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Sample records for group differences findings

  1. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  2. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke B. Snijder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18–70 y from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31–40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37–53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%; only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups.

  3. The validity of clinical findings for diagnosing temporomandibular disorders in patients from different age and gender groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Chinami

    2008-01-01

    This study was to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of clinical findings for internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) compared with that of magnetic resonance imaging. A series of 4559 patients (879 male and 3680 female, mean age 32.7 years; range 8-85 years;) with temporomandibular disorders were clinically examined by un unspecified number of dentists. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The clinical findings that characterize disc displacement, anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) are pain, clicking sound and limitation of maximum mouth opening. These clinical findings were compared to the MRI interpretation, which was used as the gold standard for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders to define the diagnostic accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of clinical findings. The prevalence of clinical finding was 3990 joints (43%) with pain, 2775 joints (30%) with clicking sound and 1731 patients (38%) with limitation of opening. Three thousands forty seven joints were diagnosed as having a normal disc position, 510 joints with sideways disc displacement, 2312 joints with ADDwR, 3239 joints with ADDwoR on MR image. The sensitivity of clinical findings was considerably low: sensitivity was 0.48 for pain versus internal derangement, 0.51 for clicking sound versus ADDwR, 0.62 for limitation of opening versus ADDwoR. The sensitivity was higher in the younger group for clicking sound versus ADDwR, but sensitivity was higher in the older group for limitation of opening versus ADDwoR. The diagnostic accuracy based on clinical findings of internal derangement of TMJ was found to be correlated with age. This study has been that the overall diagnostic accuracy of the clinical findings to determine the status of the joint is about 50-60%. The status of the joint could not be accurately determined by clinical findings

  4. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Marieke B.; Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J.; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We

  5. Age group differences in positive and negative affect among oldest-old adults: findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W; MacDonald, M; Jazwinski, S M; Green, R C; Gearing, M; Johnson, M A; Markesbery, W R; Woodard, J L; Tenover, J S; Siegler, L C; Rott, C; Rodgers, W L; Hausman, D; Arnold, J; Davey, A

    2013-01-01

    The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002) provides insights into how current experiences and resources (proximal variables) and past experiences (distal variables) are correlated with outcomes (e.g., well-being) in later life. Applying this model, the current study examined proximal and distal variables associated with positive and negative affect in oldest-old adults, investigating age differences. Data from 306 octogenarians and centenarians who participated in Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study were used. Proximal variables included physical functioning, cognitive functioning, self-rated health, number of chronic conditions, social resources, and perceived economic status; distal variables included education, social productive activities, management of personal assets, and other learning experiences. Analysis of variance and block-wise regression analyses were conducted. Octogenarians showed significantly higher levels of positive emotion than centenarians. Cognitive functioning was significantly associated with positive affect, and number of health problems was significantly associated with negative affect after controlling for gender, ethnicity, residence, and marital status. Furthermore, four significant interaction effects suggested that positive affect significantly depended on the levels of cognitive and physical functioning among centenarians, whereas positive affect was dependent on the levels of physical health problems and learning experiences among octogenarians. Findings of this study addressed the importance of current and past experiences and resources in subjective well-being among oldest-old adults as a life-long process. Mechanisms connecting aging processes at the end of a long life to subjective well-being should be explored in future studies.

  6. Do clinicians prescribe exercise similarly in patients with different cardiovascular diseases? Findings from the EAPC EXPERT working group survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dominique; Rovelo Ruiz, Gustavo; Doherty, Patrick; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Vromen, Tom; Hinton, Sally; Frederix, Ines; Wilhelm, Matthias; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Abreu, Ana; Ambrosetti, Marco; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban; Coninx, Karin; Dendale, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Background Although disease-specific exercise guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are widely available, it remains uncertain whether these different exercise guidelines are integrated properly for patients with different CVDs. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-clinician variance in exercise prescription for patients with various CVDs and to compare these prescriptions with recommendations from the EXercise Prescription in Everyday practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool, a digital decision support system for integrated state-of-the-art exercise prescription in CVD. Design The study was a prospective observational survey. Methods Fifty-three CV rehabilitation clinicians from nine European countries were asked to prescribe exercise intensity (based on percentage of peak heart rate (HR peak )), frequency, session duration, programme duration and exercise type (endurance or strength training) for the same five patients. Exercise prescriptions were compared between clinicians, and relationships with clinician characteristics were studied. In addition, these exercise prescriptions were compared with recommendations from the EXPERT tool. Results A large inter-clinician variance was found for prescribed exercise intensity (median (interquartile range (IQR)): 83 (13) % of HR peak ), frequency (median (IQR): 4 (2) days/week), session duration (median (IQR): 45 (18) min/session), programme duration (median (IQR): 12 (18) weeks), total exercise volume (median (IQR): 1215 (1961) peak-effort training hours) and prescription of strength training exercises (prescribed in 78% of all cases). Moreover, clinicians' exercise prescriptions were significantly different from those of the EXPERT tool ( p < 0.001). Conclusions This study reveals significant inter-clinician variance in exercise prescription for patients with different CVDs and disagreement with an integrated state-of-the-art system for exercise prescription, justifying the need for

  7. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  8. Dietary Differences in Male Workers among Smaller Occupational Groups within Large Occupational Categories: Findings from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie; Tsuji, Mayumi; Senju, Ayako; Kusuhara, Koichi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2018-05-11

    Studies examining workers' diet according to smaller occupational groups within "large occupational categories" are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the potential differences in workers' diets based on the classification of workers into smaller occupational groups that comprise "large occupational categories". The subjects of this study were working fathers who had participated in the Japan Environment and Children's Study (N = 38,656). Energy and nutrient intake were calculated based on data collected from the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Occupations were classified according to the Japanese Standard Occupational Classification. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the adherence to current dietary recommendations within smaller occupational groups. In particular, significant differences were observed among the categorical groups of "professional and engineering workers", "service workers", and "agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers". In "professional and engineering workers", teachers showed higher odds of adherence to calcium intake recommendations compared with nurses (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 2.02⁻3.14; p < 0.001). In "agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers", agriculture workers showed higher odds of adherence to calcium (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.46⁻3.15; p < 0.001) and vitamin C (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.31⁻2.74, p = 0.001) intake recommendations compared with forestry and fishery workers. These findings may be beneficial from a research perspective as well as in the development of more effective techniques to improve workers' diet and health.

  9. Cognitive Correlates of Different Mentalizing Abilities in Individuals with High and Low Trait Schizotypy: Findings from an Extreme-Group Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated. The main aim of this study was to explore whether deficits in cognitive and affective ToM can be found in high trait schizotypy, and to identify in what way these deficits are related to the positive and negative dimensions of schizotypy. The secondary aim was to examine whether these deficits correlate with executive functions. Based on the dimensional view of the schizophrenia spectrum, an extreme-group design was applied to non-clinical volunteers demonstrating high (N = 39 and low (N = 47 trait schizotypy. Affective and cognitive ToM were investigated using the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition, a sensitive and video-based measurement. Cognitive inhibition was assessed using the Stroop Test, and cognitive flexibility was analyzed using the Trail-Making Test. Agency was measured using a computerized self-agency paradigm. Participants in the high-schizotypy group performed significantly worse in the affective ToM task (d = 0.79, and their overall ToM performance was significantly impaired (d = 0.60. No between-group differences were found with regards to cognitive ToM, executive functions, and self-agency. Cognitive flexibility correlated negatively with positive schizotypy, and contributed to a worse overall and affective ToM. Impaired cognitive inhibition contributed to undermentalizing-type errors. It

  10. Finding a Comparison Group: Is Online Crowdsourcing a Viable Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the viability of online crowdsourcing for creating matched-comparison groups. This exploratory study compares survey results from a randomized control group to survey results from a matched-comparison group created from Amazon.com's MTurk crowdsourcing service to determine their comparability. Study findings indicate…

  11. What Is a Group? Young Children's Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Plötner

    Full Text Available To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children's general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends, a task group (people who are collaborating, a social category (people who look alike, and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop. In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a 'real group.' In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior.

  12. Theory of mind and emotion recognition skills in children with specific language impairment, autism spectrum disorder and typical development: group differences and connection to knowledge of grammatical morphology, word-finding abilities and verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social perception abilities. To compare the performance of children with SLI, ASD and typical development (TD) in social perception tasks measuring Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. In addition, to evaluate the association between social perception tasks and language tests measuring word-finding abilities, knowledge of grammatical morphology and verbal working memory. Children with SLI (n = 18), ASD (n = 14) and TD (n = 25) completed two NEPSY-II subtests measuring social perception abilities: (1) Affect Recognition and (2) ToM (includes Verbal and non-verbal Contextual tasks). In addition, children's word-finding abilities were measured with the TWF-2, grammatical morphology by using the Grammatical Closure subtest of ITPA, and verbal working memory by using subtests of Sentence Repetition or Word List Interference (chosen according the child's age) of the NEPSY-II. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children with SLI or TD on the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest. Both SLI and ASD groups scored significantly lower than TD children on Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest of NEPSY-II. However, there were no significant group differences on non-verbal Contextual tasks of the ToM subtest of the NEPSY-II. Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest were correlated with the Grammatical Closure subtest and TWF-2 in children with SLI. In children with ASD correlation between TWF-2 and ToM: Verbal tasks was moderate, almost achieving statistical significance, but no other correlations were found. Both SLI and ASD groups showed difficulties in tasks measuring verbal ToM but differences were not found in tasks measuring non-verbal Contextual ToM. The

  13. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; Deary, I J

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (i) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (ii) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (iii) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (iv) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for ‘positive genetics'. (v) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century—Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)—which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic

  14. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

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    Richard Andreas Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  15. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros, E-mail: braunrich@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas. Institutlo de Radiologia

    2016-03-15

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of health care. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. (author)

  16. Group foliation of finite difference equations

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    Thompson, Robert; Valiquette, Francis

    2018-06-01

    Using the theory of equivariant moving frames, a group foliation method for invariant finite difference equations is developed. This method is analogous to the group foliation of differential equations and uses the symmetry group of the equation to decompose the solution process into two steps, called resolving and reconstruction. Our constructions are performed algorithmically and symbolically by making use of discrete recurrence relations among joint invariants. Applications to invariant finite difference equations that approximate differential equations are given.

  17. Psychological wellness constructs: relationships and group differences

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    Liezl Gropp

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI, Locus of Control Inventory (LOC, Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC, and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 200 employees of a financial services company. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups on several of the wellness variables with the manager and White groups obtaining higher scores on these variables than their comparison groups. However, in respect of External Locus of Control, the non-manager and Black groups obtained the higher scores. Factor analytic results demonstrated that the wellness variables clustered in two correlated factors (r = 0,43 labeled psychological wellness and self-actualisation.

  18. Exaggerating Accessible Differences: When Gender Stereotypes Overestimate Actual Group Differences.

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    Eyal, Tal; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men. We confirmed that the most accessible stereotype content involves attributes perceived to differ between groups (pretest), and that these stereotypes contain some accuracy but significantly exaggerate actual gender differences (Experiment 1). We observe less exaggeration when judging less accessible stereotype content (Experiment 2), or when judging individual men and women (Experiment 3). Considering the accessibility of specific stereotype content may explain when stereotypes exaggerate actual group differences and when they do not.

  19. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  20. Construction of Difference Equations Using Lie Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of prolongations of the generators of groups of point transformations to the grid point values of dependent variables and grid spacings is developed and applied to the construction of group invariant numerical algorithms. The concepts of invariant difference operators and generalized discrete sources are introduced for the discretization of systems of inhomogeneous differential equations and shown to produce exact difference equations. Invariant numerical flux functions are constructed from the general solutions of first order partial differential equations that come out of the evaluation of the Lie derivatives of conservation forms of difference schemes. It is demonstrated that invariant numerical flux functions with invariant flux or slope limiters can be determined to yield high resolution difference schemes. The introduction of an invariant flux or slope limiter can be done so as not to break the symmetry properties of a numerical flux-function

  1. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  2. Differences in problems of motivation in different special groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E.S.; Steenbeek, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    In general, children with a range of special needs have below-average motivation and perceived control. We have investigated whether differences exist between the types of problem in different special groups. Theory distinguishes between two types: low motivation and perceived control can be based

  3. Differences in problems of motivation in different special groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E.S.; Steenbeek, H.W.

    In general, children with a range of special needs have below-average motivation and perceived control. We have investigated whether differences exist between the types of problem in different special groups. Theory distinguishes between two types: low motivation and perceived control can be based

  4. Roentgenographic findings in hyaline membrane disease treated with exogenous surfactant: comparison with control group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Chae Ha; Lim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Sook; Byen, Ju Nam; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    1997-01-01

    To compare, with the use of chest radiographic findings, improvement and complications in newborns treated with exogenous surfactant for hyaline membrane disease (HMD), and an untreated control group. Thirty-six patients with HMD were randomly assigned to a control group (n=18) or surfactant treated group (n=18). As part of an initial evaluation of their pulmonary status, we then performed a retrospective statistical analysis of chest radiographic findings obtained in exogenous surfactant treated and untreated infants within the first 90 minutes of life. Subsequent examinations were performed at less than 24 hours of age. Chest radiograph before treatment showed no significant differences between the two groups, but significant improvement was noted in the surfactant treated group, in contrast to the control group. The most common chest radiographic finding after surfactant administration was uniform (n=15) or disproportionate (n=2) improvement of pulmonary aeration. Patent ductus arteriosus developed in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Air leak occurred in three cases in the treated group and in five cases in the control group. In one treated patient pulmonary hemorrhage developed and intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was developed in 6 cases of treated group and 3 cases of control group. A chest radiograph is considered to be helpful in the evaluation of improvement and complications of HMD in infants treated with surfactant

  5. What Is a Group? Young Children’s Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children’s general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends), a task group (people who are collaborating), a social category (people who look alike), and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop). In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a ‘real group.’ In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior. PMID:27010484

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE HUMAN OVARY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

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    Ritu Saloi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian pathology can manifest in various ways, e.g. menstrual abnormalities, cystic disease, infertility, benign and malignant tumours of the ovary, etc. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cancers in Indian women. The aim was undertaken to observe the age-related changes in the human ovary and to study if there is any difference between the right and left ovaries with respect to length, breadth, thickness and weight and compare it with the established findings of previous workers, which will help the clinicians to adopt appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various clinical conditions associated with the ovaries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study on human ovary was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The morphological characteristics of 42 pairs of normal human ovaries of different age groups were studied (14 pairs in each age group. The ovaries were divided into three groups, viz. Group A or pre-reproductive, Group B or reproductive and Group C or postmenopausal. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was done to find out the significant difference of mean value. RESULTS The morphology of the ovary including the length, breadth, thickness and weight of the three groups were measured and the findings were compared with each other and also with the findings of studies done by previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of ovary in the three groups. The study also revealed that the weight of the right ovary was more than the left ovary in all the three age groups. The results were statistically analysed and compared with the findings of previous workers.

  7. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  8. Group and site differences on the California Verbal Learning Test in persons with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: findings from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William S; Giuliano, Anthony J; Tsuang, Ming T; Braff, David L; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Calkins, Monica E; Dobie, Dorcas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Light, Gregory A; Mintz, Jim; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Roe, Andrea H; Schork, Nicholas J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Swerdlow, Neal R; Thomas, Alison R; Tsuang, Debby W; Turetsky, Bruce I; Seidman, Larry J

    2011-05-01

    Genetic studies of schizophrenia focus increasingly on putative endophenotypes because their genetic etiology may be simpler than clinical diagnosis. The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS), a multisite family study, aims to identify the genetic basis of several endophenotypes including verbal declarative memory (VDM), a neurocognitive function that shows robust impairment in schizophrenia. We present data on one type of measure of VDM, the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II), in schizophrenia probands (n=305), their full biological siblings (n=449) and parents (n=232), and in community comparison subjects (CCS; n=509) across seven sites. Probands performed more poorly on each of five CVLT-II measures compared to related sibling and parent groups and CCS. Siblings and parents performed significantly worse than CCS on one measure (Discriminability), but with smaller effect sizes and less impairment than observed previously. The results raise questions about the homogeneity of VDM as an endophenotype, about methodological issues related to sampling, and about psychometric issues that impact the utility of the CVLT for detecting VDM deficits in nonpsychotic relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FINDING FOSSIL GROUPS: OPTICAL IDENTIFICATION AND X-RAY CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rykoff, Eli S. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dupke, Renato A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Proctor, Robert N. [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Garmire, Gordon P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); McKay, Timothy A., E-mail: milleric@mit.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We report the discovery of 12 new fossil groups (FGs) of galaxies, systems dominated by a single giant elliptical galaxy and cluster-scale gravitational potential, but lacking the population of bright galaxies typically seen in galaxy clusters. These FGs, selected from the maxBCG optical cluster catalog, were detected in snapshot observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We detail the highly successful selection method, with an 80% success rate in identifying 12 FGs from our target sample of 15 candidates. For 11 of the systems, we determine the X-ray luminosity, temperature, and hydrostatic mass, which do not deviate significantly from expectations for normal systems, spanning a range typical of rich groups and poor clusters of galaxies. A small number of detected FGs are morphologically irregular, possibly due to past mergers, interaction of the intra-group medium with a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), or superposition of multiple massive halos. Two-thirds of the X-ray-detected FGs exhibit X-ray emission associated with the central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), although we are unable to distinguish between AGN and extended thermal galaxy emission using the current data. This sample representing a large increase in the number of known FGs, will be invaluable for future planned observations to determine FG temperature, gas density, metal abundance, and mass distributions, and to compare to normal (non-fossil) systems. Finally, the presence of a population of galaxy-poor systems may bias mass function determinations that measure richness from galaxy counts. When used to constrain power spectrum normalization and {Omega}{sub m}, these biased mass functions may in turn bias these results.

  10. Factors Associated With Volunteering Among Racial/Ethnic Groups: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.

  11. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  13. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, a number of studies have explored personality group differences in the Big Five personality traits among students in different academic majors. To date, though, this research has not been reviewed systematically. This was the aim of the present review. A systematic...... literature search identified twelve eligible studies yielding an aggregated sample size of 13,389. Eleven studies reported significant group differences in one or multiple Big Five personality traits. Consistent findings across studies were that students of arts/humanities and psychology scored high...... on Conscientiousness. Effect sizes were calculated to estimate the magnitude of the personality group differences. These effect sizes were consistent across studies comparing similar pairs of academic majors. For all Big Five personality traits medium effect sizes were found frequently, and for Openness even large...

  14. Redshift differences of galaxies in nearby groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    It is reported that galaxies in nearby groups exhibit anomalous nonvelocity redshifts. In this discussion, (1) four classes of nearby groups of galacies are analyzed, and no significant nonvelocity redshift effect is found; and (2) it is pointed out that transverse velocities (i.e., velocities transverse to the line of sight of the main galaxy, or center of mass) contribute components to the redshift measurements of companion galaxies. The redshifts of galaxies in nearby groups of appreciable angular size are considerably affected by these velocity projection effects. The transverse velocity contributions average out in rich, isotropic groups, and also in large samples of irregular groups of low membership, as in the four classes referred to in (1), but can introduce apparent discrepancies in small samples (as studied by Arp) of nearby groups of low membership.

  15. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Different Polymicrogyria Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: As one of the most common types of developmental cortical malformations, polymicrogyria can be seen in patients who are presented with clinical findings, such as epilepsy, mental motor retardation and spasticity and polymicrogyria may present in very different types. MRI is an effective imaging technique in patients presenting with cortical developmental malformations such as polymicrogyria [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 151-157

  17. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  18. Different Approaches to Cross-Lingual Focus Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Quintanilha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a useful data-generation strategy in qualitative health research when it is important to understand how social contexts shape participants’ health. However, when cross-lingual focus groups are conducted across cultural groups, and in languages in which the researcher is not fluent, questions regarding the usefulness and rigor of the findings can be raised. In this article, we will discuss three different approaches to cross-lingual focus groups used in a community-based participatory research project with pregnant and postpartum, African immigrant women in Alberta, Canada. In two approaches, we moderated focus groups in women’s mother tongue with the support of real-time interpreters, but in the first approach, audio recording was used and in the second approach, audio recording was not used. In the third approach, a bilingual moderator facilitated focus groups in women’s mother tongue, with transcription and translation of audio-recorded data upon completion of data generation. We will describe each approach in detail, including their advantages and challenges, and recontextualize what we have learned within the known literature. We expect the lessons learned in this project may assist others in planning and implementing cross-lingual focus groups, especially in the context of community-based participatory research.

  19. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    no standardisation in the age categorisation of children, there are inconsistencies among the age subgroups in the current literature. To achieve a standard terminology and thus a common language, the World Health Organization age classification criterion was used in the present study. Based on the findings, we can...... suggest that PCNL can be applied safely and effectively in children in different age groups. OBJECTIVES: •  To present the overall results of paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with adults. •  To present the indications, complications and outcomes of patients treated...... in the participating centres in the PCNL Global Study, as categorised in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2009, and included 96 centres and >5800 patients. •  All children aged ≤14 years...

  20. Pigs in Toxicology: Breed Differences in Metabolism and Background Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Kristi L; Nelson, Keith N; Sargeant, Aaron M; Jacob, Binod; McKeag, Sean; Haruna, Julius; Vemireddi, Vimala; Greeley, Melanie; Brocksmith, Derek; Navratil, Nicole; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hollinger, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    Both a rodent and a nonrodent species are required for evaluation in nonclinical safety studies conducted to support human clinical trials. Historically, dogs and nonhuman primates have been the nonrodent species of choice. Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety as an alternate nonrodent species. The pig is an appropriate option for these toxicology studies based on metabolic pathways utilized in xenobiotic biotransformation. Both similarities and differences exist in phase I and phase II biotransformation pathways between humans and pigs. There are numerous breeds of pigs, yet only a few of these breeds are characterized with regard to both xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and background pathology findings. Some specific differences in these enzymes based on breed and sex are known. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is also a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences between commonly used breeds. Here, the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are compared between humans and pigs, and minipig background pathology changes are reviewed with emphasis on breed differences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Comparison of smoking cessation between education groups: findings from 2 US National Surveys over 2 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Gamst, Anthony C; Cummins, Sharon E; Wolfson, Tanya; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2015-02-01

    We examined smoking cessation rate by education and determined how much of the difference can be attributed to the rate of quit attempts and how much to the success of these attempts. We analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, 1991-2010) and the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS, 1992-2011). Smokers (≥ 25 years) were divided into lower- and higher-education groups (≤ 12 years and >12 years). A significant difference in cessation rate between the lower- and the higher-education groups persisted over the last 2 decades. On average, the annual cessation rate for the former was about two thirds that of the latter (3.5% vs 5.2%; Peducation group have consistently lagged behind their higher-education counterparts in quitting. In addition to the usual concern about improving their success in quitting, tobacco control programs need to find ways to increase quit attempts in this group.

  2. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  3. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  4. The analysis of multivariate group differences using common principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechger, T.M.; Blanca, M.J.; Maris, G.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is simple to determine whether multivariate group differences are statistically significant or not, such differences are often difficult to interpret. This article is about common principal components analysis as a tool for the exploratory investigation of multivariate group differences

  5. Efficacy of Varicocele Repair in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Mohammad; Hadi, Mazaher; Abbasi, Homayoun; Nourimahdavi, Kia; Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Mirsattari, Arash; Hadi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    To compare semen parameters and spouse pregnancy rates after varicocele repair in 2 age groups. Mean changes in spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology after varicocele repair in 83 patients were compared between patients aged 30 years or younger (group 1) and those older than 30 years (group 2). Spouse pregnancy rates were compared between the 2 age groups. The mean sperm concentration increased significantly in both groups (P group 1 and from 47.2% to 53.2% in group 2 one year after varicocele repair. The increase in motility was statistically significant for both groups (P groups (P = .01). The percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology decreased significantly in both groups 12 months postoperatively (from 62.7% to 59.6% in group 1 and from 61.3% to 58% in group 2; P = .03). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the improvement in sperm morphology between the 2 groups (P >.05). The pregnancy rates in the patients' spouses were 51.1% and 44.7% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (P = .9). There was no statistically significant difference in semen parameter improvement and spouse pregnancy rates after varicocelectomy in the 2 age groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Different groups, different motives: identity motives underlying changes in identification with novel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Matt; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2012-08-01

    Social identification is known to have wide-reaching implications, but theorists disagree about the underlying motives. Integrating motivated identity construction theory with recent social identity research, the authors predicted which motives underlie identification with two types of groups: interpersonal networks and social categories. In a five-wave longitudinal study of social identity processes among 268 new university residents, multilevel analyses showed that motives involved in identity enactment processes--self-esteem, belonging, and efficacy--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with flatmates (an interpersonal network group), whereas motives involved in identity definition processes--meaning, self-esteem, and distinctiveness--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with halls of residence (an abstract social category). This article discusses implications for research into identity motives and social identity.

  7. Actionable findings and the role of IT support: report of the ACR Actionable Reporting Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul A; Berland, Lincoln L; Griffith, Brent; Kahn, Charles E; Liebscher, Lawrence A

    2014-06-01

    The ACR formed the Actionable Reporting Work Group to address the potential role of IT in the communication of imaging findings, especially in cases that require nonroutine communication because of the urgency of the findings or their unexpected nature. These findings that require special communication with referring clinicians are classified as "actionable findings." The work group defines 3 categories of actionable findings that require, respectively, communication and clinical decision within minutes (category 1), hours (category 2), or days (category 3). Although the work group does not believe that there can be definitive lists of such findings, it developed lists in each category that would apply in most general hospital settings. For each category, the work group discusses ways in which IT can assist interpreting radiologists in successfully communicating to the relevant clinicians to ensure optimal patient care. IT systems can also help document the communication and facilitate auditing of the documentation. The work group recommends that vendors develop platforms that can be customized on the basis of local preferences and needs. Whatever system is used, it should be highly reliable and fit seamlessly into radiologists' workflow. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender Differences In The Anticipation Of Difficulties In Finding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both male and female students displayed a strong sense of external locus of control and causal attribution. They believed that “connections” with the “right people” would help them in getting a job. They blamed others, especially government, in case they could not get employment. The findings are discussed with regard to ...

  9. Influence of stuttering variation on talker group classification in preschool children: Preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of 17 3- to 5-year-old CWS and 9 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no statistically significant between-group difference in chronological age (CWS: M = 45.53 months, SD = 8.32; CWNS: M = 47.67 months, SD = 6.69). All participants had speech, language, and hearing development within normal limits, with the exception of stuttering for CWS. Both talker groups participated in a series of speaking samples that varied by: (a) conversational partner [parent and clinician], (b) location [home and clinic], and (c) context [conversation and narrative]. The primary dependent measures for this study were the number of stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) per total number of spoken words [%SLD] and the ratio of SLD to total disfluencies (TD) [SLD/TD]. Results indicated that significant variability of stuttering did not exist as a result of conversational partner or location. Changes in context, however, did impact the CWS, who demonstrated higher SLD/TD in the conversation sample versus a narrative sample. Consistent with hypotheses, CWS and CWNS were accurately identified as stutterers and nonstutterers, respectively, regardless of changes to conversational partner, location or context for the overall participant sample. Present findings were taken to suggest that during assessment, variations in stuttering frequency resulting from changes in conversational partner, location or context do not significantly influence the diagnosis of stuttering, especially for children not on the talker group classification borderline between CWS and CWNS. PMID:19167719

  10. Are interest groups different in the factors determining landscape preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.

  11. [The different manifestations of pulmonary aspergillosis: multidetector computed tomography findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren Fernández, L; Alonso Charterina, S; Alcalá-Galiano Rubio, A; Sánchez Nistal, M A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a fungal infection usually caused by inhaling Aspergillus fumigatus spores. However, when we talk about aspergillosis, we normally refer to the spectrum of clinical and radiological findings that depend directly on the patient's immune status, on the prior existence of lung disease, and on the virulence of the infective organism. There are four types of pulmonary aspergillosis (aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive aspergillosis), and each type has its own distinct radiologic findings. We review the signs of pulmonary aspergillosis on multidetector computed tomography and we correlate them with patients' symptoms and immune responses. Likewise, we discuss the differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Entrepreneurial networking differences: An ethnic in-group and out-group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2011-04-01

    Research purpose: The research question of this study has focused on what we can learn about entrepreneurial networking, considering that there is an under-explored and unarticulated set of networking principles and practices which have not been previously analysed in terms of a multiethnic country context. Motivation for the study: Often the lack of network use is reported as a feature of entrepreneurs, who have less opportunity to utilise formal social capital features. Social networks provided by extended family, community-based or organisational relationships are often theorised to supplement the effects of education, experience and financial capital. Research design, approach and method: Based on hypothesised differences in networking ties, network assistance and support relationships, a survey was used to collect data on quantitative measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the hypotheses. Main findings: Results indicate that entrepreneurial networking is largely independent on group composition. Generally at least some aspects of networking are generic and as a consequence, a more integrated view of networking can be adopted. Practical/managerial implications: The practical value of the present study points to several areas of interest to entrepreneurs, policy makers and educators, through demonstrating the multifaceted nature of entrepreneurial networks for different groups and their explanatory potential in understanding networking. Contribution/value-add: Despite the importance of entrepreneurial networking, little empirical or theoretical research has examined the dynamics of networking in a developing country context such as South Africa, which has lower than expected total entrepreneurship activity.

  13. Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated with Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjaer, Per; Kent, Peter

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using 2 different data sets OBJECTIVE.: To investigate if the number of different MRI findings present is more strongly associated with low back pain (LBP) than single MRI findings. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most previous studies have....... The outcome for the cross-sectional study was presence of LBP during the last year. The outcome for the longitudinal study was days to recurrence of activity limiting LBP. In both data sets we created an aggregate score of the number of different MRI findings present in each individual and assessed...... investigated the associations between single MRI findings and back pain rather than investigating combinations of MRI findings. If different individuals have different pathoanatomic sources contributing to their pain, then combinations of MRI findings may be more strongly associated with LBP. METHODS...

  14. The Flynn effect, group differences, and g loadings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    Flynn effect gains are predominantly driven by environmental factors. Might these factors also be responsible for group differences in intelligence? Group differences in intelligence have been clearly shown to strongly correlate with g loadings. The empirical studies on whether the pattern of Flynn

  15. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  16. Executive function in different groups of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Prosen, Simona; Smrtnik Vitulić, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyses the executive function (EF) skills of 369 students of primary education (n = 116), preschool education (n = 72), social pedagogy (n = 54), and biology (n = 128). It explores how the different groups of students use selected executive skills and whether there are any differences between the groups in this respect. Eleven EF skills were self-assessed using the Executive Skills Questionnaire for Students (Dawson & Guare, 2010). All of the groups of students experien...

  17. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Japanese, and Chinese). Each patient was individually matched with a healthy control of the same ethnicity, gender, and age (±1 year). We report a reduction in the gray matter volume of the right anterior insula in patients relative to controls (P ethnic groups despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and image acquisition sequence. This finding provides evidence for a neuroanatomical signature of schizophrenia expressed above and beyond ethnic variations in incidence and clinical expression. In light of the existing literature, implicating the right anterior insula in bipolar disorder, depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety, we speculate that the neuroanatomical deficit reported here may represent a transdiagnostic feature of Axis I disorders. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  18. Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazha M. Devishvili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy. Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball and team level (amateur and professional. To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index. which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes; 12-14 years (24 athletes and 18-25 years (41 athletes. Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05. For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05. and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05. Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group

  19. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  20. Surgical outcomes in two different age groups with Focal Cortical Dysplasia type II: Any real difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Molina, Jorge Luis; Di Giacomo, Roberta; Mariani, Valeria; Deleo, Francesco; Cardinale, Francesco; Uscátegui-Daccarett, Angélica María; Lorenzana, Pablo; Tassi, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Focal Cortical Dysplasias (FCDs) represent a common architectural cortical disorder underlying drug-resistant focal epilepsy. So far, studies aimed at evaluating whether age at surgery is a factor influencing surgical outcome are lacking, so that data on the comparison between patients harboring Type II FCD operated at younger age and those operated at adult age are still scarce. We compared presurgical clinical features and surgical outcomes of patients with histopathologically diagnosed Type II FCD undergoing surgery at an earlier age with those operated after 20 years of age. We retrospectively analyzed 1660 consecutive patients operated at the "Claudio Munari" Epilepsy Surgery Centre. There were 289 patients (17.4%) with a neuropathological diagnosis of Type II FCD. We included two different groups of patients, the first one including patients operated on at less than 6years, the second sharing the same seizure onset age but with delayed surgery, carried out after the age of 20. Seizure characteristics and, neuropsychological and postoperative seizure outcomes were evaluated by study group. Forty patients underwent surgery before the age of 6 and 66 patients after the age of 20. Surgical outcome was favorable in the whole population (72.6% were classified in Engel's Class Ia+Ic), independently from age at surgery. In the children group, 32 patients were classified in Class I, including 30 (75%) children in classes Ia and Ic. In the adult group, 53 belonged to Class I of whom 47 (71%) were in classes Ia and Ic. The percentage of permanent complications, the surgical outcomes, and AED withdrawal did not significantly differ by study group. Our results indicate that there is no difference between the groups, suggesting that outcome depends mainly on the histological findings and not on timing of surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Same-different reaction times to odors: some unexpected findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeller, P.; Koester, E.P.; Dijkman, N.; Wijk, de R.A.; Mojet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out using olfactometers that delivered two stimuli with an interval of, respectively, 0.2 s (experiment 1) and 4.0 s (experiment 2) in a same–different paradigm. In experiment 1 (four men, age 38.5¿±¿15.2 and six women, age 25.8¿±¿1.2), four odors and in experiment 2

  2. Finding Flicker: Critical Differences in Temporal Frequency Capture Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik; Alais, David

    2011-01-01

    Rapid visual flicker is known to capture attention. Here we show slow flicker can also capture attention under reciprocal temporal conditions. Observers searched for a target line (vertical or horizontal) among tilted distractors. Distractor lines were surrounded by luminance modulating annuli, all flickering sinusoidally at 1.3 or 12.1 Hz, while the target’s annulus flickered at frequencies within this range. Search times improved with increasing target/distractor frequency differences. For ...

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL WORK GROUPS AND WORK TEAMS – APPROACHES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Work groups and work teams represents basic structures of traditional and modern organizations, and during the time they have been intensively researched. However, managers often do not always consider the fundamental differences between groups and teams, which will lead to unrealistic goals and results below expectations. Thus, in the present paper we propose a review of the main researching approaches on groups and teams (psychosocial, socio-technical, and behavioral approach, in the third part of the paper being detailed the fundamental differences between groups and teams in the light of these approaches.

  4. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    characterisations are more than humoristic elements in TV shows; are there real, measurable personality differences among groups of academics? One way to study this is to look at students in different academic majors and examine whether they differ on the group level in broad personality traits. During the past...... decades, studies have regularly explored associations between enrolment in specific academic majors and scores on the Big Five personality traits; Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The present review examines this research systematically, summarises group...... group differences in the Big Five personality traits were generally found in the included studies. None of the included studies reported effect sizes, though, so the magnitude of the obtained differences was not estimated. Consequently, effect sizes were calculated using means and standard deviations...

  5. Peculiarities of roentgenosemiotics of ulcerous disease in different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshenko, Yu.T.; Reztsova, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Roentgenomorphological and functional signs of stomach and duodenum ulcer disease was studied in different age groups in 382 patients that were subjected to a complex of clinico-laboratory and roentgenological examinations. It is concluded that in different age groups ulcerous disease of stomach and duodenum is characterized by a considerable peculiarities of roengenomorphologic characters. In some age groups disclosed are characteristic symptomocomplexes of roentgenofunctional shifts typical of ulcers of different localisations. It is shown that there is a regular relation between the type of functional shifts, age of a patient and location of ulcers

  6. The Effects of Ability Grouping: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Theresa Koontz; Taylor, Bob L.

    The study reported in this paper quantitatively integrated the recent research findings on ability grouping in order to generalize about these effects on student achievement and student self-concept. Meta-analysis was used to statistically integrate the empirical data. The relationships among various experimental variables including grade level,…

  7. A low-memory algorithm for finding short product representations in finite groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisson, G.; Sutherland, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a space-efficient algorithm for solving a generalization of the subset sum problem in a finite group G, using a Pollard-¿ approach. Given an element z and a sequence of elements S, our algorithm attempts to find a subsequence of S whose product in G is equal to z. For a random sequence S

  8. A low-memory algorithm for finding short product representations in finite groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisson, G.; Sutherland, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a space-efficient algorithm for solving a generalization of the subset sum problem in a finite group G, using a Pollard-rho approach. Given an element z and a sequence of elements S, our algorithm attempts to find a subsequence of S whose product in G is equal to z. For a random sequence

  9. Finding flicker: Critical differences in temporal frequency capture attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eCass

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid visual flicker is known to capture attention. Here we show slow flicker can also capture attention under reciprocal temporal conditions. Observers searched for a target line (vertical or horizontal among tilted distractors. Distractor lines were surrounded by luminance modulating annuli, all flickering sinusoidally at 1.3 or 12.1 Hz, while the target’s annulus flickered at frequencies within this range. Search times improved with increasing target/distractor frequency differences. For target-distractor frequency separations > 5 Hz reaction times were minimal with high frequency targets correctly identified more rapidly than low frequency targets (~400ms. Critically, however, at these optimal frequency separations search times for low and high frequency targets were unaffected by set size (slow flicker popped out from high flicker, and vice versa, indicating parallel and symmetric search performance when searching for high or low frequency targets. In a ‘cost’ experiment using 1.3 and 12.1 Hz flicker, the unique flickering annulus sometimes surrounded a distractor and, on other trials, surrounded the target. When centred on a distractor, the unique frequency produced a clear and symmetrical search cost. Together, these symmetric pop-out and search costs demonstrate that temporal frequency is a pre-attentive visual feature capable of capturing attention, and that it is relative rather than absolute frequencies that are critical. The shape of the search functions strongly suggest that early visual temporal frequency filters underlie these effects.

