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Sample records for group discussions identified

  1. Summaries of group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  2. Group discussion improves lie detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadav Klein; Nicholas Epley

    2015-01-01

    ... identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions...

  3. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  4. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  5. Small group discussion: Students perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-08-01

    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  6. Interteaching: Discussion Group Size and Course Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Jacob C.; Saville, Bryan K.; Van Patten, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have yet to examine whether discussion group size affects student performance in an interteaching-based course. In the current study, we addressed this question by manipulating discussion group size (smaller groups of 2 students vs. larger groups of 4 students) across 2 sections of an undergraduate psychology course. We found no…

  7. Dr. Irvin Yalom Discusses Group Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1989-01-01

    In this interview, Dr. Irvin Yalom, director of the Adult Psychiatry Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine, discusses his beginnings as a group psychotherapist, current issues in group work, and the future of group work. (Author/TE)

  8. National GAP Conference 2007-Discussion Groups Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee

    2010-01-01

    We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.

  9. Enhancing Understanding and Interest through Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Group discussion allows students to learn how to "talk to someone." Through group discussion, students can acquire or refine a broad range of attributes, from basic oratory skills to a more sophisticated development of communicative competence to embracing and valuing dialogic interchange and reflexivity. In this article, the author explains how…

  10. Teaching Organizational Behavior Through Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stephen; Hamblin, Anthony C.

    1978-01-01

    An educational experiment in teaching organizational behavior to undergraduates in England is reported, with focus on the value and limitations of a systematic form of discussion-group learning based upon a framework outlined by Fawcett Hill. (LBH)

  11. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  12. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  13. Group reports. The recommendations proposed by the seven discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1989-01-01

    GROUP 1 — Discussion leader S.H. Sohmer — Organization and the ideal format of a large Flora (over 10,000 species) The Working Group first recognized that there are really two major categories of Flora projects serving quite different needs in the Malesian region: the local/national projects that

  14. Assessing clinical competency: reports from discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnwald, Grant; Stone, Elizabeth; Bristol, David; Fuentealba, Carmen; Hardie, Lizette; Hellyer, Peter; Jaeger, Laurie; Kerwin, Sharon; Kochevar, Deborah; Lissemore, Kerry; Olsen, Christopher; Rogers, Kenita; Sabin, Beth; Swanson, Cliff; Warner, Angeline

    2008-01-01

    This report describes proposed new models for assessment of eight of the nine clinical competencies the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education requires for accreditation. The models were developed by discussion groups at the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' Clinical Competency Symposium. Clinical competencies and proposed models (in parentheses) are described. Competency 1: comprehensive patient diagnosis (neurologic examination on a dog, clinical reasoning skills); Competency 2: comprehensive treatment planning (concept mapping, computerized case studies); Competency 3: anesthesia, pain management (student portfolio); Competency 4: surgery skills (objective structured clinical examination, cased-based examination, "super dog" model); Competency 5: medicine skills (clinical reasoning and case management, skills checklist); Competency 6: emergency and intensive care case management (computerized case study or scenario); Competency 7: health promotion, disease prevention/biosecurity (360 degrees evaluation, case-based computer simulation); Competency 8: client communications and ethical conduct (Web-based evaluation forms, client survey, communicating with stakeholders, telephone conversation, written scenario-based cases). The report also describes faculty recognition for participating in clinical competency assessments.

  15. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  16. Summary of Study Group Session Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between gravitational physiology and calcium metabolism is examined. The role of gravity on the problems of bone response, low gravity environments, calcium in plants, and the potential in animal systems for alterations in nerve and muscle function as variations in extracellular calcium levels occurred are discussed. Innovative materials for experiments on interactions between calcium and gravity, experiments that could utilize ionospheres or calcium-measuring dyes, and specific gravity calcium experiments are also addressed.

  17. The influence of ethnic group composition on focus group discussions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwood, Nan; Ellmers, Theresa; Holley, Jess

    2014-01-01

    ... of importance to them in their own words [2]. They are particularly useful for gaining insight from minority ethnic groups [1, 3] because of their sensitivity to cultural variables [2, 4]. One of the main differences between focus groups and one-to-one interviews is the interaction between participants. Focus group participants can...

  18. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Learning Physics in Small-Group Discussions--Three Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckert, Sylvia; Pettersson, Sune

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of students learning of physics during group discussions around context-rich problems in introductory physics courses at university level. We present the results from video recordings of student groups solving three different problems. We found that group discussions around physics problems can lead to…

  20. Increasing Social Presence in Online Learning through Small Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcaoglu, Mete; Lee, Eunbae

    2016-01-01

    Social presence is difficult to achieve, but an imperative component of online learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of group size on students' perceptions of social presence in two graduate-level online courses, comparing small group versus whole class discussions. Our results indicated that when in small group discussions, students…

  1. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  2. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  3. The group discussion effect: integrative processes and suggestions for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    One of the most consistent findings in experimental social dilemmas research is the positive effect group discussion has on cooperative behavior. At a time when cooperation and consensus is critical to tackle global problems, ranging from debt to deforestation, understanding the dynamics of group discussion is a pressing need. Unfortunately, research investigating the underlying processes and implementation of the effect has been inconclusive. The authors present a critical review of existing explanations and integrate these perspectives into a single process model of group discussion, providing a more complete theoretical picture of how interrelated factors combine to facilitate discussion-induced cooperation. On the basis of this theoretical analysis, they consider complimentary approaches to the indirect and feasible implementation of group discussion. They argue that such strategies may overcome the barriers to direct discussion observed across a range of groups and organizations.

  4. Searching for Intertextual Connections in Small Group Text Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the sources for and intentions of intertextuality made by 10 groups of Taiwanese university students in the process of discussing two American stories. Two types of data, small group text discussions and oral interviews, were gathered. The results indicated that participants used diverse sources of intertextual links, and with…

  5. The power of talk : Developing discriminatory group norms through discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a

  6. The power of talk : Developing discriminatory group norms through discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a

  7. Literature Discussion Groups: The Role of Teacher Talk in Discussing Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teacher talk influenced the way issues of race, culture, and disability were addressed in literature discussion groups. Discussions of one teacher with two groups of students, of varying reading levels, were studied. The research questions were: 1) How does the teacher's perspective on the students…

  8. The power of talk: developing discriminatory group norms through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a negative societal stereotype (relative to individual rumination in Studies 1 and 3 and alternative discussions in Studies 2 and 3) increases intentions to engage in discrimination against the out-group target of the stereotype. This is mediated by the formation of an in-group norm which supports discrimination (Study 1) and the extent to which the discussion validates the stereotype (Study 2). A fourth study manipulated the extent to which consensus on the negative stereotype was reached through discussion. When the discussion ended in consensus, participants have greater intention to undertake collective action against the stereotyped out-group, mediated by a congruent in-group norm. These results provide evidence that the process by which discussion increases intergroup discrimination is via the formation of discriminatory local group norms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Facilitating Meaningful Discussion Groups in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Lindsey; Ogden, Meridith; Kelly, Laura Beth

    2015-01-01

    This Teaching Tips describes a yearlong process of facilitating meaningful discussion groups about literature with first-grade students in an urban Title I school. At the beginning of the year, the teacher provided explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills to support students with the social skills needed for thoughtful discussion. She…

  10. Values and Commitments Underlying Discussion. Professional Development on Discussion: Group Images in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eileen

    The Discussion Development Group (DDG) at Moray House College of Education, Scotland, is a resource center designed as an open learning system to provide inservice training, consultancy support, and resources on classroom discussion. A case study involving 17 teachers and recently conducted by the DDG explored features of process innovation and…

  11. Learning What Works: Promoting Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; Dao, Jennifer N.; González, Gloriana

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers have designed lessons for students who will be working in groups to discuss and solve a problem. After investing time in constructing an interesting problem, creating strategically designed groups, and introducing the problem carefully, teachers may be left wondering how to help students collaborate to make sense of mathematical…

  12. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  13. Analysis of the Characteristics of Discussion Materials that Promote Group Discussion in the Medical Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Hee; Jeon, Woo Taek

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the characteristics of discussion materials that promote student participation in discussions, satisfaction with student instruction, and tutor intervention in the medical humanities. We surveyed 117 premedical students and 7 tutors who attended 4-week group discussions in the medical humanities in 2010. We described the discussion materials using the following 4 characteristics as independent variables: material type, level of understanding, interest, and quantity. Dependent variables were: student participation in the discussion, student instruction satisfaction, and tutor intervention. Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and crosstab were performed using SPSS 15.0. The correlation between the characteristics of the discussion materials differed by grade. When the books were chosen as the discussion material in the instruction of first-year premedical students, the correlation between level of understanding, interest, and quantity was negative. Higher levels of understanding of the material and interest in the material led to an increase in discussion participation among both first- and second-year premedical students. Higher levels of understanding and interest of the discussion material also increased student satisfaction with the instruction, regardless of grade. Finally, levels of understanding of the material affected the degree of tutor intervention. Tutors intervened more often in discussions with first-year premedical students than with second-year premedical students. Differences in grades and the understanding of the discussion material should be considered when choosing discussion materials. Further study is required to continue the development of the discussion model and improve methods of facilitate discussion among students in the medical humanities.

  14. How Introverts versus Extroverts Approach Small-Group Argumentative Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Explored in two studies disparities between how students with different degrees of extroversion and introversion engaged in small-group discussions requiring construction and critique of arguments. Found that extroverted students exhibited a greater tendency to use conflictual discourse, whereas introverted students worked with one another…

  15. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  16. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  17. Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…

  18. Lexical Bundles: Facilitating University "Talk" in Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chan Swee; Kashiha, Hadi; Tan, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Group discussion forms an integral language experience for most language learners, providing them with an opportunity to express themselves in a naturalistic setting. Multi-word expressions are commonly used and one of them is lexical bundles. Lexical bundles are types of extended collocations that occur more commonly than we expect; they are…

  19. Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…

  20. Forming a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group - An Overview and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal to form a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group is discussed. Survey responses regarding the purpose, membership, and meeting frequency are presented as well as the areas of expertise and experience of the respondents. The types of seals used, designed, or sold, current work, and technical challenges of turbomachinery seals, their materials, analysis, geometry, manufacturing, maintenance, testing, and incorporation into engine systems are also presented.

  1. Supervised Group Discussion To Teach Investigation Of An Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M.B

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of investigation of an epidemic was taught to three successive batches of medical students using the data of an actual local outbreak of gastro â€" enteritis. The method used was supervised group discussion using audio â€" visual aids. The objectives achieved about the conduct of the sessions and the suggestions given by the students for improvement have also been highlighted.

  2. Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Veteläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.

  3. Social Network Analysis of an Online Melanoma Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Kathleen T.; McCray, Alexa T.; Safran, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We have developed tools to explore social networks that share information in medical forums to better understand the unmet informational needs of patients and family members facing cancer treatments. We define metrics that demonstrate members discussing interleukin-2 receive a stronger response from the melanoma discussion group than a typical topic. The interleukin-2 network has a different topology than the melanoma network, has a higher density, and its members are more likely to have a higher intimacy level with another member and a lower inquisitiveness level than a typical melanoma user. Members are more likely to join the interleukin-2 network to answer a question than in the melanoma network (probability =.2 ±.05 p-value=.001). Within the melanoma network 20% of the questions posed to the community do not get an answer. In the interleukin-2 network, 1.3% of the questions (one question) do not get a response. PMID:21347134

  4. Audience design through social interaction during group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane L; Fay, Nicolas; Maybery, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts two accounts of audience design during multiparty communication: audience design as a strategic individual-level message adjustment or as a non-strategic interaction-level message adjustment. Using a non-interactive communication task, Experiment 1 showed that people distinguish between messages designed for oneself and messages designed for another person; consistent with strategic message design, messages designed for another person/s were longer (number of words) than those designed for oneself. However, audience size did not affect message length (messages designed for different sized audiences were similar in length). Using an interactive communication task Experiment 2 showed that as group size increased so too did communicative effort (number of words exchanged between interlocutors). Consistent with a non-strategic account, as group members were added more social interaction was necessary to coordinate the group's collective situation model. Experiment 3 validates and extends the production measures used in Experiment 1 and 2 using a comprehension task. Taken together, our results indicate that audience design arises as a non-strategic outcome of social interaction during group discussion.

  5. Gender Issues on the Information Highway: An Analysis of Communication Styles in Electronic Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Paolo

    A study investigated gender differences in language use in electronic mail discussion groups. A review of research on discourse analysis identifies areas in which gender differences are found in interpersonal interaction and language use in general, and how these reflect differences in socialization. Research on electronic discussion groups…

  6. Online Group Discussion pada Mata Kuliah Teknologi Pembelajaran Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuberti Yuberti

    2015-10-01

    penawaran akses internet yang menggiurkan demi menarik minat penggunanya. Beberapa fenomena tersebut menunjukkan semakin banyak kalangan yang memanfaatkan internet dan menjadikanya sebagai gaya hidup untuk berintaksi, bersosialisasi, belajar dan mendapatkan informasi. Meluasnya pemanfaatan internet bisa menjadi potensi besar dalam pengembangan pembelajaran dengan sistem online memungkinkan pebelajar untuk mengakses infromasi secara fleksibel tanpa terbatas waktu dan tempat. Diskusi tidak lagi terjadi secara tatap muka, namun dapat terus berlangsung meskipun dalam lingkungan maya. Sebagaimana pelaksanaan metode pembelajaran maya lainnya. Pelaksanaannya diskusi online itu sendiri pada dasarnya mengadopsi dari metode pembelajaran diskusi tatap muka. Kata kunci: online group discussion, teknologi pembelajaran

  7. Groups of Groups: The Role of Group Learning in Building Social Capital. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena; Falk, Ian

    The Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia is investigating the elements of social capital and developing a set of indicators that show when social capital is building. The indicators can be used where groups or organizations with a shared purpose engage in productive interactions that benefit not only the individual member groups…

  8. Forming a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group: An Overview and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    Purose: Identify technical challenges to improving turbomachinery seal leakage and wear performance, reliability and cost effectiveness. Develop a coordinated effort to resolve foundational issues for turbomachinery seal technologies. Identify and foster opportunities for collaboration. Advocate for funding.

  9. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  10. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  11. Responding to Financial Reductions Reports from the Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Institutional Management in Higher Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The discussions of participants of a workshop concerning the effects of retrenchment on teaching and research, institutional policies, and institutional operations in European higher educational institutions are summarized. (MSE)

  12. Pretest online discussion groups to augment teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jonathan; Hasbargen, Barbara; Miziniak, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Tests and final examination scores of three semesters of control students in a nursing foundation course were compared with tests and final examination scores of three semesters of participating students. Participating students were offered access to an asynchronous pretest online discussion activity with a faculty e-moderator. While the simplified Bloom's revised taxonomy assisted in creating appropriate preparatory test and final examination questions for pretest online discussion, Salmon's five-stage online method provided direction to the e-moderator on how to encourage students to achieve Bloom's higher-order thinking skills during the pretest online discussions. Statistical analysis showed the pretest online discussion activity had a generally positive impact on tests and final examination scores, when controlling for a number of possible confounding variables, including instructor, cumulative grade point average, age, and credit hours.

  13. The "Us" in Discuss: Grouping in Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one middle school teacher's use of literature circles using heterogeneous grouping. It begins with a brief rationale for using literature circles in the language arts classroom. Next, it describes techniques to form literature circles. Then, it shares how to build and establish a supportive environment within each group. It…

  14. Puerperal Group A Streptococcal Infections: A Case Series and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T. Busowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerperal group A streptococcal infections, a major postpartum killer during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, have become (fortunately rare. We describe a cluster of 4 serious peripartum group A streptococcal infections occurring within the past five years at a single medical center. These cases were not epidemiologically linked and serve to illustrate the continuing risk of these potentially fulminant infections.

  15. A Blueprint for Implementing Small-Group Collaborative Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Jones, Lisa; Proctor, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of the Common Core in many states across the country means we need to explore instructional approaches that promote student language use in order to meet many of the complex linguistic standards that comprise the Common Core. In this Teaching Tip, we provide a blueprint for a 4-week collaborative discussion mini-unit that a second…

  16. [The Mechanism of Free-Floating Discussion in a Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing Supervisory Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsien-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    Although the free-floating discussion format is widely used in group therapy, the application of this format in the context of supervisory groups has yet to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms involved in facilitating and learning the free-floating discussion format in a supervisory group. A phenomenological approach was used to investigate the group content and personal feedback of a psychiatric-nurse supervisory group. The group held on 12 sessions. Each session was conducted once weekly and lasting 150 minutes. The findings identified the functions of free-floating discussions in the context of supervisory groups as: embodied interaction and initiation by handling. Embodied interaction included: reflection on the experience of the other, sense of body, and present action. Initiation by handling included: facilitating the self-narrative, following the lead of the group, and reflecting in accordance with the group. The role of the facilitator is to parallel process rather than to lead in order to produce practical wisdom. Free-floating discussion and self-evidence from initiation by handling has the potential to promote spontaneity, creativity, and self-confidence in clinical practice and to promote deep learning.

  17. Studying Problem Solving through Group Discussion in Chat Rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kozlova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we use a chat conversations’ corpus to study the process of resolving language problems. Our corpus includes chat conversations which took place between LSP students engaged in correcting errors in their peers’ summaries. The participants worked in groups and used the Windows Messenger program for communication within the group. Their task also included making use of electronic dictionaries and other reference materials. The conversations’ corpus obtained as a result of this exercise was analyzed holistically for possible indicators of each particular stage of the problem solving process. Later these indicators were validated throughout the entire corpus. Each problem solving process was thus represented as a chain of indicators and acceptability was determined for each error correction. The resulting problem solving chains were used to prove our hypotheses concerning internal and external support in text reproduction.

  18. The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…

  19. Repositories in an institutional context : Technical discussion Group 4

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Repositories are starting to take their place within an institution¹s infrastructure, sitting alongside portals, course management systems, virtual research environments and others. But in considering how a repository can best serve an institution it is important to consider how this technology will integrate with existing systems, so that it doesn¹t become a standalone white elephant that is a nuisance to use. This breakout will consider the technical ways in which repositories can be presented as a system that is easy to use and interact with, from the searcher¹s, depositor¹s and administrator¹s perspectives. It will look at potential interaction through other institutional environments and seek to identify ways in which repositories can become a more integral part of the technical landscape. Bring along your examples of how repositories are being technically embedded within institutions to help share experience and ideas.

  20. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  1. Effects of Tagcloud-Anchored Group Discussions on Pre-Service Teachers' Collaborative Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Xie, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Group discussions are critical for students constructing new understanding and knowledge in both classroom and distance education. Tagclouds can provide an intuitive overview about the group's collective knowledge and could potentially be used as an anchor for group discussions. The effect of using tagclouds as anchors for group discussions was…

  2. An online monogenic diabetes discussion group: supporting families and fueling new research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Marie E; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-11-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments and design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  4. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  5. Effect of Small Group Discussion in Residency Education Versus Conventional Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tabrizi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:There are various methods of training for medical students in different colleges. Fast knowledge transfer and maximum learning are the main goals of education. Due to the limited time and also high volume of content knowledge during residency, using the best methods of training can play an important role in enhancing the skills of residents. In the current study, small group discussion as a teaching method was compared with the traditional method. Methods:In this cohort study, two groups of residents that had finished a 4-year course of orthopedic residency training programs in Tabriz and Urmia universities of medical sciences was being examined. They were divided in two groups. In order to compare the impact of the training on residents, it was compared with the result of the State Board standardized exam. The number of residents passing the written test and the Objective Structural Clinical Examination (OSCE per year have been identified and compared with the groups under investigation. Results:Fifty-one residents, including 4 women (7.8% and 47 men (92.2%, were studied for this purpose. Success rate for the small group discussion in the written exam was 59.2% and in the OSCE was 24% (95% CI. On the other hand, the success rates for the group who were trained in the traditional way were 37% and 16.6% in the written exam and OSCE, respectively. In both cases the differences were significant. Conclusion:The small group discussion method is an effective method in residency training in surgical fields that increases medical students’ learning abilities compared to traditional methods of education.

  6. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  7. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  8. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes. METHODS: Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001. CONCLUSION: The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  9. Traditional male circumcision in Uganda: a qualitative focus group discussion analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sabet Sarvestani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS: During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. CONCLUSION: This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.

  10. Patients' views on improving sickle cell disease management in primary care: focus group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuburi, Ghida; Phekoo, Karen J; Okoye, Nv Ogo; Anie, Kofie; Green, Stuart A; Nkohkwo, Asaah; Ojeer, Patrick; Ndive, Comfort; Banarsee, Ricky; Oni, Lola; Majeed, Azeem

    2012-12-01

    To assess sickle cell disease (SCD) patient and carer perspectives on the primary care services related to SCD that they receive from their general practitioner (GP). A focus group discussion was used to elicit the views of patients about the quality of care they receive from their primary health-care providers and what they thought was the role of primary care in SCD management. The focus group discussion was video recorded. The recording was then examined by the project team and recurring themes were identified. A comparison was made with notes made by two scribes also present at the discussion. Sickle Cell Society in Brent, UK. Ten participants with SCD or caring for someone with SCD from Northwest London, UK. Patients' perceptions about the primary care services they received, and a list of key themes and suggestions. Patients and carers often bypassed GPs for acute problems but felt that GPs had an important role to play around repeat prescriptions and general health care. These service users believed SCD is often ignored and deemed unimportant by GPs. Participants wanted the health service to support primary health-care providers to improve their knowledge and understanding of SCD. Key themes and suggestions from this focus group have been used to help develop an educational intervention for general practice services that will be used to improve SCD management in primary care.

  11. discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Poznyak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a version of Robust Stochastic Maximum Principle (RSMP applied to the Minimax Mayer Problem formulated for stochastic differential equations with the control-dependent diffusion term. The parametric families of first and second order adjoint stochastic processes are introduced to construct the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. The Hamiltonian function used for the construction of the robust optimal control is shown to be equal to the Lebesque integral over a parametric set of the standard stochastic Hamiltonians corresponding to a fixed value of the uncertain parameter. The paper deals with a cost function given at finite horizon and containing the mathematical expectation of a terminal term. A terminal condition, covered by a vector function, is also considered. The optimal control strategies, adapted for available information, for the wide class of uncertain systems given by an stochastic differential equation with unknown parameters from a given compact set, are constructed. This problem belongs to the class of minimax stochastic optimization problems. The proof is based on the recent results obtained for Minimax Mayer Problem with a finite uncertainty set [14,43-45] as well as on the variation results of [53] derived for Stochastic Maximum Principle for nonlinear stochastic systems under complete information. The corresponding discussion of the obtain results concludes this study.

  12. Towards identifying Collaborative Learning groups using Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selver Softic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This work reports about the preliminary results and ongoing research based upon profiling collaborative learning groups of persons within the social micro-blogging platforms like Twitter that share potentially common interests on special topic. Hereby the focus is held on spontaneously initiated collaborative learning in Social Media and detection of collaborative learning groups based upon their communication dynamics. Research questions targeted to be answered are: are there any useful data mining algorithms to fulfill the task of pre-selection and clustering of users in social networks, how good do they perform, and what are the metrics that could be used for detection and evaluation in the realm of this task. Basic approach presented here uses as preamble hypothesis that users and their interests in Social Networks can be identified through content generated by them and content they consume. Special focus is held on topic oriented approach as least common bounding point. Those should be also the basic criteria used to detect and outline the learning groups. The aim of this work is to deliver first scientific pre-work for successfully implementation of recommender systems using social network metrics and content features of social network users for the purposes of better learning group communication and information consumption.

  13. Choosing none of the above: Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  14. Choosing none of the above : Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  15. Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Bert

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N?=?98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provid...

  16. Explicit Group Testing Scheme that Identifies Almost All Defective Configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Arya

    2011-01-01

    In a group testing scheme a set of tests is designed to identify a small number t of defective items among a large set (of size N) of items. In the non-adaptive scenario the set of tests has to be designed in one-shot. In this setting designing a testing scheme is equivalent to the construction of a disjunct matrix, an M x N matrix where the union of supports of any t columns does not contain the support of any other column. In principle, one wants to have such a matrix with minimum possible number M of rows (tests). In this paper we relax the definition of disjunct matrix. The new definition allows one to come up with group testing schemes where almost all (as opposed to all) possible sets of defective items are identifiable. Our main contribution is to show that, it is possible to explicitly construct disjunct matrices with the relaxed definition with much smaller number of rows than possible with the original definition. As a consequence of our result, for any absolute constant \\epsilon >0 and t proportion...

  17. Identifying Multiple Levels of Discussion-Based Teaching Strategies for Constructing Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Grant; Clement, John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify specific types of discussion-based strategies that two successful high school physics teachers using a model-based approach utilized in attempting to foster students' construction of explanatory models for scientific concepts. We found evidence that, in addition to previously documented dialogical strategies that teachers utilize to engage students in effectively communicating their scientific ideas in class, there is a second level of more cognitively focused model-construction-supporting strategies that these teachers utilized in attempting to foster students' learning. A further distinction between macro and micro strategy levels within the set of cognitive strategies is proposed. The relationships between the resulting three levels of strategies are portrayed in a diagramming system that tracks discussions over time. The study attempts to contribute to a clearer understanding of how discussion-leading strategies may be used to scaffold the development of conceptual understanding.

  18. Investigating the purpose of an online discussion group for health professionals: a case example from forensic occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Crystal; Duncan, Edward A S

    2013-07-03

    Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called 'forensic occupational therapy' was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members' locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003-2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other's experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment.

  19. Investigating the purpose of an online discussion group for health professionals: a case example from forensic occupational therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called ‘forensic occupational therapy’ was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Methods Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members’ locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003–2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Results Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Conclusions Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other’s experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment. PMID:23822895

  20. The influence of group discussion on performance judgments: rating accuracy, contrast effects, and halo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jerry K; Loveland, James M

    2008-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of group discussion, such as may occur formally in panel interview scenarios, assessment centers, or 360-degree feedback situations, on judgments of performance. Research on group polarization suggests that the effect of group discussion combined with raters' preexisting impressions of ratees or interviewees should result in an extremitization of impressions. Thus, the authors hypothesized that group discussion would (a) make ratings less accurate, (b) polarize impressions that were already good or poor as reflected by greater contrast effects, and (c) increase positive halo. Results indicated that group discussion resulted in less accurate ratings and greater contrast effects. Additional analyses suggested that group discussion increased positive halo. The authors discuss implications for research on group or panel judgments.

  1. Identifying risk groups for osteoporosis by digital panoramic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Alapati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility, and enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Dental radiographs, especially panoramic images, have been used to predict bone mineral density. A number of indices, (mandibular cortical index [MCI], mandibular cortical width [MCW], and panoramic mandibular index [PMI] have been developed to assess and quantify the quality of mandibular bone mass and to observe the signs of resorption. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess mental index (MI, MCW index, and PMI with bone density in identifying risk group for osteoporosis and also to investigate influence of age and gender on MI, MCI, and PMI. Materials and Methods: After obtaining consent, details regarding age, gender, systemic health status, and oral parafunctional habits were recorded in each patient. Then a digital panoramic radiograph was taken. The image thus obtained was subjected to calibrations and morphometric analysis using Digora version 2.7. The obtained values of indices were compared with the mean values of indices, to evaluate subjects whether they are prone to osteoporosis or not. The obtained information was subjected to statistical analysis for the significance of the parameters. Results: Data analysis showed that calibration indices were highly significant in the assessment of risk group for osteoporosis than noncalibration index. The subjects at a higher risk for development of osteoporosis were old-aged adults with higher prevalence being reported in women compared to male subjects. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest that higher percentage of subjects with undetected decreased bone mineral density may be identified based on trained general dental practitioners analyses of their panoramic radiographs using simple screening analytical calibration MI and MCI.

  2. Malaria prophylaxis: identifying risk groups for non-compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, T K; Weinke, T; Mansmann, U; Trautmann, M; Pohle, H D

    1994-01-01

    To investigate behaviour in the use of drug prophylaxis against malaria and the risk factors for non-compliance, 507 European or North American travelers returning from endemic areas were studied retrospectively at Berlin in a 11-year period from 1980 to 1990. Compliance was significantly correlated with shorter travel duration: the group with good compliance stayed 37.2 +/- 38.5 days (mean +/- SD) in contrast to 69.8 +/- 93.5 days in the group of patients with no compliance (p = 0.00001). Older patients were significantly more compliant than patients aged 54 years vs. 175/476 at travel destination (Southern and East African regions; p = 0.0054), age ( or = 55 years, respectively; p = 0.0001), and reason of travel (package tours; p = 0.0001). CART analysis confirmed logistic regression analysis with respect to age and travel type, and revealed that patients using only one information source were significantly more compliant than those using two or more information sources. Travel agencies were nearly as well informed as Institutes of Tropical Medicine, but family doctors had a significant incidence of giving wrong advice. This study should enable medical personnel dealing with prophylactic advice against malaria to identify patients at high risk for non-compliance, and to educate them more carefully than other travellers regarding antimalarial drug prophylaxis.

  3. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  4. Identifying and Measuring Ill-Structured Problem Formulation and Resolution in Online Asynchronous Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Murphy

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reports on a study involving the development and application of an instrument to identify and measure ill-structured problem formulation and resolution (PFR in online asynchronous discussions (OADs. The instrument was developed by first determining PFR processes relevant to ill-structured problems in professional practice. The processes were derived from a conceptual framework. Further refinement of the instrument was achieved by the addition of indicators of processes. These indicators are derived through application of the instrument to an actual discussion in which the processes are operationalized. Results of the application of the instrument indicated that participants engaged more in problem resolution than in problem formulation. The instrument can be further developed and refined through its application in other contexts by researchers or practitioners interested in the design and use of OADs.

  5. Discussion of using artificial neural nets to identify the well-test interpretation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, K. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Chakrabarty, C. (Golder Associates, Nottingham (United Kingdom)); Wu, S. (Univ. of Melbourne (Australia))

    1994-09-01

    Use of artificial neural nets (ANN's) to identify noisy and apparently unrecognizable patterns is common for many real-world problems, ranging from applications such as speech recognition to stock market prediction. ANN approaches are often good candidates for recognizing patterns when rigid mathematical models do not exist or are insufficient to meet a full-scale identification requirement. Al-Kaabi and Lee's proposal of using ANN's to identify the well-test interpretation model is appropriate because well-test data is often highly nonlinear and noisy. The purpose of this discussion is to present some of the authors results in a similar study and to suggest a simple technique that would enhance the use of ANN's in Al-Kaabi and Lee's approach.

  6. Challenges in the doctor-patient relationship: 12 tips for more effective peer group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hamish

    2015-09-01

    In New Zealand, almost all general practitioners are members of peer groups, which provide opportunities for both clinical discussion and collegial support. This article proposes that peer groups can also be a useful medium for exploring specific challenges within the doctor-patient relationship. However, the peer group culture needs to be receptive to this particular goal. Structured discussion can help peer group members explore interpersonal issues more thoroughly.

  7. Equine Welfare Assessment: Exploration of British Stakeholder Attitudes Using Focus-Group Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Hockenhull, Jo; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    The equine industry in Great Britain has not been subject to the same pressures as the farming industry to engage with welfare assessment, but this may change as concern about equine welfare increases. Stakeholder attitudes toward welfare assessment may impact the implementation of welfare assessment practices. Focus-group discussions regarding welfare assessment were conducted with 6 equine stakeholder groups: leisure horse owners (caregivers; n = 4), grooms (n = 5), veterinary surgeons (n = 3), welfare scientists (n = 4), welfare charity workers (n = 5), and professional riders (n = 4). Three themes emerged from the discussions: (a) Participants predominantly interpreted welfare assessment as a means of identifying and correcting poor welfare in an immediate way; (b) participants believed that horse welfare varied over time; and (c) attributes of the assessor were viewed as an important consideration for equine welfare assessment. The views of equine industry members give insight into the value welfare assessments may have to the industry and how equine welfare assessment approaches can achieve credibility within the industry and increase the positive impact of welfare assessments on equine welfare.

  8. The Effect of Small Group Discussion on Cutoff Scores during Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Marjolein I.; van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Bosker, Roel J.

    2014-01-01

    Standard setting methods, like the Bookmark procedure, are used to assist education experts in formulating performance standards. Small group discussion is meant to help these experts in setting more reliable and valid cutoff scores. This study is an analysis of 15 small group discussions during two standards setting trajectories and their effect…

  9. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  10. Promoting Thinking, Problem-Solving and Reasoning during Small Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports on the types of questioning strategies teachers use to promote thinking, problem-solving and reasoning during small group discussions. The study also reports on the types of discourses students use to problem-solve and reason during their small group discussions. An audiotape of one class lesson from the three teachers included…

  11. Relevant prior knowledge moderates the effect of elaboration during small group discussion on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion

  12. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  13. Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-02-07

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group, and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants' need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

  14. A Tentative Study of Agreement among University Freshmen in Oral English Group Discussions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out how university freshmen came to an agreement in oral English. There were twenty groups in two classes of freshmen who took part in this activity and got involved in the classroom discussions and after-class communications. The classes were divided into groups of six members. The results of the research showed that while the freshmen got involved in the group discussions, they used social communicative skills to reach a final agreement.

  15. A Tentative Study of Agreement among University Freshmen in Oral English Group Discussions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out how university freshmen came to an agreement in oral English. There weretwenty groups in two classes of freshmen who took part in this activity and got involved in the classroom discussions and after-classcommunications. The classes were divided into groups of six members. The results of the research showed that while the freshmen gotinvolved in the group discussions, they used social communicative skills to reach a final agreement.

  16. Functional gene group analysis identifies synaptic gene groups as risk factor for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, E S; Cornelisse, L N; Toonen, R F; Min, J L; Hultman, C M; Holmans, P A; O'Donovan, M C; Purcell, S M; Smit, A B; Verhage, M; Sullivan, P F; Visscher, P M; Posthuma, D

    2012-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with a polygenic pattern of inheritance and a population prevalence of ~1%. Previous studies have implicated synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We tested the accumulated association of genetic variants in expert-curated synaptic gene groups with schizophrenia in 4673 cases and 4965 healthy controls, using functional gene group analysis. Identifying groups of genes with similar cellular function rather than genes in isolation may have clinical implications for finding additional drug targets. We found that a group of 1026 synaptic genes was significantly associated with the risk of schizophrenia (P=7.6 × 10(-11)) and more strongly associated than 100 randomly drawn, matched control groups of genetic variants (P<0.01). Subsequent analysis of synaptic subgroups suggested that the strongest association signals are derived from three synaptic gene groups: intracellular signal transduction (P=2.0 × 10(-4)), excitability (P=9.0 × 10(-4)) and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling (P=2.4 × 10(-3)). These results are consistent with a role of synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia and imply that impaired intracellular signal transduction in synapses, synaptic excitability and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling play a role in the pathology of schizophrenia.

  17. Defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses: focus group discussions guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T A; Mosel Williams, L; Mummery, K

    2005-01-01

    The endorsement of the chain of survival concept and early defibrillation has challenged health professionals to reconsider their beliefs about how they respond to in-hospital resuscitation. In the rural context, where 24 hour coverage is not available nurse-initiated defibrillation is expected. Despite literature and policy change in Australia to allow nurses to initiate defibrillation, there is no current research that uses a systemic theoretical approach to investigate the specific beliefs of nurses and their use of defibrillators. The purpose of this study was to elicit a beginning understanding of the defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses. This research used focus groups within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior to describe the defibrillation beliefs of rural registered nurses. The sites selected for this study were two acute care hospitals in rural Australia (RRMA Classification). Each of these hospitals was in located 'other rural areas' (RRMA Classification) in separate towns and had 25 and 30 beds. The study sample consisted of 10 females and two males. Focus group questions were designed to elicit salient beliefs within the theoretical framework. Three constructs of behavioral, normative and control beliefs guided the development of the question and analysis of the discussions. In accordance with the authors of the theoretical framework, content analysis was used to analyse the data from the study. Two behavioral beliefs, four control beliefs and four normative belief categories were elicited. Two behavioral beliefs categories emerged from the open-ended question: 'What, if any are the advantages of you being able to use a defibrillator?' Participants were congruent when discussing the advantages of nurses initiating defibrillation. The two categories were 'quicker response times' (15 responses) and 'increased success with resuscitation' (8 responses). Participants were asked to identify any events that might influence their decision to use

  18. Cutting the Cord: Student-Led Discussion Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, John; McGuinness, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of leaderless group discussions and peer assessment in undergraduate classes to develop teamwork skills and the capacity for independent thought and action students will need on the job. (SK)

  19. Discussing group work in the EFL classroom from a Chinese cultural perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宇; 张冬瑜

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the EFL teachers, particularly those western teachers, who are teaching in China, to obtain a better understanding of group work by exploring and discussing its use from a Chinese cultural perspective.

