001-01-01

    A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).

  7. Key Challenges and Future Directions for Educational Research on Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Bryan; McNeill, Katherine L.; González-Howard, María; Close, Kevin; Evans, Mat

    2018-01-01

    At the 2015 "NARST: A Worldwide Organization for Improving Science Teaching and Learning Through Research" Annual International Conference, a group of scholars held an extended pre-conference workshop to discuss key challenges and future directions faced by argumentation researchers around the world. This wide-ranging group of…

  8. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  9. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... Classical. Quantum. Background. Compact Hausdorff space. Unital C∗ algebra. Gelfand-Naimark. Compact Group. Compact Quantum Group. Woronowicz. Group Action. Coaction. Woronowicz. Riemannian manifold. Spectral triple. Connes. Isometry group. Quantum Isometry Group. To be discussed.

  10. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  11. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  12. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  13. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  14. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  15. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  16. Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    chantal Taylor

    Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.

  17. Discussion on Papers 5 - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongman, C.P.; Jones, R.; Moorhead, H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in discussion included: the performance of the generator sets; the movement of sediments and the effect on beach levels; monitoring near-bed sediments; the erosion of barrage materials by suspended solids; sediment transport models; the accuracy of hydrographic and other surveys; the relative ornithological importance of the estuary with respect to others in the United Kingdom. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  18. Open Education Week Panel Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Peter; Hart, Heath; Hartman, Greg; Seyam, Mohammed; Walz, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction by Julie Speer, Associate Dean for Research & Informatics. Open remarks by Anita Walz, Assessment, Open Education & Online Learning Environments Librarian. Mohammed Seyam discusses the value of openly licensed material as a student, research, and graduate assistant. Heath Hart reflects on his adoption of an open educational resource and a (subscribed) online textbook in, “A Rousing Success and an Unmitigated Disaster.” Greg Hartman discusses his experiences authoring open-source ...

  19. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  20. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  1. Young Scientists Discuss Recent Advances, Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a National Academy of Science forum at which a group of outstanding young researchers in astronomy, molecular and developmental biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, atmospheric science, and materials science met for three days of formal presentations and informal conversations. Provides a short synopsis of major speakers. (MVL)

  2. Maps of student discussions about sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric

    We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...

  3. Analyzing online political discussions: Methodological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Online political discussions are thought to lead to more political engagement and empowerment of peripheral groups in society and thereby contributing to deliberative citizenship. Because people have increased opportunities to voice their political opinions and publish these for a potentially large

  4. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  5. Discussion on Papers 8 - 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.; Wilson, E.A.; Gibson, P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions raised in the discussion are reported. These concerned: the Treasury discount rate for the construction of such a project; the CO 2 benefits of tidal schemes in developing countries; the criteria for deciding the total installed capacity of the scheme; the Government review of the cost-benefit analysis; the benefit arising from the elimination of nitrogen and sulphur oxides; security of supply; carbon tax projections. The only response reported is on the question of criteria for deciding the total installed capacity. Separate abstracts have been prepared on the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  6. General discussion of feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals, objectives and parameters of feasibility studies in the field of nuclear power project planning are discussed in a general way. Technical and economic problems to be considered are pointed out. In special cases, IAEA offers its aid and support. (UA) [de

  7. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  8. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  9. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective

  10. Choice Orientations, Discussions, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raywid, Mary Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…

  11. A discussion of recent methodologies for combining sensory and extrinsic product properties in consumer studies

    OpenAIRE

    Asioli, Daniele; Varela, Paula; Hersleth, Margrethe; Almli, Valerie Lengard; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    - Understanding the interaction of sensory and extrinsic product attributes in consumer preferences has been identified as one of the key pillars for raising the likelihood of food products’ success in the market. Over the course of the last decade there has been increased attention on research emphasizing a combination of these food-choice driving parameters. This paper discusses progress made in the field focusing on three groups of methods: (i) conjoint hedonic methods (ii) “classic” he...

  12. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  13. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  14. Discussion on Papers 14 - 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles-Jones, S.; Muirhead, S.; Wilson, E.A.; Jefferson, M.; Binnie, C.J.A.; O'Connor, B.A.; Rothwell, P.; Cowie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Further observations were made on the great potential for tidal power developments in NW Australia. Discussion on the Severn Barrage paper and environmental effects of tidal power plants centred mainly around the impact on bird populations. The topics covered were: the adaptability of birds to changes in their environment with particular reference to the importance of inter-tidal areas for wildfowl and wading birds in the United Kingdom; the creation of mudflats as replacement feeding areas for wading birds; whether there is a danger that pressure from the construction industry might result in a barrage being built before the uncertainties in the environmental impact assessment are removed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  15. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  16. Key improvements to XTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Verheul, E.R.; Okamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes improved methods for XTR key representation and parameter generation (cf. [4]). If the field characteristic is properly chosen, the size of the XTR public key for signature applications can be reduced by a factor of three at the cost of a small one time computation for the

  17. Teamwork the key to good patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    In a year when, with the inception of the new Clinical Commissioning Groups, the way that healthcare is procured and delivered will see radical changes, this month's HefmA 2013 National Conference & Exhibition will have as its theme, 'Many Players, One Goal: The Patient'. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, among the wide-ranging estates and facilities topics set for discussion will be 'Getting the patient environment right'; 'Dementia Building for the Future'; 'Waterborne Infections; Lessons Learned'; 'Incorporating lean thinking into design', and the key challenges faced by the estates and facilities sector. The keynote address, touching on a wide range of issues common to all large organisations, will be given by one of the best known 'women in football', and will also reflect particularly on the importance of teamwork.