  10. Seroepidemiological survey of tularemia among different groups in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Esfandiari, Behzad; Amiri, Fahimeh Bagheri; Behzadi, Manijeh Yousefi; Banafshi, Omid; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The first human case of tularemia in Iran was reported in 1980 and there have been no subsequent reports of tularemia in the country. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of tularemia among different groups in the province of Kurdistan in western Iran. The following information was collected by means of an in-house questionnaire: participant demographic characteristics, exposure to risks, and use of appropriate personal protective equipment and disinfectant in their occupation. A blood sample was collected from each participant. Sera were tested using an ELISA kit (Virion\\Serion) to detect specific IgG antibodies against Francisella tularensis. Of a total of 250 serum samples, 14.40% had anti-tularemia IgG antibodies. The highest seroprevalence was found in hunters (18%) and the lowest in health care workers (12%). Age had a significant positive association with tularemia seroprevalence (ptularemia in people exposed to foxes (hunting or eating the meat) (25%) was significantly higher than in others (8.65%) (p = 0.01). According to the findings of this study, it is highly recommended that physicians and health care workers are informed about bacteria circulating in this area. By sensitizing the health system, it is expected that some cases of the clinical disease will be reported in the near future. Similar studies in other parts of the country and on domestic and wild animals will clarify the epidemiology of tularemia in Iran. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  12. Radiographic findings of miliary tuberculosis: difference in patients with and those without associated acute respiratory failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Jin Seong; Ko, Yoon Seok; Lee, In Sun; Seo, Joon Beom; Song, Koun Sick; Lim, Tae Hwan

    2002-01-01

    To determine the differences in the radiography findings of miliary tuberculosis between patients with and without associated acute respiratory failure (ARF). We retrospectively 32 patients in whom miliary tuberculosis had been diagnosed, and assigned them to one of two groups: with ARF (n=10), and without ARF (n=22). Chest radiographic findings such as presence of miliary modules, consolidation, ground-glass opacity (GGO), pleural effusion, small calcified nodules and linear opacities were assessed, the size and profusion of nodules in each of four zones were analyzed and scored using the standard radiographs of the international labor organization, and the extent of consolidation and GGO were scored according to the percentage on involved lung. We compared the radiologic findings between the two groups. Ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and pleural effusion were seen more frequently in miliary tuberculosis patinets with ARF than in those without ARF. Although the size and profusion of nodules were similar in both groups (p>0.05), consolidation and ground-glass opacity in cases of miliary tuberculosis with ARF were significantly more extensive than in those without ARF (p<0.005). GGO and consolidation were more extensive in miliary tuberculosis patients with ARF. A finding of ground-glass opacity in miliary tuberculosis patients might be an early indication of developing ARF

  13. Finding "hard to find" literature on hard to find groups: A novel technique to search grey literature on refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Joanne; Buck, Kimberly; Shawyer, Frances

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of information on how to execute effective searches of the grey literature on refugee and asylum seeker groups for inclusion in systematic reviews. High-quality government reports and other grey literature relevant to refugees may not always be identified in conventional literature searches. During the process of conducting a recent systematic review, we developed a novel strategy for systematically searching international refugee and asylum seeker-related grey literature. The approach targets governmental health departments and statistical agencies, who have considerable access to refugee and asylum seeker populations for research purposes but typically do not publish findings in academic forums. Compared to a conventional grey literature search strategy, our novel technique yielded an eightfold increase in relevant high-quality grey sources that provided valuable content in informing our review. Incorporating a search of the grey literature into systematic reviews of refugee and asylum seeker research is essential to providing a more complete view of the evidence. Our novel strategy offers a practical and feasible method of conducting systematic grey literature searches that may be adaptable to a range of research questions, contexts, and resource constraints. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Facial anthropometric differences among gender, ethnicity, and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Landsittel, Douglas; Benson, Stacey; Roberge, Raymond; Shaffer, Ronald

    2010-06-01

    The impact of race/ethnicity upon facial anthropometric data in the US workforce, on the development of personal protective equipment, has not been investigated to any significant degree. The proliferation of minority populations in the US workforce has increased the need to investigate differences in facial dimensions among these workers. The objective of this study was to determine the face shape and size differences among race and age groups from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health survey of 3997 US civilian workers. Survey participants were divided into two gender groups, four racial/ethnic groups, and three age groups. Measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, and 18 facial dimensions were collected using traditional anthropometric techniques. A multivariate analysis of the data was performed using Principal Component Analysis. An exploratory analysis to determine the effect of different demographic factors had on anthropometric features was assessed via a linear model. The 21 anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and the first and second principal component scores were dependent variables, while gender, ethnicity, age, occupation, weight, and height served as independent variables. Gender significantly contributes to size for 19 of 24 dependent variables. African-Americans have statistically shorter, wider, and shallower noses than Caucasians. Hispanic workers have 14 facial features that are significantly larger than Caucasians, while their nose protrusion, height, and head length are significantly shorter. The other ethnic group was composed primarily of Asian subjects and has statistically different dimensions from Caucasians for 16 anthropometric values. Nineteen anthropometric values for subjects at least 45 years of age are statistically different from those measured for subjects between 18 and 29 years of age. Workers employed in manufacturing, fire fighting, healthcare, law enforcement, and other occupational

  15. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  16. Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Sayim

    Full Text Available Crowding is the impairment of peripheral target perception by nearby flankers. A number of recent studies have shown that crowding shares many features with grouping. Here, we investigate whether effects of crowding and grouping on target perception are related by asking whether they operate over the same spatial scale. A target letter T had two sets of flanking Ts of varying orientations. The first set was presented close to the target, yielding strong crowding. The second set was either close enough to cause crowding on their own or too far to cause crowding on their own. The Ts of the second set had the same orientation that either matched the target's orientation (Grouped condition or not (Ungrouped condition. In Experiment 1, the Grouped flankers reduced crowding independently of their distance from the target, suggesting that grouping operated over larger distances than crowding. In Experiments 2 and 3 we found that grouping did not affect sensitivity but produced a strong bias to report that the grouped orientation was present at the target location whether or not it was. Finally, we investigated whether this bias was a response or perceptual bias, rejecting the former in favor of a perceptual grouping explanation. We suggest that the effect of grouping is to assimilate the target to the identity of surrounding flankers when they are all the same, and that this shape assimilation effect differs in its spatial scale from the integration effect of crowding.

  17. The Effect of Drama on the Creative Imagination of Children in Different Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞAN, AYSUN; ARI, MEZİYET; GÖNEN, MÜBECCEL

    2013-01-01

    Imagination is necessary for creative ideas to emerge. The creative imagination can be developed by suitable education programs especially by drama programs with suitable activities. This article presents findings on whether the effect of drama on the creative imagination of children in different age groups differentiate or not. The experiment group of this research is comprised of 60 children (30 from the age group of 10, 30 from the age group of 13) from a regular primary school and the con...

  18. The Language of Cigar Use: Focus Group Findings on Cigar Product Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Denise M; Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Tworek, Cindy; Tessman, Greta K; Alexander, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of cigar products has increased since 2000. The multiple product types within this category, combined with the varied language with which consumers refer to them, present challenges for accurately assessing the prevalence of cigar product use. Surveillance is also complicated by the fact that these products can be used to smoke marijuana, as "blunts"-cigars in which the tobacco is removed and replaced with marijuana. Few studies exist regarding the language and terminology used to describe these products. Sixteen focus groups were conducted in five cities in the United States between March and May of 2014. Participants (N = 123) included adults who had used cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars in the past 30 days. A semi-structured moderator guide was used to gather data on the terms used to identify cigar product subtypes and the language used to describe the products and their use. Participants used a variety of terms for each product subtype. Brand names were often used, as well as slang terms, including terms describing cigars modified for marijuana use. Some subtypes were less likely than others to be considered "cigars." Participants had mixed opinions about whether users of cigar products are "smokers." Users of cigar products may classify or label products differently from researchers and policy makers, and many refer to their product by brand name or a slang term. These findings have implications for future research, instrument design, and public health messaging about cigar products. This study adds to the body of evidence highlighting the challenges for measurement and surveillance of non-cigarette tobacco products, including cigars. Findings illustrate the myriad terms used by consumers to describe their use of cigar product subtypes, as well as the complexity of distinguishing between use of cigar products as intended, versus as a vehicle for smoking marijuana. Future research aimed to enhance specificity of cigar use measures will

  19. Research collaboration in groups and networks: differences across academic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein; Reymert, Ingvild

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a macro-picture of collaboration in research groups and networks across all academic fields in Norwegian research universities, and to examine the relative importance of membership in groups and networks for individual publication output. To our knowledge, this is a new approach, which may provide valuable information on collaborative patterns in a particular national system, but of clear relevance to other national university systems. At the system level, conducting research in groups and networks are equally important, but there are large differences between academic fields. The research group is clearly most important in the field of medicine and health, while undertaking research in an international network is most important in the natural sciences. Membership in a research group and active participation in international networks are likely to enhance publication productivity and the quality of research.

  20. Renormalization Group in different fields of theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1992-02-01

    A very simple and general approach to the symmetry that is widely known as a Renormalization Group symmetry is presented. It essentially uses a functional formulation of group transformations that can be considered as a generalization of self-similarity transformations well known in mathematical physics since last century. This generalized Functional Self-Similarity symmetry and corresponding group transformations are discussed first for a number of simple physical problems taken from diverse fields of classical physics as well as for QED. Then we formulate the Renorm-Group Method as a regular procedure that essentially improves the approximate solutions near the singularity. After that we discuss relations between different formulations of Renormalization Group as they appear in various parts of a modern theoretical physics. Finally we present several topics of RGM application in modern QFT. (author)

  1. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  2. Chinese cultural dimensions of death, dying, and bereavement: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G; Gupta, Rashmi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to describe Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans' attitudes and practices about death, dying, and bereavement. To this end, three focus groups were conducted with social work graduate students, pastors and religious leaders, and service providers working in the Chinese American community in New York City. The United States is becoming increasingly multicultural, and Chinese Americans are the most rapidly growing Asian American group. Findings from this study revealed that many Chinese attitudes and practices about death and dying are rooted in Asian cultural values such as filial piety, centrality of the family, and emphasis of hierarchy. In addition, strains of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and local folklore are embedded in these death attitudes and practices. Based on themes extrapolated from the focus groups, recommendations are delineated for service providers in order to implement culturally-sensitive bereavement practices.

  3. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Binomial Test of Group Differences with Correlated Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous arguments for why educational researchers should not provide effect-size estimates in the face of statistically nonsignificant outcomes (Robinson & Levin, 1997), Onwuegbuzie and Levin (2005) proposed a 3-step statistical approach for assessing group differences when multiple outcome measures are individually analyzed…

  5. Cultural Differences in Alliance Formation during Group Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John W.; Pak, Jenny H.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    Study tested whether general differences between Asian and European-American cultures (interdependent vs. independent orientation, levels of self-disclosure and conflict in social relationships) would have an effect on the supervisory process of counseling trainees. On the context of weekly group supervision, first-year counseling trainees were…

  6. Meat Consumption Patterns among Different Income Groups in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined meat consumption patterns among different income groups in Imo State, Nigeria. A combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques was used to select the markets and 200 respondents. The result of cross price elasticity of meat and fish showed that they were substitute with cross ...

  7. Modelling the exposure of wildlife to radiation: key findings and activities of IAEA working groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, LM2E, Cadarache (France); Johansen, Mathew P. [ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Menai, NSW (Australia); Goulet, Richard [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Environmental Risk Assessment Division, 280 Slater, Ottawa, K1A0H3 (Canada); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins (United States); Stark, Karolina; Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Andersson, Pal [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16, Stockholm (Sweden); Copplestone, David [Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Yankovich, Tamara L.; Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    In total, participants from 14 countries, representing 19 organisations, actively participated in the model application/inter-comparison activities of the IAEA's EMRAS II programme Biota Modelling Group. A range of models/approaches were used by participants (e.g. the ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, the ICRP Framework). The agreed objectives of the group were: 'To improve Member State's capabilities for protection of the environment by comparing and validating models being used, or developed, for biota dose assessment (that may be used) as part of the regulatory process of licensing and compliance monitoring of authorised releases of radionuclides.' The activities of the group, the findings of which will be described, included: - An assessment of the predicted unweighted absorbed dose rates for 74 radionuclides estimated by 10 approaches for five of the ICRPs Reference Animal and Plant geometries assuming 1 Bq per unit organism or media. - Modelling the effect of heterogeneous distributions of radionuclides in sediment profiles on the estimated exposure of organisms. - Model prediction - field data comparisons for freshwater ecosystems in a uranium mining area and a number of wetland environments. - An evaluation of the application of available models to a scenario considering radioactive waste buried in shallow trenches. - Estimating the contribution of {sup 235}U to dose rates in freshwater environments. - Evaluation of the factors contributing to variation in modelling results. The work of the group continues within the framework of the IAEA's MODARIA programme, which was initiated in 2012. The work plan of the MODARIA working group has largely been defined by the findings of the previous EMRAS programme. On-going activities of the working group, which will be described, include the development of a database of dynamic parameters for wildlife dose assessment and exercises involving modelling the exposure of organisms in the marine coastal

  8. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  9. [Perception of sweet and salty flavors in different population groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carnero, J; de la Montaña Miguélez, J; Míguez Bernárdez, M

    2002-01-01

    The flavour perceived by humans when eating varies depending on age, gender, habits, emotional status, etc. The present study reflects the changes in the perception of sweet and salt flavours among different population groups depending on age, with an assessment, for each flavour, of the threshold concentration for the detection of these flavours. Triangular discrimination sensorial tests were performed in three groups, with thirty members in each, classified to represent young, adult and elderly age groups. With regard to sweet flavours, the groups of young people and adults distinguished the different sample at 0.1% of sugar for 95% and 99% significance levels, whereas the elderly required the concentration to reach 1% at both levels before they could distinguish the sugar solution from water. In the case of salt flavours, young people are able to detect the different sample at the lowest concentration level, for both levels of significance. Adults significantly distinguished the sample containing 0.05% of salt, at the 95% significance level, whereas the elderly needed a concentration of 0.1% for both levels of significance. Age-dependent variations in response were observed. As age increases, greater concentrations are required in order to distinguish the salt or sweet solutions from the samples containing only water.

  10. Specific emotions as mediators of the effect of intergroup contact on prejudice: findings across multiple participant and target groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Charles R; Banerji, Ishani; Park, Sang Hee; Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M

    2017-08-01

    Emotions are increasingly being recognised as important aspects of prejudice and intergroup behaviour. Specifically, emotional mediators play a key role in the process by which intergroup contact reduces prejudice towards outgroups. However, which particular emotions are most important for prejudice reduction, as well as the consistency and generality of emotion-prejudice relations across different in-group-out-group relations, remain uncertain. To address these issues, in Study 1 we examined six distinct positive and negative emotions as mediators of the contact-prejudice relations using representative samples of U.S. White, Black, and Asian American respondents (N = 639). Admiration and anger (but not other emotions) were significant mediators of the effects of previous contact on prejudice, consistently across different perceiver and target ethnic groups. Study 2 examined the same relations with student participants and gay men as the out-group. Admiration and disgust mediated the effect of past contact on attitude. The findings confirm that not only negative emotions (anger or disgust, based on the specific types of threat perceived to be posed by an out-group), but also positive, status- and esteem-related emotions (admiration) mediate effects of contact on prejudice, robustly across several different respondent and target groups.

  11. Different Erythromycin Resistance Mechanisms in Group C and Group G Streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Kataja, Janne; Seppälä, Helena; Skurnik, Mikael; Sarkkinen, Hannu; Huovinen, Pentti

    1998-01-01

    Different mechanisms of erythromycin resistance predominate in group C and G streptococcus (GCS and GGS, respectively) isolates collected from 1992 to 1995 in Finland. Of the 21 erythromycin-resistant GCS and 32 erythromycin-resistant GGS isolates, 95% had the mefA or mefE drug efflux gene and 94% had the ermTR methylase gene, respectively.

  12. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of a Group of Iranian Patients with Oral Lichen Planus

    OpenAIRE

    Darvishpoor Kakhki H.; Rad M.; Zarei MR.; Chamani G.

    2012-01-01

    atement of Problem: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic disease that affects skin and mucous membranes. Lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP) can persist for a long time. Varying prevalence rates of oral lichen planus have been reported in different parts of the world, while information regarding the epidemiology of this disease in Iran is incomplete.Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the characteristics of oral lichen planus in a group of Iranian patients and compare the results with sim...

  13. Active case finding and treatment adherence in risk groups in the tuberculosis pre-elimination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Lipman, M; Story, A; Hayward, A; de Vries, G; van Hest, R; Erkens, C; Rangaka, M X; Abubakar, I

    2018-05-01

    Vulnerable populations, including homeless persons, high-risk drug and alcohol users, prison inmates and other marginalised populations, contribute a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence settings. Drivers of this disease burden include an increased risk of both TB transmission in congregate settings, and progression from infection to active disease. Late diagnosis and poor treatment completion further propagate the epidemic and fuel the acquisition of drug resistance. These groups are therefore a major priority for TB control programmes in low-incidence settings. Targeted strategies include active case finding (ACF) initiatives and interventions to improve treatment completion, both of which should be tailored to local populations. ACF usually deploys mobile X-ray unit screening, which allows sensitive, high-throughput screening with immediate availability of results. Such initiatives have been found to be effective and cost-effective, and associated with reductions in proxy measures of transmission in hard-to-reach groups. The addition of point-of-care molecular diagnostics and automated X-ray readers may further streamline the screening pathway. There is little evidence to support interventions to improve adherence among these risk groups. Such approaches include enhanced case management and directly observed treatment, while video-observed therapy (currently under evaluation) appears to be a promising tool for the future. Integrating outreach services to include both case detection and case-management interventions that share a resource infrastructure may allow cost-effectiveness to be maximised. Integrating screening and treatment for other diseases that are prevalent among targeted risk groups into TB outreach interventions may further improve cost-effectiveness. This article reviews the existing literature, and highlights priorities for further research.

  14. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  15. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes.Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method.The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001.The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  16. Vitamin D Levels in Different Severity Groups of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlade, Kehinde Sola; Olaniyan, Oyejide Afolabi; Lasebikan, Victor Olufolahan; Rahamon, Sheu Kadiri

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) continues to be associated with schizophrenia, but there is the dearth of information on the relationship between the severity of schizophrenia and plasma levels of vitamin D. This study, therefore, determined the plasma levels of vitamin D in different severity groups of schizophrenia. Plasma level of vitamin D was determined in 60 patients with schizophrenia and 30 apparently healthy individuals who served as controls. Patients with schizophrenia were classified into mildly ill, moderately ill, markedly ill, and severely ill groups using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The mean level of vitamin D was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia compared with the controls. Similarly, there was a significant association between VDD and schizophrenia. The mean plasma levels of vitamin D were not significantly different when the mildly, moderately, markedly, and severely ill groups were compared with one another and there was no significant correlation between vitamin D level and PANSS scores. Furthermore, patients on atypical antipsychotics had an insignificantly lower level of vitamin D compared with the patients on typical antipsychotics. It could be concluded from this study that patients with schizophrenia have low plasma vitamin D level which does not appear to be associated with the severity of schizophrenia and type of antipsychotics. Therefore, regular screening for vitamin D status of patients with schizophrenia is suggested in order to allow for the institution of appropriate clinical intervention when necessary.

  17. Vitamin D Levels in Different Severity Groups of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Sola Akinlade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVitamin D deficiency (VDD continues to be associated with schizophrenia, but there is the dearth of information on the relationship between the severity of schizophrenia and plasma levels of vitamin D. This study, therefore, determined the plasma levels of vitamin D in different severity groups of schizophrenia.Materials and methodsPlasma level of vitamin D was determined in 60 patients with schizophrenia and 30 apparently healthy individuals who served as controls. Patients with schizophrenia were classified into mildly ill, moderately ill, markedly ill, and severely ill groups using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS.ResultsThe mean level of vitamin D was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia compared with the controls. Similarly, there was a significant association between VDD and schizophrenia. The mean plasma levels of vitamin D were not significantly different when the mildly, moderately, markedly, and severely ill groups were compared with one another and there was no significant correlation between vitamin D level and PANSS scores. Furthermore, patients on atypical antipsychotics had an insignificantly lower level of vitamin D compared with the patients on typical antipsychotics.ConclusionIt could be concluded from this study that patients with schizophrenia have low plasma vitamin D level which does not appear to be associated with the severity of schizophrenia and type of antipsychotics. Therefore, regular screening for vitamin D status of patients with schizophrenia is suggested in order to allow for the institution of appropriate clinical intervention when necessary.

  18. Small Groups, Big Change: Preliminary Findings from the Sparks for Change Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, R.; Batchelor, R. L.; Habtes, S. Y.; King, B.; Crockett, J.

    2017-12-01

    best practices, build a community of "change agents", and develop department-specific action plans for their own institution. In this talk we will discuss our findings from the institute and highlight some of the action plans the small groups developed for changing their department.

  19. Walking, sustainability and health: findings from a study of a Walking for Health group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon; Machaczek, Kasia; Pollard, Nick; Allmark, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Not only is it tacitly understood that walking is good for health and well-being but there is also now robust evidence to support this link. There is also growing evidence that regular short walks can be a protective factor for a range of long-term health conditions. Walking in the countryside can bring additional benefits, but access to the countryside brings complexities, especially for people with poorer material resources and from different ethnic communities. Reasons for people taking up walking as a physical activity are reasonably well understood, but factors linked to sustained walking, and therefore sustained benefit, are not. Based on an ethnographic study of a Walking for Health group in Lincolnshire, UK, this paper considers the motivations and rewards of group walks for older people. Nineteen members of the walking group, almost all with long-term conditions, took part in tape-recorded interviews about the personal benefits of walking. The paper provides insights into the links between walking as a sustainable activity and health, and why a combination of personal adaptive capacities, design elements of the walks and relational achievements of the walking group are important to this understanding. The paper concludes with some observations about the need to reframe conventional thinking about adherence to physical activity programmes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Group Supervision in Psychotherapy. Main Findings from a Swedish Research Project on Psychotherapy Supervision in a Group Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marie-Louise; Sundin, Eva C.

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to…

  1. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-05-01

    Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton's ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton's study. After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton's analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton's means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85.

  2. Australians' views on personal genomic testing: focus group findings from the Genioz study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Hickerton, Chriselle; Savard, Jacqueline; Terrill, Bronwyn; Turbitt, Erin; Gaff, Clara; Gray, Kathleen; Middleton, Anna; Wilson, Brenda; Newson, Ainsley J

    2018-04-30

    Personal genomic testing provides healthy individuals with access to information about their genetic makeup for purposes including ancestry, paternity, sporting ability and health. Such tests are available commercially and globally, with accessibility expected to continue to grow, including in Australia; yet little is known of the views/expectations of Australians. Focus groups were conducted within a multi-stage, cross-disciplinary project (Genioz) to explore this. In mid-2015, 56 members of the public participated in seven focus groups, allocated into three age groups: 18-24, 25-49, and ≥50 years. Three researchers coded transcripts independently and generated themes. Awareness of personal genomic testing was low, but most could deduce what "personal genomics" might entail. Very few had heard of the term "direct-to-consumer" testing, which has implications for organisations developing information to support individuals in their decision-making. Participants' understanding of genetics was varied and drawn from several sources. There were diverse perceptions of the relative influence of genetics and environment on health, mental health, behavior, talent, or personality. Views about having a personal genomic test were mixed, with greater interest in health-related tests if they believed there was a reason for doing so. However, many expressed scepticisms about the types of tests available, and how the information might be used; concerns were also raised about privacy and the potential for discrimination. These exploratory findings inform subsequent stages of the Genioz study, thereby contributing to strategies of supporting Australians to understand and make meaningful and well-considered decisions about the benefits, harms, and implications of personal genomic tests.

  3. GROUP FINDING IN THE STELLAR HALO USING PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS: CURRENT SENSITIVITY AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Majewski, Steven R.; Bullock, James; Munoz, Ricardo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provided the first deep and global photometric catalogs of stars in our halo and not only clearly mapped its structure but also demonstrated the ubiquity of substructure within it. Future surveys promise to push such catalogs to ever increasing depths and larger numbers of stars. This paper examines what can be learned from current and future photometric databases using group-finding techniques. We compare groups recovered from a sample of M-giants from 2MASS with those found in synthetic surveys of simulated ΛCDM stellar halos that were built entirely from satellite accretion events and demonstrate broad consistency between the properties of the two sets. We also find that these recovered groups are likely to represent the majority of high-luminosity (L > 5 x 10 6 L sun ) satellites accreted within the last 10 Gyr and on orbits with apocenters within 100 kpc. However, the sensitivity of the M-giant survey to accretion events that were either ancient from low-luminosity objects or those on radial orbits is limited because of the low number of stars, bias toward high-metallicity stars, and the shallow depth (distance explored only out to 100 kpc from the Sun). We examine the extent to which these limitations are addressed by current and future surveys, in particular catalogs of main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars from SDSS and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and of RR Lyrae stars from LSST or PanSTARRS. The MSTO and RR Lyrae surveys are more sensitive to low-luminosity events (L ∼ 10 5 L sun or less) than the 2MASS M-giant sample. Additionally, RR Lyrae surveys, with superior depth, are also good at detecting events on highly eccentric orbits whose debris tends to lie beyond 100 kpc. When combined we expect these photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive picture of the last 10 Gyr of Galactic accretion. Events older than this are too phase mixed to be discovered. Pushing

  4. Comparison of energy balance between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying the energy balance is essential for testing socio-ecological models. To reveal costs and benefits of group living in Japanese macaques from the perspective of feeding competition, Kurihara and Hanya (Am J Primatol 77:986-1000, 2015) previously compared feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of macaques (larger group 30-35 individuals; smaller group 13-15 individuals) in the coastal forest of Yakushima, Japan. The results suggested that the larger group exhibited greater feeding effort because of intragroup scramble competition and that the smaller group suffered from higher travel costs, possibly owing to intergroup contest competition. However, it remained unclear whether the behavioral differences affected their energy budgets. The present study examined energetic consequences of the different feeding behaviors in the two groups. Using behavioral data from 10 to 13 adult females and nutritional composition of food items, we compared ingestion rates, energetic/nutritional content of diet, and energy budgets between the two groups. Ingestion rates and energetic/nutritional content of diet did not differ between the two groups. Despite the higher feeding effort of the larger group, energy intake did not differ between the two groups. Energy expenditure did not differ between the two groups because higher travel costs were negated by lower feeding effort in the smaller group. Consequently, the energy balance did not differ between the two groups. We demonstrated that the behavioral measures of feeding competition were not translated into their energetic condition; moreover, our findings re-emphasize the importance of quantifying behavioral and fitness measures for interpreting variation in feeding behavior properly.

  5. Prevalence of vaginitis in different age groups among females in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula

    2017-08-01

    Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic

  6. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences in personality: findings from the BBC Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Analyzing a large international data set generated by a BBC Internet survey, I examined sex differences and sexual orientation differences in six personality traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, disagreeable assertiveness, masculine versus feminine occupational preferences (MF-Occ), and self-ascribed masculinity-femininity (Self-MF). Consistent with previous research, sex differences and sexual orientation differences were largest for MF-Occ and for Self-MF. In general, heterosexual-homosexual differences mirrored sex differences in personality, with gay men shifted in female-typical and lesbians in male-typical directions. Bisexual men scored intermediate between heterosexual and gay men on MF-Occ; however, they were slightly more feminine than gay men on Self-MF. Bisexual women scored intermediate between heterosexual women and lesbians on both MF-Occ and Self-MF. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences in MF-Occ, Self-MF, and other personality traits were consistent across five nations/world regions (the UK, USA, Canada, Australia/New Zealand, and Western Europe), thereby suggesting a biological component to these differences.

  8. The multidimensional nature of ageism: construct validity and group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Deborah E; Vodanovich, Stephen J; Credé, Marcus

    2005-06-01

    The authors investigated the factor structure and construct validity of the Fraboni Scale of Ageism and the age and gender differences in ageism scores. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the multidimensional nature of FSA scores and generally corroborated the initial factor structure reported by M. Fraboni, with some notable exceptions. Essentially, the present findings were aligned with theoretical models of ageism that emphasize both cognitive facets and affective facets. That is, on the basis of their factor analytic findings, the authors redefined Fraboni's original factors of Antilocution, Avoidance, and Discrimination as Stereotypes, Separation, and Affective Attitudes, respectively, because of the clustering of items within factors. The revised 3-factor structure accounted for 36.4% of the variance in FSA scores. FSA factor scores significantly related to other scores from other measures of age-related attitudes, with higher correlations among factors that were similar in terms of their cognitive nature versus their affective nature. Finally, younger individuals and men had significantly higher ageism scores on the FSA than older individuals and women. The authors discussed the importance of adequately assessing ageism, with particular emphasis devoted to the understanding of age bias.

  9. The usefulness of carotid sinus massage in different patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narasimhan Pradeep; Thomas, Alan; Mudd, Paul; Morris, Robert O; Masud, Tahir

    2003-11-01

    to determine the positive yield of carotid sinus massage in different patient groups: unexplained syncope, falls, dizziness and controls. observational study. teaching hospital. we studied consecutive patients over the age of 60 years referred to the 'falls clinic' with a history of unexplained syncope, unexplained falls and unexplained dizziness. We also studied asymptomatic control subjects recruited from a general practice register aged 60 years and over. All patients and control subjects underwent a full clinical assessment (comprehensive history and detailed clinical examination including supine and erect blood pressure measurements) and 12-lead electrocardiography. We performed carotid sinus massage in the supine position for 5 seconds separately on both sides followed by repeating the procedure in the upright positions using a motorised tilt table. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded using a cardiac monitor and digital plethysmography respectively. The test was considered positive if carotid sinus massage produced asystole with more than a 3 second pause (cardioinhibitory type of carotid sinus syndrome), or a fall in systolic blood pressure of more than 50 mmHg in the absence of significant cardioinhibition (vasodepressor type of carotid sinus syndrome) or where there was evidence of both vasodepressor and cardio-inhibition as above (mixed type). we studied 44 asymptomatic control subjects and 221 symptomatic patients (130 with unexplained syncope, 41 with unexplained falls and 50 with unexplained dizziness). In the overall symptomatic patient group, the positive yield (any type of carotid sinus syndrome) was 17.6% (95% CI = 12.7-22.5). The positive yield in men (26.3% (95% CI = 16.4-36.2)) was twice that in women (13.1% (95% CI = 7.6-18.6)) (P = 0.014). Overall any type of carotid sinus syndrome was present in 22.3% (n = 29) of the syncope group, 17.1% (n = 7) in the unexplained fallers group and 6% (n = 3) in the dizziness group. We also found that

  10. 8 Different approaches needed to manage ED demand among different age-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Melanie; Ablard, Suzanne; O'Keeffe, Colin; Mason, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    A variety of interventions have been proposed to manage rising demand for Emergency and Urgent Care, described by an NHS England review as unsustainable in the long term. However it is unlikely that any suggested approach will be equally suitable for the diverse population of ED users.We aimed to understand the patterns of demand amongst different types of patients attending ED. We also sought to understand the intended and unintended effects of demand management initiatives. Our study combined insights from routine data, a survey of ED patients, and qualitative interviews with ED staff. This paper describes the results of our analysis of the interviews. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 ED and Urgent Care Centre staff across 7 hospital sites in Yorkshire and Humber between 25 April and 11 July 2016. The interview topic guide asked about 4 broad areas; job role, description of patients and their impact on demand, description of inappropriate attendance, and current/future initiatives to deal with rising demand. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. We analysed the results to identify groups of patients with different patterns of use of ED services. We also explored ED staff experiences of demand management initiatives, and their suggestions for future initiatives. Although we did not ask specifically about patients' age, our analysis revealed that ED staff categorised attenders as children and young people, working age people, and older people. These groups had different reasons for attendance, different routes to the ED, different rate of non-urgent attendance, and different issues driving demand. Staff also described variation in the time taken to treat patients of different ages, with the oldest and youngest patients described as requiring the most time.There was no consensus amongst staff about the effectiveness of initiatives for managing demand. A strikingly wide variety of initiatives were mentioned

  11. The Influence of Climatic Seasonality on the Diversity of Different Tropical Pollinator Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Kluge, Jürgen; Gareca, Yuvinka; Reichle, Steffen; Kessler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tropical South America is rich in different groups of pollinators, but the biotic and abiotic factors determining the geographical distribution of their species richness are poorly understood. We analyzed the species richness of three groups of pollinators (bees and wasps, butterflies, hummingbirds) in six tropical forests in the Bolivian lowlands along a gradient of climatic seasonality and precipitation ranging from 410 mm to 6250 mm. At each site, we sampled the three pollinator groups and their food plants twice for 16 days in both the dry and rainy seasons. The richness of the pollinator groups was related to climatic factors by linear regressions. Differences in species numbers between pollinator groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon tests for matched pairs and the proportion in species numbers between pollinator groups by correlation analyses. Species richness of hummingbirds was most closely correlated to the continuous availability of food, that of bees and wasps to the number of food plant species and flowers, and that of butterflies to air temperature. Only the species number of butterflies differed significantly between seasons. We were not able to find shifts in the proportion of species numbers of the different groups of pollinators along the study gradient. Thus, we conclude that the diversity of pollinator guilds is determined by group-specific factors and that the constant proportions in species numbers of the different pollinator groups constitute a general pattern. PMID:22073268

  12. Group differences in the legitimization of inequality: Questioning the role of social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Samuel; Carvacho, Héctor; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time. The SDO mediation hypothesis is supported in the case of hostile sexism. However, it is unsupported in the case of benevolent sexism and LMs relating to ethnic hierarchy, where there was no cross-lagged effect of SDO. Moreover, being in the dominant ethnic group is associated with more legitimization of ethnic hierarchy but less legitimization of gender hierarchy, which is inconsistent with the notion of a general orientation underpinning group differences in legitimation. There was mixed evidence for a reverse path whereby specific LMs mediate group differences in SDO across time. We argue for the need to find alternative ways to theorize ideological consensus and difference between groups. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. The influence of climatic seasonality on the diversity of different tropical pollinator groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Abrahamczyk

    Full Text Available Tropical South America is rich in different groups of pollinators, but the biotic and abiotic factors determining the geographical distribution of their species richness are poorly understood. We analyzed the species richness of three groups of pollinators (bees and wasps, butterflies, hummingbirds in six tropical forests in the Bolivian lowlands along a gradient of climatic seasonality and precipitation ranging from 410 mm to 6250 mm. At each site, we sampled the three pollinator groups and their food plants twice for 16 days in both the dry and rainy seasons. The richness of the pollinator groups was related to climatic factors by linear regressions. Differences in species numbers between pollinator groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon tests for matched pairs and the proportion in species numbers between pollinator groups by correlation analyses. Species richness of hummingbirds was most closely correlated to the continuous availability of food, that of bees and wasps to the number of food plant species and flowers, and that of butterflies to air temperature. Only the species number of butterflies differed significantly between seasons. We were not able to find shifts in the proportion of species numbers of the different groups of pollinators along the study gradient. Thus, we conclude that the diversity of pollinator guilds is determined by group-specific factors and that the constant proportions in species numbers of the different pollinator groups constitute a general pattern.

  14. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among students – representatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masculinity / femininity "Processing and statistical data. Results: based on the testing method established S. Bam percentage masculine, androgynous and feminine personalities among athletes and athletes in various sports classification groups depending on their athletic skills. Conclusions: among sportsmen and women in a variety of classification groups of sports is not revealed feminine personalities; masculine identity, among both men and women predominate in sports; androgyny attitude towards men and women are different.

  15. Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and coral reef resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-27

    Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on coral reefs. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific coral reef ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that reef-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. coral disease) on coral reef systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among students – representatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masc...

  17. Expert and Advocacy Group Consensus Findings on the Horizon of Public Health Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Modell

    2016-01-01

    buy-in of Tier 1 programs. Groups differed on funding strategies, with alternative options such as large-scale federal funding and smaller scale, incremental funding solutions proposed. Piggybacking on existing federal breast and colorectal cancer control programs was suggested. Public health departments need to assess what information is now being collected by their state cancer registries. The groups advised that information on cascade screening of relatives be included in toolkits for use by states. Participants stressed incorporation of family history into health department breast cancer screening programs, and clinical HBOC data into state surveillance systems. The carrying out of universal LS screening of tumors in those with colorectal cancer was reviewed. Expansion of universal screening to include endometrial tumors was discussed, as was the application of guidelines recommending cholesterol screening of children 9–11 years old. States more advanced in terms of Tier 1 testing could serve as models and partners with other states launching screening and surveillance programs. A multidisciplinary team of screening program champions was suggested as a means of raising awareness among the consumer and health care communities. Participants offered multiple recommendations regarding use of electronic health records, including flagging of at-risk family members and utilization of state-level health information exchanges. The paper contains an update of policy developments and happenings for all three Tier 1 conditions, as well as identified gaps. Conclusions: Implementation of cascade screening of family members for HBOC and FH, and universal screening for LS in CRC tumors has reached a point of readiness within the U.S., with creative solutions at hand. Facilitating factors such as screening coverage through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and state health information exchanges can be tapped. Collaboration is needed between public health

  18. On the influence of Vatin and Verbicioara cultures in the finds of the Gamzigrad cultural group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Timočka Krajina region has not been sufficiently investigated archaeologically, which coupled with the fact that a very small number of metal finds and remains have been discovered, makes the reconstruction of the start and end of the Bronze Age that much more difficult. Identification work in the area around Romuliana on two occasions in 2001 and 2008 led to the discovery of another 10 predominantly multi-layered sites dating back to the Bronze Age, of which 7 are highland settlements while 3 are lowland settlements located in the immediate vicinity of the Timok river or its tributaries. The discovered sites 1. Varsari, 2. Đokin Vis, 3. Kravarnik, 4. Mustafa, 5. Nikolov Savat, 6. Njiva Zore Brzanović, 7. Petronj, 8. Potes-Petronj, 9. Strenjak and 10. Zvezdan; bare the characteristics of the material culture of the »Gamzigrad group« of the Middle Iron Age. Besides known ceramic forms and characteristic ornamentation of this culture, there is a visibly strong influence of the Vatin (Crvenka-Cornesþi and Verbicioara elements to a greater extent, and Paraćin cultural elements to a lesser extent. Given that this material was collected during identification work, we are now aware of the stratigraphic relations between these elements, and have devoted more attention to common characteristics and interconnections from which certain conclusions can be drawn. Based on the finds from archaeological sites that have been excavated it can be concluded that the distribution of sites with Gamzigrad cultural characteristics is limited to a very small area, i.e. only to the vicinity of the Crni Timok river. Nearly at all sites, both highland and lowland, Vatin and Verbicioara elements are strongly visible on the ceramic materials. The geographic position of the Crni Timok, which is located in the area where the Paraćin, Vatin and Verbichoar cultures connected and overlapped, could contribute to shedding light on the origin and characteristics of this

  19. Variability and Intelligibility of Clarified Speech to Different Listener Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Ronnie F.

    Two studies examined the modifications that adult speakers make in speech to disadvantaged listeners. Previous research that has focused on speech to the deaf individuals and to young children has shown that adults clarify speech when addressing these two populations. Acoustic measurements suggest that the signal undergoes similar changes for both populations. Perceptual tests corroborate these results for the deaf population, but are nonsystematic in developmental studies. The differences in the findings for these populations and the nonsystematic results in the developmental literature may be due to methodological factors. The present experiments addressed these methodological questions. Studies of speech to hearing impaired listeners have used read, nonsense, sentences, for which speakers received explicit clarification instructions and feedback, while in the child literature, excerpts of real-time conversations were used. Therefore, linguistic samples were not precisely matched. In this study, experiments used various linguistic materials. Experiment 1 used a children's story; experiment 2, nonsense sentences. Four mothers read both types of material in four ways: (1) in "normal" adult speech, (2) in "babytalk," (3) under the clarification instructions used in the "hearing impaired studies" (instructed clear speech) and (4) in (spontaneous) clear speech without instruction. No extra practice or feedback was given. Sentences were presented to 40 normal hearing college students with and without simultaneous masking noise. Results were separately tabulated for content and function words, and analyzed using standard statistical tests. The major finding in the study was individual variation in speaker intelligibility. "Real world" speakers vary in their baseline intelligibility. The four speakers also showed unique patterns of intelligibility as a function of each independent variable. Results were as follows. Nonsense sentences were less intelligible than story

  20. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  1. Case Studies on the Symbolism of Difference-Finding Problems in First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a class on subtraction or difference-finding, problems such as "There are eight white flowers and five red flowers, how many more white flowers are there than red flowers?" used in the teaching of Japanese first grade children. Describes three instances of introductory teaching of "difference-finding" problems in the…

  2. CT findings of swyer-james-macleod syndrome in adults: are there any different findings with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Joung Sook; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Bae, Sang Jin; Woo, Jeong Joo

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate whether there is any different finding on CT with aging for the patients suffering with adult Swyer-James-MacLeod Syndrome (SJMS). We included 11 patients (7 males and 4 females) who underwent chest CT scan among 18 patients who were suspected of suffering with SJMS on chest radiographs. The range of age was from 28 to 85 years (mean: 58.5). We evaluated the diameter of both the main pulmonary artery (MPA) with its ratio, and the diameter of the pulmonary trunk (PT) to evaluate the possibility of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the presence or absence of bronchiectasis. We also evaluated the relationships between these findings and aging. SJMS affected the left lung in 10 of 11 patients. The mean diameter of the main pulmonary artery of the normal lung was 2.5 cm and it was 1.6 cm in the involved site. The mean ratio of the normal MPA diameter to the involved one was 1.6 and this did not correlate with age (ρ > 0.1). The mean diameter of the pulmonary trunk was 2.8 cm and this increased with age (ρ 0.5). SJMS absolutely affected the left lung much more than right lung. All the patients demonstrated about 1.6 times the compensatory hypertrophy of MPA of the normal lung compared with that of the affected lung on chest CT, which was irrespective of age. The presence or absence of bronchiectasis has no correlation with age

  3. Tomography high Resolution CT findings of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: Comparison between the first treatment and the re treatment group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Soon Hyuk; Cho, Bum Sang; Jeon, Min Hee; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Ki Man [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To analyze and compare the thin section CT findings of first and re treatment nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. Between January 2005 and April 2010, 121 patients with positive sputum culture for NTM were recruited. We included only 32 patients underwent high resolution chest CT and were confirmed by American Thoracic Society criteria NTM pulmonary infection (first treatment 15, re treatment 17 patients). CT images of 32 patients were reviewed retrospectively. We evaluated the frequency and laterality of the followings; nodule, increased density, bronchial change, parenchymal change. The significantly frequent CT findings of the re treatment NTM group were well defined nodules (retreatment 82.4%, first treatment 33.3%, p = 0.00), consolidations (retreatment 88.2%, first treatment 53.3%, p = 0.03), bronchial changes (bronchiectasis; retreatment 100%, first treatment 66.6%, p = 0.01, bronchial narrowing; retreatment 23.5%, first treatment 0%, p = 0.04 and mucoid impaction; retreatment-58.8%, first treatment-20.0%, p = 0.03) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis (retreatment-88.2%, first treatment 26.7%, p = 0.00). However, most of the evaluated thin section CT findings, such as centrilobular and ill defined nodules, lobular, segmental and subpleural consolidations, ground glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening, cavities, pleural lesions, fibrotic band, emphysema and laterality of lesions, have not shown significant differences between first treatment and the re treatment group. Thin section CT findings of well defined nodules, consolidations, bronchial changes (bronchiectasis, bronchial narrowing and mucoid impaction) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis are highly suggestive of re treatment NTM pulmonary disease.