  20. Student satisfaction and self-assessment after small group discussion in a medical ethics education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Shin, Jwa-Seop

    2009-09-01

    Small group discussions are useful tools in medical ethics education. We aimed to assess student satisfaction with specific components of a small group discussion and to evaluate student self-assessment of the objectives of education. A structured questionnaire was developed after a literature review and a focus group interview. Components of the small group discussion were categorized by discussion case (self, other), individual activities (self-study, making materials, presentation experience), and group activities (preclass/in-class/postclass/plenary discussion, instructor's comments). The items for student self-assessment were: "To specify ethical issue in actual practice", "To get new knowledge", "To consider doctor's entity", "Empathy to others", "To get multidimensional viewpoint", "Viewpoint change", "To deliver my thought clearly", and "Ability to confront the medical ethics dilemma in the future". After the survey, an in-depth interview was performed to determine the reason behind the students' answers. A total of 121 students responded, for whom overall satisfaction and self-assessment were high. Students reported greater satisfaction with self-case, presentation experience, in-class discussion, and instructor's comments but less satisfaction with self-study before class and postclass discussion. Student self-assessment was highest in the ability to specify an ethical issue and lowest for viewpoint change and self-confidence. After multivariate analysis, higher student self-assessment was associated with greater satisfaction with the small group discussion. To improve the quality of medical ethics education, close investigation and monitoring of each component of the small group discussion and student achievement are essential, as is continuous feedback.

  1. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  2. Advances and bottlenecks in modelling the greenhouse climate: summary of a group discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, I.; Bakker, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of a group discussion at the symposium 'Models in protected cultivation' held in Wageningen, August 1997. The discussion focused on the reasons for the relatively limited acceptance and application of greenhouse climate models, especially in commercial practice. The discussi

  3. Indian Youth Speak about Tobacco: Results of Focus Group Discussions with School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima; Arora, Monika; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were conducted as a formative assessment for Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, multicomponent, school-based trial to prevent and control tobacco use among youth in India. Forty-eight FGDs were conducted with students (N…

  4. Using the Self-Consciousness Scale to Predict Student Discussion Group Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Michael G.; Keller, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    This study used the Self-Consciousness Scale to test the hypothesis that socially anxious people could seek to avoid embarrassment and do poorly in small group discussions as a result. Those people high in private self-consciousness (lacking concern for social evaluation) would participate more in discussions. Findings supported the hypothesis.…

  5. Using Multimodal Presentation Software and Peer Group Discussion in Learning English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-jung

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an application of multimedia in a blended learning environment in which students engaged in multimodal presentations and peer group discussion. Students' presentation files were commented upon by their peers on the discussion board and scored by the researcher, based on questions developed by Levy and Kimber (2009) to apply…

  6. Attitudes and Language Use in Group Discussions on Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Folkesson, Anne-Mari

    2016-01-01

    The school systems of many countries have been pervaded by student-centred pedagogy making students' small group discussion a common feature of the classroom practice.However, there is a lack of studies focussing different modes of discussion for the purpose of finding out whether some modes are more beneficial than others. Hence, the aim of this…

  7. Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology with Small Group, Peer-Led Discussions of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Genya

    2012-01-01

    This review examines research of computer-mediated small group discussion of literature. The goal of this review is to explore several instructional formats for integrating print-based and new literacies skills. First, the theoretical foundations for the shift from teacher-led to student led discussion are outlined. Research exploring ways in…

  8. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  9. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  10. A Glimpse of Interactional Strategies Used in Group Discussion in the EFL Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美笑

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of literature review, this paper discusses what interactional strategies are in group discussions conducted in the EFL classroom. Two frameworks for interactional strategies are investigated to explore the types of interactional strategies. This aims to shed light upon the analysis of interactional features in face-to-face communication.

  11. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context…

  12. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  13. The Effects of L1 and L2 Group Discussions on L2 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Blake; Evans, Moyra Sweetnam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of post-reading group discussions in both first (L1) and second (L2) languages on L2 reading comprehension. The participants were fifteen Japanese university students of intermediate-level English. Three cohorts read four English texts and produced individual written recalls. Group 1 (the control…

  14. Using a Facebook Group as a Forum to Distribute, Answer and Discuss Content: Influence on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Britt, Virginia G.; Beard, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using a Facebook group to increase preservice teachers' knowledge when one was used as a forum to share, answer, and discuss content-related questions in a technology course required for all students seeking teacher licensure. Further, it examined the students' prior use of Facebook groups, how the…

  15. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  16. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Peter A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24 were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening.

  17. Bayesian inference for identifying interaction rules in moving animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    Full Text Available The emergence of similar collective patterns from different self-propelled particle models of animal groups points to a restricted set of "universal" classes for these patterns. While universality is interesting, it is often the fine details of animal interactions that are of biological importance. Universality thus presents a challenge to inferring such interactions from macroscopic group dynamics since these can be consistent with many underlying interaction models. We present a Bayesian framework for learning animal interaction rules from fine scale recordings of animal movements in swarms. We apply these techniques to the inverse problem of inferring interaction rules from simulation models, showing that parameters can often be inferred from a small number of observations. Our methodology allows us to quantify our confidence in parameter fitting. For example, we show that attraction and alignment terms can be reliably estimated when animals are milling in a torus shape, while interaction radius cannot be reliably measured in such a situation. We assess the importance of rate of data collection and show how to test different models, such as topological and metric neighbourhood models. Taken together our results both inform the design of experiments on animal interactions and suggest how these data should be best analysed.

  18. Bayesian inference for identifying interaction rules in moving animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of similar collective patterns from different self-propelled particle models of animal groups points to a restricted set of "universal" classes for these patterns. While universality is interesting, it is often the fine details of animal interactions that are of biological importance. Universality thus presents a challenge to inferring such interactions from macroscopic group dynamics since these can be consistent with many underlying interaction models. We present a Bayesian framework for learning animal interaction rules from fine scale recordings of animal movements in swarms. We apply these techniques to the inverse problem of inferring interaction rules from simulation models, showing that parameters can often be inferred from a small number of observations. Our methodology allows us to quantify our confidence in parameter fitting. For example, we show that attraction and alignment terms can be reliably estimated when animals are milling in a torus shape, while interaction radius cannot be reliably measured in such a situation. We assess the importance of rate of data collection and show how to test different models, such as topological and metric neighbourhood models. Taken together our results both inform the design of experiments on animal interactions and suggest how these data should be best analysed.

  19. Talking Mats in a discussion group for people with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Lisa; Mellgren, Elin; Hartelius, Lena; Ferm, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the function of Talking Mats (TM) in a discussion group for people with Huntington's disease (HD). Four persons with HD and their group leader participated. The group was videotaped during four discussions, two with and two without TM. A mixed method quantitative and qualitative study was implemented by evaluating the conversations using the protocol Effectiveness Framework of Functional Communication by analyzing the number of follow-up questions and by post discussion interviews. The results showed improved effectiveness of communication for all participants and an increased number of follow-up questions, both from the group leader and from some of the participants. All participants and the leader were positive regarding the use of TM but there were also drawbacks. TM could be useful in discussion groups for people with HD. An increased number of follow-up questions when TM is used may lead to a deeper understanding within the group. This study is the first of its kind and more research in the area is needed. [Box: see text].

  20. Health information, credibility, homophily, and influence via the Internet: Web sites versus discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B; Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert P

    2008-07-01

    Despite concerns about online health information and efforts to improve its credibility, how users evaluate and utilize such information presented in Web sites and online discussion groups may involve different evaluative mechanisms. This study examined credibility and homophily as two underlying mechanisms for social influence with regard to online health information. An original experiment detected that homophily grounded credibility perceptions and drove the persuasive process in both Web sites and online discussion groups. The more homophilous an online health information stimulus was perceived as being, the more likely people were to adopt the advice offered in that particular piece of information.

  1. The Hampstead Clinic at work. Discussions in the Diagnostic Profile Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Minutes of the Hampstead Clinic's Diagnostic Profile Research Group during a fifteen-month period (1964-1965) are reviewed and discussed. A wide range of topics were considered and discussed, with a special focus on the affective life, object relations, and ego function of atypical children in comparison to the early ego functions and differentiation of normal and neurotic children. These lively clinical and theoretical discussions and their implications for therapeutic work with a wide range of children, demonstrate the multifaceted leadership and contributions of Anna Freud as teacher, clinician, and thinker, and of the Hampstead Clinic as a major center for psychoanalytic studies.

  2. Effects of communication strategy training on EFL students’ performance in small-group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Benson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006. This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the strategies, affected the interactional sequences and overall group discussion performance of EFL students at a university in Japan. Pre and posttreatment small-group discussions were recorded for assessment, and a stimulated recall interview was administered to determine the participants’ perceptions of their learning and language use. Posttest results reveal that the experimental groups that were taught predetermined phrases aimed at clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation employed such phrases more frequently than the control group. However, this employment of phrases did not lead to higher gains in group discussion skills as the control group enjoyed the largest gains from pre to posttest. The researchers consider the findings in light of previous research, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the topic with special regard to research design.

  3. Tagging Thinking Types in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Effects on Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellens, T.; Van Keer, H.; De Wever, B.; Valcke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on the use of thinking types as a possible way to structure university students' discourse in asynchronous discussion groups and consequently promote their learning. More specifically, the aim of the study is to determine how requiring students to label their contributions by means of De Bono's (1991) thinking hats…

  4. Upper Secondary Students in Group Discussions about Physics and Our Presuppositions of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    In this article we report on a group activity, based on previous work [Hansson & Redfors: 2006b, "Science & Education" (accepted)], in an upper secondary physics class in Sweden. The aim was to engage students in a discussion about which presuppositions that are really necessary for physics. During the activity the students were to decide about…

  5. Examination of Students' Small Groups Discussion in Argumentation Process: Scientific and Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Esra Kabatas; Cevik, Ebru Ezberci

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine processes experienced by students of different achievement levels in small group discussions in argumentation applications conducted in scientific and socio-scientific issues. Case study which is a qualitative research design was used for the study. In this line, a success test including mechanical subjects…

  6. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  7. A Framework for Conducting Critical Dialectical Pluralist Focus Group Discussions Using Mixed Research Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    Although focus group discussions (FGDs) represent a popular data collection tool for researchers, they contain an extremely serious flaw: FGD researchers have ultimate power over all decisions made at every stage of the research process--from the conceptualization of the research, to the planning of the research study, to the implementation of the…

  8. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  9. Creating Spaces for Critical Transformative Dialogues: Legitimising Discussion Groups as Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Groves, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Focussed dialogue (as lived and living practices) can have a powerful role in renewing professional practice, advancing its sustainability and development as administrative and political systems colonise the practices of teachers and teacher educators. However, participating in discussion groups for many teachers, including those in academia, is…

  10. Communicating for Diversity: Using Teacher Discussion Groups to Transform Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mare, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    The author argues that in order to create space for authentic multicultural engagement in the face of Eurocentric norms, teachers should form discussion groups that follow five basic guidelines: engage, don't enrage; be comfortable with negative emotion; watch for and change unproductive language; talk about everything; and engage in classroom…

  11. Evaluating Impact of Small-Group Discussion on Learning Utilizing a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flosason, Thorhallur O.; McGee, Heather M.; Diener-Ludwig, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Classroom response systems (also referred to as clickers) can enhance learning outcomes and are generally viewed favorably by students and instructors alike. The current study used an alternating treatments design to examine whether discussing questions in small groups before responding to clicker questions during lecture improved accurate…

  12. Talk in the Science Classroom: Using Verbal Behaviour Analysis as a Tool for Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne; Booth, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study following on from a curriculum development activity with teachers and children in primary school classrooms, using a framework for group discussion developed by Huthwaite International. The Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University and Huthwaite International worked with teachers from three…

  13. Online Reflective Group Discussion--Connecting First Year Undergraduate Students with Their Third Year Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Annetta K. L.

    2011-01-01

    University professional programs seek to develop students as reflective practitioners. The ability to critically reflect is often assumed to occur along the way. The explicit development of critical reflective skills among students is challenging. This study describes the utilization of online group discussion for critical reflection and provides…

  14. Talking Science: The Research Evidence on the Use of Small Group Discussions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the…

  15. Influence of a Teacher's Scaffolding Moves during Child-Led Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadallah, May; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Miller, Brian W.; Kim, Il-Hee; Kuo, Li-Jen; Dong, Ting; Wu, Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    The influence of one teacher's scaffolding moves on children's performance in free-flowing child-led small-group discussions was investigated. Three moves were examined: prompting for and praising the use of evidence, asking for clarification, and challenging. Lag sequential analysis was applied to a corpus of over 5,300 speaking turns during 30…

  16. The Influence of Group Discussion on Students' Responses and Confidence during Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bill J.; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer instruction is an active-learning pedagogy in which students answer short, conceptually based questions that are interspersed during instruction. A key element is the group discussion that occurs among students between their initial and final answers. This study analyzes student responses during a modified form of peer instruction in two…

  17. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: Group-tests and mind-maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pijls; D. de Kramer

    2008-01-01

    In an explorative research project, teachers experimented with new ideas to make their students discuss (i.e. show, explain, justify and reconstruct their work) their mathematical ideas with each other. Two kind of special tasks were developed: group tests and mind maps. Also, the role of the teache

  18. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  19. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  20. Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: Focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Veldhuijzen; J. Nyinawabega; M. Umulisa; B. Kankindi; E. Geubbels; P. Basinga; J. Vyankandondera; J. van de Wijgert

    2006-01-01

    The acceptability and feasibility of microbicide studies and future microbicide use are influenced by existing norms and values regarding sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In preparation for microbicide research in Rwanda, focus group discussions were conducted to assess sexual and contraceptive b

  1. Evaluating Impact of Small-Group Discussion on Learning Utilizing a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flosason, Thorhallur O.; McGee, Heather M.; Diener-Ludwig, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Classroom response systems (also referred to as clickers) can enhance learning outcomes and are generally viewed favorably by students and instructors alike. The current study used an alternating treatments design to examine whether discussing questions in small groups before responding to clicker questions during lecture improved accurate…

  2. The Influence of Group Discussion on Students' Responses and Confidence during Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bill J.; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer instruction is an active-learning pedagogy in which students answer short, conceptually based questions that are interspersed during instruction. A key element is the group discussion that occurs among students between their initial and final answers. This study analyzes student responses during a modified form of peer instruction in two…

  3. Women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group incorporating yoga and facilitated group discussion: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Frances; Hornibrook, Julie

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a small qualitative research study which explored women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group that incorporated yoga and facilitated discussion. The group is offered through a community based feminist non-government women's health Centre in Northern NSW Australia. The purpose of the research was to explore women's experiences of attending this pregnancy and postnatal group. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to explore women's experiences of attending the group. Fifteen women participated in individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was undertaken to analyse the qualitative data. Six themes were developed, one with 3 subthemes. One theme was labelled as: 'the pregnancy and motherhood journey' and included 3 sub-themes which were labelled: 'preparation for birth', 'connecting with the baby' and 'sharing birth stories.' The other five themes were: 'feminine nurturing safe space', 'watching and learning the mothering', 'building mental health, well-being and connections', the "group like a rock and a seed' and 'different from mainstream'. This research adds to the overall body of knowledge about the value of yoga in pre and postnatal care. It demonstrates the value of sharing birth stories and the strong capacity women have to support one another, bringing benefits of emotional and social well-being, information, resources and support derived from group based models of care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching medical ethics: problem-based learning or small group discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Akram; Adeli, Seyyed-Hassan; Taziki, Sadegh-Ali; Akbari, Valliollahe; Ghadir, Mohammad-Reza; Moosavi-Movahhed, Seyyed-Majid; Ahangari, Roghayyeh; Sadeghi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Mirzaee, Mohammad-Rahim; Damanpak-Moghaddam, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Lecture is the most common teaching method used in ethics education, while problem-based learning (PBL) and small group discussion (SGD) have been introduced as more useful methods. This study compared these methods in teaching medical ethics. Twenty students (12 female and 8 male) were randomly assigned into two groups. The PBL method was used in one group, and the other group was taught using the SGD method. Twenty-five open-ended questions were used for assessment and at the end of the course, a course evaluation sheet was used to obtain the students' views about the advantages and disadvantages of each teaching method, their level of satisfaction with the course, their interest in attending the sessions, and their opinions regarding the effect of teaching ethics on students' behaviors. The mean score in the PBL group (16.04 ± 1.84) was higher than the SGD group (15.48 ± 2.01). The satisfaction rates in the two groups were 3.00 ± 0.47 and 2.78 ± 0.83 respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Since the mean score and satisfaction rate in the PBL group were higher than the SGD group, the PBL method is recommended for ethics education whenever possible.

  5. Facebook Discussion Groups Provide a Robust Worldwide Platform for Free Pathology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Amer, Sadiq M; Yahia, Nejib Ben; Costa, Felipe D'Almeida; Noatay, Manu; Qiao, Jian-Hua; Rosado, Flavia G; Rosen, Yale; Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Gardner, Jerad M

    2017-05-01

    - Facebook (Menlo Park, California) is one of many online sites that provide potential educational tools for pathologists. We have each founded Facebook groups dedicated to anatomic pathology, in which members can share cases, ask questions, and contribute to discussions. - To report our experiences in founding and maintaining these Facebook groups and to characterize the contributed content. - We circulated a survey among the group founders, then compiled and analyzed the responses. - The groups varied in membership and in the quality of member contribution. Most posts were of pathology cases, although other topics (such as research articles) were also shared. All groups remained active and received posts from users all over the world, although all groups had many noncontributing members and received unwanted messages (which were screened and removed). Most founders were glad they had founded the groups because they provided an opportunity to both teach and learn. - Each analyzed Facebook group had a different character, and some downsides exist, but the groups all provided a no-cost way for pathologists and others across the world to interact online with many colleagues.

  6. Factors Influencing Iranian Untrained EFL Raters' Rating Group Oral Discussion Tasks: A Mixed Methods Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasimeh Nouhi Jadesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a mixed methods design, the present study attempted to identify the factors influencing Iranian untrained EFL raters in rating group oral discussion tasks. To fulfil this aim, 16 language learners of varying proficiency levels were selected and randomly assigned to groups of four and performed a group discussion task. Thirty two untrained raters were also selected based on their volunteer participations. They listened to the audio files of the group discussions and assigned a score of one to six to each language learners based on their own judgments. They also provided comments on each language learners’ performance pointing to why they assigned such scores. The researchers had an interview with the raters after the rating session as well. The quantitative phase investigated whether linguistic features of accuracy, fluency, complexity and amount of talk were attended to by the raters in terms of having any relationship to the scores the raters assigned. Speech rate as an index of fluency and amount of talk turned out to be significantly correlated with the scores. Of more importance was the qualitative phase with the aim of identifying other factors that may account for the scores. The comments provided by the raters on each score and the interviews were codified based on Content Analysis (CA approach. It was found that the raters attend not only to the linguistic features in rating oral group discussions, but they are also sensitive to the interactional features like the roles the participants take in groups tasks and the overall interaction patterns of the groups. The findings of this study may shed light on group oral assessment in terms of training the raters rating group oral tests and developing rating scales specific for group oral assessment. Persian Abstract:پژوهش حاضر، با بهره گیری از روش تحقیق ترکیبی به بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر ارزیابان آموزش ندیده

  7. Malaysian cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction: focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W Y; Wong, Y L; Zulkifli, S N; Tan, H M

    2002-12-01

    This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation.

  8. Qualitative research methods in drug abuse research: discussing the potential use of focus group in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Carlini-Cotrim

    1996-01-01

    Descreve-se e discute-se o grupo focal, método qualitativo de coleta de dados de ampla aplicação na Saúde Pública. Especial ênfase é conferida às potencialidades do uso do grupo focal em investigações, na área de abuso de drogas.The focus group, a qualitative research method useful for Public Health investigation, is described and discussed. The potential application of the focus group method in drug abuse research in Brazil is emphasized.

  9. Making Space to Sensemake: Epistemic Distancing in Small Group Physics Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Conlin, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Students in inquiry science classrooms face an essential tension between sharing new ideas and critically evaluating those ideas. Both sides of this tension pose affective risks that can discourage further discussion, such as the embarrassment of having an idea rejected. This paper presents a close discourse analysis of three groups of undergraduate physics students in their first discussions of the semester, detailing how they navigate these tensions to create a safe space to make sense of physics together. A central finding is that students and instructors alike rely on a common discursive resource, epistemic distancing, to protect affect while beginning to engage with ideas in productive ways. The groups differ in how soon, how often, and how deeply they engage in figuring out mechanisms together, and these differences can be explained, in part, by differences in how they epistemically distance themselves from their claims. Implications for research include the importance of considering the coupled dynamic...

  10. Adding to the mix: Students use of Facebook groups and blackboard discussion forums in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student

  11. Observing real-world groups in the virtual field: The analysis of online discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David C

    2016-09-01

    This article sets out to establish the naturalistic study of online social communication as a substantive topic in social psychology and to discuss the challenges of developing methods for a formal analysis of the structural and interactional features of message threads on discussion forums. I begin by outlining the essential features of online communication and specifically discussion forum data, and the important ways in which they depart from spoken conversation. I describe the handful of attempts to devise systematic analytic techniques for adapting methods such as conversation and discourse analysis to the study of online discussion. I then present a case study of a thread from the popular UK parenting forum Mumsnet which presents a number of challenges for existing methods, and examine some of the interactive phenomena typical of forums. Finally, I consider ways in which membership categorization analysis and social identity theory can complement one another in the exploration of both group processes and the rhetorical deployment of identities as dynamic phenomena in online discussion.

  12. Qualitative findings from focus group discussions on hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-10-01

    It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  14. Using focus groups to identify characteristics of an ideal work environment for Advanced Practice Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Robert J; Mazzaccaro, Richard J; Burmeister, David B; Land, Samuel D; Boulay, Richard M; Chung, Heiwon; Deitrick, Lynn; Sumner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Practice Clinicians (APCs) in collaborative practice represent a diverse and valuable group of health care professionals, including nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives. Because these healthcare professionals have been identified as part of the solution to physician shortages, it is critical for health networks to examine and address issues affecting collaborative relationships. We invited our network APCs to participate in focus group sessions to determine both attributes and barriers to an ideal work environment. Four major themes emerged: (1) compensation, (2) network representation, (3) employment structure, and (4) workplace culture. While issues relating to compensation and representation were prevalent, discussions also revealed the importance of relationships and communication. To ensure successful collaboration and, thereby, reduce clinician turnover, leaders must address gaps between the existing and ideal states in structural factors affecting job satisfaction (Themes 1-3) as well as the behavioral factors represented in workplace culture (Theme 4).

  15. Two recommendations to the Teaching of EFL Extensive Reading: Group Discussion and Suitable Reading Material Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2008-01-01

    <正>This paper is going to review the way in which EFL extensive reading is usually taught at mainly college level in China; and then make two recommendations in terms of classroom activity and the selection of extensive reading material for the purpose of trying to get students better involved in classroom activity, and to arouse their interest in reading. Group discussion and suitable reading material selection are suggested to be adopted in the traditional extensive reading class to improve the classroom atmosphere and the teaching & learning effects.

  16. Human dimensions in bedside teaching: focus group discussions of teachers and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Orlander, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this shift. Yet, essential clinical skills, professionalism, and humanistic patient interactions are best taught at the bedside. Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this decline. This study explored perceptions of teachers and learners on the value of bedside teaching and the humanistic dimensions of bedside interactions that make it imperative to shift clinical teaching back to the bedside. Focus group methodology was used to explore teacher and learner opinions. Four teacher groups consisted of (a) Chief Residents, (b) Residency Program Directors, (c) skilled bedside teachers, and (d) a convenience group of other Department of Medicine faculty at Boston University School of Medicine. Six learner groups consisted 2 each of 3rd-year students, PGY1 medicine residents, and PGY2 medicine residents. Each discussion lasted 60 to 90 minutes. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Teachers and learners shared several opinions on bedside teaching, particularly around humanistic aspects of bedside interactions. The key themes that emerged included (a) patient involvement in discussions, (b) teachers as role models of humanism, (c) preserving learner autonomy, (d) direct observation and feedback of learners at the bedside, (e) interactions with challenging patients, and (e) admitting limitations. Within these themes, participants noted some behaviors best avoided at the bedside. Teachers and learners regard the bedside as a valuable venue in which to learn core values of medicine. They proposed many strategies to preserve these humanistic values and improve bedside teaching. These strategies are essential for true patient-centered care.

  17. Activities in a social networking-based discussion group by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Na; Wang, Xiangping; Zhang, Rongchun; Liu, Zhiguo; Liang, Shuhui; Yao, Shaowei; Tao, Qin; Jia, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2017-10-01

    Online social networking is increasingly being used among medical practitioners. However, few studies have evaluated its use in therapeutic endoscopy. Here, we aimed to analyze the shared topics and activities of a group of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) doctors in a social networking-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography discussion group (EDG). Six ERCP trainers working in Xijing Hospital and 48 graduated endoscopists who had finished ERCP training in the same hospital were invited to join in EDG. All group members were informed not to divulge any private information of patients when using EDG. The activities of group members on EDG were retrospectively extracted. The individual data of the graduated endoscopists were collected by a questionnaire. From June 2014 to May 2015, 6924 messages were posted on EDG, half of which were ERCP related. In total, 214 ERCP-related topics were shared, which could be categorized into three types: sharing experience/cases (52.3%), asking questions (38.3%), and sharing literatures/advances (9.3%). Among the 48 graduated endoscopists, 21 had a low case volume of less than 50 per year and 27 had a high volume case volume of 50 or more. High-volume graduated endoscopists posted more ERCP-related messages (P=0.008) and shared more discussion topics (P=0.003) compared with low-volume graduated endoscopists. A survey showed that EDG was useful for graduated endoscopists in ERCP performance and management of post-ERCP complications, etc. A wide range of ERCP-related topics were shared on the social networking-based EDG. The ERCP-related behaviors on EDG were more active in graduated endoscopists with an ERCP case volume of more than 50 per year.

  18. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  19. Exploration and Practice of Improving College Students’Speaking Com-petence through Group Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jin-zhong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of English teaching is not only to make the students learn new words and grammar, answer multiple- choice questions to get good scores, but also to enhance the students’abilities of the integrated application of English, speaking and listen⁃ing in particular. The ultimate goal of learning English is to use English to communicate with others in the future jobs and real life. However, the non-English majors have great trouble speaking English in class and in real life. Such ways as Socratic dialogues, cause analysis and questionnaire are used to investigate the reasons. In order to improve speaking ability, group discussion is used in class. In consequence, the students have more interest, motivation, courage and confidence in speaking English. Meanwhile, they have also established the concept of using what they learned in class, in practical work and real life.

  20. Which Cognitive Processes Support Learning during Small-Group Discussion? The Role of Providing Explanations and Listening to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    Seventy students participated in an experiment to measure the effects of either providing explanations or listening during small group discussions on recall of related subject-matter studied after the discussion. They watched a video of a small group discussing a problem. In the first experimental condition, the video was stopped at various points…

  1. Which cognitive processes support learning during small-group discussion? The role of providing explanations and listening to others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSeventy students participated in an experiment to measure the effects of either providing explanations or listening during small group discussions on recall of related subject-matter studied after the discussion. They watched a video of a small group discussing a problem. In the first

  2. Factors influencing food choices of adolescents: findings from focus-group discussions with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, D; Story, M; Perry, C; Casey, M A

    1999-08-01

    To assess adolescents' perceptions about factors influencing their food choices and eating behaviors. Data were collected in focus-group discussions. The study population included 141 adolescents in 7th and 10th grade from 2 urban schools in St Paul, Minn, who participated in 21 focus groups. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methodology, specifically, the constant comparative method. Factors perceived as influencing food choices included hunger and food cravings, appeal of food, time considerations of adolescents and parents, convenience of food, food availability, parental influence on eating behaviors (including the culture or religion of the family), benefits of foods (including health), situation-specific factors, mood, body image, habit, cost, media, and vegetarian beliefs. Major barriers to eating more fruits, vegetables, and dairy products and eating fewer high-fat foods included a lack of sense of urgency about personal health in relation to other concerns, and taste preferences for other foods. Suggestions for helping adolescents eat a more healthful diet include making healthful food taste and look better, limiting the availability of unhealthful options, making healthful food more available and convenient, teaching children good eating habits at an early age, and changing social norms to make it "cool" to eat healthfully. The findings suggest that if programs to improve adolescent nutrition are to be effective, they need to address a broad range of factors, in particular environmental factors (e.g., the increased availability and promotion of appealing, convenient foods within homes schools, and restaurants).

  3. Teacher Identity and the Marketizised Society. Discursive Constructions in Teachers’ Discussion Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Irisdotter Aldenmyr

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest decennium, there have been several and gradual changes in the Swedish and other European school systems. The steering system has become more decentralized and the entire school system is now a part of the freedom of trade. Schools are competing with each other and this has, according to previous research, an effect on how teachers think about, and carry out their everyday activities (Gerwitz et al. 1995; Irisdotter 2006. How teachers think about themselves, their students and the educational task is of great importance for the social climate of the classroom and, in the longer run, society in general. The current study dicusses how teachers‘ identities and self-understandings are influenced by the marketization of society. The material analysed consists of group discussions in three different teacher groups in compulsory school in Sweden. Questions raised are: Can teachers work within the context of marketization and yet relate to it with an attitude of self-awareness and critical reflection? And how can teachers deal with both traditional teacher values and progressive, democratic values that may be in conflict with the conditions of a marketizised school system?

  4. When Scientific Knowledge, Daily Life Experience, Epistemological and Social Considerations Intersect: Students' Argumentation in Group Discussions on a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues in class have been proposed in an effort to democratise science in society. A micro-ethnographic approach has been used to explore how students elaborate arguments on a socio-scientific controversy in the context of small group discussions. Several processes of group argumentation have been identified. Students' arguments…

  5. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  6. Children's Development within Peer Groups: Using Composite Social Maps to Identify Peer Networks and to Study Their Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Presents a network-assessment technique and examples showing how group experiences affect children's behavior. Compares classical sociometry and the use of composite social maps. Discusses quantifying peer-network information, using peer-network profiles as context descriptors, and identifying change in children and networks. Shows that peer-group…

  7. When Scientific Knowledge, Daily Life Experience, Epistemological and Social Considerations Intersect: Students' Argumentation in Group Discussions on a Socio-scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues in class have been proposed in an effort to democratise science in society. A micro-ethnographic approach has been used to explore how students elaborate arguments on a socio-scientific controversy in the context of small group discussions. Several processes of group argumentation have been identified. Students’ arguments were elaborated from scientific data, common ideas and epistemological and strategic considerations. Students’ social interactions influenced the patterns of argumentation elaborated within the group discussions. Implications of this study for the teaching of socio-scientific issues in class are discussed.

  8. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  9. Images of Environmental Management: Competing Metaphors in Focus Group Discussions of Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In managing environmental problems, several countries have chosen the management by objectives (MBO) approach. This paper investigates how focus group participants from the Swedish environmental administration used metaphors to describe the mode of organization needed to attain environmental objectives. Such analysis can shed light on how an MBO system is perceived by actors and how it works in practice. Although the Swedish government intended to stimulate broad-based cooperation among many actors, participants often saw themselves as located at a certain "level," i.e., "higher" or "lower," in the MBO system—that is, their conceptions corresponded to a traditional, hierarchical interpretation of MBO. Prepositions such as "in" and "out" contributed to feelings of inclusion and exclusion on the part of MBO actors. However, horizontal metaphors merged with vertical ones, indicating ongoing competition for the right to interpret how the system of environmental objectives should best be managed. The paper concludes that any organization applying MBO could benefit from discussing alternate ways of talking and thinking about its constituent "levels."

  10. [Adaptation of peer evaluation to small group discussion (SGD) and its validity for summative evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Sone, Tomomichi; Yanada, Kazuo; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kurio, Wasako; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Yamamoto, Yumi; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2012-01-01

    We adopted peer evaluation (mutual evaluation between students) for small group discussion (SGD) among first graders. The peer evaluation criteria were 5 grade scales for 5 fields: "preparation," "remark," "listening," "activeness," and "role." A comparison with tutor evaluation clarified the validity of peer evaluation for summative evaluation. Although the average of peer evaluation (4.2 (4.0-4.4)) was higher than that of tutor evaluation (3.8 (3.7-4.1)) (p=0.0601, Mann-Whitney U test), the value of the correlation coefficient between peer evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.35 (0.12-0.54)) was almost the same as that of the coefficient between tutor evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.36 (0.24-0.42)) (p=0.6761, Mann-Whitney U test). Principal component analysis showed that the tutor could not evaluate "remark" and "listening" independently, while students evaluate "listening" independently from other evaluation criteria. The combination of peer and tutor evaluation may be multilateral evaluation for SGD. The questionnaire about peer evaluation for students showed that they recognized the value of peer evaluation and favorably accepted its use.

  11. The Impact of Gestalt Group Psychotherapy on Parents' Perceptions of Children Identified as Problematic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Linda F.

    Gestalt therapy respects parents' perceptions of their children and does not attempt to train parents to become therapists for their children. To examine the impact of Gestalt group psychotherapy on parents' perceptions of children identified as problematic, an experimental group of 10 parents participated in 10 2-hour Gestalt sessions. A group of…

  12. Gay-Straight Alliances as settings to discuss health topics: individual and group factors associated with substance use, mental health, and sexual health discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V P; Heck, N C; Yoshikawa, H; Calzo, J P

    2017-06-01

    Sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning; LGBQ) and gender minority (e.g. transgender) youth experience myriad health risks. Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based settings where they may have opportunities to discuss substance use, mental health, and sexual health issues in ways that are safe and tailored to their experiences. Attention to these topics in GSAs could aid in developing programming for these settings. Among 295 youth from 33 Massachusetts high-school GSAs (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, Mage = 16.06), we examined how often youth discussed these topics within their GSA and identified factors associated with having more of these discussions. Youth and GSAs as a whole varied in their frequency of discussing these topics. Youth who accessed more information/resources in the GSA and did more advocacy more frequently engaged in discussions around substance use, mental health and sexual health. Youth who reported greater victimization more often discussed substance use and mental health, but not sexual health. Finally, GSAs whose members collectively reported greater victimization more frequently discussed these topics. These findings can assist the development of health programming to be delivered within GSAs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Identifying Useful Auxiliary Variables for Incomplete Data Analyses: A Note on a Group Difference Examination Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This research note contributes to the discussion of methods that can be used to identify useful auxiliary variables for analyses of incomplete data sets. A latent variable approach is discussed, which is helpful in finding auxiliary variables with the property that if included in subsequent maximum likelihood analyses they may enhance considerably…

  14. Exploring Reflective Teaching through Informed Journal Keeping and Blog Group Discussion in the Teaching Practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuasty Edgar Alirio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study which examined how student teachers could be empowered as more reflective practitioners through journal keeping and blog group discussions. It was carried out with six student teachers who developed their practicum over six months. Data were collected through journals, blogs, metaphors, conferences and a questionnaire. The results demonstrated that student teachers enriched their perceptions about what reflective teaching implied. Furthermore, journal keeping was approached as an informed process by virtue of which student- teachers could go beyond the descriptive documentation of what happened in their classes. Their journal entries also revealed reflective references, most of which were mainly focused on evaluating teaching, diagnosing and solving problems. Este artículo reporta los resultados de un estudio que examinó cómo se podía potenciar los practicantes como docentes más reflexivos a través del uso de diarios y discusiones mediante blogs. En el estudio participaron seis practicantes, quienes desarrollaron sus prácticas durante seis meses. Los datos se recogieron a través de diarios, blogs, metáforas, conferencias y cuestionarios. Los resultados demostraron que los practicantes enriquecieron sus percepciones acerca de lo que significa la enseñanza reflexiva. Por otra parte, el diligenciamiento del diario, el cual se hizo como un proceso informado, les permitió ir más allá de una etapa descriptiva y enfocarse en la evaluación del proceso de enseñanza, la identificación y solución de los problemas que surgieron en la clase.