  18. Key components of financial-analysis education for clinical nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Young; Noh, Wonjung

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we identified key components of financial-analysis education for clinical nurses. We used a literature review, focus group discussions, and a content validity index survey to develop key components of financial-analysis education. First, a wide range of references were reviewed, and 55 financial-analysis education components were gathered. Second, two focus group discussions were performed; the participants were 11 nurses who had worked for more than 3 years in a hospital, and nine components were agreed upon. Third, 12 professionals, including professors, nurse executive, nurse managers, and an accountant, participated in the content validity index. Finally, six key components of financial-analysis education were selected. These key components were as follows: understanding the need for financial analysis, introduction to financial analysis, reading and implementing balance sheets, reading and implementing income statements, understanding the concepts of financial ratios, and interpretation and practice of financial ratio analysis. The results of this study will be used to develop an education program to increase financial-management competency among clinical nurses. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  20. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  1. How close are countries of the WHO European Region to achieving the goal of vaccinating 75% of key risk groups against influenza? Results from national surveys on seasonal influenza vaccination programmes, 2008/2009 to 2014/2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Pernille; Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Johansen, Kari; Tsolova, Svetla; Brown, Caroline

    2018-01-25

    Influenza vaccination is recommended especially for persons at risk of complications. In 2003, the World Health Assembly urged Member States (MS) to increase vaccination coverage to 75% among older persons by 2010. To assess progress towards the 2010 vaccination goal and describe seasonal influenza vaccination recommendations in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Data on seasonal influenza vaccine recommendations, dose distribution, and target group coverage were obtained from two sources: European Union and European Economic Area MS data were extracted from influenza vaccination surveys covering seven seasons (2008/2009-2014/2015) published by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. For the remaining WHO European MS, a separate survey on policies and uptake for all seasons (2008/2009-2014/2015) was distributed to national immunization programmes in 2015. Data was available from 49 of 53 MS. All but two had a national influenza vaccination policy. High-income countries distributed considerably higher number of vaccines per capita (median; 139.2 per 1000 population) compared to lower-middle-income countries (median; 6.1 per 1000 population). Most countries recommended vaccination for older persons, individuals with chronic disease, healthcare workers, and pregnant women. Children were included in < 50% of national policies. Only one country reached 75% coverage in older persons (2014/2015), while a number of countries reported declining vaccination uptake. Coverage of target groups was overall low, but with large variations between countries. Vaccination coverage was not monitored for several groups. Despite policy recommendations, influenza vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. Low levels of vaccination is not only a missed opportunity for preventing influenza in vulnerable groups, but could negatively affect pandemic preparedness. Improved understanding of barriers to

  2. An Analysis of Key Factors in Developing a Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidana Šiurytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept Smart City is used widely but it is perceived differently as well. Literature review reveals key elements of the Smart City – Information and Communication Technologies and Smart Citizens. Nevertheless, raising public awareness is not a priority of local municipalities which are trying to develop cities. Focus group discussion aims to analyse citizens’ insights in regards to the Smart City and their contribution to creation of it. Case study of Vilnius examines a position of mu-nicipality in developing city as smart. Study contains suggestions for the improvement of communication in the city. Methods employed: comparative literature analysis, focus group investigation, case study.

  3. The Current Discussion on Men and Masculinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past gender specific problems were mainly discussed in a female perspective. In the meantime there is a rising attentiveness in the living conditions of men and their coping strategies within critical life events. In this paper an appropriate frame of reference is outlined which can be used in those areas of social work where men are already discovered as a target group with special difficulties and needs.

  4. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  5. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  6. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  7. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  8. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...

  9. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  10. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-13

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (-10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (-3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p -value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  11. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (−10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance. PMID:28902145

  12. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  13. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  14. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  15. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  16. The metal failure cases discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, P

    1978-06-05

    The metal failure cases discussed by P. Gupton (Monsanto Chem. Co.) at a joint meeting of the American Society of Metals (ASM) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Calgary Section (Calgary 1978) include a high-temperature (1775/sup 0/-1800/sup 0/F) failure in an HK 40 outside heater tube in a synthesis gas steam-methane reformer, resulting in two major fissures caused by carbonization and oxide deposits with high carbon and lead contents due to the use of remelt scrap material with high lead content; separation of a support pad from a 30 in. pipeline due to corrosion caused by molybdenum-peroxide action; oxidation of a section of 180/sup 0/ U-bend in a thermal ethylene cracking furnace due to fluxing reaction of a high sodium and calcium feed which collected in the return bed; stress corrosion cracking of an austenitic stainless cracker tube from high temperature and electrolytic attack; and other cases of metal failure caused by weld quality problems, use of contaminated material and inadequate designs, processing, and fabrication.

  17. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  18. The Importance of Group Process in Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Margaret Patton; Themis, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the Gestalt therapy group process and its roots in theory and therapeutic orientation. Indicates that the process itself, particularly the role of the therapist, is a key factor in the intensity and power of the group experience for the participants. (Author)

  19. Diversity of key players in the microbial ecosystems of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Ferenc; Lauria, Mario; Scotti, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Praveen, Paurush; Morine, Melissa; Priami, Corrado

    2015-10-30

    Coexisting bacteria form various microbial communities in human body parts. In these ecosystems they interact in various ways and the properties of the interaction network can be related to the stability and functional diversity of the local bacterial community. In this study, we analyze the interaction network among bacterial OTUs in 11 locations of the human body. These belong to two major groups. One is the digestive system and the other is the female genital tract. In each local ecosystem we determine the key species, both the ones being in key positions in the interaction network and the ones that dominate by frequency. Beyond identifying the key players and discussing their biological relevance, we also quantify and compare the properties of the 11 networks. The interaction networks of the female genital system and the digestive system show totally different architecture. Both the topological properties and the identity of the key groups differ. Key groups represent four phyla of prokaryotes. Some groups appear in key positions in several locations, while others are assigned only to a single body part. The key groups of the digestive and the genital tracts are totally different.

  20. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  1. Summary of the presentations and discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The first two presentations were given by specialists in human science, and focused more on the ethical aspects of the funding for decommissioning. Some new aspects or approaches were presented, which allowed to highlight the egalitarian and utilitarian approaches of inter-generational equity. The different ethical principles led to conclude on the need of a democratic debate on the subject, and the need of ethical guidance at international level. Some other key points, like the preservation of competences, funding and resources, were also considered in the light of the inter-generational community. The session was concluded by a presentation on the application of the ethical principles for the funding. Session 2: Actual experience in funding. The various mechanisms for funding have been analyses on their principle, current practice and merits. Three main aspects were analysed: How funds are raised? How are the funds managed? How to disburse when needed? The actual experience in different countries showed different mechanisms and return of experience. Session 3: Uncertainties. In most large industrial projects (construction, civil works, aerospace...), the return of experience shows that overrun (in time and cost) is a rather general tendency. But it depends on the type of project, on the degree of innovation, etc. Some means to avoid these overrun were presented. In the case of D and D, the main uncertainties affecting funding can be found in: cost estimate, inflow of resources, management of resources, time factor: when will the costs occur? Moreover, these uncertainties sources can also be inter-linked. One of the conclusions from this analysis is that the existing uncertainties in funding are good reasons not to postpone decommissioning operations to a too distant future. Presentations on return of experience were presented by several countries. Plenary discussions: The plenary discussions allowed to tackle the different aspects presented during the day. Some

  2. [Key informers. When and How?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, R

    2009-03-01

    When information obtained through duly designed and developed studies is not available, the solution to certain problems that affect the population or that respond to certain questions may be approached by using the information and experience provided by the so-called key informer. The key informer is defined as a person who is in contact with the community or with the problem to be studied, who is considered to have good knowledge of the situation and therefore who is considered an expert. The search for consensus is the basis to obtain information through the key informers. The techniques used have different characteristics based on whether the experts chosen meet together or not, whether they are guided or not, whether they interact with each other or not. These techniques include the survey, the Delphi technique, the nominal group technique, brainwriting, brainstorming, the Phillips 66 technique, the 6-3-5 technique, the community forum and the community impressions technique. Information provided by key informers through the search for consensus is relevant when this is not available or cannot be obtained by other methods. It has permitted the analysis of the existing neurological care model, elaboration of recommendations on visit times for the out-patient neurological care, and the elaboration of guidelines and recommendations for the management of prevalent neurological problems.

  3. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...

  4. GRUPO RESIDENCIAL ROMEO Y JULIETA EN ZUFFENHAUSEN, 1954-59. UN ENSAYO CLAVE DE HANS SCHAROUN / The ‘Romeo and Julia’ residential group in Zuffenhausen, 1954-59. A key test of Hans Scharoun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Añón Abajas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Las complejas circunstancias que normalmente rodean la realización de una obra de arquitectura, dificultan la simultánea sistematización de la reflexión y la transferencia de la experiencia. Nos vemos provocados a recuperar progresivamente ese conocimiento especialmente cuando el paso de los años identifica a una arquitectura como obra maestra para la arquitectura actual, como ocurre con el grupo residencial Romeo y Julieta. Este artículo pretende contribuir a facilitar su conocimiento compilando información, incidiendo en algunos detalles menores que habitualmente se obvian y aportando nuevas fotografías y dibujos realizados para esta ocasión. Como consecuencia surgen las relaciones desde la experiencia concreta de esta obra con la producción previa y posterior de Hans Scharoun y vuelve a brillar la trayectoria investigadora del arquitecto. SUMMARY The complex circumstances that typically surround the making of a work of architecture, hinder the simultaneous systematization of reflection and the transfer of experience. We are gradually brought to recover that knowledge, especially when the passage of time identifies a building as a masterpiece for current architecture, as has occurred with the ‘Romeo and Julia’ residential group. This article aims to raise awareness of them by gathering information, focusing on small details that are usually ignored and adding new photographs and drawings made for this occasion. As a result, relationships arise from the specific experience of this work with the previous and later production of Hans Scharoun and the research career of the architect shines again.

  5. Locks & keys service moves to building 55

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that as of July 12 Locks & keys service will be at building 55 second floor. The opening hours are as follows: 08:30 am to 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm to 5:30 pm. The procedures and rules relating to applications for key and cylinder have not changed. GI-IS Group

  6. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  7. Discussion of participation possibilities at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    A group of physicists at TRIUMF have been meeting regularly to discuss options for involvement in experiments that relate closely to the physics that would be undertaken at the KAON Factory. At a meeting held to discuss possibilities for work at KEK in the light of the new facilities that are under construction or proposed as part of the JHP, the topics considered ranged from the ion source to kaon beams. They included measurements of kaon-nucleon elastic and inelastic scattering in the 1600 to 2000 MeV range; transport of polarized proton beams through synchrotrons; the development of laser pumped polarized ion sources and volume cusp H - sources; studies of the problems that high intensity beams will present for the maintenance of H - stripping foils; collaboration on radioactive beam facilities; production of hypernuclei; low energy kaon scattering; and new types of detectors

  8. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  9. Round table discussion during session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, M.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the first session of the Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Accepting or refusing a person, an institution or a grouping as a legitimate Stakeholder who makes the decision and how? - How are the local partnerships built and organised? - How to obtain community support for the partnership's legitimate decisions/findings? - Experience teaches that no decision is reached solely by formal and legal processes. What role do informal processes play? - How can the informal procedures be accepted? Do they need to be made explicit? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. After the discussion, each table's findings were reported to the plenary. Most of the discussion concerned the local partnerships. Important findings were that the statutes for the partnerships were developed by the partnerships themselves and there were no legally binding rules handed down by the federal level. The partnerships are part of an informal process. A legally binding participation (i.e. within the EIA) will be initiated at a later stage. As the partnerships function outside of the formal legal procedure, they can function in a more flexible way. It was noted that the partnerships make recommendations, but it is not clear what the government will do with these recommendations. It was also argued that the process may cause conflicts between neighboring communities. As in other contexts visited by the FSC, the importance of the right of veto of the community was stressed, although this may cause a conflict between technical suitability and social acceptance. Access of the community to the local partnership is necessary. Finally it was accepted that time is needed to explain the recommendations to the broader community before any decisions are taken. (author)

  10. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  11. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  12. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  13. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  14. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  15. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  16. An uplifting discussion of T-duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Moore, Gregory W.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that string theory has a T-duality symmetry relating circle compactifications of large and small radius. This symmetry plays a foundational role in string theory. We note here that while T-duality is order two acting on the moduli space of compactifications, it is order four in its action on the conformal field theory state space. More generally, involutions in the Weyl group W ( G) which act at points of enhanced G symmetry have canonical lifts to order four elements of G, a phenomenon first investigated by J. Tits in the mathematical literature on Lie groups and generalized here to conformal field theory. This simple fact has a number of interesting consequences. One consequence is a reevaluation of a mod two condition appearing in asymmetric orbifold constructions. We also briefly discuss the implications for the idea that T-duality and its generalizations should be thought of as discrete gauge symmetries in spacetime.

  17. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  18. Conflict and Consensus in Teacher Candidates' Discussion of Ethnic Autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan; deTar, Julie

    A Future Teachers' Autobiography Club discussion group/research project invited six elementary teacher candidates to read, write about, and discuss ethnic autobiography in order to foster and investigate the potential of peer discussion in teacher learning. Using a selected list of six autobiographies, the researcher hosted monthly dinner…

  19. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...... contributed by Scientific Officer Edgar Thielmann, DG TREN, Head of Department Hans Larsen, RisøNational Laboratory, Senior Asset Manager Aksel Hauge Pedersen, DONG VE, Consultant Timon Wehnert, IZT-Berlin, and Senior Scientist Martine Uyterlinde, ECN...

  20. Round table discussion during session 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the second session of the FSC Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Do local stakeholders have, internally or externally, all the expertise they need in order to address the issues raised by radioactive waste management projects? - Do institutional stakeholders have all the expertise they need to take local impacts into account? - What kinds of expert input are sought and attained by the different stakeholders? - Were any formal methods used to aid local partnerships perform technology assessments? Or other types of assessment? - How to maintain the knowledge and expertise achieved by the stakeholders? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. As in Session I, most of the round table discussion focussed specifically on the experience of the local partnerships. Many insights were shared about the nature and role of expertise in complex decision making. They are summarised below, on the basis of the feedback provided to the plenary by each round table. Some of these insights can be generalised to other contexts. All in all, a profile emerged of the local partnerships as a unique and effective tool to deal with knowledge issues in managing risk. (author)

  1. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  2. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  3. Farmer groups key to boosting technology adoption in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... ... and semi-arid areas and contribute to more sustainable water and soil management. ... postharvest technologies, socioeconomics, and market analysis ... New animal vaccines could keep more African farmers in business.

  4. Development and pretest of key visual imagery in a campaign for the prevention of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Émilie; Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Goulet, Julie

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the development and pretesting of key visual imagery in a promotional campaign developed in Quebec, Canada. This campaign is the media-based component of a broader prevention strategy involving the use of the Triple P program (Sanders, 1999). The purpose was to pretest with parents the preliminary version of a poster that uses the campaign's key visual imagery prior to final production. In total, 26 parents from the regions of Quebec City and Montreal participated in four focus groups. Two general themes emerged from the focus groups: (i) emotions and reactions arising from the key visual imagery; and (ii) comprehension of the message being conveyed. Based on this information, recommendations were made to the marketing agency, which then modified the campaign's key visual imagery and proposed a final layout.

  5. HVDC: A key solution in future transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, Olof H.; Weimers, Lars; Bohl, Mie-Lotte

    2010-09-15

    With the transition of power grids, based on sustainable generation, HVDC is a key technology with new applications. This includes connection of remote wind parks and strengthening of existing AC grids. In addition, traditional applications, such as bulk hydropower transfer and interconnections between regions, play a major role in our transition to sustainable generation and the associated grids. The technology for regional grids with a limited number of nodes is already in place and commercial projects are commissioned. For extensive grids, development and verification are ongoing in parallel to industry standards being discussed in groups such as ENTSO-E and CIGRE.

  6. Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK) ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... No Abstract. Keywords: MANET; key management scheme; simulation environment ...

  7. Discussion on AI Technology in Information Library Design

    OpenAIRE

    日比野, 省三; Shozo, HIBINO; 中京大学社会学部

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the discussion on the importance of AI (Artificial Intelligence) Technology in planning and designing a library information system in the near future. First of all, the history of Library and Information Science is reviewed and it is identified that the key technology in the future library will be AI as a mega-trend. After reviewing the concepts of AI technology, a model of a Knowledge-Base system is discussed as a case study, using micro-PROLOG.

  8. WGOE Discussion topic introduction: Counterfeit, Suspect, and Fraudulent parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation (slides) provided an introduction to CSFI discussion. It presents: 1 - the many faces of counterfeiting (design and intellectual property, manufacturing and fabrication, product control, branding and document fraud), 2 - the key messages from the June 3, 2010 US-NRC Commission Briefing, 3 - the Regulator's role in ensuring nuclear plant safety, 4 - the CSFI survey status, 5 - the questions to be discussed during the meeting

  9. Discussion Paper Social and emotional learning for children with Learning Disability: Implications for inclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cavioni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the key role of social and emotional learning programmes for children with Learning Disability (LD. The first part of the paper discusses the difficulties students with learning disability may encounter in their education, such as issues related to peer group acceptance, friendship and social isolation, low self-efficacy and self-esteem, and externalized and internalized behavior problems. The relationship between social and emotional learning programmes and learning disability is then discussed, underlining the benefits of social and emotional learning for students with LD. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for universal social and emotional learning as a vehicle for the academic and social inclusion of students with LD.

  10. Traditional Chinese medicine information digitalization discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Cui, Meng; Wu, Zhen-Dou; Zhao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    With the rapid development of information science, the ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine is combining with it rapidly, and forming a new discipline: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Informatics. TCM information digitalization is the process of digital processing, which uses modern information technology to obtain, process, store, and analyze TCM-related data, information, and knowledge. It gathers research, application development, and service in an integrated whole. This article systematically analyzes the key research issues of TCM informatics (e.g., on data resources, data standard, data system construction). Also, the methodology and technology of TCM information digitalization research are thoroughly discussed. The starting point of the research on traditional Chinese medical information digitalization was in question. The research from the current study research was drawn from collected information that was stored, transferred, and utilized. This process helped to place an emphasis on the topic, as well as extending its research areas. In addition, an innovative TCM information virtual study center was set up to support a great deal of fundamental work.

  11. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Woong Go; Jin Kawk

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted in...

  12. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  13. THE KEY VIRAL PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  14. Evaluating Critical Thinking in Computer Mediated Communication Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizah Mohamad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of whether computer mediated communication (CMC can develop critical thinking in language classrooms. The research was conducted at a university branch campus in Malaysia over a period of 12 weeks. It involved three groups of learners in which each group was exposed to different discussion modes. The first group was exposed to a CMC discussion mode, the second group was exposed to a mixed mode of CMC and face-to-face (F2F discussions and the third group had only the face-to-face mode of discussion. The critical thinking development in these three conditions was evaluated based on the content analysis method used by Newman, Johnson, Cochrane and Webb (1995. This research reports the findings which hopefully will give some insight to other teaching practitioners who are interested in incorporating IT in their classrooms

  15. The Discussion of Social Entrepreneurship: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Daud@Fhiri Nur Suriaty; Diyana Ishak Siti Intan; Abdullah Suhairimi; Azmi A. A.; Ishak Aida Shakila; Ahmad Z.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the various discussion of social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship provides a unique opportunity and assumptions to question, challenge and rethink from different perspective of management and business research. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key differences and similarities betwee...

  16. Discovering Genres of Online Discussion Threads via Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fu-Ren; Hsieh, Lu-Shih; Chuang, Fu-Tai

    2009-01-01

    As course management systems (CMS) gain popularity in facilitating teaching. A forum is a key component to facilitate the interactions among students and teachers. Content analysis is the most popular way to study a discussion forum. But content analysis is a human labor intensity process; for example, the coding process relies heavily on manual…

  17. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  18. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  19. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  20. Undergraduate Students' Perspectives on the Value of Peer-Led Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica E. McGlynn-Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a view to improving the quality of class discussions of assigned articles, I implemented a new way of organizing small group seminars in an undergraduate early childhood education course. The seminars were led by student facilitators and had a balance of accountability and autonomy. Mid-way through the course, the students reflected anonymously on the experience of the seminars. They identified a variety of cognitive and social benefits of the seminars as well as key components that could be applied in a variety of post-secondary settings

  1. Key diagnostic information for the oncologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The radiologists use many modalities for imaging of oncologic patients. In order to get the most out of these imaging studies oncologist have to provide with precise information: what is the working diagnosis, what treatment the patients has had and what is the clinical question should be answered by imaging study. The main indications for imaging are confirmation of diagnosis, evaluation of the patient for surgery or assessment of response to the therapy. These will influence the choice of the test, the protocol and interpretation of the results. Imaging plays a vital role in the management of patients with cancer. It is important not only for diagnosis, indicating sites of abnormality, and guiding biopsies, but it is also crucial in assessing disease extent and thereby determining treatment. The stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis is a key factor to define prognosis and is important element in determining appropriate treatment. The most clinically used cancer staging system is tumor node metastasis (TNM). Stage is determined from information on the tumor, regional nodes, and metastases and by grouping cases with similar prognosis. The criteria for defining anatomic extent of disease are specific for tumors at different anatomic sites and of different histologic types. Therefore, the criteria for T, N and M are defined separately for each tumor and histologic type. For Hodgkin and other lymphomas, a different system for the extent of disease and prognosis is used. It is mandatory for the radiologist to learn TNM system to provide the oncologist with key diagnostic information. Learning objectives: To understand TNM staging system for the most common malignancies To review the changes from the sixth to the seven edition of the American Joint committee on cancer staging manual To describe diagnostic information provided by CT and MRI in preoperative planning and after therapy To discuss the role of PET/CT imaging in oncology

  2. Secure quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  3. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  4. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  5. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  6. FPGA BASED HARDWARE KEY FOR TEMPORAL ENCRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lakshmi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel encryption scheme with time based key technique on an FPGA is presented. Time based key technique ensures right key to be entered at right time and hence, vulnerability of encryption through brute force attack is eliminated. Presently available encryption systems, suffer from Brute force attack and in such a case, the time taken for breaking a code depends on the system used for cryptanalysis. The proposed scheme provides an effective method in which the time is taken as the second dimension of the key so that the same system can defend against brute force attack more vigorously. In the proposed scheme, the key is rotated continuously and four bits are drawn from the key with their concatenated value representing the delay the system has to wait. This forms the time based key concept. Also the key based function selection from a pool of functions enhances the confusion and diffusion to defend against linear and differential attacks while the time factor inclusion makes the brute force attack nearly impossible. In the proposed scheme, the key scheduler is implemented on FPGA that generates the right key at right time intervals which is then connected to a NIOS – II processor (a virtual microcontroller which is brought out from Altera FPGA that communicates with the keys to the personal computer through JTAG (Joint Test Action Group communication and the computer is used to perform encryption (or decryption. In this case the FPGA serves as hardware key (dongle for data encryption (or decryption.

  7. Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Bonato, Cristian; Tomaello, Andrea; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Villoresi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel analysis of the feasibility of quantum key distribution between a LEO satellite and a ground station. First of all, we study signal propagation through a turbulent atmosphere for uplinks and downlinks, discussing the contribution of beam spreading and beam wandering. Then we introduce a model for the background noise of the channel during night-time and day-time, calculating the signal-to-noise ratio for different configurations. We also discuss the expected e...

  8. Cooperative Secret Sharing Using QR Codes and Symmetric Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Wai Chow

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Secret sharing is an information security technique where a dealer divides a secret into a collection of shares and distributes these to members of a group. The secret will only be revealed when a predefined number of group members cooperate to recover the secret. The purpose of this study is to investigate a method of distributing shares by embedding them into cover Quick Response (QR codes in a secure manner using cryptographic keys. The advantage of this approach is that the shares can be disseminated over public channels, as anyone who scans the QR codes will only obtain public information. Only authorized individuals who are in possession of the required keys will be able to recover the shares. This also means that when group members cooperate to recover a secret, the group can determine the presence of an illegitimate participant if the person does not produce a valid share. This study proposes a protocol for accomplishing this and discusses the underlying security of the protocol.

  9. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Background The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. Objective The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. Methods We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. Results With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Conclusions Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. PMID:28446420

  10. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  11. Key performance indicators in British military trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Adam; Tai, Nigel R; Bowley, Douglas M; Midwinter, Mark; Hodgetts, Tim J

    2008-08-01

    Key performance indicators (KPI) are tools for assessing process and outcome in systems of health care provision and are an essential component in performance improvement. Although KPI have been used in British military trauma for 10 years, they remain poorly defined and are derived from civilian metrics that do not adjust for the realities of field trauma care. Our aim was to modify current trauma KPI to ensure they more faithfully reflect both the military setting and contemporary evidence in order to both aid accurate calibration of the performance of the British Defence Medical Services and act as a driver for performance improvement. A workshop was convened that was attended by senior, experienced doctors and nurses from all disciplines of trauma care in the British military. "Speciality-specific" KPI were developed by interest groups using evidence-based data where available and collective experience where this was lacking. In a final discussion these were streamlined into 60 KPI covering each phase of trauma management. The introduction of these KPI sets a number of important benchmarks by which British military trauma can be measured. As part of a performance improvement programme, these will allow closer monitoring of our performance and assist efforts to develop, train, and resource British military trauma providers.

  12. Key Competences in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Dibbern; Kruse, Katrine

    This article presents and discusses how key competences in the school based learning are embedded in the VET curricula during the last five years. It gives an overview of how their role has developed in light of the comprehensive Danish VET reform agreed in 2014 and implemented since August 2015....

  13. Public-key encryption with chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarev, Ljupco; Sterjev, Marjan; Fekete, Attila; Vattay, Gabor

    2004-12-01

    We propose public-key encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps, which are generalization of well-known and commercially used algorithms: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), ElGamal, and Rabin. For the case of generalized RSA algorithm we discuss in detail its software implementation and properties. We show that our algorithm is as secure as RSA algorithm.

  14. Quantum key distribution on Hannover Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhme, Joerg; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, AG Quanteninformation (Germany); Haendchen, Vitus; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman [Albert Einstein Institut, Quantum Interferometry (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We report on the progress of the implementation of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution on Hannover campus using squeezed gaussian states (continuous variables). This poster focuses on the theoretical aspects of the project. Experimental data has been compared with the theoretical simulation of the experimental setup. We especially discuss effects of the homodyne detection and postprocessing in use on the measurement outcome.

  15. Information Theoretic Secret Key Generation: Structured Codes and Tree Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitinawarat, Sirin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with a multiterminal source model for secret key generation by multiple network terminals with prior and privileged access to a set of correlated signals complemented by public discussion among themselves. Emphasis is placed on a characterization of secret key capacity, i.e., the largest rate of an achievable secret key,…

  16. Enhancing Collaborative Learning through Group Intelligence Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin Leng; Macaulay, Linda A.

    Employers increasingly demand not only academic excellence from graduates but also excellent interpersonal skills and the ability to work collaboratively in teams. This paper discusses the role of Group Intelligence software in helping to develop these higher order skills in the context of an enquiry based learning (EBL) project. The software supports teams in generating ideas, categorizing, prioritizing, voting and multi-criteria decision making and automatically generates a report of each team session. Students worked in a Group Intelligence lab designed to support both face to face and computer-mediated communication and employers provided feedback at two key points in the year long team project. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Group Intelligence software in collaborative learning was based on five key concepts of creativity, participation, productivity, engagement and understanding.

  17. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Druţu, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    The key idea in geometric group theory is to study infinite groups by endowing them with a metric and treating them as geometric spaces. This applies to many groups naturally appearing in topology, geometry, and algebra, such as fundamental groups of manifolds, groups of matrices with integer coefficients, etc. The primary focus of this book is to cover the foundations of geometric group theory, including coarse topology, ultralimits and asymptotic cones, hyperbolic groups, isoperimetric inequalities, growth of groups, amenability, Kazhdan's Property (T) and the Haagerup property, as well as their characterizations in terms of group actions on median spaces and spaces with walls. The book contains proofs of several fundamental results of geometric group theory, such as Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, Tits's alternative, Stallings's theorem on ends of groups, Dunwoody's accessibility theorem, the Mostow Rigidity Theorem, and quasiisometric rigidity theorems of Tukia and Schwartz. This is the f...

  18. English Proficiency and Participation in Online Discussion for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Does English proficiency affect participation in online discussion? This study polled 14 students from a postgraduate online course that require online discussion. The students are divided into groups according to their home language spoken and self-assessed English proficiency, and measure against their participation level in the required…

  19. Classroom Voting Questions to Stimulate Discussions in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Huckaby, David A.; Storm, Christopher; Stewart, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Classroom voting can be an effective way to stimulate student discussions. In this pedagogy, the instructor poses a multiple-choice question to the class, and then allows a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion before students vote, either with clickers, cell phones, or a non-electronic method. After the vote the instructor…

  20. Coherent one-way quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Fasel, Sylvain; Gisin, Nicolas; Thoma, Yann; Zbinden, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) consists in the exchange of a secrete key between two distant points [1]. Even if quantum key distribution systems exist and commercial systems are reaching the market [2], there are still improvements to be made: simplify the construction of the system; increase the secret key rate. To this end, we present a new protocol for QKD tailored to work with weak coherent pulses and at high bit rates [3]. The advantages of this system are that the setup is experimentally simple and it is tolerant to reduced interference visibility and to photon number splitting attacks, thus resulting in a high efficiency in terms of distilled secret bits per qubit. After having successfully tested the feasibility of the system [3], we are currently developing a fully integrated and automated prototype within the SECOQC project [4]. We present the latest results using the prototype. We also discuss the issue of the photon detection, which still remains the bottleneck for QKD.

  1. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  2. Setting objectives for managing Key deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wagner, Tyler; Stauffer, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for the protection and management of Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) because the species is listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purpose of the ESA is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. There are a host of actions that could possibly be undertaken to recover the Key deer population, but without a clearly defined problem and stated objectives it can be difficult to compare and evaluate alternative actions. In addition, management goals and the acceptability of alternative management actions are inherently linked to stakeholders, who should be engaged throughout the process of developing a decision framework. The purpose of this project was to engage a representative group of stakeholders to develop a problem statement that captured the management problem the FWS must address with Key deer and identify objectives that, if met, would help solve the problem. In addition, the objectives were organized in a hierarchical manner (i.e., an objectives network) to show how they are linked, and measurable attributes were identified for each objective. We organized a group of people who represented stakeholders interested in and potentially affected by the management of Key deer. These stakeholders included individuals who represented local, state, and federal governments, non-governmental organizations, the general public, and local businesses. This stakeholder group met five full days over the course of an eight-week period to identify objectives that would address the following problem:“As recovery and removal from the Endangered Species list is the purpose of the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service needs a management approach that will ensure a sustainable, viable, and healthy Key deer population. Urbanization has affected the behavior and population dynamics of the Key deer and the amount and characteristics

  3. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  4. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute ... on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). ... nature of flows is clearly understood with the help of advanced instrumentation.

  5. Shaping stereotypical behaviour through the discussion of social stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-03-01

    In two studies, we demonstrate that small group discussions change the extent to which an activated stereotype affects performance in a relevant domain. In Study 1, female participants were asked why men are (or are not) better than them at maths. They generated their answers individually or through group discussion, and their subsequent maths performance was highest when they collectively challenged the stereotype and lowest when they collectively affirmed the stereotype. When participants affirmed the stereotype through discussion, they used more theories which supported the validity of the stereotype, compared to the individual thought condition; and consensus mediated the effect of group discussion on performance (relative to individual rumination). In Study 2, male and female participants affirmed or challenged the stereotype in same-gender discussion groups. After affirming the stereotype, women's performance decreased relative to their baseline scores and men's performance was 'lifted'. In contrast, when they challenged the stereotype, there was no difference between the performance of men and women on the maths test. This pattern of effects was mediated by confidence in mathematical ability. The findings support the idea that topical small group discussions can, in the short term, differentially alter the impact that stereotypes have on performance. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  7. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  8. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...

  9. The key found

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stankowka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poetycka antropologia Julii Hartwig [Julia Hartwig’s poetic anthropology] written by Marcin Terlecki is a book that fills the yawning gap in our literary understanding of the twentieth century Polish poetry and constitutes the first attempt at a comprehensive and detailed presentation of the lyrical works by J. Hartwig. The modern collection in which the work appears allow M. Terlecki to reveal the poetess’ fundamental insights dominating and underlying her world outlook and epistemological views. This, in turn, puts him in a position to give an explanation to the logic embedded in the evolution under scrutiny. M. Terlecki convincingly supports his own argument concerning J. Hartwig’s poetic reception of the world proving the thesis that its fundamentals are deeply rooted in the anthropological perspective. Terlecki differentiates the latter into three basic categories. First, there is “strangeness/alienation”, which results in the need for self-definition (determination of one’s nature and basic qualities. Then, “identity”, whose reflection turns out to be not only what is different in its external shape, but also what is different inside — within the plane of one’s own culture, biography and personality. And, finally, “empathy”, born out of questions on a feasibility of contact with what is different, alien and absent. The three categories, connected by the logic of anthropological vision, are presented as basic and fundamental for the subsequent stages in Hartwig’s poetical output. At the same time, they reveal themselves as axes of anthropological reading material provided by the author — for the discussed book is the author’s own research project on “poetic anthropology”.

  10. Il governo della performance dei processi di business : dai Key Performance Indicators ai Key Risk Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Beretta; Saverio Bozzolan

    2013-01-01

    The recent paper issued by COSO ["Developing Key Risk Indicators to Strengthen Enterprise Risk Management" (Coso, 2010)] is the starting point of this article whose aim is to discuss the relevance of the business process dimension in the design and implementation of Key Risk Indicators. The Authors analyze the reasons of the systematic underestimation of the business process dimension in the COSO papers and debate the implications that the explicit consideration of the business process dimens...

  11. Climate Prediction Center: ENSO Diagnostic Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization Search Go Search the CPC Go Expert Assessments ENSO Diagnostic Discussion Archive About Us Our Assessments > ENSO Diagnostic Discussion El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion PDF : English Version Spanish Version Adobe PDF Reader (Click icon for Adobe PDF Reader) Word: English Version

  12. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  13. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  14. Discussion on mass concrete construction of wind turbine generator foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Liang; Wu, Chaoxiang; Yin, Xiaoyong

    2018-04-01

    Wind power is one of the main power sources currently. China has rich wind power resources, wind power plants are developed faster and faster. However, China wind power construction started late, which is lack of relevant experience technology. It is easy to produce quality problems. The key to the construction quality of wind power plant is the construction quality of mass concrete construction. Therefore, construction technology and quality control of wind turbine generator foundation mass concrete are discussed and analyzed in the paper.

  15. Toxicological comments to the discussion about REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Arand, Michael; Autrup, Herman; Bolt, Hermann M; Bridges, James; Dybing, Erik; Glomot, Rémi; Foa, Vito; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf

    2006-03-01

    It is the ultimate goal of the intended REACH process (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) of the European Union to identify substances of hazardous properties and to evaluate the risks of human and environmental exposure. During the last few months there has been a controversial discussion as to what extent in vitro studies and consideration of structure activity relationship provide sufficient information to waive repeated exposure studies. Industry as well as certain regulatory agencies or NGOs support this approach and propose that repeated dose studies may only be required beyond 100 t/a. From a toxicological point of view it has to be stressed that this discussion primarily considers the cost reduction and protection of animals, whereas protection of human health and the environment are secondary. In vitro studies only allow identification of specific hazardous properties which can be detected by the specific test system. Moreover, appropriate information on the dose response of adverse effects, identification of thresholds and NOELs that are essential for risk characterization cannot be obtained from these studies. Consequently, identification of all relevant hazardous properties and endpoints of adverse effects can only be determined in the intact animal by repeated dose studies such as 28-day or 90-day studies. In the absence of such information the hazard identification is incomplete and there is no basis for appropriate risk assessment of human exposure. Thus, any waiving of repeated dose studies in animals bears the probability of unforeseen effects in case of acute or continuous human exposure. From this the undersigning European Toxicologists conclude: 1. The intention of REACH is to identify hazardous properties in order that a reliable risk assessment can be made and measures taken to deal with chemicals posing a significant risk. 2. The recent debate has centered on ways in which the well established in vivo methods for risk

  16. Research on website construction based on website group platform of Chengdu sport institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zunyu

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes the necessity of website construction based on the website group of Chengdu sport institute, and discusses the technical features of the website group, Based on the website group platform architecture, the key technologies such as Web Service, AJAX, RSS and other key technologies are used to realize the construction of the website. Based on the website group platform architecture of the site, it effectively solves the information isolated island between the sites, and realizes the information sharing and resource integration. It is also more convenient that site and other sites have composed of site group integrated operation and maintenance.

  17. Secure Group Communications for Large Dynamic Multicast Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing; Zhou Mingtian

    2003-01-01

    As the major problem in multicast security, the group key management has been the focus of research But few results are satisfactory. In this paper, the problems of group key management and access control for large dynamic multicast group have been researched and a solution based on SubGroup Secure Controllers (SGSCs) is presented, which solves many problems in IOLUS system and WGL scheme.

  18. Pulsar velocity observations: Correlations, interpretations, and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfand, D.J.; Tademaru, E.

    1977-01-01

    From an examination of the current sample of 12 pulsars with measured proper motions and the z-distribution of the much larger group of over 80 sources with measured period derivatives, we develop a self-consistent picture of pulsar evolution. The apparent tendency of pulsars to move parallel to the galactic plane is explained as the result of various selection effects. A method for calculating the unmeasurable radial velocity of a pulsar is presented; it is shown that the total space velocities thus obtained are consistent with the assumption of an extreme Population I origin for pulsars which subsequently move away from the plane with a large range of velocities. The time scale for pulsar magnetic field decay is derived from dynamical considerations. A strong correlation of the original pulsar field strength with the magnitude of pulsar velocity is discussed. This results in the division of pulsars into two classes: Class A sources characterized by low space velocities, a small scale height, and low values of P 0 P 0 ; and Class B sources with a large range of velocities (up to 1000 km s -1 ), a much greater scale height, and larger values of initial field strength. It is postulated that Class A sources originate in tight binaries where their impulse acceleration at birth is insufficient to remove them from the system, while the Class B sources arise from single stars or loosely bound binaries and are accelerated to high velocities by their asymmetric radiation force. The evolutionary picture which is developed is shown to be consistent with a number of constraints imposed by supernova rates, the relative frequency of massive binaries and Class A sources, theoretical field-decay times, and the overall pulsar galactic distribution

  19. Working Group 7 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev S.; Berg J.

    2012-06-10

    The primary subject of working group 7 at the 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop was muon accelerators for a muon collider or neutrino factory. Additionally, this working group included topics that did not fit well into other working groups. Two subjects were discussed by more than one speaker: lattices to create a perfectly integrable nonlinear lattice, and a Penning trap to create antihydrogen.

  20. AREVA group overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)