  4. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  5. Finding the key to successful L2 learning in groups and individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Lowie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on a limited number of learner characteristics and have argued for the relative importance of some of these factors. Clearly, some learners are more successful than others, and it is tempting to try to find the factor or combination of factors that can crack the code to success. However, isolating one or several global individual characteristics can only give a partial explanation of success in second language learning. The limitation of this approach is that it only reflects on rather general personality characteristics of learners at one point in time, while both language development and the factors affecting it are instances of complex dynamic processes that develop over time. Factors that have been labelled as “individual differences” as well as the development of proficiency are characterized by nonlinear relationships in the time domain, due to which the rate of success cannot be simply deduced from a combination of factors. Moreover, in complex dynamic systems theory (CDST literature it has been argued that a generalization about the interaction of variables across individuals is not warranted when we acknowledge that language development is essentially an individual process (Molenaar, 2015. In this paper, the viability of these generalizations is investigated by exploring the L2 development over time for two identical twins in Taiwan who can be expected to be highly similar in all respects, from their environment to their level of English proficiency, to their exposure to English, and to their individual differences. In spite of the striking similarities between these learners, the development of their L2 English over time was very different

  6. The North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative. Initial Findings. Final Report. Working Group 1 - Grid Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    This report focuses on the tasks and results from Working Group 1 (WG1), grid configuration and integration, chaired jointly by representatives from Denmark and the Netherlands. The methodology, assumptions concerning generation portfolio, load situation, available technology and results are presented. This report presents the WG1 Offshore Grid Study that supports the North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative (NSCOGI) final report. The information contained in this report aims to evaluate the long-term development of an offshore grid structure in the North Seas by providing a view on how such a grid may possibly develop in the future, based on the assumptions made for this study. The report aims to compare and evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of the long term development of an optimised, integrated (or meshed) offshore grid in the North Seas by providing a view of how that possible grid might develop in the future against changes to the electricity energy requirements. To evaluate basic variants, different transmission design topologies (radial and meshed) were compared and analysed with respect to various aspects, such as cost/benefits, import and export levels and the systems' CO2 emissions.

  7. [Variation of CAG repeats in coding region of ATXN2 gene in different ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Chen; Sun, Hao; Mi, Dong-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Lin, Ke-Qin; Yi, Wen; Yu, Liang; Shi, Lei; Shi, Li; Yang, Zhao-Qing; Chu, Jia-You

    2011-04-01

    Toinvestigate CAG repeats variation of ATXN2 gene coding region in six ethnic groups that live in comparatively different environments, to evaluate whether these variations are under positive selection, and to find factors driving selection effects, 291 unrelated healthy individuals were collected from six ethnic groups and their STR geneotyping was performed. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes were counted and thereby Slatkin's linearized Fst values were calculated. The UPGMA tree against this gene was constructed. The MDS analysis among these groups was carried out as well. The results from the linearized Fst values indicated that there were significant evolutionary differences of the STR in ATXN2 gene between Hui and Yi groups, but not among the other 4 groups. Further analysis was performed by combining our data with published data obtained from other groups. These results indicated that there were significant differences between Japanese and other groups including Hui, Hani, Yunnan Mongolian, and Inner Mongolian. Both Hui and Mongolian from Inner Mongolia were significantly different from Han. In conclusion, the six ethnic groups had their own distribution characterizations of allelic frequencies of ATXN2 STR, and the potential cause of frequency changes in rare alleles could be the consequence of positive selection.

  8. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  9. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  10. A radiographic study of the mandibular third molar root development in different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liversidge, H M; Peariasamy, K; Folayan, M O; Adeniyi, A O; Ngom, P I; Mikami, Y; Shimada, Y; Kuroe, K; Tvete, I F; Kvaal, S I

    2017-12-01

    The nature of differences in the timing of tooth formation between ethnic groups is important when estimating age. To calculate age of transition of the mandibular third (M3) molar tooth stages from archived dental radiographs from sub-Saharan Africa, Malaysia, Japan and two groups from London UK (Whites and Bangladeshi). The number of radiographs was 4555 (2028 males, 2527 females) with an age range 10-25 years. The left M3 was staged into Moorrees stages. A probit model was fitted to calculate mean ages for transitions between stages for males and females and each ethnic group separately. The estimated age distributions given each M3 stage was calculated. To assess differences in timing of M3 between ethnic groups, three models were proposed: a separate model for each ethnic group, a joint model and a third model combining some aspects across groups. The best model fit was tested using Bayesian and Akaikes information criteria (BIC and AIC) and log likelihood ratio test. Differences in mean ages of M3 root stages were found between ethnic groups, however all groups showed large standard deviation values. The AIC and log likelihood ratio test indicated that a separate model for each ethnic group was best. Small differences were also noted between timing of M3 between males and females, with the exception of the Malaysian group. These findings suggests that features of a reference data set (wide age range and uniform age distribution) and a Bayesian statistical approach are more important than population specific convenience samples to estimate age of an individual using M3. Some group differences were evident in M3 timing, however, this has some impact on the confidence interval of estimated age in females and little impact in males because of the large variation in age.

  11. CT findings of swyer-james-macleod syndrome in adults: are there any different findings with aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mi Jin; Kim, Joung Sook; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soung Hee; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jae Hyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jeong Joo [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We wanted to evaluate whether there is any different finding on CT with aging for the patients suffering with adult Swyer-James-MacLeod Syndrome (SJMS). We included 11 patients (7 males and 4 females) who underwent chest CT scan among 18 patients who were suspected of suffering with SJMS on chest radiographs. The range of age was from 28 to 85 years (mean: 58.5). We evaluated the diameter of both the main pulmonary artery (MPA) with its ratio, and the diameter of the pulmonary trunk (PT) to evaluate the possibility of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the presence or absence of bronchiectasis. We also evaluated the relationships between these findings and aging. SJMS affected the left lung in 10 of 11 patients. The mean diameter of the main pulmonary artery of the normal lung was 2.5 cm and it was 1.6 cm in the involved site. The mean ratio of the normal MPA diameter to the involved one was 1.6 and this did not correlate with age ({rho} > 0.1). The mean diameter of the pulmonary trunk was 2.8 cm and this increased with age ({rho} < 0.05). There was bronchiectasis in 6 of 11 patients, and the ratio of bronchiectasis did not correlate with age ({rho} > 0.5). SJMS absolutely affected the left lung much more than right lung. All the patients demonstrated about 1.6 times the compensatory hypertrophy of MPA of the normal lung compared with that of the affected lung on chest CT, which was irrespective of age. The presence or absence of bronchiectasis has no correlation with age.

  12. Answering the Call: How Group Mentoring Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altus, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring programs answer the call for social justice for many students who are in success-inhibiting environments. This study employed a case study design to investigate the perceived benefits from a group mentoring program. Data was collected from pre- and post-assessments focus groups, and artifacts. Four participant benefits were revealed:…

  13. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender…

  14. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  15. Child mental health differences amongst ethnic groups in Britain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon David A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.

  16. Improving recruitment to pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use: findings from a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John

    2018-06-01

    To explore potential study participants' views on willingness to join clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use to inform and improve future recruitment strategies. Qualitative focus group study [six groups: oral methadone (two groups); buprenorphine tablets (two groups); injectable opioid agonist treatment (one group); and former opioid agonist treatment (one group)]. Drug and alcohol services and a peer support recovery service (London, UK). Forty people with experience of opioid agonist treatment for heroin dependence (26 males, 14 females; aged 33-66 years). Data collection was facilitated by a topic guide that explored willingness to enrol in clinical pharmacological trials. Groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcribed data were analysed inductively via Iterative Categorization. Participants' willingness to join pharmacological trials of medications for opioid dependence was affected by factors relating to study burden, study drug, study design, study population and study relationships. Participants worried that the trial drug might be worse than, or interfere with, their current treatment. They also misunderstood aspects of trial design despite the researchers' explanations. Recruitment of participants for clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use could be improved if researchers became better at explaining clinical trials to potential participants, dispelling misconceptions about trials and increasing trust in the research process and research establishment. A checklist of issues to consider when designing pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use is proposed. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Gender difference and effect of pharmacotherapy: findings from a smoking cessation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, N J; van Woerden, H C; Kiparoglou, V; Yang, Y; Robinson, H; Croghan, E

    2016-10-03

    Smoking cessation services are available in England to provide assistance to those wishing to quit smoking. Data from one such service were analysed in order to investigate differences in quit rate between males and females prescribed with different treatments. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data using the binary response of self-reported quit (failed attempt = 0, successful attempt = 1), validated by Carbon Monoxide (CO) monitoring, 4 weeks after commencing programme. Main effects fitted were: client gender; age; region; the type of advisory sessions; and pharmacotherapy, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) or Varenicline. A second model was fitted including all main effects plus two-way interactions except region. These models were repeated using 12-week self-reported quit as the outcome. At 4 weeks, all main effects were statistically significant, with males more likely (odds ratio and 95 % CI, females v males = 0.88 [0.79-0.97]), older smokers more likely (adjusted odds ratios [OR] and 95 % confidence interval [CI] respectively for groups 20-29, 30-49, 50-69 and 70+ vs 12-19 age group: 1.79 [1.39-2.31], 2.12 [1.68-2.68], 2.30 [1.80-2.92] and 2.47 [1.81-3.37] and for overall difference between groups, χ 2 (4) = 53.5, p gender and type of counselling, and (ii) age and type of counselling. Similar results were seen in relation to main effects at 12 weeks except that type of counselling was non-significant. The only significant interaction at this stage was between gender and pharmacotherapy (adjusted OR and 95 % CI for females using Varenicline versus all other groups = 1.43 [1.06-1.94]). Gender and treatment options were identified as predictors of abstinence at both 4 and 12 weeks after quitting smoking. Furthermore, interactions were observed between gender and (i) type of counselling received (ii) pharmacotherapy. In particular, the quit rate in women at 12 weeks was significantly improved in conjunction with

  18. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  19. Cameroon: UN group finds detention of gay men a violation of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana

    2006-12-01

    In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex.

  20. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G H; Ditiu, L; Migliori, G B

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  1. Vibrotactile sense in patients with different upper limb disorders compared with a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    diagnostic tools to reveal underlying mechanisms for specific diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible differences in vibration perception threshold (VPT) and tolerance to suprathreshold stimulation (STS) between controls and specific diagnostic ULD patient groups with uni- and bilateral neuropathy...... patients in all diagnostic groups had significantly higher VPT (Pgroups defined with neuropathy demonstrated significantly higher VPT in the limb with diagnoses compared with the contralateral limb without...... diagnoses. The highest VPTs were found in the patient group with unilateral neuropathy and MCD, and for the radial nerve, VPT was significantly higher than that for patients with unilateral MCD alone. These findings were confirmed by almost similar findings in STS responses. CONCLUSIONS: The ULD patients...

  2. Differences in Some Kinematic Parameters between Two Qualitatively Different Groups of Pole Vaulters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudelj, Ines; Babić, Vesna; Milat, Sanja; Čavala, Marijana; Zagorac, Siniša; Katić, Ratko

    2015-07-01

    The basic aim of this research was to determine the differences of kinematic parameters in two qualitatively different groups of young pole vaulters. With this purpose, a research was conducted in which the video records from a competition were acquired. The sample of entities (N = 71) consisted of successful vaults of 30 pole vaulters, whose attempts were recorded at the European Junior Championship in Novi Sad, held on 23-26th July 2009. The examinees performed the vaults as a part of the elimination competition for the finals, and during the final part of the competition. The age of examinees was from 17 to 19 years, and the span of their best results was from 4.70 to 5.30 meters. The kinematic analysis was conducted according to the standards of APAS procedure (Ariel Performance Analysis System, USA), determining 25 kinematic variables necessary for further analysis. The entities (vaults) were divided into two categories (qualitative classes) based on the expert knowledge. Group 1 consisted of successful vaults up to 4.90 m (N = 46), while group 2 consisted of successful vaults whose height was more than 4.90 m (N = 25). The discrimination analysis determined the parameters differentiating the vaults of different quantitative classes. Also, it was confirmed that the result efficiency in pole vault was primarily determined by the variables defined by motor abilities, as well as the indicators determining the vault performance technique.

  3. Differences in MRI findings between subgroups of recent-onset childhood arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkhus, Eva; Flatoe, Berit; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Riise, Oeystein; Reiseter, Tor

    2011-01-01

    MRI is sensitive for joint inflammation, but its ability to separate subgroups of arthritis in children has been questioned. Infectious arthritis (IA), postinfectious arthritis (PA), transient arthritis (TA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are subgroups that may need early, different treatment. To determine whether MRI findings differ in IA, PA/TA and JIA in recent-onset childhood arthritis. Fifty-nine children from a prospective study of incidence of arthritis (n = 216) were, based on clinical and biochemical criteria, examined by MRI. Joint fluid, synovium, bone marrow, soft tissue and cartilage were scored retrospectively and analysed by Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Fifty-nine children had MRI of one station. IA was suggested by bone marrow oedema (OR 7.46, P = 0.011) and absence of T1-weighted and T2-weighted low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 0.06, P = 0.015). Furthermore, soft-tissue oedema and reduced contrast enhancement in the epiphyses were more frequent in children with IA. JIA correlated positively with low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 13.30, P < 0.001) and negatively with soft-tissue oedema (OR 0.20, P = 0.018). No significant positive determinants were found for PA/TA, but bone marrow oedema, soft-tissue oedema, irregular thickened synovium and low signal intensity synovial tissue was less frequent than in IA/JIA. In children with high clinical suspicion of recent onset arthritis, there was a significant difference in the distribution of specific MRI features among the diagnostic groups. (orig.)

  4. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  5. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Finding "safe" campuses: predicting the presence of LGBT student groups at North Carolina colleges and universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Melinda D

    2013-01-01

    A key indicator of a supportive campus climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) college students is the existence of an LGBT student organization. This article integrates the research on high school LGBT policies and programs with social movement studies of campus activism to examine the characteristics associated with the existence of university-approved LGBT groups on North Carolina campuses. Drawing on data from the National Center for Education Statistics, campus Web sites, and other sources, logistic regression is used to examine the importance of public opinion, campus and community resources, and the institutional context in predicting the location of these student groups.

  7. Aorto-iliac occlusive disease in the different population groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. It has previously been accepted that atherosclerotic disease is uncommon among blacks worldv.ride; however, recent studies have increasingly reported atherosclerotic disease in this group. Study design. Prospective study of hospital patients with aorta-iliac occlusive disease presenting to the vascUlar ...

  8. Deriving Oral Assessment Scales across Different Tests and Rater Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive the criteria/dimensions underlying learners' second-language oral ability scores across three tests: an oral interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. A stimulus tape of 18 speech samples was presented to 3 native speaker rater groups for evaluation. Results indicate that researchers might need to reconsider…

  9. The contamination of the different groups of animals. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, D.V.; Galkovskaya, G.A.; Khmeleva, N.N.; Golubev, A.P.; Plenin, A.E.; Moroz, M.D.; Shevtsova, T.M.; Voronovich, A.I.; Matveenko, A.A.; Maksimova, S.L.; Blinov, V.V.; Litvinova, A.N.; Belyavskaya, V.I.; Maksimenkov, M.V.; Pikulik, M.M.; Drobenkov, S.M.; Vyazovich, Yu.A.; Gutkovskaya, G.F.; Parejko, O.A.; Tarletskaya, R.Yu.; Kozulin, A.V.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.S.; Sidorovich, V.E.; Kozlo, P.G.; Kuchmel', S.V.; Dunin, V.F.; Emel'yanova, L.G.; Deryabina, T.G.; Fomenkov, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    By means of radiometric monitoring of fauna it was detected territorial and chronological features of radioactive contamination of various animal groups of water and terrestrial ecosystems such as seston, plankton, benthos, fishes, soil invertebrates, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. 12 tabs., 13 figs

  10. Does gender discrimination impact regular mammography screening? Findings from the race differences in screening mammography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Amy B; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A

    2008-03-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine if gender discrimination, conceptualized as a negative life stressor, is a deterrent to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. African American and white women (1451) aged 40-79 years who obtained an index screening mammogram at one of five urban hospitals in Connecticut between October 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled in this study. This logistic regression analysis includes the 1229 women who completed telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up (average 29.4 months later) and for whom the study outcome, nonadherence to age-specific mammography screening guidelines, was determined. Gender discrimination was measured as lifetime experience in seven possible situations. Gender discrimination, reported by nearly 38% of the study population, was significantly associated with nonadherence to mammography guidelines in women with annual family incomes of > or =$50,000 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.33, 2.98) and did not differ across racial/ethnic group. Our findings suggest that gender discrimination can adversely influence regular mammography screening in some women. With nearly half of women nonadherent to screening mammography guidelines in this study and with decreasing mammography rates nationwide, it is important to address the complexity of nonadherence across subgroups of women. Life stressors, such as experiences of gender discrimination, may have considerable consequences, potentially influencing health prevention prioritization in women.

  11. A comparative study of cerebral atrophy in various alcoholic groups, based on CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tomoyuki

    1983-01-01

    The alcoholics were diagnosed and classified based on the criteria, offered at the Alcoholism Diagnostic Conference (1977) which was held under the auspices of the Ministry of Welfare, Japan. Grade of cerebral atrophy was estimated. Measurement items on the Computed Tomography (CT Scan) which contributed to discrimination among these groups were investigated simultaneously. The study consisted of seventy-five alcoholic patients and control group of ninety-four who were devoid of any evidence for alcoholism. Influential factors which were involved in cerebral atrophy of the alcoholic groups were investigated and factorial analysis was completed. There was a definite increase in cerebral atrophy during the aging process in patients with long term durations of drinking alcohol. There was a close correlation between age and duration of drinking alcohol. After the results of canonical discriminant analysis against 9 CT items, the Ventricle index definitely contributed both in the discrimination between the alcoholics and the controls and in the discrimination between alcoholic dementia and other alcoholic psychoses. Furthermore, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle contributed to the latter discrimination, while the Evans' index contributed to the former discrimination. Therefore, the Ventricle index and the Evans' index turn out as the most valuable diagnostic criteria, as well as the CT index against cerebral atrophy in the alcoholics; however, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle is useful in comparing among alcoholic psychoses. (J.P.N.)

  12. Comparative study of cerebral atrophy in various alcoholic groups, based on CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Tomoyuki (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

    1983-02-01

    The alcoholics were diagnosed and classified based on the criteria, offered at the Alcoholism Diagnostic Conference (1977) which was held under the auspices of the Ministry of Welfare, Japan. Grade of cerebral atrophy was estimated. Measurement items on the Computed Tomography (CT Scan) which contributed to discrimination among these groups were investigated simultaneously. The study consisted of seventy-five alcoholic patients and control group of ninety-four who were devoid of any evidence for alcoholism. Influential factors which were involved in cerebral atrophy of the alcoholic groups were investigated and factorial analysis was completed. There was a definite increase in cerebral atrophy during the aging process in patients with long term durations of drinking alcohol. There was a close correlation between age and duration of drinking alcohol. After the results of canonical discriminant analysis against 9 CT items, the Ventricle index definitely contributed both in the discrimination between the alcoholics and the controls and in the discrimination between alcoholic dementia and other alcoholic psychoses. Furthermore, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle contributed to the latter discrimination, while the Evans' index contributed to the former discrimination. Therefore, the Ventricle index and the Evans' index turn out as the most valuable diagnostic criteria, as well as the CT index against cerebral atrophy in the alcoholics; however, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle is useful in comparing among alcoholic psychoses.

  13. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  14. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  15. [New findings on the geographic distribution of the verrucarum group (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Sierra, Diana; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2003-09-01

    The incrimination of sand flies belonging to verrucarum species group in the leishmaniasis transmission underscores the need for a detailed information on the geographical distribution of these species. The current listing adds 34 new records that extend significantly the knowledge of the geographical distribution of the verrucarum group in Colombia. The most important new records pertain to Lutzomyia spinicrassa in the tropical dry forest of the Atlantic coast, Lutzomyia ovallesi in the Orinoco and Amazon River watersheds regions of Colombia, and the sympatric occurrence of Lutzomyia spinicrassa and Lutzomyia quasitownsendi in the eastern chain of the Andes mountains. Additionally, the municipal and altitudinal distributions are compiled for 19 new species recorded for Colombia. The series townsendi of the verrucarum group generally restricted to premontane and lower montane zones based on distribution data on Lutzomyia longiflocosa, L. quasitownsendi, Lutzomyia sauroida, L. spinicrassa, Lutzomyia torvida, Lutzomyia townsendi and Lutzomyia youngi. The series verrucarum is distributed from the tropical lowland to the montane zones, and includes species with wide geographical range (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana, L. ovallesi, Lutzomyia nuneztovari, Lutzomyia nevesi), and species of highly endemic distribution (Lutzomyia andina, Lutzomyia disiuncta, Lutzomyia moralesi, Lutzomyia antioquiensis). Members of the series pia (Lutzomyia pia, Lutzomyia limafalcaoae) and the series serrana (Lutzomyia serrana) occur from the tropical lowlands to the lower montane zones. The altitudinal divergences may be intrinsically tied to speciation process, especially as it relates to the climatic and geologic events that have affected the flora and fauna of the Andean region.

  16. Physical, chemical and sensorial parameters for lambs of different groups, slaughtered at different weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Aline Vieira; Castanheira, Marlos; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Pacheco, Aline; Cardoso, Maximiliano Tadeu Memória; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2011-08-01

    The object of this experiment was to study physicochemical and sensorial traits in the 11th and 13th ribs of 24 Santa Ines (SI), 24 1/2 Ile de France × 1/2 Santa Inês (ILE × SI) and 8 1/2 Texel × 1/2 Santa Inês (TE × SI), slaughtered at different weights (30, 35, 40 and 45 kg, respectively). Subjective measurements (marbling, colour and texture) were carried out on the Longissimus dorsi, as well as initial pH (0 h) and final pH (24 h) after slaughter. The experiment was in a 3 × 4 factorial design and analysed using general linear model and correlation procedures in SAS®. Breed group did not influence colour (3.32), shear force (3.57 kg-force (kgf)) or loss in cooking (24.05%) of the L. dorsi, but slaughter weight affected these, with stronger colour, tougher meat and greater loss in cooking as slaughter weight increased. For sensorial analysis, the L. dorsi were cut, identified and evaluated by 30 untrained judges using a linear scale. Significant differences were detected in preference (6.61 points), tenderness (6.32 points), succulence (6.33 points) and flavour (7.08 points) of the meat from different breed groups and slaughter weights. For preference, all meats were well accepted although the crossbred animals slaughtered at 45 kg were less acceptable.

  17. Patient aggression towards different professional groups of healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kowalczuk

    2017-03-01

    Nurses are most exposed to different forms of patient aggression, with verbal attacks being most prevalent. Nurses employed at inpatient healthcare units experienced aggression more frequently than those working in outpatient healthcare units.

  18. Differences in morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age groups and performance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Štefanovský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have pointed out the influence of morphological parameters on judo performance, however the relationship between morphological variables and performance status have not yet been confirmed. In addition, there is a lack of studies focused on morphological comparison of different age categories. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess differences in the morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age and performance level. Methods: The research sample was composed of 47 male judokas (age 19.15 ± 2.93 years; body weight 77.16 ± 11.39 kg; height 178.91 ± 6.39 cm; sport age 11.47 ± 2.74 years. It was divided by: (1 age, into cadets (15-17 years, n = 19, juniors (18-20 years, n = 15, and seniors (21+ years, n = 13 category and (2 performance status (elite, n = 10; non-elite, n = 37. In all participants, body fat, and the circumference measurement of wrist, forearm, flexed arm, and calf were observed. A personal interview was used to gain information about the athlete's performance status. Results: We found out that there are significant differences in arm circumference between cadets and seniors, cadets and juniors, juniors and seniors; and in the circumference of forearm between cadets and seniors; cadets and juniors, as well. According to the performance status, we have discovered significantly higher circumference of forearm and wrist in the elite group compared to the non-elite group. Conclusion: Forearm and wrist circumference is a reliable discriminative factor and should be taken into consideration, especially when selecting judo athletes into elite teams. However, we did not confirm that subcutaneous fat is a parameter able to distinguish between judo athletes of different performance status across various age categories.

  19. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Differences in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings between elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Kazuo; Miyata, Yoko; Okasaki, Momoko; Morooka, Miyako; Takahashi, Yuko; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kano, Toshikazu; Mimori, Akio

    2015-07-01

    To compare the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) findings in patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) with those in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), two conditions with similar clinical presentations. We retrospectively analyzed the FDG-PET/CT findings in 10 patients with EORA and 27 patients with PMR admitted to our department between 2006 and 2012. No significant difference was observed in the median patient ages at the time of FDG-PET/CT scans in the EORA and PMR groups (73.5 vs. 78.0 years, respectively). Significant differences in both FDG uptake scores and standardized uptake values were observed between the two groups in the ischial tuberosities, spinous processes, and wrists. No significant differences were detected in the shoulders and hips. However, specific uptake patterns were observed in each group: circular and linear uptake patterns were observed around the humeral head in the EORA group, whereas focal and non-linear uptake patterns were observed in the PMR group. Moreover, focal uptake in front of the hip joint, indicating iliopectineal bursitis, tended to be limited to the PMR group. High sensitivity (92.6%) and specificity (90%) were observed for PMR diagnoses when at least three of the following five items were satisfied: characteristic findings of shoulder and iliopectineal bursitis, FDG uptake in ischial tuberosities and spinal spinous processes, and lack of FDG uptake in the wrists. The differences in the degree of uptake at each lesion and in uptake patterns at the shoulders and hips are potentially useful for obtaining a definitive diagnosis.

  1. Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level

    OpenAIRE

    Vazha M. Devishvili; Marina O. Mdivani; Daria S. Elgina

    2017-01-01

    Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The pape...

  2. Towards a cultural adaptation of family psychoeducation: findings from three latino focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackethal, Veronica; Spiegel, Scott; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Kealey, Edith; Salerno, Anthony; Finnerty, Molly

    2013-10-01

    This study was undertaken among Latinos receiving treatment from a community mental health center in New York City. The primary mental health concern was schizophrenia. We conducted three focus groups and present the viewpoints of consumers, family members, and providers. Using qualitative content analysis we identified four predominant categories: (1) the importance of family ties; (2) stigma about mental illness; (3) respect and trust in interpersonal relationships; and (4) facilitators and barriers to implementing Family Psychoeducation. Analysis of transcripts revealed specific subthemes for each category. Implications for imparting culturally sensitive material into mental health services for Latinos are discussed.

  3. Intermittent exotropia surgery: results in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaho, Dayane Cristine; Wang, Serena Xiaohong; Weakley, David Robert

    2017-01-01

    To report the outcomes in patients undergoing surgical correction of intermittent exotropia and to compare the age at surgery to motor and sensory success. This was a retrospective cohort study. The results of patients with intermittent exotropia treated with surgery over a 4-year period were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on age at first surgery (groups. One hundred thirty-six patients were evaluated, with 67 and 51 patients undergoing surgery before and after the age of 4 years, respectively. The mean age at surgery was 6.8 ± 2.6 years. The reoperation rate for the patients who underwent surgery before 4 years of age was 48% versus 42% for the ones who underwent surgery after this age (p=0.93). Postoperative stereopsis showed an inverse linear association with age at surgery (page, and may even present better motor results than older patients. Postoperative stereoacuity in younger children revealed to be worse than in older children; however, this result is unlikely to be due to inadequate age for surgery, but rather, immaturity for performing the stereopsis test.

  4. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  5. Qualitative findings from focus group discussions on hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-10-01

    It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: findings in the pediatric age group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzberg, R.W.; Tallents, R.H.; Hayakawa, K.; Miller, T.L.; Goske, M.J.; Wood, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Findings in 31 pediatric patients with pain and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are reported. The average age was 14 years and the average duration of symptoms was 21.4 months. Internal derangements were found in 29 patients (94%) and degenerative arthritis in 13 (42%). In 12 patients (39%), the problem could be traced to an injury to the jaw. Secondary condylar hypoplasia was associated with the meniscal abnormality in 3 patients (10%). Further awareness of internal derangements of the TMJ in the pediatric population should permit greater recognition of their etiology. It is important that threatment be initiated as soon as possible, not only to minimize the development of osseous disease in young adults but also to prevent facial growth deformities

  7. Interpretation of electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and biochemical findings during different stages of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ural K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that cardiac alterations participate within different stages of CVL. Materials and methods. Twenty-eight dogs were diagnosed with CVL, were classified [based on clinical signs, rapid ELISA/IFAT, hematological and serum biochemical tests, urinary protein/creatinine ratio, ECG and ECHO]. as follows; group I (mild disease, group II (moderate disease, group III (severe disease, group IV (very severe disease and group V included healthy controls. Results. Ig G antibodies against leishmaniasis as tested by IFAT, were deemed 1/64 to 1/16000 among infected groups. There were statistical significance regarding mean values for WBC [among healthy control group (V. and other groups (p=0.049], RBC [among stage III-stage IV and other groups (p=0.001], Hb [between stage I and stage III-stage IV (p=0.008, HCT [between stage I and other groups (p = 0.001] MCHC [between stage I and stage II- stage IV (p=0.046], serum creatinine [(p=0.008 stage IV and stage I-II within group V], serum protein [(p=0.002 among stage IV and stage I-III- healthy control groups] and serum albumine [(p=0.004 among stage IV and stage I-II]. There was no alteration in CTnI concentrations,among groups. UPC analysis revealed statistical difference among control group and stage II to IV dogs (p=0.000. Moderate or severe ECG abnormalities were detected in 6/28 of diseased dogs. Regarding ECHO examination LA/ Ao value presented significant difference (p=0.003 among stage IV and other groups. Conclusions. It may be suggested that establishing Leishvet Working Group to those of dogs classified into stage I to IV, ECG [left atrial/ventricular enlargement, myocardial hypoxia] and ECHO [left atrial dilation, decrased/increased LVIDs, decrased/increased LVIDd, shortened FS and EF (systolic dysfunction] alterations must be taken into account along with hematological and serum biochemical analysis.

  8. Playing time between senior rugby players of different ethnic groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the formation of a single body to govern rugby in South. Africa in 1992, the ... Players from across the country were identified and invited to various ... different levels of rugby cannot be evaluated because the players representing ..... programmes for youth and young adults is the disparity in body size and fitness of ...

  9. Job Attitudes among Different Occupational Status Groups. An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha; Sadan, Simcha

    1984-01-01

    An economic model is applied to employee attitudinal variables to compare the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to job satisfaction for skilled workers and managers in an electronics manufacturing organization. Intrinsic rewards are found to increase in importance as employment level increases, suggesting different frames of…

  10. Generational Differences among a Small Group of Hmong Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Pa Der

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the differences in culture, language, and educational attainments among generations of Hmong in the United States since the beginning of their immigration to the United States. This study of 195 Hmong participants examines the effects of generational status on Hmong immigrants across several factors including marriage…

  11. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    greater radiosensitivity. Other studies provided further mechanistic insight into the observed age effect of radiation responses. For example ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. October 2017 HDTRA1-14-0003; 0005 Prepared by: Applied ... Research Associates, Inc. 801 N. Quincy Street Suite 700 Arlington, VA 22203 Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age

  12. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second

  13. Psychological Features of Foreign Language Acquisition in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Kudinova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of age factor on the foreign language learning is examined in the article from the practical point of view. The specific age features and their influence on the foreign language acquisition at different stages of age are highlighted and analyzed on the basis of psychological research.

  14. Finding the Key to Successful L2 Learning in Groups and Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowie, Wander; van Dijk, Marijn; Chan, Huiping; Verspoor, Marjolijn

    2017-01-01

    A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on a limited number of learner characteristics and…

  15. Finding the key to successful L2 learning in groups and individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowie, Wander; van Dijk, Marijn; Chan, HuiPing; Verspoor, Marjolijn

    A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on

  16. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    or potential behavioural change in terms of healthier eating, discussing pre-selected healthy and unhealthy food categories. The revised Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical framework. Results: The study suggests that the main obstacles to change can be grouped into motivational and implementation......), "liking" remains the main food choice criterion, including the healthy foods. Conclusion: The study presented a number of barriers to healthy eating identified by older people and children/adolescents. Based on the results of the study, further investigations should be undertaken in this area...... barriers. The motivational barriers are unwillingness to change eating habits, satisfaction with current diets and misconception about their healthiness; relatively low health consciousness and unwillingness to become excessively health-oriented. Implementation barriers include remembering the change...

  17. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  18. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-01-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  19. Latex allergy: new insights to explain different sensitization profiles in different risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, C; Tavares-Ratado, P; Tomás, M R; Taborda-Barata, L; Tomaz, C T

    2008-07-01

    Differences in latex allergen sensitization profiles have been described between children subjected to repetitive surgical interventions and health care workers (HCW). 'Major' allergens for patients with spina bifida are Hev b 1, 3 and 7, while for HCW, 'major' allergens are Hev b 2, 5, 6.01 and 13. The reason for these differential sensitization profiles is currently unknown. To investigate latex allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. Eighty-two samples of commonly used surgical gloves (41 glove brands) were used for analysis. Specific allergen levels of Hev b 1, 3, 5 and 6.02 on both surfaces of the gloves were quantified using an enzyme immunometric assay, a FITkit (FIT Biotech, Tampere, Finland). Differences in allergen levels were observed between internal and external surfaces of all glove types. Concentrations of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 were significantly higher on external surfaces, while internal surfaces had higher allergen levels of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02. Analysis of surgical and examination gloves, powdered and nonpowdered gloves also showed that the content of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 was significantly higher on internal surfaces while that of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 was higher on external surfaces. Our study showed different allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. These results may suggest a relationship between latex allergen localization and sensitization routes in different risk groups.

  20. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R.; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M.; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S.; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Ja...

  1. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton’s ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in a...

  2. GIS-BASED ROUTE FINDING USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND URBAN TRAFFIC DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davoodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR, Floating Car Data (FCD, VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  3. Gis-Based Route Finding Using ANT Colony Optimization and Urban Traffic Data from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M.; Mesgari, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD), Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR), Floating Car Data (FCD), VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network) is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  4. Gender difference and effect of pharmacotherapy: findings from a smoking cessation service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Walker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation services are available in England to provide assistance to those wishing to quit smoking. Data from one such service were analysed in order to investigate differences in quit rate between males and females prescribed with different treatments. Methods A logistic regression model was fitted to the data using the binary response of self-reported quit (failed attempt = 0, successful attempt = 1, validated by Carbon Monoxide (CO monitoring, 4 weeks after commencing programme. Main effects fitted were: client gender; age; region; the type of advisory sessions; and pharmacotherapy, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT or Varenicline. A second model was fitted including all main effects plus two-way interactions except region. These models were repeated using 12-week self-reported quit as the outcome. Results At 4 weeks, all main effects were statistically significant, with males more likely (odds ratio and 95 % CI, females v males = 0.88 [0.79–0.97], older smokers more likely (adjusted odds ratios [OR] and 95 % confidence interval [CI] respectively for groups 20–29, 30–49, 50–69 and 70+ vs 12–19 age group: 1.79 [1.39–2.31], 2.12 [1.68–2.68], 2.30 [1.80–2.92] and 2.47 [1.81–3.37] and for overall difference between groups, χ2(4 = 53.5, p < 0.001 and clients being treated with Varenicline more likely to have successfully quit than those on NRT (adjusted OR and 95 % CI for Varenicline vs NRT = 1.41 [1.21–1.64]. Statistically significant interactions were observed between (i gender and type of counselling, and (ii age and type of counselling. Similar results were seen in relation to main effects at 12 weeks except that type of counselling was non-significant. The only significant interaction at this stage was between gender and pharmacotherapy (adjusted OR and 95 % CI for females using Varenicline versus all other groups = 1.43 [1.06–1.94]. Conclusion Gender and

  5. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  6. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  7. EFNEP graduates' perspectives on social media to supplement nutrition education: focus group findings from active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal ventriloquism along the path of apparent motion: speed perception under different spatial grouping principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulmus, Cansu; Karacaoglu, Merve; Kafaligonul, Hulusi

    2018-03-01

    The coordination of intramodal perceptual grouping and crossmodal interactions plays a critical role in constructing coherent multisensory percepts. However, the basic principles underlying such coordinating mechanisms still remain unclear. By taking advantage of an illusion called temporal ventriloquism and its influences on perceived speed, we investigated how audiovisual interactions in time are modulated by the spatial grouping principles of vision. In our experiments, we manipulated the spatial grouping principles of proximity, uniform connectedness, and similarity/common fate in apparent motion displays. Observers compared the speed of apparent motions across different sound timing conditions. Our results revealed that the effects of sound timing (i.e., temporal ventriloquism effects) on perceived speed also existed in visual displays containing more than one object and were modulated by different spatial grouping principles. In particular, uniform connectedness was found to modulate these audiovisual interactions in time. The effect of sound timing on perceived speed was smaller when horizontal connecting bars were introduced along the path of apparent motion. When the objects in each apparent motion frame were not connected or connected with vertical bars, the sound timing was more influential compared to the horizontal bar conditions. Overall, our findings here suggest that the effects of sound timing on perceived speed exist in different spatial configurations and can be modulated by certain intramodal spatial grouping principles such as uniform connectedness.

  9. Physical-psychiatric comorbidity: patterns and explanations for ethnic group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erving, Christy L

    2018-08-01

    This paper examines ethnic differences in the co-occurrence of physical and psychiatric health problems (physical-psychiatric comorbidity) for women and men. The following ethnic groups are included: Non-Latino Whites, African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, Spanish Caribbean Blacks, Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Other Latinos, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, and Other Asian Americans. In addition, the study assesses the extent to which social factors (socioeconomic status, stress exposure, social support) account for ethnic differences in physical-psychiatric comorbidity (PPC). This study uses data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) (N = 12,787). Weighted prevalence rates of physical-psychiatric comorbidity (PPC) - the co-occurrence of physical and psychiatric health problems - are included to examine ethnic group differences among women and men. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine group differences in PPC before and after adjusting for social factors. Puerto Rican men have significantly higher risk of PPC in comparison to Non-Latino White men. Among women, Blacks and Cubans were more likely than Non-Latino Whites to experience PPC as opposed to 'Psychiatric Only' health problems. Social factors account for the Puerto Rican/Non-Latino White difference in comorbid health among men, but have little explanatory power for understanding ethnic differences in comorbidity among women. These findings have implications for medical care and can guide intervention programs in targeting a specific constellation of co-occurring physical and psychiatric health problems for diverse ethnic groups in the United States. As comorbidity rates increase, it is crucial to identify the myriad factors that give rise to ethnic group differences therein.