  15. In-Class Reflective Group Discussion as a Strategy for the Development of Students as Evolving Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Annetta Kit Lam

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine perceptions of three cohorts of third year undergraduate students (n = 65) on in-class reflective group discussion as a critical reflective approach for evolving professionals. Reflective group discussions were embedded into a final year course within the University of Queensland Bachelor of Oral…

  16. Talking while Computing in Groups: The Not-so-Private Functions of Computational Private Speech in Mathematical Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, William; Moschkovich, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Students often voice computations during group discussions of mathematics problems. Yet, this type of private speech has received little attention from mathematics educators or researchers. In this article, we use excerpts from middle school students' group mathematical discussions to illustrate and describe "computational private…

  17. Talking while Computing in Groups: The Not-so-Private Functions of Computational Private Speech in Mathematical Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, William; Moschkovich, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Students often voice computations during group discussions of mathematics problems. Yet, this type of private speech has received little attention from mathematics educators or researchers. In this article, we use excerpts from middle school students' group mathematical discussions to illustrate and describe "computational private…

  18. The Colombian conference of bishops and its participation in peace negotiations with insurgent groups: origins and discussions (1982-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristancho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the most representative academic works about the participation of the Colombian Bishops’ Conference in negotiations with insurgent groups during the eighties, focusing on their perspective about their vision of peace. In that sense, this paper analyses how the Colombian clergy adapted to the national reality their perspective of peace, identifying the main debates and the wide variety of answers, focusing on two main issues: the relevance of establishing a relationship between the need to address social issues with the overcoming of violence and the participation of bishops and priests in the talks with the insurgency. As a result of these discussions, the Colombian Catholic Church gained greater unity in action on peace and conflict.

  19. Qualitative assessment of student-teacher communication using focus group discussion in a Dental College in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.

  20. The Influence of Collaborative Group Work on Students' Development of Critical Thinking: The Teacher's Role in Facilitating Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…

  1. Elaboration during Problem-Based Group Discussion: Effects on Recall for High and Low Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    Although elaboration has been investigated frequently, there is little evidence for the beneficial effect of elaboration in problem-based learning. A controlled experiment tested the effect of elaboration during problem-based discussion on recall. Sixty-seven students observed a video-recorded, problem-based discussion. In one experimental…

  2. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions.

  3. Patient advisory groups in practice improvement: sample case presentation with a discussion of best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Bender, Robert O; Bruce, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Using patient advisory groups can affect practice changes and create a patient-centric focus for a primary care practice. A successful patient advisory group has been developed for our primary care clinics. Utilizing this group, we have implemented practice improvement changes that have had a significant impact in patient care. This will be demonstrated in a case presentation involving the implementation of depression care managers at our practice sites. We will review key "best practices," as defined by the group, regarding size, composition, and meeting frequency that can be used for the development of a clinical patient advisory group.

  4. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-18

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European

  5. Comparison of effect between group discussion and educational booklet on Iranian nursing students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Faraji, Mona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects between group discussion and educational booklet on nursing students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy in Iran. A two-group, pre-test and post-test design study was conducted in 2015. The study was conducted on 60 nursing students in Kashan, Iran who were randomly allocated into two groups to be trained on patient privacy either through group discussion or by an educational booklet. The students' attitude and practice was assessed before and after the education using a questionnaire and a checklist. Data analysis was performed through paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and independent samples t-tests. Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the group designated to group discussion and that designated to the educational booklet in the mean overall score of attitude (P=0.303) and practice (P=0.493) toward patient privacy. After the intervention, the mean attitude score significantly increased in the two groups (P=0.001). Moreover, the students' practice score increased in the discussion group while it did not significantly change in the booklet group (P=0.001). Both methods were effective on the students' attitude; however, the educational booklet did not affect their practice toward patient privacy. Group discussion can effectively improve the students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

  6. Comparison of effect between group discussion and educational booklet on Iranian nursing students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to compare the effects between group discussion and educational booklet on nursing students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy in Iran. Methods A two-group, pre-test and post-test design study was conducted in 2015. The study was conducted on 60 nursing students in Kashan, Iran who were randomly allocated into two groups to be trained on patient privacy either through group discussion or by an educational booklet. The students’ attitude and practice was assessed before and after the education using a questionnaire and a checklist. Data analysis was performed through paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and independent samples t-tests. Results Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the group designated to group discussion and that designated to the educational booklet in the mean overall score of attitude (P=0.303 and practice (P=0.493 toward patient privacy. After the intervention, the mean attitude score significantly increased in the two groups (P=0.001. Moreover, the students’ practice score increased in the discussion group while it did not significantly change in the booklet group (P=0.001. Conclusion Both methods were effective on the students’ attitude; however, the educational booklet did not affect their practice toward patient privacy. Group discussion can effectively improve the students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

  7. Thinking About Opponent Behavior in Crisis and Conflict: A Generic Model for Analysis and Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    relevant strategies will have been surfaced and considered, and that "the gameboard " will be understood. Cufturo-Free Structure Our framework is intended...the gameboard . 21 Identifying Key Variables and Developing Hierarchies The next step is to identify and name key variables (which some may think of as

  8. 'Will I be able to have a baby?' Results from online focus group discussions with childhood cancer survivors in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J; Jervaeus, A; Lampic, C; Eriksson, L E; Widmark, C; Armuand, G M; Malmros, J; Marshall Heyman, M; Wettergren, L

    2014-12-01

    What do adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer think about the risk of being infertile? The potential infertility, as well as the experience of having had cancer, affects well-being, intimate relationships and the desire to have children in the future. Many childhood cancer survivors want to have children and worry about possible infertility. For this qualitative study with a cross-sectional design, data were collected through 39 online focus group discussions during 2013. Cancer survivors previously treated for selected diagnoses were identified from The Swedish Childhood Cancer Register (16-24 years old at inclusion, ≥5 years after diagnosis) and approached regarding study participation. Online focus group discussions of mixed sex (n = 133) were performed on a chat platform in real time. Texts from the group discussions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the main category Is it possible to have a baby? including five generic categories: Risk of infertility affects well-being, Dealing with possible infertility, Disclosure of possible infertility is a challenge, Issues related to heredity and Parenthood may be affected. The risk of infertility was described as having a negative impact on well-being and intimate relationships. Furthermore, the participants described hesitation about becoming a parent due to perceived or anticipated physical and psychological consequences of having had cancer. Given the sensitive topic of the study, the response rate (36%) is considered acceptable. The sample included participants who varied with regard to received fertility-related information, current fertility status and concerns related to the risk of being infertile. The results may be transferred to similar contexts with other groups of patients of childbearing age and a risk of impaired fertility due to disease. The findings imply that achieving parenthood, whether or not with biological children, is an area that

  9. Identifying the Professional Development Needs of Early Career Teachers in Scotland Using Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Aileen; Clinton, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on phase 1 of a project commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland to explore the continuing professional development (CPD) needs of teachers in Scotland in years 2-6 of their careers. Nominal group technique (NGT) was employed to identify the CPD needs of year 2-6 teachers and to identify the relative priority of these…

  10. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  11. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  12. Sex, Pregnancy and Contraception: A Report of Focus Group Discussions with Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita

    Findings in this report summarize the first phase of a larger, multi-year study that is combining qualitative and quantitative methods to outline a conceptual framework to guide future demographic/fertility research, pregnancy prevention programs and policies. Twelve focus groups--involving a multiculturally representative group of male and female…

  13. Identification of mistakes and their correction by a small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Sridhar, M G; Soundravally, R; Setiya, Sajita; Babu, M Sathish; Niranjan, G

    2014-01-01

    Graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. The Medical Council of India (MCI) encourages group discussions among students. We evaluated the effect of identifying mistakes in a given set of wrong statements and their correction by a small group discussion by graduate medical students as a revision exercise. At the end of a module, a pre-test consisting of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was conducted. Later, a set of incorrect statements related to the topic was given to the students and they were asked to identify the mistakes and correct them in a small group discussion. The effects on low, medium and high achievers were evaluated by a post-test and delayed post-tests with the same set of MCQs. The mean post-test marks were significantly higher among all the three groups compared to the pre-test marks. The gain from the small group discussion was equal among low, medium and high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among low, medium and high achievers after 15 days. Identification of mistakes in statements and their correction by a small group discussion is an effective, but unconventional revision exercise in biochemistry. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  14. Comparative study of problem based learning versus structured group discussion in teaching pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveesh M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: PBL and SGD are effective small group methods for teaching undergraduate medical students. However learning outcome with PBL is better than SGD. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1877-1880

  15. The critical value of focus group discussions in research with women living with HIV in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E

    2010-05-01

    This article is based on a critical ethnography about HIV and gender-based issues of power and violence conducted in Malawi in 2008. In all, 72 women living with HIV were recruited from four antiretroviral treatment clinics, three rural and one urban, to participate in 12 focus groups. Informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, we analyze the process and products of these focus groups to interrogate their capacity to facilitate collective engagement with the social and structural realities confronting women in a resource-limited, highly AIDS-affected country. We present exemplars to show how women together created collective narratives to mobilize individuals to action. Findings indicate that focus groups can be used innovatively to benefit both the research and the participants, not only as a critical method of inquiry with marginalized groups but also as a forum in which validating dialogue, mutual support, and exchange of strategic information can generate transformative change to improve women's lives.

  16. Facilitating dental student reflections: using mentor groups to discuss clinical experiences and personal development

    OpenAIRE

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Christiaens, Véronique; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the consensus on the importance of reflection for dental professionals, a lack of understanding remains about how students and clinicians should develop their ability to reflect. The aim of this study was to investigate dental students’ and mentors’ perceptions of mentor groups as an instructional method to facilitate students’ reflection in terms of the strategy’s learning potential, role of the mentor, group dynamics, and feasibility. At Ghent University in Belgium, third- and fourt...

  17. [A discussion on setting up target age group for immunization against leptospirosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, J T; Wang, S S; Lan, W L

    1995-08-01

    This paper presented the lesson of setting up a false immunization priority age group for leptospirosis which failed to prevent the leptospirosis outbreak. Our experience was that in the rice paddy field type endemic area the priority age group for the vaccination against leptopirosis should be 15 to 34 year olds followed by 35 years old or above. There was no preventive effect in the vaccination for the children 14 years old or yaunger, to our observation.

  18. Using Facebook Groups to Encourage Science Discussions in a Large-Enrollment Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; McGinnis, Gene; Bryant, Dana; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Stovall, Kyndra; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the instructional development, impact, and lessons learned regarding the use of Facebook as an educational tool within a large enrollment Biology class at Spelman College (Atlanta, GA). We describe the use of this social networking site to (a) engage students in active scientific discussions, (b) build community within the…

  19. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  20. Designing Transferable Skills Inventory for Assessing Students Using Group Discussion: A Case Study of First Year Electrical and Electronics Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejaswani, K.; Madhuri, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Employability skills among engineering graduates have been a concern due to their inability to perform on a professional platform to the employer's expected level. As they are higher cognitive skills, they are to be nurtured during the graduation period. Keeping this in view, group discussions are identified as one of the methods to elicit…

  1. Patients’ perspectives on antenatal group consultations: Identifying communicative strengths and weaknesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth; Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    consultations, followed by an observation study of group consultations at the same clinic. Results: Analysis identified the value of placing patients together, as it helped to normalize pregnancy which otherwise can be medicalized in the healthcare setting. The sharing of personal experiences had a reassuring......-patient communication, which is increasingly taking place in online patient communities. One novel offline setting which can support patient-patient communication is the group consultation where an individual healthcare professional and a group of patients engage. The purpose of this study is to investigate how patient......-patient communication unfolds in a group consultation with a midwife in order to identify its communicative strengths and weaknesses. Methods: Using a sequential multi-methods design, we performed eight individual interviews with pregnant women from a Danish antenatal clinic about their experiences of two group...

  2. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  3. On the properties of compact groups identified in different photometric bands

    CERN Document Server

    Taverna, Antonela; Zandivarez, Ariel; Joray, Francisco; Kanagusuku, Maria Jose

    2016-01-01

    Historically, compact group catalogues vary not only in their identification algorithms and selection functions, but also in their photometric bands. Differences between compact group catalogues have been reported. However, it is difficult to assess the impact of the photometric band in these differences given the variety of identification algorithms. We used the mock lightcone built by Henriques et al. (2012) to identify and compare compact groups in three different photometric bands: $K$, $r$, and $u$. We applied the same selection functions in the three bands, and found that compact groups in the u-band look the smallest in projection, the difference between the two brightest galaxies is the largest in the K-band, while compact groups in the r-band present the lowest compactness. We also investigated the differences between samples when galaxies are selected only in one particular band (pure compact groups) and those that exist regardless the band in which galaxies were observed (common compact groups). We...

  4. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  6. Social Influence in Online Health Discussions: An Evaluation of Online Graduate Student Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin Kay

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a field experimental design assessing online support groups testing hypotheses derived from the social identification model of deindividuation effects (SIDE; Lea & Spears, 1992) and social information processing theory (SIP; Walther, 1992). Specifically, it is predicted that individuals in an online support…

  7. An Annotated Bibliography of Materials Designed and Organized for Adult Use in Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, John W.

    This first annotated bibliography of materials designed and organized for adult use in disucssion groups includes both book and nonbook material. Areas dealt with are: art, censorship, change, child guidance, communication, crime, democracy, economics, education, evolution, food, foreign affairs, forgetting, generation gap, gold, good and evil,…

  8. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  9. Making Foundational Assumptions Transparent: Framing the Discussion about Group Communication and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Renee A.; Seibold, David R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors seek to augment Dean Hewes's (1986, 1996) intriguing bracketing and admirable larger effort to "return to basic theorizing in the study of group communication" by making transparent the foundational, and debatable, assumptions that underlie those models. Although these assumptions are addressed indirectly by Hewes, the…

  10. Making Meaning with Friends: Exploring the Function, Direction and Tone of Small Group Discussions of Literature in Elementary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The merits of decentralized small groups has been questioned in literature and by practicing teachers; thus this study shows the academic and identity work children do as they attempt to make meaning in these spaces. This study explores the affordances and drawbacks of decentralized small group discussion contexts in a multiage (3rd/4th) grade…

  11. Examining the Impact of Novel Pre-activity Tasks on Macroskills: The Case of Group Discussion on Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of most researchers in the field of second and foreign language teaching is lessening the problems and eliminating the hinders on the way of learning a language. Writing is considered as one of the most challenging and complicated tasks for learners to perform particularly when they have to write in a second or foreign language. Numerous studies were done on the importance of the pre-writing stage and activities which are directly and indirectly related to the theme of the writing. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to examine the effects of group discussion as a pre- activity task on writing ability. To this aim, 27 Iranian EFL learners, who were at the same level –intermediate- studying at Shokuh and Safir Institutes, Birjand, Iran were chosen randomly. Two groups- one control and one experimental group- were studied. In control group the conventional method was used in teaching writing, while in experimental group, group discussion pre-activity task was administered. After 16 sessions, the obtained data of the pretests and posttests was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the results, researcher strongly concluded that group discussion has no significant effect on writing ability of Iranian intermediate learners. This study can help teachers and syllabus designers in choosing and applying an effective pre-activity task. Keywords: writing ability, pre-activity task, group discussion, EFL learners

  12. Phases and Changes: Using I Ching as a Source of Generative Metaphors in Teaching Small Group Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, G. Richard; Chang, Hui-Ching

    1992-01-01

    This essay describes the use of I Ching hexagrams as a focus to improve the ability of college student groups to evolve creative solutions and improve decision-making skills. The philosophy of I Ching is briefly explained, and examples are given of hexagram interpretations which are applicable to group discussion and problem solving. (DB)

  13. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...... technical skills. This account of the changes in the drug distribution system in Iceland highlights some of the implications for pharmacists internationally....

  14. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group disc...... technical skills. This account of the changes in the drug distribution system in Iceland highlights some of the implications for pharmacists internationally....

  15. Effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in Kampala, Uganda slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwebaze, Innocent K; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Access to and use of hygienic shared sanitation facilities is fundamental in reducing the high risk of diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory infections. We evaluated the effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving the cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in three urban slums in Kampala, Uganda. The study follows the risk, attitudes, norms, abilities and self-regulation (RANAS) model of behaviour change and some factors of the social dilemma theory. A pre-versus post-intervention survey was conducted in three slums of Kampala, Uganda, between December 2012 and September 2013. From the pre-intervention findings, users of dirty sanitation facilities were randomly assigned to discussions, discussions + commitment and control interventions. The interventions were implemented for 3 months with the aim of improving cleaning behaviour. This paper provides an analysis of 119 respondents who belonged to the intervention discussion-only (n = 38), discussions + commitment (n = 41) and the control (no intervention, n = 40) groups. Compared to the control, discussions and discussions + commitment significantly improved shared toilet users' cleaning behaviour. The rate of improvement was observed through behavioural determinants such as cleaning obligation, cleaning ease, cleaning approval and affective beliefs. Our study findings show that group discussions and commitment interventions derived from RANAS model of behaviour change are effective in improving the shared sanitation users' cleaning behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M

    1999-01-01

    New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly...

  17. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  18. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  19. Hydroxyl groups in nonmetamict chevkinite-(Ce):a crystal chemical discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhuming; Franz Pertlik; Michel Fleck

    2008-01-01

    The minerals of chevkinite group were commonly considered to be anhydrous minerals. The infrared absorption spectrum of natural nonmetamict chevkinite-(Ce) from the aegirine-alkali granite, Mianning, Sichuan Province, China, exhibited two broad peaks in the 3600-2800 cm-1 region owing to the OH stretching. The corresponding H2O content required for the charge balance in formula was 1.27%. The O-H ··· O bond lengths maight cover from 0.2658 to 0.2794 nm by the correlated OH stretching energies. An electrostatic charge balance for chevkinite-(Ce) based on the assigned site-population from chemical data was calculated without the hydrogen contribution. The resulting empirical bond-valence sum on O6, O8, O2, O3, O5, and O4 ranged from 1.73 to 1.95 vu. The partial substitution of O by OH may occur in four atom sites: O6, O2, O4, and O5. The small differences in the bond-valence sums between the supposed donors and acceptors may mean a mixed donor/acceptor role of the involved oxygen atoms. The IR spectral features between 3394 and 3035 cm-1 consisted of various hydrous species at different structural sites and orientations. The OH groups in the chevkinite-(Ce) appeared to be involved in local charge imbalance in the structure and to be present when the mineral crystallized hydrothermally.

  20. Discussion on Group Learning%浅谈小组合作学习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳萍

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely used in many countries in the world a kind of creative teaching theory and strategy. Refers to two or more than twostudents or groups,in order to achieve a common purpose in action are matched with each other.%合作学习是目前世界上许多国家普遍采用的一种富有创意的教学理论与方略,是指两个或两个以上的学生或群体,为了达到共同的目的而在行动上相互配合的过程。

  1. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  2. Identifying target groups for the prevention of depression in early adolescence : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.; Smit, F.; Ruiter, M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, W.; Oldehinkel, T.

    Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level

  3. Mining a Written Values Affirmation Intervention to Identify the Unique Linguistic Features of Stigmatized Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Travis; Bhagavatula, Sowmya Sree; Guo, Weiwei; Muresan, Smaranda; Cohen, Geoff; Cook, Jonathan E.; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Social identity threat refers to the process through which an individual underperforms in some domain due to their concern with confirming a negative stereotype held about their group. Psychological research has identified this as one contributor to the underperformance and underrepresentation of women, Blacks, and Latinos in STEM fields. Over the…

  4. Using Focus Groups to Identify Rural Participant Needs in Balancing Work and Family Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Stephen F.; Marotz-Baden, Ramona

    1999-01-01

    Six focus groups with 49 rural residents identified concerns about balancing work and family (time, energy, conflicting demands, child care), causes of imbalance, and types of help needed. Results were used to plan programs on time and resource management, meal planning, and relationship skills. (SK)

  5. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Joint source based morphometry identifies linked gray and white matter group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lai; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

    2009-02-01

    We present a multivariate approach called joint source based morphometry (jSBM), to identify linked gray and white matter regions which differ between groups. In jSBM, joint independent component analysis (jICA) is used to decompose preprocessed gray and white matter images into joint sources and statistical analysis is used to determine the significant joint sources showing group differences and their relationship to other variables of interest (e.g. age or sex). The identified joint sources are groupings of linked gray and white matter regions with common covariation among subjects. In this study, we first provide a simulation to validate the jSBM approach. To illustrate our method on real data, jSBM is then applied to structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 120 chronic schizophrenia patients and 120 healthy controls to identify group differences. JSBM identified four joint sources as significantly associated with schizophrenia. Linked gray-white matter regions identified in each of the joint sources included: 1) temporal--corpus callosum, 2) occipital/frontal--inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, 3) frontal/parietal/occipital/temporal--superior longitudinal fasciculus and 4) parietal/frontal--thalamus. Age effects on all four joint sources were significant, but sex effects were significant only for the third joint source. Our findings demonstrate that jSBM can exploit the natural linkage between gray and white matter by incorporating them into a unified framework. This approach is applicable to a wide variety of problems to study linked gray and white matter group differences.

  7. Media Memories in Focus Group Discussions - Methodological Reflections Instancing the Global Media Generations Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Hug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medienereignisse wie auch die Einführung und Verbreitung neuer Medientechnologien und Formate bringen mannigfaltige Wege des „Eintretens von Medien ins Leben“ mit sich. Im Projekt Globale Mediengenerationen (GMG wurden Medienerinnerungen aus der Kindheit im Kontext von Gruppendiskussionen am Beispiel dreier Generationen aus verschiedenen Ländern aller Kontinente untersucht. Dabei wurden medienbezogene Wissensbestände von drei Alterskohorten globaler Generationen analysiert. Der Artikel diskutiert methodologische Aspekte des Projekts und komplexe und selektive Prozesse des Erinnerns vergangener Ereignisse. Er untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede des GMG-Ansatzes mit dem dokumentarischen Ansatz von Ralf Bohnsack, die beide in der Wissenssoziologie von Karl Mannheim verwurzelt sind. Darüber hinaus wird Medialität als basale methodologische Kategorie in Erwägung gezogen, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Klärung begrifflicher Grundlagen, sondern auch als inhärente Dimension von Forschungsprozessen. Media events in general and the introduction and divulgence of new media technologies and formats in particular implicate various (new ways of “media entering life.” In the Global Media Generations (GMG research project, articulation of individuals’ memories of childhood experiences with the media was afforded by context of focus groups of three generations in different countries of six continents. In this project media related knowledge segments of different age cohorts have been analyzed and interpreted. The article deals with methodological questions of the project and complex processes of ‘remembering’ past events. It explores commonalities and differences of the GMG approach with Ralf Bohnsack’s documentary approach, both rooted in the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim. Furthermore, mediality is taken into consideration as a basic methodological category, which means that it is perceived not only as subject matter to

  8. Perspectives on Positioning, Interaction, and Learning in Small-Group Discussion: Possibilities for Extending the Analytic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Wilson, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this forum piece, we respond to Karin Due's study of social dynamics in groups of students in physics class and gender issues that play out in this context. We discuss two threads that appear in Due's paper: one pertains to patterns of talk within groups and how these patterns open up possibilities for learning, the other pertains to…

  9. Needles in a haystack : A new approach for identifying and assessing political talk in nonpolitical discussion forums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Talking politics online is not exclusively reserved for politically-orientated discussion forums, particularly the everyday political talk crucial to the public sphere. People talk politics just about anywhere online from reality TV discussion forums to numerous other forum genres. Thus, the need to

  10. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  11. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  12. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  13. Video Modeling of Cooperative Discussion Group Behaviors with Students with Learning Disabilities in a Secondary Content-area Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-mediated instructional strategies such as cooperative learning are commonly used in general education classrooms in secondary schools; however, students with disabilities often lack the group interaction and discussion skills necessary to fully benefit from evidence-based interventions. The present study used a multiple baseline across…

  14. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  15. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  16. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  17. Using standardized patient with immediate feedback and group discussion to teach interpersonal and communication skills to advanced practice nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Esther Ching-Lan; Chen, Shiah-Lian; Chao, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2013-06-01

    Interpersonal and communication skills (IPCS) are essential for advanced practice nursing (APN) in our increasingly complex healthcare system. The Standardized Patient (SP) is a promising innovative pedagogy in medical and healthcare education; however, its effectiveness for teaching IPCS to graduate nursing students remains unclear. We examined the effectiveness of using SP with SP feedback and group discussion to teach IPCS in graduate nursing education. Randomized-controlled study. First-year APN students in Taiwan. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental (SP assessments with SP feedback and group discussion) or control (SP assessments only) group. There were two outcome indicators: IPCS and student learning satisfaction (SLS). The IPCS were assessed before and after the study in interviews with the SPs. SLS was measured when the study ended. All participants expressed high SLS (94.44%) and showed significant (p ≤ 0.025) improvements on IPCS total scores, interviewing, and counseling. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Qualitative feedback from encounters with SPs is described. Using SPs to teach IPCS to APN students produced a high SLS. The students learned and significantly improved their IPCS by interviewing SPs, but future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of SP feedback and group discussions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison the Effect of Student-Based Group Discussion and Lecture Methods Teaching on Midwifery Student\\'s Learning Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour SA.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: True learning needs the utilization of proper teaching methods leading to students’ interests in the learning activities to gain useful learning experiences. Therefore, it is needed to reform the traditional teaching methods and to use new student-focused methods by the educational systems.  The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the student-focused group discussion method and lecture method on the learning level in the Midwifery students. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 72 third-semester Midwifery bachelor students of Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, were selected via census method to participate in the theoretical clinical pregnancy course presented as lecture and group discussion methods in 2014. The final test was done after the end of the training courses. And, material durability test was done 8 weeks after the end of the course sessions. Data was analyzed, using SPSS 16 software and Wilcoxon Non-parametric Test. Findings: There was a significant difference between the mean scores of all the sessions conducted through lecture method (45.00±8.00 and group discussion method (57.00±10.00; p=0.0001. There was a significant difference in the material durability after 8 weeks between the mean scores of lecture (24.50±13.90 and group discussion (35.10±13.10 methods (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Standard student-focused group discussion training affects the midwifery students’ learning more than the lecture method does and there is higher information durability.  

  19. Who is the competent physics student? A study of students' positions and social interaction in small-group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-06-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.

  20. The Parent Populations of 6 groups identified from Chemical Tagging in the Solar neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Quillen, Alice C; De Silva, Gayandhi; Freeman, Ken; Zucker, Dan B; Minchev, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the size and distribution of the parent populations for the 6 largest (at least 20 stars in the Solar neighborhood) chemical groups identified in the Chemical Tagging experiment by Mitschang et al.~2014. Stars in the abundance groups tend to lie near a boundary in angular momentum versus eccentricity space where the probability is highest for a star to be found in the Solar neighborhood and where orbits have apocenter approximately equal to the Sun's galactocentric radius. Assuming that the parent populations are uniformly distributed at all azimuthal angles in the Galaxy, we estimate that the parent populations of these abundance groups contain at least 200,000 members. The spread in angular momentum of the groups implies that the assumption of a uniform azimuthal distribution only fails for the two youngest groups and only for the highest angular momentum stars in them. The parent populations of three thin disk groups have narrow angular momentum distributions, but tails in the eccentricity and ...

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii strain 119 identify recently isolated Danish strains as one group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Petersen, E.; Henriksen, S.A.;

    1998-01-01

    Four mAb raised against the Danish Toxoplasma gondii strain 119, were selected by screening hybridoma supernatants by indirect immunofluorescence against tachyzoites of the RH strain in order to obtain strain restricted markers. Strain restriction extended beyond discrimination of the 119 and RH...... strains, as demonstrated on a further six T. gondii reference strains [BK and GT1 (group A), NTE and 561 (group B), and NED and C56 (group C)]. The bradyzoite-specific mAb, 4.3, reacted to the GT1, NTE and 561 strains, but not to the BK, NED or C56 strains. The tachyzoite-specific mAb, 4.25, reacted....... gondii strain collection representative for a small geographic area (Denmark) was established within a short time span from a variety of animal species. Using the mAb as typing reagents to this Danish strain collection, all 36 animal and two human strains were identified as having the same reaction...

  2. Author's reply to discussion of using artificial neural nets to identify the well-test interpretation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaabi, A.U.; Lee, W.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The authors thank Yeung et al. for their discussion about their original paper. They agree with Yeung et al. that their proposed scaling method, when applied to patterns with distinct subparts such as the one shown, represents an improvement on the method they proposed. This is particularly true because Yeung et al.'s method eliminates the need to train the artificial neural networks (ANN's) on different sizes (scales) of the same pattern of a specific interpretation model. This paper presents the following comments for discussion and suggestions for further improvement.

  3. Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowcroft Natasha S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS, often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents

  4. Supervised multivariate analysis of sequence groups to identify specificity determining residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Desmond G

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins that evolve from a common ancestor can change functionality over time, and it is important to be able identify residues that cause this change. In this paper we show how a supervised multivariate statistical method, Between Group Analysis (BGA, can be used to identify these residues from families of proteins with different substrate specifities using multiple sequence alignments. Results We demonstrate the usefulness of this method on three different test cases. Two of these test cases, the Lactate/Malate dehydrogenase family and Nucleotidyl Cyclases, consist of two functional groups. The other family, Serine Proteases consists of three groups. BGA was used to analyse and visualise these three families using two different encoding schemes for the amino acids. Conclusion This overall combination of methods in this paper is powerful and flexible while being computationally very fast and simple. BGA is especially useful because it can be used to analyse any number of functional classes. In the examples we used in this paper, we have only used 2 or 3 classes for demonstration purposes but any number can be used and visualised.

  5. Fit Minded College Edition Pilot Study: Can a Magazine-Based Discussion Group Improve Physical Activity in Female College Freshmen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitteri, Katelyn; Huberty, Jennifer; Ehlers, Diane; Bruening, Meg

    Initial efficacy of a magazine-based discussion group for improving physical activity (PA), self-worth, and eating behaviors in female college freshmen. Randomized control trial. A large university in southwestern United States. Thirty-seven female college freshmen were randomized to the intervention (n = 17) and control groups (n = 20) in September 2013. Participants completed an 8-week magazine-based discussion group program, Fit Minded College Edition, adapted from Fit Minded, a previously tested theory-based intervention. Education on PA, self-worth, and nutrition was provided using excerpts from women's health magazines. Participants also had access to a Web site with supplementary health and wellness material. The control group did not attend meetings or have access to the Web site but received the magazines. Interventions focusing on concepts of self-worth with less focus on weight and appearance may promote long term PA participation and healthy eating behaviors in college women. Self-reported PA, global self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, eating behaviors (ie, fruit/veggie/junk food/sugar-sweetened beverage consumption), satisfaction, and Web site usage. Mean age of participants was 18.11 (SD = 0.32) years. Time × Intervention effects were observed for PA minutes per week (Partial η = 0.34), knowledge self-worth (Partial η = 0.02), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (Partial η = 0.17) (P < .05), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve health behaviors in female college freshmen.

  6. Nosocomial infections in brazilian pediatric patients: using a decision tree to identify high mortality groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M.M. Lopes

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections (NI are frequent events with potentially lethal outcomes. We identified predictive factors for mortality related to NI and developed an algorithm for predicting that risk in order to improve hospital epidemiology and healthcare quality programs. We made a prospective cohort NI surveillance of all acute-care patients according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System guidelines since 1992, applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1988 definitions adapted to a Brazilian pediatric hospital. Thirty-eight deaths considered to be related to NI were analyzed as the outcome variable for 754 patients with NI, whose survival time was taken into consideration. The predictive factors for mortality related to NI (p < 0.05 in the Cox regression model were: invasive procedures and use of two or more antibiotics. The mean survival time was significantly shorter (p < 0.05 with the Kaplan-Meier method for patients who suffered invasive procedures and for those who received two or more antibiotics. Applying a tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA, two groups with high mortality rates were identified: one group with time from admission to the first NI less than 11 days, received two or more antibiotics and suffered invasive procedures; the other group had the first NI between 12 and 22 days after admission and was subjected to invasive procedures. The possible modifiable factors to prevent mortality involve invasive devices and antibiotics. The TSSA approach is helpful to identify combinations of predictors and to guide protective actions to be taken in continuous-quality-improvement programs.

  7. Nosocomial infections in brazilian pediatric patients: using a decision tree to identify high mortality groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M.M. Lopes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections (NI are frequent events with potentially lethal outcomes. We identified predictive factors for mortality related to NI and developed an algorithm for predicting that risk in order to improve hospital epidemiology and healthcare quality programs. We made a prospective cohort NI surveillance of all acute-care patients according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System guidelines since 1992, applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1988 definitions adapted to a Brazilian pediatric hospital. Thirty-eight deaths considered to be related to NI were analyzed as the outcome variable for 754 patients with NI, whose survival time was taken into consideration. The predictive factors for mortality related to NI (p < 0.05 in the Cox regression model were: invasive procedures and use of two or more antibiotics. The mean survival time was significantly shorter (p < 0.05 with the Kaplan-Meier method for patients who suffered invasive procedures and for those who received two or more antibiotics. Applying a tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA, two groups with high mortality rates were identified: one group with time from admission to the first NI less than 11 days, received two or more antibiotics and suffered invasive procedures; the other group had the first NI between 12 and 22 days after admission and was subjected to invasive procedures. The possible modifiable factors to prevent mortality involve invasive devices and antibiotics. The TSSA approach is helpful to identify combinations of predictors and to guide protective actions to be taken in continuous-quality-improvement programs.

  8. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, Paltmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group.

  9. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...

  10. Identifying groups at risk for 1-year membership termination from a fitness center at enrollment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Hooker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6 months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early membership termination upon joining may help researchers develop targeted interventions to improve the likelihood that individuals will successfully maintain memberships and physical activity. This study's purpose was to identify, based on a wellness assessment (WA used in fitness centers, individuals at risk for fitness membership termination prior to 1-year. Center members (N = 441; Mage = 41.9, SD = 13.1; 74.4% female completed a comprehensive WA of stress, life satisfaction, physical fitness, metabolic health, and sleep quality at the beginning of their memberships and were followed for one year. Latent class analyses utilized the WA to identify four groups: (a healthy, (b unhealthy, (c poor psychological wellness, and (d poor physical wellness. Participants in the poor psychological wellness group (OR = 2.24, p = 0.007 and the unhealthy group (OR = 2.40, p = 0.037 were significantly more likely to terminate their memberships at 1-year as compared to the healthy group. Participants with poor physical wellness visited the fitness center less frequently than healthy participants (p < 0.01. Results suggest that poor psychological wellness is a risk factor for terminating memberships, whereas poor physical wellness is not. Future studies should replicate these latent classes and develop targeted interventions to address psychological wellness as a method to improve fitness membership retention.

  11. Identifying groups at risk for 1-year membership termination from a fitness center at enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stephanie A; Ross, Kaile M; Ranby, Krista W; Masters, Kevin S; Peters, John C; Hill, James O

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6 months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early membership termination upon joining may help researchers develop targeted interventions to improve the likelihood that individuals will successfully maintain memberships and physical activity. This study's purpose was to identify, based on a wellness assessment (WA) used in fitness centers, individuals at risk for fitness membership termination prior to 1-year. Center members (N = 441; Mage = 41.9, SD = 13.1; 74.4% female) completed a comprehensive WA of stress, life satisfaction, physical fitness, metabolic health, and sleep quality at the beginning of their memberships and were followed for one year. Latent class analyses utilized the WA to identify four groups: (a) healthy, (b) unhealthy, (c) poor psychological wellness, and (d) poor physical wellness. Participants in the poor psychological wellness group (OR = 2.24, p = 0.007) and the unhealthy group (OR = 2.40, p = 0.037) were significantly more likely to terminate their memberships at 1-year as compared to the healthy group. Participants with poor physical wellness visited the fitness center less frequently than healthy participants (p psychological wellness is a risk factor for terminating memberships, whereas poor physical wellness is not. Future studies should replicate these latent classes and develop targeted interventions to address psychological wellness as a method to improve fitness membership retention.