  10. Characteristics of personal health information management groups: findings from an online survey using Amazon's mTurk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Huber, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    The study characterized three groups with different levels of familiarity with personal health information management (PHIM) in terms of their demographics, health knowledge, technological competency, and information sources and barriers. In addition, the authors examined differences among PHIM groups in subjective self-ratings and objective test scores for health literacy. A total of 202 survey participants were recruited using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (mTurk) service, a crowdsourcing Internet service. Using K-means clustering, three groups with differing levels of familiarity with PHIM were formed: Advanced, Intermediate, and Basic. The Advanced group was the youngest, and the Basic group contained the highest proportion of males, whereas the Intermediate group was the oldest and contained the fewest males. The Advanced group was significantly more likely to engage in provider- or hospital-initiated PHIM activities such as emailing with providers, viewing test results online, and receiving summaries of hospital visits via email or websites than the other groups. The Basic group had significantly lower information management skills and Internet use than the other groups. Advanced and Basic groups reported significant differences in several information barriers. While the Advanced group self-reported the highest general literacy, they scored lowest on an objective health literacy test. For effective personal health records management, it is critical to understand individual differences in PHIM using a comprehensive measure designed to assess personal health records-specific activities. Because they are trained to perform an array of information management activities, medical librarians or patient educators are well positioned to promote the effective use of personal health records by health consumers.

  11. Why Student Loans Are Different: Findings from Six Focus Groups of Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Holt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For all the attention student loans have received in the media and from policymakers in recent years, there is still remarkably little information on why and how borrowers struggle to repay them. Rising college prices and debt levels explain some of the troubles borrowers have with their loans, as does a slow economic recovery that has caused…

  12. Self-Regulation across Different Contexts: Findings in Young Albanian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Uka, Fitim; Larsen, Ross A. A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The importance of self-regulation for children's successful academic performance has led to greatly increased interest in this topic in recent years. However, less is known about the interrelations among self-regulatory processes across different contexts. The present study investigated the structure of self-regulation in young…

  13. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Distinguishing Family from Friends : Implicit Cognitive Differences Regarding General Dispositions, Attitude Similarity, and Group Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Rick; Roberts, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin.

  15. Comparison of E-Book Acquisitions Strategies Across Disciplines Finds Differences in Cost and Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrico, S.B., Cataldo, T.T., Botero, C., & Shelton, T. Objective – To compare e-book cost-usage data across different acquisitions styles and disciplines. Design – Case study. Setting – A public research university serving an annual enrollment of over 49,000 students and employing more than 3,000 faculty members in the Southern United States. Subjects – Cost and usage data from 15,006 e-books acquired by the Library through packages, firm orders, and demand-driven acquisitions. Methods – Data was collected from publishers and vendors across the three acquisitions strategies. Usage, cost, and call number information was collected for the materials purchased via firm order or demand driven acquisitions and these were sorted into disciplines based on the call number assigned. Discipline, cost, and use were determined for each package collection as a whole because information on individual titles was not provided by the publishers. The authors then compared usage and cost across disciplines and acquisitions strategies. Main Results – Overall, e-books purchased in packages had a 50% use rate and an average cost per use of $3.39, e-books purchased through firm orders had a 52% use rate and an average cost per use of $22.21, and e-books purchased through demand driven acquisitions had an average cost per use of $8.88 and 13.9 average uses per title. Package purchasing was cost effective for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM materials and medicine (MED materials. Demand driven acquisition was a particularly good strategy for humanities and social sciences (HSS titles. Conclusion – There are differences between the acquisitions strategies and disciplines in cost and use. Firm orders had a higher cost per use than the other acquisitions strategies. Commentary This study examined cost per use across three acquisitions styles and three disciplinary groups. The results agree with studies from other institutions that have

  16. Web 2.0 usage among New Zealand learners: Findings on gender difference

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    Ning Wei

    Full Text Available In this paper, gender differences in Web 2.0 usage by postgraduate students in New Zealand are presented. 84 postgraduate students drawn from two different convenience samples were surveyed to discover the extent to which they used and were familiar with Web 2.0 applications. According to Cuadrado-García, Ruiz-Molina and Montoro-Pons (2010, p. 367, \\"men and women differ in their interaction with technology\\". In this study, gender differences in the use of different Web 2.0 applications and technologies have been considered. Whilst findings from this study are limited by the way in which the populations were sampled, the sample size and having a majority of international students with English as a second language, it is interesting to note that there were only minor differences between the ways in which male and female postgraduate students use Web 2.0 applications.

  17. Isolation, Identification, Prevalence, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria From Different Foodstuffs in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdoura-Ben Amor, Maroua; Siala, Mariam; Zayani, Mariem; Grosset, Noël; Smaoui, Salma; Messadi-Akrout, Feriele; Baron, Florence; Jan, Sophie; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2018-01-01

    typing methods. PFGE and ERIC-PCR patterns analysis allowed discriminating 143 and 99 different profiles, respectivey. These findings, associated to a relatively higher prevalence of B. cereus group in different foods, could be a significant etiological agent of food in Tunisia.

  18. Isolation, Identification, Prevalence, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria From Different Foodstuffs in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Gdoura-Ben Amor

    2018-03-01

    typing methods. PFGE and ERIC-PCR patterns analysis allowed discriminating 143 and 99 different profiles, respectivey. These findings, associated to a relatively higher prevalence of B. cereus group in different foods, could be a significant etiological agent of food in Tunisia.

  19. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF HOUSING DELIVERY IN NAIROBI: DIFFERENT ACTORS - DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS

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    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken by means of qualitative ethnographic method. The arguments in this paper underlie the important role of the different actors in private tenement housing delivery in a developing city such as Nairobi, where more than half the population is poor. In Nairobi the private tenement housing delivers both conventional as well as non-conventional housing with the majority of the poor being able to access only the later. Nonconventional housing includes the informal as well as the slum. Although still targeting the poor, with time, the majority of what started as non-conventional housing undergoes greater physical development. This process ensures access to enough affordable low-income housing. Development in housing delivery has been supported by the government through encouraging creation of relevant housing institutions, developing relevant byelaws and regulations and putting in place an appropriate framework for housing delivery. For a developing city encouraging the participation of the private sector in housing delivery for the different socio-economic groups is a sure guarantee of providing housing for a large percentage of the population.

  20. Characteristics of four SPE groups with different origins and acceleration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R.-S.; Cho, K.-S.; Lee, J.; Bong, S.-C.; Joshi, A. D.; Park, Y.-D.

    2015-09-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) can be categorized into four groups based on their associations with flare or CME inferred from onset timings as well as acceleration patterns using multienergy observations. In this study, we have investigated whether there are any typical characteristics of associated events and acceleration sites in each group using 42 SPEs from 1997 to 2012. We find the following: (i) if the proton acceleration starts from a lower energy, a SPE has a higher chance to be a strong event (> 5000 particle flux per unit (pfu)) even if its associated flare and/or CME are not so strong. The only difference between the SPEs associated with flare and CME is the location of the acceleration site. (ii) For the former (Group A), the sites are very low (˜ 1 Rs) and close to the western limb, while the latter (Group C) have relatively higher (mean = 6.05 Rs) and wider acceleration sites. (iii) When the proton acceleration starts from the higher energy (Group B), a SPE tends to be a relatively weak event (pfu), although its associated CME is relatively stronger than previous groups. (iv) The SPEs categorized by the simultaneous acceleration in whole energy range within 10 min (Group D) tend to show the weakest proton flux (mean = 327 pfu) in spite of strong associated eruptions. Based on those results, we suggest that the different characteristics of SPEs are mainly due to the different conditions of magnetic connectivity and particle density, which are changed with longitude and height as well as their origin.

  1. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  2. Age Group Differences in Perceived Age Discrimination: Associations With Self-Perceptions of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasson, Hannah L; Queen, Tara L; Larkina, Marina; Smith, Jacqui

    2017-08-01

    From midlife onwards, age stereotypes increasingly underlie social judgments and contribute to age-based discrimination. Whereas many studies compare differences between young and older adults in reports of age discrimination or sensitivity to age stereotypes, few consider age group differences among adults over 50. We form subgroups corresponding to social age group membership (early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old) and examine differences in reported experiences of everyday age discrimination and associations with self-perceptions of aging. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 15,071; M Age = 68, range 50-101), multivariate logistic regression was used to examine experiences of everyday discrimination attributed to age, and associations between age discrimination and self-perceptions of aging, in four age groups: early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old. People in the early midlife group (aged 50-59) reported more experiences of unfair treatment than the older age groups but were less likely to attribute their experiences to age discrimination. After controlling for covariates, individuals in all age groups who perceived their own aging positively were less likely to report experiences of age discrimination. The magnitude of this effect, however, was greatest in the early midlife group. Findings support proposals that midlife is a pivotal life period when individuals adjust to life events and social role transitions. Future longitudinal studies will provide further insight into whether positive self-perceptions of aging are especially important in this phase of the life course. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

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    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  4. Adolescent substance use groups: antecedent and concurrent personality differences in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Elizabeth M; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2012-06-01

    This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block's (1990) influential study, which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groups-abstainers, experimenters, and problem users-were created at age 18. Age-18 substance use groups differed in age-11 and age-18 constraint such that problem users were lower than experimenters, who were lower than abstainers. Age-18 substance use groups did not differ in age-18 positive emotionality. However, abstainers were significantly lower than experimenters in communal positive emotionality, whereas female abstainers scored higher in agentic positive emotionality than female experimenters, who scored higher than female problem users. Experimenters were significantly lower in negative emotionality than problem users. Our findings are inconsistent with the notion that experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning and instead suggest different strengths and weaknesses for each group. Future studies should examine agentic and communal positive emotionality separately. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dose finding study of granisetron in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy. The Granisetron Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, A.

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of three different doses of granisetron (2 micrograms kg-1, group A; 10 micrograms kg-1, group B; 40 micrograms kg-1, group C) were compared in a randomised, double-blind study of 157 patients due to receive high-dose cisplatin therapy (mean dose > 97 mg m-2). In each group, up to two 3 mg rescue doses of granisetron were allowed if more than mild nausea or vomiting occurred. In group A 30.8%, in group B 61.5% and in group C 67.9% of patients were complete responders (i.e. no vomiting or nothing worse than mild nausea) during the first 24 h. These differences are significant between groups A and B, and A and C. There were no statistically significant differences in any efficacy variable between the 10 micrograms kg-1 and 40 micrograms kg-1 groups, although in each case the trend favoured the higher dose. Additional rescue doses resulted in resolved or improved symptoms in 95.3% for the first rescue dose and 93.3% for the second. Over the 7 days of the study, 82.7%, 82.7% and 86.8% of patients in groups A, B and C respectively were treated with granisetron alone. Headache was the most common side-effect, reported by 9.6% of patients; the majority of headaches were mild. There was no difference between the treatment groups regarding the adverse event rate. We concluded that prophylactic doses of 10 or 40 micrograms kg-1 lead to a safe and satisfactory degree of control of nausea and vomiting induced by high-dose cisplatin. PMID:8180032

  6. Effects of high ambient temperature on ambulance dispatches in different age groups in Fukuoka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuya; Ueda, Kayo; Seposo, Xerxes; Yasukochi, Shusuke; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ono, Masaji; Honda, Akiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2018-01-01

    The elderly population has been the primary target of intervention to prevent heat-related illnesses. According to the literature, the highest risks have been observed among the elderly in the temperature-mortality relationship. However, findings regarding the temperature-morbidity relationship are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the association of temperature with ambulance dispatches due to acute illnesses, stratified by age group. Specifically, we explored the optimum temperature, at which the relative health risks were found to be the lowest, and quantified the health risk associated with higher temperatures among different age groups. We used the data for ambulance dispatches in Fukuoka, Japan, during May and September from 2005 to 2012. The data were grouped according to age in 20-year increments. We explored the pattern of the association of ambulance dispatches with temperature using a smoothing spline curve to identify the optimum temperature for each age group. Then, we applied a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate the risks of the 85th-95th percentile temperature relative to the overall optimum temperature, for each age group. The relative risk of ambulance dispatches at the 85th and 95th percentile temperature for all ages was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.12] and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.16), respectively. In comparison, among age groups, the optimum temperature was observed as 25.0°C, 23.2°C, and 25.3°C for those aged 0-19, 60-79, and ≥80, respectively. The optimum temperature could not be determined for those aged 20-39 and 40-59. The relative risks of high temperature tended to be higher for those aged 20-39 and 40-59 than those for other age groups. We did not find any definite difference in the effect of high temperature on ambulance dispatches for different age groups. However, more measures should be taken for younger and middle-aged people to avoid heat-related illnesses.

  7. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  8. Dermoscopic findings in different clinical variants of lichen planus. Is dermoscopy useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Paula; Sabban, Emilia Cohen; Marcucci, Carolina; Peralta, Rosario; Cabo, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous dermatosis that involves the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. Although its pathogenesis is still unknown, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity plays an important role. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive tool, useful in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses, such as lichen planus. In this paper we describe the dermoscopic findings of different variants of LP (ungual, cutaneous, planopilaris, pigmentosus). PMID:26693092

  9. Finding Sales Promotion and Making Decision for New Product Based on Group Analysis of Edge-Enhanced Product Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Tan, Jianbin; Wu, Bin

    A novel method is proposed in this paper to find the promotive relationship of products from a network point of view. Firstly, a product network is built based on the dataset of handsets’ sale information collected from all outlets of a telecom operator of one province of China, with a period from Jan. 2006 to Jul. 2008. Then the edge enhanced model is applied on product network to divide all the products into several groups, according to which each outlet is assigned to class A or class B for a certain handset. Class A is defined as the outlet which sell the certain handset and contains all of handsets of its group, while other situation for class B which sell the certain handset too. It’s shown from the result of analysis on these two kinds of outlets that many handsets are sold better in outlets of class A than that of class B, even though the sales revenue of all these outlets in the time period is close. That is to say the handsets within a group would promote the sale for each other. Furthermore, a method proposed in this paper gives a way to find out the important attributes of the handsets which lead them to br divided into the same group, and it also explains how to add a new handset to an existing group and where would the new handset be sold best.

  10. Direction Finding Using Multiple Sum and Difference Patterns in 4D Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjiang Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional monopulse systems used for direction finding usually face the contradiction between high angle precision and wide angle-searching field, and a compromise has to be made. In this paper, the time modulation technique in four-dimensional (4D antenna array is introduced into the conventional phase-comparison monopulse to form a novel direction-finding system, in which both high angle resolution and wide field-of-view are realized. The full 4D array is divided into two subarrays and the differential evolution (DE algorithm is used to optimize the time sequence of each subarray to generate multibeams at the center frequency and low sidebands. Then the multibeams of the two subarrays are phase-compared with each other and multiple pairs of sum-difference beams are formed at different sidebands and point to different spatial angles. The proposed direction-finding system covers a large field-of-view of up to ±60° and simultaneously maintains the advantages of monopulse systems, such as high angle precision and low computation complexity. Theoretical analysis and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  11. Age differences in IDA savings outcomes: findings from the American Dream Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michelle; Sherraden, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to develop a greater understanding of age differences in savings outcomes within Individual Development Accounts (IDAs). Participant data from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD) are examined for age differences in accumulated net deposits, average monthly net deposits, and deposit frequency. ADDprogram data are examined for savings match rates, monthly savings targets, direct deposit, and hours of financial education offered. Results indicate that, on average, older IDA participants have better savings outcomes than younger participants. Findings from this study suggest that impoverished middleaged and older adults can save if provided an opportunity and incentives. However, success will depend on the characteristics of the programs.

  12. Do ethnic differences in cord blood leptin levels differ by birthweight category? Findings from the Born in Bradford cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jane; Wright, John; Fairley, Lesley; Sattar, Naveed; Whincup, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-02-01

    There is evidence that South Asian individuals have higher fat mass for a given weight than Europeans. One study reported that the greater fatness for a given birthweight may increase with increasing birth weight, suggesting that any attempt to increase mean birth weight in South Asians would markedly increase their fatness. Our objective was to examine whether differences in cord leptin values between White British and Pakistani infants vary by birth weight category. We examined the difference in cord leptin levels between 659 White British and 823 Pakistani infants recruited to the Born in Bradford cohort study, by clinical categories and thirds of the birth weight distribution. Pakistani infants had a lower mean birthweight but higher cord leptin levels than White British infants [ratio of geometric mean(RGM) of cord leptin adjusted for birth weight = 1.36 (95% CI 1.26,1.46)]. Birthweight was positively associated with cord leptin levels in both groups, with no evidence that the regression lines in the two groups diverged from each other with increasing birthweight.The relative ethnic difference in cord leptin was similar in low (distribution [RGM (95% CI) in lowest, mid and highest thirds were 1.37 (1.20, 1.57), 1.36 (1.20, 1.54) and 1.31 (1.16, 1.52), respectively, P-interaction = 0.51]. We found marked differences in cord leptin levels between Pakistani and White British infants but no evidence that this difference increases with increasing birthweight.

  13. Introduction of a child and adolescent mental health link worker: education and health staff focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A; Playle, J; Sanchez, P; Cahill, J; McGowan, L

    2008-10-01

    Policy guidance suggests that outcomes for adolescents with mental health problems can be improved by secondary education services (SES) and child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) working more closely. This study reports on staff experiences of the introduction of a mental health link worker (MHLW). The findings of two focus groups are presented, conducted with staff from CAMHS and SES. These focus groups formed part of the overall wider evaluation of the MHLW role. The groups explored staff perceptions and experiences following the introduction of the MHLW, and elicited their views on the effectiveness of this innovative role. Qualitative methods were employed, and analysis was conducted using the principles of grounded theory and the constant comparative method. The findings revealed that the MHLW was well received by both groups, despite the identification of potential barriers. A number of key themes emerged, which included the ability of the link worker to improve communication and to encourage mutual understanding between services. The issues raised by these themes are discussed and recommendations are made for future practice and research.

  14. Differences in attitudes towards medication between population groups in the Durban Metropolitan Area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Fatima; Ally, Shabnam; Bayat, Samirah; Essack, Razia; Moodley, Renalda; Mtembu, Thobekile; Ramalingham, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Personal factors, especially attitude, have been implicated in the utilization of health care services, and in access to medical treatment. There is little information on the attitudes of the general public in South Africa towards medications and whether attitudes differ across population groups or among the different users of the health care system. This study aimed to determine the general attitude of a local population to medications, self-care orientation and health professional contact, and whether differences existed between age groups, gender and race groups. METHODS We carried out a randomized, cross-sectional quantitative study via telephonic questionnaire survey (adapted from a previous study) of a sample of 1132 telephone numbers. The setting was the Durban Metropolitan Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. KEY FINDINGS A total of 500 (44.2%) people responded. The majority had a positive attitude towards medication. An increase in age resulted in increased medication use. Females were more likely than males to use medication and seek professional health care (P = 0.0406). Most of the respondents (86.0%) were self-care-orientated and displayed moderate medication knowledge (46.2%). Some 295 (59.0%) of the 500 respondents had visited a pharmacy within the last 6 months. Conclusions Health care professionals can adopt an informed approach to address the needs of the population with regard to medication, by targeting groups more likely to use medication (females and the older age group). In addition, gaps in medication knowledge were identified which could be used for health-promotion interventions by health care workers.

  15. Findings in resting-state fMRI by differences from K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyzhyk, Darya; Graña, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Resting state fMRI has growing number of studies with diverse aims, always centered on some kind of functional connectivity biomarker obtained from correlation regarding seed regions, or by analytical decomposition of the signal towards the localization of the spatial distribution of functional connectivity patterns. In general, studies are computationally costly and very sensitive to noise and preprocessing of data. In this paper we consider clustering by K-means as a exploratory procedure which can provide some results with little computational effort, due to efficient implementations that are readily available. We demonstrate the approach on a dataset of schizophrenia patients, finding differences between patients with and without auditory hallucinations.

  16. A simplified staging system based on the radiological findings in different stages of ochronotic spondyloarthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebaraj, Isaac; Chacko, Binita Riya; Chiramel, George Koshy; Matthai, Thomas; Parameswaran, Apurve

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a group of 26 patients with ochronotic spondyloarthropathy who were on regular treatment and follow-up at a tertiary level hospital and proposes a simplified staging system for ochronotic spondyloarthropathy based on radiographic findings seen in the thoracolumbar spine. This proposed classification makes it easy to identify the stage of the disease and start the appropriate management at an early stage. Four progressive stages are described: an inflammatory stage (stage 1), the stage of early discal calcification (stage 2), the stage of fibrous ankylosis (stage 3), and the stage of bony ankylosis (stage 4). To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of radiological description of spinal ochronosis, and emphasizes the contribution of the spine radiograph in the diagnosis and staging of the disease

  17. A simplified staging system based on the radiological findings in different stages of ochronotic spondyloarthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Jebaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a group of 26 patients with ochronotic spondyloarthropathy who were on regular treatment and follow-up at a tertiary level hospital and proposes a simplified staging system for ochronotic spondyloarthropathy based on radiographic findings seen in the thoracolumbar spine. This proposed classification makes it easy to identify the stage of the disease and start the appropriate management at an early stage. Four progressive stages are described: an inflammatory stage (stage 1, the stage of early discal calcification (stage 2, the stage of fibrous ankylosis (stage 3, and the stage of bony ankylosis (stage 4. To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of radiological description of spinal ochronosis, and emphasizes the contribution of the spine radiograph in the diagnosis and staging of the disease.

  18. The present conditions of interpretation and findings report in UGI series examination (The Japanese society gastrointestinal imaging report group performed questionary survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinsuke; Aoki, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Takashi; Nishikawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Ishimoto, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese society gastrointestinal imaging report group performed questionary survey to relate to interpretation of radiogram of radiological technologist and findings report in upper GI series examination for 599 national institutions. Response rate was 27%, and many of answers were the institutions where surgical treatment was possible. Additional radiography examining by radiological technologist depending on the situation and, it was recognized a doctor furthermore, institutions more than 70% made findings report after examination, and, as for the mention methods of findings report, there was difference in mention contents, and character by examination classification. It seemed the mention methods that we unified were difficult nationwide, and, however, as for the making of the findings report which used diagnosis flow chart, it was thought with possibility in future by enlightenment active. (author)

  19. A study of the relationship between food group recommendations and perceived stress: findings from black women in the Deep South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Tiffany L; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E; Baskin, Monica L

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m(2)) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Carson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  1. Differences in MRI findings in cases showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwa, Kaichi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Miyasaka, Yoshio; Yada, Kenzoh; Kan, Shinichi; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between a brain abscess and a tumor, for both show ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The present authors have studied the benefit of MRI for the differential diagnosis of these two lesions. The subjects of this study were 6 cases of brain abscess and 10 cases of brain tumor, all of them showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The MRI findings were compared with those of the CT scan taken at almost the same time, especially focussing on the difference in the ring-enhancement. In 5 out of the 6 cases of brain abscess, T 2 -weighted MRI demonstrated a comparatively thin and homogeneous low-intensity, round rim. In the cases of brain tumor, however, none of the cases demonstrated this typical low-intensity, round rim; rather, in them the rim was thick and irregular. The authors can conclude that those MRI findings can serve as important differential diagnostic findings between brain abscess and tumor; also, MRI may be used as a landmark for terminating the administration of antibiotics in cases of brain abscess. (author)

  2. Differences within the groups of physicians and managers in Dutch hospitals providing leads for intergroup cooperation : Running head: group differences in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effective cooperation between physicians and managers is difficult to achieve but is an important factor in successfully implementing improvement initiatives in hospitals. Intergroup literature suggests that large differences between groups hinder effective cooperation. - Purposes:

  3. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  4. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  5. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  6. Identification of copy number variants defining genomic differences among major human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Armengol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic contribution to phenotype variation of human groups is necessary to elucidate differences in disease predisposition and response to pharmaceutical treatments in different human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the genome-wide profile of structural variation on pooled samples from the three populations studied in the HapMap project by comparative genome hybridization (CGH in different array platforms. We have identified and experimentally validated 33 genomic loci that show significant copy number differences from one population to the other. Interestingly, we found an enrichment of genes related to environment adaptation (immune response, lipid metabolism and extracellular space within these regions and the study of expression data revealed that more than half of the copy number variants (CNVs translate into gene-expression differences among populations, suggesting that they could have functional consequences. In addition, the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with the copy number alleles allowed us to detect evidences of population differentiation and recent selection at the nucleotide variation level. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results provide a comprehensive view of relevant copy number changes that might play a role in phenotypic differences among major human populations, and generate a list of interesting candidates for future studies.

  7. Different findings in bone scintigraphy between ulnar impaction syndrome and Kienbock's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.K.; Lee, H.Y.; Lee, M.C.; Baik, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: There is an ethnic variance on the length of the ulnar and radius. In Caucasian the length of the radius is relatively longer than the ulnar, but in Oriental the length of the ulnar is longer. This difference results in the different ethnic prevalence of ulnar impaction syndrome and Kienbock's disease, avascular necrosis of the lunate. It is important to differentiate ulnar impaction syndrome from Kienbock's disease, because they show similar symptoms but need different treatment and different method of operation. Methods: Seventeen patients with the wrist pain were enrolled in this study (mean age: 45+/-13yrs M:F=12:5). Nine patients were diagnosed as Kienbock's disease and Eight patients were diagnosed as ulnar impaction. Three to four hours after injection of 20mCi of Tc-99m MDP, bone scintigraphy images of the both hands were obtained and analyzed visually. Results: In Kienbock's disease, 8 patients showed increased uptake in the lunate with or without other carpal bones. One patient showed photon defect in the lunate. Otherwise in all patients with ulnar impaction syndrome, increased uptakes were found in the lunate, with or without increase uptake in the triquetrum or the distal ulnar, which are related to triangular fibrocartilage complex. Pin hole scintigraphy and pin hole SPECT demonstrated more precise structure of the wrist. Conclusion: We could differentiate ulnar impaction syndrome from Kienbock's disease in bone scan. We should carefully evaluate bone scintigraphic findings in patients with wrist pain

  8. On finding galaxy clusters with PLANCK and the spherical collapse model in different dark energy cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waizmann, Jean-Claude

    2010-11-24

    One of the main objectives of the PLANCK mission is to perform a full-sky cluster survey based on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, which leads to the question of how such a survey would be affected by cosmological models with a different history of structure formation than LCDM. To answer this question, I developed a fast semi-analytic approach for simulating full-sky maps of the Compton-y parameter, ready to be fed into a realistic simulation pipeline. I also implemented a filter and detection pipeline based on spherical multi-frequency matched filters, that was used to study the expected SZ cluster sample of PLANCK. It turned out that realistic samples will comprise 1000 clusters at low rate of contamination, significantly lower than originally anticipated. Driven by wrong estimates of the impact of early dark energy models on structure formation, we studied the spherical collapse model in dark energy model, finding that models with varying equation-of-state have a negligible impact on the structure formation. Yet, the different expansion history for the different models can be detected via volume effects, when counting objects in a known volume. Furthermore, it turned out that the different expansion history strongly affects the angular SZ power spectra for the various models, making them an interesting tool to distinguish and constrain alternative cosmologies. (orig.)

  9. On finding galaxy clusters with PLANCK and the spherical collapse model in different dark energy cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waizmann, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the PLANCK mission is to perform a full-sky cluster survey based on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, which leads to the question of how such a survey would be affected by cosmological models with a different history of structure formation than LCDM. To answer this question, I developed a fast semi-analytic approach for simulating full-sky maps of the Compton-y parameter, ready to be fed into a realistic simulation pipeline. I also implemented a filter and detection pipeline based on spherical multi-frequency matched filters, that was used to study the expected SZ cluster sample of PLANCK. It turned out that realistic samples will comprise 1000 clusters at low rate of contamination, significantly lower than originally anticipated. Driven by wrong estimates of the impact of early dark energy models on structure formation, we studied the spherical collapse model in dark energy model, finding that models with varying equation-of-state have a negligible impact on the structure formation. Yet, the different expansion history for the different models can be detected via volume effects, when counting objects in a known volume. Furthermore, it turned out that the different expansion history strongly affects the angular SZ power spectra for the various models, making them an interesting tool to distinguish and constrain alternative cosmologies. (orig.)

  10. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases

  11. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-["1"8F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases, the

  12. The Comparative Study of ECG Findings in the Patients Suffered from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Control Group in Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Nikkhah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH which accounts for (5% to 10% of cerebrovascular accidents is an important cause of mortality and disability. It can be complicated by many neurological and medical conditions including cardiovascular complications. During the course of SAH morphologic Electrocardiography (ECG changes, arrhythmias, myocardial injury and elevation of cardiac enzymes, subendocardial hemorrhage and necrosis may be observed. Materials and Methods:102 SAH patients, without any history of Ischemic heart Disease (IHD, admitted in Ghaem Hospital were studied. Their clinical and radiological parameters were evaluated. Three serial ECGs were performed within the first 72 hours for each patient and the ECG findings were analyzed. The control group consisted of 102 elective patients of Ghaem hospital without any expected heart disease. Results: ECG changes were observed in 60.8% of SAH patients with average age of (53.4±14.2 years and in (2.9% of control group. The ECG findings were as follows: chamber abnormalities (6.9%, conduction abnormalities (7.8%, repolarization abnormalities (49%, rhythm abnormalities (22.5% and pathologic Q wave (6.9%. According to this study, ECG changes are related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (p

  13. Sex differences in brain and behavior in adolescence: Findings from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences in brain and behavior were investigated across the lifespan. Parameters include neurobehavioral measures linkable to neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic indicators of brain structure and function. Sexual differentiation of behavior has been related to organizational factors during sensitive periods of development, with adolescence and puberty gaining increased attention. Adolescence is a critical developmental period where transition to adulthood is impacted by multiple factors that can enhance vulnerability to brain dysfunction. Here we highlight sex differences in neurobehavioral measures in adolescence that are linked to brain function. We summarize neuroimaging studies examining brain structure, connectivity and perfusion, underscoring the relationship to sex differences in behavioral measures and commenting on hormonal findings. We focus on relevant data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), a community-based sample of nearly 10,000 clinically and neurocognitively phenotyped youths age 8-21 of whom 1600 have received multimodal neuroimaging. These data indicate early and pervasive sexual differentiation in neurocognitive measures that is linkable to brain parameters. We conclude by describing possible clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Population biology of intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n=133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n= 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates

  15. Parenting Stress through the Lens of Different Clinical Groups: a Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Lucybel; Graziano, Paulo A.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated an association between parenting stress and child behavior problems, and suggested levels of parenting stress are higher among parents of children at risk for behavior problems, such as those with autism and developmental delay (ASD/DD). The goal of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of parenting stress and child behavior problems among different clinical groups (i.e., ASD/DD, chronic illness, with or at-risk for behavioral and/or mood disorders). We also examined demographic and methodological variables as moderators and differences in overall levels of parenting stress between the clinical groups. This systematic review documents a link between parenting stress and child behavior problems with an emphasis on externalizing behavior. One-hundred thirty-three studies were included for quantitative analysis. Parenting stress was more strongly related to child externalizing (weighted ES r = 0.57, d = 1.39) than internalizing (weighted ES r = 0.37, d = 0.79) problems. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parenting stress and behavior problems was stronger among studies which had mostly male and clinic-recruited samples. Overall, parenting stress levels were higher for parents of children with ASD/DD compared to parents of children from other clinical groups. Findings document the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems and highlight the importance of assessing parenting stress as part of routine care and throughout behavioral intervention programs, especially for groups of children at high risk for behavior problems, such as children with ASD/DD, in order to identify support for both the parent(s) and child. PMID:28555335

  16. New findings on object permanence: A developmental difference between two types of occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    1999-11-01

    Manual search for totally occluded objects was investigated in 10-, 12- and 14-month-old infants. Infants responded to two types of total hiding in different ways, supporting the inference that object permanence is not a once-and-for-all attainment. Occlusion of an object by movement of a screen over it was solved at an earlier age than occlusion in which an object was carried under the screen. This dissociation was not explained by motivation, motor skill or means-ends coordination, because for both tasks the same object was hidden in the same place under the same screen and required the same uncovering response. This dissociation generalized across an experimentally manipulated change in recovery means-infants removed cloths while seated at a table in Expt 1 and were required to crawl through 3-D space to displace semi-rigid pillows in Expt 2. Further analysis revealed that emotional response varied as a function of hiding, suggesting an affective correlate of infant cognition. There are four empirical findings to account for: developmental change, task dissociation, generalization of the effects across recovery means, and emotional reactions. An identity-development theory is proposed explaining these findings in terms of infants' understanding of object identity and the developmental relationship between object identity and object permanence. Object identity is seen as a necessary precursor to the development of object permanence.

  17. Preliminary Findings on Men's Sexual Self-Schema and Sexual Offending: Differences Between Subtypes of Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Available literature suggests that sexual self-schemas (i.e., cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself) influence sexual behavior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research regarding their role in sexual offending. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the men's sexual self-schema dimensions (passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal) and different types of sexual-offending behavior. A total of 50 rapists, 65 child molesters (21 pedophilic, 44 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Men's Sexual Self-Schema Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, school education, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that rapists as well as nonsexual offenders were more likely to hold the powerful-aggressive sexual self-view compared to pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Overall, findings seem to be consistent with both a sociocultural component of aggression and the general cognitive profile of offenders. If further research corroborates these preliminary findings, sexual self-concept may be integrated into a comprehensive multifactorial approach of offending behavior.

  18. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  19. Age and Gender Differences in Psychological Distress among African Americans and Whites: Findings from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne C. Watkins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites. Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14 and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97 experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05 and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95. Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.

  20. A NOVEL APPROACH TO FIND OPTIMIZED NEUTRON ENERGY GROUP STRUCTURE IN MOX THERMAL LATTICES USING SWARM INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AKBARI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy group structure has a significant effect on the results of multigroup transport calculations. It is known that UO2–PUO2 (MOX is a recently developed fuel which consumes recycled plutonium. For such fuel which contains various resonant nuclides, the selection of energy group structure is more crucial comparing to the UO2 fuels. In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy of the integral results in MOX thermal lattices calculated by WIMSD-5B code, a swarm intelligence method is employed to optimize the energy group structure of WIMS library. In this process, the NJOY code system is used to generate the 69 group cross sections of WIMS code for the specified energy structure. In addition, the multiplication factor and spectral indices are compared against the results of continuous energy MCNP-4C code for evaluating the energy group structure. Calculations performed in four different types of H2O moderated UO2–PuO2 (MOX lattices show that the optimized energy structure obtains more accurate results in comparison with the WIMS original structure.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Tobacco Information Seeking and Information Sources: Findings From the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Robinson, Joelle; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2017-09-01

    This article describes sources of health information, types of tobacco information sought, and trust in sources of tobacco information among U.S. racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and Other). Cross-sectional data (N = 3,788) from a nationally representative survey, HINTS-FDA 2015, were analyzed to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between race/ethnicity and (a) first source of health information, (b) tobacco information seeking, and (c) trust in sources of tobacco information. Adjusted associations controlled for current tobacco product use and sociodemographic variables. Findings indicated that the Internet was the most common first source of health information while health care providers were the second most common source for all racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco-related health information seeking was more prevalent than other tobacco product information seeking. Unadjusted analyses indicated that a higher proportion of Whites sought other tobacco product information compared to Asians and Pacific Islanders. Trust was rated highest for doctors while trust for health organizations was rated second highest. Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher trust in the government compared to all other groups. Blacks had higher trust in religious organizations compared to all other groups besides Hispanics. Blacks had higher trust for tobacco companies compared to Whites and Other. Many of these differences were attenuated in adjusted analyses. This research has implications for tobacco control practice and policymaking by identifying potential dissemination strategies.

  2. The effects of cigarette smoking on prostate-specific antigen in two different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Gokhan; Akgul, Korhan; Yilmaz, Yuksel; Dirik, Alper; Un, Sitki

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using 2 different age groups. The study was carried out between January 2007 and October 2011 with men; the 2 sets of age groups were: 25 to 35 years and 50 to 70 years old. The participants were divided into 4 groups. Of the 25 to 35 age range, smokers were Group 1, and non-smokers were Group 2; of the 50 to 70 age range, smokers were Group 3 and non-smokers Group 4. In addition, for the 50 to 70 age group, the International Prostate Symptom Score was completed, digital rectal examination was performed, and transabdominal prostate volume was measured. We wanted to see whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels showed a difference between the 2 age groups. There were 114 patients in Group 1, 82 in Group 2, 90 in Group 3, and 102 in Group 4. The mean PSA level was 0.7 ± 0.28 ng/mL for Group 1, and 0.6 ± 0.27 ng/mL for Group 2 (p = 0.27), and there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. The mean PSA was 2.5 ± 1.8 ng/mL for Group 3, and 2.1 ± 2.0 ng/mL (p = 0.59) for Group 4, and there was no statistically significant difference between the these 2 age groups. Cigarette smoking effects various hormone levels. Different from previous studies, the PSA level was higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers, although it was not statistically significant. Our study is limited by the small numbers in our study groups and the lack of PSA velocity data.

  3. Dental anomalies in different cleft groups related to neural crest developmental fields contributes to the understanding of cleft aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Louise Claudius; Kjær, Inger; Mølsted, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze dental deviations in three cleft groups and relate findings to embryological neural crest fields (frontonasal, maxillary, and palatal). The overall purpose was to evaluate how fields are involved in different cleft types. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of clinical photographs...

  4. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  5. SemDiff: Finding Semtic Differences in Binary Programs based on Angr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shi-Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce SemDiff, a novel technology for finding semantic differences between two binary files. Now, the vendor will release the information to patch the previous version which has vulnerability. Then, we can compare the differences and similarities between the two versions to get the unpublished details of the 1day vulnerabilities. Tools, such as BinDiff, BinHunt and iBinHunt, have worked on this project before, however, there are some weaknesses on them. Just like BinDiff, a comparison method based on structure, can not be effective for judging the semantic differences. Though the other two tools(BindHunt and iBinHunt can recognize the differences we focus on, they can not effectively verify the functional inlining and spend a pretty long time to finish the process because the use of graph-based isomorphism algorithm. In the paper, we first propose SemDiff, which uses the existing tool(angr to generate the intermediate language(VEX. Then, because of the nature of program, the data read from and written to the memories, we record these information to implement the comparison. Last, an improved BinDiff algorithm is used to match the basic blocks. In this paper, we take some real vulnerabilities as examples, such as CVE-2010-3974-Microsoft Windows to test our tool, reaching a good goal, matching more blocks than BinDiff and taking less time than BinHunt and iBinHunt.

  6. Improving the United States airline industry's capacity to provide safe and dignified services to travelers with disabilities: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    As a component of a training development project for intercity air travel providers, we investigated the capacity of the airline industry to meet the needs of travelers with disabilities by exploring: (1) the level of sensitivity among personnel to travelers' needs, (2) training currently provided, (3) areas in which additional training might be beneficial, and (4) organisational/systems-level commitment to dignified assistance to all travelers. Forty-four airline/vendor employees participated in nine focus groups in four US cities. Groups were audio recorded and transcribed. A grounded-theory approach was used to develop a coding system which was then applied to transcripts to identify themes. Factors influencing capacity grouped broadly into four areas: characteristics of the job/system, characteristics of current training, characteristics of providers themselves, and characteristics of travelers. At an interpersonal level, providers were empathetic and desired to provide dignified services. They lacked training and adequate equipment in some cases, however, and organisational commitment varied between companies. Traveler characteristics were also shown to impact service delivery. Results are promising but additional regulatory and organisational policies are needed to ensure quality services. Providers and consumers of intercity air travel services may benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study.

  7. Efficacy of adjunctive mitomycin C in transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Taner; Yildirim, Yildiray; Topal, Tuncay; Çolakoğlu, Kadir; Ünal, Melih Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of adjunctive mitomycin C (MMC) in transcanalicular multidiode laser dacryocystorhinostomy (TCL-DCR) in different age groups. Ninety-six eyes of 96 patients who underwent TCL-DCR for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction were included in this retrospective, comparative study. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on age and intraoperative use of MMC: group 1, TCL-DCR without MMC in the 20- to 44-year age group; group 2, TCL-DCR with MMC in the 20- to 44-year age group; group 3, TCL-DCR without MMC in the 45- to 76-year age group; group 4, TCL-DCR with MMC in the 45- to 76-year age group. The postoperative evaluation consisted of calculating and comparing the success rates between groups. Success rates at the final visit were 50% for group 1, 66.66% for group 2, 79.16% for group 3, and 84.61% for group 4. The differences between group 1 and group 4, and group 1 and group 3, were significant (p = 0.01 and p = 0.038, respectively). Logistic regression showed that age group had significant effect on success rate (p = 0.013). However, use of MMC had no significant effect on success rate (p = 0.23). The success rates of the TCL-DCR with MMC application were found to be higher than those of TCL-DCR without MMC in different age groups. However, the differences did not reach statistical significance. In addition, our study demonstrated that age may be a significant factor influencing the surgical outcome of TCL-DCR.

  8. Repeatable group differences in the collective behaviour of stickleback shoals across ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Establishing how collective behaviour emerges is central to our understanding of animal societies. Previous research has highlighted how universal interaction rules shape collective behaviour, and that individual differences can drive group functioning. Groups themselves may also differ considerably in their collective behaviour, but little is known about the consistency of such group variation, especially across different ecological contexts that may alter individuals' behavioural responses. Here, we test if randomly composed groups of sticklebacks differ consistently from one another in both their structure and movement dynamics across an open environment, an environment with food, and an environment with food and shelter. Based on high-resolution tracking data of the free-swimming shoals, we found large context-associated changes in the average behaviour of the groups. But despite these changes and limited social familiarity among group members, substantial and predictable behavioural differences between the groups persisted both within and across the different contexts (group-level repeatability): some groups moved consistently faster, more cohesively, showed stronger alignment and/or clearer leadership than other groups. These results suggest that among-group heterogeneity could be a widespread feature in animal societies. Future work that considers group-level variation in collective behaviour may help understand the selective pressures that shape how animal collectives form and function. PMID:29436496

  9. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites

    OpenAIRE

    Sogayar,Maria Inês L.; Gregório,Elisa Aparecida

    1989-01-01

    Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the dis...

  10. Group B streptococcus detection in China: comparison of different screening methods and different sampling sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang, Yingna Song, Liangkun Ma, Juntao Liu, Yingchun Xu, Jie Yi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and bacterial culture methods to detect group B streptococcus (GBS in Chinese pregnant women in the third trimester; to separately assess the prevalence of rectal and vaginal GBS colonization ; and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Methodology: Samples were collected from 505 women at 35 and 37 weeks gestation at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Bacterial culture and RT-PCR were performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics was also analyzed. Results: The overall GBS colonization rate was 7.5%. The colonization rate, sensitivity, and negative predictive value of the bacterial culture method were 2.8%, 36.8%, and 95.1%, respectively, and these values were 7.3%, 97.4%, and 99.8%, respectively, for PCR (p<0.001. The GBS colonization rate of the rectum (6.7% was higher than that of the vagina (2.8% (p=0.005. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 100% were sensitive to penicillin, cephalosporin and vancomycin. Conclusions: RT-PCR was found to be a rapid and sensitive test for the detection of GBS colonization in Chinese pregnant women. Rectal swabbing was also important for detecting GBS colonization. β-lactams are the first-line antibiotics used for the treatment of GBS. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(4: 179-183

  11. “Here is the knowledge-where should I put it?” Findings from a study of how knowledge spaces are used within a support group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, P. H.; Snis, U.

    1999-01-01

    In order to design useful knowledge media spaces for knowledge workers it is essential that we understand the nature of the work conducted and the knowledge applied in real settings. The paper reports from a study of how a group of quality assurance specialists in the pharmaceutical industry gather......, structure and distribute information and knowledge. Based on the findings, a number of overall requirements for knowledge media spaces are identified and discussed. The essential findings were that information and knowledge are created and handled in many different ways and have many different forms....... The core issues of our lessons learned so far are that we carefully need to consider knowledge media spaces both in terms of communication channels and knowledge archives. Knowledge media spaces should be seen as spaces in which knowledge and information is exchanged, filed, retrieved, presented...

  12. Differential mental health impact of cancer across racial/ethnic groups: findings from a population-based study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E

    2014-09-08

    Little research has examined the interactive effect of cancer status and race/ethnicity on mental health. As such, the present study examined the mental health of adults, 18 and over, diagnosed with cancer. This study examined the extent to which a cancer diagnosis is related to poorer mental health because it erodes finances and the extent to which the mental health impact of cancer differs across racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, this study aimed to test the stress process model, which posits that the proliferation of stress can lead to mental illness and this process can differ across racial/ethnic groups. Data from the 2005 Adult California Health Interview Survey was used (N = 42,879). The Kessler 6, a validated measure of psychological distress, was used to measure mental health, with higher scores suggesting poorer mental health. Scores on the Kessler 6 ranged from 0 to 24. Linear regression models estimating psychological distress tested each aim. The mediating effect of income and the race by cancer interaction were tested. After controlling for gender, age, insurance status, education and race/ethnicity, cancer was associated with higher Kessler 6 scores. About 6% of this effect was mediated by household income (t = 4.547; SE = 0.011; p groups. Future work should explore reasons for these disparities. Efforts to increase access to mental health services among minorities with cancer are needed.

  13. The Chicago Classification 3.0 Results in More Normal Findings and Fewer Hypotensive Findings With No Difference in Other Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrroy, H; Cisternas, D; Bilder, C; Ditaranto, A; Remes-Troche, J; Meixueiro, A; Zavala, M A; Serra, J; Marín, I; Ruiz de León, A; Pérez de la Serna, J; Hani, A; Leguizamo, A; Abrahao, L; Coello, R; Valdovinos, M A

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the preferred method for the evaluation of motility disorders. Recently, an update of the diagnostic criteria (Chicago 3.0) has been published. The aim of this study was to compare the performance criteria of Chicago version 2.0 (CC2.0) vs. 3.0 (CC3.0) in a cohort of healthy volunteers and symptomatic patients. HRM studies of asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals from several centers of Spain and Latin America were analyzed using both CC2.0 and CC3.0. The final diagnosis was grouped into hierarchical categories: obstruction (achalasia and gastro-esophageal junction obstruction), major disorders (distal esophageal spasm, absent peristalsis, and jackhammer), minor disorders (failed frequent peristalsis, weak peristalsis with small or large defects, ineffective esophageal motility, fragmented peristalsis, rapid contractile with normal latency and hypertensive peristalsis) and normal. The results were compared using McNemar's and Kappa tests. HRM was analyzed in 107 healthy volunteers (53.3% female; 18-69 years) and 400 symptomatic patients (58.5% female; 18-90 years). In healthy volunteers, using CC2.0 and CC3.0, obstructive disorders were diagnosed in 7.5% and 5.6%, respectively, major disorders in 1% and 2.8%, respectively, minor disorders in 25.2% and 15%, respectively, and normal in 66.4% and 76.6%, respectively. In symptomatic individuals, using CC2.0 and CC3.0, obstructive disorders were diagnosed in 11% and 11.3%, respectively, major disorders in 14% and 14%, respectively, minor disorders in 33.3% and 24.5%, respectively, and normal in 41.8% and 50.3%, respectively. In both groups of individuals, only an increase in normal and a decrease in minor findings using CC3.0 were statistically significant using McNemar's test. CC3.0 increases the number of normal studies when compared with CC2.0, essentially at the expense of fewer minor disorders, with no significant differences in major or obstructive disorders. As the relevance

  14. Occupational therapy practice in predriving assessment post stroke in the Irish context: findings from a nominal group technique meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Tadhg; Connelly, Deirdre

    2010-01-01

    Practice in the area of predriving assessment for people with stroke varies, and research findings are not always easily transferred into the clinical setting, particularly when such assessment is not conducted within a dedicated driver assessment programme. This article explores the clinical predriving assessment practices and recommendations of a group of Irish occupational therapists for people with stroke. A consensus meeting of occupational therapists was facilitated using a nominal group technique (NGT) to identify specific components of cognition, perception, and executive function that may influence fitness to return to driving and should be assessed prior to referral for on-road evaluation. Standardised assessments for use in predriving assessment were recommended. Thirteen occupational therapists speed of processing; perceptual components of spatial awareness, depth perception, and visual inattention; and executive components of planning, problem solving, judgment, and self-awareness. Consensus emerged for the use of the following standardised tests: Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), Brain Injury Visual Assessment Battery for Adults (biVABA), Rivermead Perceptual Assessment Battery (RPAB), and Motor Free Visual Perceptual Test (MVPT). Tests were recommended that gave an indication of the patient's underlying component skills in the area of cognition, perception, and executive functions considered important for driving. Further research is needed in this area to develop clinical practice guidelines for occupational therapists for the assessment of fitness to return to driving after stroke.

  15. Use of contraception by women of different religious groups: differences or similarities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Gomes Dias da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that religion is an important cultural factor that may determine attitudes and behaviors, influencing many demographic variables such as sexuality, marriage, contraception, fertility, abortion, among others. An important variable that can be influenced by religion is the use of contraception, generating patterns differentiated by religious segment. Religion has several mechanisms of influence in the lives of practitioners of a faith, among them the rules, guidelines, sanctions and coercion. This study aims to identify and analyze possible differences in contraceptive use by religions between sexually active women in the Brazil. We used data from the National Survey of Demography and Health of Children and Women 2006 and binomial logistic regression model. The results suggest that Catholic women used more modern contraception especially hormonal options. Already evangelical women used more traditional contraception and sterilization. Thus, although the Catholic Church is against the use of modern contraception, its rules do not seem to influence the contraceptive behavior of faithful. An other inference is that the low frequency on cults may generate little commitment and lead to doctrinal relativism.

  16. Clinical data and CT findings of pulmonary infection caused by different pathogens after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Xue Feng; Zheng Xuan; Yu Hong; Tao Xiaofeng; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The overall objective was to review clinical data and CT findings of pulmonary infection caused by different pathogens after kidney transplantation in an attempt to help early clinical qualitative diagnosis. Materials and methods: 446 cases of clinically confirmed pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation in recent 10 years were evaluated with respect to the time of occurrence and 89 cases with complete CT data and pathogenic diagnosis were further analyzed for pathogen types and CT manifestations. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Pulmonary infection reached the peak in 3 months after transplantation. Bacterial infection and mixed infection were predominant between 1 and 6 months. And most tuberculosis occurred after one year. Bacterial (38.2%) and mixed infections (38.2%) were the common types. The next was fungal infection, tuberculosis and viral infection (10.1%, 7.9% and 5.6%, respectively). CT manifestations of pulmonary infections after kidney transplantation were diverse and complex, lacking characteristic signs. Conclusion: More than 3/4 of pulmonary infections after kidney transplantation can be attributed to bacteria and mixed pathogens. The combination of time course, clinical data and CT manifestations plays an important role in the early clinical qualitative diagnosis.

  17. Finding Solutions to Different Problems Simultaneously in a Multi-molecule Simulated Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaderick P. Pabico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available – In recent years, the chemical metaphor has emerged as a computational paradigm based on the observation of different researchers that the chemical systems of living organisms possess inherent computational properties. In this metaphor, artificial molecules are considered as data or solutions, while the interactions among molecules are defined by an algorithm. In recent studies, the chemical metaphor was used as a distributed stochastic algorithm that simulates an abstract reactor to solve the traveling salesperson problem (TSP. Here, the artificial molecules represent Hamiltonian cycles, while the reactor is governed by reactions that can re-order Hamiltonian cycles. In this paper, a multi-molecule reactor (MMR-n that simulates chemical catalysis is introduced. The MMR-n solves in parallel three NP-hard computational problems namely, the optimization of the genetic parameters of a plant growth simulation model, the solution to large instances of symmetric and asymmetric TSP, and the static aircraft landing scheduling problems (ALSP. The MMR-n was shown as a computational metaphor capable of optimizing the cultivar coefficients of CERES-Rice model, and at the same time, able to find solutions to TSP and ALSP. The MMR-n as a computational paradigm has a better computational wall clock time compared to when these three problems are solved individually by a single-molecule reactor (MMR-1.

  18. Unique transcriptomic response to sepsis is observed among patients of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Steven L; López, María Cecilia; Baker, Henry V; Larson, Shawn D; Efron, Philip A; Sweeney, Timothy E; Khatri, Purvesh; Moldawer, Lyle L; Wynn, James L

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially at the extremes of age. To understand the human age-specific transcriptomic response to sepsis, a multi-cohort, pooled analysis was conducted on adults, children, infants, and neonates with and without sepsis. Nine public whole-blood gene expression datasets (636 patients) were employed. Age impacted the transcriptomic host response to sepsis. Gene expression from septic neonates and adults was more dissimilar whereas infants and children were more similar. Neonates showed reductions in inflammatory recognition and signaling pathways compared to all other age groups. Likewise, adults demonstrated decreased pathogen sensing, inflammation, and myeloid cell function, as compared to children. This may help to explain the increased incidence of sepsis-related organ failure and death in adults. The number of dysregulated genes in septic patients was proportional to age and significantly differed among septic adults, children, infants, and neonates. Overall, children manifested a greater transcriptomic intensity to sepsis as compared to the other age groups. The transcriptomic magnitude for adults and neonates was dramatically reduced as compared to children and infants. These findings suggest that the transcriptomic response to sepsis is age-dependent, and diagnostic and therapeutic efforts to identify and treat sepsis will have to consider age as an important variable.

  19. Subjective evaluation of physical and mental workload interactions across different muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both physical and mental demands, and their interactions, have been shown to increase biomechanical loading and physiological reactivity as well as impair task performance. Because these interactions have shown to be muscle-dependent, the aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the NASA Task Load Index (NASA TLX) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) to evaluate physical and mental workload during muscle-specific tasks. Twenty-four participants performed upper extremity and low back exertions at three physical workload levels in the absence and presence of a mental stressor. Outcome measures included RPE and NASA TLX (six sub-scales) ratings. The findings indicate that while both RPEs and NASA TLX ratings were sensitive to muscle-specific changes in physical demand, only an additional mental stressor and its interaction with either physical demand or muscle groups influenced the effort sub-scale and overall workload scores of the NASA TLX. While additional investigations in actual work settings are warranted, the NASA TLX shows promise in evaluating perceived workload that is sensitive not only to physical and mental demands but also sensitive in determining workload for tasks that employ different muscle groups.

  20. Short term memory development : Differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppenol, G.V.; Bouwmeester, S.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in

  1. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  2. Gender and Ethnic Group Differences on the GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; McHale, Frederick

    Gender and ethnic group differences on the Analytical Writing Assessment that is part of the Graduate Management Admissions Test were evaluated. Data from the first operational administration for 36,583 examinees in October 1994 were used. Standardized differences from the White male reference group were computed separately for men and women in…

  3. How Cultural Differences Affect Written and Oral Communication: The Case of Peer Response Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gayle L.

    1997-01-01

    Peer response groups contribute to students' effectiveness as writers in any field, but cultural differences in communication affect interactions within the group. Culture-based dimensions on which communication may differ include individualism/collectivism, power distance, concept of "face," and communication style. Recommendations are…

  4. Manometric findings in relation to functional outcomes in different types of anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrklund, Kristiina; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Rintala, Risto J

    2017-04-01

    To compare anorectal manometry (AM) in patients with different types of anorectal malformations (ARMs) in relation to functional outcomes. A single-institution, cross-sectional study. After ethical approval, all patients ≥7years old treated for anterior anus (AA), perineal fistula (PF), vestibular fistula (VF), or rectourethral fistula (RUF) from 1983 onwards were invited to answer the Rintala bowel function score (BFS) questionnaire and to attend anorectal manometry (AM). Patients with mild ARMs (AA females and PF males) had been treated with minimally invasive perineal procedures. Females with VF/PF and males with RUF had undergone internal-sphincter saving sagittal repairs. 55 of 132 respondents (42%; median age 12 (7-29) years; 42% male) underwent AM. Patients with mild ARMs displayed good anorectal function after minimally invasive treatments. The median anal resting and squeeze pressures among patients with mild ARMs (60 cm H2O and 116 cm H2O respectively) were significantly higher than among patients with more severe ARMs (50 cm H2O, and 80cm H2O respectively; p≤0.002). The rectoanal inhibitory reflex was preserved in 100% of mild ARMs and 83% of patients with more severe malformations after IAS-saving sagittal repair. The functional outcome was poor in 4/5 patients with an absent RAIR (BFS≤11 or antegrade continence enema-dependence). Rectal sensation correlated significantly with the BFS. Our findings support the appropriateness of our minimally invasive approaches to the management of mild ARMs, and IAS-saving anatomical repairs for patients with more severe malformations. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy young participants were examined by automated kinetic perimetry (Octopus 900 using Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. Each stimulus was presented with a velocity of 3°/s at 24 meridians with 15° intervals. Four levels of intraocular stray light were induced using non-white opacity filter (WOF filters and WOFs applied to the clear plastic eye covers of the participants. The visual acuity, pupil diameter, isopter area, and kinetic sensitivity of each meridian were analyzed for each WOF density.Visual acuity deteriorated with increasing WOF densities (p < 0.01. With a visual acuity of 0.1 LogMAR units, the isopter areas for III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e decreased by -32.7 degree2 (-0.2%, -255.7 degree2 (-2.6%, -381.2 degree2 (-6.2%, -314.8 degree2 (-12.8%, and -59.2 degree2 (-15.2%, respectively; kinetic sensitivity for those stimuli decreased by -0.1 degree (-0.1%, -0.8 degree (-1.4%, -1.6 degree (-3.7%, -2.7 degree (-9.7%, and -1.7 degree (-16.2%, respectively. The pupil diameter with each WOF density was not significantly different.Kinetic perimetry measurements with a high-intensity stimulus (i.e., III4e were unaffected by intraocular stray light. In contrast, measurements with the I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e stimuli, especially I2e and I1e, were affected. Changes in the shape of the isopter resulting from opacity must be monitored, especially in cases of smaller and lower-intensity stimuli.

  6. Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Mai, Phuong L.; Ioffe, Olga B.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Van Le, Linda; Ivanov, Iouri; Bell, Maria C.; Blank, Stephanie V.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Hamilton, Chad A.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Wakeley, Katie; Kauff, Noah D.; Yamada, S. Diane; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Skates, Steven J.; Alberts, David S.; Walker, Joan L.; Minasian, Lori; Lu, Karen; Greene, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age ≥ 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant's mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions

  7. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Appraisal of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group. A test of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group, was carried out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) for 4278 participants. The results of gender show that there are heavier occupational role, stronger interpersonal and physical strain in male than that in female, and the differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). The occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups. Different measure should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups.

  9. Brain Size, IQ, and Racial-Group Differences: Evidence from Musculoskeletal Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Rushton, Elizabeth W.

    2003-01-01

    Correlated brain size differences with 37 musculoskeletal variables shown in evolutionary textbooks to change with brain size. Findings from a sample of more than 6,000 U.S. military personnel indicate that racial differences in brain size are securely established and are the most likely biological mediators of race differences in intelligence.…

  10. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  11. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Profile of Modified Sba-15 at Different Amount of Alkoxy silane Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhasyimi Rahmat; Nur Fathilah Mohd Yusof; Ezani Hafiza

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on meso porous silica SBA-15 modified with alkoxy silane functional group; phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES) and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) using direct synthesis and post-grafting methods. By direct synthesis method, SBA-15 template by triblock copolymer (P123) and functionalized with alkoxy silane groups at different amount of loadings were co-condensed with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) under acidic conditions. As for post-grafting method, different loadings of alkoxy silane groups were added after co-condensation of TEOS with P123 template. Both synthesis methods used calcination process to remove surfactant template at 550 degree Celsius for 5 hours. The derivatized SBA-15 was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis to evaluate the profile at different loadings of alkoxy silane groups with different synthesis method. At temperature range of 300-800 degree Celsius, post-grafting method displayed the highest weight loss of phenyl and vinyl groups. However, there was no significant difference of weight loss for different amount of organo silane groups. In this study, TGA has shown to be significant characterization means to determine the effects of different method used in synthesizing modified SBA-15. It was shown that different loading of phenyl and vinyl groups did not affect the efficiency of surfactant removal. (author)

  12. THE GEMINI/NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF PLANETS AROUND YOUNG MOVING GROUP STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biller, Beth A.; Ftaclas, Christ [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Close, Laird M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chun, Mark [Institute for Astronomy, 640 North Aohoku Place, 209, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Clarke, Fraser; Thatte, Niranjan [Department of Astronomy, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Reid, I. Neill [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Boss, Alan [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Lin, Douglas [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Fisica-ICEx-Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, 30270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane [Universidade de Sao Paulo, IAG/USP, Departamento de Astronomia, Rua do Matao 1226, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-10

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the β Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ΔH = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH{sub 4} narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ΔH = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI Campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 M{sub Jup}, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CD–35 2722B (31 ± 8 M{sub Jup}, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M{sub ☉}, 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}, 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 M{sub Jup} companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. Our results strongly constrain the frequency of planets within semi-major axes of 50 AU as well. We restrict the frequency of 1-20 M{sub Jup} companions at semi-major axes from 10-50 AU to <21% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <7% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars.

  13. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A K; Shivahre, P R; Bhakat, M; Singh, K Mahesh

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (page group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (page groups. Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause.

  14. Classification of esophageal motor findings in gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Conclusions from an international consensus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C P; Roman, S; Bredenoord, A J; Fox, M; Keller, J; Pandolfino, J E; Sifrim, D; Tatum, R; Yadlapati, R; Savarino, E

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) has resulted in new revelations regarding the pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The impact of new HRM motor paradigms on reflux burden needs further definition, leading to a modern approach to motor testing in GERD. Focused literature searches were conducted, evaluating pathophysiology of GERD with emphasis on HRM. The results were discussed with an international group of experts to develop a consensus on the role of HRM in GERD. A proposed classification system for esophageal motor abnormalities associated with GERD was generated. Physiologic gastro-esophageal reflux is inherent in all humans, resulting from transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations that allow venting of gastric air in the form of a belch. In pathological gastro-esophageal reflux, transient LES relaxations are accompanied by reflux of gastric contents. Structural disruption of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) barrier, and incomplete clearance of the refluxate can contribute to abnormally high esophageal reflux burden that defines GERD. Esophageal HRM localizes the LES for pH and pH-impedance probe placement, and assesses esophageal body peristaltic performance prior to invasive antireflux therapies and antireflux surgery. Furthermore, HRM can assess EGJ and esophageal body mechanisms contributing to reflux, and exclude conditions that mimic GERD. Structural and motor EGJ and esophageal processes contribute to the pathophysiology of GERD. A classification scheme is proposed incorporating EGJ and esophageal motor findings, and contraction reserve on provocative tests during HRM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Different pain responses to chronic and acute pain in various ethnic/racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahavard, Behnoosh B; Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2017-09-01

    Our goal in this study was to review the similarities and differences among ethnic groups and their respective responses to acute and chronic clinically related and experimentally induced pain. In this review, the PUBMED and Google-Scholar databases were searched to analyze articles that have assessed the variations in both acute and chronic pain responses among different ethnic/racial groups. According to the results from 42 reviewed articles, significant differences exist among ethnic-racial groups for pain prevalence as well as responses to acute and chronic pain. Compared with Caucasians, other ethnic groups are more susceptible to acute pain responses to nociceptive stimulation and to the development of long-term chronic pain. These differences need to be addressed and assessed more extensively in the future in order to minimize the pain management disparities among various ethnic-racial groups and also to improve the relationship between pain management providers and their patients.

  16. The Influence of Setting on Findings Produced in Qualitative Health Research: A Comparison between Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Groups about HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Graffigna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus their analysis in this article on online focus groups (FGs, in an attempt to describe how the setting shapes the conversational features of the discussion and influences data construction. Starting from a review of current dominant viewpoints, they compare face-to-face discussion groups with different formats of online FGs about AIDS, from a discourse analysis perspective. They conducted 2 face-to-face FGs, 2 chats, 2 forums, and 2 forums+plus+chat involving 64 participants aged 18 to 25 and living in Italy. Their findings seem not only to confirm the hypothesis of a general difference between a face-to-face discussion setting and an Internet-mediated one but also reveal differences among the forms of online FG, in terms of both the thematic articulation of discourse and the conversational and relational characteristics of group exchange, suggesting that exchanges on HIV/AIDS are characterized by the setting. This characterization seems to be important for situating the choice of tool, according to research objectives, and for better defining the technical aspects of the research project.

  17. The effectiveness of a Housing First adaptation for ethnic minority groups: findings of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Stergiopoulos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the effectiveness of Housing First (HF among ethnic minority groups, despite its growing popularity for homeless adults experiencing mental illness. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of a HF program using rent supplements and intensive case management, enhanced by anti-racism and anti-oppression practices for homeless adults with mental illness from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds. Methods This unblinded pragmatic field trial was carried out in community settings in Toronto, Canada. Participants were 237 adults from ethnic minority groups experiencing mental illness and homelessness, who met study criteria for moderate needs for mental health services. Participants were randomized to either adapted HF (n = 135 or usual care (n = 102 and followed every 3 months for 24 months. The primary study outcome was housing stability; secondary outcomes included physical and mental health, social functioning, quality of life, arrests and health service use. Intention to treat statistical analyses examined the effectiveness of the intervention compared to usual care. Results During the 24-month study period, HF participants were stably housed a significantly greater proportion of time compared to usual care participants, 75 % (95 % CI 70 to 81 vs. 41 % (95 % CI 35 to 48, respectively, for a difference of 34 %, 95 % CI 25 to 43. HF also led to improvements in community integration over the course of the study: the change in the mean difference between treatment groups from baseline to 24-months was significantly greater among HF participants compared to those in usual care (change in mean difference = 2.2, 95 % CI 0.06 to 4.3. Baseline diagnosis of psychosis was associated with reduced likelihood of being housed ≥ 50 % of the study period (OR = 0.37, 95 % CI 0.18 to 0.72. Conclusion Housing First enhanced with anti-racism and anti-oppression practices can

  18. "First among Others? Cohen's ""d"" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Cahan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., 2, f2 evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation -' that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In contrast, the definition of Cohen's d, the effect size measure typically computed in the two-group case, is incongruent due to a conceptual difference between the numerator -' which measures between-group variability by the intuitive and straightforward raw difference between the two group means -' and the denominator - which measures within-group variability in terms of the difference between all observations and the group mean (i.e., the pooled within-groups standard deviation, SW. Two congruent alternatives to d, in which the root square or absolute mean difference between all observation pairs is substituted for SW as the variability measure in the denominator of d, are suggested and their conceptual and statistical advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  19. The association between social capital and loneliness in different age groups: a population-based study in Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Victor, Christina R; Forsman, Anna K; Cattan, Mima

    2016-07-11

    Previous studies of loneliness have largely focused on establishing risk factors in specific age groups such as in later life or in young people. Researchers have paid less attention to the link between social capital and loneliness across different age groups. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and experienced loneliness in different age groups in a Finnish setting. The data originates from a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted among 4618 people aged 15-80 in Western Finland in 2011. The response rate was 46.2 %. The association between social capital, measured by frequency of social contacts, participation in organisational activities, trust and sense of belonging to the neighbourhood and loneliness was tested by logistic regression analyses stratified by four age groups. Frequent loneliness (defined as experienced often or sometimes) was higher among younger people (39.5 %) compared to older people (27.3 %). Low levels of trust were linked to loneliness in all four age groups. The association between other aspects of social capital and loneliness varied across age groups. Frequent loneliness is common among the general adult population and could be seen as a public health issue. Our findings imply that low social capital, especially in terms of low trust, may be a risk factor for loneliness. However, further research is needed to assess the influence of poor health and reverse causality as explanations for the findings.

  20. [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Ji, J; Qian, S Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups:10 years. The relationship between the measured and predictive resting energy expenditure was analyzed with correlation analysis; while the metabolism status and the optimal energy supply in different age groups were analyzed with chi square test and variance analysis. Results: A total of 102 patients were enrolled, the measured resting energy expenditure all correlated with predictive resting energy expenditure in different age groups (10 years ( r= 0.5, P= 0.0) ) . A total of 40 cases in group, including: 14 cases of low metabolism (35%), 14 cases of normal metabolism (35%), and 12 cases of high metabolism (30%); 45 cases in 3-10 years group, including: 22 cases of low metabolism (49%), 19 cases of normal metabolism (42%), 4 cases of high metabolism (9%); 17 cases in > 10 years group, including: 12 cases of low metabolism (71%), 4 cases of normal metabolism (23%), 1 case of high metabolism (6%). Metabolism status showed significant differences between different age groups ( χ (2)=11.30, P age groups ( F= 46.57, Pgroup, (184±53) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in 3-10 years group, and (120±30) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in > 10 years group. Conclusion: The resting energy metabolism of the critically ill children on mechanical ventilation is negatively related to the age. The actual energy requirement should be calculated according to different ages.

  1. Early and Late Results of the Nuss Procedure in Surgical Treatment of Pectus Excavatum in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Krystian; Gąsiorowski, Łukasz; Gabryel, Piotr; Gałęcki, Bartłomiej; Zieliński, Paweł; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was a comparison of early and late results in surgical treatment of funnel chest using the Nuss method in patients in various age groups to find the optimal age to perform the corrective procedure. Six hundred eighty patients operated on from June 2002 to October 2012 were included in the retrospective analysis. Patients were divided into 3 different age groups: group A = 156 patients from 7 to 14 years, group B = 328 patients aged 15 to 20 years, and group C = 196 patients older than 20 years of age. The mean follow-up was 33 months. Early non-life-threatening complications developed in 238 (35.0%) patients and frequency increased with age (group A, 24.3%; group B, 37.8%; group C, 38.8%; p = 0.0063). Good and very good corrective effects were achieved in 97.7 % of the entire patient population. Recurrence of the deformity was observed more often in younger patients (group A, 3.2 %) than in the other patients (group B, 1.2%; group C, 1.5%), although the difference between the studied groups was not significant (p = 0.3251). Good cosmetic results obtained with the use of the Nuss operation were not related to the age of the patients. The high incidence of minor complications in older patients seems to be an acceptable cost of a good cosmetic outcome and stable correction. Surgical morbidity is lowest in younger patients; however, the frequency of the recurrence of deformation is higher than in other groups. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex differences in in-group cooperation vary dynamically with competitive conditions and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H; Winegard, Benjamin; Oxford, Jon; Geary, David C

    2012-03-18

    Men's but not women's investment in a public goods game varied dynamically with the presence or absence of a perceived out-group. Three hundred fifty-four (167 male) young adults participated in multiple iterations of a public goods game under intergroup and individual competition conditions. Participants received feedback about whether their investments in the group were sufficient to earn a bonus to be shared among all in-group members. Results for the first trial confirm previous research in which men's but not women's investments were higher when there was a competing out-group. We extended these findings by showing that men's investment in the in-group varied dynamically by condition depending on the outcome of the previous trial: In the group condition, men, but not women, decreased spending following a win (i.e., earning an in-group bonus). In the individual condition, men, but not women, increased spending following a win. We hypothesize that these patterns reflect a male bias to calibrate their level of in-group investment such that they sacrifice only what is necessary for their group to successfully compete against a rival group.

  3. Sex Differences in In-Group Cooperation Vary Dynamically with Competitive Conditions and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew H. Bailey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Men's but not women's investment in a public goods game varied dynamically with the presence or absence of a perceived out-group. Three hundred fifty-four (167 male young adults participated in multiple iterations of a public goods game under intergroup and individual competition conditions. Participants received feedback about whether their investments in the group were sufficient to earn a bonus to be shared among all in-group members. Results for the first trial confirm previous research in which men's but not women's investments were higher when there was a competing out-group. We extended these findings by showing that men's investment in the in-group varied dynamically by condition depending on the outcome of the previous trial: In the group condition, men, but not women, decreased spending following a win (i.e., earning an in-group bonus. In the individual condition, men, but not women, increased spending following a win. We hypothesize that these patterns reflect a male bias to calibrate their level of in-group investment such that they sacrifice only what is necessary for their group to successfully compete against a rival group.

  4. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  5. Assessing cross-cultural differences through use of multiple-group invariance analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Lee, Jerry W; Jones, Patricia S

    2006-12-01

    The use of structural equation modeling in cross-cultural personality research has become a popular method for testing measurement invariance. In this report, we present an example of testing measurement invariance using the Sense of Coherence Scale of Antonovsky (1993) in 3 ethnic groups: Chinese, Japanese, and Whites. In a series of increasingly restrictive constraints on the measurement models of the 3 groups, we demonstrate how to assess differences among the groups. We also provide an example of construct validation.

  6. Gender differences in computer-mediated communication: a systematic literature review of online health-related support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Malik, Sumaira H; Coulson, Neil S

    2009-04-01

    Previous research has contended that the unique characteristics of the Internet might remove some of the gender differences that exist in face-to-face healthcare. The aims of the present study were to systematically review studies that have examined gender differences in communication within online health communities. A literature search was conducted to identify studies addressing gender differences in messages posted to online health-related support groups. Out of the 1186 articles identified, twelve were retrieved for review. Half of the studies examined gender differences by comparing male and female cancer discussion boards. The literature review revealed that some gender differences were observed in these studies. However, for studies that analysed mixed-gender communities, gender differences were less evident. Results seemed to reveal gender differences in communications in single-sex online health support groups, and similarities in communication patterns in mixed-sex online health support groups. However, findings should be treated with caution due to the diversity in studies and methodological issues highlighted in the present review. There is a need for health care professionals to take into account a range of situational and contextual factors that may affect how men and women use online health support groups. However, more robust research is needed before concrete guidelines can be developed to help health care professionals develop effective online support interventions.

  7. Consistent Individual Differences Drive Collective Behavior and Group Functioning of Schooling Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; Boogert, Neeltje J; Sridhar, Vivek H; Couzin, Iain D; Manica, Andrea

    2017-09-25

    The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior. Here we investigate how the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and foraging performance of groups can emerge from inter-individual differences by high-resolution tracking of known behavioral types in free-swimming stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) shoals. We show that individual's propensity to stay near others, measured by a classic "sociability" assay, was negatively linked to swim speed across a range of contexts, and predicted spatial positioning and leadership within groups as well as differences in structure and movement dynamics between groups. In turn, this trait, together with individual's exploratory tendency, measured by a classic "boldness" assay, explained individual and group foraging performance. These effects of consistent individual differences on group-level states emerged naturally from a generic model of self-organizing groups composed of individuals differing in speed and goal-orientedness. Our study provides experimental and theoretical evidence for a simple mechanism to explain the emergence of collective behavior from consistent individual differences, including variation in the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and functional capabilities of groups, across social and ecological scales. In addition, we demonstrate individual performance is conditional on group composition, indicating how social selection may drive behavioral differentiation between individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by

  8. Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold of β-Cyclodextrin Adsorbates with Different Anchoring Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méndez Ardoy, Alejandro; Steentjes, Tom; Kudernac, Tibor; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    We designed multivalent β-cyclodextrin-based adsorbates bearing different anchoring groups aiming to yield stable monolayers with improved packing and close contact of the cavity to the gold surface. Toward this end the primary rim of the β-cyclodextrin was decorated with several functional groups,

  9. Bumblebee workers from different sire groups vary in susceptibility to parasite infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2003-01-01

    is so far only supported indirectly. Here we tested this crucial assumption using data from a study on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris L. with queens inseminated with sperm of either one or several males that originated from different sire groups (i.e. groups of brothers). We found that, under field...

  10. Religious beliefs and mammography intention: findings from a qualitative study of a diverse group of American Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Vu, Milkie; Muhammad, Hadiyah; Marfani, Farha; Mallick, Saleha; Peek, Monica; Quinn, Michael T

    2016-10-01

    Studies suggest that American Muslim women underutilize mammography. While religion has a strong influence upon Muslim health behaviors, scant research has examined how religion-related beliefs inform Muslim women's intention for mammography. Our study identifies and examines such beliefs. Muslim women aged 40 years and older sampled from mosques participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Drawing upon the theory of planned behavior, interviews elicited salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs regarding mammography and the influence of Islam upon screening intention. Fifty women participated in 6 focus groups and 19 in semistructured interviews, with near-equal numbers of African American, South Asian, and Arab Muslims. Forty-two percent of participants had not had a mammogram within the past 2 years. Across differences in race/ethnicity and mammography status, women voiced four religion-related salient beliefs that inform mammography intention: (1) the perceived duty to care for one's health, (2) religious practices as methods of disease prevention, (3) fatalistic notions about health, and (4) comfort with gender concordant health care. Religious beliefs influence decisions to pursue mammography across the ethnic/racial diversity of Muslim women. Notions about duty to God and the stewardship of one's body appear to enhance mammography intention. Theocentric notions of cure and illness and varied views regarding personal agency also inform decisional frames that impact mammography intention. Given the salience of religion among our participants, religiously tailored messages in interventions have the potential to enhance cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Oxygen Saturation in the Dental Pulp of Maxillary Premolars in Different Age Groups - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Serpa, Giuliano C; Alencar, Ana Helena G; Bruno, Kely F; Barletta, Fernando B; Felippe, Wilson T; Estrela, Cyntia R A; Souza, João B

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine oxygen saturation levels in the dental pulp of maxillary premolars in different age groups. A total of 120 human maxillary premolars with normal dental pulps were selected covering the following age groups: 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and 40-44 years (n=24 each group). Oxygen saturation was assessed using pulse oximetry. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in oxygen saturation levels and Tukey's test was used to identify the age groups that differed from each other. Significance was set at 0.05. Mean oxygen saturation of 120 premolars was 86.20% considering all age groups. Significantly reduced levels were found in the oldest group compared to the other groups: 40 to 44 years - 80.00% vs. 89.71, 87.67, 88.71, and 84.80% for age groups 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 years, respectively. The mean oxygen saturation levels were similar between 20 and 39 years of age (86.20%) in the whole sample, but reduced significantly in the 40-44-year age group, suggesting that older patients present lower oxygen saturation results even in the absence of pulp tissue injury.

  12. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogayar, M I; Gregório, E A

    1989-01-01

    Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the distal extremity of the lateral flange is short and thick and the marginal plate does not penetrate into the distal extremity of the flange. In the Giardia muris group, the ventro-lateral flange is well developed and narrow and the marginal plate penetrates the distal extremity of the flange. The osmiophilic lamella, which accompanies the dorsal surface of the marginal plate is seen only in the Giardia muris group.

  13. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the distal extremity of the lateral flange is short and thick and the marginal plate does not penetrate into the distal extremity of the flange. In the Giardia muris group, the ventro-lateral flange is well developed and narrow and the marginal plate penetrates the distal extremity of the flange. The osmiophilic lamella, which accompanies the dorsal surface of the marginal plate is seen only in the Giardia muris group.

  14. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  15. Analysis of changes of demographic parameters in different groups of Chernigiv region population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridzhuk, M.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    To perform comparison of the changes in different social and age groups of the population of Chernigiv region, Kozeletsky district in particular, which was exposed to considerable radioactive contamination, during the recent 20 years (beginning from 1977). The Chernobyl accident together with social and other unfavorable factors caused negative demographic changes in the contaminated districts. Reduction in the number of different social groups of the population is expected

  16. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...

  17. Comparison in anesthetic effects of propofol among patients with different ABO blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiri; Shi, Haixia; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-05-01

    Our study was aimed to investigate anesthetic effects of propofol in patients with different blood groups.A total of 72 participants were enrolled from patients arranged for surgeries of cholecystectomy, tonsillectomy, and spinal operation. Each blood group (A, B, AB, and O) contained 18 participants. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and bispectral index (BIS) were assayed with Philips monitor. These indexes were observed before propofol anesthesia (T0), and then were recorded when concentration of propofol was 1 μg/mL (T1), 2 μg/mL (T2), 3 μg/mL (T3), and 4 μg/mL (T4). The differences in MAP, HR, and BIS at T0 among groups were compared with the χ test. Multiple comparisons were adopted to calculate the differences in MAP, HR, and BIS between groups at T1, T2, T3, and T4.No significant differences in age, sex, and weight of all groups were found (P > .05). Before propofol anesthesia (T0), all the participants exhibited no differences in MAP, HR, and BIS (P > .05). Subsequently, we found obvious differences in ΔMAP, ΔHR, and ΔBIS between groups. The patients in the B blood group showed highest ΔMAP and ΔHR at each time point (P blood group exhibited highest value at T3 and T4 (P blood group remarkably affects the anesthetic effects of propofol.