  12. A phase synchronization clustering algorithm for identifying interesting groups of genes from cell cycle expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcha Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The previous studies of genome-wide expression patterns show that a certain percentage of genes are cell cycle regulated. The expression data has been analyzed in a number of different ways to identify cell cycle dependent genes. In this study, we pose the hypothesis that cell cycle dependent genes are considered as oscillating systems with a rhythm, i.e. systems producing response signals with period and frequency. Therefore, we are motivated to apply the theory of multivariate phase synchronization for clustering cell cycle specific genome-wide expression data. Results We propose the strategy to find groups of genes according to the specific biological process by analyzing cell cycle specific gene expression data. To evaluate the propose method, we use the modified Kuramoto model, which is a phase governing equation that provides the long-term dynamics of globally coupled oscillators. With this equation, we simulate two groups of expression signals, and the simulated signals from each group shares their own common rhythm. Then, the simulated expression data are mixed with randomly generated expression data to be used as input data set to the algorithm. Using these simulated expression data, it is shown that the algorithm is able to identify expression signals that are involved in the same oscillating process. We also evaluate the method with yeast cell cycle expression data. It is shown that the output clusters by the proposed algorithm include genes, which are closely associated with each other by sharing significant Gene Ontology terms of biological process and/or having relatively many known biological interactions. Therefore, the evaluation analysis indicates that the method is able to identify expression signals according to the specific biological process. Our evaluation analysis also indicates that some portion of output by the proposed algorithm is not obtainable by the traditional clustering algorithm with

  13. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  14. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Shekelle, Paul; Schünemann, Holger J; Woolf, Steven

    2012-07-04

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  15. Teacher-student co-construction processes in biology: Strategies for developing mental models in large group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Oviedo, Maria Cecilia

    The aim of this study was to describe co-construction processes in large group discussions. Co-construction, as used here, is a process by which the teacher and the students work together to construct and evaluate mental models of a target concept. Data were collected for an in-depth case study of a single teacher instructing middle school students with an innovative curriculum on human respiration. Data came from transcripts of video taped lessons, drawings, and pre- and post-test scores. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. In the quantitative analysis, differences in gains between one and two standard deviations in size were found between the pre- and post-test scores indicating that the students increased their understanding about human respiration. In the qualitative analysis, a generative exploratory method followed by a convergent coded method was conducted to examine teacher-student interaction patterns. The aim of this part was to determine how learning occurred by attempting to connect dialogue patterns with underlying cognitive processes. The main outcome of the study is a hypothesized model containing four layers of nested teaching strategies. Listed from large to small time scales these are: the Macro Cycle, the Co-construction Modes, the Micro Cycle, and the Teaching Tactics. The most intensive analysis focused on identifying and articulating the Co-construction Modes---Accretion Mode, Disconfirmation Mode, Modification Mode, Evolution Mode, and Competition Mode---and their relations to the other levels of the model. These modes can either describe the construction and evaluation of individual model elements or of entire models giving a total of ten modes. The frequency of these co-construction modes was then determined by coding, twenty-six hours of transcripts. The most frequent modes were the Accretion Mode and the Disconfirmation Mode. The teacher's and the students' contributions to the co-construction process were also examined

  16. A Provably Secure Revocable ID-Based Authenticated Group Key Exchange Protocol with Identifying Malicious Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of malicious participants is a major threat for authenticated group key exchange (AGKE protocols. Typically, there are two detecting ways (passive and active to resist malicious participants in AGKE protocols. In 2012, the revocable identity- (ID- based public key system (R-IDPKS was proposed to solve the revocation problem in the ID-based public key system (IDPKS. Afterwards, based on the R-IDPKS, Wu et al. proposed a revocable ID-based AGKE (RID-AGKE protocol, which adopted a passive detecting way to resist malicious participants. However, it needs three rounds and cannot identify malicious participants. In this paper, we fuse a noninteractive confirmed computation technique to propose the first two-round RID-AGKE protocol with identifying malicious participants, which is an active detecting way. We demonstrate that our protocol is a provably secure AGKE protocol with forward secrecy and can identify malicious participants. When compared with the recently proposed ID/RID-AGKE protocols, our protocol possesses better performance and more robust security properties.

  17. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R

    2016-06-13

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2') A5(B3'), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements.

  18. Selective traditions in group discussions: teachers' views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Sund, Per

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers. In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as "good" science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers' views. The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider. The findings show that `resistance' to including SSI is not just an issue for individual teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge

  19. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. II. Distances, Kinematics, and Group Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-01

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of lsim300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of lsim25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young (lsim3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and β Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages lsim150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial

  20. Identifying possible sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera: a combined molecular and morphological phylogeny of Dictyoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Termites (Isoptera) offer an alternative model for the development of eusociality which is not dependent on a high degree of relatedness as found between sisters in hymenopterans (bees, wasps, ants). Recent phylogenetic studies have established that termites belong within the cockroaches as sister to the subsocial Cryptocercidae. Cryptocercidae shares several important traits with termites, thus we need to understand the phylogenetic position of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to determine how these traits evolved. However, placement of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is still uncertain. We used both molecular (12S, 16S, COII, 18S, 28S, H3) and morphological characters to reconstruct the phylogeny of Dictyoptera. We included all previously suggested sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera as well as taxa which might represent additional major cockroach lineages. We used Bayes factors to test different sister groups for Cryptocercidae+Isoptera and assessed character support for the consensus tree based on morphological characters and COII amino acid data. We used the molecular data and fossil calibration to estimate divergence times. We found the most likely sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to be Tryonicidae, Anaplecta or Tryonicidae+Anaplecta. Anaplecta has never previously been suggested as sister group or even close to Cryptocercidae+Isoptera, but was formerly placed in Blaberoidea as sister to the remaining taxa. Topological tests firmly supported our new placement of Anaplecta. We discuss the morphological characters (e.g. retractable genitalic hook) that have contributed to the previous placement of Anaplecta in Blaberoidea as well as the factors that might have contributed to a parallel development of genitalic features in Anaplecta and Blaberoidea. Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is placed in a clade with Tryonicidae, Anaplecta and possibly Lamproblattidae. Based on this, we suggest that wood-feeding, and the resultant need to conserve nitrogen, may have been an important

  1. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  2. 小组讨论及研讨会总结%Summary of Working Group Discussion and the Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This composition collects the discussion conclusions of each group during the seminar.Each group discussion has a topic,and each group sends an expert giving a speech in the summary meeting to report the outcome of the discussion.All of the outcomes put forward the direction and methods in the development of industrialised housing in Chongqing,and also set up a basis for the work of the next stage of this project.%文章汇集了研讨会小组讨论的各组总结,每小组有一个论题,并由一名相关专家在讨论总结会上发言,报告本小组的讨论成果。这些讨论成果指出了在重庆开展住宅产业化的方向和途径,为项目下一步工作的开展奠定了良好的基础。此外,还包括研讨会的总结,提出了重庆实施住宅产业化的具体意见。

  3. EFEKTIVITAS METODE BUZZ GROUP DISCUSSION UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERILAKU PEMBERANTASAN SARANG NYAMUK IBU-IBU PKK KELURAHAN SRAGEN TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Nuristia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD adalah penyakit menular yang berbahaya yang dapat menimbulkan kematian dalam waktu singkat dan sering menimbulkan wabah serta kepanikan masyarakat. Pemberian informasi tentang pemberantasan sarang nyamuk (PSN dengan metode Buzz Group Discussion diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan dan merubah perilaku masyarakat menjadi lebih baik yang diharapkan dapat dilakukan oleh kader PKK sehingga dapat ditularkan kepada masyarakat lain. Jenis penelitian ini bersifat Quasi eksperimental. Subjek dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok eksperimen sebanyak 18 orang diberi metode buzz group disscussion dan kelompok kontrol sebanyak 18 orang diberi metode ceramah. Hasil uji perbedaan posttest perilaku antara kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol didapatkan dengan p value sebesar 0,000 lebih kecil dari 0,05 dan diperoleh nilai rata-rata post test kelompok sebesar 6,555 sedangkan pada kelompok kontrol diperoleh hasil post test dengan rata-rata sebesar  4,27, lebih kecil dari rata-rata posttesteksperimen. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode Buzz Group Discussion efektif dalam meningkatkan perilaku pemberantasan sarang nyamuk pada Ibu PKK di kelurahan Sragen Tengah, Kabupaten Sragen

  4. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gregori M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manuela De Gregori,1-3,* Valeria Scotti,4,* Annalisa De Silvestri,4 Moreno Curti,4 Guido Fanelli,2,5,6 Massimo Allegri,2,5,6 Michael E Schatman,2,7 1Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 2Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research Group, Parma, Italy; 3Young Against Pain Group, Parma, Italy; 4Center for Scientific Documentation and Biometry Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 5Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy; 6Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Service, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy; 7US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”. For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists, we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%, discussed

  5. A dehydration-inducible gene in the truffle Tuber borchii identifies a novel group of dehydrins

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    Bonfante Paola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expressed sequence tag M6G10 was originally isolated from a screening for differentially expressed transcripts during the reproductive stage of the white truffle Tuber borchii. mRNA levels for M6G10 increased dramatically during fruiting body maturation compared to the vegetative mycelial stage. Results Bioinformatics tools, phylogenetic analysis and expression studies were used to support the hypothesis that this sequence, named TbDHN1, is the first dehydrin (DHN-like coding gene isolated in fungi. Homologs of this gene, all defined as "coding for hypothetical proteins" in public databases, were exclusively found in ascomycetous fungi and in plants. Although complete (or almost complete fungal genomes and EST collections of some Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota are already available, DHN-like proteins appear to be represented only in Ascomycota. A new and previously uncharacterized conserved signature pattern was identified and proposed to Uniprot database as the main distinguishing feature of this new group of DHNs. Expression studies provide experimental evidence of a transcript induction of TbDHN1 during cellular dehydration. Conclusion Expression pattern and sequence similarities to known plant DHNs indicate that TbDHN1 is the first characterized DHN-like protein in fungi. The high similarity of TbDHN1 with homolog coding sequences implies the existence of a novel fungal/plant group of LEA Class II proteins characterized by a previously undescribed signature pattern.

  6. The regulatory framework of special medical group students' physical education: identifying the problem.

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    Mazur Valerij Anatol'evich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of regulatory framework for special medical group students' physical education, and their physical condition in particular is elaborated. It is found that in the current program the identified question is missing, although the assessment of individual performance standards for the physical condition of the students was envisaged in the programs of 1977 and 1982. The need for such an assessment is indicated by the large number of Ukrainian and foreign pediatricians and specialists in therapeutic physical culture. At the same time the standards for assessing these indicators are not developed. It complicates the formation of positive motivation of students to regular classes, and does not promote their self-confidence, capabilities and effectiveness of monitoring the effectiveness of exercise in various forms. The findings suggest the need to define the optimal composition of the bulk of tests and functional tests to assess the physical condition of special medical group students with various diseases and to develop appropriate indicators for their evaluation standards.

  7. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Editorial research and the publication process in biomedicine and health: Report from the Esteve Foundation Discussion Group, December 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Ana; Malički, Mario; von Elm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that there are more than twenty thousand biomedical journals in the world, research into the work of editors and publication process in biomedical and health care journals is rare. In December 2012, the Esteve Foundation, a non-profit scientific institution that fosters progress in pharmacotherapy by means of scientific communication and discussion organized a discussion group of 7 editors and/or experts in peer review biomedical publishing. They presented findings of past editorial research, discussed the lack of competitive funding schemes and specialized journals for dissemination of editorial research, and reported on the great diversity of misconduct and conflict of interest policies, as well as adherence to reporting guidelines. Furthermore, they reported on the reluctance of editors to investigate allegations of misconduct or increase the level of data sharing in health research. In the end, they concluded that if editors are to remain gatekeepers of scientific knowledge they should reaffirm their focus on the integrity of the scientific record and completeness of the data they publish. Additionally, more research should be undertaken to understand why many journals are not adhering to editorial standards, and what obstacles editors face when engaging in editorial research.

  9. Uruguayan secondary school students speak up about tobacco: results from focus group discussions in and around Montevideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin; Harrell, Melissa; Springer, Andrew; Medina, José; Martinez, Lucía; Perry, Cheryl; Estol, Diego

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative research study investigated intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors that shape young adolescent tobacco use behaviors in Uruguay. Focus groups were conducted in the summer of 2012 and fall of 2013 in four secondary schools in Montevideo, Uruguay, including two private schools and two public schools. A total of four focus groups were led in each school, composed of 4-6 students each, 16 focus groups in total. Data analysis utilized NVivo software and included deductive and inductive content analysis. Overwhelmingly, students reported that the onset of smoking occurred in the second year of secondary school. The primary intrapersonal factors that were found to be universal among respondents identified that smoking was a performance in groups, to garner attention from their peers. Students interviewed most often stated that the greatest interpersonal factors for smoking were to look older, as a rite of passage, and for group membership. Environmental factors cited most often indicate that they smoked during unsupervised time, either at night or around the short Uruguayan school day. Focus group interviews revealed that adolescents had easy access to cigarettes for purchase through small family owned grocery stores, even though laws exist preventing the sale of cigarettes to minors. Few differences were cited between strata related to cigarette use in adolescents. The differences that do exist are most apparent across gender, though there were a few observed differences when stratified by public and private school. Findings from this study indicate that key factors across ecological levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental) should be taken into consideration when designing tobacco prevention programs for youth in Uruguay. A multiple-component approach which addresses risk factors at all of these levels, implemented in schools, may be particularly well-suited to this setting.

  10. Scientifically speaking: Identifying, analyzing, and promoting science talk in small groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthuis, Nicole Inamine

    In this dissertation I define, document, and analyze the nature of students' science talk as they work in cooperative learning groups. Three questions form the basis of this research. First, what is science talk? Second, how much and what kind of science talk did students do? And, third, what conditions help promote or inhibit students' science talk? This study was conducted in a total of six classrooms in three high schools. I videotaped and audiotaped students as they worked in small groups during the course of an ecology unit. I analyzed this videotape data and field notes using both quantitative and qualitative methods. I define science talk as talk that serves to move students along in terms of the science (both content and process) required or suggested by the activity. More specifically, I identified five epistemological characteristics that delineate what counts as scientific knowledge and, subsequently, science talk. From this definition, I developed an analytic framework and science talk observation instrument to document the quantity and level of student and teacher talk during groupwork. Analysis of the data from this instrument indicates that the overall level of students' science talk is considerable and students do significantly more science talk than school talk. I also found that while the overall level and type of science talk does not vary by class or by school, it does vary by activity type. Finally, my analysis suggests that science talk does not vary by gender composition of the group. I explored the classroom conditions that promote or inhibit science talk during groupwork. My findings suggest that, among other things, teachers can promote science talk by delegating authority to students, by emphasizing content and the big idea, by implementing open-ended tasks, and by modeling science talk. In conclusion, the findings described in this dissertation point teachers and researchers toward ways in which they may improve practice in order to

  11. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  12. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...

  13. The lay user perspective on the quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services--results of focus group discussions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    : The lay perspective emphasizes a definite split between lay and expert views on the value and quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services, as well as in their assessment of risk. Participants voiced spontaneous criticism of the roles of both physicians and pharmacists in drug therapy......BACKGROUND: This article presents the results of a study on quality of pharmacy services and perceived risk of pharmaceuticals. The results presented here are part of a multi-study evaluation of major changes in drug distribution in Iceland. OBJECTIVES: This sub-study addressed the question: what...... is the lay user perspective on pharmaceuticals and pharmacy services, including their perception of risk? METHODS: To answer this question, seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in Iceland following new drug distribution legislation in 1996. RESULTS...

  14. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, Selina K; Thomas, Kim S; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Leighton, Paul; Yong, Adrian Sw; Batchelor, Jonathan M

    2014-06-14

    Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world's population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to change.

  15. [Development of clinical trial education program for pharmaceutical science students through small group discussion and role-playing using protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2010-08-01

    The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.

  16. The role of support groups in facilitating families in coping with a genetic condition and in discussion of genetic risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Gillian; Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-09-01

      Giving children and young people information about genetic conditions and associated risk has been shown to be important to their identity, coping and decision making. Parents, however, find talking to their children difficult, and support from health professionals is often not available to them.   To explore the role of support groups in family coping, and in assisting parents' communication about risk with children in families affected by an inherited genetic condition.   Semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory and informed by models focusing on aspects of family communication.   Affected and unaffected children and their parents, from families affected by one of six genetic conditions, that represent different patterns of inheritance, and variations in age of onset, life expectancy and impact on families.   Parents often sought support they did not receive elsewhere from support groups. They identified benefits, but also potential disadvantages to this involvement. These related to the specific condition and also whether groups were run solely by parents or had professional input. Support groups rarely helped directly with family communication, but attendance often stimulated family discussion, and they provided information that improved parents' confidence in discussing the condition.   Support groups should be seen only as additional to the support offered by health and social care professionals. An increased understanding of the role of support groups in assisting families with genetic conditions has been highlighted, but further work is needed to explore more fully how this may be made more sustainable and far-reaching. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Perceptions of an ideal point-of-care test for sexually transmitted infections--a qualitative study of focus group discussions with medical providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A point-of-care test (POCT for sexually transmitted infections (STIs, which offers immediate diagnosis resulting in patients receiving diagnosis and treatment in a single visit, has the ability to address some of the STI control needs. However, needs assessment from STI experts and end users about currently available STI POCTs and their future new development has not been evaluated since World Health Organization Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative was formed over 15 years ago. Therefore, our objective was to explore the perceptions of the ideal types of STI POCT for use in health care settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A qualitative study, encompassing eight focus groups, was conducted from March 2008 through April 2009. Participants included 6 STD clinic directors, 63 clinicians, and 7 public health/laboratory/epidemiology professionals in the STI field. Discussion topics included currently available POCT, perceived barriers to using POCT in clinics, priority STI for the development of new POCT, and characteristics of the ideal POCT. All discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes raised as barriers for current POCT included complexity, long time frames of the so-called "rapid" test, multiple time-driven steps, requiring laboratory technician, difficulty in reading result, interruption of workflow, unreliability, and invasiveness. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified as the priority organism for development of a new STI POCT. Themes indicated for the ideal POCT included rapid turnaround (up to 20 minutes, ease of use, non-invasive, accurate (preferred sensitivity and specificity in the range of high 90s, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA-waived, user-friendly (for both patients and staff, compact, durable, and sturdy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Focus group discussions with STI experts and professionals highlighted chlamydia as the top priority pathogen for POCT development, and

  18. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane Sheila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Methods Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Results Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD; the impact of management; and career progression. ‘Pull factors’ favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. ‘Push factors’ discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel; limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by

  19. Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men--a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pohl

    Full Text Available Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.

  20. New Phylogenetic Groups of Torque Teno Virus Identified in Eastern Taiwan Indigenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Hsiao

    Full Text Available Torque teno virus (TTV is a single-stranded DNA virus highly prevalent in the world. It has been detected in eastern Taiwan indigenes with a low prevalence of 11% by using N22 region of which known to underestimate TTV prevalence excessively. In order to clarify their realistic epidemiology, we re-analyzed TTV prevalence with UTR region. One hundred and forty serum samples from eastern Taiwanese indigenous population were collected and TTV DNA was detected in 133 (95% samples. Direct sequencing revealed an extensive mix-infection of different TTV strains within the infected individual. Entire TTV open reading frame 1 was amplified and cloned from a TTV positive individual to distinguish mix-infected strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed eleven isolates were clustered into a monophyletic group that is distinct from all known groups. In addition, another our isolate was clustered with recently described Hebei-1 strain and formed an independent clade. Based on the distribution pattern of pairwise distances, both new clusters were placed at phylogenetic group level, designed as the 6th and 7th phylogenetic group. In present study, we showed a very high prevalence of TTV infection in eastern Taiwan indigenes and indentified new phylogenetic groups from the infected individual. Both intra- and inter-phylogenetic group mix-infections can be found from one healthy person. Our study has further broadened the field of human TTVs and proposed a robust criterion for classification of the major TTV phylogenetic groups.

  1. Use of participant focus groups to identify barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence in randomized controlled trials involving firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available John M Mayer,1 James L Nuzzo,1 Simon Dagenais2 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2Palladian Health, West Seneca, NY, USA Background: Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective: To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods: Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results: A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion: Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on

  2. Identify OH groups in TiOF2 and their impact on the lithium intercalation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Body, Monique; Legein, Christophe; Dambournet, Damien

    2017-02-01

    A detailed investigation on the chemical composition of the cubic form of titanium oxyfluoride-based compound reveals the presence of OH groups substituting the oxide/ fluoride sublattice. The substitution of oxide by hydroxyl groups induces the presence of titanium vacancies (□) which were characterized by 1H and 19F solid-state NMR. 1H NMR shows that OH groups are present as bridging Ti-OH-Ti or terminal OH groups, i.e. sitting close to a titanium vacancy Ti-OH-□. The electrochemical properties vs. Li+/Li indicates that the presence of OH groups prevents the intercalation of lithium in the upper voltage region (1.2-3 V vs. Li+/Li). Indeed, a partial dehydroxylation of the framework enables to improve the reversibility of the lithium insertion/de-insertion processes. Since the presence of OH groups in this type of compounds is usual and depends on the synthesis method employed, this work enables to rationalize the different electrochemical behaviors reported in the literature and further highlights the importance of a good knowledge of the chemical composition with regard to the physico-chemical properties.

  3. Identifying Two Groups of Entitled Individuals: Cluster Analysis Reveals Emotional Stability and Self-Esteem Distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Michael L; LoPilato, Alexander C; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-12-01

    The present study hypothesized that there exist two distinct groups of entitled individuals: grandiose-entitled, and vulnerable-entitled. Self-report scores of entitlement were collected for 916 individuals using an online platform. Model-based cluster analyses were conducted on the individuals with scores one standard deviation above mean (n = 159) using the five-factor model dimensions as clustering variables. The results support the existence of two groups of entitled individuals categorized as emotionally stable and emotionally vulnerable. The emotionally stable cluster reported emotional stability, high self-esteem, more positive affect, and antisocial behavior. The emotionally vulnerable cluster reported low self-esteem and high levels of neuroticism, disinhibition, conventionality, psychopathy, negative affect, childhood abuse, intrusive parenting, and attachment difficulties. Compared to the control group, both clusters reported being more antagonistic, extraverted, Machiavellian, and narcissistic. These results suggest important differences are missed when simply examining the linear relationships between entitlement and various aspects of its nomological network.

  4. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...... be designed and promoted in order to attract different user groups. This review highlights advances in the understanding of mode choice from a psychological perspective, taking into account behavioural theories of car use and car-use reduction. In this contribution, attitudinal, sociodemographic, geographical...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use....

  5. Using Focus Groups to Identify Factors Affecting Healthful Weight Maintenance in Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Mary L.; Lees, Faith D.; Lynch, Breanna; Sebelia, Linda; Greene, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore (1) how migration influenced physical activity and dietary behaviors among Latino immigrants and (2) participants' perception of concepts related to a Health at Every Size (HAES) approach to weight maintenance (mindful eating, taking care of oneself). Methods: Four focus groups (n = 35), homogenous by sex, were conducted in…

  6. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...

  7. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishing a group of endpoints to support collective operations without specifying unique identifiers for any endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksom, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.; Xue, Hanghon

    2016-02-02

    A parallel computer executes a number of tasks, each task includes a number of endpoints and the endpoints are configured to support collective operations. In such a parallel computer, establishing a group of endpoints receiving a user specification of a set of endpoints included in a global collection of endpoints, where the user specification defines the set in accordance with a predefined virtual representation of the endpoints, the predefined virtual representation is a data structure setting forth an organization of tasks and endpoints included in the global collection of endpoints and the user specification defines the set of endpoints without a user specification of a particular endpoint; and defining a group of endpoints in dependence upon the predefined virtual representation of the endpoints and the user specification.

  9. An HI line search for optically identified dwarf galaxy candidates in the M81 group

    CERN Document Server

    Van Driel, W; Binggeli, B; Huchtmeier, W K

    1997-01-01

    Sensitive 21cm HI line observations were performed for 23 dwarf members and possible members of the nearby M81 group of galaxies, including five objects of a clustering of extremely low-surface brightness objects of unknown nature. With the Nancay decimetric radio telescope the radial velocity range of -529 to 1826 km/s was searched to an rms noise of ~3-5 mJy. Only three objects were detected. However, their high radial velocities (between 600 and 1150 km/s) show them to lie behind the M81 group. These three objects, classified as dS0: (UGC 4998) and Im (Kar 1N and UGC 5658), have HI masses of 0.5, 2.0 and 2.5 10^8 Msun, for the assumed distance of 4 Mpc, and HI mass-to-blue light ratios of 0.05, 0.91 and 0.22 Msun/LBsun, respectively. Considering that half of the observed objects are classified as irregular dwarfs, hence expected to be relatively gas-rich, the resulting detection rate of about 1/3 is quite low. However, the mean redshift and velocity dispersion of the M81 group ( = 101 km/s, sigma=114 km/s)...

  10. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP. This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  11. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

  12. Prioritize Improvement Opportunities Identified In Self-Assessment Using Multi-Criteria Fuzzy Group Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Ghassem Faraj Pour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Efforts to improve the quality are one of the prerequisites for the success of individual companies and for the competitiveness of all whole companies. In the field of improvement and excellence business excellence models answer to the question that what the better organization is what goals and concepts they follow and according to what standards they behave. The EFQM excellence model can be transition from multiplicity to unity of different existing models. The most important approaches of these models are self-assessment and identifying improvement areas in an organization. On the other side organizations which are at lower level of total quality management will encounter so many areas to improve when using this model and implementing of self-improvement. Choosing the most important key problems are always the main challenges and because of resource constraints and strategic goals organizations have to prioritize identified improvement opportunities. This paper introduces a model for prioritizing and choosing the most significant improvement opportunities using the organization Business Excellence team members and because the analysis and decision making atmosphere for excellence team members is not generally complete with accurate information it seems using of fuzzy decision can be very helpful.

  13. Newly identified RNAs of raspberry leaf blotch virus encoding a related group of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuwen; McGavin, Wendy; Cock, Peter J A; Schnettler, Esther; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping; MacFarlane, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Members of the genus Emaravirus, including Raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), are enveloped plant viruses with segmented genomes of negative-strand RNA, although the complete genome complement for any of these viruses is not yet clear. Currently, wheat mosaic virus has the largest emaravirus genome comprising eight RNAs. Previously, we identified five genomic RNAs for RLBV; here, we identify a further three RNAs (RNA6-8). RNA6-8 encode proteins that have clear homologies to one another, but not to any other emaravirus proteins. The proteins self-interacted in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments, and the P8 protein interacted with the virus nucleocapsid protein (P3) using BiFC. Expression of two of the proteins (P6 and P7) using potato virus X led to an increase in virus titre and symptom severity, suggesting that these proteins may play a role in RLBV pathogenicity; however, using two different tests, RNA silencing suppression activity was not detected for any of the RLBV proteins encoded by RNA2-8.

  14. Student-Identified Strengths and Challenges of Using Blackboard for Group Projects in a Social Work Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B. Littlefield

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackboard (TM provides social work educators integrated online communication tools that they can employ to facilitate student learning through features such as e-mail, discussion forums, file exchange, virtual classroom, and links to online resources. This study describes students’ experiences using Blackboard (TM to support a group project assignment. The majority of students found it easy to use and useful for the project, and indicated that they would like to use it in other courses. In addition, students gained technical skills as a result of the group project. Students’ group project grades and final course grades were comparable to those in other sections of the same course taught by this investigator. The findings of this study suggest that online technology can be used to facilitate group assignments for MSW students. The benefits include increased efficiency of group functioning and increased accountability of group members. The challenges include technical problems and student resistance to using the technology.

  15. Identifying future models for delivering genetic services: a nominal group study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Peter

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background To enable primary care medical practitioners to generate a range of possible service delivery models for genetic counselling services and critically assess their suitability. Methods Modified nominal group technique using in primary care professional development workshops. Results 37 general practitioners in Wales, United Kingdom too part in the nominal group process. The practitioners who attended did not believe current systems were sufficient to meet anticipated demand for genetic services. A wide range of different service models was proposed, although no single option emerged as a clear preference. No argument was put forward for genetic assessment and counselling being central to family practice, neither was there a voice for the view that the family doctor should become skilled at advising patients about predictive genetic testing and be able to counsel patients about the wider implications of genetic testing for patients and their family members, even for areas such as common cancers. Nevertheless, all the preferred models put a high priority on providing the service in the community, and often co-located in primary care, by clinicians who had developed expertise. Conclusion There is a need for a wider debate about how healthcare systems address individual concerns about genetic concerns and risk, especially given the increasing commercial marketing of genetic tests.

  16. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gpHAE3, was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  17. Life Cycle Leadership Theory vs. Theory on the Phases of Small Group Discussion: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Charles Thomas, Jr.

    The work of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard on life-cycle leadership was compared and contrasted to three studies on group phase theories. The studies on group phases were conducted by Robert Bales and Fred Strodtbeck in 1951, Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell in 1964, and B. Aubrey Fisher in 1970. The two theoretical approaches were found to…

  18. A Multiple Group Measurement Model of Children's Reports of Parental Socioeconomic Status. Discussion Papers No. 531-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Robert D.; Mason, William M.

    An important class of applications of measurement error or constrained factor analytic models consists of comparing models for several populations. In such cases, it is appropriate to make explicit statistical tests of model similarity across groups and to constrain some parameters of the models to be equal across groups using a priori substantive…

  19. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    was removed compared to when a single horse was taken out were also investigated. Thirty-two mares (1–2 years) were kept in groups of four. All horses were taken out of their home paddock twice alone (64 tests) and twice with a companion (32 tests). One handler (or two handlers when two horses were removed......) was asked to approach (phase 1) and catch the target horse (phase 2), walk it to the centre of the paddock and remain stationary at a post for 30 s (phase 3), walk to the paddock entrance (phase 4) and through the gate (phase 5). The number of horses following, and the number of loose horses in proximity...

  20. Agricultural producers’ groups in the Czech Republic: introductory review and discussion of the problem area economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company is surrounded by the micro- and macro-environment affecting also its economic performance. These factors are not only individual accounting entries, but also analytical inputs as the internal company processes, management of costs or short-term financial decisions and specifically in the case of agriculture within the EU also the public subsidy schemes implemented through the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Groups of agricultural producers are created as a response to current market dynamics and the opportunity for each agricultural enterprise regardless the size. In this paper, the basis for agricultural cooperation is provided, traditional economic performance measures are presented and their applicability on the sample of agricultural producers’ groups and wholesale entities is empirically verified. Wholesale entities are analysed by its business activity and performance features to consider whether they are suitable peer group for comparing economic performance of examined agricultural producers’ group. Since the economic performance of agricultural producers’ groups directly affects the economic performance of all participating entities, and vice versa, their economic performance measurement may involve specific constraints. According to the structure and characteristics of agricultural producers’ groups may be inferred that whilst the common performance measurement techniques are applicable on the majority of companies, agricultural producers’ groups represent specific entities and therefore need adjusted performance measurement approach.

  1. The Effect of Education-Based Intervention Using Small Group Discussion in Empowering Adolescent Girls to Prevent Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemehsadat Seyed Nematollah Roshan

    2014-10-01

    Results: At baseline, independent T-test showed no significant difference between the two groups in the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and self efficacy, all of which could be regarded as empowerment process components (P>0.05. However, significant differences were observed after intervention. Also, the paired T-test showed a significant difference before and after the intervention in the test group in means of the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self efficacy and, in the grand scheme, adolescent girls' empowerment (P

  2. Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Uddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

  3. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Final briefing: Cost working group discussion session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The economic factors involved in the design and utilization of the space station are investigated. Topics include the economic benefits associated with research and production, the orbit transfer vehicle, and satellite servicing. Program costs and design options are examined. The possibilities of financing from the private sector are discussed.

  4. Positioning of Fifth Grade Students in Small-Group Settings: Naming Participation in Discussion-Based Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Ingrid S.

    2010-01-01

    Through the lens of Schegloff's (1996) Action Theory, this study examined the dynamics of four groups of fifth-grade students as they learned to talk about academic mathematical reasoning over the course of a school year using Freeze Frame Analysis (Leander & Rowe, 2006) to help map "talking spaces" and Critical Discourse Analysis to understand…

  5. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  6. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…

  7. Review of the Effects of Housing Place on Individual and Social Development and Academic Success of University Students by Focus Group Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal ARLI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Students who are entitled to get into a university in our country usually live with their families. However, when a student gets into a university which is far away or when it is difficult to go and return, one of the problems which their family has to solve is housing. Housing place alternatives might be government owned hostel, private hostel or houses for rent. The young student who has lived with their family until that age may find themselves in a different environment. This life might make the young people gain socialization, sense of responsibility and sharing, being able to manage their lives in the community - and it might also make them gain qualifications like being able to make discrimination between good and bad. The basic objective of this research is to identify the effects of housing place on individual and social development. The research has been applied to the students of Kocaeli University, Karamürsel Vocational High School . For the research, five focus group discussions have been carried out, each of which is formed of 8 participants and one assistant. In the study which was carried out based on question and answer, 3 general to special questions were directed . Group members have been formed of students who stay in house and hostel also students who stay with their own family. Maximum diversity sampling has been executed. According to the results, it appears that most essential contributions of staying in a hostel are mainly information sharing, growing mature, learning about recognizing human beings, being able to make discrimination between good and bad, learning about trusting, learning about making more moderate spending, and being able to make decisions freely. Besides, participants stated that any type of environment was available for studying both in governmental hostel and in housing environment, and studying in groups increases their successes.

  8. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  9. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  10. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis: Quantitative Estimates Used to Facilitate Working Group Discussions (2008-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.; Frazier, R.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides details on the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis to identify potential policy options and evaluate their impact on reaching the 70% HECI goal, present possible pathways to attain the goal based on currently available technology, with an eye to initiatives under way in Hawaii, and provide an 'order-of-magnitude' cost estimate and a jump-start to action that would be adjusted with a better understanding of the technologies and market.

  11. A discussion group program enhances the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A

    2007-01-01

    It has been well-established that discussion groups enhance student learning in large lecture courses. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of a discussion group program on the development of conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course. In the discussion group, students worked on problems based on topics discussed in lecture. The program was evaluated using three assessment tools. First, student responses to pre- and posttests were analyzed. The test question asked the students to demonstrate the relationships between 10 different but related terms. Use of a concept map to link the terms indicated an advanced level of conceptual reasoning skills. There was a 13.8% increase in the use of concept maps from pre- to posttest. Second, the students took a Likert-type survey to determine the perceived impact of the program on their conceptual reasoning skills. Many of the students felt that the program helped them understand and use the main course concepts to logically solve problems. Finally, average exam grades increased as the semester progressed. The average final grade in the course was 75%. Students enrolled in the course the previous year (where the lecture component of the course did not assess or reflect student learning in the discussion group) had an average final grade of 69%. The results of this study demonstrate that the discussion group program improves the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

  12. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-05-09

    Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members' evaluations of the discussions. Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others' experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a cancer experience.

  13. Review: Ralf Bohnsack, Aglaja Przyborski & Burkhard Schäffer (Eds. (2010. Das Gruppendiskussionsverfahren in der Forschungspraxis [The Group Discussion Technique in Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Schmidt-Pfister

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This edited volume comprises a range of studies that have employed a group discussion technique in combination with a specific strategy for reconstructive social research—the so-called documentary method. The latter is an empirical research strategy based on the meta-theoretical premises of the praxeological sociology of knowledge, as developed by Ralf BOHNSACK. It seeks to access practice in a more appropriate manner, namely by differentiating between various dimensions of knowledge and sociality. It holds that habitual collective orientations, in particular, are best accessed through group discussions. Thus this book does not address the group discussion technique in general, as might be expected from the title. Instead, it presents various contributions from researchers interpreting transcripts of group discussions according to the documentary method. The chapters are grouped into three main sections, representing different frameworks of practice and habitual orientation: childhood, adolescence, and organizational or societal context. A fourth section includes chapters on further, potentially useful ways of employing this particular technique and approach, as well as a chapter on teaching it in a meaningful way. Each chapter is structured in the same way: introduction to the research field and focus; methodological discussion; exemplary interpretation of group discussions; and concluding remarks. Whilst the transcripts referred to by the authors are very helpfully presented in the chapters, there is a lack of methodological reflection on the group discussion technique itself, which, as mentioned above, is only evaluated in regard to the documentary method. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110225

  14. Formulation of questions followed by small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Koner, Bidhan Chandra; Sridhar, M G; Nandeesha, H; Renuka, P; Setia, Sajita; Kumaran, S Senthil; Asmathulla, S

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students get fewer opportunities to clarify their doubts and to reinforce their understanding of concepts after lecture classes. There is no information available in the literature that addresses the question of usefulness of prior formulation of questions followed by small group discussion by undergraduate medical students as a revision exercise. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of formulation of objective type short answer questions by undergraduate medical students followed by small group discussion on the answers of the questions prepared as a revision exercise on their understanding of the topic "amino acid metabolism" and the retention of the gain after 15 days. At the end of a regular teaching module on the topic of amino acid metabolism, undergraduate medical students were asked to prepare 16 objective type short answer questions on the various aspects of the topic as homework. Small group discussions involving 12-14 students in each group and lasting one hour were conducted on the questions and answers prepared by them in the presence of a faculty member. The effects on low, medium, and high achievers were evaluated with multiple choice questions by pre-test and post-tests before and after the group discussion. Formulation of questions was highly effective in improving understanding on the topic for all the students. The overall mean post-test scores after the formulation of questions (12.6) and after the small group discussion that followed (14.7) were significantly higher than the mean pre-test score (8.5). For high achievers, the gain from formulation of questions was higher than the gain from small group discussion. Small group discussion was highly effective for all students. The gain from small group discussion was higher among the low and medium achievers in comparison with the high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among the low, medium, and high achievers after 15 days. In conclusion

  15. Onto-clust--a methodology for combining clustering analysis and ontological methods for identifying groups of comorbidities for developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Mor; Asbeh, Nuaman; Kuflik, Tsvi; Schertz, Mitchell

    2009-02-01

    Children with developmental disorders usually exhibit multiple developmental problems (comorbidities). Hence, such diagnosis needs to revolve on developmental disorder groups. Our objective is to systematically identify developmental disorder groups and represent them in an ontology. We developed a methodology that combines two methods (1) a literature-based ontology that we created, which represents developmental disorders and potential developmental disorder groups, and (2) clustering for detecting comorbid developmental disorders in patient data. The ontology is used to interpret and improve clustering results and the clustering results are used to validate the ontology and suggest directions for its development. We evaluated our methodology by applying it to data of 1175 patients from a child development clinic. We demonstrated that the ontology improves clustering results, bringing them closer to an expert generated gold-standard. We have shown that our methodology successfully combines an ontology with a clustering method to support systematic identification and representation of developmental disorder groups.