  18. Constructing a Measurement Method of Differences in Group Preferences Based on Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research and data analysis of the differences involved in group preferences, conventional statistical methods cannot reflect the integrity and preferences of human minds; in particular, it is difficult to exclude humans’ irrational factors. This paper introduces a preference amount model based on relative entropy theory. A related expansion is made based on the characteristics of the questionnaire data, and we also construct the parameters to measure differences in the data distribution of different groups on the whole. In this paper, this parameter is called the center distance, and it effectively reflects the preferences of human minds. Using the survey data of securities market participants as an example, this paper analyzes differences in market participants’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of securities regulation. Based on this method, differences between groups that were overlooked by analysis of variance are found, and certain aspects obscured by general data characteristics are also found.

  19. Age-Group Differences in Interference from Young and Older Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Johnson, Marcia K

    2010-11-01

    Human attention is selective, focusing on some aspects of events at the expense of others. In particular, angry faces engage attention. Most studies have used pictures of young faces, even when comparing young and older age groups. Two experiments asked (1) whether task-irrelevant faces of young and older individuals with happy, angry, and neutral expressions disrupt performance on a face-unrelated task, (2) whether interference varies for faces of different ages and different facial expressions, and (3) whether young and older adults differ in this regard. Participants gave speeded responses on a number task while irrelevant faces appeared in the background. Both age groups were more distracted by own than other-age faces. In addition, young participants' responses were slower for angry than happy faces, whereas older participants' responses were slower for happy than angry faces. Factors underlying age-group differences in interference from emotional faces of different ages are discussed.

  20. Finding Difference: Nemo and Friends Opening the Door to Disability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    While middle school and high school students may have watched the Disney and Disney/Pixar films when they were younger, chances are they did not do so with a critical eye toward difference and disability, despite the fact that these films serve as excellent tools for teaching about difference. Recent estimates label 20% of the world's population…

  1. Sex differences in pain: a brief review of clinical and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, E J; Fillingim, R B

    2013-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed substantially increased research regarding sex differences in pain. The expansive body of literature in this area clearly suggests that men and women differ in their responses to pain, with increased pain sensitivity and risk for clinical pain commonly being observed among women. Also, differences in responsivity to pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain interventions have been observed; however, these effects are not always consistent and appear dependent on treatment type and characteristics of both the pain and the provider. Although the specific aetiological basis underlying these sex differences is unknown, it seems inevitable that multiple biological and psychosocial processes are contributing factors. For instance, emerging evidence suggests that genotype and endogenous opioid functioning play a causal role in these disparities, and considerable literature implicates sex hormones as factors influencing pain sensitivity. However, the specific modulatory effect of sex hormones on pain among men and women requires further exploration. Psychosocial processes such as pain coping and early-life exposure to stress may also explain sex differences in pain, in addition to stereotypical gender roles that may contribute to differences in pain expression. Therefore, this review will provide a brief overview of the extant literature examining sex-related differences in clinical and experimental pain, and highlights several biopsychosocial mechanisms implicated in these male-female differences. The future directions of this field of research are discussed with an emphasis aimed towards further elucidation of mechanisms which may inform future efforts to develop sex-specific treatments.

  2. A very strong difference property for semisimple compact connected lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtern, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    Let G be a topological group. For a function f: G → ℝ and h ∈ G, the difference function Δ h f is defined by the rule Δ h f( x) = f( xh) - f( x) ( x ∈ G). A function H: G → ℝ is said to be additive if it satisfies the Cauchy functional equation H( x + y) = H( x) + H( y) for every x, y ∈ G. A class F of real-valued functions defined on G is said to have the difference property if, for every function f: G → ℝ satisfying Δ h f ∈ F for each h ∈ G, there is an additive function H such that f - H ∈ F. Erdős' conjecture claiming that the class of continuous functions on ℝ has the difference property was proved by N. G. de Bruijn; later on, F. W. Carroll and F. S. Koehl obtained a similar result for compact Abelian groups and, under the additional assumption that the other one-sided difference function ∇ h f defined by ∇ h f( x) = f( xh) - f( x) ( x ∈ G, h ∈ G) is measurable for any h ∈ G, also for noncommutative compact metric groups. In the present paper, we consider a narrower class of groups, namely, the family of semisimple compact connected Lie groups. It turns out that these groups admit a significantly stronger difference property. Namely, if a function f: G → ℝ on a semisimple compact connected Lie group has continuous difference functions Δ h f for any h ∈ G (without the additional assumption concerning the measurability of the functions of the form ∇ h f), then f is automatically continuous, and no nontrivial additive function of the form H is needed. Some applications are indicated, including difference theorems for homogeneous spaces of compact connected Lie groups.

  3. Some New Lie Symmetry Groups of Differential-Difference Equations Obtained from a Simple Direct Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Hongyan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, based on the symbolic computing system Maple, the direct method for Lie symmetry groups presented by Sen-Yue Lou [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 (2005) L129] is extended from the continuous differential equations to the differential-difference equations. With the extended method, we study the well-known differential-difference KP equation, KZ equation and (2+1)-dimensional ANNV system, and both the Lie point symmetry groups and the non-Lie symmetry groups are obtained.

  4. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict. Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations. Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data. Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  5. THE DIFFERENCES IN MORAL, GROUP IDENTITY AND THE PERCON’S VARIABILITY DEPENDING ON THE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrobna Kolinichenko

    2017-06-01

    Results. The results of the study have revealed the dominance of all specified assessment parameters in the group of test subjects with incomplete higher education: higher level of moral development in all dilemmas (the opposition of life values (compassion and following the law, self-interest – the interests of the city (law, business (benefit and law, personal interests (career and the freedom of another person, except for the dilemma of the opposition between the interests of a majority and a single person. The differences have also been revealed between the two groups of test subjects according to the group identity, group variability, the desirability of the common categories of identity.

  6. The North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative. Initial Findings. Final Report. Working Group 1 - Grid Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    This report focuses on the tasks and results from Working Group 1 (WG1), grid configuration and integration, chaired jointly by representatives from Denmark and the Netherlands. The methodology, assumptions concerning generation portfolio, load situation, available technology and results are presented. This report presents the WG1 Offshore Grid Study that supports the North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative (NSCOGI) final report. The information contained in this report aims to evaluate the long-term development of an offshore grid structure in the North Seas by providing a view on how such a grid may possibly develop in the future, based on the assumptions made for this study. The report aims to compare and evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of the long term development of an optimised, integrated (or meshed) offshore grid in the North Seas by providing a view of how that possible grid might develop in the future against changes to the electricity energy requirements. To evaluate basic variants, different transmission design topologies (radial and meshed) were compared and analysed with respect to various aspects, such as cost/benefits, import and export levels and the systems' CO2 emissions.

  7. Clinical-anthropometric characteristics of COPD outpatients belonging to the different groups and having different severity of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients with COPD, which differ in the degree of airways obstruction and belong to groups A, B, C, D in accordance with GOLD, 2011 classification. A total of 112 ambulatory COPD patients in remission made the study sample. Anthropometric data, body mass index, medical history, dyspnea by mMRC scale, and spirometry was performed for all patients. There was confirmed that outpatients with COPD is a heterogeneous group, in which the majority are those with moderate (48.22 % and severe (30.36 %, airway obstruction. Despite the vast majority of men among outpatients, the percentage of women among patients with mild to moderate obstruction (22.58±5.31 % was significantly higher (p=0.002 as compared with those with severe or very severe limitation of airflow (6.00±3.36 %. Patients with severe and very severe obstruction were of significantly older age (p = 0.024. At the same time, the distribution of patients according to the GOLD, 2011 classification, demonstrate that all groups did not differ on any of the anthropometric indicators, including gender and age (p > 0.050. Distribution of patients by groups with different risk for future exacerbations is not a mirror image of gradation in accordance with the degree of airway obstruction. Every second (50.00±4.43 % of cases patient is included in group C and every tenth (10.20±4.32 % belongs to the group D not due to degree of bronchial obstruction, but due to the number of exa­cerbations in the past year. Therefore, in future studies it is advisable to use both principles of patients’ classification.

  8. Normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in a population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Yilmaz, R B; Oktay, I; Ilhan, D; Fişekçioğlu, E; Özdemir, Fulya

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. One thousand and sixteen patients from seven different demographic regions of Turkey (Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Central Anatolia Region) (mean age ± SD: 12.80 ± 3.57 years) were randomly selected and divided into six age groups (7-8,9-10,11-12,13-14,15-16, and 17-18 year-olds) and categorized according to the dental health component (DHC) of the index for orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). Additionally, the patients were asked to indicate the photograph that was most similar to their own dentition from the 10-point scale of the aesthetic component of IOTN. The DHC of IOTN was not significantly different between the six age groups (P > 0.05). However, no/slight need (aesthetic component 1-4) for orthodontic treatment according to AC of IOTN was significantly higher in 13-14,15-16, and 17-18 age groups than 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 age groups (P age groups (P > 0.05). The normative need distribution was homogeneous within all the age groups according to DHC. However, the subjective need for orthodontic treatment was higher in the younger age groups.

  9. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  10. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  11. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Helen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups: 1 Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators 2 Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities 3 Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata Methods The sample consisted of White (n = 227, African-Caribbean (n = 213 and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233 adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Results Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. Conclusion In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research

  12. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Paul, Sheila; Lambert, Helen; Ahmad, Waqar; Smith, George Davey

    2009-02-27

    In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups:1) Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators2) Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities3) Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata The sample consisted of White (n = 227), African-Caribbean (n = 213) and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233) adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research is required to establish the degree to which results of

  13. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerez M

    2016-01-01

    sample size for statistical analysis.Results: The nonparametric analysis correctly classified 81% of the sample. Dysrhythmic patterns, decreased delta, and increased beta differentiated AD from controls. Shorter ERP latencies were found in several individual patients, mostly from the OCD group. Hyperactivities were found at the right frontorbital-striatal network in OCD and at the panic circuit in PD.Conclusions: Our findings support diffuse cortical instability in AD in general, with individual differences in information processing deficits and regional hyperactivities in OCD and PD. Study limitations and the rationale behind the variable selection and combination strategy will be discussed before addressing the therapeutic implications of our findings. Keywords: anxiety disorders, dysrhythmic, epileptiform, ERP, EEG, LORETA

  14. Malformations of the midline commissures: MRI findings in different forms of callosal dysgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueker, W.; Mader, I.; Naegele, T.; Mayrhofer, H.; Kraegeloh-Mann, I.

    2003-01-01

    Malformations of the corpus callosum (CC) may occur in many different syndromes. Various forms have been observed. We report seven cases of malformation of the CC. Special attention is directed towards the development of the fornix and hippocampus as a hippocampal commissure is a prerequisite of normal hippocampal development. The clinical disability of the patients presented here differed significantly, which may in part be due to the different extent of this cerebral malformation. The relevance of the concomitant aplasia of the limbic system has not been addressed in detail previously in the literature. (orig.)

  15. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Page group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Page group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Page in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  16. "I would like to discuss it further with an expert": a focus group study of Finnish adults' perspectives on genetic secondary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, M; Aktan-Collan, K; Hallowell, N; Konttinen, H; Kääriäinen, H; Haukkala, A

    2018-01-16

    Lowered costs of genomic sequencing facilitate analyzing large segments of genetic data. Ethical debate has focused on whether and what kind of incidental or secondary findings (SFs) to report, and how to obtain valid informed consent. However, people's support needs after receiving SFs have received less attention. We explored Finnish adults' perspectives on reporting genetic SFs. In this qualitative study which included four focus group discussions (N = 23) we used four vignette letters, each reporting a genetic SF predisposing to a different disease: familial hypercholesterolemia, long QT syndrome, Lynch syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Transcribed focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Major themes were immediate shock, dealing with worry and heightened risk, fear of being left alone to deal with SFs, disclosing to family, and identified support needs. Despite their willingness to receive SFs, participants were concerned about being left alone to deal with them. Empathetic expert support and timely access to preventive care were seen as essential to coping with shock and worry, and disclosing SFs to family. Discussion around SFs needs to concern not only which findings to report, but also how healthcare systems need to prepare for providing timely access to preventive care and support for individuals and families.

  17. Students of Different Subjects Have Different Levels of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Learn English: Two Different Groups of EFL Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran; Fujita, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Here is documented investigation to assess the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese, first-year, dental-university students taking part in compulsory EFL classes and to compare those motivational drivers with an investigation into the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese IT students. There was a clear difference between extrinsic and…

  18. Sex differences in macronutrient intake and adherence to dietary recommendations: findings from the UK Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, E; Peters, SAE; Woodward, M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise sex differences in macronutrient intakes and adherence to dietary recommendations in the UK Biobank population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Setting: UK Biobank Resource. Participants: 210 106 (52.5% women) individuals with data on dietary behaviour. Main outcome measures: Women-to-men mean differences in nutrient intake in grams and as a percentage of energy and women-to-men ORs in non-adherence, adjusting for age, socioeconomic ...

  19. Interim Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: Findings Based on Different Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interim evaluation studies were carried out in order to examine the implementation details of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong. Quantitative results of the interim evaluation findings based on eight datasets collected from 2006 to 2009 are reported in this paper. Three hundred and seventy-eight schools were randomly selected to provide information on the implementation details of the program via face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, and self-completed questionnaires. Results showed that a majority of the workers perceived that the students had positive responses to the program and the program was helpful to the students. In conjunction with other process evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the implementation quality of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. is high. The present study also provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  20. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C. Houtenbos, M. Ehlers, E. & Waard, D. de

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. The main research questions concerned age differences in the self-reported use of

  1. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.; Houtenbos, M.; Ehlers, E.; De Waard, D.

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. Method: The main research questions concerned age differences in the

  2. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  3. Maternal Child-Rearing Patterns and Children's Scholastic Achievement in Different Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Richard D.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general proposition that different maternal child-rearing pattern-types (permissive or restrictive) are associated with high scholastic achievement in elementary school children from four different class-culture groupings (black middle-class, black working-class, white middle-class, and white…

  4. Understanding Disproportionate Representation in Special Education by Examining Group Differences in Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christina D.; Kranzler, John H.; Algina, James; Smith, Stephen W.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine mean-group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty-five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior-Teacher Form (CAB-T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB-T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used…

  5. Adolescents' Motivation for Reading: Group Differences and Relation to Standardized Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Denton, Carolyn A.; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on adolescents' motivation for reading by examining important group differences and the relation of motivation to standardized achievement. Adolescents (N = 406) ranging from grade 7 to grade 12 completed a self-report survey that assessed 13 different aspects of their reading motivation…

  6. Occurrence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in cattle of different age groups in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.

    2002-01-01

    . Serotype 2 was especially prevalent among calves (68% of the positive calves). In eight of the 20 positive herds, all isolates had the same sero- and PFGE type while, in the other herds, two to five different types were isolated. Conclusions: Significant differences were found between age groups...

  7. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  8. Performance Assessment and the Components of the Oral Construct across Different Tasks and Rater Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    This study investigated whether different groups of native speakers assess second language learners' language skills differently for three elicitation techniques. Subjects were six learners of college-level Arabic as a second language, tape-recorded performing three tasks: participating in a modified oral proficiency interview, narrating a picture…

  9. Modeling Group Differences in OLS and Orthogonal Regression: Implications for Differential Validity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.; Mroch, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    In evaluating the relationship between two measures across different groups (i.e., in evaluating "differential validity") it is necessary to examine differences in correlation coefficients and in regression lines. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression is the standard method for fitting lines to data, but its criterion for optimal fit…

  10. Erythrocyte enzymes in groups of Rattus norvegicus with genetic differences in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N A; Tanaka, K R

    1979-01-01

    1. A major locus with two alleles is responsible for large differences in erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels in Rattus norvegicus. Blood from homozygous High-DPG, homozygous Low-DPG and heterozygous animals was used to measure blood indices and red cell enzyme activities. 2. Significant differences between groups were found in DPG levels, white blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels. 3. The results suggest that none of the red cell enzymes assayed is structurally or quantitatively different in the three groups.

  11. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  12. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John PA; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene–environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal. PMID:22333905

  13. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  14. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of micelle structure of glycolipids with different head groups by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton; Hartmann, Thorsten; Niemeyer, Bernd; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Glycolipids such as n-alkyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside and n-alkyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside can self-assemble into different structures depending on solution conditions. Their amphiphilic properties enable them to serve as biosurfactants in biology and biotechnology, especially for solubilizing membrane proteins. The physicochemical properties of glycolipids have attracted attentions from several research groups, aiming to better understand their application in biological and environmental processes. For example, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to study micelle structures formed by glycolipids. Our previous work has shown that n-octyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside form micelles with different structure, suggesting an important role of the sugar head group in micelle formation. In the present work, we further compare micelle structures of n-octyl- beta-Dglucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-galactopyranoside. These two glycolipids have the same hydrophobic tail and their head sugar groups differ only in the conformation with one hydroxyl group pointing to different direction. Our SANS data together with phase behaviours reported by other group have suggested that a slight alteration of head group conformation can significantly affect self-assembly of glycolipids. (authors)

  16. Evaluating a blended-learning course taught to different groups of learners in a dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahinis, Kimon; Stokes, Christopher W; Walsh, Trevor F; Cannavina, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to present and evaluate a blended-learning course developed for undergraduate (B.D.S.), postgraduate, and diploma (hygiene and therapy) students at the University of Sheffield School of Clinical Dentistry. Blended learning is the integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning. The overall methodology used for this study was action research. The data were collected using three processes: questionnaires to collect contextual data from the students taking the course; a student-led, nominal group technique to collect group data from the participants; and a non-participant observer technique to record the context in which certain group and individual behaviors occurred. The online component of the course was accepted as a valuable resource by 65 percent of those responding. While online information-sharing occurred (31 percent of the students posted in forums), there was no evidence of online collaboration, with only 8 percent replying to forum postings. Accessibility of the online environment was one of the main concerns of the students at the nominal group sessions. Differences regarding overall engagement with the course between the student groups (years) were observed during the sessions. The majority of the students were satisfied with the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) course. No statistically significant differences between males and females were found, but there were differences between different student cohorts (year groups).

  17. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (ppostural control performance (ppostural control shown by these women.

  18. Clinical and immunological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutdusova A.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical and immunological features of the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups. Materials and methods: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in 148 women aged 17 to 65 years old have been investigated. Patients have been divided into two groups: group I included 101 patients with normal menstrual rhythm, group II included 47 female patients with menopause. In 57 women (36 from group I, 21 — from group II the content of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ — sub-populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been determined. Results: In compared groups significant differences in structure and frequency of complications of the disease have been revealed. Unidirectional tendency to increase significantly reduced absolute rates of investigated lymphocyte subpopulations in dynamics of the disease has been identified. It also has been stated that by the time of early convalescence in case of severe form of HFRS the indices did not reach the standard level. In an older group of women deeper damage and long-term recovery of immune system have been marked. Conclusion: According to the results of clinical and immunological studies the research work has revealed that in young women the response of the immune system to HFRS has developed faster and stronger than that in patients during the menopause period.

  19. Frequency of different blood groups and its association with BMI and blood pressure among the female medical students of Faisalabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Shireen; Zia, Sadaf; Tariq, Sundus

    2017-08-01

    To determine the frequency of different blood groups among female medical students and to find the association of blood groups and body mass index with blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was performed at the University Medical and Dental College, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from March to April 2016, and comprised female medical students. Participants were divided into groups on the basis of their ABO blood groups and on body mass index criteria. Blood groups were determined by simple conventional slide method. Blood pressure was estimated by manual auscultatory technique with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Data was analysed usingSPSS20. There were 145 students with an overall mean age of18.4±0.75 years (range: 17-23 years). Blood group B was the predominant group 65(44.8%). Besides, 130(89.6%) subjects were rhesus positive and 23(53%) subjects of blood group O were pre-hypertensive. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant positive association of blood group O with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.002, 0.001). However, subsequent logistic regression showed significant association only with diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001). Relative risk of pre-hypertension for obese (p=0.001) was greater than non-obese subjects. Body mass index was significantly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.004, 0.042). Blood group B was the most common blood group. Blood group O was associated with diastolic pre-hypertension, while body mass index was associated with both systolic and diastolic pre-hypertension.

  20. Endoscopic findings in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding clinically classified into three risk groups prior to endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tammaro, Leonardo; Paolo, Maria Carla Di; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Morini, Sergio; Caliendo, Sebastiano; Pallotta, Lorella

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in a prospective study whether a simplified clinical score prior to endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) patients was able to predict endoscopic findings at urgent endoscopy.

  1. Physico-chemical findings related to the resilience of different soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an interdisciplinary study on Sustainable Agriculture in semiarid Areas (SASA) in south-central Tanzania, soils from five different locations were investigated for their mineralogical composition and physico-chemical characteristics in order to determine their resilience in relation to land use. The results of the ...

  2. The physical environment of positive places: Exploring differences between age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina E; Broberg, Anna; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-02-01

    Features of the physical environment have an impact on the human behaviour. Thus, planners and policymakers around the world should aim at providing environments that are perceived as being of good quality, in which the residents enjoy spending time and moving around in. It is widely acknowledged that urban environmental quality associates with well-being, but there is currently very little research examining which features of urban environments people of different ages perceive as appealing in their living environments. Individuals experience different age-related developmental environments throughout their life course. Thus, the usage and perceptions of different spaces can also differ between various age groups. Public Participation GIS datasets collected in 2009 and 2011 in Helsinki Metropolitan Area were used to study places perceived as being positive by adults (n=3119) and children (n=672). Participants marked points on a map that were overlaid with GIS data to study whether the physical environment of positive places of different age groups differed. The results demonstrated that the physical environment differs significantly in the positive places of different age groups. The places of adult age groups were characterized by green, blue and commercial spaces, whereas sports, residential and commercial spaces characterize children's and adolescents' places. Older adults' places were found to be closest to home, while adolescents' places were the most distant. Providing appealing environments for all age groups in one setting remains problematic but should nevertheless be strived for, especially in the urban context where a constant competition over different usages of space occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the prognosis among different age groups in elderly patients with hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagino Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcome of treatment of hip fractures in different age groups in the elderly population is largely unknown. Hence, we stratified elderly patients with hip fracture into age groups and compared the prognosis in various age groups. Materials and Methods: Among 459 patients with hip fracture treated at our hospital from 1997, 430 patients aged 65 years or above at the time of injury were studied. The patients comprised 98 males and 332 females and the ages at injury ranged from 65 to 103 years (mean 83.4 years. There were 167 cases of femoral neck fracture and 263 cases of trochanteric fractures. Surgery was performed in 383 cases, while 47 cases were treated conservatively. The subjects were classified by age into young-old for those aged 65-74 years (group A, n = 55, middle-old for those aged 75-84 years (group B, n = 172, old-old for those aged 85-94 (group C, n = 180, and oldest-old for those aged 95 years or above (group D, n = 23. The functional and survival prognosis at discharge in each group was investigated. Results: Numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those ambulatory before injury were 43 of 49 (87.8% in group A, 113 of 152 (74.3% in group B, 86 of 138 (62.3% in group C, and 5 of 14 (35.7% in group D, showing worse recovery of walking ability as age advanced. Among those ambulatory before injury, 42 patients in group A, 139 patients in group B, 130 patients in group C, and 12 patients in group D underwent surgery and of these patients, 38 patients (90.5% in group A, 109 patients (78.4% in group B, 83 patients (63.8% in group C, and 5 patients (41.7% in group D were ambulatory at discharge. On the other hand, the numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those receiving conservative treatment were 5 of 7 (71.4% in group A, 4 of 13 (30.8% in group B, 3 of 8 (37.5% in group C, and 0 of 2 (0% in group D, showing better walking ability in surgical patients than in conservatively treated

  4. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilantho, Alisa; Deekaew, Pamornya; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Tongsima, Sissades; Somboonna, Naraporn

    2017-01-01

    , revealed differences in the distribution pattern of species, although common bacteria were present in both biogeographical samples. Furthermore, B-RISA served as a crosscheck result to the 16S rRNA gene sequencing (i.e., differences between teenage and elderly microbiota). This study revealed and compared the microbial diversity on different aged Thai male faces, and included analyses for representing the bacterial flora, the clinical skin characteristics, and comparison with the US age-matched. The results represent the first skin microbiota of Thai males, and helps the design of a large-scale skin microbiome study of Thais. The findings of the diversity among ages, skin type and national biogeography supported the importance of these traits in the skin microbiome and in developing a safe and sustainable treatment for acne and aging skin diseases.

  5. Accounting for group differences in appraisals of social inequality: differential injustice standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca M; Warner, Ruth H; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2011-06-01

    We tested whether differential appraisals of inequality are a function of the injustice standards used by different groups. A confirmatory standard of injustice is defined as the amount of evidence needed to arrive at the conclusion that injustice has occurred. Consistent with a motivational shifting of standards view, we found that advantaged and disadvantaged group members set different standards of injustice when judging the magnitude of gender (Study 1) and racial (Study 2) wage inequality. In addition, because advantaged and disadvantaged group members formed - based on their differential standards - divergent appraisals of wage inequality, they experienced differential desire to restore inter-group justice. We discuss the implications of promoting low confirmatory standards for changing perceptions of social reality and for motivating justice-restorative behaviour. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  7. Implementation of different turbulence model to find proper model to estimate aerodynamic properties of airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogukpinar, Haci; Bozkurt, Ismail

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, aerodynamic calculations of NACA 4 series airfoil of 0012 are performed by using Finite-Volume Method and obtained results are compared with experimental data to correlate the numerical accuracy of CFD approximation. Then other airfoils are simulated with k-ɛ, k-w Spalart-Allmaras and SST model. The governing equations are the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The performance of different airfoils (NACA 0008, 0009, 0010, 0012, 0015, 0018, 0021, 0024) at different angle of attack are investigated and compared with most used turbulence models for industrial applications. According to the results of the comparison of numerical calculations and experimental data, k-w and SST models are considered to be closest to experimental results for the calculation of the lift coefficient.

  8. Effects of dietary esfenvalerate exposures on three aquatic insect species representing different functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds, including esfenvalerate, that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. We examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We used three field-collected aquatic insect species: A grazing scraper, Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae); an omnivorous filter feeder, Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae); and a predator, Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Laboratory-cultured algae were preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 microg/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes (small and final-instar nymphs). Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks of feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 microg/L of esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/L. Consumption of larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 microg/L of esfenvalerate caused case abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects were observed during the present study. Furthermore, no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence was found in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. These findings indicate that feeding deterrence is not a factor in regulating aquatic insect dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroids.

  9. Differences in intracellular fate of two spotted fever group Rickettsia in macrophage-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Curto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide, such as Mediterranean spotted fever (R. conorii and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R. rickettsii. Recent studies in several animal models have provided evidence of non-endothelial parasitism by pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, suggesting that the interaction of rickettsiae with cells other than the endothelium may play an important role in pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. These studies raise the hypothesis that the role of macrophages in rickettsial pathogenesis may have been underappreciated. Herein, we evaluated the ability of two SFG rickettsial species, R. conorii (a recognized human pathogen and R. montanensis (a non-virulent member of SFG to proliferate in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, or within non-phagocytic cell lines. Our results demonstrate that R. conorii was able to survive and proliferate in both phagocytic and epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, R. montanensis was able to grow in non-phagocytic cells, but was drastically compromised in the ability to proliferate within both undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, association assays revealed that R. montanensis was defective in binding to THP-1-derived macrophages; however, the invasion of the bacteria that are able to adhere did not appear to be affected. We have also demonstrated that R. montanensis which entered into THP-1-derived macrophages were rapidly destroyed and partially co-localized with LAMP-2 and cathepsin D, two markers of lysosomal compartments. In contrast, R. conorii was present as intact bacteria and free in the cytoplasm in both cell types. These findings suggest that a phenotypic difference between a non-pathogenic and a pathogenic SFG member lies in their respective ability to proliferate in macrophage-like cells, and may provide an explanation as to why certain SFG rickettsial species are not associated with

  10. Differences in Intracellular Fate of Two Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in Macrophage-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Pedro; Simões, Isaura; Riley, Sean P; Martinez, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide, such as Mediterranean spotted fever (Rickettsia conorii) and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii). Recent studies in several animal models have provided evidence of non-endothelial parasitism by pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, suggesting that the interaction of rickettsiae with cells other than the endothelium may play an important role in pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. These studies raise the hypothesis that the role of macrophages in rickettsial pathogenesis may have been underappreciated. Herein, we evaluated the ability of two SFG rickettsial species, R. conorii (a recognized human pathogen) and Rickettsia montanensis (a non-virulent member of SFG) to proliferate in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, or within non-phagocytic cell lines. Our results demonstrate that R. conorii was able to survive and proliferate in both phagocytic and epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, R. montanensis was able to grow in non-phagocytic cells, but was drastically compromised in the ability to proliferate within both undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, association assays revealed that R. montanensis was defective in binding to THP-1-derived macrophages; however, the invasion of the bacteria that are able to adhere did not appear to be affected. We have also demonstrated that R. montanensis which entered into THP-1-derived macrophages were rapidly destroyed and partially co-localized with LAMP-2 and cathepsin D, two markers of lysosomal compartments. In contrast, R. conorii was present as intact bacteria and free in the cytoplasm in both cell types. These findings suggest that a phenotypic difference between a non-pathogenic and a pathogenic SFG member lies in their respective ability to proliferate in macrophage-like cells, and may provide an explanation as to why certain SFG rickettsial species are not associated

  11. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderstam, Jonas; Edén, Patrik; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox) is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart), which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  12. How does a diurnal hawkmoth find nectar? Differences in sensory control with a nocturnal relative

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Goyret; Almut Kelber

    2011-01-01

    Recent research shows that a nocturnal hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, inspects flowers in search for nectar by means of a series of hovering and proboscis movements controlled by different sensory modalities, mainly vision and mechanoreception. The diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum is a closely related hawkmoth challenged with the same task but under illuminances 6--8 orders of magnitude higher. Here, we use flower models presenting color markings, 3D features, or both to study innate flower movemen...

  13. Different concepts and models of information for family-relevant genetic findings: comparison and ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Christian; Frommeld, Debora

    2015-08-01

    Genetic predispositions often concern not only individual persons, but also other family members. Advances in the development of genetic tests lead to a growing number of genetic diagnoses in medical practice and to an increasing importance of genetic counseling. In the present article, a number of ethical foundations and preconditions for this issue are discussed. Four different models for the handling of genetic information are presented and analyzed including a discussion of practical implications. The different models' ranges of content reach from a strictly autonomous position over self-governed arrangements in the practice of genetic counseling up to the involvement of official bodies and committees. The different models show a number of elements which seem to be very useful for the handling of genetic data in families from an ethical perspective. In contrast, the limitations of the standard medical attempt regarding confidentiality and personal autonomy in the context of genetic information in the family are described. Finally, recommendations for further ethical research and the development of genetic counseling in families are given.

  14. Differences in perception: How the experts look at energy efficiency (findings from a Finnish survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Luoranen, Mika; Ikävalko, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Using energy efficiently is generally considered to be essential for a continuing prosperous future. As a result, improving efficiency has become a focus of attention, and recently a lot of time and effort has been expended to develop new energy efficiency methodologies and technologies. Considering the amount of focused attention, the rate of improvement has not been encouraging. Human behaviour is an important factor of the energy efficiency challenge, and research has revealed several consumer profiles with significantly different perceptions on energy issues. In this study, the focus is not on consumers but on energy efficiency professionals. A number of Finnish energy efficiency professionals from both the private and public sectors were surveyed revealing that experts have decidedly different perceptions regarding energy efficiency. Our analysis of survey results suggests that energy efficiency expertise comes from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds, and that instead of working on common ground, experts with differing perspectives are endeavouring to make progress in a complex and multifaceted arena. Focusing on specific areas in which players need to share a common understanding of terminology and where common and clearly stated goals can be established should result in an acceleration of efficiency improvement results. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency professionals from both private and public sectors were surveyed. • Perceptions of energy efficiency vary, which delays improvement progress. • The educational background and professional affiliation do influence to perceptions. • For energy efficiency progress, target-audience specific guiding actions are needed

  15. Family and personal characteristics of aggressive Nigerian boys: differences from and similarities with Western findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, C C; Grantham-McGregor, S

    1998-11-01

    To identify the family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigerian elementary school boys and to compare the findings with previous ones from Western studies. Forty-seven aggressive boys from four elementary schools in Lagos, Nigeria were compared with 47 matched pro-social boys. Teacher rating and peer nomination were combined to select subjects. The subjects and their parents were given structured questionnaires to obtain information on possible risk factors for aggression. Compared with pro-social boys, it was found that significantly more aggressive boys came from polygamous families and crowded homes, had more siblings, received less parental affection, were more physically punished, less supervised at home, witnessed more domestic conflicts, did poorly at school, had poorer verbal intelligence and attributed malice more readily than pro-social boys. Logistic regression indicated that the independent family predictors of aggression were crowding, little paternal affection, and corporal punishment. The independent child predictors were biased attribution and poor school achievement. Corporal punishment at school was also an independent predictor of aggression. The family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigeria are similar to those found in Western studies except for the small contribution of family instability and overwhelming influence of corporal punishment in our sample. Models of intervention developed in the West may therefore be cautiously applied to Nigerian children.

  16. Developing Marketing Strategies To Increase Brand Equity: The Differences Between Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chu Chen; Robert D. Green

    2012-01-01

    Retailers are facing challenges from global competitors, aging consumer markets, and households with less income that impact brand equity. This study examines three age groups (younger, middle, older) marketing strategy perceptions and their brand equity (brand loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association). As expected, different strategies influence each age group. Generally, older retailer shoppers have the highest brand equity. The results have certain implications to the...

  17. Echotomographic characteristics of kidney in different age groups of our population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a continuous process, which leaves its mark on all tissues, organs and organ systems. The aging process causes a number of functional and morphological and structural changes in the kidneys. Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze echotomographic changes in the size of the renal parenchyma and renal sinus during the aging process. Method: The study was conducted on 62 subjects in the service of the radiological diagnostics of CHC Dr Dragisa Mišović in Belgrade. All subjects included in this study were neither anamnestically nor echotomographically positive for any of kidney diseases. Subjects were assorted in three age groups. Group I (20-39 years - 21 subjects, group II (40-59 years - 21 subjects, and group III (60-79 years - 20 subjects. Results: During aging process dimensions of the renal parenchyma decrease. Dimensions of the renal parenchyma exhibit statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the first and third age group for both kidneys, but difference between the first and second age group is significant only for the right kidney (p<0,05. Dimensions (length and width, of the renal sinuses tend to increase during the aging process, with difference between the first and third age group that is statistically significant for both kidneys (p<0.05. Difference in width of the sinuses for both kidneys is statistically significant only between the second and third age group. Conclusion: During aging process size of the renal sinus increases at the expense of renal parenchyma, and parenchyma-pyelon index decreases.

  18. Renormalization group and relations between scattering amplitudes in a theory with different mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulov, A.V.; Skalozub, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    In the Yukawa model with two different mass scales the renormalization group equation is used to obtain relations between scattering amplitudes at low energies. Considering fermion-fermion scattering as an example, a basic one-loop renormalization group relation is derived which gives possibility to reduce the problem to the scattering of light particles on the external field substituting a heavy virtual state. Applications of the results to problem of searching new physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed [ru

  19. [Echocardiographic indices of the right heart in patients with coronary artery disease in different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajfulin, R A; Sumin, A N; Arhipov, O G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine echocardiographic indices of right heart chambers in patients with coronary artery disease in different age groups. On 678 patients aged 38-85 years, who underwent echocardiography, are including with the use of spectral tissue Doppler. Obtained 2 age groups: 1st - patients up to 60 years (n=282) and group 2nd - patients 60 years and older (n=396). In the analysis the obtained results in patients with coronary heart disease in older age groups showed an increase in right ventricular wall thickness, systolic and average pressure in the pulmonary artery. These changes were accompanied by deterioration in left ventricular diastolic function, while the systolic function of the left and right ventricle were independent of age. Thus, the results can be recommended for assessment of right ventricular dysfunction in patients of older age groups.

  20. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  1. ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY USER TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa AKIYAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been requirments for a transport environment that will foster the development of safe, comfortable townships. The study of urban activities amid an aging society and effective use of public transport modes in addressing environmental problems have become particularly important issues. This study analyzes travel behaviour patterns of varying age groups using urban railways in order to examine the relationship between urban public transport use and urban activities. specifically, it analyzes the composition of urban activity and travel behaviour patterns among urban railway users in the Keihanshin (Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. This paper looks at urban activities within aging societies and identifies the differences in travel behaviour of railway users by separating them into young, middle aged and senior citizen age groups. Analysis makes particular use of the Railway station Database, which is a compilation of existing studies into attributes of railway stations and their surroundings, and results of person trip surveys. Rail use behaviour characteristics have been sorted by age group because mobility via urban railway systems is varied by age group. As a result, differences in railway usage patterns (travel objectives, distance and time, and number of transfers, etc. have been identified and so too have differences in urban activity patterns related to free activities (shopping, recreation. Furthermore, the study developed a travel behaviour pattern estimation model which is capable of categorizing specific transport behaviour patterns and estimating rail users and transport behaviour patterns from the relationship with areas surrounding railway stations to ensure future mobility by public transport for older age groups. The results make it possible to put forward proposals for urban rail services that will facilitate urban activities for the different age groups. Eventually, it will be possible to understand

  2. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, ppurpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pdogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [METABOLIC STATUS OF PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS ON THE STAGES OF OSTEOARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, M V; Ovchinnikov, E N; Sazonova, N V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical parameters of blood and urine in patients with osteoarthritis in the stages of the pathological process in different age groups. The patients of all age groups in the stages of osteoarthritis demonstrated metabolic acidosis, activation of the antioxidant system and increase in acute phase proteins. In addition to the total for all age groups metabolic shifts the characteristic age-related changes were observed: activated reaction of lipid peroxidation in middle-aged patients and negative calcium balance, with increasing energy metabolism disorders in elderly patients.

  4. Acute thiamine deficiency and refeeding syndrome: Similar findings but different pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Arianna; Vergine, Gianluca; Coletti, Valentina; Luciani, Matteo; Rizzo, Cristiano; Emma, Francesco; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome can occur in several contexts of relative malnutrition in which an overaggressive nutritional support is started. The consequences are life threatening with multiorgan impairment, and severe electrolyte imbalances. During refeeding, glucose-involved insulin secretion causes abrupt reverse of lipolysis and a switch from catabolism to anabolism. This creates a sudden cellular demand for electrolytes (phosphate, potassium, and magnesium) necessary for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, glucose transport, and other synthesis reactions, resulting in decreased serum levels. Laboratory findings and multiorgan impairment similar to refeeding syndrome also are observed in acute thiamine deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether thiamine deficiency was responsible for the electrolyte imbalance caused by tubular electrolyte losses. We describe two patients with leukemia who developed acute thiamine deficiency with an electrolyte pattern suggestive of refeeding syndrome, severe lactic acidosis, and evidence of proximal renal tubular dysfunction. A single thiamine administration led to rapid resolution of the tubular dysfunction and normalization of acidosis and electrolyte imbalance. This demonstrated that thiamine deficiency was responsible for the electrolyte imbalance, caused by tubular electrolyte losses. Our study indicates that, despite sharing many laboratory similarities, refeeding syndrome and acute thiamine deficiency should be viewed as separate entities in which the electrolyte abnormalities reported in cases of refeeding syndrome with thiamine deficiency and refractory lactic acidosis may be due to renal tubular losses instead of a shifting from extracellular to intracellular compartments. In oncologic and malnourished patients, individuals at particular risk for developing refeeding syndrome, in the presence of these biochemical abnormalities, acute thiamine deficiency should be suspected and treated because it promptly

  5. Histologic Evaluation of Gastric Biopsies According to Sydney Classification and Comparison of Chronic Gastritis Mucosal Histological Findings by Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Ugras

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the materials of gastric biopsies in cases diagnosed as chronic gastritis according to the Sydney system and to compare the parameters according to age groups. The Sydney system of gastritis has five main histological features of changes in gastric mucosa graded (chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori density In our study, we evaluated 63 patients under 31 years, 177 patients between the ages of 31-60 and 187 patients over 61 years, who were diagnosed as having chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy. In 31-60 age group, the localization of Helicobacter pylori was often the antrum. In contrast, in the under 31 years of age group, Helicobacter pylori infection were found to be in the form of the distribution pangastrit. Acute inflammation in the under31 years group was found to be significantly higher than other age groups. In over 61years group, high incidence of atrophy was found. In our study, we detected the rate in atrophy and intestinal metaplasia with Helicobacter pylori is independently increased with age. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 173-178

  6. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  7. Corneal clarity measurements in healthy volunteers across different age groups: Observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Carley, Fiona; Brahma, Arun; Morley, Debbie; Hillarby, M Chantal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize and investigate the changes in corneal clarity with age. Densitometry software for the Oculus Pentacam was used to examine corneal clarity at different age groups.A total of 192 eyes from 97 healthy participants were included in this cohort comparative nonrandomized, cross-sectional study. An Oculus Pentcam was used to image the cornea of healthy participants grouped by age (between 10 and 70 years old). Data from the densitometry output have been used to determine clarity in concentric zones and different depths of the cornea.Corneal densitometry (CD) across all ages showed significant differences between groups when divided into the following layers: anterior, central, and posterior or divided into 0 to 2, 2 to 6, and 6 to 10 mm concentric zones (P age in all 3 layers of the periphery (6-10 mm) (P age group had lower clarity than the 20 to 30-age group (P age is differed when the cornea is divided into layers and zones. This study suggests that there are other factors that may play an essential role in corneal clarity as well as age.

  8. Fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester: comparison between population groups from different ethnic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasozomenou, Panayiota; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Panteris, Eleftherios; Loufopoulos, Aristoteles; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-03-01

    To compare normal ranges of ultrasonographically measured fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester between different ethnic groups. A prospective, non-interventional study in order to establish normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester in a Greek population was conducted in 1220 singleton fetuses between 18 completed weeks and 23 weeks and 6 days of gestation. A literature search followed in order to identify similar studies in different population groups. Fetal nasal bone length mean values and percentiles from different population groups were compared. Analysis of measurements in the Greek population showed a linear association, i.e., increasing nasal bone length with increasing gestational age from 5.73 mm at 18 weeks to 7.63 mm at 23 weeks. Eleven studies establishing normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester were identified. Comparison of fetal nasal bone length mean values between the 12 population groups showed statistically significant differences (Pdifferent ethnic groups. Hence, distinct ethnic nomograms of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester should be used in a given population rather than an international model.

  9. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  10. Assessment of intraocular pressure in chinchillas of different age groups using rebound tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Diana Yokoay Claros Chacaltana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP of normal chinchilla eyes using the rebound tonometer. A further aim was to assess whether there were differences in the values of intraocular pressure in relation to animals age, gender and time of day. Thirty-six chinchillas were divided into three groups of 12 chinchillas each, by age: Group I (2-6-month-old, Group II (20 and 34 months and Group III (37 and 135 months. Ophthalmic examination was performed previously by Schirmer tear test, slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein test in all chinchillas. Three measurements of intraocular pressure were assessed on the same day (7, 12 and 19h. Tonometry was performed on both eyes using the rebound tonometer after calibration in "p" mode. Statistical analysis was performed with SigmaPlot for Windows. The mean IOP for groups I, II and III were 2.47±0.581mmHg, 2.47±0.581mmHg and 2.51±0.531mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were reported between age and IOP and no significant differences were reported between the time of day and IOP. The IOP in chinchillas did not differ significantly between genders or ages of the animals, and did not change with time of day.

  11. Are Happiness and Life Satisfaction Different Across Religious Groups? Exploring Determinants of Happiness and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamaba, Kayonda Hubert; Soni, Debbie

    2017-09-26

    This study explores whether different religions experience different levels of happiness and life satisfaction and in case this is affected by country economic and cultural environment. Using World Value Survey (from 1981 to 2014), this study found that individual religiosity and country level of development play a significant role in shaping people's subjective well-being (SWB). Protestants, Buddhists and Roman Catholic were happier and most satisfied with their lives compared to other religious groups. Orthodox has the lowest SWB. Health status, household's financial satisfaction and freedom of choice are means by which religious groups and governments across the globe can improve the SWB of their citizens.

  12. Effect of torsion angle on electronic transport through different anchoring groups in molecular junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Caijuan; Fang Changfeng; Zhao Peng; Xie Shijie; Liu Desheng

    2009-01-01

    By applying nonequilibrium Green's function formalism combined with first-principles density functional theory, we investigate effect of torsion angle on electronic transport properties of 4,4 ' -biphenyl molecule connected with different anchoring groups (dithiocarboxylate and thiol group) to Au(111) electrodes. The influence of the HOMO-LUMO gaps and the spatial distributions of molecular orbitals on the quantum transport through the molecular device are discussed. Theoretical results show that the torsion angle plays important role in conducting behavior of molecular devices. By changing the torsion angle between two phenyl rings, namely changing the magnitude of the intermolecular coupling effect, a different transport behavior can be observed in these two systems.

  13. Association of lens vault with narrow angles among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y; Huang, Guofu; Cui, Qi N; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2012-06-01

    To compare lens vault between open-angle and narrow-angle eyes in African-, Caucasian-, Hispanic-, Chinese- and Filipino-Americans. In this prospective study, 436 patients with open angle and narrow angle based on the Shaffer gonioscopic grading classification underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. The Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to calculate lens vault. The narrow-angle group included 32 Chinese-Americans, 22 Filipino-Americans, 26 African-Americans, 24 Hispanic-Americans and 73 Caucasian-Americans. The open-angle group included 56 Chinese-Americans, 29 Filipino-Americans, 45 African-Americans, 27 Hispanic-Americans and 102 Caucasian-Americans. Linear mixed effect regression models, accounting for the use of both eyes and adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter and spherical equivalent, were used to test for the ethnicity and angle coefficients. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups. Significant difference in lens vault was found among the open-angle racial groups (P = 0.022). For the open-angle patients, mean values for the lens vault measurements were 265 ± 288 µm for Chinese-Americans, 431 ± 248 µm for Caucasian-Americans, 302 ± 213 µm for Filipino-Americans, 304 ± 263 µm for Hispanic-Americans and 200 ± 237 µm for African-Americans. Using Tukey's multiple comparison for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups, a significant difference was found between African-American and Caucasian-Americans groups (P values for the rest of the pairwise comparisons were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found among the narrow-angle racial groups (P = 0.14). Comparison between the open angle and narrow angle within each racial group revealed significant difference for all racial groups (P < 0.05). Among all the ethnicities included in this study, narrow-angle eyes have greater lens vault compared to open

  14. Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, R; Athanasiadou, M; Nahar, N; Mamun, M I R; Mosihuzzaman, M; Bergman, A

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/Sigma DDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the Sigma DDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400 ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30 ng g(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

  15. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence in Brazil: Are there differences in effectiveness when applied by different groups of psychologists?: effectiveness of group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Habigzang

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy model for the treatment of girls victims of sexual violence (SV was investigated when applied by different groups of practitioners: researchers/psychologists who developed it (G1 and psychologists from the public social care network trained by the first group (G2. A quasi-experimental study was carried out, in which the group therapy model was applied by the two groups. A total of 103 girls victims of sexual violence (SV, aged between seven and 16 years (M=11.76 years, SD=2.02 years were included, with 49 attended by G1, and 54 by G2. The results indicated a significant reduction in the symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD. The comparison between the results obtained by the two groups of practitioners in the application of the model indicated no significant differences in the rates of improvement of the participants. These results indicate the effectiveness of the cognitive-behavioral group therapy model evaluated and the possibility of it being used as a care strategy by psychology practitioners working in public services.

  16. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  17. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  18. Subtle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity differences in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seong Cheol Hong1,*, Jong Ho Lee1,*, Jaewook Lee1, Hyeon Yong Kim1, Jung Youn Park2, Johann Cho3, Jaebeom Lee1, Dong-Wook Han11Department of Nanomedical Engineering, BK21 Nano Fusion Technology Division, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, 2Department of Biotechnology Research, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan, 3Electronic Materials Lab, Samsung Corning Precision Materials Co, Ltd, Gumi City, Gyeongsangbukdo, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been widely utilized for the diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and drug-delivery carriers, due to their easy transportation to targeted areas by an external magnetic field. For such biomedical applications, SPIONs must have multifunctional characteristics, including optimized size and modified surface. However, the biofunctionality and biocompatibility of SPIONs with various surface functional groups of different sizes have yet to be elucidated clearly. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SPIONs that are surfaced-modified with various functional groups of different sizes. In this study, we evaluated SPIONs with diameters of approximately 10 nm and 100~150 nm, containing different surface functional groups. SPIONs were covered with –O-groups, so-called bare SPIONs. Following this, they were modified with three different functional groups – hydroxyl (–OH, carboxylic (–COOH, and amine (–NH2 groups – by coating their surfaces with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS, TEOS-APTMS, or citrate, which imparted different surface charges and sizes to the particles. The effects of SPIONs coated with these functional groups on mitochondrial activity, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, membrane integrity

  19. Self-reported differences in empowerment between lurkers and posters in online patient support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; Seydel, Erwin R; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2008-06-30

    Patients who visit online support groups benefit in various ways. Results of our earlier study indicated that participation in online support groups had a profound effect on the participants' feelings of "being empowered." However, most studies of online patient support groups have focused on the members of these groups who actively contribute by sending postings (posters). Thus far, little is known about the impact for "lurkers" (ie, those who do not actively participate by sending postings). In the present study, we explored if lurkers in online patient support groups profit to the same extent as posters do. We searched the Internet with the search engine Google to identify all Dutch online support groups for patients with breast cancer, fibromyalgia, and arthritis. Invitations to complete an online survey were sent out by the owners of 19 groups. In the online questionnaire, we asked questions about demographic and health characteristics, use of and satisfaction with the online support group, empowering processes, and empowering outcomes. The online questionnaire was completed by 528 individuals, of which 109 (21%) identified themselves as lurkers. Lurkers (mean age 47 years) were slightly older than active participants (mean age 43 years, P = .002), had a shorter disease history (time since diagnosis 3.7 years vs 5.4 years, P = .001), and reported lower mental well-being (SF 12 subscore 37.7 vs 40.5, P = .004). No significant differences were found in other demographic variables. Posters indicated visiting the online support groups significantly more often for social reasons, such as curiosity about how other members were doing, to enjoy themselves, as a part of their daily routine (all P posters did not differ in their information-related reasons for visiting the online support group. Lurkers were significantly less satisfied with the online support group compared to posters (P posters. However, lurkers did not differ significantly from posters with regard to

  20. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  1. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (Pgroup. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older patients (older than 40 years) were more likely to observe a diverse range of adverse events (Page group (older

  2. How to Find More Supernovae with Less Work: Object ClassificationTechniques for Difference Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, RollinC.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Wong, Daniel

    2007-05-02

    We present the results of applying new object classificationtechniques to difference images in the context of the Nearby SupernovaFactory supernova search. Most current supernova searches subtractreference images from new images, identify objects in these differenceimages, and apply simple threshold cuts on parameters such as statisticalsignificance, shape, and motionto reject objects such as cosmic rays,asteroids, and subtraction artifacts. Although most static objectssubtract cleanly, even a very low false positive detection rate can leadto hundreds of non-supernova candidates which must be vetted by humaninspection before triggering additional followup. In comparison to simplethreshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as Boosted DecisionTrees, Random Forests, and Support Vector Machines provide dramaticallybetter object discrimination. At the Nearby Supernova Factory, we reducedthe number of non-supernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasingour supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will becrucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automatedtransient alert pipelines of upcoming projects such as PanSTARRS andLSST.

  3. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Cell population data in neonates: differences by age group and associations with perinatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Lee, W; Han, K; Sung, I K

    2015-10-01

    Cell population data (CPD) describe physical parameters of white blood cell subpopulations and are reported to be of some value in the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Before using the CPD for diagnosing sepsis, the baseline features of the CPD distribution in healthy neonates should be clarified. The aim of this study was to compare the CPD distributions of healthy neonates and other age groups and to identify perinatal factors that are associated with changes in the CPD distribution of healthy neonates. The CPD distribution of 69 samples from term neonates was compared with adolescents and adults. The CPD distribution of 163 samples from healthy neonates was analyzed in association with perinatal factors, including gestational age, chronologic age, birthweight, delivery mode, premature rupture of membranes, diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The CPD distribution for term neonates was significantly different from those in adolescents and adults. The mean lymphocyte volume showed a negative correlation with gestational age at birth (r = -0.305; P group than in the normal delivery group. The small for gestational age (SGA) group had smaller mean neutrophil volume and mean monocyte volume than the appropriate for gestational age group. The CPD distribution of healthy neonates differed from those of adolescents or adults, and the differences were associated with gestational age, delivery mode, and being SGA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Outcome and process differences between professional and nonprofessional therapists in time-limited group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, G M; Barlow, S H

    1996-10-01

    The outcome of clients who saw one of four "expert" professional group therapists selected by peer nomination or four "natural helper" nonprofessional nominated by students is contrasted in a 15-session psychotherapy group. Process measures tapping specific group and "common factors" were drawn from sessions 3, 8, and 14; outcome was assessed at pre, mid, posttreatment, and a 6-month follow-up. Results were examined by leader condition (professional vs. nonprofessional therapists) and time (group development). Virtually no reliable differences were found on measures of outcome primarily because of a floor effect on several measures. Therapist differences on the process measures tapping the "common factors" of therapeutic alliance, client expectancy, and perception of therapists were either nonsignificant or disappeared by the end of treatment. A complex picture of differences on one therapeutic factor (insight), common factor measures and subtle variation in the outcome data suggests a distinct pattern of change, however. Methodological limitations are also addressed including problems inherent in large-scale clinical-trial studies, ethical concerns raised by using nonprofessional leaders, and problems with generalizability, given the absence of significant psychopathology in group members.

  6. Modeling the Role of Networks and Individual Differences in Inter-Group Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Isakov

    Full Text Available There is significant heterogeneity within and between populations in their propensity to engage in conflict. Most research has neglected the role of within-group effects in social networks in contributing to between-group violence and focused instead on the precursors and consequences of violence, or on the role of between-group ties. Here, we explore the role of individual variation and of network structure within a population in promoting and inhibiting group violence towards other populations. Motivated by ethnographic observations of collective behavior in a small-scale society, we describe a model with differentiated roles for individuals embedded within friendship networks. Using a simple model based on voting-like dynamics, we explore several strategies for influencing group-level behavior. When we consider changing population level attitude changes and introducing control nodes separately, we find that a particularly effective control strategy relies on exploiting network degree. We also suggest refinements to our model such as tracking fine-grained information spread dynamics that can lead to further enrichment in using evolutionary game theory models for sociological phenomena.

  7. Sociodemographic differences in triggers to quit smoking: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeli, E; West, R

    2008-12-01

    Reasons for quitting smoking and triggers that finally precipitate a quit attempt are not necessarily the same thing. We sought to assess variation in reported triggers of attempts to stop smoking as a function of age, gender and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional household survey in England. A total of 2441 smokers and ex-smokers aged 16 and over, who reported making at least one serious quit attempt in the last 12 months, were recruited. The main outcome measure was participants' responses to the question "What finally triggered your most recent quit attempt?". Respondents selected from a list of options or specified a trigger not on the list. In the event, smokers typically reported as triggers similar factors as have previously been reported as "reasons". "A concern about future health problems" (28.5%) was the most commonly cited trigger followed by "health problems I had at the time" (18%) and then "a decision that smoking was too expensive" (12.2%). The most common external trigger was advice from a health professional (5.6%). Future health concern was more common in smokers with higher socioeconomic status (SES), whereas cost and current health problems were more often cited by lower SES smokers. Younger smokers were more likely to report their quit attempt being triggered by a TV advertisement while older smokers were more likely to cite advice from a health professional. Concern about future health problems was cited less often by 16 to 24 year olds and those aged 65+ than those aged 25 to 64 years. There are significant differences in reported triggers for quit attempts as a function of sociodemographic factors. Most notably, smokers with higher SES are more likely to report concern about future health whereas those from lower SES are more likely to cite cost and current health problems.

  8. Seasonal fertility differences in synchronised dairy cows: ultrasonic, metabolic and endocrine findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Orsolya Gabriella; Fébel, Hedvig; Huszenicza, Gyula; Kulcsár, Margit; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Endrődi, Tamás; Gábor, György

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify relationships among seasonal differences of fertility, metabolic parameters and appearance of irregular luteal forms in high-yielding dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows were put on the Provsynch regimen in winter (n = 10) and in summer (n = 10). Blood sampling (starting 35 days post partum) and rectal ultrasound examinations (starting post insemination) were carried out once a week in each examination period. Metabolic [plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum beta-carotene] and endocrine parameters [plasma thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and insulin levels] were measured. In summer, two cows were excluded from the study because of metritis and none of the remaining animals became pregnant, but 6 of the 8 cows had irregular luteal forms (ILF) on their ovaries. In winter, one cow was excluded because of metritis and 6 of the 9 cows became pregnant, while 2 of the 3 open cows had irregular luteal forms. In summer the mean plasma NEFA and BHB concentrations were significantly higher, while serum carotene and plasma IGF-I concentrations were significantly lower than in winter. The high plasma NEFA concentration found in summer seemed to be in association with the lower body condition score (BCS) caused by depressed appetite. In conclusion, statistical analysis supports the hypothesis that increased plasma NEFA and BHB and decreased plasma IGF-I concentrations may result in reduced fertility in summer. These changes may be associated with the more frequent appearance of ILFs and probably have a negative effect on ovarian function and/or oocyte quality.

  9. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking: findings from a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Hughes, Tonda L; Russell, Stephen T

    2018-04-01

    To estimate sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking. Cross-sectional US adult health survey from 2014 and 2015. US adults aged 18 and older (n = 215 684; n = 203 562 heterosexual, n = 2784 lesbian/gay, n = 2892 bisexual, n = 686 'other' and n = 1947 don't know/unsure). Self-reported past 30-day standard binge and high-intensity binge drinking. Standard binge drinking cut-off values were 4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively. High-intensity binge drinking was measured as two and three times the standard level (8+ and 12+ drinks for women and 10+ and 15+ drinks for men). Lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to report consuming 4+ drinks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.57, confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.09 and aOR = 1.83, CI = 1.45, 2.30 for lesbian and bisexual women, respectively); 8+ drinks (aOR = 3.86, CI = 2.39, 6.24, aOR = 2.07, CI = 1.39, 3.07); and 12+ drinks (aOR = 3.81, CI = 1.77, 8.19, aOR = 2.54, CI = 1.25, 5.14) on a single occasion in the past 30 days. Generally, gay and bisexual men were no more likely than heterosexual men to report standard or high-intensity binge drinking. However, bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to consume 15+ drinks (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.01, 3.06). Rates of standard and high-intensity binge drinking were similar between heterosexual and unsure men and women. Men and women who indicated 'other' sexual identities were generally less likely than heterosexuals to report standard and high-intensity binge drinking, with the exception of 4+ drinks for women and 10+ drinks for men. In the United States, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high-intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in different age groups of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli from different age-groups of animals on dairy farms. Materials: A total of 444 manur...

  12. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M. M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  13. Degree and content of negative meaning in four different age groups in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, S.; Westerhof, G.J.; Dittmann-Kohli, F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree and content of negative meaning (i.e., negative evaluations, motivations, feelings) in four different age groups of men and women in East- and West-Germany. A sample was drawn from 290 cities in Germany which was stratified according to four age

  14. Self-Compassion among College Counseling Center Clients: An Examination of Clinical Norms and Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Neff, Kristin; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. This study was designed to establish norms on the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, a popular measure of self-compassion for individuals seeking counseling, and to examine group differences in self-compassion based on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation,…

  15. Evaluating Equating Accuracy and Assumptions for Groups that Differ in Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sonya; Kolen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate equating results are essential when comparing examinee scores across exam forms. Previous research indicates that equating results may not be accurate when group differences are large. This study compared the equating results of frequency estimation, chained equipercentile, item response theory (IRT) true-score, and IRT observed-score…

  16. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M.M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Sluiter, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  17. Mindfulness training in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample : Outcome evaluation and comparison of different diagnostic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; Merea, Ria; van den Brink, Erik; Sanderman, Robbert; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.

    ObjectivesTo examine outcome after mindfulness training in a heterogeneous psychiatric outpatient population and to compare outcome in different diagnostic groups. MethodOne hundred and forty-three patients in 5 diagnostic categories completed questionnaires about psychological symptoms, quality of

  18. Polonioum 210 levels in urine of different groups of italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, L.; Renzetti, A.; Santori, G.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of urine obtained from different groups of the italian population has been analized to determine the content of polonium-210. The analysis has been carried out with samples from people with high probability of exposure to radon and hits daughters

  19. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  20. Questioning Mathematical Knowledge in Different Didactic Paradigms: The Case of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marianna; Gascón, Josep; Nicolás, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    What is questioned and what is taken for granted when carrying out research into the teaching of a given mathematical topic such as Group Theory? This paper presents two different questioning procedures using the methodological tools provided by the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic (ATD). The first one, leading to an undergraduate…

  1. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms -prevalence estimates in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...

  2. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and

  3. Influence of controlled and uncontrolled interventions on Twitter in different target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Aarts, O.; Boertjes, E.; Wijn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the

  4. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  5. Group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of nature development plans : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.E.; Vlek, CAJ; Coeterier, JF

    The study presented here addresses theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the issue of group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of natural landscapes. Beauty ratings of an agrarian landscape and five computer simulations of nature development plans in this landscape were collected

  6. Job search and the theory of planned behavior: Minority – majority group differences in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe labor market in many Western countries increasingly diversifies. However, little is known about job search behavior of 'non-traditional' applicants such as ethnic minorities. This study investigated minority – majority group differences in the predictors of job search behavior, using

  7. Does the EDI Measure School Readiness in the Same Way across Different Groups of Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Gadermann, Anne; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the Early Development Instrument (Offord & Janus, 1999) measures school readiness similarly across different groups of children. We employ ordinal logistic regression to investigate differential item functioning, a method of examining measurement bias. For 40,000 children, our analysis compares groups…

  8. In love and war: altruism, norm formation, and two different types of group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, C.M.; Hopfensitz, A.

    2007-01-01

    We analyse simulations reported in "The co-evolution of individual behaviors and social institutions" by Bowles et al., 2003 in the Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 135-147, and begin with distinguishing two types of group selection models. The literature does not provide different names for

  9. Facility with the English language and problem-based learning group interaction: findings from an Arabic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, D J; Lanphear, J; Stewart, T; Das, M; Ridding, P; Dunn, E

    1998-09-01

    The Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates (UAE) University is in a unique position to explore issues related to English language proficiency and medical student performance. All students entering the FMHS have English as a second language. This study focused on the issues of students' proficiency in English as measured by the TOEFL test, student background factors and interaction in problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Using a modification of Bales Interaction Process Analysis, four problem-based learning groups were observed over four thematic units, to measure the degree of student interaction within PBL groups and to compare this to individual TOEFL scores and key background variables. The students' contributions correlated highly with TOEFL test results in the giving of information (range r = 0.67-0.74). The female students adhered to interacting in English during group sessions, whereas the male students were more likely to revert to using Arabic in elaborating unclear phenomena (p TOEFL scores for the male students, but not for female students. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to analyse the relative contribution of the TOEFL, parental education and years of studying in English. The best predictor of students' contributions in PBL groups was identified as TOEFL scores. The study demonstrates the importance of facilitating a locally acceptable level of English proficiency prior to admission to the FMHS. However, it also highlights the importance of not focusing only on English proficiency but paying attention to additional factors in facilitating medical students in maximizing benefits from interactions in PBL settings.

  10. Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood Group and Gender in Nepalese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudikshya KC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits.

  11. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J; Chaves, Sandra S; Wallinga, Jacco; Lipsitch, Marc; Finelli, Lyn; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-12-01

    The identification of key "driver" groups in influenza epidemics is of much interest for the implementation of effective public health response strategies, including vaccination programs. However, the relative importance of different age groups in propagating epidemics is uncertain. During a communicable disease outbreak, some groups may be disproportionately represented during the outbreak's ascent due to increased susceptibility and/or contact rates. Such groups or subpopulations can be identified by considering the proportion of cases within the subpopulation occurring before (Bp) and after the epidemic peak (Ap) to calculate the subpopulation's relative risk, RR=Bp/Ap. We estimated RR for several subpopulations (age groups) using data on laboratory-confirmed US influenza hospitalizations during epidemics between 2009-2014. Additionally, we simulated various influenza outbreaks in an age-stratified population, relating the RR to the impact of vaccination in each subpopulation on the epidemic's initial effective reproductive number R_e(0). We found that children aged 5-17 had the highest estimates of RR during the five largest influenza A outbreaks, though the relative magnitude of RR in this age group compared to other age groups varied, being highest for the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. For the 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 influenza B epidemics, adults aged 18-49, and 0-4 year-olds had the highest estimates of RR respectively. For 83% of simulated epidemics, the group with the highest RR was also the group for which initial distribution of a given quantity of vaccine would result in the largest reduction of R_e(0). In the largest 40% of simulated outbreaks, the group with the highest RR and the largest vaccination impact was children 5-17. While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5-17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute

  12. How Hyperarousal and Sleep Reactivity Are Represented in Different Adult Age Groups: Results from a Large Cohort Study on Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altena, Ellemarije; Chen, Ivy Y; Daviaux, Yannick; Ivers, Hans; Philip, Pierre; Morin, Charles M

    2017-04-14

    Hyperarousal is a 24-h state of elevated cognitive and physiological activation, and is a core feature of insomnia. The extent to which sleep quality is affected by stressful events-so-called sleep reactivity-is a vulnerability factor for developing insomnia. Given the increasing prevalence of insomnia with age, we aimed to investigate how hyperarousal and sleep reactivity were related to insomnia severity in different adult age groups. Data were derived from a large cohort study investigating the natural history of insomnia in a population-based sample ( n = 1693). Baseline data of the Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS) and Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) were examined across age and sleep/insomnia subgroups: 25-35 ( n = 448), 35-45 ( n = 528), and 45-55 year olds ( n = 717); good sleepers ( n = 931), individuals with insomnia symptoms ( n = 450), and individuals with an insomnia syndrome ( n = 312). Results from factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed that APS scores decreased with increasing age, but increased with more severe sleep problems. FIRST scores were not significantly different across age groups, but showed the same strong increase as a function of sleep problem severity. The findings indicate that though arousal predisposition and sleep reactivity increase with more severe sleep problems, only arousal decreases with age. How arousing events affect an individual during daytime thus decreases with age, but how this arousal disrupts sleep is equivalent across different adult age groups. The main implication of these findings is that treatment of insomnia could be adapted for different age groups and take into consideration vulnerability factors such as hyperarousal and stress reactivity.

  13. Perception of Esthetic Impact of Smile Line in Complete Denture Wearers by Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Alves, Leandro Pereira; da Costa Prado, Matheus; Oliveira, Rener Leal; Costa, Matheus Souza Campos; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Gusmão, João Milton Rocha; Santos, Rogério Lacerda

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate esthetic perceptions based on tooth exposure when smiling of patients wearing complete dentures by evaluators in different age groups. Alterations were made to a front view photograph of a smiling patient wearing complete maxillary and mandibular dentures. Alterations in the smile line were simulated to increase or decrease tooth exposure (increments of 0.5 mm). For this purpose, image manipulation software was used. After manipulation, images were printed on photo paper, attached to a questionnaire, and distributed to individuals in three age groups (n = 150). To evaluate the esthetic perception for each image, a visual analog scale was used, with 0 representing least attractive, 5 representing attractive, and 10 representing very attractive. Differences between examiners were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. All statistical analyses were performed with a degree of confidence of 95%. Two evaluators did not observe any differences between images. The images given the best and worst scores were E and O (alterations of 2 and 7 mm), respectively, in the 15- to 19-year-old group, B and O (alterations of 0.5 and 7 mm), respectively, in the 35- to 44-year-old group, and A and M (no alteration and 6 mm alteration), respectively, in the 65- to 74-year-old group. When the images were presented together (images 1 and 2), the unaltered image was selected by individuals of different age groups as the best, and the image with a change of 7 mm was selected as the worst. In this study, complete dental prostheses with smile lines that coincided with the cervical margins of the anterior teeth were the most acceptable. Less exposure of the maxillary teeth when smiling corresponded with decreased attractiveness. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Soil erosion and degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group (SEDER) approach and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pulido, Manuel; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Taguas, Tani; Úbeda, Xavier; Brevik, Eric C.; Tarolli, Paolo; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Parras Alcantara, Luis; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The Soil Erosion and Degradation Reseach Group (SEDER) is developing a research program since 2002 to assess the soil erosion and degradation processes at the Canyoles River watershed in Eastern Spain. The research study site was selected as representative of the environmental changes that take place in the Mediterranean: abandonment of the agriculture land in the mountains, forest fire expansion, intensification of the agriculture, impact of the infraesturctures such as rail and road embankments, and soil sealing due to the urban expansion. The research is based on the continuous measurements in the Montesa and El Teularet research stations and the sampling of the soils, topographical measurements and the use of rainfall simulators, minidisk infiltrometers, ring infiltrometers and Water Drop Penetration Time tests. The research is moving from a pure scientific approach to a more socio-economic view, and the stakeholders are being researched from a perception point of view. SEDER is also moving from pure to applied science, with the objective to design new managements that will satisfy the stakeholders and will achieve the sustainability. The research is being carried out in vineyards and orchards as they show extremely high erosion rates. But also we are interested in the impact of forest fires and the road embankments. In all three research topics, SEDER wish to find the sustainable managements. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Bodí, M. B., Martin, D. A., Balfour, V. N., Santín, C., Doerr, S. H., Pereira, P., . . . Mataix-Solera, J. (2014). Corrigendum to "wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects", earth sci. rev. 130 (2014) [103-127]. Earth-Science Reviews, 138, 503. doi:10

  15. ‘On their side’: Focus group findings regarding the role of MRI radiographers and patient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, Zachary; Jordan, Zoe; Pearson, Alan; Murphy, Frederick; Pilkington, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiographers have been described as caring and concerned healthcare professionals, who are attentive to the needs of their patients. However, this may not always be the case, and patient care may be overlooked at times. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study using a focus group was conducted with radiographers to determine their views on patient care. The focus group included 7 MRI radiographers of varying levels of experience. The data was analysed following a process of thematic analysis. Results: 7 themes emerged from analysis of the data. These were; a trade-off, a wide range of patients with a wide range of issues, from one extreme to the other, it's not that bad, getting the patient scanned, room for improvement, and on their side. Conclusion: The radiographers considered themselves on the patient's side, with the main objective to get the patient scanned, in some way, to aid in their diagnosis and treatment

  16. Peculiarities of Blood Group Distribution among Infants Born to Mothers with Negative Rh-Factor (Findings of 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana G. Cherniukh

    2016-01-01

    Our works consider the investigation of possible manifestation of hyperbilirubinemia in infants against the ground of genetic incompatibilities of the fetus according to АВ0 system and Rh-factor (D) concerning the maternal organism. From this point of view we deal with jaundice of mixed genesis against erythroblastosis domination as a primary antenatal factor of pathological process formation. The present study presents the results of distribution of the group and rhesus determinants (Rh D...

  17. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  18. Comparison of Y-STR polymorphisms in three different Slovak population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrejcíková, Eva; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan; Rebała, Krzysztof; Boronová, Iveta; Bôziková, Alexandra; Sovicová, Adriana; Gabriková, Dana; Maceková, Sona; Svícková, Petra; Carnogurská, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Eleven Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci included in the Powerplex Y multiplex kit were analyzed in different Slovak population samples: Habans (n = 39), Romanies (n = 100) and Slovak Caucasian (n = 148) individuals, respectively, from different regions of Slovakia. The analysis of molecular variance between populations indicated that 89.27% of the haplotypic variations were found within populations and only 10.72% between populations (Fst = 0.1027; p = 0.0000). The haplotype diversities were ranging from 0.9258 to 0.9978, and indicated a high potential for differentiating between male individuals. The study reports differences in allele frequencies between the Romanies, Habans and Slovak Caucasian men. Selected loci showed that both the Romany and Haban population belonged to endogamous and relatively small founder population groups, which developed in relatively reproductive isolated groups surrounded by the Slovak Caucasian population.

  19. Tuning of electronic properties and dynamical stability of graphene oxide with different functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabhi, Shweta D.; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2017-09-01

    The structural, electronic and vibrational properties of graphene oxide (GO) with varying proportion of epoxy and hydroxyl functional groups have been studied using density functional theory. The functional groups and oxygen density have an obvious influence on the electronic and vibrational properties. The dependence of band gap on associated functional groups and oxygen density shows a possibility of tuning the band gap of graphene by varying the functional groups as well as oxidation level. The absorption of high oxygen content in graphene leads to the gap opening and resulting in a transition from semimetal to semiconductor. Phonon dispersion curves show no imaginary frequency or no softening of any phonon mode throughout the Brillouin zone which confirms the dynamical stability of all considered GO models. Different groups and different oxygen density result into the varying characteristics of phonon modes. The computed results show good agreement with the experimental observations. Our results present interesting possibilities for engineering the electronic properties of graphene and GO and impact the fabrication of new electronics.

  20. NMR studies of chemical structural variation of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, George D.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.

    2005-02-01

    Solid-state 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments have been performed on isolated meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) spanning four different carbonaceous chondrite meteorite groups; a CR2 (EET92042), a CI1 (Orgueil), a CM2 (Murchison), and the unique C2 meteorite, Tagish Lake. These solid state NMR experiments reveal considerable variation in bulk organic composition across the different meteorite group's IOM. The fraction of aromatic carbon increases as CR2 meteorite groups. Single pulse (SP) 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments reveal the presence of nanodiamonds with an apparent concentration ranking in the IOM of CR2 IOM of all four meteoritic IOM fractions are highly substituted. Fast spinning SP 1H MAS NMR spectral data combined with other NMR experimental data reveal that the average hydrogen content of sp 3 bonded carbon functional groups is low, requiring a high degree of aliphatic chain branching in each IOM fraction. The variation in chemistry across the meteorite groups is consistent with alteration by low temperature chemical oxidation. It is concluded that such chemistry principally affected the aliphatic moieties whereas the aromatic moieties and nanodiamonds may have been largely unaffected.

  1. Not all group hypnotic suggestibility scales are created equal: individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean M; Lynn, Steven Jay; Pekala, Ronald J

    2009-03-01

    To examine the influence of hypnotic suggestibility testing as a source of individual differences in hypnotic responsiveness, we compared behavioral and subjective responses on three scales of hypnotic suggestibility: The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS: A; Shor, R. E., Orne, E. C. (1962). Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Berlin: Consulting Psychologists Press); the Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale (CURSS; Spanos, N. P., Radtke, H. L., Hodgins, D. C., Stam, H. J., Bertrand, L. D. (1983b). The Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale: Normative data and psychometric properties. Psychological Reports, 53, 523-535); and the Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability (GSHA; Hawkins, R., Wenzel, L. (1999). The Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability and response booklet. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 20-31). Behavioral and subjective responses to the CURSS were significantly different than those on the HGSHS: A and GSHA. More participants were classified as "low suggestible" on the CURSS and they reported subjective experiences more similar to everyday mentation. Attitudes and expectancies of participants who received the GSHA were less predictive of responding, but rates of responding and subjective experiences were similar on the GSHA and the HGSHS: A. Discussion focuses on implications for the use of group hypnotic suggestibility scales.

  2. The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Suryaputra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The samples were 40 teenage from Santa Agnes seniorhigh school Surabaya (age 15-17 that was taken by simple random sampling, that divers to 20 obese and 20 non obese teenage group. The data were analysed by Mann Whitney test for nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fast food’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, consumption level of energy, carbohydrat, protein, and fat, physical activity and parental fatness. The result of the statistic test showed that variables significant difference are nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fastfood’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, energy consumption level, carbohydrate consumption level, protein consumption level, fat consumption level, physical activity and parental fatness between obese and non obese teenage group. The conlusion is that significant differences are food pattern and physical activity between obese and non obese teenage group. Recommendation is necessary to provide information and education to teenage about healthy food and adequate physical activity to prevent obesity

  3. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  4. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  5. The difference of variceal distribution in the portal hypertension on CT between hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Yeon; Yoo, Seung Min; Lim, Sang Joon; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Yang Soo; Choi, Young Hee; Choi, Yun Sun

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether there is any difference in variceal distribution between patients with and without a history of esophageal variceal bleeding. To compare the distribution of varices, abdominal CT scans of 24 patients with a history of esophageal variceal bleeding (hemorrhagic group) and 90 patients without a history of bleeding (non-hemorrhagic group) were retrospectively assessed. The most common varices in both the hemorrhagic (n=21, 87.5%) and nonhemorrhagic group (n=53, 58.9%) were coronary varices, with a statistically significant frequency (p<.01). Esophageal varices were also more common in the hemorrhagic than the nonhemorrhagic group (n=19, 79.2% vs n=36, 40.0% : P<.005). Splenorenal shunts were more common in the nonhemorrhagic (n=8, 8.9%) than in the hemorrhagic group (n=0, 0%)(P<.05). Other types of varice such as paraumbilical (n=10, 41.7% vs n=21, 23.3%), perisplenic (n=6, 25% vs n=15, 16.7%) and retroperitoneal-paravertebral (n=11, 45.8% vs n=24, 26.7%) were more common in the hemorrhagic group, but without a statistically significant frequency. The frequency of coronary and esophageal varices was significant in patients with a history of esophageal variceal bleeding. In patients without such a history, splenorenal shunts were seen

  6. Cephalometric and anthropometric data of obstructive apnea in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Moura Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome usually present with changes in upper airway morphology and/or body fat distribution, which may occur throughout life and increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with age. Objective: To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in different age groups. Methods: A retrospective study of cephalometric and anthropometric measures of 102 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was analyzed. Patients were divided into three age groups (≥20 and <40 years, ≥40 and <60 years, and ≥60 years. Pearson's correlation was performed for these measures with the apnea-hypopnea index in the full sample, and subsequently by age group. Results: The cephalometric measures MP-H (distance between the mandibular plane and the hyoid bone and PNS-P (distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the soft palate and the neck and waist circumferences showed a statistically significant correlation with apnea-hypopnea index in both the full sample and in the ≥40 and <60 years age group. These variables did not show any significant correlation with the other two age groups (<40 and ≥60 years. Conclusion: Cephalometric measurements MP-H and PNS-P and cervical and waist circumfer- ences correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in patients in the ≥40 and <60 age group.