  16. Merging Children's Oncology Group Data with an External Administrative Database Using Indirect Patient Identifiers: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Li

    Full Text Available Clinical trials data from National Cancer Institute (NCI-funded cooperative oncology group trials could be enhanced by merging with external data sources. Merging without direct patient identifiers would provide additional patient privacy protections. We sought to develop and validate a matching algorithm that uses only indirect patient identifiers.We merged the data from two Phase III Children's Oncology Group (COG trials for de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML with the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS. We developed a stepwise matching algorithm that used indirect identifiers including treatment site, gender, birth year, birth month, enrollment year and enrollment month. Results from the stepwise algorithm were compared against the direct merge method that used date of birth, treatment site, and gender. The indirect merge algorithm was developed on AAML0531 and validated on AAML1031.Of 415 patients enrolled on the AAML0531 trial at PHIS centers, we successfully matched 378 (91.1% patients using the indirect stepwise algorithm. Comparison to the direct merge result suggested that 362 (95.7% matches identified by the indirect merge algorithm were concordant with the direct merge result. When validating the indirect stepwise algorithm using the AAML1031 trial, we successfully matched 157 out of 165 patients (95.2% and 150 (95.5% of the indirectly merged matches were concordant with the directly merged matches.These data demonstrate that patients enrolled on COG clinical trials can be successfully merged with PHIS administrative data using a stepwise algorithm based on indirect patient identifiers. The merged data sets can be used as a platform for comparative effectiveness and cost effectiveness studies.

  17. Discussion on thermal dynamical-vacuum group deoxidization%热力--真空组合除氧的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德宁

    2015-01-01

    针对油田注汽锅炉水处理现在采用的真空——化学除氧法时,加化学药品来提高除氧效果致使蒸汽含盐量升高,影响蒸汽的品质,影响锅炉的寿命这一问题。本文探讨即能保证除氧效果又保证蒸汽的品质,延长锅炉的寿命,同时又降低生产成本的除氧方法。%According to the chemical deoxidization method - vacuum treatment of steam injection boiler in oil field water , the addition of chemicals to improve the removal effect of salinity resulted in increase of saltness in steam, steam quality, affect the service life of the boiler this problem. This paper discusses that can guarantee the removal effect and ensure the steam quality, prolongs the service life of the boiler, and reduce the production cost of deoxidization method.

  18. A qualitative focus group study to identify the needs of survivors of stage II and III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Maria Y; McBride, Mary L; Gotay, Carolyn; Grunfeld, Eva; Earle, Craig C; Relova, Sharon; Tsonis, Miranda; Ruan, Jenny Y; Chang, Jennifer T; Cheung, Winson Y

    2016-12-01

    Prior survivorship research has largely focused on issues faced by survivors of childhood tumors, breast cancers, or hematologic malignancies. Relatively little is known about the needs of other prevalent survivor groups. Our aim was to identify the specific concerns of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in the key domains of physical functioning, psychological wellbeing, and social relationships. We conducted focus groups with stage II and III CRC survivors who had completed their primary active anti-cancer treatments. Patients were asked to describe how their diagnosis and treatment impacted their lives, to outline deficiencies in the care that they received, and to suggest ways of addressing any unmet needs. A content analysis was subsequently conducted to identify major themes. Thirty CRC survivors participated in six focus groups. Individuals reported some degree of dissatisfaction with the amount and type of diagnostic and treatment information they received at their initial clinic visit. Distress from toxicities, such as peripheral neuropathy, was also common among the survivors. Similarly, the majority faced challenges adjusting to their lives and daily activities, especially in caring for their colostomy. Having survived CRC, many survivors expressed an interest in advocacy and health promotion of CRC. CRC survivors face many barriers after their cancer treatment. Issues with colostomy are unique to this survivor group. Interventions to improve CRC survivorship care should also incorporate opportunities for patient advocacy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A Dynamic Combinatorial Approach for Identifying Side Groups that Stabilize DNA-Templated Supramolecular Self-Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Paolantoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA-templated self-assembly is an emerging strategy for generating functional supramolecular systems, which requires the identification of potent multi-point binding ligands. In this line, we recently showed that bis-functionalized guanidinium compounds can interact with ssDNA and generate a supramolecular complex through the recognition of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA. In order to probe the importance of secondary interactions and to identify side groups that stabilize these DNA-templated self-assemblies, we report herein the implementation of a dynamic combinatorial approach. We used an in situ fragment assembly process based on reductive amination and tested various side groups, including amino acids. The results reveal that aromatic and cationic side groups participate in secondary supramolecular interactions that stabilize the complexes formed with ssDNA.

  20. The Effect of Group Discussion on the Quality of Life and HbA1c Levels of Adolescents With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mohamad; Memarian, Robabe; Mohammadi, Esa

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome and the most common endocrine disorder in childhood and adolescence. Diabetes occurs at any age but the highest outbreak is during ten to 15 years of age and 75% of the cases are diagnosed at the age 18. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a group discussion on the quality of life (QOL) and glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) levels of adolescents with diabetes. This quasi-experimental study was performed on 56 adolescents with diabetes who were referred to Golabchi Diabetes Center in Kashan, Iran. After obtaining written informed consent from the patients, blood sample was drawn for measuring sugar and HbA1c levels. The participants completed the questionnaire regarding the QOL. Patients were randomly allocated to four groups. All the groups attended similar group discussion sessions, which were conducted according to the guidance of diabetic specialists. The groups' members followed the discussed instructions for four months. Then, another questionnaire was completed and blood sugar and HbA1c levels were measured again. The results were compared by paired-samples t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. After the group discussion sessions, in 56% of the patients the HbA1c levels (8.45 ± 1.35 and 6.98 ± 0.89 before and after intervention, respectively) and QOL were improved significantly. The mean age of these patients was 14.75 ± 1.80 years and the mean of daily insulin injection was 35.70 ± 13.42 units. Sharing experiences trough group discussions and receiving instructive feedbacks can improve the QOL and metabolic status of adolescents with diabetes.

  1. 高校网站群建设与管理探讨%Discussion on University Website Group Construction and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗南

    2015-01-01

    The construction and management of the University''s existing websites has brought a series of problems. The con-struction of the website group system, can avoid a group of websites bring about various drawbacks. This paper discusses the solutions of university website group construction and management.%高校现有网站的建设和管理带来了一系列问题,建设网站群系统,可以避免一群网站所带来的各种弊端.文章探讨了高校网站群建设与管理的解决方案.

  2. Use of Modified SOAP Notes and Peer-Led Small-Group Discussion in a Medical Physiology Course: Addressing the Hidden Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Jonathan; Hansen, Penelope A.; Nelson, Loren

    2006-01-01

    Peer leading of small-group discussion of cases; use of modified subjective, objective, assessment of physiology (SOAP) notes; and opportunities for self-assessment were introduced into a Medical Physiology course to increase students' awareness and practice of professional behaviors. These changes arose from faculty members' understanding of the…

  3. Examining the Effects of Text Genre and Structure on Fourth-and Fifth-Grade Students' High-Level Comprehension as Evidenced in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyi; Murphy, P. Karen; Firetto, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a rich literature on the role of text genre and structure on students' literal comprehension, more research is needed regarding the role of these text features on students' high-level comprehension as evidenced in their small-group discussions. As such, the present study examined the effects of text genre (i.e., narrative and…

  4. Perceptions of women, nurses, midwives and doctors about the use of video during birth to improve quality of care : focus group discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lonkhuijzen, L.; Groenewout, M.; Schreuder, A.; Zeeman, G.; Scherpbier, A.; Aukes, L.; van den Berg, P.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: van Lonkhuijzen L, Groenewout M, Schreuder A, Zeeman G, Scherpbier A, Aukes L, van den Berg P. Perceptions of women, nurses, midwives and doctors about the use of video during birth to improve quality of care: focus group discussions. BJOG 2011; DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0528.201

  5. Latar as the Central Point of Houses Group Unit: Identifiability for Spatial Structure in Kasongan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yoyok Wahyu Subroto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The massive spatial expansion of the city into the rural area in recent decades has caused such problems as related to the spatial exploitation in villages surrounding. This raises a question of whether the open space change into land coverage building may have a spatial structure implication on settlement growth and evolution process in the villages surrounding. This paper reports a case study of Kasongan village in Bantul regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia in between 1973-2010 in which the problem refers to the discussion of spatial structure is rarely addressed especially in village’s settlement growth and evolution analysis. The bound axis which consists of 4 (four quadrants and one intersection refers to the reference axes in a Cartesian Coordinate System (CCS is used to analyze the setting of the houses group unit around 4 areas/ quadrants. Through such spatial process analysis by means spatial structure approach, the continuity of latar (yard, in the central of houses group unit is detected. There is finding from this research that the latar which exists in ‘the central point’ of houses group unit in Kasongan during 4 decades significantly becomes the prominent factor of the basic spatial structure. It composes the houses group unit in Kasongan.

  6. Basic life support skill improvement with newly designed renewal programme: cluster randomised study of small-group-discussion method versus practice-while-watching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Tae Rim; Kang, Mun Ju; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-12-01

    For the basic life support (BLS) renewal course, we have devised a new educational programme entitled a small-group-discussion (SGD) programme using personalised video-based debriefing. We compared the efficacy in BLS skill improvement of the SGD programme with the currently used practice-while-watching (PWW) programme, which uses a standardised education video. This was a prospective, cluster randomised study, conducted in a single centre, over 6 months from May 2009 to October 2009. Training was performed in two groups of participants, each group with a different renewal education programme. The efficacy of the programmes was compared using the modified Cardiff test and skill-reporting manikins. Results from 2169 participants were analysed: 1061 in the SGD programme group and 1108 in the PWW programme group. There were no differences between groups on the pretest, either in compression or non-compression skills. However, on the post-test, the SGD programme gave better results for both compression skills and non-compression skills. The new SGD renewal programme is more effective than the PWW programme for improving skills in BLS renewal training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Bilingual asynchronous online discussion groups: design and delivery of an eLearning distance study module for nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Mai, Van Anh Thi; Gray, Genevieve

    2012-04-01

    The advent of eLearning has seen online discussion forums widely used in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education. This paper reports an Australian university experience of design, delivery and redevelopment of a distance education module developed for Vietnamese nurse academics. The teaching experience of Vietnamese nurse academics is mixed and frequently limited. It was decided that the distance module should attempt to utilise the experience of senior Vietnamese nurse academics - asynchronous online discussion groups were used to facilitate this. Online discussion occurred in both Vietnamese and English and was moderated by an Australian academic working alongside a Vietnamese translator. This paper will discuss the design of an online learning environment for foreign correspondents, the resources and translation required to maximise the success of asynchronous online discussion groups, as well as the rationale of delivering complex content in a foreign language. While specifically addressing the first iteration of the first distance module designed, this paper will also address subsequent changes made for the second iteration of the module and comment on their success. While a translator is clearly a key component of success, the elements of simplicity and clarity combined with supportive online moderation must not be overlooked.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Decrease Job Burnout in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents Using a Facilitated Discussion Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Fallar, Robert; Korenstein, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Background Burnout is common in internal medicine (IM) trainees and is associated with depression and suboptimal patient care. Facilitated group discussion reduces burnout among practicing clinicians. Objective We hypothesized that this type of intervention would reduce incident burnout among first-year IM residents. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014, participants from a convenience sample of 51 incoming IM residents were randomly assigned (in groups of 3) to the intervention or a control. Twice-monthly theme-based discussion sessions (18 total) led by expert facilitators were held for intervention groups. Surveys were administered at study onset and completion. Demographic and personal characteristics were collected. Burnout and burnout domains were the primary outcomes. Following convention, we defined burnout as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results All 51 eligible residents participated; 39 (76%) completed both surveys. Initial burnout prevalence (10 of 21 [48%] versus 7 of 17 [41%], P = .69), incidence of burnout at year end (9 of 11 [82%] versus 5 of 10 [50%], P = .18), and secondary outcomes were similar in intervention and control arms. More residents in the intervention group had high year-end depersonalization scores (18 of 21 [86%] versus 9 of 17 [53%], P = .04). Many intervention residents revealed that sessions did not truly free them from clinical or educational responsibilities. Conclusions A facilitated group discussion intervention did not decrease burnout in resident physicians. Future discussion-based interventions for reducing resident burnout should be voluntary and effectively free participants from clinical duties.

  9. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Implementation status of self-assessment/peer-group discussion program: a bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision in improving quality of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Bhuju, G B; Karkee, S B; Prasad, R R; Shrestha, N; Shrestha, A D; Das, P L; Chataut, B D; Shrestha, A; Suvedi, B K

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring/supervision is an essential component for improving the quality of health services including rational use of medicines. A new bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision consisting of self-assessment/ peer-group discussion was found to be effective in improving prescribing practices. The new strategy significantly improved the prescribing practices based on standard treatment guidelines. The government has implemented it as a Program in primary health care services of Nepal. This article aims to share the implementation status of the self-assessment/peer-group discussion Program for improving the prescribing practices of common health problems and availability of drugs in the district health system. Concurrent mixed research design was applied for data collection. The data were collected at different levels of health care system using in-depth interviews, participatory observations and documentary analysis. The Management Division, Department of Health Services implemented the Program in 2009-10 and the PHC Revitalization Division, DoHs is the implementation division since 2010-11. The Program comprised revision of participant's and trainer's manuals, training of trainers and prescribers, finalisation of health conditions and indicators, distribution of carbon copy prescription pads, and conduction of peer-group discussions.The Program was implemented in number of districts. The government made the policy decision to implement the Program for monitoring prescribing practices and the availability of free drugs in districts. However, it has covered only few districts and needs escalation to cover all 75 districts of the country.

  11. The Influence of Setting on Findings Produced in Qualitative Health Research: A Comparison between Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Groups about HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Graffigna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus their analysis in this article on online focus groups (FGs, in an attempt to describe how the setting shapes the conversational features of the discussion and influences data construction. Starting from a review of current dominant viewpoints, they compare face-to-face discussion groups with different formats of online FGs about AIDS, from a discourse analysis perspective. They conducted 2 face-to-face FGs, 2 chats, 2 forums, and 2 forums+plus+chat involving 64 participants aged 18 to 25 and living in Italy. Their findings seem not only to confirm the hypothesis of a general difference between a face-to-face discussion setting and an Internet-mediated one but also reveal differences among the forms of online FG, in terms of both the thematic articulation of discourse and the conversational and relational characteristics of group exchange, suggesting that exchanges on HIV/AIDS are characterized by the setting. This characterization seems to be important for situating the choice of tool, according to research objectives, and for better defining the technical aspects of the research project.

  12. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadmon, Martina; Harter, Cordula; Schellberg, Dieter; Möltner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    ...: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion...

  13. Identifying barriers to healthcare to reduce health disparity in Zuni Indians using focus group conducted by community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vallabh O; Ghahate, Donica M; Bobelu, Jeanette; Sandy, Phillip; Newman, Sara; Helitzer, Deborah L; Faber, Thomas; Zager, Philip

    2014-02-01

    The Zuni Pueblo is home to an economically disadvantaged population, which faces a public health challenge from the interrelated epidemics of obesity, diabetes and kidney disease. Efforts to decrease the impact of these epidemics have been complicated by historical, economic and cultural barriers, which may limit healthcare utilization. The NIH supported Zuni Health Initiative (ZHI) conducted a study to identify barriers to healthcare in the Zuni Pueblo. Community health representatives (CHRs) led 14 one-hour focus group sessions at which a total of 112 people participated posed unique questions that took into account the Zuni culture to elicit information on perceived barriers to healthcare. Audiotapes were translated and transcribed by bilingual ZHI staff. We reduced the text to thematic categories, constructed a coding dictionary and inserted the text into NVivo 9 program. We identified nine themes emerged regarding the barriers experienced in receiving healthcare and adhering to medical advice. These included distance; transportation; embarrassment; relating to healthcare professionals; navigating the medical system; awareness of available resources; waiting times; adhering to medication; and incentives in health promotion. In conclusion the implementation of culturally appropriate community-based health promotion programs and preventive screening techniques will improve access to healthcare and diminish health disparities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 浅谈中国的团购网站及其发展%Discussion on the situation and development of group-buying websites in china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左倪娜

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, group-buying websites have sprung up like bamboo shoots after a spring shower. Group-buying has a great influence on people' s life and become a hot issue on our daily life. This paper analyzed and discussed the current situation of group-buying websites of China, the existing problem and its development perspective.%近年来,团购网站犹如雨后春笋不断涌现,“团购”活动影响着人们生活,成为人们关注和讨论的热点问题。文章对中国团购网站的现状、存在的问题以及团购网站的发展前景进行分析和探讨。

  15. Discuss on the Operation Mode of Group Purchase Websites in our country%我国团购网站的运营模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向红

    2012-01-01

    互联网技术的快速发展,催生了许多新的电子商务运营模式,团购网站的兴起,OTO的普及,使得网上团购成为时下最流行的购物方式,团购网站带给消费者更低的价格,更自由、更个性化的商品或服务,大量的消费者喜爱团购也给商家和团购网站带来了极大的名气和快速增长的销量,但网络团购异常繁荣的背后也隐藏着若干问题。本文探讨我国团购网站的运营模式,分析目前存在的问题,并提出解决问题的建议对策。%The rapid development of Internet technology,has spawned a lot of new e-commerce operation mode,group purchase websites arisen,the popularity of OTO,making online group purchase became the most popular way of shopping,group purchase websites bring lower prices,more free and more personalized commodity or service for consumers,many consumers'group purchase has also brought great fame and the rapid growth of sales for merchants and group purchase websites,but the network group purchase abnormal prosperous backside hidden problems.This paper discusses group purchase websites operating mode in our country,the analysis of the existing problems,and put forward suggestions and countermeasures to solve the problems.

  16. Why aren't women choosing STEM academic jobs? Observations from a small-group discussion at the 2016 American Society for Microbiology annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    This commentary summarizes a small-group discussion that recently occurred at the American Society for Microbiology annual general meeting, ASM Microbe, in Boston, Massachusetts, on 16-20 June 2016, on the topic 'why are so few women choosing to become academics?' Specifically, the discussion focused on asking what the actual and perceived barriers to academic STEM careers women face, and possible solutions to address them which would make women more likely to seek out academic careers. The conclusions reached suggest that, despite improvement in recent years, women and minorities still face complex barriers to STEM academic careers, and further research is needed to determine the best solutions to this problem. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Patient-based outcome analysis is important to determine the success of total knee arthroplasty: result of a focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharia B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Balaji Zacharia, Manu Paul, Mohammed Thanveeruddin Sherule Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India Background: Total knee replacement (TKR results in an excellent outcome in terms of pain relief. The reporting of outcomes was traditionally focused on implant survivorship and objective outcomes such as range of motion, knee stability, and radiographic alignment. However, patients and doctors had differing perceptions of all domains of outcome, especially subjective quality of life domains such as emotions and social functioning. In this study, we tried to find out the expectations of Indian patients regarding TKR and assess the level of satisfaction among our patients from their view point using focus group discussion (FGD, and whether these expectations have an impact on outcomes and patient satisfaction. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, in November 2014. Patients between the ages 60 and 65 years who met inclusion criteria were selected. A total of 50 patients were selected for FGDs. Among them, 42 patients participated in FGD. The remaining eight did not appear for the discussion. A total of four FGD sessions were conducted. Results and discussion: It was found that there is a discrepancy between the satisfaction levels of patient and surgeon. There is a difference in satisfaction level achieved depending on socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural characteristics. Conclusion: Newer methods of TKR outcome assessment combining radiological outcome, surgeon-based assessment, and patient satisfaction based on their socioeconomic status and cultural characteristics should be developed for different populations. Keywords: focus group discussion, total knee arthroplasty, patient-specific objectives

  18. Natural resources as an area of protection in LCA - outcomes of the discussion by the working group on resources within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, T.; Fantke, Peter; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of resources as an area of protection (AoP) in life cycle assessment (LCA) is being discussed within an expert group under the umbrella of the Life Cycle Initiative by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC......). The AoP ‘Natural Resources’ is neither well defined nor agreed upon. Furthermore, there is currently no life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method available that is able to consist ently assess impacts at midpoint and endpoint level across different resource categories (minerals/metals and fossil fuels...

  19. Discussion on Application of Hydroxyl Group Control to Special Glass Production%浅析-OH控制在特种玻璃生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发伟

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了玻璃中羟基含量对玻璃性能的影响,以及高档电子玻璃生产中羟基控制的重要意义,同时分析了空气助燃的窑炉和纯氧窖炉中影响玻璃液羟基含量的因素,并综述了实际生产中调整玻璃液中羟基含量的重要手段。%The effect of hydroxyl group content on glass performance and the significance of hydroxyl group control for production of high grade electronic glass were discussed in details. The influence factors of hydroxyl concentration in glass melt in both air and pure-oxygen combustion furnaces were analyzed The important measures in practical production for controlling hydroxyl concentration in glass melt were reviewed.

  20. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  1. Identifying clinical learning needs using structured group feedback: first year evaluation of pre-registration nursing and midwifery degree programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Connolly, Michael; Naughton, Corina; Kow, Veronica

    2014-07-01

    Facilitating and supporting clinical learning for student nurses and midwives are essential within their practice environments. Clinical placements provide unique opportunities in preparation for future roles. Understanding the experiences of first year student nurses and midwives following clinical exposures and examining the clinical facilitators and barriers can assist in maintaining and developing clinical supports. The study used a structured group feedback approach with a convenience sample of 223 first year nursing and midwifery students in one Irish university in April 2011 to ascertain feedback on the clinical aspects of their degree programme. Approximately 200 students participated in the process. Two key clinical issues were identified by students: facilitating clinical learning and learning experiences and needs. Positive learning environments, supportive staff and increased opportunities for reflection were important issues for first year students. The role of supportive mentoring staff in clinical practice is essential to enhance student learning. Students value reflection in practice and require more opportunities to engage during placements. More collaborative approaches are required to ensure evolving and adapting practice environments can accommodate student learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying barriers and facilitators to ambulance service assessment and treatment of acute asthma: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute asthma is a common reason for patients to seek care from ambulance services. Although better care of acute asthma can prevent avoidable morbidity and deaths, there has been little research into ambulance clinicians’ adherence to national guidelines for asthma assessment and management and how this might be improved. Our research aim was to explore paramedics’ attitudes, perceptions and beliefs about prehospital management of asthma, to identify barriers and facilitators to guideline adherence. Methods We conducted three focus group interviews of paramedics in a regional UK ambulance trust. We used framework analysis supported by NVivo 8 to code and analyse the data. Results Seventeen participants, including paramedics, advanced paramedics or paramedic operational managers at three geographical sites, contributed to the interviews. Analysis led to five themes: (1) guidelines should be made more relevant to ambulance service care; (2) there were barriers to assessment; (3) the approach needed to address conflicts between clinicians’ and patients’ expectations; (4) the complexity of ambulance service processes and equipment needed to be taken into account; (5) and finally there were opportunities for improved prehospital education, information, communication, support and care pathways for asthma. Conclusions This qualitative study provides insight into paramedics’ perceptions of the assessment and management of asthma, including why paramedics may not always follow guidelines for assessment or management of asthma. These findings provide opportunities to strengthen clinical support, patient communication, information transfer between professionals and pathways for prehospital care of patients with asthma. PMID:25086749

  3. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly

  4. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  5. An exploration of computer-simulated evolution and small group discussion on pre-service science teachers' perceptions of evolutionary concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ronald Douglas

    The primary goal of this study was to explore how the use of a computer simulation of basic evolutionary processes, in combination with small-group discussions, affected Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' perspectives of basic evolutionary concepts. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in a case study approach with 19 pre-service Intermediate/Senior science teachers at an Ontario university. Several sub-goals were explored. The first sub-goal was to assess Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' current conceptions of evolution. The results indicated that approximately two-thirds of the participants had a poor understanding of basic evolutionary concepts, with only 2 of the 19 participants demonstrating a strong comprehension. These results were found to be very similar to comparable samples of subjects from other research. The second sub-goal was to explore the relationships among Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' understanding of contemporary evolutionary concepts, their perspectives of the nature of science, and their intentions to teach evolutionary concepts in the classroom. Participants' knowledge of evolutionary concepts was found to be associated strongly with their intentions to teach evolution by natural selection (r = .42). However, knowledge of evolutionary concepts was not found to be associated with any particular science epistemology perspective. The third sub-goal was to analyze and to interpret the small-group discussions as members interacted with the simulation. The simulation was found to be highly engaging and a very effective method of encouraging participants to speculate, question, discuss and learn about important evolutionary concepts. Analyses of the discussions revealed that the simulation evoked a wide array of correct conceptions as well as misconceptions. The fourth sub-goal was to assess the extent to which creating a lesson plan on the topic of natural selection could affect

  6. Challenges for achieving safe and effective radical cure of Plasmodium vivax: a round table discussion of the APMEN Vivax Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Bobogare, Albino; Dysoley, Lek; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Pasaribu, Ayodhia P; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Jambert, Elodie; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Commons, Robert; Auburn, Sarah; Marfurt, Jutta; Devine, Angela; Aktaruzzaman, Mohammad M; Sohel, Nayeem; Namgay, Rinzin; Drukpa, Tobgyel; Sharma, Surender Nath; Sarawati, Elvieda; Samad, Iriani; Theodora, Minerva; Nambanya, Simone; Ounekham, Sonesay; Mudin, Rose Nanti Binti; Da Thakur, Garib; Makita, Leo Sora; Deray, Raffy; Lee, Sang-Eun; Boaz, Leonard; Danansuriya, Manjula N; Mudiyanselage, Santha D; Chinanonwait, Nipon; Kitchakarn, Suravadee; Nausien, Johnny; Naket, Esau; Duc, Thang Ngo; Do Manh, Ha; Hong, Young S; Cheng, Qin; Richards, Jack S; Kusriastuti, Rita; Satyagraha, Ari; Noviyanti, Rintis; Ding, Xavier C; Khan, Wasif Ali; Swe Phru, Ching; Guoding, Zhu; Qi, Gao; Kaneko, Akira; Miotto, Olivo; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Battle, Katherine; Howes, Rosalind E; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Duparc, Stephan; Bhowmick, Ipsita Pal; Kenangalem, Enny; Bibit, Jo-Anne; Barry, Alyssa; Sintasath, David; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra; Sibley, Carol H; McCarthy, James; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Baird, J Kevin; Price, Ric N

    2017-04-05

    The delivery of safe and effective radical cure for Plasmodium vivax is one of the greatest challenges for achieving malaria elimination from the Asia-Pacific by 2030. During the annual meeting of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group in October 2016, a round table discussion was held to discuss the programmatic issues hindering the widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure. Participants included 73 representatives from 16 partner countries and 33 institutional partners and other research institutes. In this meeting report, the key discussion points are presented and grouped into five themes: (i) current barriers for glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (G6PD) testing prior to PQ radical cure, (ii) necessary properties of G6PD tests for wide scale deployment, (iii) the promotion of G6PD testing, (iv) improving adherence to PQ regimens and (v) the challenges for future tafenoquine (TQ) roll out. Robust point of care (PoC) G6PD tests are needed, which are suitable and cost-effective for clinical settings with limited infrastructure. An affordable and competitive test price is needed, accompanied by sustainable funding for the product with appropriate training of healthcare staff, and robust quality control and assurance processes. In the absence of quantitative PoC G6PD tests, G6PD status can be gauged with qualitative diagnostics, however none of the available tests is currently sensitive enough to guide TQ treatment. TQ introduction will require overcoming additional challenges including the management of severely and intermediately G6PD deficient individuals. Robust strategies are needed to ensure that effective treatment practices can be deployed widely, and these should ensure that the caveats are outweighed by  the benefits of radical cure for both the patients and the community. Widespread access to quality controlled G6PD testing will be critical.

  7. [Practical nursing training in the University School of Nursing of the Community of Madrid. Opinion of students and health professionals. Qualitative study with discussion groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Alameda Cuesta, Almudena; Albéniz Lizarraga, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    In the nursing schools, the contrast between what is taught in the classrooms and what is practiced at the health care centers usually creates a great deal of confusion on the part of the students. The objective of this research is to ascertain the opinion of the students and of the professionals at the health care centers where they are doing their training with regard thereto in order to detect their problems and see what differences exist between primary and specialized care. This research was conducted throughout the first half of 2000 employing qualitative methodology, by means of four discussion groups comprised of students, former students, primary care training advisors and nursing professionals at the hospitals where the students of the school in question are doing their nursing training. The initial involvement employed was indirect. The comments of the nursing students and of their training advisors with regard to the practice nursing during the diploma studies reveal dissatisfaction on the part of both of these groups. In all of the groups point out anxiety as the leading factor involved in their teaching as well as learning activities and during professional training. The lack of identification as a group of professionals seems to be related to the lack of recognition on the part of the others, the demand for a degree being granted for their college studies and for the setting up of specialities would contribute to their social recognition and, as a result thereof, to their identification as a professional group. Until a solution is provided to the anxiety which the nursing professionals feel with regard to their professional practice, which they pass on to their students during nursing training, it will not be possible to achieve a higher degree of satisfaction with nursing training experiences either on the part of the training advisors or on the part of the students.

  8. Identifying policy target groups with qualitative and quantitative methods: the case of wildfire risk on nonindustrial private forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Designing policies to harness the potential of heterogeneous target groups such as nonindustrial private forest owners to contribute to public policy goals can be challenging. The behaviors of such groups are shaped by their diverse motivations and circumstances. Segmenting heterogeneous target groups into more homogeneous subgroups may improve the chances of...

  9. Manifestations of Differential Cultural Capital in a University Classroom: Views from Classroom Observations and Focus Group Discussions in a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmore Mutekwe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based predominantly on Pierre Bourdieu’s social and cultural reproduction theory, particularly his notions of cultural capital and symbolic violence, this paper explores how first year post graduate Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE university students from diverse socio-linguistic backgrounds differ in the levels at which they understand and express themselves in classroom activities. The paper’s thesis is that the diverse nature of South African classrooms presents a number of challenges not only for students but also for educators in terms of the use of English as a medium of instruction or the language for learning and teaching (LOLT. Owing to the fact that the South African Language in Education Policy (LiEP of 1997 empowers both learners and educators in schools to use any of the eleven South African official languages as a LOLT wherever that is reasonably possible, students whose English backgrounds were deficient in enculturating them in the use of English as a learning tool often encounter challenges in expressing their ideas in the classroom, whether in writing or in oral presentations. The discussion is anchored in the data elicited through two data collection methods, lesson observations in a Diploma in Higher Education, Research class composed of students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and through focus group discussion sessions with 40 multi-ethnic Diploma in Higher Education students from the same classroom. The data management and analysis for this study was done thematically, with views emerging from the observations and focus group discussions being clustered into superordinate themes for convenience of the discussion of the findings. The findings of this study were that students from affluent socio-economic backgrounds who enter university with a rich and relevant English linguistic capital, values and attitudes enjoy an enormous advantage compared to their counterparts whose social class and linguistic

  10. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  11. Aiming to be a breastfeeding mother in a neonatal intensive care unit and at home: a thematic analysis of peer-support group discussion in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa; Axelin, Anna; Melender, Hanna-Leena; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-10-01

    Preterm infants are usually breastfed less than full-term infants, and successful breastfeeding requires a supportive environment and special efforts from their mothers. A breastfeeding peer-support group, utilising social media, was developed for these mothers in order to support them in this challenge. Mothers were able to discuss breastfeeding and share experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants based on the postings in peer-support group discussions in social media. The actively participating mothers (n = 22) had given birth <35 gestational weeks. They were recruited from one university hospital in Finland. The social media postings (n = 305) were analysed using thematic analysis. A description of the process of breastfeeding a preterm infant from the point of view of a mother was created. The process consisted of three main themes: the breastfeeding paradox in hospital, the 'reality check' of breastfeeding at home and the breastfeeding experience as part of being a mother. The mothers encountered paradoxical elements in the support received in hospital; discharge was promoted at the expense of breastfeeding and pumping breast milk was emphasised over breastfeeding. After the infant's discharge, the over-optimistic expectations of mothers often met with reality - mothers did not have the knowledge or skills to manage breastfeeding at home. Successful breastfeeding was an empowering experience for the mothers, whereas unsuccessful breastfeeding induced feelings of disappointment. Therefore, the mothers of preterm infants need evidence-based breastfeeding counselling and systematic support in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and at home. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Medical Students' Attitudes Toward Non-Adherent Patients Before and After a Simulated Patient-Role Activity and Small-Group Discussion: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelPrete, Angela; Giordano, Christin; Castiglioni, Analia; Hernandez, Caridad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study seeks to explore whether the documented decline in medical student empathy can be prevented or slowed using simulated patient-role activities and small-group discussions about the patient experience of living with a chronic illness. Methods First-year students (M1, n = 118) at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine (UCFCOM) participated in a simulated patient-role activity resembling the experience of a patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The activity included taking daily "medication," participating in moderate exercise, and maintaining a low carbohydrate diet. At the end of the simulated patient-role activity, students took part in a small-group discussion about their experiences. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: Student Version (JSPE:S) before and after the activity. Additionally, fourth-year students (M4) at UCFCOM completed the JSPE:S to serve as the control, as this class completed the curriculum without any simulated patient-role activities. Results A total of 86 responses out of 118 possible M1 participants (73% response rate) were received. Of these, 62 surveys were completed and were therefore used for statistical analysis. A dependent sample t-test revealed no statistically significant increase on pre-activity (M = 111.15, SD = 8.56) and post-activity (M = 111.38, SD = 9.12) empathy scores (p = .78). A positive correlation was revealed to exist between pre- and post-activity empathy scores (r = 0.72, p students, our findings suggest that on a short-term scale, empathy levels were not affected by the activity.

  13. Do we have a moral responsibility to compensate for vulnerable groups? A discussion on the right to health for LGBT people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-11-26

    Vulnerability is a broad concept widely addressed in recent scholarly literature. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are among the vulnerable populations with significant disadvantages related to health and the social determinants of health. Medical ethics discourse tackles vulnerability from philosophical and political perspectives. LGBT people experience several disadvantages from both perspectives. This article aims to justify the right to health for LGBT people and their particular claims regarding healthcare because they belong to a vulnerable group. Rawls' theory of justice and Norman Daniels' normal functioning approach will be discussed in this context. Despite the fact that the right to health can be justified by Daniels' normal functioning approach, there is still a theoretical gap in justifying the right to health for particular vulnerable populations such as LGBT peopleand discussing society's duty to compensate for these disadvantages. In search of solid theoretical grounds for the justification of the right to health for LGBT people, the present author takes the opportunity to utilize Daniels' flexible definition of normal functioning to show that normal functioning not only varies by age but also by different states of human existence, including sexual orientation and gender identity, and to propose replacing the life span approach with normal states of human existence.

  14. Patient-based outcome analysis is important to determine the success of total knee arthroplasty: result of a focus group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Balaji; Paul, Manu; Thanveeruddin Sherule, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) results in an excellent outcome in terms of pain relief. The reporting of outcomes was traditionally focused on implant survivorship and objective outcomes such as range of motion, knee stability, and radiographic alignment. However, patients and doctors had differing perceptions of all domains of outcome, especially subjective quality of life domains such as emotions and social functioning. In this study, we tried to find out the expectations of Indian patients regarding TKR and assess the level of satisfaction among our patients from their view point using focus group discussion (FGD), and whether these expectations have an impact on outcomes and patient satisfaction. This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, in November 2014. Patients between the ages 60 and 65 years who met inclusion criteria were selected. A total of 50 patients were selected for FGDs. Among them, 42 patients participated in FGD. The remaining eight did not appear for the discussion. A total of four FGD sessions were conducted. It was found that there is a discrepancy between the satisfaction levels of patient and surgeon. There is a difference in satisfaction level achieved depending on socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural characteristics. Newer methods of TKR outcome assessment combining radiological outcome, surgeon-based assessment, and patient satisfaction based on their socioeconomic status and cultural characteristics should be developed for different populations.

  15. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  16. The Neural Correlates of In-group and Self-Face Perception: Is There Overlap for High Identifiers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan eScheepers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Social identity, the part of the self-concept derived from group membership, is a key explanatory construct for a wide variety of behaviors, ranging from organizational commitment to discrimination towards out-groups. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the neural basis of social identity through a comparison with the neural correlates of self-face perception. Participants viewed a series of pictures, one at a time, of themselves, a familiar other, in-group members, and out-group members. We created a contrast for self-face perception by subtracting brain activation in response to the familiar other from brain activation in response to the self face, and a contrast for social identity by subtracting brain activation in response to out-group faces from brain activation in response to in-group faces. In line with previous research, for the self—familiar other contrast we found activation in several right-hemisphere regions (inferior frontal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules. In addition, we found activation in closely-adjacent brain areas for the social identity contrast. Importantly, significant clusters of activation in this in-group—out-group contrast only emerged to the extent that participants reported high identification with the in-group. These results suggest that self-perception and social identity depend on partly similar neural processes.

  17. 析基于博弈论的网络团购问题%Discussion on Online Group-buying Based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟微微

    2011-01-01

    作为新时代的产物,网络团购深受消费者与商家的喜欢。消费者通过网络平台自发组团与商家进行交易,亦或通过各类网站申请成为会员,直接参团购买。但就是这种改变传统的商业模式引发当前的种种质疑。文章通过博弈理论,分析网络团购的问题关键,并进一步探讨解决问题的方法,以促进网络团购的健康发展。%Online group-buying,which is the product of this new era,has been deeply loved by both consumers as well as businesses.Through the platform of network,the consumer can either voluntarily join the buying group and together they trade with the businesses or he(or she) can apply for the membership of some website and directly deal with the businesses.However,it is this kind of business-customer mode,which changes the traditional way of buying,that causes series of problems.This paper attempts to analyze the key issue of online group-buying on the basis of game theory and discuss further solutions to the issue,trying to promote its healthy development in the future.

  18. 基于EVA视角下的报业集团绩效评价%Discussion on the Performance Evaluation of Press Group Based on EVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新星

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, China’s press industry is developing rapidly. At the same time of developing the traditional business, some press groups explore the cross-regional, cross-industrial, multi-faceted and multi-level development on the basis of their own resources. Their development level is being affected by mar⁃ket factors more and more obviously.But the traditional financial performance evaluation system based on the income, profit, net assets yield and others can not meet the needs of the modern press group ’s multi level gover⁃nance structure and diversification management . Taking the Economic Value Added (EVA) as the break⁃through point, this paper has done a preliminary discussion on the method and system of performance evaluation of press groups .%近年来,我国报业发展迅猛,一些报业集团在坚持发展传统主业的同时,依托自身资源优势进行了跨地区、跨行业、多方位、多层次的发展探索,其发展程度、发展水平受市场因素的影响也越来越明显。而传统的收入、利润、净资产收益率等财务绩效评价体系已满足不了现代报业集团多层级结构治理和多元化经营需要。本文以经济增加值(EVA)为切入点,对报业集团的绩效评价方法、体系进行了初步探讨。

  19. Insights of health district managers on the implementation of primary health care outreach teams in Johannesburg, South Africa: a descriptive study with focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Derese, Anselme; Peersman, Wim

    2017-01-21

    Primary health care (PHC) outreach teams are part of a policy of PHC re-engineering in South Africa. It attempts to move the deployment of community health workers (CHWs) from vertical programmes into an integrated generalised team-based approach to care for defined populations in municipal wards. There has little evaluation of PHC outreach teams. Managers' insights are anecdotal. This is descriptive qualitative study with focus group discussions with health district managers of Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa. This was conducted in a sequence of three meetings with questions around implementation, human resources, and integrated PHC teamwork. There was a thematic content analysis of validated transcripts using the framework method. There were two major themes: leadership-management challenges and human resource challenges. Whilst there was some positive sentiment, leadership-management challenges loomed large: poor leadership and planning with an under-resourced centralised approach, poor communications both within the service and with community, concerns with its impact on current services and resistance to change, and poor integration, both with other streams of PHC re-engineering and current district programmes. Discussion by managers on human resources was mostly on the plight of CHWs and calls for formalisation of CHWs functioning and training and nurse challenges with inappropriate planning and deployment of the team structure, with brief mention of the extended team. Whilst there is positive sentiment towards intent of the PHC outreach team, programme managers in Johannesburg were critical of management of the programme in their health district. Whilst the objective of PHC reform is people-centred health care, its implementation struggles with a centralising tendency amongst managers in the health service in South Africa. Managers in Johannesburg advocated for decentralisation. The implementation of PHC outreach teams is also limited by

  20. Rodas de conversa sobre o trabalho na rua: discutindo saúde mental Conversation groups on outreach work: discussing mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Rios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo narra uma experiência de ensino com agentes comunitários de saúde em uma unidade do Programa de Saúde da Família da periferia de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de discutir temas de Saúde Mental relevantes para o trabalho cotidiano desses profissionais, criou-se um espaço de aprendizagem e construção de sentido para esses agentes. Em grupos de encontro quinzenais com uma psiquiatra e cerca de 20 agentes, discutiam-se casos clínicos e situações de vida e trabalho a partir dos quais era possível aprender conceitos básicos de Saúde Mental e pensar o papel e a identidade desses profissionais na comunidade. Ao final de um ano de experiência, avaliou-se que tal atividade é fundamental como apoio para o desenvolvimento do trabalho desses profissionais, e para o aprendizado de como lidar com aspectos subjetivos próprios e dos usuários, especialmente na periferia de grandes centros urbanos.This article describes a teaching experience with health community agents in a Family Health Program unit. In order to discuss important everyday mental health themes, a space for these agents was created, intended for learning and building up senses. Groups of 20 agents and a psychiatrist met every two weeks, to discuss clinical cases, and life and work situations which helped apprehend basic Mental Health concepts and to reflect on the role and identity of these professionals in the community. After one year, this activity was considered fundamental to support the work developed by the agents and to help them learn how to deal with their and the users' subjective aspects, especially in the periphery of large urban centers.

  1. The Ten-Group Robson Classification: A Single Centre Approach Identifying Strategies to Optimise Caesarean Section Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) rates have been increasing worldwide and have caused concerns. For meaningful comparisons to be made World Health Organization recommends the use of the Ten-Group Robson classification as the global standard for assessing CS rates. 2625 women who birthed over a 12-month period were analysed using this classification. Women with previous CS (group 5) comprised 10.9% of the overall 23.5% CS rate. Women with one previous CS who did not attempt VBAC contributed 5.3% of the overall 23.5% CS rate. Second largest contributor was singleton nulliparous women with cephalic presentation at term (5.1% of the total 23.5%). Induction of labour was associated with higher CS rate (groups 1 and 3) (24.5% versus 11.9% and 6.2% versus 2.6%, resp.). For postdates IOL we recommend a gatekeeper booking system to minimise these being performed <41 weeks. We suggest setting up dedicated VBAC clinic to support for women with one previous CS. Furthermore review of definition of failure to progress in labour not only may lower CS rates in groups 1 and 2a but also would reduce the size of group 5 in the future. PMID:28167965

  2. The Ten-Group Robson Classification: A Single Centre Approach Identifying Strategies to Optimise Caesarean Section Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Tanaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesarean section (CS rates have been increasing worldwide and have caused concerns. For meaningful comparisons to be made World Health Organization recommends the use of the Ten-Group Robson classification as the global standard for assessing CS rates. 2625 women who birthed over a 12-month period were analysed using this classification. Women with previous CS (group 5 comprised 10.9% of the overall 23.5% CS rate. Women with one previous CS who did not attempt VBAC contributed 5.3% of the overall 23.5% CS rate. Second largest contributor was singleton nulliparous women with cephalic presentation at term (5.1% of the total 23.5%. Induction of labour was associated with higher CS rate (groups 1 and 3 (24.5% versus 11.9% and 6.2% versus 2.6%, resp.. For postdates IOL we recommend a gatekeeper booking system to minimise these being performed <41 weeks. We suggest setting up dedicated VBAC clinic to support for women with one previous CS. Furthermore review of definition of failure to progress in labour not only may lower CS rates in groups 1 and 2a but also would reduce the size of group 5 in the future.

  3. Chemical modification and pH dependence of kinetic parameters to identify functional groups in a glucosyltransferase from Strep. Mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.E.; Leone, A.; Bell, E.T.

    1986-05-01

    A glucosyltransferase, forming a predominantly al-6 linked glucan, was partially purified from the culture filtrate of S. mutans GS-5. The kinetic properties of the enzyme, assessed using the transfer of /sup 14/C glucose from sucrose into total glucan, were studied at pH values from pH 3.5 to 6.5. From the dependence of km on pH, a group with pKa = 5.5 must be protonated to maximize substrate binding. From plots of V/sub max/ vs pH two groups, with pKa's of 4.5 and 5.5 were indicated. The results suggest the involvement of either two carboxyl groups (one protonated, one unprotonated in the native enzyme) or a carboxyl group (unprotonated) and some other protonated group such as histidine, cysteine. Chemical modification studies showed that Diethylyrocarbonate (histidine specific) had no effect on enzyme activity while modification with p-phydroxy-mercuribenzoate or iodoacetic acid (sulfhydryl reactive) and carbodimide reagents (carboxyl specific) resulted in almost complete inactivation. Activity loss was dependent upon time of incubation and reagent concentration. The disaccharide lylose, (shown to be an inhibitor of the enzyme with similar affinity to sucrose) offers no protection against modification by the sulfhydryl reactive reagents.

  4. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Kedenge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  5. The use of nominal group technique in identifying community health priorities in Moshi rural district, northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makundi, E A; Manongi, R; Mushi, A K

    2005-01-01

    . It is the provision of ownership of the derived health priorities to partners including the community that enhances research utilization of the end results. In addition to disease-based methods, the Nominal Group Technique is being proposed as an important research tool for involving the non-experts in priority....... The patients/caregivers, women's group representatives, youth leaders, religious leaders and community leaders/elders constituted the principal subjects. Emphasis was on providing qualitative data, which are of vital consideration in multi-disciplinary oriented studies, and not on quantitative information from...... larger samples. We found a high level of agreement across groups, that malaria remains the leading health problem in Moshi rural district in Tanzania both in the highland and lowland areas. Our findings also indicate that 'non-medical' issues including lack of water, hunger and poverty heralded priority...

  6. Key Affective Behaviors of Students as Identified by a Select Group of Secondary School Teachers Using the SCANS Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Jeffrey G.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary teachers (n=58, 40% response) identified student behaviors for the five affective areas of the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) report (responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-management, integrity/honesty). The list of behaviors could provide a foundation for secondary schools implementing…

  7. Anemia and its determinants among women of reproductive age of a slum in Kolkata: A focus group discussion among health workers in a slum of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sarkar, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Ranadip; Ray, Arindam; Shahbabu, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC), Chetla. A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla. A thematic analysis of the transcript was performed. We found that socioeconomic factors like poverty and social neglect, diet and nutrition related factors, lack of personal hygiene, and worm infestation contributed to the burden of anemia, and this was reinforced by factors related to service delivery, such as lack of supply of drugs and supplements, and inadequate training of health workers as well as poor media accountability. Because of easy reversibility and implementation, health service delivery-related issues should be addressed closely through monitoring and evaluation and appropriate and timely action should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the services.

  8. Speed-Discussion: Engaging Students in Class Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Sarah; Noack, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Communication Criticism, Rhetorical Criticism, Family and Communication, Gender and Communication, Popular Communication, and theory-based courses. Objectives: This activity engages students in dynamic, supportive, social discussion groups; helps them to identify and review the central ideas from the reading; and creates a record of their…

  9. ProfCom: a web tool for profiling the complex functionality of gene groups identified from high-throughput data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Alexey V; Schmidt, Thorsten; Wang, Yu; Mewes, Hans W

    2008-07-01

    ProfCom is a web-based tool for the functional interpretation of a gene list that was identified to be related by experiments. A trait which makes ProfCom a unique tool is an ability to profile enrichments of not only available Gene Ontology (GO) terms but also of 'complex functions'. A 'Complex function' is constructed as Boolean combination of available GO terms. The complex functions inferred by ProfCom are more specific in comparison to single terms and describe more accurately the functional role of genes. ProfCom provides a user friendly dialog-driven web page submission available for several model organisms and supports most available gene identifiers. In addition, the web service interface allows the submission of any kind of annotation data. ProfCom is freely available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/profcom/.

  10. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  11. Genotypic and biological characteristics of non-identified strain of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayeva, N M; Demkin, V V; Rydkina, E B; Ignatovich, V F; Artemiev, M I; Lichoded LYa; Genig, V A

    1993-12-01

    A strain of rickettsiae, designated Crimea-108, was isolated from ticks Dermacentor marginatus in the Crimea in 1977. Its immunobiological characteristics involve low pathogenicity for experimental animals, moderate infectivity for chick embryos, and antigenic relatedness to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae (R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari), especially to R. sibirica. The genotypic characterization of the strain Crimea-108 was carried out in comparison with SFG and typhus group rickettsiae by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA-probe hybridization. The marked similarity was detected between DNA restriction patterns of the strains Crimea-108, R. sibirica and R. conorii, but each of them besides comigrating fragments had specific ones. Genotypic analysis of the strain Crimea-108, the SFG and typhus group rickettsiae by three independent DNA probes, based on R. prowazekii DNA, gave unique hybridization patterns for the Crimea-108 strain with all probes. The obtained data show that the Crimea-108 isolate does not belong to the species of R. sibirica, R. conorii, R. akari. The strain Crimea-108 is a novel strain of SFG rickettsiae for the Crimea region.

  12. A meta-analysis identifies adolescent idiopathic scoliosis association with LBX1 locus in multiple ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londono, Douglas; Kou, Ikuyo; Johnson, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common rotational deformity of the spine that presents in children worldwide, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a few candidate risk loci. One locus near the chromosome 10q24...... the International Consortium for Scoliosis Genetics (ICSG). METHODS: Here, we report the first ICSG study, a meta-analysis of the LBX1 locus in six Asian and three non-Asian cohorts. RESULTS: We find significant evidence for association of this locus with AIS susceptibility in all nine cohorts. Results for seven...

  13. CCR4 frameshift mutation identifies a distinct group of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kato, Takeharu; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Niino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yuya; Shimono, Joji; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Utsunomiya, Atae; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Seto, Masao; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an intractable T cell neoplasm caused by human T cell leukaemia virus type 1. Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive mutation studies have revealed recurrent somatic CCR4 mutations in ATLL, although clinicopathological findings associated with CCR4 mutations remain to be delineated. In the current study, 184 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma, including 113 cases of ATLL, were subjected to CCR4 mutation analysis. This sequence analysis identified mutations in 27% (30/113) of cases of ATLL and 9% (4/44) of cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. Identified mutations included nonsense (NS) and frameshift (FS) mutations. No significant differences in clinicopathological findings were observed between ATLL cases stratified by presence of CCR4 mutation. All ATLL cases with CCR4 mutations exhibited cell-surface CCR4 positivity. Semi-quantitative CCR4 protein analysis of immunohistochemical sections revealed higher CCR4 expression in cases with NS mutations of CCR4 than in cases with wild-type (WT) CCR4. Furthermore, among ATLL cases, FS mutation was significantly associated with a poor prognosis, compared with NS mutation and WT CCR4. These results suggest that CCR4 mutation is an important determinant of the clinical course in ATLL cases, and that NS and FS mutations of CCR4 behave differently with respect to ATLL pathophysiology.

  14. Identifying and Ranking of Performance Indicators of Entering Foreign Markets With a Case Study in Iran Khodro Industrial Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Malekakhlagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As trade is being more competitive and complicated at international level, necessity of managers’ attention to the strategies for entering the global markets has become a competitive advantage for companies; meanwhile, performance evaluation plays a critical role in organizations’ success. One of the performance evaluation models is Balanced Score Card (BSC which has many advantages compared to similar approaches. In this study, different techniques have been used to determine the degree of parameters' priority to each other including Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Eigenvector technique and SMART method and the strategies performance of Iran Khodro Industrial Group for entering foreign markets during 2009 and 2010 has been evaluated using BSC. Findings imply that the BSC aspects with order of success degree include innovation and development (61%, customer (52%, business processes (47% and financial (24%, respectively.

  15. Identifying and Ranking of Performance Indicators of Entering Foreign Markets With a Case Study in Iran Khodro Industrial Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail malekakhlagh

    2011-09-01

    As trade is being more competitive and complicated at international level, necessity of managers’ attention to the strategies for entering the global markets has become a competitive advantage for companies meanwhile, performance evaluation plays a critical role in organizations’ success. One of the performance evaluation models is Balanced Score Card (BSC which has many advantages compared to similar approaches. In this study, different techniques have been used to determine the degree of parameters' priority to each other including Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Eigenvector technique and SMART method and the strategies performance of Iran Khodro Industrial Group for entering foreign markets during 2009 and 2010 has been evaluated using BSC. Findings imply that the BSC aspects with order of success degree include innovation and development (61%, customer (52%, business processes (47% and financial (24%, respectively.

  16. Cluster Size Statistic and Cluster Mass Statistic: Two Novel Methods for Identifying Changes in Functional Connectivity Between Groups or Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Alex; Schwarzbauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Functional connectivity has become an increasingly important area of research in recent years. At a typical spatial resolution, approximately 300 million connections link each voxel in the brain with every other. This pattern of connectivity is known as the functional connectome. Connectivity is often compared between experimental groups and conditions. Standard methods used to control the type 1 error rate are likely to be insensitive when comparisons are carried out across the whole connectome, due to the huge number of statistical tests involved. To address this problem, two new cluster based methods – the cluster size statistic (CSS) and cluster mass statistic (CMS) – are introduced to control the family wise error rate across all connectivity values. These methods operate within a statistical framework similar to the cluster based methods used in conventional task based fMRI. Both methods are data driven, permutation based and require minimal statistical assumptions. Here, the performance of each procedure is evaluated in a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, utilising a simulated dataset. The relative sensitivity of each method is also tested on real data: BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) fMRI scans were carried out on twelve subjects under normal conditions and during the hypercapnic state (induced through the inhalation of 6% CO2 in 21% O2 and 73%N2). Both CSS and CMS detected significant changes in connectivity between normal and hypercapnic states. A family wise error correction carried out at the individual connection level exhibited no significant changes in connectivity. PMID:24906136

  17. Cluster size statistic and cluster mass statistic: two novel methods for identifying changes in functional connectivity between groups or conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Alex; Schwarzbauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Functional connectivity has become an increasingly important area of research in recent years. At a typical spatial resolution, approximately 300 million connections link each voxel in the brain with every other. This pattern of connectivity is known as the functional connectome. Connectivity is often compared between experimental groups and conditions. Standard methods used to control the type 1 error rate are likely to be insensitive when comparisons are carried out across the whole connectome, due to the huge number of statistical tests involved. To address this problem, two new cluster based methods--the cluster size statistic (CSS) and cluster mass statistic (CMS)--are introduced to control the family wise error rate across all connectivity values. These methods operate within a statistical framework similar to the cluster based methods used in conventional task based fMRI. Both methods are data driven, permutation based and require minimal statistical assumptions. Here, the performance of each procedure is evaluated in a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, utilising a simulated dataset. The relative sensitivity of each method is also tested on real data: BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) fMRI scans were carried out on twelve subjects under normal conditions and during the hypercapnic state (induced through the inhalation of 6% CO2 in 21% O2 and 73%N2). Both CSS and CMS detected significant changes in connectivity between normal and hypercapnic states. A family wise error correction carried out at the individual connection level exhibited no significant changes in connectivity.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of Seven WRKY Genes across the Palm Subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) Identifies Syagrus as Sister Group of the Coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerow, Alan W.; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J.; Kuhn, David N.; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H.; Schnell, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the “abominable mysteries” of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for

  19. General discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The general discussion focuses on some aspects that are of overarching relevance for all the preceding chapters. The fi rst subject that is discussed is the relationship between systems theory and the philosophy of science. After a short summary of the principles of system science and the

  20. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms: the vulnerable groups identified from the National FINRISK 2007 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Rintamäki, Hannu; Donaldson, Gavin; Hassi, Juhani; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among vulnerable groups is not well known. We therefore estimated the prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among the Finnish population and their associations with social and individual vulnerability factors. The data came from the National FINRISK 2007 Study, in which 4007 men and women aged 25-74 answered questions on heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms in the Oulu Cold and Heat Questionnaire 2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), and model-predicted prevalence figures. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms was 12 %. It increased with age, from 3 % at the age of 25 years to 28 % at the age of 75 years. The symptoms were associated with pre-existing lung (OR 3.93; CI 3.01-5.13) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 2.27; 1.78-2.89); being a pensioner (OR 2.91; 1.65-5.28), unemployed (OR 2.82; 1.47-5.48), or working in agriculture (OR 2.27; 1.14-4.46) compared with working in industry; having only basic vs academic education (OR 1.98; 1.31-3.05); being female (OR 1.94; 1.51-2.50); being heavy vs light alcohol consumer (OR 1.89; 1.02-3.32); undertaking hard vs light physical work (OR 1.48;1.06-2.07); and being inactive vs active in leisure time (OR 1.97; 1.39-2.81). The adjusted prevalence of symptoms showed a wide range of variation, from 3 to 61 % depending on sex, age, professional field, education, and pre-existing lung and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms are commonly perceived among people with pre-existing lung or cardiovascular disease, agricultural workers, unemployed, pensioners, and people having only basic education. This information is needed for any planning and targeting measures to reduce the burden of summer heat.

  1. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms: the vulnerable groups identified from the National FINRISK 2007 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Rintamäki, Hannu; Donaldson, Gavin; Hassi, Juhani; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among vulnerable groups is not well known. We therefore estimated the prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among the Finnish population and their associations with social and individual vulnerability factors. The data came from the National FINRISK 2007 Study, in which 4007 men and women aged 25-74 answered questions on heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms in the Oulu Cold and Heat Questionnaire 2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), and model-predicted prevalence figures. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms was 12 %. It increased with age, from 3 % at the age of 25 years to 28 % at the age of 75 years. The symptoms were associated with pre-existing lung (OR 3.93; CI 3.01-5.13) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 2.27; 1.78-2.89); being a pensioner (OR 2.91; 1.65-5.28), unemployed (OR 2.82; 1.47-5.48), or working in agriculture (OR 2.27; 1.14-4.46) compared with working in industry; having only basic vs academic education (OR 1.98; 1.31-3.05); being female (OR 1.94; 1.51-2.50); being heavy vs light alcohol consumer (OR 1.89; 1.02-3.32); undertaking hard vs light physical work (OR 1.48;1.06-2.07); and being inactive vs active in leisure time (OR 1.97; 1.39-2.81). The adjusted prevalence of symptoms showed a wide range of variation, from 3 to 61 % depending on sex, age, professional field, education, and pre-existing lung and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms are commonly perceived among people with pre-existing lung or cardiovascular disease, agricultural workers, unemployed, pensioners, and people having only basic education. This information is needed for any planning and targeting measures to reduce the burden of summer heat.

  2. [Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of invasive group A streptococci identified in eastern Black Sea region of Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Topkaya, Aynur E; Balıkcı, Ahmet; Aydın, Faruk

    2011-07-01

    Frequency of invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) infections is increasing worldwide in recent 20 years. Serotypes responsible for these clinical manifestations and their antibiotic susceptibilities should be known in order to establish preventive measures and initiate appropriate treatment. This study was aimed to determine the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities and inducible clindamycin resistance among invasive GAS isolated between 2006-2009 period. A total of 22 GAS strains isolated from clinical samples [sterile body fluids (peritoneal, pleural, pericardial, joint and cerebrospinal fluids), blood, tissue biopsy] of the patients (14 male, 8 female; age range: 3-82 years, median age: 59) who admitted to Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Farabi Hospital located in Trabzon province (Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey), between March 2006 and March 2009 were included in the study. GAS serotypes were determined by the investigation of serum opacity factors (SOF), T proteins and M proteins. SOF production was investigated by microplate method using human serum and SOF types were determined by SOF-inhibition test using specific antisera. T protein types were detected by agglutination method using polyvalent anti-T sera, and M serotypes were detected by capillary precipitation method using M antisera. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by disk-diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. SOF were positive in 9 (41%) samples. Use of T antiserum yielded T (n= 8) and U (n= 7) types and M antiserum M1 (n= 4) and M2 (n= 3) types. The overall antibiotic susceptibility rate of the isolates was 68% (15/22) and overall resistance rate was 32% (7/22). All of the GAS strains were found susceptible to benzylpenicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, levofloxacine and linezolid, however 9 (41%) were intermediate susceptible to tetracycline and 1 (4.5%) was intermediate susceptible to erythromycin. Four (18%) strains were found resistant to

  3. Highlights of the Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M.; Gillespie, Ardyth H.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions and identified research priorities from a 1980 Workshop on Nutrition Education Research relating to areas of anthropology, communications, psychology, and social psychology. (DS)

  4. Discussion groups with parents of children with cerebral palsy in Europe designed to assist development of a relevant measure of environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McManus, V; Michelsen, S I; Parkinson, K

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An instrument to measure environmental factors relevant to physically impaired children is being developed in a European context. Preliminary work in England had identified some potentially important themes. Further inquiry was needed to identify issues important in other European...... has been developed based on these findings. The environmental questionnaire is in use in a study in nine European centres....

  5. Four-group classification of left ventricular hypertrophy based on ventricular concentricity and dilatation identifies a low-risk subset of eccentric hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    with relatively mild LVH without either increased LV volume or concentricity have similar risk of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular events because hypertensive patients with normal LVM seem to be a low-risk group. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00338260....

  6. Discussion of Several Properties on Leibniz-affine Group%Leibniz 仿射群若干性质的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉

    2015-01-01

    首先引入了Leibniz仿射群的概念;然后给出了G -仿射群是Leibniz仿射群的一个充要条件,得到了Leibniz仿射群上Leibniz张量和Leibniz括号的具体表达式;最后得到了Leibniz仿射群及其子流形与Leibniz左作用的相关性质。%The concept of Leibniz-affine group was introduced firstly,then a necessary and sufficient condition of a G-affine group being a Leibniz-affine group was given. And the concrete expressions of Leibniz tensor and Leibniz bracket on the Leibniz-affine group were obtained. Finally,some properties about Leibniz-affine group, its submanifolds and Leibniz-left action were proved.

  7. Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis

    2009-12-01

    Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.

  8. RISK IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EXTENSION PROGRAMMING - RESULTS OF FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS WITH DAIRY AND GREEN INDUSTRY MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera; Harsh, Stephen B.; Mugera, Amin W.

    2003-01-01

    Employees are both a source of risk and means of addressing risk, and good employee management practices can increase risk resilience. Forty green industry managers and 22 dairy managers discussed personnel issues related to their industry. Influx of Hispanic labor has changed personnel management and the focus of risk management.

  9. Gauging the Gaps in Student Problem-Solving Skills: Assessment of Individual and Group Use of Problem-Solving Strategies Using Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L.; Mitchell, Steven M.; Osgood, Marcy P.

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted…

  10. Using Group Discussion with Taiwan's EFL College Students: A Comparison of Comprehension Instruction for Book Club, Literature Circles, and Instructional Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here involved a one-semester study; during this period of time, reading comprehension instruction representing three major discussion-centered approaches (Book Club, BC; Literature Circles, LC; Instructional Conversations, IC) was designed and implemented. The effectiveness of the three experimental approaches and one…

  11. Identifying dynamically young galaxy groups via wide-angle tail galaxies: A case study in the COSMOS field at z=0.53

    CERN Document Server

    Oklopcic, A; Giodini, S; Zamorani, G; Birzan, L; Schinnerer, E; Carilli, C L; Finoguenov, A; Lilly, S; Koekemoer, A; Scoville, N Z

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of a wide-angle tail (WAT) radio galaxy located in a galaxy group in the COSMOS field at a redshift of z=0.53 (hereafter CWAT-02). We find that the host galaxy of CWAT-02 is the brightest galaxy in the group, although it does not coincide with the center of mass of the system. Estimating a) the velocity of CWAT-02, relative to the intra-cluster medium (ICM), and b) the line-of-sight peculiar velocity of CWAT-02's host galaxy, relative to the average velocity of the group, we find that both values are higher than those expected for a dominant galaxy in a relaxed system. This suggests that CWAT-02's host group is dynamically young and likely in the process of an ongoing group merger. Our results are consistent with previous findings showing that the presence of a wide-angle tail galaxy in a galaxy group or cluster can be used as an indicator of dynamically young non-relaxed systems. Taking the unrelaxed state of CWAT-02's host group into account, we discuss the impact of radio-AGN heating...

  12. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  13. How the Teacher Decide the Style of Group Discussion in Accordance with the Textbook%老师怎样根据课文的内容确定小组研讨的方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2012-01-01

      本文简要论述了小组合作学习的优势,并在此基础上探讨了教师如何根据课文内容确定小组研讨的方式%  Based on the elaboration of the advantages of group cooperative learning, this paper discusses how the teacher de-cide the style of group discussion in accordance with textbook.

  14. 病案分组讨论教学法在临床心电图带教中的应用%Application of Medical Record Group Discussion Teaching Method in the Clinical Electrocardiogram Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂花

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the application of medical record group discussion teaching method in the clinical electro-cardiogram teaching. Methods 200 cases of school students majoring in clinic in 2014 were selected as the research ob-jects, and divided into two groups with 100 cases in each according to the admission number, the traditional group adopted the teaching model mainly in analysis and explanation of class medical record, the discussion group adopted medical record group discussion teaching model, and the final grades and students' evaluation of teaching model of the two groups were observed. Results The operation ability and medical record analysis ability in the traditional group were lower than those in the discussion group and the comparison between groups had statistical significance, P0.05);100名学生对该病案讨论模式的平均肯定率为92.3%。结论在临床心电图教学中应用病案分组讨论方式可增加学生对该学科自主学习意识,提升对心电图的了解与掌握,减少该学科学生期末的挂科率,有效增加临床学生对心电图的全面掌握和对疾病判断思维的培养。

  15. 医院集团财务集中管理探讨%Discussion into the Centralization of Financial Management of Hospital Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗庆华

    2015-01-01

    In order to configure the hospital asset rationally, exert the advantage of group and enhance the efficiency of capital operations, the financial management of hospital group must be centralized. The advantages of centralization of financial management were analyzed. The feasible schemes for centralization of financial management of hospital group were put forward. The attentive questions in the course of centralization of financial management were pointed out.%医院集团财务集中管理能更合理地配置医院资产、发挥集团优势及提高资本运营效率。该文分析财务集中管理的优点,提出医院集团财务集中管理的切实可行的实施方案,指出实行财务集中管理中应注意的问题。

  16. Characterizing Communication Networks in a Web-Based Classroom: Cognitive Styles and Linguistic Behavior of Self-Organizing Groups in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone-Smith, Pamela; Jablokow, Kathryn; Friedel, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explore the cognitive style profiles and linguistic patterns of self-organizing groups within a web-based graduate education course to determine how cognitive preferences and individual behaviors influence the patterns of information exchange and the formation of communication hierarchies in an online classroom. Network analysis…

  17. [Spatial Distribution of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Berlin: Application of a Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis to Identify Location-Specific Risk Groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, Boris; Pieper, Jonas; Schweikart, Jürgen; Keste, Andrea; Moskwyn, Marita

    2017-02-16

    Understanding which population groups in which locations are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) allows efficient and cost-effective interventions targeting these risk-populations in great need in specific locations. The goal of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of T2DM and to identify the location-specific, population-based risk factors using global and local spatial regression models. To display the spatial heterogeneity of T2DM, bivariate kernel density estimation was applied. An ordinary least squares regression model (OLS) was applied to identify population-based risk factors of T2DM. A geographically weighted regression model (GWR) was then constructed to analyze the spatially varying association between the identified risk factors and T2DM. T2DM is especially concentrated in the east and outskirts of Berlin. The OLS model identified proportions of persons aged 80 and older, persons without migration background, long-term unemployment, households with children and a negative association with single-parenting households as socio-demographic risk groups. The results of the GWR model point out important local variations of the strength of association between the identified risk factors and T2DM. The risk factors for T2DM depend largely on the socio-demographic composition of the neighborhoods in Berlin and highlight that a one-size-fits-all approach is not appropriate for the prevention of T2DM. Future prevention strategies should be tailored to target location-specific risk-groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. What is CCZN-armalcolite? A crystal-chemical discussion and an ad-hoc incursion in the crichtonite-minerals group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril Sabau

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The status of CCZN-armalcolite, commonly still believed to be a variety of armalcolite s.s., is questionable in view of partial evidence suggesting that it would represent a distinct phase, as initially claimed by its discoverers. Because of the rarity of the mineral, combined with its habitual small grain-size, no successful structural investigation could be undertaken so far. Therefore we attempted a chemical overview of existing and original data pertaining to CCZN-armalcolite. With the view of systematizing structure-composition relationships, we analyzed the topology of large cations – bearing close-packed oxides, while extending the nomenclature in use in order to accommodate further topologies. By using relevant chemical plots, a fair compositional match between CCZN-armalcolite and the crichtonite group minerals was demonstrated, as well as a chemical incompatibility with armalcolite. Stoichiometric crichtonite compositions and matching optical properties allowed identification of at least part of “CCZN-armalcolites” with the mineral loveringite of the crichtonite group. A detailed inspection of structure-composition relationships in crichtonites allowed an insight in their trends and range of chemical variation, as well as a comparison between them and a group of “CCZN-armalcolites” slightly differing from known crichtonites. These “CCZN-armalcolites” departing from normal chemical trends in crichtonites either represent an ordered variety of non-stoichiometric crichtonite or a new group of close-packed oxides. Their composition clustering around formula AM16O30 is temptingly consistent with an hypothetical structure intermediate between magnetoplumbites and crichtonites, based on close-packed stacking of layers made up by triangular clusters of octahedra, stuffed with large cations. A model of such a structure, not encountered so far in minerals, is outlined, displaying a hexagonal symmetry P , with a ≈ 7.45Å and c

  19. Discussion on Human Resource Management of Medical Group%集团型医疗机构人力资源管理的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林平平

    2016-01-01

    在现行医疗制度改革形势下,为使医疗资源被最大化利用,各医疗机构进行集团化的整合已成为新型的组织模式,随之医疗集团的人力资源管理也必须进行相应的改革创新。本文以台州恩泽医疗中心(集团)为例,介绍了医疗集团人力资源统一管理的实践探索,并由此带来的作用以及存在的一些难点问题。%Under the environment of current medical system reform, in order to maximize the use of medical resources, group integration of medical institutions has become a new organization model. Therefore, human resource management of the medical group should also have corresponding reform and innovation. This paper takes Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) as an example and introduces the exploration and practice of unified human resources management, the effect of management and some existing difficult problems.

  20. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  1. 浅议陕西煤化集团并购重组工作%Discussion of mergers and acquisitions work in Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹贵武

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the main methods of mergers and acquisitions work , summarized the experiences of mergers and acquisitions work and analyzed the effects of mergers and acquisitions work during the development process of Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group .%介绍了陕煤化集团在发展过程中,实施并购重组工作的主要做法,总结了开展并购重组工作经验,并以具体实例说明了集团实施并购重组工作的效果。

  2. 基于视知觉理论的建筑群体表情初探%Brief Discussion on Building Group Expression Based on Visual Perception Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 张伟

    2012-01-01

      According to disorderly and repetitive City Scape under the context of current urban construction, this paper Consider the thought of ‘building group' as the media of Architectural design and Architectural design.On this basis,it puts forward the concept of ‘building group expression’and make preliminary inquiry to it according to the visual perception gestalt theory, hoping to research the important role of it in shaping city style and feature from a new perspective.%  针对当前城市建设背景下中千城一面、杂乱无章的城市面貌,该文提出以“建筑群体”思想作为连接建筑设计与城市规划的中间层次,在此基础上提出“建筑群体表情”的概念,并根据视知觉完形理论对其进行了初步的探究,希望从新的角度思考其在塑造城市风貌方面的的重要作用。

  3. Neuronal antibody biomarkers for Sydenham's chorea identify a new group of children with chronic recurrent episodic acute exacerbations of tic and obsessive compulsive symptoms following a streptococcal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey S Singer

    Full Text Available Several autoantibodies (anti-dopamine 1 (D1R and 2 (D2R receptors, anti-tubulin, anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and antibody-mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII signaling activity are elevated in children with Sydenham's chorea (SC. Recognizing proposed clinical and autoimmune similarities between SC and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection, we sought to identify serial biomarker changes in a slightly different population. Antineuronal antibodies were measured in eight children (mean 11.3 years with chronic, dramatic, recurrent tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD associated with a group A β-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS respiratory tract infection, but differing because they lacked choreiform movements. Longitudinal serum samples in most subjects included two pre-exacerbation samples, Exac, one midst Exac (abrupt recurrence of tic/OCD; temporally association with a GABHS infection in six of eight subjects, and two post-Exac. Controls included four groups of unaffected children (n = 70; mean 10.8 years obtained at four different institutions and published controls. Clinical exacerbations were not associated with a significant rise in antineuronal antibody titers. CaMKII activation was increased at the GABHS exacerbation point in 5/6 subjects, exceeded combined and published control's 95th percentile at least once in 7/8 subjects, and median values were elevated at each time point. Anti-tubulin and anti-D2R titers did not differ from published or combined control group's 95th percentile or median values. Differences in anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and anti-D1R titers were dependent on the selected control. Variances in antibody titers and CaMKII activation were identified among the institutional control groups. Based on comparisons to published studies, results identify two groups of PANDAS: 1 a cohort, represented by this study, which lacks

  4. Interaction of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A with cultured cells in vitro does not reflect the two previously identified clonal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Mahesh S; Virdi, Jugsharan S

    2013-12-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A strains have been delineated into two clonal groups (A and B) based on repetitive extragenic palindrome- and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR genotyping. The present study investigated the interaction of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains with cultured cells in vitro by their ability to adhere, invade and survive within these cells. The response of macrophages to these strains was also studied by quantifying the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, production of nitric oxide and cytokines, and activation of NFκB. The survival rate of clonal group B strains inside macrophages was significantly higher than that of clonal group A strains. In addition, strains harbouring the fepA gene showed better survival inside macrophages. However, the production of nitric oxide and cytokines and activation of NFκB did not show any significant differences between the two clonal groups. In this study, interaction of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A with cultured cells in vitro did not reflect the previously identified clonal groups, but was more dependent on the characteristics of the individual strains. Therefore, a combination of genotype and phenotype data must be used to characterize this extremely heterogeneous organism.

  5. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given

    1975-01-01

    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  6. Discussion on the Group Cooperation in the Efficient Classroom%浅谈高效课堂中的小组合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琴; 刘爱枝

    2014-01-01

    改变学生学习方式是新一轮基础教育课程改革的核心,而合作学习是课改倡导的重要学习方式之一。让学生的行为、认知、情感参与到小组合作中来,使合作学习具有实效。%Changing students’learning style is the core of a new round of basic education curriculum reform, and cooperative learning is one of the important study way that curriculum reform advocates. Let the students’ behavior, cognition, emotion involved in the group work, make the cooperative learning results.

  7. Discussion on Connection Group of Three-phase Transformer%浅谈三相变压器的连接组别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红

    2013-01-01

    三相变压器的联结组是三相变压器的难点问题之一,通过三相变压器绕组的联结,进一步的说明了三相变压器的联结组及其简单的判定方法---时钟序数表示法,最后对标准联结组进行了详细的说明。%The connection symbol is one of the difficult problems of three-phase transformer, through the connection of the three-phase transformer winding, the paper further illustrates the connection symbol and simple methods---clock ordinal notation of three-phase transformer, finally carries on the detailed instructions for standard connection group.

  8. Discussion on stable increase of foreign trade of Datong Coal Mine Group%同煤集团稳定外贸增长初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓龙

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by the slow development of international economy,the spread of global economic crisis and the protectionism of international trade,the export of state-owned trade enterprises has been blocked seriously and the trade environment has been continually worsening.How to keep the stable increase of foreign trade business in such complex and severe environment was discussed from ac-tively utilizing preferential policies and actively expanding trade scope,and so on.%受世界经济放缓、全球金融危机蔓延以及国际贸易保护主义等不利因素影响,国有外贸企业出口严重受阻,贸易环境不断恶化。从积极争取利用优惠政策、积极拓展业务种类等方面探讨了在复杂和严峻的外贸形势下,如何保持外贸业务的稳定增长。

  9. Evaluation of routinely reported surgical site infections against microbiological culture results: a tool to identify patient groups where diagnosis and treatment may be improved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievit Job

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons may improve their decision making by assessing the extent to which their initial clinical diagnosis of a surgical site infection (SSI was supported by culture results. Aim of the present study was to evaluate routinely reported SSI by surgeons against microbiological culture results, to identify patient groups with lower agreement where decision making may be improved. Methods 701 admissions with SSI were reported by surgeons in a university medical centre in the period 1997-2005, which were retrospectively checked for microbiological culture results. Reporting a SSI was conditional on treatment being given (e.g. antibiotics and was classified by severity. To identify specific patient groups, patients were classified according to the surgery group of the first operation during admission (e.g. trauma. Results Of all reported SSI, 523 (74.6% had a positive culture result, 102 (14.6% a negative culture result and 76 (10.8% were classified as unknown culture result (due to no culture taken. Given a known culture result, reported SSI with positive culture results less often concerned trauma patients (16% versus 26%, X2 = 4.99 p = 0.03 and less severe SSI (49% versus 85%, X2 = 10.11 p Conclusion Routine reporting of SSI was mostly supported by culture results. However, this support was less often found in trauma patients and less severe SSI, thereby giving surgeons feedback that diagnosis and treatment may be improved in these cases.

  10. Discussion on Comprehensive Budget Management of Group Enterprise%浅谈集团企业的全面预算管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖兴

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, our business has got rapid development, especially for large enterprise groups, there are nearly 30 enterprises list in top 500 global corporations. However, besides the number and size, the management level of enterprises still has a certain gap with international multinational corporations. This article describes related budget management theories and models in detail and proposes the improvement suggestions to the problems.%改革开放以来,我们企业得到了高速发展,特别是大型集团企业,目前已有将近30家栖身世界500强.但除了人数和规模以外,企业的综合管理水平还与国际跨国企业有一定差距.文章对企业通过全面预算的相关理论和模式管理进行了详细梳理,并就其中存在的问题给出了整改建议.

  11. Demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors identify a high-risk group for depression screening among predominantly Hispanic patients with Type 2 diabetes in safety net care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Guterman, Jeffrey; Wu, Shinyi

    2015-01-01

    Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients. Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (pidentified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, pidentify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening families of patients with premature coronary heart disease to identify avoidable cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study of family members and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Helen J; Pell, Alastair Ch; Anderson, Judith; Chow, Clara K; Pell, Jill P

    2010-05-11

    Primary prevention should be targeted at individuals with high global cardiovascular risk, but research is lacking on how best to identify such individuals in the general population. Family history is a good proxy measure of global risk and may provide an efficient mechanism for identifying high risk individuals. The aim was to test the feasibility of using patients with premature cardiovascular disease to recruit family members as a means of identifying and screening high-risk individuals. We recruited family members of 50 patients attending a cardiology clinic for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). We compared their cardiovascular risk with a general population control group, and determined their perception of their risk and current level of screening. 103 (36%) family members attended screening (27 siblings, 48 adult offspring and 28 partners). Five (5%) had prevalent CHD. A significantly higher percentage had an ASSIGN risk score >20% compared with the general population (13% versus 2%, p family members were aware they were at increased risk and only 50% had had their blood pressure and serum cholesterol level checked in the previous three years. Patients attending hospital for premature CHD provide a mechanism to contact family members and this can identify individuals with a high global risk who are not currently screened.

  13. Discussion on higher vocational college website group construction and management%浅谈高职院校网站群的建设和管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪喜琴

    2012-01-01

    随着学校网站数量的不断增加,如何有效地组织和管理这些网站及其海量信息,已成为众多学校领导及信息主管所关心的问题,分析了当前高职院校网站的现状,提出了用Webplus技术建设与管理网站群的思路,它不仅方便了管理员的统一管理,而且提高了系统的安全性、稳定性、可扩展性、易使用性、美观性,同时也降低了网站的总体建设成本,是提升网站管理与绩效的有效手段.%With the increasing number of school website, how to effectively organize and manage the site as well as the mass of information, has become a large number of school leadership and information director concerns, this article analyzes the current higher vocational institute website present situation, put forward to use webplus technology to construction and management of website group train of thought, it is not only convenient for the administrator of the unified management, and to improve the system security, stability, scalability, usability, aesthetics, but also reduces the overall cost of website construction, is to promote the site management and performance of the effective means.

  14. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture; La realizacion de grupos de discuion en un proceso combinado de evaluacion interna de cultura de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  15. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Thomas; Williams, David T; Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  16. The Use of Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Edmund deS.; And Others

    Research on the use of discussion in adult education has been largely concerned with comparing it with the use of other instructional techniques and with measuring opinion change. Many studies, such as Kurt Lewin's study of food habits, have compared the effectiveness of group discussion as contrasted with lecture in changing opinions and…

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies That the ABO Blood Group System Influences Interleukin-10 Levels and the Risk of Clinical Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Johansson

    Full Text Available Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a major cause of mortality worldwide. We have previously shown that increased interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels are associated with poor outcome in ACS patients.We performed a genome-wide association study in 2864 ACS patients and 408 healthy controls, to identify genetic variants associated with IL-10 levels. Then haplotype analyses of the identified loci were done and comparisons to levels of IL-10 and other known ACS related biomarkers.Genetic variants at the ABO blood group locus associated with IL-10 levels (top SNP: rs676457, P = 4.4 × 10-10 were identified in the ACS patients. Haplotype analysis, using SNPs tagging the four main ABO antigens (A1, A2, B and O, showed that O and A2 homozygous individuals, or O/A2 heterozygotes have much higher levels of IL-10 compared to individuals with other antigen combinations. In the ACS patients, associations between ABO antigens and von Willebrand factor (VWF, P = 9.2 × 10-13, and soluble tissue factor (sTF, P = 8.6 × 10-4 were also found. In the healthy control cohort, the associations with VWF and sTF were similar to those in ACS patients (P = 1.2 × 10-15 and P = 1.0 × 10-5 respectively, but the healthy cohort showed no association with IL-10 levels (P>0.05. In the ACS patients, the O antigen was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, all causes of death, and recurrent myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24-1.29, P = 0.029-0.00067.Our results suggest that the ABO antigens play important roles, not only for the immunological response in ACS patients, but also for the outcome of the disease.

  18. Gene-based association identifies SPATA13-AS1 as a pharmacogenomic predictor of inhaled short-acting beta-agonist response in multiple population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhukasahasram, B; Yang, J J; Levin, A M; Yang, M; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R; Kwok, P-Y; Seibold, M A; Lanfear, D E; Williams, L K

    2014-08-01

    Inhaled short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) medication is commonly used in asthma patients to rapidly reverse airway obstruction and improve acute symptoms. We performed a genome-wide association study of SABA medication response using gene-based association tests. A linear mixed model approach was first used for single-nucleotide polymorphism associations, and the results were later combined using GATES to generate gene-based associations. Our results identified SPATA13-AS1 as being significantly associated with SABA bronchodilator response in 328 healthy African Americans. In replication, this gene was associated with SABA response among the two separate groups of African Americans with asthma (n=1073, P=0.011 and n=1968, P=0.014), 149 healthy African Americans (P=0.003) and 556 European Americans with asthma (P=0.041). SPATA13-AS1 was also associated with longitudinal SABA medication usage in the two separate groups of African Americans with asthma (n=658, P=0.047 and n=1968, P=0.025). Future studies are needed to delineate the precise mechanism by which SPATA13-AS1 may influence SABA response.

  19. Characterization of two new CTX-M-25-group extended-spectrum β-lactamase variants identified in Escherichia coli isolates from Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jascha Vervoort

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We characterized two new CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL variants in Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of two elderly patients admitted at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Both patients underwent treatment with cephalosporins prior to isolation of the E. coli strains. METHODS: ESBLs were detected by the double-disk synergy test and PCR-sequencing of β-lactamase genes. The bla(CTX-M genes were cloned into the pCR-BluntII-TOPO vector in E. coli TOP10. The role of amino-acid substitutions V77A and D240G was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis of the bla(CTX-M-94 and bla(CTX-M-100 genes and comparative characterization of the resulting E. coli recombinants. MICs of β-lactams were determined by Etest. Plasmid profiling, mating experiments, replicon typing and sequencing of bla(CTX-M flanking regions were performed to identify the genetic background of the new CTX-M variants. RESULTS: The novel CTX-M β-lactamases, CTX-M-94 and -100, belonged to the CTX-M-25-group. Both variants differed from CTX-M-25 by the substitution V77A, and from CTX-M-39 by D240G. CTX-M-94 differed from all CTX-M-25-group enzymes by the substitution F119L. Glycine-240 was associated with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and leucine-119 with increased resistance to ceftriaxone. bla(CTX-M-94 and bla(CTX-M-100 were located within ISEcp1 transposition units inserted into ∼93 kb non-conjugative IncFI and ∼130 kb conjugative IncA/C plasmids, respectively. The plasmids carried also different class 1 integrons. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on CTX-M-94 and -100 ESBLs, novel members of the CTX-M-25-group.

  20. PlantPAN: Plant promoter analysis navigator, for identifying combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with distance constraint in plant gene groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsien-Da

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of transcriptional regulation in plant genes is important area of research for plant scientists, following the mapping of various plant genomes, such as A. thaliana, O. sativa and Z. mays. A variety of bioinformatic servers or databases of plant promoters have been established, although most have been focused only on annotating transcription factor binding sites in a single gene and have neglected some important regulatory elements (tandem repeats and CpG/CpNpG islands in promoter regions. Additionally, the combinatorial interaction of transcription factors (TFs is important in regulating the gene group that is associated with the same expression pattern. Therefore, a tool for detecting the co-regulation of transcription factors in a group of gene promoters is required. Results This study develops a database-assisted system, PlantPAN (Plant Promoter Analysis Navigator, for recognizing combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with a distance constraint in sets of plant genes. The system collects the plant transcription factor binding profiles from PLACE, TRANSFAC (public release 7.0, AGRIS, and JASPER databases and allows users to input a group of gene IDs or promoter sequences, enabling the co-occurrence of combinatorial transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs within a defined distance (20 bp to 200 bp to be identified. Furthermore, the new resource enables other regulatory features in a plant promoter, such as CpG/CpNpG islands and tandem repeats, to be displayed. The regulatory elements in the conserved regions of the promoters across homologous genes are detected and presented. Conclusion In addition to providing a user-friendly input/output interface, PlantPAN has numerous advantages in the analysis of a plant promoter. Several case studies have established the effectiveness of PlantPAN. This novel analytical resource is now freely available at http://PlantPAN.mbc.nctu.edu.tw.

  1. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussières André E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences; beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity; the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences; conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients

  2. Disparities in mammographic screening for Asian women in California: a cross-sectional analysis to identify meaningful groups for targeted intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Theresa HM

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the rapidly growing population of Asian Americans; it is also the most common cause of cancer mortality among Filipinas. Asian women continue to have lower rates of mammographic screening than women of most other racial/ethnic groups. While prior studies have described the effects of sociodemographic and other characteristics of women on non-adherence to screening guidelines, they have not identified the distinct segments of the population who remain at highest risk of not being screened. Methods To better describe characteristics of Asian women associated with not having a mammogram in the last two years, we applied recursive partitioning to population-based data (N = 1521 from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS, for seven racial/ethnic groups of interest: Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Vietnamese, and all Asians combined. Results We identified two major subgroups of Asian women who reported not having a mammogram in the past two years and therefore, did not follow mammography screening recommendations: 1 women who have never had a pap exam to screen for cervical cancer (68% had no mammogram, and 2 women who have had a pap exam, but have no women's health issues (osteoporosis, using menopausal hormone therapies, and/or hysterectomy nor a usual source of care (62% had no mammogram. Only 19% of Asian women who have had pap screening and have women's health issues did not have a mammogram in the past two years. In virtually all ethnic subgroups, having had pap or colorectal screening were the strongest delineators of mammography usage. Other characteristics of women least likely to have had a mammogram included: Chinese non-U.S. citizens or citizens without usual source of health care, Filipinas with no health insurance, Koreans without women's health issues and public or no health insurance, South Asians less than age 50 who were

  3. Frequency of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by a FINDRISC survey in Puebla City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcalá, Hector; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Hirales-Tamez, Omara; Salinas-Palma, Jorge; Soto-Vega, Elena

    2012-01-01

    As a first step in the prevention of diabetes, the International Diabetes Federation recommends identification of persons at risk using the Finnish type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment (FINDRISC) survey. The frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by FINDRISC is unknown in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in higher-risk groups using a FINDRISC survey in an urban population. We used a television program to invite interested adults to fill out a survey at a television station. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all persons with a FINDRISC score ≥ 15 points (high-risk and very high-risk groups). Patients were classified as normal (fasting glucose < 100 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL), or having impaired fasting glucose (fasting glucose 100-125 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL), glucose intolerance (fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose 140-199 mg/dL), and diabetes mellitus (fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hour glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL). We describe the frequency of each diagnostic category in this selected population according to gender and age. A total of 186 patients had a score ≥ 15. The frequencies of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and normal glucose levels were 28.6%, 25.9%, 29.2%, and 16.2%, respectively. We found a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in men than in women (33% versus 27% and 40% versus 21%, respectively) and more glucose intolerance in women than in men (34% versus 16%, P < 0.05). Patients with diabetes mellitus (52.55 ± 9.2 years) were older than those with impaired fasting glucose (46.19 ± 8.89 years), glucose intolerance (46.15 ± 10.9 years), and normal levels (41.9 ± 10.45 years, P < 0.05). We found a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus in those aged over 50 years

  4. The Increased of Activity and Content Reading Understanding Ability Through Problem Based Learning in Technique Discussion Group-Peningkatan Aktivitas dan Kemampuan Memahami Isi Bacaan Melalui Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah dengan Teknik Diskusi Kelompok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakobus Paluru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this research is to improve students’ learning activities and the ability to understand the information in the text. The results showed that the ability to understand written information students has increased after gaining experience learning through problem-based strategy with group discussion techniques. The increase is due to the emergence of motivation and the interest of students who constructed through problem-based learning strategies with group discussion techniques. The increase in activity caused by the adjustment of learning to students’ needs related to the topic of reading materials used in teaching and habits and learning styles that is performed by the students.Key Words: learning, the content of text, group discussion Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan aktivitas belajar dan kemampuan siswa dalam memahami informasi yang ada dalam bacaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan memahami informasi tertulis siswa telah meningkat setelah mendapatkan pengalaman belajar melalui strategi berbasis masalah dengan teknik diskusi kelompok. Terjadinya peningkatan aktivitas disebabkan munculnya motivasi dan minat siswa yang dibangun melalui strategi pembelajaran berbasis masalah dengan teknik diskusi kelompok. Peningkatan aktivitas disebabkan adanya penyesuaian pembelajaran dengan kebutuhan siswa yang berkaitan dengan topik materi bacaan yang digunakan dalam pembelajaran dan kebiasaan serta gaya belajar yang dilakukan oleh siswa.Kata kunci: pembelajaran, isi bacaan, diskusi kelompok

  5. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  6. A PTS EII mutant library in Group A Streptococcus identifies a promiscuous man-family PTS transporter influencing SLS-mediated hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Ganesh S; Islam, Emrul; Gera, Kanika; Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S

    2017-02-01

    The Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that must adapt to unique host environments in order to survive. Links between sugar metabolism and virulence have been demonstrated in GAS, where mutants in the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) exhibited Streptolysin S (SLS)-mediated hemolysis during exponential growth. This early onset hemolysis correlated with an increased lesion size and severity in a murine soft tissue infection model when compared with parental M1T1 MGAS5005. To identify the PTS components responsible for this phenotype, we insertionally inactivated the 14 annotated PTS EIIC-encoding genes in the GAS MGAS5005 genome and subjected this library to metabolic and hemolysis assays to functionally characterize each EIIC. It was found that a few EIIs had a very limited influence on PTS sugar metabolism, whereas others were fairly promiscuous. The mannose-specific EII locus, encoded by manLMN, was expressed as a mannose-inducible operon that exhibited the most influence on PTS sugar metabolism, including mannose. Importantly, components of the mannose-specific EII also acted to prevent the early onset of SLS-mediated hemolysis. Interestingly, these roles were not identical in two different M1T1 GAS strains, highlighting the possible versatility of the PTS to adapt to strain-specific needs.

  7. The Arabidopsis Plant Intracellular Ras-group LRR (PIRL Family and the Value of Reverse Genetic Analysis for Identifying Genes that Function in Gametophyte Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy R. Forsthoefel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana has proven a powerful system for developmental genetics, but identification of gametophytic genes with developmental mutants can be complicated by factors such as gametophyte-lethality, functional redundancy, or poor penetrance. These issues are exemplified by the Plant Intracellular Ras-group LRR (PIRL genes, a family of nine genes encoding a class of leucine-rich repeat proteins structurally related to animal and fungal LRR proteins involved in developmental signaling. Previous analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants showed that two of these genes, PIRL1 and PIRL9, have an essential function in pollen formation but are functionally redundant. Here, we present evidence implicating three more PIRLs in gametophyte development. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that disruption of either PIRL2 or PIRL3 results in a low frequency of pollen morphological abnormalities. In addition, molecular analysis of putative pirl6 insertion mutants indicated that knockout alleles of this gene are not represented in current Arabidopsis mutant populations, suggesting gametophyte lethality may hinder mutant recovery. Consistent with this, available microarray and RNA-seq data have documented strongest PIRL6 expression in developing pollen. Taken together, these results now implicate five PIRLs in gametophyte development. Systematic reverse genetic analysis of this novel LRR family has therefore identified gametophytically active genes that otherwise would likely be missed by forward genetic screens.

  8. Frequency of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by a FINDRISC survey in Puebla City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirales-Tamez O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hector García-Alcalá, Christelle Nathalie Genestier-Tamborero, Omara Hirales-Tamez, Jorge Salinas-Palma, Elena Soto-VegaFaculty of Medicine, Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla Pue, MexicoBackground: As a first step in the prevention of diabetes, the International Diabetes Federation recommends identification of persons at risk using the Finnish type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment (FINDRISC survey. The frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by FINDRISC is unknown in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in higher-risk groups using a FINDRISC survey in an urban population.Methods: We used a television program to invite interested adults to fill out a survey at a television station. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all persons with a FINDRISC score ≥ 15 points (high-risk and very high-risk groups. Patients were classified as normal (fasting glucose < 100 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL, or having impaired fasting glucose (fasting glucose 100–125 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL, glucose intolerance (fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose 140–199 mg/dL, and diabetes mellitus (fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hour glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. We describe the frequency of each diagnostic category in this selected population according to gender and age.Results: A total of 186 patients had a score ≥ 15. The frequencies of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and normal glucose levels were 28.6%, 25.9%, 29.2%, and 16.2%, respectively. We found a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in men than in women (33% versus 27% and 40% versus 21%, respectively and more glucose intolerance in women than in men (34% versus 16%, P < 0.05. Patients with diabetes mellitus (52.55 ± 9

  9. Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria

    2017-06-06

    To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Two focus group discussions were performed. Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Writing a Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sue; And Others

    A unit used in an Australian school to teach English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students how to write a discussion is described. The 3-week unit was planned and implemented jointly by an ESL resource teacher, class teacher, and teacher librarian. The class was divided into three heterogeneous groups, two of which were observed for this study and…

  11. The Discussion of the Effect of Irvin D. Yalom Group Counseling Intervention for Maladaptive College Freshmen%欧文·亚隆团体咨询对适应不良大学新生的干预初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雯

    2016-01-01

    本文从存在主义视角来理解大学新生的适应问题,并探讨存在主义的欧文·亚隆团体干预大学新生适应不良问题的适用性和效果。%In this paper, the maladaptation of college freshmen has been discussed in the perspective of existentialism, as well as the effect of Irvin D. Yalom group counseling intervention for maladaptive college freshmen.

  12. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Martina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Interactive, student-centered teaching methods have replaced traditional teacher-centered didactic formats in many modern medical curricula in the past few years. However, in the natural sciences such as biochemistry, interactive teaching methods are not well proven. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of the teaching format on the performance of undergraduate students in biochemistry and their evaluation of the respective format. Methods: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion. At the end of each lesson, students performed a multiple-choice test and completed a questionnaire. The same MCQ test was repeated 4–6 weeks after the last lesson. Results: Students who were taught in a lecture-like format performed significantly better in the first MCQ test immediately after the lesson than students taught in the interactive format. However, in the second MCQ test, there was no difference between the two groups. In the questionnaire, students rated the lecture-based course significantly better than the interactive group discussion. Conclusion: One reason why students prefer a didactic lecture to an interactive group discussion might be due to the subject biochemistry, which is strongly knowledge-based. Students perceived that the transfer of knowledge by a professional lecturer was more effective than the knowledge obtained in a student-centered discussion group. Other reasons might be the method of assessment and the overall design of the curriculum. [german] Zielsetzung: Interaktive, Lerner-orientierte Unterrichtsmethoden werden vielfach mit moderner und guter Lehre in Verbindung gebracht und ersetzen zunehmend konventionellen, Lehrer-zentrierten Frontalunterricht. In naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern, wie Biochemie, sind interaktive

  13. Genes responsive to both oxidant stress and loss of estrogen receptor function identify a poor prognosis group of estrogen receptor positive primary breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Christina; Benz, Christopher C

    2008-01-01

    cancers (t-test, P = 0.0008). Regardless of PR status, the Ox-E/ER index associated with reduced DSS (n = 201; univariate Cox, P = 0.078) and, using the optimized cut-point, separated ER-positive cases into two significantly different DSS groups (log rank, P = 0.0009). An oxidant-sensitive subset of estrogen/ER-responsive breast cancer genes linked to cell growth and invasion pathways was identified and associated with loss of PR and earlier disease-specific mortality, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to the development of an aggressive subset of primary ER-positive breast cancers.

  14. A Research of the Major Administrative Decision-making Group Discussion and Decision System%重大行政决策的集体讨论决定制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 方卫华

    2014-01-01

    重大行政决策集体讨论决定制度是指对于重大行政问题,必须充分讨论,集体决定,坚决反对个人说了算或少数人专断。重大行政决策是否科学化、民主化,直接影响到政府行政管理活动的效能。重大行政决策集体讨论决定是民主集中制的直接体现,能够避免在重大行政问题决策上的失误。通过分析和研究重大行政决策集体讨论决定制度的发展现状及其运行的规则和程序,发现中国重大行政决策缺乏统一的集体讨论决定程序,行政机关缺乏民主决策意识,社会公众缺乏民主参政意识及行政决策监督滞后等一系列局限性,指出惟有建立统一高效的重大行政决策集体讨论决定程序、提高行政机关的民主决策意识、提高社会公众的民主参政意识和加强对行政决策的监督才能更好的完善中国重大行政决策的集体讨论决定制度。%The major administrative decision-making group discussion and decision system means that major adminis-trative problems must be conducted through full discussion and collective decision .Meanwhile , individual or a minor-ity of people's arbitrariness must be firmly opposed .Whether the major administrative decision-making is scientific and democratic , directly affects the effectiveness of government administrative management activities .Because the major administrative decision-making group discussion directly embodies the democratic centralism , major administra-tive decision-making errors can be avoided .In this paper , we study and analyze the development of the system of the status major administrative decision-making group discussion and decision system operation rules , procedures and lack of the unified collective discussion and decision procedure , administrative departments lack of democratic conscious-ness, the social public lack of democratic politics consciousness , administrative decision-making supervision

  15. Assessing treatment-as-usual provided to control groups in adherence trials: Exploring the use of an open-ended questionnaire for identifying behaviour change techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; Pijnappel, F.J.; Prins, J.M.; Bruin, M. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reporting guidelines call for descriptions of control group support in equal detail as for interventions. However, how to assess the active content (behaviour change techniques (BCTs)) of treatment-as-usual (TAU) delivered to control groups in trials remains unclear. The objective of this

  16. Discussion-Induced Attitude Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that the average of group members' responses following group discussion will generally be more extreme in the same direction as the average of individual pregroup preferences. (Author/MLF)

  17. Discussion on the Integrated Supporting and Requirements Designing of Group Customers Business%集团客户业务一体化支撑需求设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小发; 李良; 黄强华; 吕美嫦

    2014-01-01

    随着移动通信网络的不断升级和移动互联网业务的不断发展壮大,集团客户业务越来越成为运营商发展的重要战略市场。基于集团客户业务的发展现状、产品体系、系统支撑现状情况,从集团客户业务的基本特点出发,对集团客户业务的产品形态进行研究分析,针对集团客户业务个性化需求的特点,从客户、产品、业务等表现形式进行详细分析,对运营商集团客户业务需求支撑、产品设计、业务发展等进行研究探讨,提出一体化支撑需求设计。%With the development of mobile communication network and expansion of mobile Internet business, group customers busi-ness is increasingly becoming an important strategic market of the operators. Based on the current development of group cus-tomers business, products system, the present situation of system supporting, it researches and analyzes the production form from the basic characteristics of group customers business. It analyzes the display of customer, production, service and so on from the personalized needs of group customers business. It researches and discusses the demand supporting, production de-signing and business development of group customers business and proposes the integrated supporting and requirements de-signing.

  18. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bussières, André E; Patey, Andrea M; Francis, Jill J; Sales, Anne E; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Brouwers, Melissa; Godin, Gaston; Hux, Jan; Johnston, Marie; Lemyre, Louise; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Sales, Anne; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2012-01-01

    ... radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors' beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based...

  19. Optimal screening of children with acute malnutrition requires a change in current WHO guidelines as MUAC and WHZ identify different patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm...

  20. Comparison of apnea identified by respiratory inductance plethysmography with that detected by end-tidal CO(2) or thermistor. The CHIME Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese-Mayer, D E; Corwin, M J; Peucker, M R; Di Fiore, J M; Hufford, D R; Tinsley, L R; Neuman, M R; Martin, R J; Brooks, L J; Davidson Ward, S L; Lister, G; Willinger, M

    2000-08-01

    As part of the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation (CHIME) we compared apnea identified by a customized home monitor using respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) with simultaneously recorded polysomnography-acquired nasal end-tidal CO(2) (PET(CO(2))) and nasal/oral thermistor in 422 infants during overnight laboratory recordings to determine concordance between techniques, sources of disagreement, and capacity of RIP to detect obstructed breaths within an apnea. Among 233 episodes of apnea identified by at least one method as >/= 16 s, 120 were observed by the CHIME monitor, 219 by PET(CO(2)), and 163 by thermistor. The positive predictive value of the CHIME-identified apnea was 89.2% (95% CI 83, 95) and 73% (95% CI 65, 81) for PET(CO(2)) and thermistor, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the CHIME monitor in identifying events detected by the other methods was only approximately 50%. Among 87 apnea events identified by all three techniques, no two methods showed high agreement in measurement of apnea duration: RIP and PET(CO(2)) (ICC = 0.54), RIP and thermistor (ICC = 0.13), PET(CO(2)) and nasal thermistor (ICC = 0.41). Among the 179 breaths identified by RIP as obstructed, 79.9% were judged to be obstructed on the PET(CO(2)) and 80.4% were judged to be obstructed on the thermistor channel. Among 238 breaths identified on PET(CO(2)) as obstructed, 54.2% were determined to be obstructed by RIP. Among 204 breaths identified on thermistor as obstructed, 55. 4% were determined to be obstructed by RIP. Reasons for discrepancies in apnea detection among channels included body movement, partial airway obstruction, and obstructed breaths. Despite these limitations the CHIME monitor provides an opportunity to record physiological data previously unavailable in the home.

  1. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    While phylogenetic and cluster analyses are often used to define clonal groups within bacterial species, the identification of clonal groups that are associated with specific ecological niches or host species remains a challenge. We used Listeria monocytogenes, which causes invasive disease...... in humans and different animal species and which can be isolated from a number of environments including food, as a model organism to develop and implement a two-step statistical approach to the identification of phylogenetic clades that are significantly associated with different source populations...

  2. Genomic Changes in Chromosomes 10, 16, and X in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors Identify a High-Risk Patient Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekke, Helge R.; Ribeiro, Franclim R.; Kolberg, Matthias; Agesen, Trude H.; Lind, Guro E.; Eknaes, Mette; Hall, Kirsten S.; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; van den Berg, Eva; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Mandahl, Nils; Smeland, Sigbjorn; Mertens, Fredrik; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify genetic aberrations contributing to clinical aggressiveness of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Patients and Methods Samples from 48 MPNSTs and 10 neurofibromas were collected from 51 patients with (n = 31) or without (n = 20) neuro

  3. Identifying gaps in flaring Herbig Ae/Be disks using spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging. Are all group I disks transitional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, K.M.; Honda, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Verhoeff, A.; Meeus, G.; van den Ancker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The evolution of young massive protoplanetary disks toward planetary systems is expected to correspond to structural changes in observational appearance, which includes the formation of gaps and the depletion of dust and gas. Aims. A special group of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars do not

  4. A Discussion with Jacques Derrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Jacques

    1990-01-01

    Presents an edited transcript of a discussion held in April 1989 between Jacques Derrida and a group of students and professors concerning Derrida's "Afterword: Toward an Ethic of Discussion." Discusses Derrida's views on "deconstruction" as a term and a movement, the idea of arguments and persuasion, and specific power…

  5. 大学英语课堂小组活动在英语教学中的探讨%Discussion on Group Work of College English Classroom in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳志群

    2014-01-01

    The successful application of Group work depends on many aspects of English classroom, and it is one method used in the English classroom. On the basis of two task types (required and optional information exchange tasks ) University students and their interaction will be discussed. The fact shows that more interactional modification comes from the required exchange. At the same time, the topic of task plays an important role in group work, which benefits university students ’language acquisition and English teachers’leaching.%大学英语课堂小组活动顺利进行取决于课堂环境中的许多方面,也是英语课堂常常用到的方法。在信息轮流交换型和信息自由提供型两种任务类型的基础上,来探讨参加课堂小组活动的大学生以及他们的交互影响。实际表明,更多的交互修正产生来自于轮流交换型任务。课堂活动在大学生的语言习以及英语教师的教学水平提高方面都起着重要作用。

  6. Using chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) modelling to identify groups of methadone treatment clients experiencing significantly poorer treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Emma L; Comiskey, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    In times of scarce resources it is important for services to make evidence based decisions when identifying clients with poor outcomes. chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) modelling was used to identify characteristics of clients experiencing statistically significant poor outcomes. A national, longitudinal study recruited and interviewed, using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), 215 clients starting methadone treatment and 78% were interviewed one year later. Four CHAID analyses were conducted to model the interactions between the primary outcome variable, used heroin in the last 90 days prior to one year interview and variables on drug use, treatment history, social functioning and demographics. Results revealed that regardless of these other variables, males over 22 years of age consistently demonstrated significantly poorer outcomes than all other clients. CHAID models can be easily applied by service providers to provide ongoing evidence on clients exhibiting poor outcomes and requiring priority within services.

  7. BLAST screening of chlamydial genomes to identify signature proteins that are unique for the Chlamydiales, Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydophila and Chlamydia groups of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Radhey S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae species are of much importance from a clinical viewpoint. Their diversity both in terms of their numbers as well as clinical involvement are presently believed to be significantly underestimated. The obligate intracellular nature of chlamydiae has also limited their genetic and biochemical studies. Thus, it is of importance to develop additional means for their identification and characterization. Results We have carried out analyses of available chlamydiae genomes to identify sets of unique proteins that are either specific for all Chlamydiales genomes, or different Chlamydiaceae family members, or members of the Chlamydia and Chlamydophila genera, or those unique to Protochlamydia amoebophila, but which are not found in any other bacteria. In total, 59 Chlamydiales-specific proteins, 79 Chlamydiaceae-specific proteins, 20 proteins each that are specific for both Chlamydia and Chlamydophila and 445 ORFs that are Protochlamydia-specific were identified. Additionally, 33 cases of possible gene loss or lateral gene transfer were also detected. Conclusion The identified chlamydiae-lineage specific proteins, many of which are highly conserved, provide novel biomarkers that should prove of much value in the diagnosis of these bacteria and in exploration of their prevalence and diversity. These conserved protein sequences (CPSs also provide novel therapeutic targets for drugs that are specific for these bacteria. Lastly, functional studies on these chlamydiae or chlamydiae subgroup-specific proteins should lead to important insights into lineage-specific adaptations with regards to development, infectivity and pathogenicity.

  8. Summary of Contributions to GAW Group 15: Family-Based Samples Are Useful in Identifying Common Polymorphisms Associated with Complex Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Stacey; Uh, Hae-Won; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, family-based samples have been used for genetic analyses of single-gene traits caused by rare but highly penetrant risk variants. The utility of family-based genetic data for analyzing common complex traits is unclear and contains numerous challenges. To assess the utility as well as to address these challenges, members of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Group 15 analyzed Framingham Heart Study data using family-based designs ranging from parent–offspring trios to large pedigrees....

  9. Grupos de discussão virtual: uma proposta para o ensino em enfermagem Grupos de discusión virtual: una propuesta para la enseñanza en enfermería Virtual discussion groups: a proposal for nursing teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    2007-09-01

    émicos, el profesor y la estudiante, bien como momentos de reflexión y discusión sobre los temas confrontados en la práctica de enfermería.This paper describes a teaching experience aimed at providing interactivity to the technique of field diary by using a virtual learning environment. The educational proposal derives from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS's Teaching Training Program of the Stricto Sensu Post-Graduation Program in Nursing, in which the author, a Master's degree candidate, oriented by her advisor, proposed forming virtual discussion groups in order to write the field diary for an undergraduate discipline in Nursing, with the aim of providing an opportunity for a joint discussion of academic experiences in the realm of practice. The instructors of the discipline in which the proposal was developed also participated in the activities. The virtual technology gave new dynamism to the technique of field diary, making possible an exchange of experiences among the students, the instructor and the author, as well as moments of reflection and discussion regarding the themes faced in the Nursing practice.

  10. A KCNJ10 mutation previously identified in the Russell group of terriers also occurs in Smooth-Haired Fox Terriers with hereditary ataxia and in related breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohdin, Cecilia; Gilliam, Douglas; O'Leary, Caroline A; O'Brien, Dennis P; Coates, Joan R; Johnson, Gary S; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin

    2015-05-23

    Hereditary ataxias with similar phenotypes were reported in the Smooth-Haired Fox Terrier, the Jack Russell Terrier and the Parson Russell Terrier. However, segregation analyses showed differing inheritance modes in these breeds. Recently, molecular genetic studies on the Russell group of terriers found independent mutations in KCNJ10 and CAPN1, each associated with a specific clinical subtype of inherited ataxia. The aim of this study was to clarify whether or not Smooth-Haired Fox Terriers with hereditary ataxia and dogs of other related breeds harbor either of the same mutations. A sub goal was to update the results of KCNJ10 genotyping in Russell group terriers. Three Smooth-Haired Fox Terriers with hereditary ataxia and two Toy Fox Terriers with a similar phenotype were all homozygous for the KCNJ10 mutation. The same mutation was also found in a heterozygous state in clinically unaffected Tenterfield Terriers (n = 5) and, in agreement with previous studies, in Jack Russell Terriers, Parson Russell Terriers, and Russell Terriers. A KCNJ10 mutation, previously associated with an autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia in Jack Russell Terriers, Parson Russell Terriers, and Russell Terriers segregates in at least three more breeds descended from British hunting terriers. Ataxic members of two of these breeds, the Smooth-Haired Fox Terrier and the Toy Fox Terrier, were homozygous for the mutation, strengthening the likelihood that this genetic defect is indeed the causative mutation for the disease known as "hereditary ataxia" in Fox Terriers and "spinocerebellar ataxia with myokymia, seizures or both" in the Russell group of terriers.

  11. A Study to Identify Variables Contributing to Length of Stay for Selected Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) at Madigan Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-07

    Margolis, and Wise 1986). A total of 215 patients 0 0in DRG 162 ( inguinal and femoral hernia repair, age 18 to 69 years C• C0 m without complications...the 0.05 level for one of the four DRGs. 0• " C 0m Additional analysis revealed that the diagnostic group, type of anesthesia , use of consultations...Allergy/Immunology I 1 Anesthesia I 1 Child Psychology 1 1 Dermatology I Developmental Peds I Emergency Medicine I Endocrinology 1 1 o Facul Devel

  12. The functions of ritual in social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    Ritual cognition builds upon social learning biases that may have become specialized for affiliation within social groups. The adaptive problems of group living required a means of identifying group members, ensuring commitment to the group, facilitating cooperation, and maintaining group cohesion. We discuss how ritual serves these social functions.

  13. Optimal screening of children with acute malnutrition requires a change in current WHO guidelines as MUAC and WHZ identify different patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm...... Circumference (MUAC) of malnutrition (SAM). However, it is currently unclear how MUAC relates to the other indicator used to define acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). METHODS: Secondary data from >11,000 Cambodian children, obtained by different surveys between...... 2010 and 2012, was used to calculate sensitivity and ROC curves for MUAC and WHZ. FINDINGS: The secondary analysis showed that using the current WHO cut-off of 115 mm for screening for severe acute malnutrition over 90% of children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ)

  14. [Evaluation of Fluo-Card Milleri to Identify the Isolates of Streptococcus milleri Group: Comparative Identication with Referral Fluorogenic Phenotypic Dierentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone; Furugen; Higa; Yamane

    1998-11-25

    Clinical isolates which belong to the "Streptococcus milleri" group were identied by the referral uorogenic phenotypic tests described by Whiley et al. [J. Clin. Microbiol., 28: 1497-1501 (1990)] and a rapid, commercially available test kits; Fluo-Card Milleri (KEY Scientific Products, Round Rock, Tex., U.S.A.) to the species level. Of 218 clinical isolates included, 196 (89.9%) were correctly identied by the Fluo-Card Milleri when compared with the reference identications. Ten isolates (4.6%) of S. constellatus resulted in the "unidentied" due to the negative interpretations for all the three enzymatic reactions. A total of twelve isolates (5.5%); five of S. anginosus, five of S. constellatus, and two of S. intermedius, were misidentied. The levels of agreement were 95.7% for S. anginosus, 91.3% for S. intermedius, and 92.6% for S. constellatus when the unidentied results were excluded.

  15. Identifying gaps in flaring Herbig Ae/Be disks using spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging. Are all group I disks transitional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaskant, K. M.; Honda, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Verhoeff, A.; Meeus, G.; van den Ancker, M. E.

    2013-07-01

    Context. The evolution of young massive protoplanetary disks toward planetary systems is expected to correspond to structural changes in observational appearance, which includes the formation of gaps and the depletion of dust and gas. Aims: A special group of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars do not show prominent silicate emission features, although they still bear signs of flaring disks, the presence of gas, and small grains. We focus our attention on four key Herbig Ae/Be stars to understand the structural properties responsible for the absence of silicate feature emission. Methods: We investigate Q- and N-band images taken with Subaru/COMICS, Gemini South/T-ReCS, and VLT/VISIR. We perform radiative transfer modeling to examine the radial distribution of dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our solutions require a separation of inner- and outer- disks by a large gap. From this, we characterize the radial density structure of dust and PAHs in the disk. Results: The inner edge of the outer disk has a high surface brightness and a typical temperature between ~100-150 K and therefore, dominates the emission in the Q-band. All four disks are characterized by large gaps. We derive radii of the inner edge of the outer disk of 34-4+4, 23-5+3, 30-3+5 and 63-4+4 AU for HD 97048, HD 169142, HD 135344 B, and Oph IRS 48, respectively. For HD 97048 this is the first detection of a disk gap. The large gaps deplete the entire population of silicate particles with temperatures suitable for prominent mid-infrared feature emission, while small carbonaceous grains and PAHs can still show prominent emission at mid-infrared wavelengths. The continuum emission in the N-band is not due to emission in the wings of PAHs. This continuum emission can be due to very small grains or to thermal emission from the inner disk. We find that PAH emission is not always dominated by PAHs on the surface of the outer disk. Conclusions: The absence of silicate emission features is due to the

  16. Picomonas judraskeda gen. et sp. nov.: the first identified member of the Picozoa phylum nov., a widespread group of picoeukaryotes, formerly known as 'picobiliphytes'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Seenivasan

    Full Text Available In 2007, a novel, putatively photosynthetic picoeukaryotic lineage, the 'picobiliphytes', with no known close eukaryotic relatives, was reported from 18S environmental clone library sequences and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although single cell genomics later showed these organisms to be heterotrophic rather than photosynthetic, until now this apparently widespread group of pico-(or nano-eukaryotes has remained uncultured and the organisms could not be formally recognized. Here, we describe Picomonas judraskeda gen. et sp. nov., from marine coastal surface waters, which has a 'picobiliphyte' 18S rDNA signature. Using vital mitochondrial staining and cell sorting by flow cytometry, a single cell-derived culture was established. The cells are biflagellate, 2.5-3.8×2-2.5 µm in size, lack plastids and display a novel stereotypic cycle of cell motility (described as the "jump, drag, and skedaddle"-cycle. They consist of two hemispherical parts separated by a deep cleft, an anterior part that contains all major cell organelles including the flagellar apparatus, and a posterior part housing vacuoles/vesicles and the feeding apparatus, both parts separated by a large vacuolar cisterna. From serial section analyses of cells, fixed at putative stages of the feeding cycle, it is concluded that cells are not bacterivorous, but feed on small marine colloids of less than 150 nm diameter by fluid-phase, bulk flow endocytosis. Based on the novel features of cell motility, ultrastructure and feeding, and their isolated phylogenetic position, we establish a new phylum, Picozoa, for Picomonas judraskeda, representing an apparently widespread and ecologically important group of heterotrophic picoeukaryotes, formerly known as 'picobiliphytes'.

  17. New Viewpoint of Science Literacy Research:Discussion on Survey Method Targeted on Occupational Groups%科学素养研究的新视角:基于职业人群的测评方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可炜; 陈曦; 梁皑莹; 羊芳明; 邓乔丹

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory research for science literacy so far and its survey actuality, the article discussed a new survey model targeted on occupational groups and proposed a 5 - dimension survey system after analyzed science literacy structure and some main limitations on public survey. Furthermore, the article employed Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to bring forward a new method to determine the weights of the five dimensions, and developed a case survey targeted on traditional Chinese medicine professionals.%根据目前科学素养理论研究和测评现状,分析了公众“全民科学素养测评”存在的主要缺陷,探讨了从公众“全民科学素养测评”走向职业人群“分众科学素养测评”的新模式,分析了科学素养的结构并提出了五维度测评体系;同时,采用模糊层次分析法,提出了确定五维度权重的一种方法.在此基础上,对中医药从业人群的科学素养开展了案例测评,从而验证了职业人群测评的可行性.

  18. Performance analysis of a machine learning flagging system used to identify a group of individuals at a high risk for colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinar, Yaron; Akiva, Pinchas; Choman, Eran; Kariv, Revital; Shalev, Varda; Levin, Bernard; Narod, Steven A.; Goshen, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a tendency to intestinal bleeding which may result in mild to severe iron deficiency anemia, but for many colon cancer patients hematological abnormalities are subtle. The fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is used as a pre-screening test whereby those with a positive FOBT are referred to colonscopy. We sought to determine if information contained in the complete blood count (CBC) report coud be processed automatically and used to predict the presence of occult colorectal cancer (CRC) in the setting of a large health services plan. Using the health records of the Maccabi Health Services (MHS) we reviewed CBC reports for 112,584 study subjects of whom 133 were diagnosed with CRC in 2008 and analysed these with the MeScore tool. The odds ratio for being diagnosed with CRC in 2008 was calculated with regards to the MeScore, using cutoff levels of 97% and 99% percentiles. For individuals in the highest one percentile, the odds ratio for CRC was 21.8 (95% CI 13.8 to 34.2). For the majority of the individuals with cancer, CRC was not suspected at the time of the blood draw. Frequent use of anticoagulants, the presence of other gastrointestinal pathologies and non-GI malignancies were assocaitged with false positive MeScores. The MeScore can help identify individuals in the population who would benefit most from CRC screening, including those with no clinical signs or symptoms of CRC. PMID:28182647

  19. Concerns and expectations about returning to work with low back pain: identifying themes from focus groups and semi-structured interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang

    2005-11-15

    Studies of occupational low back pain (OLBP) have shown that return to work after injury is influenced by workers' concerns and expectations; however, these theoretical constructs have not been explored. The specific aim of this study was to identify themes related to self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for returning to work using qualitative research methods. Twenty-eight individuals who recently returned to work (work (n = 23) were referred by their physiotherapists and interviewed to provide more immediate accounts of their concerns and experiences. Notes and recordings from both sources were searched for utterances describing beliefs about self-efficacy or outcome expectancy for returning to work. Two primary self-efficacy constructs emerged: self-efficacy for resuming physical activity and self-efficacy for resuming work. Self-efficacy for resuming physical activity included 8 sub-domains: lift, carry, sit, stand, push/pull, bend, climb, and reach. Self-efficacy for resuming work included 3 sub-domains: pain control, obtaining help, and meeting job demands. Outcome expectancy included four sub-domains: financial/job security, re-injury, workplace support, and self-image. Hesitation to return to work after OLBP involves not only concerns about pain and re-injury, but also the perceived ability to perform physical tasks, meet role expectations, obtain workplace support, and maintain job security.

  20. Summary of contributions to GAW Group 15: family-based samples are useful in identifying common polymorphisms associated with complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Stacey; Uh, Hae-Won; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, family-based samples have been used for genetic analyses of single-gene traits caused by rare but highly penetrant risk variants. The utility of family-based genetic data for analyzing common complex traits is unclear and contains numerous challenges. To assess the utility as well as to address these challenges, members of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Group 15 analyzed Framingham Heart Study data using family-based designs ranging from parent--offspring trios to large pedigrees. We investigated different methods including traditional linkage tests, family-based association tests, and population-based tests that correct for relatedness between subjects, and tests to detect parent-of-origin effects. The analyses presented an assortment of positive findings. One contribution found increased power to detect epistatic effects through linkage using ascertainment of sibships based on extreme quantitative values or presence of disease associated with the quantitative value. Another contribution found four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a maternal effect, two SNPs with an imprinting effect, and one SNP having both effects on a binary high blood pressure trait. Finally, three contributions illustrated the advantage of using population-based methods to detect association to complex binary or quantitative traits. Our findings highlight the contribution of family-based samples to the genetic dissection of complex traits. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Identifying gaps in flaring Herbig Ae/Be disks using spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging. Are all group I disks transitional?

    CERN Document Server

    Maaskant, K M; Waters, L B F M; Tielens, A G G M; Dominik, C; Min, M; Verhoeff, A; Meeus, G; Ancker, M E van den

    2013-01-01

    *Context The evolution of young massive protoplanetary disks toward planetary systems is expected to include the formation of gaps and the depletion of dust and gas. *Aims A special group of flaring disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars do not show prominent silicate emission features. We focus our attention on four key Herbig Ae/Be stars to understand the structural properties responsible for the absence of silicate feature emission. *Methods We investigate Q- and N-band images taken with Subaru/COMICS, Gemini South/T-ReCS and VLT/VISIR. Our radiative transfer modeling solutions require a separation of inner- and outer- disks by a large gap. From this we characterize the radial density structure of dust and PAHs in the disk. *Results The inner edge of the outer disk has a high surface brightness and a typical temperature between ~100-150 K and therefore dominates the emission in the Q-band. We derive radii of the inner edge of the outer disk of 34, 23, 30 and 63 AU for HD97048, HD169142, HD135344B and Oph IRS 48 r...

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) [corrected] identifies Syagrus as sister group of the coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerow, Alan W; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J; Kuhn, David N; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H; Schnell, Raymond J

    2009-10-06

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for clades resolved in the Attaleinae suggests that WRKY loci are informative

  3. Clinically Relevant Subsets Identified by Gene Expression Patterns Support a Revised Ontogenic Model of Wilms Tumor: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Gadd

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumors (WT have provided broad insights into the interface between development and tumorigenesis. Further understanding is confounded by their genetic, histologic, and clinical heterogeneity, the basis of which remains largely unknown. We evaluated 224 WT for global gene expression patterns; WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutation; and 11p15 copy number and methylation patterns. Five subsets were identified showing distinct differences in their pathologic and clinical features: these findings were validated in 100 additional WT. The gene expression pattern of each subset was compared with published gene expression profiles during normal renal development. A novel subset of epithelial WT in infants lacked WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutations and nephrogenic rests and displayed a gene expression pattern of the postinduction nephron, and none recurred. Three subsets were characterized by a low expression of WT1 and intralobar nephrogenic rests. These differed in their frequency of WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, in their age, in their relapse rate, and in their expression similarities with the intermediate mesoderm versus the metanephric mesenchyme. The largest subset was characterized by biallelic methylation of the imprint control region 1, a gene expression profile of the metanephric mesenchyme, and both interlunar and perilobar nephrogenic rests. These data provide a biologic explanation for the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity seen within WT and enable the future development of subset-specific therapeutic strategies. Further, these data support a revision of the current model of WT ontogeny, which allows for an interplay between the type of initiating event and the developmental stage in which it occurs.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae [corrected] identifies Syagrus as sister group of the coconut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W Meerow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence

  5. The combination of absent thyroid peroxidase antibodies and high thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin levels in Graves' disease identifies a group at markedly increased risk of ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, D H; Ho, S C; Seah, L L; Fong, K S; Tai, E S; Chee, S P; Eng, P H; Aw, S E; Fok, A C

    1999-12-01

    Among Graves' Disease (GD) patients, we have observed an unexpectedly high prevalence of antithyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) negativity in those with severe ophthalmopathy. To study the possible role of thyroid autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), TPOAb, TgAb, thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI), and thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) levels were measured, and the presence or absence of GO was assessed by a single observer in 100 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, untreated GD who were nonsmokers. Ophthalmopathy was present in 43 patients. TSI levels (p = 0.001), and the prevalence of TPOAb-negativity (p = 0.002) were significantly higher in patients with ophthalmopathy compared to those without. Logistic regression analysis showed that TSI levels (p = 0.005) and the absence of TPOAb (p = 0.0025) were independent predictors of GO. No correlation between TBII or TgAb and eye disease was found. The prevalence of GO increased with each quartile of TSI levels. The prevalence was 20%, 36%, 52%, and 64% in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of TSI, respectively. The odds ratio of GO (with 95% confidence intervals) when TSI levels were above the median level (1640%) was 3.6 (1.5-8.0), when TPOAb was negative it was 5.0 (1.7-14.4), and with both risk factors it was 36.6 (4.3-313.5). The prevalence of ophthalmopathy in this last group was 92.9%. The combination of negative TPOAb and high TSI levels appears to be associated with a markedly increased risk of clinically evident ophthalmopathy.

  6. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  7. Core group approach to identify college students at risk for sexually transmitted infections "Core group" para identificar universitários em risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Sánchez-Alemán

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the core group for sexually transmitted infections (STI among college students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in a convenience sample comprising 711 college students of the public university of Morelos, Mexico, between 2001 and 2003. Sociodemographic and sexual behavior information were collected using self-applied questionnaires. Herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2 infection was tested in the blood. The number of sexual partners in the last year and cocaine consumption were used as indicators to construct the dependent variable "level of STI risk" in three categories: low, medium and high risk (core group. A multinomial analysis was conducted to evaluate whether different sex behaviors were associated with the variable "level of STI risk". RESULTS: There was significant association between HSV-2 seroprevalence and the variable "level of STI risk": 13%, 5.6% and 3.8% were found in high (core group, medium and low categories, respectively. There were gender differences regarding the core group. Men started having sexual intercourse earlier, had more sex partners, higher alcohol and drug consumption, higher frequency of sex intercourse with sex workers, exchanging sex for money, occasional and concurrent partners compared to women. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest existing contextual characteristics in the study population that affect their sex behavior. In Mexico, the cultural conception of sexuality is determined mainly by gender differences where men engage in higher risky sexual behavior than women.OBJETIVO: Identificar al grupo core de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS en una población de estudiantes universitarios mexicanos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal en una muestra por conveniencia que incluyó 711 estudiantes de una universidad pública de Morelos, México, entre 2001 y 2003. Las características sociodemográficas y de comportamiento sexual se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario auto

  8. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Niculae, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  9. Grupos de discussão na pesquisa com adolescentes e jovens: aportes teórico-metodológicos e análise de uma experiência com o método Discussion groups in the research with teenagers and youngsters: theoretical-methodological contributions and analysis of an experience with the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wivian Weller

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhar com grupos juvenis de contextos interculturais e sociais distintos àquele do pesquisador exige cuidado e rigor no procedimento e na escolha dos métodos a serem utilizados para a coleta de dados, assim como uma preparação para o trabalho de campo. Mesmo assim, o pesquisador será confrontado com códigos de comunicação e estilos de vida que lhe são alheios. A decodificação desses sistemas exige uma espécie de imersão do pesquisador no meio pesquisado e um controle metodológico permanente do processo de interpretação, de forma a evitar vieses ou afirmações distorcidas sobre a realidade social de seus entrevistados. Nos últimos anos, o número de dissertações e teses sobre infância e juventude tem aumentado consideravelmente. No entanto, pela necessidade de entregarmos os trabalhos nos prazos estipulados ou por atribuirmos ao referencial teórico maior grau de importância, poucas vezes nos dedicamos a reconstruir a trajetória percorrida durante a fase de coleta e análise dos dados empíricos e a justificar as escolhas teórico-metodológicas realizadas. O presente artigo reconstrói o percurso de uma pesquisa de campo realizada com jovens em São Paulo e em Berlim, apresenta os instrumentos utilizados na coleta de dados e analisa o emprego dos grupos de discussão como um método de pesquisa que privilegia as interações e uma maior inserção do pesquisador no universo dos sujeitos, reduzindo, assim, os riscos de interpretações equivocadas sobre o meio pesquisado.Working with groups of youngsters from social and intercultural contexts distinct from those of the researcher requires care and rigor in the procedure and choice of methods to be used in data collection, just as in the preparation for the fieldwork. Even so, the researcher will be confronted with codes of communication and lifestyles that are alien to him/her. The decoding of these systems demands a kind of immersion of the researcher into the medium

  10. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…

  11. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  12. Abandoning wells working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  13. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  14. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  15. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  16. Facilities removal working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  17. To what extent do high-intensity statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in each of the four statin benefit groups identified by the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines? A VOYAGER meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Björn W; Palmer, Michael K; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Barter, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines identify four patient groups who benefit from moderate- or high-intensity statin treatment; those with: 1) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD); 2) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥190 mg/dl; 3) diabetes; or 4) a 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%. High-intensity statins, anticipated to reduce LDL-C by ≥50%, were identified as rosuvastatin 20-40 mg and atorvastatin 40-80 mg. Individual patient data (32,258) from the VOYAGER database of 37 studies were used to calculate least-squares mean (LSM) percentage change in LDL-C during 8496 patient exposures to rosuvastatin 20-40 mg, and atorvastatin 40-80 mg in the four patient benefit groups. LSM percentage reductions in LDL-C with rosuvastatin 20 and 40 mg were greater than with atorvastatin 40 mg, overall and in each statin benefit group, and with rosuvastatin 40 mg were greater than with atorvastatin 80 mg overall and in three of the four benefit groups (all p < 0.05). For example, in the ASCVD group, 40%, 59%, 57% and 71% of patients treated with atorvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg and rosuvastatin 40 mg, respectively, had a ≥50% reduction in LDL-C. The choice and dose of statin have an impact both on the percentage LDL-C reduction and achievement of ≥50% reduction in LDL-C, overall and within each of the four statin benefit groups outlined by the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines. This may be of importance for clinicians in their choice of treatment for individual patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction in online interprofessional education case discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterston, Rosemary

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated online interaction within a curriculum unit at the University of Toronto, Canada that included an interprofessional case study discussion in a mixed-mode (face-to-face and online) format. Nine of the 81 teams that completed the four-day curriculum were selected for detailed review based on the attitudes students expressed on a survey about the value of collaborating online for enhancing their appreciation of other health care professions. Five of the teams selected were 'positive' and four were 'negative'. The responses to other survey items by members of these teams were then compared, as well as their message posting patterns and the content of their online discussions. Differences between the two sets were situated within a theoretical framework drawn from the contact theory, social interdependence theory, and the Community of Inquiry model. Institutional support in the form of facilitator involvement, individual predispositions to online and group learning, the group composition, the learning materials, task and assignment, and technical factors all affected the levels of participation online. Discourse and organizational techniques were identified that related to interactivity within the online discussions. These findings can help curriculum planners design interprofessional case studies that encourage the interactivity required for successful online discussions.

  19. Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Maurer, V.; Galea, F.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Amsler, Z.; Visscher, J.; Vermeij, I.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The

  20. Discussion on Financial Sharing Center Construction of Construction Enterprise Groups%关于施工企业集团财务共享中心建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹南

    2017-01-01

    本文结合施工类企业集团(以下简称"企业集团")面临的共性问题阐述了建立财务共享中心可行性,以及财务共享中心建设,然后根据企业集团的实际情况提出财务人员转型,提升财务共享中心附加值的措施.%Combined with the common problems faced by construction enterprise group (hereinafter referred to as"enterprise group"), this paper expounds the feasibility of establishing financial sharing center and the construction of financial sharing center. Then, according to the actual situation of enterprise groups, the paper puts forward the measures of financial personnel transformation and the improvement of added value of the financial sharing center.

  1. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  2. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  3. Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Complemented with Selected 16S rRNA and gyrB Genes Sequencing to Practically Identify Clinical Important Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Menglan; Yang, Qiwen; Kudinha, Timothy; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Yupei; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    There are challenges in viridans group streptococci (VGS) identification especially for the mitis group. Few studies have investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS system in VGS identification. Using 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene sequencing as a gold standard, the performance of two MALDI-TOF MS instruments in the identification of 181 VGS clinical isolates was studied. The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS IVD systems correctly identified 88.4% and 98.9% of the 181 isolates, respectively. The Vitek MS RUO system was the least reliable, only correctly identifying 38.7% of the isolates to species level with several misidentifications and invalid results. The Bruker Biotyper system was very unreliable in the identification of species within the mitis group. Among 22 non-pneumococci isolates (S. mitis/S. oralis/S. pseudopneumoniae), Biotyper misidentified 21 of them as S. pneumoniae leading to a low sensitivity and low positive predictive value in these species. In contrast, the Vitek MS IVD demonstrated a better resolution for pneumococci and non-pneumococci despite the inability to distinguish between S. mitis/S. oralis. For more accurate species-level identification, further improvements in the VGS spectra databases are needed. Based on MALDI-TOF analysis and selected 16S rRNA gene plus gyrB genes sequencing, we designed a practical VGS identification algorithm.

  4. A Brief Discussion on the Role of Group Norm in Ideological and Political Work%浅谈在思想政治工作中发挥群体规范的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘和祥; 陶秀军; 吴时国

    2011-01-01

    群体规范具有一种公认的社会力量,在功能上与思想政治工作具有很大的一致性。为了有效开展思想政治工作,需要开发和运用群体规范理论,积极发挥群体规范作用,以构建完善的群体制度约束人,以树立高尚的群体新风引导人,以宣传正确的群体舆论监督人,以创建优秀的群体文化凝聚人。%Group norm is a recognized social force,which has a great consistency with ideological and political work with respect to its function.In order to effectively carry out ideological and political work,we need to develop and apply group norm theory,build perfect group system constraint,foster a new noble group atmosphere,propaganda right public opinion and create excellent culture.

  5. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  6. Group and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2017-01-01

    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  7. 大学生特殊群体教育管理的路径探讨%Discussion on the path of a special group of college students education management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田菲菲

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, further reform of higher education, college enrollment scale expands, the number of the special group of college students is rising. The reform, development and stability of the university are effected by it, the special group of college students has become widespread social problem. Therefore, to explore the method of special group of college students education management brook no delay, help them to establish self-confidence, self-reliance, self-improvement, self-discipline consciousness, promote their physical and mental health.%  随着我国经济腾飞,高等教育深入改革,高校招生规模也随之扩大,但其中大学生特殊群体人数也不断上升。高校改革、发展与稳定深受其影响,大学生特殊群体成为广受观注的社会性问题。因此,探索现有形势下大学生特殊群体教育管理的方法刻不容缓,帮助他们树立自信、自立、自强、自律意识,促进其身心健康发展。

  8. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  9. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These c

  10. Serotype specific polymerase chain reaction identifies a higher prevalence of streptococcus mutans serotype k and e in a random group of children with dental caries from the Southern region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of dental caries has been associated with the oral prevalence of Streptococcus mutans. Four serotypes of S. mutans have been reported, namely serotype c, e, f, and k that are classified based on the composition and linkages of cell wall polysaccharides, response to physiological reactions, sero-specificity and 16s rRNA homology. Although the oral prevalence of S. mutans serotype c in Indian subjects with or without caries is known, the prevalence of the other three serotypes, e, f, and k are not known. Hence in this study, we have investigated the occurrence of the e, f, and k serotypes in children with or without caries within the age group of 6-12 years. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA isolated from whole saliva of caries active (CA and caries free (CF groups were first screened for the presence of S. mutans by strain specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Those samples that tested positive for the presence of S. mutans were further analyzed by serotype specific PCR to identify the prevalence of the serotypes. Results: Strain specific PCR indicated a higher prevalence of S. mutans in CA group (80% relative to CF group (43%. Further analysis of the S. mutans positive samples in both groups indicated a higher prevalence of serotype k and e, followed by serotype f in CA group. Conclusion: The present data clearly establishes a novel S. mutans serotype prevalence hierarchy in children from this region, compared with those that have been reported elsewhere. Besides, the data are also clinically significant as the occurrence of serotype k has been associated with infective endocarditis.

  11. Brief Discussion on Financial Management Issues of State-owned Enterprise Groups%对国有企业集团财务管理问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴彩霞

    2015-01-01

    According to our State Council’s spirit and requirement on deepening the reform of state-owned enterprises. SASAC of Zhangzhou city reintegrates the local state-owned enterprises into several enterprise groups, which is of special significance to their development. This essay hereby mainly talks about several financial management issues of enterprise groups with reference to the practical situation in local Zhangzhou area from the perspective of financial management with a purpose to make a probe into building a scientific, reasonable and effective financial management mode in the enterprise group and thus ensuring the enterprise group’s positive financial operation by giving an effective play to the financial management.%根据国务院关于深化国有企业改革的精神和要求,漳州市国资委将本市国有企业整合成若干个企业集团,这对其发展有着特殊的意义。从财务管理角度结合漳州本地区的实际情况阐述集团的财务管理的若干问题,探索在集团内部建立起一套科学、合理、高效的财务管理模式,有效发挥财务管理的作用,保障集团财务的良性运作。

  12. Discussions and Suggestions on Dietary Survey of Key Population Group of Nuclear Facilities%核设施关键人群组膳食调查中若干问题的讨论与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭承军; 熊小伟; 魏国良; 王韶伟; 商照荣

    2015-01-01

    通过对核设施关键人群组膳食调查方法局限性与现存问题的梳理,认为关键人群组膳食调查方法单一、调查内容不统一、关键人群组界定和认识有待于完善,提出如下建议:年龄组划分为婴儿(≤1岁)、儿童(2~6岁)、少年(7~17岁)和成人组(>17岁);膳食调查中粮食类细化到谷类、薯类和豆类,蔬菜至少细分为叶类和非叶类蔬菜;海产品细化到鱼类、甲壳类、软体类和藻类。在缺乏关键人群组食物消费量时,建议采用厂址半径5 km范围内膳食调查数据变化范围值的95%作为摄入率代替可能关键人群组的食物消费量。%By analyzing the dietary survey methods of key population groups of nuclear facilities, the paper argues that the current methods are too simple, the survey content is not consistent, and that the identification of key groups still need to be improved. The following suggestions are raised:the age groups are divided into infant (≤1 years), child (2~6 years old), teenager (7~17 years old) and adult group ( > 17 years);staple food are divided into frumentum, tubers and beans; vegetables are divided into leaf vegetables and non-leaf vegetables;and sea food are divided into fish, crustacean, mollusks and algae. In case of the absence of key groups’ diet amount data, it is suggested that 95% of the resulted amount range within 5 km of the facility is used.

  13. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  14. Leading Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse is a valuable teaching and learning tool. Discussions allow students to improve their communication and reasoning skills in mathematics and help teachers assess students' understanding of mathematical ideas. To get the greatest benefit from discussion, teachers must elicit student thinking, listen carefully to their ideas,…

  15. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  16. A Study on the Demotivation in Chinese Non-English Majors’Group Discussions in EFL Classrooms%大学英语课堂小组讨论动机削弱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洁榕

    2014-01-01

    Using a multi-method approach, this study attempts to explore Chinese’college students’demotivation in group dis⁃cussions. Through a principle component analysis, six demotivation factors were extracted: lack of success; teachers ’teaching style and competence;unsupportive environment;class control and management;negative attitude and frustrated experience. The results show the differences in demotivators between students on different language proficiency levels. This study also suggests spe⁃cific strategies to inspire students’initiative in group interactions.%本研究采用问卷调查和访谈相结合的方式探索大学英语课堂小组讨论动机削弱情况。通过主成分分析法,统计归纳出六种主要的动机削弱类型:缺少成就感、教师的教学风格与能力、不支持性的交流环境、课堂管理与控制、消极的态度和受挫的经历。进而对比了各动机削弱因素作用于不同语言水平学生的强度差异,反思其原因并提出激发学生参与小组互动的策略。

  17. 基于情感型消费群的ITMC营销沙盘价格策略探讨%A Discussion on Price Strategy of the ITMC Marketing Sandbox Based on Emotional Consumer Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康元华

    2015-01-01

    在ITMC市场营销沙盘的六类零售消费群体中,情感型消费群体的交易条件相对独立,这有利于企业掌握定价主动权。文章在分析情感型群体交易条件的基础上,探讨了针对这一消费群体的定价模型,明确了价格的计算方法,并将该定价策略延伸至理智型和习惯型消费群体,有助于沙盘经营者进行价格决策。%In the six types of retail consumer groups in ITMC marketing sandbox,the emotional group’s trading conditions are rela⁃tively independent,which is helpful for enterprises to grasp the initiative in pricing. On the basis of analyzing the emotional group’s trad⁃ing terms,the paper explores the pricing model and the method of calculating the price. And extend the price strategy to other consumer groups,such as the rational type and habit type to help sandbox operators with price decisions.

  18. Discussion about the Principle and Model of Group Work in AIDS Prevention and Control%论小组工作介入艾滋病防治的理念与模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌志

    2015-01-01

    Based on the principle of respect and confidentiality, mutual reciprocity, democratic participa-tion and empowerment, group work can effectively alleviate PLWA's and related population's emotional prob-lems, promote PLWA's and related population's knowledge and skills about AIDS prevention and control, promote mutual help and social support network among PLWA, and realize the social acceptance and integra-tion. Specifically, the group work can carry on the AIDS prevention and control through of these four models including of treatment mode, mutual mode, social goal mode and development mode.%在遵循尊重保密、互助互惠、民主参与和赋权的原则下,在艾滋病防治中引入小组工作,可以有效地缓解艾滋患者及其相关人群的情绪问题,提升艾滋患者及其相关人群的相关认知和技巧,促进艾滋患者之间的互帮互助和社会支持网络,并实现社会的接纳与融合. 具体来说,艾滋病防治中的小组工作可以采取治疗模式、互惠模式、社会目标模式以及发展性模式.

  19. Increasing Moral Reasoning Skills through Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Smith, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects that online asynchronous dilemma discussions have on moral reasoning scores of pharmacy students. In contrast to face-to-face group discussions, asynchronous threaded discussions afford all participants time to reflect and respond during discussions. Anonymity features may lessen inhibitions in responding critically…

  20. 广告设计在儿童消费群体中的效应分析%Discussions on the Advertising Design’ s Effect of Child-Consumer-Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰清

    2013-01-01

      广告设计在儿童消费群体中的效应,是指广告设计在儿童消费群体中的作用和影响。就广告设计在儿童消费群体中产生的效应而言,有正效应也有负效应。扩大正效应,避免负效应,是儿童广告设计的出发点和落脚点。只有准确把握广告设计的效应,才能实现广告设计的目标和价值。广告设计要扩大正效应避免负效应,就应根据儿童健康的心理、正确的价值观和正确的消费行为形成的需要来设计广告。就应承担起社会责任和义务,加强内部自律和外部监管,按照社会主义核心价值体系的要求,遵守社会主义道德规范,遵守国家法律法规,弘扬先进文化,提高艺术设计水平,关心儿童健康成长,关心社会进步发展。%The advertising design ’ s effect of children consumer group is about the affect that advertising design brings in children group, for good or ill.Advertising design must emphasize advertisement effect .Only hold the advertisement effect accurately can we a-chieve the goals and values of advertising design .To grasp the advertisement effect properly , we must analyze children ’ s consumer psychology , comprehend the characteristic of their psychology , and value the significance of children ’ s consumer psychology .In addi-tion, advertising design must seize advertising psychology accurately , follow the rules of advertising design correctly , and use the men-tal effect of advertising elements felicitously .Since the bright and dark sides are coexisting in advertisements , we should use all the ways we can to enlarge the positivity effect and avoid the negative effect of advertisement in children consumer group .