  7. Cephalometric and anthropometric data of obstructive apnea in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo de Tarso Moura; Silva, Benedito Borges da; Moita Neto, José Machado; Borges, Núbia Evangelista de Sá; Li, Li M

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome usually present with changes in upper airway morphology and/or body fat distribution, which may occur throughout life and increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with age. To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in different age groups. A retrospective study of cephalometric and anthropometric measures of 102 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was analyzed. Patients were divided into three age groups (≥20 and <40 years, ≥40 and <60 years, and ≥60 years). Pearson's correlation was performed for these measures with the apnea-hypopnea index in the full sample, and subsequently by age group. The cephalometric measures MP-H (distance between the mandibular plane and the hyoid bone) and PNS-P (distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the soft palate) and the neck and waist circumferences showed a statistically significant correlation with apnea-hypopnea index in both the full sample and in the ≥40 and <60 years age group. These variables did not show any significant correlation with the other two age groups (<40 and ≥60 years). Cephalometric measurements MP-H and PNS-P and cervical and waist circumferences correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in patients in the ≥40 and <60 age group. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J-C; Nelson, A; Katwal, D; Elathamna, E N; Durski, M T

    2016-11-01

    Changes in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and age have been found to affect Smile Index (SI, width/height of smile). Limited information is available regarding the aesthetic effects of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of digitally manipulated smile images with differences in SI and incisal edge position (IEP) judged by respondents in different age groups. A total of 12 smile images were generated with varying SI (3·5, 5·3, 7·2, 9·0) and IEP (High, Medium, Low). Fifty respondents each in four age groups (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55+) evaluated the attractiveness of the 12 images using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS, 10 being most attractive). A repeated-measures three-factorial mixed model assessed differences. SI, IEP and age of respondents were found to significantly influence attractiveness score (P age groups combined, SI = 7·2/IEP = Medium was most attractive (VAS = 7·22), followed by SI = 9·0/IEP = Medium, and SI = 5·3/IEP = Medium (VAS = 6·53 and 6·48, respectively). SI = 3·5/IEP = High and SI = 3·5/IEP = Low were least attractive (VAS = 1·99 and VAS = 2·58, respectively). Age group significantly influenced aesthetic perception, with younger respondents more critical in differences in SI and IEP. SI and IEP significantly influenced attractiveness of the smile in all respondent age groups. Low SI (i.e. 3·5) combined with high or low IEP was unattractive. Medium SI to high SI (i.e. 5·3-9·0) combined with medium IEP were considered attractive. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Additional Findings on Differences between Brazilian Men and Women Managers in Their Managing of Conflicts with Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.; Rossi, Ana Maria

    A study was conducted to amplify previous research efforts concerned with the identification of similarities and differences between Brazilian men's and women's managerial communication behaviors. Previous findings have indicated that, in contrast with American managers, Brazilian men and women managers were more likely to use power to resolve…

  10. [Effects of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, H P; Niu, X H; Li, Q; Li, X L; Xue, J D; Cao, D Y; Han, D W; Xia, C D

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups. Methods: Eighty-four patients with extensive deep burns conforming to the study criteria were hospitalized in our unit from April 2011 to April 2015. Patients were divided into children group (C, with age less than 12 years old), young and middle-aged group (YM, with age more than 18 years and less than 50 years old), and old age group (O, with age more than 55 years old) according to age, with 28 patients in each group. All patients received Meek skin grafting treatment. The use of autologous skin area, operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time were recorded. The survival rate of skin graft on post operation day 7, complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2, and the mortality were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, t test, and χ (2) test. Results: The use of autologous skin area of patients in group C was (5.1±1.0)% total body surface area (TBSA), significantly less than (8.3±1.0)%TBSA and (8.3±1.4)%TBSA in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 32.900 and 52.624, respectively, P values below 0.05). The operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time of patients in group C were (1.368±0.562) h, (9.6±0.6) and (32±11) d, significantly shorter than those in group YM [(3.235±0.011) h, (16.9±2.6) and (48±12) d, respectively] and group O [(3.692±0.481) h, (17.3±2.6) and (46±13) d, respectively, with t values from 4.350 to 21.160, P values below 0.05]. The survival rate of skin graft of patients on post operation day 7 in group C was (92±15)%, significantly higher than (81±10)% and (72±12)% in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 5.509 and 3.229, respectively, P values below 0.05). The above indexes in groups YM and O were similar (with t values from 0.576 to 22.958, P values above 0.05). Complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2 and the

  11. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  12. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wilantho

    2017-11-01

    national biogeography, revealed differences in the distribution pattern of species, although common bacteria were present in both biogeographical samples. Furthermore, B-RISA served as a crosscheck result to the 16S rRNA gene sequencing (i.e., differences between teenage and elderly microbiota. Conclusions This study revealed and compared the microbial diversity on different aged Thai male faces, and included analyses for representing the bacterial flora, the clinical skin characteristics, and comparison with the US age-matched. The results represent the first skin microbiota of Thai males, and helps the design of a large-scale skin microbiome study of Thais. The findings of the diversity among ages, skin type and national biogeography supported the importance of these traits in the skin microbiome and in developing a safe and sustainable treatment for acne and aging skin diseases.

  13. Support for a ban on tobacco powerwalls and other point-of-sale displays: findings from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Allen, Jane A; Kosa, Katherine M; Curry, Laurel E

    2015-02-01

    This study uses focus group data to document consumer perceptions of powerwall and other point-of-sale (POS) tobacco displays, and support for a ban on tobacco displays. Four focus groups were conducted in 2012 by a trained moderator. The study comprised 34 adult residents of New York State, approximately half with children under age 18 years living at home. Measures used in the study were awareness and perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, and level of support for a ban on tobacco displays. Analysis focused on perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, level of support for a ban on tobacco displays and reasons participants oppose a display ban. This study documents a general lack of concern about tobacco use in the community, which does not appear to be associated with support for a ban on POS tobacco displays. Although all participants had seen tobacco powerwalls and most considered them to be a form of advertising, participants were divided as to whether they played a role in youth smoking. Additional research is warranted to determine what factors individuals weigh in assigning value to a ban on POS tobacco displays and other tobacco control policies and how educational efforts can influence those assessments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Factors influencing food preparation behaviours: findings from focus groups with Mexican-American mothers in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.

  15. Analysis of the melanin distribution in different ethnic groups by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniou, C; Lademann, J; Richter, H; Patzelt, A; Sterry, W; Astner, S; Zastrow, L; Koch, S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSM) is able to visualize differences in melanin content and distribution in different Skin Phototypes. The investigations were carried out on six healthy volunteers with Skin Phototypes II, IV, and VI. Representative skin samples of Skin Phototypes II, V, and VI were obtained for histological analysis from remaining tissue of skin grafts and were used for LSM-pathologic correlation. LSM evaluation showed significant differences in melanin distribution in Skin Phototypes II, IV, and VI, respectively. Based on the differences in overall reflectivity and image brightness, a visual evaluation scheme showed increasing brightness of the basal and suprabasal layers with increasing Skin Phototypes. The findings correlated well with histological analysis. The results demonstrate that LSM may serve as a promising adjunctive tool for real time assessment of melanin content and distribution in human skin, with numerous clinical applications and therapeutic and preventive implications

  16. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindalini, Camila; Vallada, Homero; Breen, Gerome; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2006-01-01

    Background Cocaine abuse is a serious and socially damaging illegal drug problem. Different routes of administration are associated with a specific progression of use, different degrees of abuse liability, propensity for dependence and treatment response. There have been relatively few studies comparing different cocaine users groups and no studies into the characterization of the group of individuals reporting concurrent use of powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Methods Six hundred and ninety-nine cocaine users were assessed during the period August 1997 to October 1998 in one outpatient and six inpatient clinics located in the São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire schedule in Portuguese, designed specifically for the Brazilian population. The statistical analyses were performed using either ANOVA or a chi-squared test and focusing on their preferred form of use/route of administration and other variables. Results For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine) demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups. Those differences include the initiation of cocaine, the abuse of other illicit drugs, and rates of criminal history. Conclusion These data suggest cocaine-dependent individuals who report use of both powder and crack cocaine are an at least partially, distinct subgroup. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this and to determine if they also show a different treatment response. PMID:16426451

  18. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Gerome

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine abuse is a serious and socially damaging illegal drug problem. Different routes of administration are associated with a specific progression of use, different degrees of abuse liability, propensity for dependence and treatment response. There have been relatively few studies comparing different cocaine users groups and no studies into the characterization of the group of individuals reporting concurrent use of powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Methods Six hundred and ninety-nine cocaine users were assessed during the period August 1997 to October 1998 in one outpatient and six inpatient clinics located in the São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire schedule in Portuguese, designed specifically for the Brazilian population. The statistical analyses were performed using either ANOVA or a chi-squared test and focusing on their preferred form of use/route of administration and other variables. Results For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups. Those differences include the initiation of cocaine, the abuse of other illicit drugs, and rates of criminal history. Conclusion These data suggest cocaine-dependent individuals who report use of both powder and crack cocaine are an at least partially, distinct subgroup. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this and to determine if they also show a different treatment response.

  19. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  20. Effect of difference between group constants processed by codes TIMS and ETOX on integral quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi.

    1978-06-01

    Group constants of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu have been produced with the processing code TIMS using the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-1. The temperature and composition dependent self-shielding factors have been calculated for the two cases with and without considering mutual interference resonant nuclei. By using the group constants set produced by the TIMS code, the integral quantities, i.e. multiplication factor, Na-void reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, are calculated and compared with those calculated with the use of the cross sections set produced by the ETOX code to evaluate accuracy of the approximate calculation method in ETOX. There is much difference in self-shielding factor in each energy group between the two codes. For the fast reactor assemblies under study, however, the integral quantities calculated with these two sets are in good agreement with each other, because of eventual cancelation of errors. (auth.)

  1. Comparison of measurements and calculations of fuel for different structures in the libraries of effective sections (44 groups/238 groups)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rivada, A.; Tore, C.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted for the use of the sections effective in 44 groups, based on the libraries of effective sections ENDF/B-V, for the calculation of the isotopy of the spent fuel. These effective sections have been developed to be used in the system codes SCALE for the analysis the fresh nuclear fuel as the spent and their radioactive waste.

  2. Comparison of skeletal muscle mass to fat-free mass ratios among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T; Bemben, M G; Kondo, M; Kawakami, Y; Fukunaga, T

    2012-01-01

    Asians seem to have less skeletal muscle mass (SMM) than other ethnic groups, but it is not clear whether relative SMM, i.e., SMM / height square or SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio, differs among different ethnic groups at the same level of body mass index (BMI). To compare the SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio as well as anthropometric variables and body composition among 3 ethnic groups. Three hundred thirty-nine Japanese, 343 Brazilian, and 183 German men and women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (FTH) were measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. FTH was used to estimate the body density, from which fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated by using Brozek equation. Total SMM was estimated from ultrasound-derived prediction equations. Percentage body fat was similar among the ethnic groups in men, while Brazilians were higher than Japanese in women. In German men and women, absolute SMM and FFM were higher than in their Japanese and Brazilians counterparts. SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar among the ethnic groups in women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in Brazilian. In men, however, these relative values (SMM index and SMM:FFM ratio) were still higher in Germans. After adjusting for age and BMI, the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were lower in Brazilian men and women compared with the other two ethnic groups, while the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar in Japanese and German men and women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in women. Our results suggest that relative SMM is not lower in Asian populations compared with European populations after adjusted by age and BMI.

  3. Characterization of the fecal microbiome in different swine groups by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Jinu; Lee, Jong-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Hongik

    2014-08-01

    Swine have a complex microbial community within their gastrointestinal tract that plays a critical role in both health and disease. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used to identify the possible core microorganisms in the gut of swine groups that differ in meat quality and weight grades (level 1 as higher meat quality and level 2 as lower meat quality). Samples were taken from the rectum and/or stool from ten animals, DNA was extracted, and the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified. Two bacterial populations (Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) dominated and were shared between the two groups. Significant differences between the groups were found at the genus level. The genera Lactobacillus and Oscillibacter were found in slightly higher proportions in the level 2 group (12.6 and 12.4% of the classified reads, respectively) than those of level 1 (9.6 and 7.7%, respectively). By contrast, the proportion of reads assigned to the genus Roseburia in the level 1 group (13.0%) was higher than that of level 2 (4.8%). The largest differences were related to the genera Clostridium, Oscillibacter, and Roseburia as core microorganisms. Moreover, two genera, Roseburia and Clostridium, related to level 1 produced linoleic acid or short chain fatty acids that might contribute to swine health and development. In conclusion, the presence of core bacteria in the swine gut is associated with meat quality with reduced body fat in swine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  5. Age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems among female sex workers in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study, we divided a sample of 1022 FSWs into three age groups (≤ 20 years, 21-34 years, and ≥ 35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (1) older FSWs (≥ 35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (2) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use, and sexually transmitted diseases history; (3) younger FSWs (≤ 20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (4) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSWs aged 21-34 years; and (5) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs' exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs' mental health status, especially among younger FSWs.

  6. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J.; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic’s peak. We found children aged 11–12y, 13–14y and 8–10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak’s ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11–12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak’s ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8–10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8–14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation. PMID:26278132

  7. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  8. Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anjana; Sharma, Swarkar; Bhat, Audesh; Pandit, Awadesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Four binary polymorphisms and four multiallelic short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the nonrecombining region of the human Y-chromosome were typed in different Indian population groups from Uttar Pradeh (UP), Bihar (BI), Punjab (PUNJ), and Bengal (WB) speaking the Indo-Aryan dialects and from South India (SI) with the root in the Dravidian language. We identified four major haplogroups [(P) 1+, (C and F) 2+, (R1a) 3, (K) 26+] and 114 combinations of Y-STR haplotypes. Analyses of the haplogroups indicated no single origin from any lineage but a result of a conglomeration of different lineages from time to time. The phylogenetic analyses indicate a high degree of population admixture and a greater genetic proximity for the studied population groups when compared with other world populations.

  9. Adolescent Substance Use Groups: Antecedent and Concurrent Personality Differences in a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, E. M.; Keyes, M.; Iacono, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groupsabstainers, experimenters, and problem userswere created......This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block's () influential study, which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent...... at age 18. Age-18 substance use groups differed in age-11 and age-18 constraint such that problem users were lower than experimenters, who were lower than abstainers. Age-18 substance use groups did not differ in age-18 positive emotionality. However, abstainers were significantly lower than...

  10. Prevalence of primary headache disorders diagnosed according to ICHD-3 beta in three different social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...... of 3124 participants: 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20.6, age range 17-40), 1075 workers (146 females, 929 males, mean age 40.4, age range 21-67) and 1007 blood donors (484 females, 523 males, mean age 34.1, age range 18-64). We used a semi-structured, validated face-to-face interview....... RESULTS: The age-adjusted one-year prevalence of migraine in females was significantly higher (p Age-adjusted prevalence of migraine among males did not differ among the three groups: 4.5% in students, 4.9% in workers and 4...

  11. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  12. Ten Thousand Voices on Marine Climate Change in Europe: Different Perceptions among Demographic Groups and Nationalities

    KAUST Repository

    Buckley, Paul J.

    2017-07-11

    Over the past few decades, substantial funding has been directed toward improving scientific understanding and management of impacts of climate change in the marine environment. Following concerns that the key messages from these studies were not reaching the public, a comprehensive opinion poll of 10,000 European citizens in 10 countries was conducted to establish levels of awareness, concern, and trust among different demographic groups (by age, gender, proximity to the coast) and nationalities. Citizens exhibited varying levels of self-declared

  13. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use....

  14. Differences in psychotropic drug prescriptions among ethnic groups in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkampf, Laura Christina; Smeets, Hugo M; Knol, Mirjam J; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Braam, Arjan W; De Wit, Niek J

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic drug use in Europe and the USA has increased in the past 20 years. The rise in mental health-care use instigated a debate about possible differences in prevalence rates between different ethnic groups in the Netherlands, although the exact differences were unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether these minority groups were more or less likely than the native population to receive psychotropic drugs. A descriptive population study was conducted using the Agis Health Database, containing demographic and health-care consumption data of approximately 1.5 million inhabitants of the Netherlands. Rates of prescriptions of psychotropic drugs from 2001 to 2006 and adjusted odds ratios for psychotropic drug prescriptions among native Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic groups were calculated. These data were analysed using logistic regression, after being adjusted for age, gender and socioeconomic status. The mean year prevalence of psychotropic drug prescriptions from 2001 to 2006 was 14.0%. Except for a decrease in anxiolytic drugs, the prescriptions of psychotropic drugs increased from 2001 to 2006. These trends were the same for all of the ethnic groups considered. Among both the Moroccan and Turkish populations, there was a higher risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug prescriptions, and a pronounced lower risk of ADHD medication and lithium prescriptions compared to the native population. Among the Turkish population, the risk of anxiolytic drug prescriptions was greater than in the native population. Compared to the native population in the Netherlands, first- and second-generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants had an increased risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug prescriptions and a decreased risk of ADHD medication and Lithium prescriptions. Further research is needed to clarify whether patients of different ethnic backgrounds with the same symptoms receive similar diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  15. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  16. Ten Thousand Voices on Marine Climate Change in Europe: Different Perceptions among Demographic Groups and Nationalities

    KAUST Repository

    Buckley, Paul J.; Pinnegar, John K.; Painting, Suzanne J.; Terry, Geraldine; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Gelcich, Stefan; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, substantial funding has been directed toward improving scientific understanding and management of impacts of climate change in the marine environment. Following concerns that the key messages from these studies were not reaching the public, a comprehensive opinion poll of 10,000 European citizens in 10 countries was conducted to establish levels of awareness, concern, and trust among different demographic groups (by age, gender, proximity to the coast) and nationalities. Citizens exhibited varying levels of self-declared

  17. Use and Outcomes of Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsancak Ugurlu, Aylin; Sidhom, Samy S; Khodabandeh, Ali; Ieong, Michael; Mohr, Chester; Lin, Denis Y; Buchwald, Irwin; Bahhady, Imad; Wengryn, John; Maheshwari, Vinay; Hill, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic disease and do-not-intubate status increases with age. Thus, we aimed to determine characteristics and outcomes associated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use for acute respiratory failure (ARF) in different age groups. A database comprising prospective data collected on site on all adult patients with ARF requiring ventilatory support from 8 acute care hospitals in Massachusetts was used. From a total of 1,225 ventilator starts, overall NIV utilization, success, and in-hospital mortality rates were 22, 54, and 18% in younger (18-44 y); 34, 65, and 13% in middle-aged (45-64 y); 49, 68, and 17% in elderly (65-79 y); and 47, 76, and 24% in aged (≥ 80 y) groups, respectively (P age (25, 57, 57, and 74% and 7, 12, 18, and 31%, respectively, in the 4 age groups [P age groups (P = .27 and P = .98, respectively). NIV use and a do-not-intubate status are more frequent in subjects with ARF ≥ 65 y than in those age groups. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00458926.). Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Motivational Factors in Women Seeking Augmentation Mammoplasty Across Different Age Groups: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherf, Matan; Wiser, Itay; Klein, Dov; Heller, Lior

    2018-02-19

    Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most common esthetic procedures worldwide. A wide range of motivations leads women to undergo this procedure, among them socioeconomic status and age group. The aim of this study was to identify the motivation spectrum for augmentation mammoplasty through different age groups. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey given to Israeli women seeking augmentation mammoplasty consults in a hospital and private clinic settings, using a 17-item Motivation for Augmentation questionnaire. Three motivation domains were examined: appearance, sexuality and social. Study participants were divided into three age groups: 18-29, 30-39 and over 40 years. A total of 101 women participated in the study. Motivations were rated similar among all age groups. Appearance and sexuality domains were rated significantly higher compared with the social domain throughout all age groups (3.28 ± 0.91 and 3.15 ± 1.03 vs. 1.88 ± 1.16, p age. The desire to improve one's appearance and sexuality is more prominent than improving social and work status. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. Peculiarities of vegetative regulation of heart rate in wrestlers of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Zapovitriana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the aim of the work was to study the characteristics of vegetative regulation of cardiac rhythm in athletes of high qualification of different age groups. Material : 26 wrestlers of Greco-Roman style of high qualification aged 19-34 years old were studied. Vegetative regulation was assessed by statistical analysis of heart rate variability using cardiac monitors «Polar RS800CX». Results : the results showed that the wrestlers of older age group has a greater level of tension of regulation of heart rhythm for compared with young athletes. This is confirmed by the reduced values of the mean square deviation RR- intervals and triangular index. According to the results of spectral analysis of cardio revealed activation of parasympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation of the heart rhythm of wrestlers in older age group, compared with young athletes. The increase of tension of regulation of heart rate in the wrestlers of older age group accompanied by a slowdown of aperiodic and periodic oscillations of cardio intervals. Conclusions: the high level of tension of regulation of heart rhythm in older wrestlers group (26-34 accompanied by the activation of neurohumoral centers and parasympathetic link of vegetative nervous system.

  20. Myocardial 201Tl washout after combined dipyridamole submaximal exercise stress: Reference values from different patient groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrich, L.

    1989-01-01

    Dipyridamole stress is favorable in patients unable to exercise maximally for 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Aside from an analysis of uptake defects, proper washout analysis can be limited by heart rate variations when isolated dipyridamole stress is used. Heart rate standardized 201 Tl washout kinetics after a combined dipyridamole and submaximal exercise stress protocol (CDSE), feasible in elderly patients as well as in patients with peripheral artery disease, were therefore studied to investigate the 201 Tl washout after CDSE in differently defined patient groups: Group I comprised 19 patients with documented heart disease and angiographically excluded coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 17 patients with a very low likelihood of CAD determined by both normal exercise radionuclide ventriculography and normal 201 Tl uptake. Group III comprised 56 patients with a 50% pretest likelihood of CAD but normal 201 Tl uptake. Mean washout values were nearly identical in all groups. Despite similar uptake patterns, however, washout standardized by CDSE was significantly lower than the normal washout values after maximal treadmill exercise. Thus an obviously lower 201 Tl washout after CDSE than after maximal treadmill exercise must be considered if washout analysis criteria after dipyridamole are applied to evaluate ischemic heart disease. Nevertheless, heart rate elevation achieved by additional submaximal exercise stress seems necessary, adequate and clinically safe for standardisation of washout analysis in dipyridamole 201 Tl scintigraphy. (orig.)

  1. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID

  2. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Sheila

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  3. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Gao, Haiyan; Redshaw, Maggie

    2013-10-22

    According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women's experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern.

  4. Personality traits of a group of young adults from different family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, J; Nel, E M; Steel, H R

    1992-07-01

    The impact of parental divorce and remarriage and young adults' gender on second-order personality traits, such as extraversion, anxiety, tough poise and independence, was examined. The responses of 227 young adults on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) were subjected to a parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed significant differences between the anxiety scores of the young men and women as well as between those of the three different family-structure groups, but divorce and remarriage was not associated with either positive or negative personality development in this sample.

  5. Main sugar composition of floral nectar in three species groups of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae) with different principal pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Riaño, T; Ortega-Olivencia, A; López, J; Pérez-Bote, J L; Navarro-Pérez, M L

    2014-11-01

    In some angiosperm groups, a parallelism between nectar traits and pollination syndromes has been demonstrated, whereas in others there is not such relationship and it has been explained as due to phylogenetic constraints. However, nectar trait information remains scarce for many plant groups. This paper focuses on three groups of Scrophularia species, with different flower sizes and principal pollinators, to find out whether nectar sugar composition is determined by pollinator type or reflects taxonomic affinities. Since the species we examined have protogynous flowers, and gender bias in nectar sugar composition has been noted in few plant groups, we also investigated whether sexual phase influenced Scrophularia nectar composition. The sugar composition was found to be similar in all species, having high-sucrose nectar, except for the Macaronesian Scrophularia calliantha, which was the only species with balanced nectar; this last kind of nectar could be associated with the high interaction rates observed between S. calliantha and passerine birds. The nectar sugar composition (high in sucrose) was unrelated to the principal pollinator group, and could instead be considered a conservative taxonomic trait. No gender bias was observed between functionally female and male flowers for nectar volume or concentration. However, sexual phase significantly affected sucrose percentage in the largest-flowered species, where the female phase flowers had higher sucrose percentages than the male phase flowers. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Holistic Wellness in Older Adulthood: Group Differences Based on Age and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C; Granello, Darcy Haag

    2018-01-01

    To understand how demographic variables and depression symptoms relate to the prevalence of wellness, resilience, and age perception within a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In all, 200 residents across 12 senior housing sites were surveyed. Research questions included the following: (1) Do group differences exist in wellness, resilience, and age perception based on age, sex, race, education, and depression symptoms? (2) Which profile of variables is most strongly associated with self-rated depression among older adults? Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine group differences. A discriminant analysis demonstrated which variables comprised the profile of individuals who ascribed to depression symptoms. Younger respondents (i.e., age 55-70) had significantly lower levels of wellness (η 2 = .034) and resilience (η 2 = .052). Respondents suffering from depression symptoms had lower levels of wellness (η 2 = .155), resilience (η 2 = .163), and positive age perception (η 2 = .067) and higher rates of negative age perception (η 2 = .052). The discriminant analysis correctly categorized 75.3% of the cases related to depression symptoms, and resilience and certain forms of wellness were most relevant. The current study sheds light into within-group differences in wellness, resilience, and age perception that depend on variables such as age and depression.

  8. Difference in Health Inequity between Two Population Groups due to a Social Determinant of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Penman-Aguilar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines social determinants of health as “complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems” that are responsible for most health inequities. Similar to the individual-level risk factors such as behavioral and biological risk factors that influence disease, we consider social determinants of health such as the distribution of income, wealth, influence and power as risk factors for risk of disease. We operationally define health inequity in a disease within a population due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable as the difference between the disease outcome with and without the risk factor in the population. We derive expressions for difference in health inequity between two populations due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable for a given disease. The difference in heath inequity between two population groups due to a risk factor increases with increasing difference in relative risks and the difference in prevalence of the risk factor in the two populations. The difference in health inequity could be larger than the difference in health outcomes between the two populations in some situations. Compared to health disparities which are typically measured and monitored using absolute or relative disparities of health outcomes, the methods presented in this manuscript provide a different, yet complementary, picture because they parse out the contributions of unfair and avoidable risk factors. PMID:25522048

  9. Looking Upstream: Findings from Focus Groups on Public Perceptions of Source Water Quality in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Henrich

    Full Text Available In association with the development of new microbial tests for source water quality (SWQ, focus groups with members of the public were conducted to gain insight into their perceptions of SWQ, behaviours and contaminants they think pose the greatest threat to its quality, and what/how they want to know about SWQ. Discussions revealed a low concern about SWQ in general, and in particular about microbial contamination. Participants identified behaviours that threaten SWQ, barriers to changing behaviour and suggestions for inducing change. A strong desire was expressed for water quality information to be interpreted and communicated in terms of how SWQ may impact human health and how their actions should be altered in response to test results. The information can be used to inform communication strategies and possibly impact policies associated with water quality testing and implementation of new tests. More broadly, awareness of the public's understanding and beliefs about source water can be used in working with the public to adopt water-friendly behaviours, influence the content and methods of communicating with the public about water issues and water quality, and could contribute to the direction of future research and investment into water technologies to align with the public's priorities.

  10. Is there addiction to loud music? Findings in a group of non-professional pop/rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuziger, Nicolas; Patscheke, Jochen; Stieglitz, Rolf; Probst, Rudolf

    2012-01-09

    Listening to loud music may be connected to addictive behavior possibly leading to damaging effects on the cochlea. We hypothesized that members of non-professional pop/rock bands with regular exposure to loud music are more likely to show an addictive-like behavior for loud music than matched control subjects. Fifty non-professional musicians and 50 matched control subjects were asked to complete the Northeastern Music Listening Survey (NEMLS) with two basic components. The first comprises an adaptation of the validated Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) to study the addictive-like behavior towards loud music. The second comprises the criteria outlined by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Society for the diagnosis of substance dependence. The NEMLS was scored using the same point system as used in the MAST. The DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence were met by nine of the musician group and by one control subject. Seven of these nine musicians also had a positive NEMLS score. Traits of addictive-like behavior to loud music were detected more often in members of nonprofessional pop/rock bands than in control subjects.

  11. Is there addiction to loud music? Findings in a group of non-professional pop/rock musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Schmuziger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Listening to loud music may be connected to addictive behavior possibly leading to damaging effects on the cochlea. We hypothesized that members of non-professional pop/rock bands with regular exposure to loud music are more likely to show an addictive-like behavior for loud music than matched control subjects. Fifty non-professional musicians and 50 matched control subjects were asked to complete the Northeastern Music Listening Survey (NEMLS with two basic components. The first comprises an adaptation of the validated Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST to study the addictive-like behavior towards loud music. The second comprises the criteria outlined by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV of the American Psychiatric Society for the diagnosis of substance dependence. The NEMLS was scored using the same point system as used in the MAST. The DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence were met by nine of the musician group and by one control subject. Seven of these nine musicians also had a positive NEMLS score. Traits of addictive-like behavior to loud music were detected more often in members of nonprofessional pop/rock bands than in control subjects.

  12. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Nada J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012. Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization.

  14. A study on SARS awareness and health-seeking behaviour - findings from a sampled population attending National Healthcare Group Polyclinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, S L; Lim, P S; Ng, M Y; Wong, H B; Emmanuel, S C

    2004-09-01

    The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of massive SARS public education effort on SARS awareness and the conduct of those suspected of having SARS. Five hundred and ninety-three respondents attending the National Healthcare Group Polyclinics (NHGP) participated in the survey from 9 to 13 June 2003. Associations between awareness of SARS symptoms and (i) first action to be taken and (ii) mode of transportation used, if the respondent was suspected of having SARS, were analysed using Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for relevant covariates. The majority (92.7%) of the respondents were aware of SARS symptoms. Television (91.6%), newspaper (65.2%) and radio (30.4%) formed the top 3 sources of information on SARS. Slightly more than half (51.6%) of those who suspect themselves of having SARS would choose to visit their primary health care doctors, while 22.7% of the respondents would go to Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH). If they suspected themselves to have SARS, most (84.9%) of the 578 respondents would react appropriately by taking the SARS ambulance or driving themselves to TTSH. However, 60 respondents would nonetheless take public transport to TTSH [by taxi 8.5%, mass rapid transit (MRT) or bus 1.9%]. In particular, the retired with lower educational levels were likely to be oblivious both to the symptoms of SARS and the possible consequences of travelling by inappropriate transport. Despite more than 2 months of intensive SARS public education in Singapore, there remain important gaps in knowledge and appropriate behaviour that have to be bridged.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF BRAND NAME-COUNTRY OF ORIGIN PREFERENCE IN FOUR DIFFERENT PRODUCT GROUPS WITH RESPECT TO CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine different preferences for brand name–country of origin shaped in line with levels of conspicuous consumption tendency and to determine Turkish consumers’ preferences for brand name–country of origin combinations in different product groups. The study was conducted in Eskisehir (Turkey with a sample of 413 people chosen through convenience sampling. The study data were collected with a questionnaire and face-face-to interviews. The participants’ preferences for brand name-country of origin combinations were determined separately based on four different product groups(hedonic, utilitarian, durable and non-durable. The study showed that, for all the four product groups, the participants preferred the products with a Turkish brand name and Turkey as the country of origin most, followed by the products with a French brand name and France as the country of origin. This finding suggests that, with respect to the four product groups in the study, Turkish consumers preferred domestic products over foreign products. Also, the participants who preferred French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product were found to have highest tendency of conspicuous consumption in the corresponding product groups. In other words, as the level of conspicuous consumption increased, the participants tended to prefer French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product.

  16. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  17. Similarities and Differences in the Outdoor Recreation Participation of Racial/Ethnic Groups: An Example from Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer

    2000-01-01

    Much of the initial research on the outdoor recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups focused on between-group differences in percent participating in an activity. This tended to focus research, policy, and management on between-group differences at the expense of a more comprehensive look at the participation patterns of racial/ethnic groups. This paper...

  18. Osteosarcopenic obesity and its relationship with dyslipidemia in women from different ethnic groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dan; Hsieh, Peishan; Yu, Hongrong; Zhou, Lining; Gong, Jichun; Xu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Zhao; Deng, Qiongying

    2018-06-09

    To explore the prevalence and ethnic differences of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and dyslipidemia and their relationship among Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China. A total of 2315 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women aged 20-95 from Guangxi were included in this study. Questionnaire survey was carried out and their blood lipids were tested. Body compositions were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and T-score was assessed by ultrasonic examination, respectively. Our study showed ethnic-specific prevalence of OSO. In older women, the incidence rates of OSO in Mulam were 4.9, 12.6, and 11.5% in Maonan, Mulam, and Hmong ethnicity, respectively. In younger group, the incidence rates of OSO were 0.4, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. However, there is no prevalence of OSO in Yao women in two groups. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in younger women was 22.86, 29.89, 43.35, and 80.00% in group numbering one, two, and three, respectively. In older women, it was 29.13, 39.02, 41.37, and 52.38%, respectively. Based on logistic regression analysis, after controlling for covariates, dyslipidemia in younger group was positively associated with a higher number of adverse body composition, especially for OSO (OR = 12.53, 95%CI 1.34-116.99). Compared with normal women, OSO women in older group were also more likely to have dyslipidemia (OR = 6.75, 95%CI 3.19-14.31). OSO may be a risk factor for dyslipidemia in the ethnic groups. Thus, efforts to promote healthy aging should be focused on preventing obesity and maintaining bone health and muscle mass.

  19. Immigration concern and the white/non-white difference in smoking: Group position theory and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L

    2017-12-01

    National data indicate that U.S. whites have a higher prevalence of smoking compared to non-whites. Group position theory and public opinion data suggest racial differences in immigration concern. This study examines whether immigration concern mediates the racial difference in smoking. Drawing on the 2012 General Social Survey, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study, immigration concern was associated with smoking, controlling for covariates across all three nationally representative surveys. Mediation analysis indicated that immigration concern partially mediated the higher odds of smoking among whites across all surveys. Immigration concern also presents a possible explanation for the healthy immigrant advantage and Hispanic paradox as they pertain to smoking differences.

  20. In love and war: altruism, norm formation, and two different types of group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, Matthijs; Hopfensitz, Astrid

    2007-12-21

    We analyse simulations reported in "The co-evolution of individual behaviors and social institutions" by Bowles et al., 2003 in the Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 135-147, and begin with distinguishing two types of group selection models. The literature does not provide different names for them, but they are shown to be fundamentally different and have quite different empirical implications. The working of the first one depends on the answer to the question "is the probability that you also are an altruist large enough", while the other needs an affirmative answer to "are our interests enough in line". The first one therefore can also be understood as a kin selection model, while the working of the second can also be described in terms of the direct benefits. The actual simulation model is a combination of the two. It is also a Markov chain, which has important implications for how the output data should be handled.

  1. Do clinicians prescribe exercise similarly in patients with different cardiovascular diseases? Findings from the EAPC EXPERT working group survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Dominique; Rovelo Ruiz, Gustavo; Doherty, Patrick; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Vromen, Tom; Hinton, Sally; Frederix, Ines; Wilhelm, Matthias; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Abreu, Ana; Ambrosetti, Marco; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban; Coninx, Karin; Dendale, Paul

    2018-01-01

    peak), frequency (median (IQR): 4 (2) days/week), session duration (median (IQR): 45 (18) min/session), programme duration (median (IQR): 12 (18) weeks), total exercise volume (median (IQR): 1215 (1961) peak-effort training hours) and prescription of strength training exercises (prescribed in 78% of

  2. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  3. Group differences in risk across three domains using an expanded measure of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosier, Penny S; Dittus, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight associations between sexual orientation and risk outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood using an expanded measure of sexual orientation. Recent data indicate higher levels of risk behavior in a newly identified population, mostly heterosexuals, as compared to heterosexuals. Comparisons among groups using an expanded measure of sexual orientation such as this, however, often do not include all possible groups or may restrict comparisons between groups. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); participants identified as heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay, or gay. Main risk outcomes were parental mistreatment, home displacement, thoughts of suicide, depressive symptoms, frequency of drinking, and delinquency. A priori planned comparisons examined differences between: (a) heterosexual vs. mostly heterosexual, (b) gay vs. mostly gay, (c) mostly heterosexual vs. bisexual, (d) mostly gay vs. bisexual, (e) mostly heterosexual vs. mostly gay, (f) heterosexual vs. gay, (g) heterosexual vs. bisexual, and (h) gay vs. bisexual. Mostly heterosexual youth were at significantly greater risk than heterosexual youth on all outcomes but did not differ from bisexual or mostly gay youth. Heterosexuals were at lower risk as compared to mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals. This study provides further evidence of differential risk associations for sexual minorities.

  4. Improved harmonization of eosin-5-maleimide binding test across different instruments and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Archana M; Liew, Michael A; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Sangle, Nikhil; Heikal, Nahla; Yaish, Hassan; Christensen, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The eosin-5'maleimide (EMA) binding test has been studied extensively for the detection of hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Its performance characteristics have been compared to NaCl-based or glycerol lysis-based red cell osmotic fragility tests and cryohemolysis. HS samples are also better identified when both mean channel fluorescence (MCF) of EMA relative to controls and the coefficient of variation (CV) are analyzed. We looked at 65 normal controls including 30 adults 25-65 years old and 35 newborns and 12 HS cases. In addition to the MCF and the CV, we used a side scatter (SSC) vs. EMA fluorescence gate or "footprint" to depict where normal erythrocytes should appear. Erythrocytes that have reduced band 3 protein appear outside of the footprint. In our study, newborn data did not cluster with the samples from working age individuals. The MCF and the CVs of normal newborns were higher than normal adult group. However, the footprint data of normal samples relative to their controls was around 99.5% for each group, because the footprint was moved to fit the pattern of the normal. The inclusion of footprint parameter will help in better standardization as well as implementation of this test across different age groups as well as different instruments. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. [Investigation on the incidence of genital herpes in different professional groups in Qingdao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, L

    1993-10-01

    Genital herpes is one of 8 legally reportable sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in China. Using a HSV antigen ELISA kit we detected and typed HSV antigen in 1,148 clinical specimens collected from the genital organs (penis, cervix, vagina and vulva) of 446 men and 702 women in Qindao and divided into 11 different professional and 2 special groups (patients with cervical cancer and pregnant women). The highest positive rate of HSV antigen was found among long-distance transport drivers (48.0%). The second and third high positive rates were among waiters and waitresses in private, restaurants (39.2%) and patients with cervical cancer (38.2%). The positive rates among self-employed retailers and employees in private inns and restaurants were notably higher than those among employees in state-run shops, restaurants and hotels. And, the positive rate among workers was higher than that among peasants. There was no notable difference between the positive rate of HSV antigen among men (24.2%) and that among women (21.5%). But the incidence of HSV-2 infection was much higher than that of HSV-1 infection. The results indicate that some special professional groups have high rates of genital HSV infection. More attention needs to be paid to these special groups in order to control sexually transmitted herpes diseases.

  6. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakidou Emmanuela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000. Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

  7. Utilization of critical group and representative person methodologies: differences and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Nelson L.D.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the assessment of the environmental impact due to routine discharges of radionuclides, which is used to the public protection, normally is based on the determination of the so-called 'critical group'. For the same purpose, the ICRP (2007) proposed the adoption of the 'representative person', defined as the individual receiving a dose representative of the members of the population who are subject to the higher exposures. In this work, are discussed, basically, the different characteristics of each one (critical group and representative person), related, mainly, to its methodologies and the necessary data demanded. Some difficulties to obtain site specific data, mainly habit data, as well as the way they are used, are discussed too. The critical group methodology uses, basically, average values, while the representative person methodology performs deterministic or probabilistic analysis using values obtained from distributions. As reference, it was considered the predicted effluents releases from Uranium Hexafluoride Production Plant (USEXA) and the effective doses calculated to the members of the previously defined critical group of Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). (author)

  8. Is late-onset OCD a distinct phenotype? Findings from a comparative analysis of "age at onset" groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Eesha; Sundar, A Shyam; Thennarasu, Kandavel; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2015-10-01

    Significant differences in clinical profile and comorbidity patterns have been observed between "juvenile-onset" and "adult-onset" obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is little systematic research on onset of OCD after the fourth decade. The current study aims to compare the demographic, clinical, and comorbidity patterns of patients with "juvenile-onset" (OCD. Eight hundred two consecutive patients who consulted a specialty OCD clinic at a tertiary care hospital in India were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. 37.4%, 57.4%, and 5.2% of patients had juvenile-, adult-, and late-onset OCD, respectively. Late-onset OCD was associated with female gender (χ2=42, pOCD in first-degree relatives (χ2=20.4, pOCD was significantly associated with female gender, collecting compulsions, and less aggressive obsessions, in comparison with adult-onset OCD. In comparison with juvenile-onset, late-onset OCD was significantly associated with female gender, presence of precipitating factors, and less aggressive obsessions, sexual obsessions, and repeating compulsions. Late-onset OCD is characterized by female gender, lesser familial loading for OCD, and presence of precipitating factors, suggesting that it may have a distinct pathophysiology compared to juvenile- and adult-onset OCD. Systematic research is required to understand the family-genetic, neuropsychological, and neurobiological correlates of late-onset OCD.

  9. Cognitive metaphor as a tool for study of work perception by different professional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov E.P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of cognitive approach to metaphor and of pos- sibility to use it in researching objects perception by people. Metaphor is considered as a part of thinking process and at the same time as its product, which can be meaning- ful for thinking process analysis itself. The main basics of metaphor were formulated. Methods were modified for creating metaphors. A wide range of respondents were at- tracted to help many of them with creating metaphors as it is too difficult task from their point of view. To open diagnostically potential of cognitive metaphor it was held comparative analysis of metaphors for perception of work among 124 teachers and 52 medicine workers. The result of content analysis helped to find metaphor groups reflecting some patterns of perception of work. It was shown that cognitive metaphor is effective and precise tool which helps to understand characteristic perception people have about their work.

  10. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe and Explain Differences Between Intact Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a

  11. The psychosocial experiences of breast cancer amongst Black, South Asian and White survivors: do differences exist between ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefo