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  1. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  2. Blue-blocking IOLs decrease photoreception without providing significant photoprotection.

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    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Violet and blue light are responsible for 45% of scotopic, 67% of melanopsin, 83% of human circadian (melatonin suppression) and 94% of S-cone photoreception in pseudophakic eyes (isoilluminance source). Yellow chromophores in blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) eliminate between 43 and 57% of violet and blue light between 400 and 500 nm, depending on their dioptric power. This restriction adversely affects pseudophakic photopic luminance contrast, photopic S-cone foveal threshold, mesopic contrast acuity, scotopic short-wavelength sensitivity and circadian photoreception. Yellow IOL chromophores provide no tangible clinical benefits in exchange for the photoreception losses they cause. They fail to decrease disability glare or improve contrast sensitivity. Most epidemiological evidence shows that environmental light exposure and cataract surgery are not significant risk factors for the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, the use of blue-blocking IOLs is not evidence-based medicine. Most AMD occurs in phakic adults over 60 years of age, despite crystalline lens photoprotection far greater than that of blue-blocking IOLs. Therefore, if light does play some role in the pathogenesis of AMD, then 1) senescent crystalline lenses do not prevent it, so neither can blue-blocking IOLs that offer far less photoprotection, and 2) all pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments. Pseudophakes have the freedom to remove their sunglasses for optimal photoreception whenever they choose to do so, provided that they are not encumbered permanently by yellow IOL chromophores. In essence, yellow chromophores are placebos for prevention of AMD that permanently restrict a pseudophake's dim light and circadian photoreception at ages when they are needed most. If yellow IOLs had been the standard of care, then colorless UV-blocking IOLs could be advocated now as "premium" IOLs because they offer dim light and circadian photoreception roughly 15

  3. Designing Group Examinations to Decrease Social Loafing and Increase Learning

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    Revere, Lee; Elden, Max; Bartsch, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examines a method to decrease social loafing in a group examination. Students who met in teams during the semester took an exam in groups. Rules for the exam, based on the Jeopardy game show, facilitated both group and individual accountability. Feedback from students indicated that compared to a class that did not have group exams,…

  4. A significant decrease in diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis: A cohort study.

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    Westerlind, Helga; Stawiarz, Leszek; Fink, Katharina; Hillert, Jan; Manouchehrinia, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Several reports indicate changes to prevalence, incidence, female-to-male ratio in multiple sclerosis. Diagnostic criteria, course definitions and clinical management of the disease have also undergone change during the recent decades. To investigate temporal trends in the diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) in Sweden. Through the Swedish MS registry we investigated the proportion of PPMS diagnosis in birth, diagnosis and age period cohorts using Poisson regression. A total of 16,915 patients were categorised into six birth-cohorts from 1946 to 1975 and seven date-of-diagnosis-cohorts from 1980 to 2014. We observed a decrease in the uncorrected analysis of diagnosis of PPMS from 19.2% to 2.2% and an average decrease of 23% (p decrease per diagnosis-cohort was seen. In the age-specific diagnosis period cohorts the same decreasing trend of PPMS diagnosis was observed in almost all groups. The diagnosis of PPMS has significantly decreased in Sweden specifically after introduction of disease-modifying treatments. Such decrease can have severe impacts on the future research on PPMS. Our data also suggest that the current trend to emphasise presence or absence of inflammatory activity is already reflected in clinical practice. © The Author(s), 2016.

  5. Intensity of HLA-A2 Expression Significantly Decreased in Occult Hepatitis B Infection.

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    Askari, Azam; Hassanshahi, Gholam Hossein; Ghalebi, Seyed Razi; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Mohit, Maryam; Hajghani, Masomeh; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Occult hepatitis B infected (OBI) patients cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA from their liver and peripheral blood, completely. The main aim of this study was to investigate the rate of HLA-A2 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with OBI. In this experimental study, intensity of HLA-A2 was measured on the PBMCs of 57 OBI patients and 100 HBsAg-/anti-HBc+/HBV-DNA samples were enrolled as controls; measurements were performed using the flow cytometry technique. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that 19 (33.3%) OBI patients and 28 (28%) controls expressed HLA-A2 antigen on their PBMCs. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the rate of individuals expressing HLA-A2 antigen. Statistical analyses showed that the intensity of HLA-A2 expression significantly decreased in OBI patients (3.58 ± 0.1) in comparison to healthy controls (4.21 ± 0.25; P < 0.001). According to these results it can be concluded that decreased intensity of HLA-A2 on the PBMCs of OBI patients may lead to resistance of HBV in the patients.

  6. Bombay blood group: Is prevalence decreasing with urbanization and the decreasing rate of consanguineous marriage.

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    Mallick, Sujata; Kotasthane, Dhananjay S; Chowdhury, Puskar S; Sarkar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Bombay blood group although rare is found to be more prevalent in the Western and Southern states of India, believed to be associated with consanguineous marriage. To estimate the prevalence of the Bombay blood group (Oh) in the urban population of Puducherry. To find the effect of urbanization on consanguineous marriage and to establish whether consanguinity plays a part in the prevalence of Oh group. To compare Oh group prevalence with that of other neighboring states, where population is not predominantly urban. This is a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, over a period of 6 years. All blood samples showing 'O' group were tested with anti-H lectin. Specialized tests like Adsorption Elution Technique, inhibition assay for determination of secretor status were performed on Oh positive cases. Any history of consanguineous marriage was recorded. All variables were categorical variable and percentage and proportions were calculated manually. Analysis of the results of 35,497 study subjects showed that the most common group was 'O' group constituting 14,164 (39.90%) of subjects. Only three "Oh" that is, Bombay phenotype (0.008%) were detected. Consanguinity was observed in two cases (66.66%). This study shows the prevalence of Bombay blood group representing the urban population of Puducherry, to be high (0.008%) and associated with consanguineous marriage (66.66%). Thus, consanguinity is still an important risk factor present, even in an urban population in Southern India.

  7. Bombay blood group: Is prevalence decreasing with urbanization and the decreasing rate of consanguineous marriage

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    Sujata Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombay blood group although rare is found to be more prevalent in the Western and Southern states of India, believed to be associated with consanguineous marriage. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the Bombay blood group (Oh in the urban population of Puducherry. To find the effect of urbanization on consanguineous marriage and to establish whether consanguinity plays a part in the prevalence of Oh group. To compare Oh group prevalence with that of other neighboring states, where population is not predominantly urban. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, over a period of 6 years. Materials and Methods: All blood samples showing ′O′ group were tested with anti-H lectin. Specialized tests like Adsorption Elution Technique, inhibition assay for determination of secretor status were performed on Oh positive cases. Any history of consanguineous marriage was recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: All variables were categorical variable and percentage and proportions were calculated manually. Results: Analysis of the results of 35,497 study subjects showed that the most common group was ′O′ group constituting 14,164 (39.90% of subjects. Only three "Oh" that is, Bombay phenotype (0.008% were detected. Consanguinity was observed in two cases (66.66%. Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of Bombay blood group representing the urban population of Puducherry, to be high (0.008% and associated with consanguineous marriage (66.66%. Thus, consanguinity is still an important risk factor present, even in an urban population in Southern India.

  8. Group Enrollment and Open Gym Format Decreases Cardiac Rehabilitation Wait Times.

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    Bachmann, Justin M; Klint, Zachary W; Jagoda, Allison M; McNatt, Jeremy K; Abney, Lesa R; Huang, Shi; Liddle, David G; Frontera, Walter R; Freiberg, Matthew S

    2017-09-01

    Wait times for the first cardiac rehabilitation (CR) session are inversely related to CR participation rates. We hypothesized that changing from individually scheduled appointments to a group enrollment and open gym format, in which patients were enrolled during group intake sessions and could arrive for subsequent CR sessions any time during open gym periods, would decrease wait times. A total of 603 patients enrolled in CR at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from July 2012 to December 2014 were included in the study. We evaluated the effect of changing to a group enrollment and open gym format after adjusting for referral diagnosis, insurance status, seasonality, and other factors. We compared outcomes, including exercise capacity and quality of life, between the 2 groups. Patients in the group enrollment and open gym format had significantly lower average wait times than those receiving individual appointments (14.9 vs 19.5 days, P < .001). After multivariable adjustment, the new CR delivery model was associated with a 22% (3.7 days) decrease in average wait times (95% CI, 1.9-5.6, P < .001). Patients completing CR had equally beneficial changes in 6-minute walk distance and Patient Health Questionnaire scores between the 2 groups, although there was no significant difference in participation rates or the number of sessions attended. Implementation of a group enrollment and open gym format was associated with a significant decrease in wait times for first CR sessions. This CR delivery model may be an option for programs seeking to decrease wait times.

  9. Decreasing the Inattentive Behavior of Jordanian Children: A Group Experiment

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    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Al-Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of using response cost paired with Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI) to manage the inattentive behavior of 30 students attending third and fourth grade in Jordan. A pretest-posttest control group design was employed to evaluate the efficacy of response cost and DRI. Results showed…

  10. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  11. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.

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    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Akhoondzadeh, Shahin; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Dastpak, Arezoo; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Rezai, Afsaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Emami, Tara

    2005-11-14

    Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control.

  12. Prognostic Significance of Decreased Expression of Six Large Common Fragile Site Genes in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

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    Ge Gao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common fragile sites (CFSs are large regions with profound genomic instability that often span extremely large genes a number of which have been found to be important tumor suppressors. RNA sequencing previously revealed that there was a group of six large CFS genes which frequently had decreased expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments validated that these six large CFS genes (PARK2, DLG2, NBEA, CTNNA3, DMD, and FHIT had decreased expression in most of the tumor samples. In this study, we investigated whether the decreased expression of these genes has any clinical significance in OPSCCs. We analyzed the six CFS large genes in 45 OPSCC patients and found that 27 (60% of the OPSCC tumors had decreased expression of these six genes. When we correlated the expression of these six genes to each patient’s clinical records, for 11 patients who had tumor recurrence, 10 of them had decreased expression of almost all 6 genes. When we divided the patients into two groups, one group with decreased expression of the six genes and the other group with either slight changes or increased expression of the six genes, we found that there is significant difference in the incidence of tumor recurrence between these two groups by Kaplan-Meier plot analysis (P < .05. Our results demonstrated that those OPSCC tumors with decreased expression of this select group of six large CFS genes were much more likely to be associated with tumor recurrence and these genes are potential prognostic markers for predicting tumor recurrence in OPSCC.

  13. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

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    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  14. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

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    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  15. INTRATHECAL GLYCINE SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASES THE MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION OF ISOFLURANE IN RATS

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    Jing Zhao; Yi Zhang; Edmond Ⅰ. Eger Ⅱ; James Sonner

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of intrathecal administration of glycine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rats.Methods Intrathecal catheters were implanted in 40 adult male rats anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline MAC of isoflurane was measured during the infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alone. Subsequently, 10, 40, 80,160, and 300 mmol/L of glycine dissolved in artificial CSF were infused for two hours at the same rate as under control conditions, and MAC for isoflurane was re-determined.Results Intrathecal administration of glycine produced a significant, dose-dependent decrease in MAC for isoflu-rane (upto -65.2% ±16.2%).Conclusisons Intrathecal administration of glycine decreases anesthetic requirement. This result supports the idea that glycine receptors may be important to the immobilizing effect of anesthetics that enhance glycine receptor function such as isoflurane.

  16. The birth of an infant decreases group spacing in a zoo-housed lowland gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

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    Kurtycz, Laura M; Shender, Marisa A; Ross, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Changes in group composition can alter the behavior of social animals such as gorillas. Although gorilla births are presumed to affect group spacing patterns, there is relatively little data about how these events affect gorilla group cohesion. We investigated how members of a western lowland gorilla group (n = 6) at Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL, USA) spaced themselves prior to and after the birth of an infant, to investigate changes in group cohesion. Gorillas were housed in an indoor-outdoor enclosure in which access to the outdoors was permitted when temperatures exceeded 5°C. We recorded spatial locations of each group member using 30-min group scans on tablet computers with an electronic map interface, as well as noting their access to outdoor areas. Data from the 4 months following the birth was compared to a control period corresponding to early pregnancy. We measured distances between all possible group dyads for each scan and subsequently calculated a mean distance between all group members. An ANOVA revealed that access to the outdoors had no effect on group spacing (F(1,56) = 0.066, P = 0.799). However, the presence of an infant resulted in a significant reduction in inter-individual distance (F(1,56) = 23.988, P = 0.000), decreasing inter-individual spacing by 12.5%. This information helps characterize the behavioral impact of a new birth on captive gorilla social structure and could potentially inform future management of breeding gorilla groups.

  17. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Group Therapy on Decreasing Depression among High School Students

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    Ali Mohammad nazariy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depending on its etiology, many methods have been established for the treatment of depression among adolescents; cognitive therapy is one of them. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of cognitive group therapy on decreasing depression among high school students. Methods: From the male students of a boarding high school in Tarom district of Gazvin province, a sample of 16 students were randomly selected and assigned into experimental and control groups. The measurement tool was Beck depression inventory. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of cognitive therapy, while the control group did not receive any treatment. The mean scores of the two groups were compared through independent t-test. Results: The results of the study showed significant differences between the mean scores of the pre-tests and post-tests of the experimental and control groups, so that cognitive group therapy had reduced the depression mean score in the experimental group (-2.1 vs. -0.25. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate that cognitive group therapy can reduce the depression among students. These findings can be used for therapeutic planning within the cognitive paradigm to reduce or prevent depression among student

  18. The long sunspot cycle 23 predicts a significant temperature decrease in cycle 24

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    Solheim, Jan-Erik; Humlum, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Relations between the length of a sunspot cycle and the average temperature in the same and the next cycle are calculated for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. No significant trend is found between the length of a cycle and the average temperature in the same cycle, but a significant negative trend is found between the length of a cycle and the temperature in the next cycle. This provides a tool to predict an average temperature decrease of at least 1.0 "C from solar cycle 23 to 24 for the stations and areas analyzed. We find for the Norwegian local stations investigated that 25-56% of the temperature increase the last 150 years may be attributed to the Sun. For 3 North Atlantic stations we get 63-72% solar contribution. This points to the Atlantic currents as reinforcing a solar signal.

  19. Moderate Hypothermia Significantly Decreases Hippocampal Cell Death Involving Autophagy Pathway after Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

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    Jin, Yichao; Lin, Yingying; Feng, Jun-feng; Jia, Feng; Gao, Guo-yi; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2015-07-15

    Here, we evaluated changes in autophagy after post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) followed by moderate hypothermia in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham injury with normothermia group (37 °C); sham injury with hypothermia group (32 °C); TBI with normothermia group (TNG; 37 °C); and TBI with hypothermia group (THG; 32 °C). Injury was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. Moderate hypothermia (32 °C) was achieved by partial immersion in a water bath (0 °C) under general anesthesia for 4 h. All rats were killed at 24 h after fluid percussion TBI. The ipsilateral hippocampus in all rats was analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining; terminal deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining was used to determine cell death in ipsilateral hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, as well as transmission electron microscopy performed to assess changes in autophagy. At 24 h after TBI, the cell death index was 27.90 ± 2.36% in TNG and 14.90 ± 1.52% in THG. Expression level of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly increased after TBI and were further up-regulated after post-TBI hypothermia. Further, ultrastructural observations showed that there was a marked increase of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in ipsilateral hippocampus after post-TBI hypothermia. Our data demonstrated that moderate hypothermia significantly attenuated cell death and increased autophagy in ipsilateral hippocampus after fluid percussion TBI. In conclusion, autophagy pathway may participate in the neuroprotective effect of post-TBI hypothermia.

  20. Bundling of Reimbursement for Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement Resulted in Significantly Decreased Utilization between 2012 and 2014.

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    Glocker, Roan J; TerBush, Matthew J; Hill, Elaine L; Guido, Joseph J; Doyle, Adam; Ellis, Jennifer L; Raman, Kathleen; Morrow, Gary R; Stoner, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, reimbursement for inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) became bundled by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This resulted in ICVF placement (CPT code 37191) now yielding 4.71 relative value units (RVUs), a decrease from 15.6 RVUs for placement and associated procedures (CPT codes 37620, 36010, 75825-26, 75940-26). Our hypothesis was that IVCF utilization would decrease in response to this change as other procedures had done once they had become bundled. Including data from 2010 to 2011 (before bundling) and 2012 to 2014 (after bundling), we utilized 5% inpatient, outpatient, and carrier files of Medicare limited data sets and analyzed IVCF utilization before and after bundling across specialty types, controlling for total diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) (ICD-9 codes 453.xx and 415.xx, respectively) and placement location. In 2010 and 2011, the rates/10,000 DVT/PE diagnoses were 918 and 1,052, respectively (average 985). In 2012, 2013, and 2014, rates were 987, 877, and 605, respectively (average 823). Comparing each year individually, there is a significant difference (P utilization. Comparing averages in the 2010-2011 and 2012-2014 groups, there is also a significant decrease in utilization after bundling (P utilization decreased significantly. More data from subsequent years will be needed to show if this decrease utilization continues to persist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum ionic fluoride concentrations are significantly decreased after treatment with alendronate in patients with osteoporosis.

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    Sato, Hironori; Tanno, Kozo; Muro-oka, Genyoh; Itai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-11-20

    We determined serum ionic fluoride (SIF) concentrations before and after treatment of osteoporosis with alendronate to clarify whether SIF concentrations directly reflect a change in bone metabolism. A total of 45 postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis who were treated with alendronate over a 6-month period were enrolled (mean age, 64.2 years). SIF concentrations were measured by the flow injection method with an ion-selective electrode. Concentrations of bone turnover markers (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, serum type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide and urinary deoxypryridinoline) and lumbar spine BMD (LsBMD) were also measured. SIF, bone turnover markers and LsBMD before and after treatment were compared. Concentrations of SIF as well as concentrations of all bone turnover markers were significantly decreased after treatment: means (standard deviations) before and after treatment were 0.62 (0.13) and 0.32 (0.09) μmol/l, respectively (P<0.001) and the percent change was -46.3%. LsBMD was also significantly increased by 6.7% after treatment. The reduction of SIF concentrations is probably caused by inhibition of bone resorption due to the action of alendronate. The findings suggest that SIF concentrations directly reflect a change in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intravenous Iron Repletion Does Not Significantly Decrease Platelet Counts in CKD Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

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    Neville R. Dossabhoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to investigate the effect of IV iron repletion on platelet (PLT counts in CKD patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review, including all patients with CKD and IDA who were treated with iron dextran total dose infusion (TDI between 2002 and 2007. Patient demographics were noted, and laboratory values for creatinine, hemoglobin (Hgb, iron stores and PLT were recorded pre- and post-dose. Results. 153 patients received a total of 251 doses of TDI (mean ± SD = 971 ± 175 mg; age years and Creatinine  mg/dL. All CKD stages were represented (stage 4 commonest. Hgb and Fe stores improved post-TDI (. There was a very mild decrease in PLT (pre-TDI 255 versus post-TDI 244, . The mild reduction in PLT after TDI remained non-significant ( when data was stratified by molecular weight (MW of iron dextran used (low versus high, as well as by dose administered (<1000 versus ≥1000 mg. Linear regression analysis between pre-dose PLT and Tsat and Fe showed R2 of 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. Conclusion. Correction of iron deficiency did not significantly lower PLT in CKD patients, regardless of MW or dose used. Correlation of PLT to severity of iron deficiency was very weak.

  3. [Significance of expert-guided groups for relatives in psychiatry].

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    Plessen, U; Postzich, M; Wilkmann, M

    1985-03-01

    Psychiatric interest in relatives of patients was concentrated in the past on their pathogenetic and etiological influence on mental illness. The medical paradigma of mental illness did not account for relatives affliction in psychic disturbance of their family member. Against this a community care oriented approach involves relatives into psychiatric care, particularly under the aspects of coping strategies and rehabilitative sources. Practicability and effects of this approach were explored in expert-guided relative groups at the Psychiatric Hospital Gütersloh (FRG). Results indicated that relatives are concerned with a series of problems. Participating in relative groups facilitates coping with these problems. Expert-guided and relative centered groups were found helpful, discharging and encouraging for relatives.

  4. Significant association between ABO blood group and pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia; B; Greer; Mark; H; Yazer; Jay; S; Raval; M; Michael; Barmada; Randall; E; Brand; David; C; Whitcomb

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether the ABO blood group is related to pancreatic cancer risk in the general population of the United States.METHODS:Using the University of Pittsburgh's clinicalpancreatic cancer registry,the blood donor database from our local blood bank (Central Blood Bank),and the blood product recipient database from the regional transfusion service (Centralized Transfusion Service) in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,we identified 274 pancreatic cancer patients with previously determined serological ABO bloo...

  5. Significant decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Czech Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Bure(s); Marcela Kopá(c)ová; Ilona Koupil; Bohumil Seifert; Milu(s)ka (S)kodová Fendrichová; Jana (S)pirková; Viktor Vo(r)í(s)ek

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study possible decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection in the Czech Republic within a 10-year period.METHODS:A total of 22 centres entered the study.The catchment areas of these centres covered cities and towns with more than 20 000 inhabitants,smaller towns (≤ 20 000 inhabitants) with surrounding villages and rural areas,and were spread over the whole country,corresponding well to the geographical distribution of the Czech population.A total of 1 837 subjects (aged 5-98 years) took part in the study,randomly selected out of 38 147 people from the general population.H.pylori infection was investigated by means of a 13C-urea breath test.Breath samples in duplicates were analysed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry.The cut-off point was 3.5.Social and demographic characteristics were based on data from self-completed questionnaires.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of H.pylori infection was 23.5% (430/1826),and 4.8% (20/420) in children aged 15 or less.There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between males (24.3%; 208/857) and females (22.9%,222/969,P =0.494).H.pylori infection was strongly associated with higher age,among subjects aged 55+ years,prevalence of H.pylori infection was 39.8% (252/633,P <0.001).The highest prevalence of H.pylori infection was found among persons aged 55-64 years (43.9%,97/221) and 75+ years (37.9%,58/153).Among study subjects aged 15+ years,prevalence of H.pylori infection was significantly increased in those with lowest education (odds risk 3.19,95% CI 1.87-5.47).Compared to never married (14.1%),the prevalence of H.pylori infection was statistically significantly higher among married (35.4%,246/694,P < 0.001),divorced (36.8%,49/133,P < 0.001) and widowed study subjects (40.2%,45/112,P < 0.001),both in minimally and fully adjusted analysis.There was no significant difference in the prevalence of H.pylori infection between married and widowed

  6. Significant decrease in yield under future climate conditions: Stability and production of 138 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    The response in production parameters to projected future levels of temperature, atmospheric carbondioxide ([CO2]), and ozone ([O3]) was investigated in 138 spring barley accessions. The comprehensive setof landraces, cultivars, and breeder-lines, were during their entire life cycle exposed...... to a two-factor treat-ment of combined elevated temperature (+5◦C day/night) and [CO2] (700 ppm), as well as single-factortreatments of elevated temperature (+5◦C day/night), [CO2] (700 ppm), and [O3] (100–150 ppb). Thecontrol treatment was equivalent to present average South Scandinavian climate...... (temperature: 19/12◦C(day/night), [CO2]: 385 ppm). Overall grain yield was found to decrease 29% in the two-factor treatmentwith concurrent elevation of [CO2] and temperature, and this response could not be predicted from theresults of treatments with elevated [CO2] and temperature as single factors, where...

  7. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daishi Yui

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/- mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3; Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD.

  8. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD.

  9. Significant decrease in congenital malformations in newborn infants of an unselected population of diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    1989-01-01

    In an unselected and consecutive series of 1858 newborn infants of diabetic mothers, born in the Rigshospital, Copenhagen, in the period 1967 to 1986, congenital malformations were studied. The malformation rate in White Classes B to F was remarkably constant from 1967 to 1981, but a significant...

  10. Apnea–hypopnea index decreased significantly after nasal surgery for obstructive sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zhao, Guoqiang; Li, Yunchuan; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Wang, Dongbo; Han, Demin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nasal surgeries have been applied to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with nasal obstruction for decades. However, the efficiency of nasal surgery in improving OSA remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify whether isolated nasal surgery can improve apnea–hypopnea index (AHI). Methods: Computerized searches were performed in MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus from January 1, 2000 to April 30, 2016. A total of 18 articles and 587 participants were included. There were 1 randomized controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized trials, 11 prospective studies, and 4 retrospective studies. Data regarding study design (prospective/retrospective clinical trial, randomized, and controlled), population size, participant characteristics (age, gender, and body mass index), surgical intervention, and outcomes (AHI, Epworth sleep scale [ESS]) was collected. Results: Statistically significant improvement in AHI (subgroup 1: weighted mean difference [WMD] [95%confidence interval (CI)], −4.17 [−7.62, −0.73]; subgroup 2: WMD [95%CI], −4.19 [−7.51, −0.88]; overall: WMD [95%CI], −4.15 [−6.48, −1.82]) and ESS (subgroup 1: WMD [95%CI], −2.14 [−3.08, −1.19]; subgroup 2: WMD [95%CI], −4.70 [−5.95, −3.44]; overall: WMD [95%CI], −4.08 [−5.27, −2.88]) was revealed. Conclusion: Both AHI and ESS improved significantly after isolated nasal surgery, but the improvement of AHI is slightly significant. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the long-term benefits of nasal surgery on OSA. PMID:28151900

  11. Inactive corrinoid-compound significantly decreases in Spirulina platensis grown in a cobalt-deficient medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, F; Miyamoto, E; Nakano, Y

    2001-11-01

    Spirulina platensis NIES-39 was grown under open culture system in the presence or absence of CoSO(4) (12 microg/L) and/or vitamin B(12) (10 microg/L) to confirm whether CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) stimulate or are essential for growth of the algal cells and for accumulation of vitamin B(12). The addition of CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) could not affect both cell growth and cell yield of the alga. The amount of corrinoid-compound was increased significantly by the addition of CoSO(4) but not by vitamin B(12). A C18 reversed-phase HPLC pattern of the Spirulina corrinoid-compound increased by the addition of CoSO(4) was identical to that of authentic pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive for human. These results indicate that the algal cells grown in the absence of CoSO(4) are suitable for use of human health foods because the inactive corrinoid-compound can be reduced significantly.

  12. A Novel Thin Film Nitinol Covered Neurovascular Stent Significantly Decreases Intra-Aneurysmal Flow In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Youngjae; Hur, Soojung; Shayan, Mahdis; Kealey, Colin; Levi, Daniel; Mohanchandra, Kp; di Carlo, Dino; Carman, Gregory

    2013-11-01

    A novel thin film nitinol (TFN) stent has been developed to promote aneurysm quiescence by diminishing flow across the aneurysm's neck. Laboratory aneurysm models were used to assess the flow changes produced by stents covered with different patterns of TFN. Flow diversion stents were constructed by covering Wingspan stents (Boston Scientific, DxL:4x20mm) with TFNs (i.e., 77 and 82 percent porosity). The flow changes that occur after deployment of two different porous TFN covered stent in intracranial aneurysm models were evaluated in vitro. The 82 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced the intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity by 86.42 percent, while a 77 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced to intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity to 93.44 percent compared to a nonstented model. Local wall shear rates were also significantly reduced in wide-neck aneurysm model (i.e., 97.52 - 98.92 percent) with TFN stent placement. The results showed that TFN covered stents significantly reduced intra-aneurysmal flow velocity magnitudes and local wall shear rates. This suggests that TFN covered stents with both 77 and 82 percent porosity have great potential to promote thrombosis in both wide-necked and fusiform aneurysm sacs.

  13. Angiogenic activity in patients with psoriasis is significantly decreased by Goeckerman's therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrys, C.; Borska, L.; Pohl, D.; Fiala, Z.; Hamakova, K.; Krejsek, J. [Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Immunology & Allergy

    2007-03-15

    Goeckerman's therapy (GT) of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Goeckerman's therapy is still the first line therapy of psoriasis in the Czech Republic because of its low cost and long-term efficacy. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. An abnormal spectrum of cytokines, growth factors and proangiogenic mediators is produced by keratinocytes and inflammatory cells in patients suffering from the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on angiogenic activities by comparing serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 44 patients with psoriasis in peripheral blood samples collected before and after therapy. It was found that the angiogenic potential which is abnormally increased in patients with psoriasis is significantly alleviated by GT.

  14. Significance of decreased serum interleukin-10 levels in the progression of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zeng-Yan; Wang, Cui-Lan; Qi, Hong-Shun; Jia, Guo-Yong; Yan, Chuan-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory cytokine and its serological detection may have an important role in the process of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated whether serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with cerebral infarction or not in the general population. Identified comprehensive searching was performed covering PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed studies independently. Information was extracted separately and classed into Asians and Caucasians. Summary standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used with the utilization of Z test. Nine studies ranged from 2003 to 2014 were collected for meta-analysis. Results identified a negative association between serum IL-10 levels and cerebral infarction (SMD = 1.80, 95 % CI 0.79-2.81, P IL-10 level may be the main risk factor for cerebral infarction in India (SMD = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.13-1.75, P IL-10 levels were negatively correlated with cerebral infarction in Asians (SMD = 2.52, 95 % CI 0.47-4.57, P = 0.016), while not in Caucasians (P > 0.05). The lower serum IL-10 concentration was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of cerebral infarction in this meta-analysis. More prospective studies should be conducted to provide stronger evidence justifying the use of IL-10 as new biomarker to identify a predisposition toward cerebral infarction.

  15. Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary

    2014-06-01

    At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction.

  16. A Study of Effectiveness of Rational, Emotive, Behavior Therapy (REBT with Group Method on Decrease of Stress among Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Zahrakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present research was studying the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT with Group method in decreasing stress of diabetic patients. Methods: The population of research consisted of all diabetic patients that are member of diabetic patient’s association 0f karaj city. The sample consisted of 30 diabetic patients (experimental group 15 persons and control group 15 persons that selected through random sampling. Research design was experimental (pretest – posttest with control group. Stress inoculation training on experimental group was performance for 10 sessions. Research instrument were stress signs test. 5 hypotheses were formulated about effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT on decrease stress signs (physical, emotional, behavioral, cognitive and total stress. Analysis of covariance was used for analyzing the data. Results: The finding indicated that Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT had significant effect on decrease every dimension of stress signs. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT in decreasing stress of diabetic patients. Due to the increase of stress in diabetic patients and the effectiveness of mental intervention, special attention should be given psychological treatment in this group of patients.

  17. [The effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on decreasing the level of aggression in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Zeynep; Gökçakan, Dan Zafer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on the level aggression in adolescents. The study included 23 students from Nezihe Yalvac Anatolian Vocational High School of Hotel Management and Tourism that had high aggression scores. Eleven of the participants (6 female, 5 male) constituted the experimental group and 12 (6 male, 6 female) were in the control group. The 34-item Aggression Scale was used to measure level of aggression. We utilized mixed pattern design including experiment-control, pre-test and post test and follow up. The experimental group participated in group-based psychodrama therapy once a week for 90 minutes, for 14 weeks in total. The Aggression Scale was administered to the experimental and control groups before and after treatment; it was additionally administered to the experimental group 16 weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and dependent samples t tests. Our analysis shows that group-based psychodrama had an effect on the experimental group in terms of total aggression, anger, hostility, and indirect aggression scores (F=65.109, F=20.175, F=18.593, F=40.987, respectively, P<.001). There was no effect of the group-based treatment on verbal or physical aggression scores. Follow-up indicated that the effect of the therapy was still measureable 16 weeks after the cessation of the therapy. Results of the present study indicate that group-based psychodrama therapy decreased the level of aggression in the experimental group. Current findings are discussed with reference to the literature. Recommendations for further research and for psychiatric counselors are provided.

  18. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Hamilton, Ian M; Grant, James W A; Lefebvre, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Hawk-dove games have been extensively used to predict the conditions under which group-living animals should defend their resources against potential usurpers. Typically, game-theoretic models on aggression consider that resource defense may entail energetic and injury costs. However, intruders may also take advantage of owners who are busy fighting to sneak access to unguarded resources, imposing thereby an additional cost on the use of the escalated hawk strategy. In this article we modify the two-strategy hawk-dove game into a three-strategy hawk-dove-sneaker game that incorporates a distraction-sneaking tactic, allowing us to explore its consequences on the expected level of aggression within groups. Our model predicts a lower proportion of hawks and hence lower frequencies of aggressive interactions within groups than do previous two-strategy hawk-dove games. The extent to which distraction sneakers decrease the frequency of aggression within groups, however, depends on whether they search only for opportunities to join resources uncovered by other group members or for both unchallenged resources and opportunities to usurp.

  19. Investigate Methods to Decrease Compilation Time-AX-Program Code Group Computer Science R& D Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottom, T

    2003-06-11

    Large simulation codes can take on the order of hours to compile from scratch. In Kull, which uses generic programming techniques, a significant portion of the time is spent generating and compiling template instantiations. I would like to investigate methods that would decrease the overall compilation time for large codes. These would be methods which could then be applied, hopefully, as standard practice to any large code. Success is measured by the overall decrease in wall clock time a developer spends waiting for an executable. Analyzing the make system of a slow to build project can benefit all developers on the project. Taking the time to analyze the number of processors used over the life of the build and restructuring the system to maximize the parallelization can significantly reduce build times. Distributing the build across multiple machines with the same configuration can increase the number of available processors for building and can help evenly balance the load. Becoming familiar with compiler options can have its benefits as well. The time improvements of the sum can be significant. Initial compilation time for Kull on OSF1 was {approx} 3 hours. Final time on OSF1 after completion is 16 minutes. Initial compilation time for Kull on AIX was {approx} 2 hours. Final time on AIX after completion is 25 minutes. Developers now spend 3 hours less waiting for a Kull executable on OSF1, and 2 hours less on AIX platforms. In the eyes of many Kull code developers, the project was a huge success.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing, E-mail: wuxingzhou@hnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu, E-mail: keqiuchen@hnu.edu.cn

    2016-05-06

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer. - Highlights: • Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall interactions. • The thermal conductivity of the inner tube is increased significantly due to protected by outer tube. • The outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer in multi-walled carbon nanotube.

  2. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  3. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  4. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer.

  5. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  6. Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Julie M; Visscher, Daniel; Sabel, Michael; Breslin, Tara; Healy, Patrick; Daignaut, Stephanie; Myers, Jeffrey L; Wu, Angela J

    2012-11-01

    Intraoperative frozen section (FS) margin evaluation is not common practice for patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT), but offers a significant reduction in reoperation. In this study, a technique to allow for more effective freezing of breast tissue was developed to perform FS evaluation of lumpectomy margins (FSM) for all patients undergoing BCT at an ambulatory surgery center. FS evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsy specimens was performed concurrently. One hundred eighty-one study and 188 control patients, with and without FS evaluation, were compared. Reexcision was reduced 34% (from 48.9% to 14.9%) and reoperation was reduced 36% (from 55.3% to 19.3%) with FS evaluation. Most of the decrease in reoperative rate was because of a decrease in the need for margin reexcision. The number of patients requiring 1, 2, or 3 operations to complete therapy was 84, 92, and 12, respectively, in the control group, and 146, 33, and 2, respectively, in the study group. Lobular subtype, multifocal disease, and larger tumor size (≥2 cm) were significantly associated with failure of FSM to prevent reoperation, but reoperation rates were still significantly decreased in this subgroup of patients (from 75.5% to 43.8%) with FSM. This study highlights an innovative yet simple and adaptable FS approach that resulted in a nearly 3-fold reduction in reoperation for patients undergoing BCT.

  7. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Existential Group Therapy on Increasing Hope and Decreasing Depression in Women-Treated With Haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Bahman; Motamed Najjar, Maryam; Sayyah, Mansour; Shafi-Abadi, Abdollah; Haddad Kashani, Hamed

    2015-11-17

    Hopefulness is one of the most significant predictors of adaptation in hemodialysis patients, and plays a vital role in the recovery process. In contrast to hopefulness, depression is a frequent psychological reaction of the hemodialysis treatment with many negative consequences. The current research was designed to examine the effect of cognitive-existential treatment on the level of hopefulness and depression in hemodialysis patients. This quasi-experimental research included 22 female patients suffering from chronic kidney failure disease undergoing hemodialysis treatment for at least 3 months. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control conditions. The experimental group received a combination of treatment including some elements of "existentialism" philosophy and a "cognitive" approach designed for the Iranian population. The treatment protocol lasted for 12 sessions of 90 minutes twice per week prior to the entry of the patient to the dialysis session.  Miller's hope scale and BDI-II-21 were employed to collect the data. Statistical analysis was performed on the data using analysis of covariance by SPSS: 16 software. The result of the analysis indicated that there was a significant improvement in hopefulness level and decrease in depression of the patients in the experiment condition (Pexistential treatment resulted in the increase of hopefulness and decrease level of depression in the hemodialysis patients suffering from chronic kidney failure.

  8. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Existential Group Therapy on Increasing Hope and Decreasing Depression in Women-Treated with Haemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Bahman; Najjar, Maryam Motamed; Sayyah, Mansour; Shafi-Abadi, Abdollah; Kashani, Hamed Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hopefulness is one of the most significant predictors of adaptation in hemodialysis patients, and plays a vital role in the recovery process. In contrast to hopefulness, depression is a frequent psychological reaction of the hemodialysis treatment with many negative consequences. The current research was designed to examine the effect of cognitive-existential treatment on the level of hopefulness and depression in hemodialysis patients. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental research included 22 female patients suffering from chronic kidney failure disease undergoing hemodialysis treatment for at least 3 months. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control conditions. The experimental group received a combination of treatment including some elements of “existentialism” philosophy and a “cognitive” approach designed for the Iranian population. The treatment protocol lasted for 12 sessions of 90 minutes twice per week prior to the entry of the patient to the dialysis session. Miller’s hope scale and BDI-II-21 were employed to collect the data. Statistical analysis was performed on the data using analysis of covariance by SPSS: 16 software. Results: The result of the analysis indicated that there was a significant improvement in hopefulness level and decrease in depression of the patients in the experiment condition (Pexistential treatment resulted in the increase of hopefulness and decrease level of depression in the hemodialysis patients suffering from chronic kidney failure. PMID:26755466

  9. Deletion of the NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit significantly decreases dendritic growth in maturing dentate granule neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timal S Kannangara

    Full Text Available It is known that NMDA receptors can modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the contribution of specific regulatory GluN2 subunits has been difficult to determine. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking GluN2A (formerly NR2A do not show altered cell proliferation or neuronal differentiation, but present significant changes in neuronal morphology in dentate granule cells. Specifically, GluN2A deletion significantly decreased total dendritic length and dendritic complexity in DG neurons located in the inner granular zone. Furthermore, the absence of GluN2A also resulted in a localized increase in spine density in the middle molecular layer, a region innervated by the medial perforant path. Interestingly, alterations in dendritic morphology and spine density were never seen in dentate granule cells located in the outer granular zone, a region that has been hypothesized to contain older, more mature, neurons. These results indicate that although the GluN2A subunit is not critical for the cell proliferation and differentiation stages of the neurogenic process, it does appear to play a role in establishing synaptic and dendritic morphology in maturing dentate granule cells localized in the inner granular zone.

  10. Sequence variants of interleukin 6 (IL-6 are significantly associated with a decreased risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 6 (IL-6 has been related to beta-amyloid aggregation and the appearance of hyperphosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD brain. However, previous studies relating IL-6 genetic polymorphisms to AD included few and unrepresentative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the results were inconsistent. Methods This is a case-control study. A total of 266 patients with AD, aged≧65, were recruited from three hospitals in Taiwan (2007-2010. Controls (n = 444 were recruited from routine health checkups and volunteers of the hospital during the same period of time. Three common IL-6 haplotype-tagging SNPs were selected to assess the association between IL-6 polymorphisms and the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD. Results Variant carriers of IL-6 rs1800796 and rs1524107 were significantly associated with a reduced risk of LOAD [(GG + GC vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.64 and (CC + CT vs. TT: AOR = 0.60, respectively]. Haplotype CAT was associated with a decreased risk of LOAD (0 and 1 copy vs. 2 copies: AOR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.44-0.95. These associations remained significant in ApoE e4 non-carriers only. Hypertension significantly modified the association between rs2069837 polymorphisms and the risk of LOAD (pinteraction = 0.03. Conclusions IL-6 polymorphisms are associated with reduced risk of LOAD, especially in ApoE e4 non-carriers. This study identified genetic markers for predicting LOAD in ApoE e4 non-carriers.

  11. Prognostic significance of cholestatic alcoholic hepatitis. VA Cooperative Study Group #119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, M; Chedid, A; Mendenhall, C; Gartside, P

    1990-07-01

    Tissue cholestasis is a histologic feature in some patients with alcoholic liver disease, but its significance is unknown. We studied prospectively the clinical, laboratory, and histologic findings of 306 chronic male alcoholics in whom liver tissue was available. Tissue cholestasis permitted identification of two groups: group I, absent or mild cholestasis (239 patients), and group II, moderate to severe cholestasis (67 patients). Statistical evaluation was performed by Student's t test and regression analyses. In patients with tissue cholestasis, 97% had elevated serum cholylglycine levels, while only 61% had significant jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 5 mg/dl). In patients without tissue cholestasis, 66% had elevated serum cholylglycine and 13.5% jaundice. Highly significant statistical correlations (P less than 0.0001) were found between cholestasis and malnutrition, prothrombin time, AST, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, Maddrey's discriminant function, serum cholylglycine level, albumin, and histologic severity score. In group I, 54% survived 60 months versus 22% in group II (P less than 0.0001). Highly significant statistical correlations (P less than 0.0001) were noted between serum cholylglycine levels and the parameters enumerated earlier, but not with survival. We conclude that tissue cholestasis is a highly significant prognostic indicator of outcome in alcoholic hepatitis and is more consistently associated with bile salt retention than jaundice.

  12. Presence and potential significance of aromatic-ketone groups in aquatic humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wilson, M.A.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Aquatic humic- and fulvic-acid standards of the International Humic Substances Society were characterized, with emphasis on carbonyl-group nature and content, by carbon-13 nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, proton nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. After comparing spectral results of underivatized humic and fulvic acids with spectral results of chemically modified derivatives, that allow improved observation of the carbonyl group, the data clearly indicated that aromatic ketone groups comprised the majority of the carbonyl-group content. About one ketone group per monocyclic aromatic ring was determined for both humic and fulvic acids. Aromatic-ketone groups were hypothesized to form by photolytic rearrangements and oxidation of phenolic ester and hydrocarbon precursors; these groups have potential significance regarding haloform formation in water, reactivity resulting from active hydrogen of the methyl and methylene adjacent to the ketone groups, and formation of hemiketal and lactol structures. Aromatic-ketone groups also may be the point of attachment between aliphatic and aromatic moieties of aquatic humic-substance structure. ?? 1987.

  13. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Hema A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  14. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh M. Hegde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  15. Significant decrease of broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation by dynamic regulation of ammonium sulfate and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Zejian; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Yu, Xiaoguang

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen sources on broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation were investigated. By controlling ammonium sulfate concentration, broth viscosity and glucose consumption were decreased by 18.2% and 61.6%, respectively, whereas erythromycin biosynthesis was little affected. Furthermore, erythromycin A production was increased by 8.7% still with characteristics of low broth viscosity and glucose consumption through the rational regulations of phosphate salt, soybean meal and ammonium sulfate. It was found that ammonium sulfate could effectively control proteinase activity, which was correlated with the utilization of soybean meal as well as cell growth. The pollets formation contributed much to the decrease of broth viscosity. The accumulation of extracellular propionate and succinate under the new regulation strategy indicated that higher propanol consumption might increase the concentration of methylmalonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA and thus could increase the flux leading to erythromycin A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IL-4 Deficiency Decreases Mortality but Increases Severity of Arthritis in Experimental Group B Streptococcus Infection

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    Luciana Tissi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-4 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits the onset and severity in different experimental arthritis models. Group B streptococci (GBS have been recognized as an ever-growing cause of serious invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. Septic arthritis is a clinical manifestation of GBS infection. To investigate the role of IL-4 in experimental GBS infection, IL-4 deficient or competent mice were inoculated with 1×107 GBS/mouse. Mortality, appearance of arthritis, GBS growth in the organs, and local and systemic cytokine and chemokine production were examined. IL-4–/– mice showed lower mortality rates but increased severity of arthritis and exhibited a lower microbial load in blood, kidneys, and joints than wt mice. Increased local levels of IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and MIP-2 accompanied the more severe arthritis in IL-4–/– mice. Our results suggest a detrimental role of IL-4 in GBS sepsis, whereas it plays a beneficial effect on GBS-induced arthritis.

  17. Changes of High Mobility Group box 1 in Serum of Pig Acute Hepatic Failure Model and Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan ZHANG; Yongwen HE; Zhongping DUAN

    2008-01-01

    The role of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) in acute hepatic failure and the ef- fect of artificial liver support system treatment on HMGB-1 level were investigated. Pig models of acute hepatic failure were induced by D-galactosamine and randomly divided into two groups with or without artificial liver support system treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were detected by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the expression of HMGB-1 by Western blot, and serum levels of HMGB-1, liver function and hepatic pathology were observed after artificial liver support system treatment. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were increased and reached the peak at 24th h in the acute hepatic failure group, then quickly decreased. The serum level of HMGB-1 was increased at 24th h in the acute hepatic failure group and reached the peak at 48th h, then kept a stable high level. Significant liver injury appeared at 24th h and was continuously getting worse in the pig models of acute hepatic failure. In contrast, the liver injury was significantly alleviated and serum level of HMGB-1 was significantly decreased in the group treated with artificial liver support system (P<0.05). It was suggested that HMGB-1 may participate in the inflammatory response and liver injury in the late stage of the acute liver failure. Artificial liver support system treatment can reduce serum HMGB-1 level and relieve liver pathological damage.

  18. Mesothelin expression in triple negative breast carcinomas correlates significantly with basal-like phenotype, distant metastases and decreased survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tozbikian

    Full Text Available Mesothelin is a cell surface associated antigen expressed on mesothelial cells and in some malignant neoplasms. Mesothelin-targeted therapies are in phase I/II clinical trials. The clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of mesothelin expression in triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC has not been fully assessed. We evaluated the expression of mesothelin and of basal markers in tissue microarrays of 226 TNBC and 88 non-TNBC and assessed the clinicopathologic features of mesothelin-expressing breast carcinomas. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of mesothelin expression on the disease-free and overall survival of patients with TNBC. We found that mesothelin expression is significantly more frequent in TNBC than in non-TNBC (36% vs 16%, respectively; p = 0.0006, and is significantly correlated with immunoreactivity for basal keratins, but not for EGFR. Mesothelin-positive and mesothelin-negative TNBC were not significantly different by patients' race, tumor size, histologic grade, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases. Patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC were older than patients with mesothelin-negative TNBC, developed more distant metastases with a shorter interval, and had significantly lower overall and disease-free survival. Based on our results, patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC could benefit from mesothelin-targeted therapies.

  19. Fossil plants indicate that the most significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 happened prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany was utilized to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the stomatal proxy, which relies on the inverse relationship between pCO2 and leaf stomatal density, we show that a ~40% decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oliogocene climate transition. The results endorse the theory that pCO2 drawdown was the main forcer of the Eocene-Oligocene climate change, and a 'tipping point' was reached in the latest Eocene, triggering the plunge of the Earth System into icehouse conditions.

  20. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  1. A circle dance in a psychiatric setting : can a circle dance intervention decrease levels of depressed affect among patients with mental health illnesses and, if so, what aspect of this dance is most significant?

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Ella King

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the circle dance in decreasing depressed affect amongst a group of 45 patients with severe mental health illnesses and highlights the most significant aspect of that dance. Patients participated in one of four conditions: a group performing a regular traditional upbeat Irish circle dance holding hands and with a jump step [jump+hands]; a group performing the same dance holding hands with no jump step [hands]; a group performing the same dance without holdin...

  2. On the Question of Methodological Support of Research on Relationships of Interpersonal Significance in Kindergarten Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyn V.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the importance of in-depth research (in particular, employing an algorithm developed by M.Yu. Kondratyev for defining integral status of an individual on child-child interpersonal relationship in kindergarten groups. Although relationships with significant adults are by all means essential for preschool children, interpersonal relation- ships on the child-child level to a great extent shape the content of the social situation of development in general. Still, when it comes to revealing status and role position of the child in the structure of interpersonal relationships within the kindergarten group, there’s the challenge of defining informal intragroup structure of power in contact community (due to the age specifics. The paper suggests how this challenge may be addressed and provides a version of the technique suitable for preschoolers that helps overcome age restrictions implied by the original technique. Also, the paper reports on the outcomes of approbation of this version which proved its heuristic nature. For instance, the outcomes show a high degree of correlation between the results of kindergarten group members ranking in accordance with their influence upon peers carried out by teachers working in these groups.

  3. Corrective interpersonal experience in psychodrama group therapy: a comprehensive process analysis of significant therapeutic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVea, Charmaine S; Gow, Kathryn; Lowe, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the process of resolving painful emotional experience during psychodrama group therapy, by examining significant therapeutic events within seven psychodrama enactments. A comprehensive process analysis of four resolved and three not-resolved cases identified five meta-processes which were linked to in-session resolution. One was a readiness to engage in the therapeutic process, which was influenced by client characteristics and the client's experience of the group; and four were therapeutic events: (1) re-experiencing with insight; (2) activating resourcefulness; (3) social atom repair with emotional release; and (4) integration. A corrective interpersonal experience (social atom repair) healed the sense of fragmentation and interpersonal disconnection associated with unresolved emotional pain, and emotional release was therapeutically helpful when located within the enactment of this new role relationship. Protagonists who experienced resolution reported important improvements in interpersonal functioning and sense of self which they attributed to this experience.

  4. Optimization of temperature, sugar concentration, and inoculum size to maximize ethanol production without significant decrease in yeast cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laluce, Cecilia; Tognolli, João Olimpio; de Oliveira, Karen Fernanda; Souza, Crisla Serra; Morais, Meline Rezende

    2009-06-01

    Aiming to obtain rapid fermentations with high ethanol yields and a retention of high final viabilities (responses), a 2(3) full-factorial central composite design combined with response surface methodology was employed using inoculum size, sucrose concentration, and temperature as independent variables. From this statistical treatment, two well-fitted regression equations having coefficients significant at the 5% level were obtained to predict the viability and ethanol production responses. Three-dimensional response surfaces showed that increasing temperatures had greater negative effects on viability than on ethanol production. Increasing sucrose concentrations improved both ethanol production and viability. The interactions between the inoculum size and the sucrose concentrations had no significant effect on viability. Thus, the lowering of the process temperature is recommended in order to minimize cell mortality and maintain high levels of ethanol production when the temperature is on the increase in the industrial reactor. Optimized conditions (200 g/l initial sucrose, 40 g/l of dry cell mass, 30 degrees C) were experimentally confirmed and the optimal responses are 80.8 +/- 2.0 g/l of maximal ethanol plus a viability retention of 99.0 +/- 3.0% for a 4-h fermentation period. During consecutive fermentations with cell reuse, the yeast cell viability has to be kept at a high level in order to prevent the collapse of the process.

  5. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  6. Deriving statistical significance maps for SVM based image classification and group comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Population based pattern analysis and classification for quantifying structural and functional differences between diverse groups has been shown to be a powerful tool for the study of a number of diseases, and is quite commonly used especially in neuroimaging. The alternative to these pattern analysis methods, namely mass univariate methods such as voxel based analysis and all related methods, cannot detect multivariate patterns associated with group differences, and are not particularly suitable for developing individual-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. A commonly used pattern analysis tool is the support vector machine (SVM). Unlike univariate statistical frameworks for morphometry, analytical tools for statistical inference are unavailable for the SVM. In this paper, we show that null distributions ordinarily obtained by permutation tests using SVMs can be analytically approximated from the data. The analytical computation takes a small fraction of the time it takes to do an actual permutation test, thereby rendering it possible to quickly create statistical significance maps derived from SVMs. Such maps are critical for understanding imaging patterns of group differences and interpreting which anatomical regions are important in determining the classifier's decision.

  7. A decrease in serum estradiol levels after human chorionic gonadotrophin administration predicts significantly lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, L A; Molinaro, T A; Sammel, M D; Dokras, A

    2012-09-01

    Although close observation of serum estradiol (E2) levels remains a mainstay of assessing clinical response to controlled ovarian stimulation, the prognostic value of any change in E2 levels after administration of hCG remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum E2 response after hCG administration and the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in fresh IVF cycles. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged 21-45 years undergoing their first IVF cycle from 1999 to 2008 at a single practice. We compared the post-hCG serum E2 level with values on the day of hCG trigger. IVF cycles were stratified by post-hCG E2 response and appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistics were performed. Clinical intrauterine pregnancy and live births were the primary outcomes of interest. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify predictive factors associated with outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 1712 IVF cycles, 1065 exhibited a >10% increase (Group A), 525 had a plateau (± 10%, Group B) and 122 showed a >10% decrease (Group C) in post-hCG E2 levels. While the E2 levels on the day of hCG were similar across groups, Group C had more patients with diminished ovarian reserve, required higher gonadotrophin doses and had the lowest implantation rates. After adjusting for age, total gonadotrophin dose, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes and number of transferred embryos, the associations between post-hCG E2 decline (Group C) and clinical pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.84, P= 0.007] and live birth (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.71, P= 0.002) were significant. We also found significant associations between E2 plateau (Group B) and clinical pregnancy (aOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, P= 0.013) and live birth (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97, P= 0.032) when adjusting for the same factors. In our study, >10% decrease in E2 levels

  8. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismail, Khadijah I

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  9. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  10. Early colonization with a group of Lactobacilli decreases the risk for allergy at five years of age despite allergic heredity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Johansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial deprivation early in life can potentially influence immune mediated disease development such as allergy. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of parental allergy on the infant gut colonization and associations between infant gut microbiota and allergic disease at five years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fecal samples were collected from 58 infants, with allergic or non-allergic parents respectively, at one and two weeks as well as at one, two and twelve months of life. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and Real time PCR, using species-specific primers, was used for detection of Bifidobacterium (B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. bifidum, Clostridium (C. difficile, a group of Lactobacilli (Lactobacillus (L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus as well as Staphylococcus (S. aureus. Infants with non-allergic parents were more frequently colonized by Lactobacilli compared to infants with allergic parents (p = 0.014. However, non-allergic five-year olds acquired Lactobacilli more frequently during their first weeks of life, than their allergic counterparts, irrespectively of parental allergy (p = 0.009, p = 0.028. Further the non-allergic children were colonized with Lactobacilli on more occasions during the first two months of life (p = 0.038. Also, significantly more non-allergic children were colonized with B. bifidum at one week of age than the children allergic at five years (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: In this study we show that heredity for allergy has an impact on the gut microbiota in infants but also that early Lactobacilli (L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus colonization seems to decrease the risk for allergy at five years of age despite allergic heredity.

  11. An emergency department intervention to protect an overlooked group of children at risk of significant harm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaye, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Parental psychiatric disorder, especially depression, personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, is known to put children at greater risk of mental illness, neglect or physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Without a reliable procedure to identify children of parents presenting with these mental health problems, children at high risk of significant harm can be easily overlooked. Although deliberate self-harm constitutes a significant proportion of emergency presentations, there are no guidelines which address the emergency physician\\'s role in identifying and assessing risk to children of these patients. METHODS: A robust system was jointly developed with the local social services child protection team to identify and risk-stratify children of parents with mental illness. This allows us to intervene when we identify children at immediate risk of harm and to ensure that social services are aware of potential risk to all children in this group. The referral process was audited repeatedly to refine the agreed protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of patients asked by the emergency department personnel about dependent children increased and the quality of information received by the social services child protection team improved. CONCLUSIONS: All emergency departments should acknowledge the inadequacy of information available to them regarding patients\\' children and consider a policy of referral to social services for all children of parents with mental health presentations. This process can only be developed through close liaison within the multidisciplinary child protection team.

  12. Mortality decrease according to socioeconomic groups during the economic crisis in Spain: a cohort study of 36 million people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Granados, José A Tapia; Viciana-Fernández, Francisco J; de la Fuente, Luis; Barrio, Gregorio

    2016-11-26

    8) for the low group, 2·4% (2·0 to 2·7) for the medium group and 2·5% (1·9 to 3·0) for the high group in 2008-11. The low socioeconomic group showed the largest effect size for both wealth indicators. In Spain, probably due to the decrease in exposure to risk factors, all-cause mortality decreased more during the economic crisis than before the economic crisis, especially in low socioeconomic groups. None. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Significance of an Alloantibody against the Kell Blood Group Glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattaloni, Stella Maris; Arnoni, Carine; Céspedes, Rosario; Nonaka, Claudia; Trucco Boggione, Carolina; Luján Brajovich, Melina Eliana; Trejo, Andrea; Zani, Néstor; Biondi, Claudia Silvia; Castilho, Lilian; Cotorruelo, Carlos Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Background Kell null (K0) individuals can produce anti-Ku, an antibody against many epitopes in the Kell glycoprotein, after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Since sensitized K0 patients are rare, little is known about anti-Ku clinical relevance and in particular about its association to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Case Report This work describes a case of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction by an alloantibody directed against the Kell glycoprotein. Serologic and molecular approaches identified an anti-Ku alloantibody in maternal serum. A homozygous IVS3 + 1g>a point mutation (KEL*02N.06 allele) was found to be responsible for the lack of Kell antigen expression in the mother's red blood cell and subsequent alloimmunization after a previous pregnancy. Even though in most cases Kell antibodies are clinically severe and may cause suppression of erythropoiesis, in our case the newborn had a moderate anemia and hyperbilirubinemia that was successfully treated with phototherapy without requiring exchange transfusion. Serological and molecular studies performed in the proband's family members allowed us to provide them with proper counseling regarding alloimmunization after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Conclusions This case enlarges the understanding of the clinical significance of alloantibodies against Kell blood group antigens.

  14. Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG) in liquid-based paps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivukula, Mamatha; Austin, R Marshall; Shidham, Vinod B

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG), a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath) Pap tests from 601 women (age 17–74 years, mean age 29.4 yrs) and observed HCG in 477 cases. In all 477 HCG cases, Pap tests were found to be satisfactory and to contain an endocervical sample. HCG were easily detectible at 10× screening magnification (size up to 400 um, mean 239.5 um) and ranged from 1 to 50 (mean 19.5) per Pap slide. Results HCG predominantly represented 3-Dimensional groups of endocervical cells with some nuclear overlap (379/477 – 79%), reactive endocervical cells with relatively prominent nucleoli and some nuclear crowding (29/477 – 6%), clusters of inflammatory cells (25/477 – 5.2%), parabasal cells (22/477 – 4.6%), endometrial cells (1/477 – 0.2%). Epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) were present in only 21 of 477 cases (4.6%). 18 of 21 women with HCG-associated ECA were less than 40 years old; only 3 were =/> 40 years. HCG-associated final abnormal Pap test interpretations were as follows: ASCUS (6/21 – 28%), LSIL (12/21 – 57%), ASC-H (2/21 – 9.5%), and HSIL/CIN2-3 (3/21 – 14%). The association of HCG with ECA was statistically significant (p = 0.0174. chi-square test). In patients with ECA, biopsy results were available in 10 cases, and 4 cases of biopsy-proven CIN2/3 were detected. Among these four cases, HCG in the Pap tests, in retrospect represented the lesional high grade cells in three cases (one HSIL case and two ASC-H cases). Interestingly, none of the 124 cases without HCG were found to have an epithelial cell abnormality. Conclusion We conclude: a. HCG are observed in a high

  15. Frustration, anger, and the significance of alter-ego transferences in group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W N

    1995-07-01

    When working with narcissistically vulnerable and angry patients in group psychotherapy one must take into account the entire treatment context. Interaction takes place among the identified patient, the other members, the therapist, and the image of the group as a whole. In members' counter-reactions to the difficult person, group-destructive forces frequently are stimulated. The offending individual may flee, or the group may reach an impasse in which little growth occurs. In this communication, I have focused on alter-ego relationships and transferences as a way of understanding aspects of group formation and destruction. Angry patients may have intense wishes to be like others and to feel part of the human condition. They suffer from feeling alone. Disruption of an alter-ego relationship may result in rage. A self-psychological perspective in concert with knowledge of group dynamics enables the clinician to formulate ways of intervening in problematic group interactions. The therapist's capacity to attend to the vulnerabilities of the self of all persons involved in the group is often severely tested, particularly under circumstances of emotional contagion. Elucidation of twinship and alter-ego transferences may help stabilize difficult patients and enable them to restart their psychological growth.

  16. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

  17. The significance of post-stress decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction in patients undergoing regadenoson stress gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Javier; Golzar, Yasmeen; Fughhi, Ibtihaj; Olusanya, Adebayo; Doukky, Rami

    2017-02-08

    The significance of post-stress decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with regadenoson stress gated SPECT (GSPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has not been studied. Consecutive patients who underwent rest/regadenoson stress GSPECT-MPI followed by coronary angiography within 6 months were analyzed. Change in LVEF by GSPECT-MPI was calculated as stress LVEF minus rest LVEF; a significant decrease was tested at 5% and 10% thresholds. In a diagnostic cohort of 793 subjects, LVEF change was not predictive of severe/extensive coronary artery disease (area under the curve, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.57; P = 0.946). There was no significant difference in the rates of severe/extensive coronary artery disease in patients with or without a decrease in LVEF, irrespective of MPI findings. In an outcome cohort of the 929 subjects followed for 30 ± 16 months, post-regadenoson stress decrease in LVEF was not associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint of cardiac death or myocardial infarction or in the risk of coronary revascularization. In patients selected to undergo coronary angiography following regadenoson stress GSPECT-MPI, a decrease in LVEF after regadenoson stress is not predictive of severe/extensive CAD or adverse clinical outcomes, irrespective of MPI findings.

  18. GOAL: A software tool for assessing biological significance of genes groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famili Fazel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern high throughput experimental techniques such as DNA microarrays often result in large lists of genes. Computational biology tools such as clustering are then used to group together genes based on their similarity in expression profiles. Genes in each group are probably functionally related. The functional relevance among the genes in each group is usually characterized by utilizing available biological knowledge in public databases such as Gene Ontology (GO, KEGG pathways, association between a transcription factor (TF and its target genes, and/or gene networks. Results We developed GOAL: Gene Ontology AnaLyzer, a software tool specifically designed for the functional evaluation of gene groups. GOAL implements and supports efficient and statistically rigorous functional interpretations of gene groups through its integration with available GO, TF-gene association data, and association with KEGG pathways. In order to facilitate more specific functional characterization of a gene group, we implement three GO-tree search strategies rather than one as in most existing GO analysis tools. Furthermore, GOAL offers flexibility in deployment. It can be used as a standalone tool, a plug-in to other computational biology tools, or a web server application. Conclusion We developed a functional evaluation software tool, GOAL, to perform functional characterization of a gene group. GOAL offers three GO-tree search strategies and combines its strength in function integration, portability and visualization, and its flexibility in deployment. Furthermore, GOAL can be used to evaluate and compare gene groups as the output from computational biology tools such as clustering algorithms.

  19. Deriving statistical significance maps for SVM based image classification and group comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Population based pattern analysis and classification for quantifying structural and functional differences between diverse groups has been shown to be a powerful tool for the study of a number of diseases, and is quite commonly used especially in neuroimaging. The alternative to these pattern analysis methods, namely mass univariate methods such as voxel based analysis and all related methods, cannot detect multivariate patterns associated with group differences, and are not particularly suit...

  20. High Glucose-Induced PC12 Cell Death by Increasing Glutamate Production and Decreasing Methyl Group Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjiang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High glucose- (HG- induced neuronal cell death is responsible for the development of diabetic neuropathy. However, the effect of HG on metabolism in neuronal cells is still unclear. Materials and Methods. The neural-crest derived PC12 cells were cultured for 72 h in the HG (75 mM or control (25 mM groups. We used NMR-based metabolomics to examine both intracellular and extracellular metabolic changes in HG-treated PC12 cells. Results. We found that the reduction in intracellular lactate may be due to excreting more lactate into the extracellular medium under HG condition. HG also induced the changes of other energy-related metabolites, such as an increased succinate and creatine phosphate. Our results also reveal that the synthesis of glutamate from the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine and valine may be enhanced under HG. Increased levels of intracellular alanine, phenylalanine, myoinositol, and choline were observed in HG-treated PC12 cells. In addition, HG-induced decreases in intracellular dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, and 3-methylhistidine may indicate a downregulation of methyl group metabolism. Conclusions. Our metabolomic results suggest that HG-induced neuronal cell death may be attributed to a series of metabolic changes, involving energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism, osmoregulation and membrane metabolism, and methyl group metabolism.

  1. High-Mobility Group Box-1 Induces Decreased Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Mediated Neuroprotection in the Diabetic Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abu El-Asrar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that brain-derived neurotrophic factor-(BDNF- mediated neuroprotection is reduced by high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 in diabetic retina, paired vitreous and serum samples from 46 proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 34 nondiabetic patients were assayed for BDNF, HMGB1, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and TBARS. We also examined retinas of diabetic and HMGB1 intravitreally injected rats. The effect of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin on diabetes-induced changes in retinal BDNF expressions was studied. Western blot, ELISA, and TBARS assays were used. BDNF was not detected in vitreous samples. BDNF levels were significantly lower in serum samples from diabetic patients compared with nondiabetics, whereas HMGB1, sRAGE, sICAM-1, and TBARS levels were significantly higher in diabetic serum samples. MCP-1 levels did not differ significantly. There was significant inverse correlation between serum levels of BDNF and HMGB1. Diabetes and intravitreal administration of HMGB1 induced significant upregulation of the expression of HMGB1, TBARS, and cleaved caspase-3, whereas the expression of BDNF and synaptophysin was significantly downregulated in rat retinas. Glycyrrhizin significantly attenuated diabetes-induced downregulation of BDNF. Our results suggest that HMGB1-induced downregulation of BDNF might be involved in pathogenesis of diabetic retinal neurodegeneration.

  2. Magnetic resonance appearance of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The GRI Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, L; Laredo, J D; Lioté, F; Koeger, A C; Hamze, B; Ziza, J M; Pertuiset, E; Bardin, T; Tubiana, J M

    1997-11-01

    A prospective multicenter study. To evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma has been studied extensively with magnetic resonance imaging, to the authors' knowledge, no study has evaluated the clinical interest of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The magnetic resonance examinations of the thoracolumbar spine in 24 patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were compared with those performed in 44 patients with newly diagnosed nontreated multiple myeloma. All findings on magnetic resonance examination performed in patients with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were normal, whereas findings on 38 (86%) of the 44 magnetic resonance examinations performed in patients with multiple myeloma were abnormal. Magnetic resonance imaging can be considered as an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma, which may be helpful when routine criteria are not sufficient. An abnormal finding on magnetic resonance examination in a patient with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance should suggest the diagnosis of multiple myeloma after other causes of marrow signal abnormalities are excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging also may be proposed in the long-term follow-up of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance when a new biologic or clinical event suggests the diagnosis of malignant monoclonal gammopathy.

  3. One angry woman: Anger expression increases influence for men, but decreases influence for women, during group deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jessica M; Peter-Hagene, Liana C

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether expressing anger increases social influence for men, but diminishes social influence for women, during group deliberation. In a deception paradigm, participants believed they were engaged in a computer-mediated mock jury deliberation about a murder case. In actuality, the interaction was scripted. The script included 5 other mock jurors who provided verdicts and comments in support of the verdicts; 4 agreed with the participant and 1 was a "holdout" dissenter. Holdouts expressed their opinions with no emotion, anger, or fear and had either male or female names. Holdouts exerted no influence on participants' opinions when they expressed no emotion or fear. Participants' confidence in their own verdict dropped significantly, however, after male holdouts expressed anger. Yet, anger expression undermined female holdouts: Participants became significantly more confident in their original verdicts after female holdouts expressed anger-even though they were expressing the exact same opinion and emotion as the male holdouts. Mediation analyses revealed that participants drew different inferences from male versus female anger, which created a gender gap in influence during group deliberation. The current study has implications for group decisions in general, and jury deliberations in particular, by suggesting that expressing anger might lead men to gain influence, but women to lose influence over others (even when making identical arguments). These diverging consequences might result in women potentially having less influence on societally important decisions than men, such as jury verdicts.

  4. Water Desalination through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Significant Role of Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-12-08

    A molecular simulation study is reported for water desalination through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes, namely ZIF-25, -71, -93, -96, and -97. The five ZIFs possess identical rho-topology but differ in functional groups. The rejection of salt (NaCl) is found to be around 97% in ZIF-25, and 100% in the other four ZIFs. The permeance ranges from 27 to 710 kg/(m(2)·h·bar), about one∼two orders of magnitude higher compared with commercial reverse osmosis membranes. Due to a larger aperture size da, ZIF-25, -71, and -96 exhibit a much higher water flux than ZIF-93 and -97; however, the flux in ZIF-25, -71, and -96 is governed by the polarity of functional group rather than da. With the hydrophobic CH3 group, ZIF-25 has the highest flux despite the smallest da among ZIF-25, -71, and -96. The lifetime of hydrogen bonding in ZIF-25 is shorter than that in ZIF-71 and -96. Furthermore, water molecules undergo a fast flushing motion in ZIF-25, but frequent jumping in ZIF-96 and particularly in ZIF-97. An Arrhenius-type relationship is found between water flux in ZIF-25 and temperature, and the activation energy is predicted to be 6.5 kJ/mol. This simulation study provides a microscopic insight into water desalination in a series of ZIFs, reveals the key factors (aperture size and polarity of functional group) governing water flux, and suggests that ZIF-25 might be an interesting reverse osmosis membrane for high-performance water desalination.

  5. The significance of healthy aging for older persons who participated in health education groups

    OpenAIRE

    Valer, Daiany Borghetti; Bierhals, Carla Cristiane Becker Kottwitz; Aires,Marinês; Paskulin, Lisiane Manganelli Girardi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Different terms have been used to describe the aging process while avoiding the negative consequences of advanced age. In this context healthy aging assumes a more extensive meaning than the absence of disease, and includes a process of adapting to the changes that occur throughout life, related to the maintenance of a healthy old age. Objective : To describe the meaning of healthy aging for older adults who participated in health education groups in the Basic Health Care Servi...

  6. Scope definition and resection significance of No. 12a group lymph nodes in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongjian; Zhu, Guangwei; Zheng, Wei; Hua, Jin; Yang, Shugang; Zhuang, Jinfu; Wang, Jinzhou; Ye, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    A discrepancy exists between the 7th edition guidelines of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the 3rd edition Japanese treatment guidelines in terms of the classification of No. 12a lymph nodes as regional or distant lymph nodes in D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. The scope definition of No. 12a lymph nodes has yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to assess the appropriateness of reclassifying No. 12a lymph node metastasis as distant metastasis according to the survival rate outcome, and to provide a clear and practical definition of the No. 12a group lymph nodes of gastric cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with gastric cancer who underwent standard or greater lymphadenectomy between January 2000 and December 2009 to find an association between No. 12a node metastasis and survival outcome. The present study first presented a clear and practical scope definition of the No. 12a group lymph nodes of gastric cancer, according to our clinical experiences and practices (Table I and Fig. 1). The survival outcome of patients with gastric cancer and No. 12a lymph node metastasis was poorer compared with that of patients with no No. 12a lymph node metastasis (P=0.0003). The results were similar in stage III patients with gastric cancer (Pcancer (P=0.1968). Cox regression analysis revealed that the AJCC stage was independently associated with an unfavorable cumulative survival rate. Logistic regression analysis revealed that tumor location, AJCC stage, intravascular cancer emboli and nerve invasion were associated with No. 12a lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, the data in the present study suggested that No. 12a lymph node metastasis is associated with distant metastasis, and therefore they concur with the 7th edition AJCC gastric cancer guidelines, which appear to be correct in terms of considering No. 12a lymph node metastasis as distant metastasis.

  7. Palaeobiology of Mesoproterozoic Salkhan Limestone, Semri Group, Rohtas, Bihar, India: Systematics and significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukund Sharma

    2006-02-01

    Mesoproterozoic (∼1600 Ma old) Salkhan Limestone (Semri Group)of the Vindhyan Supergroup, exposed in Rohtas district of Bihar,India,preserves an abundant and varied ancient microbial assemblage.These microfossils are recorded in three distinctly occurring cherts viz.,bedded chert, stromatolitic chert and cherty stromatolites.27 morphoforms belonging to 14 genera and 21 species have been recognized.Six unnamed forms are also described. The microbial assemblage,almost exclusively composed of the remnants of cyanobacteria,is dominated by entophysalidacean members and short trichomes and can be termed as ‘typical Meso-proterozoic microbiotas ’.The assemblage includes characteristic mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria. Eoentophysalis is the dominant organism in the assemblage. Ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeollipsoides) and spherical unicells also occur;both are distinct from mat forming assemblage,allochthonous and possibly planktic.Co-occurrence of the microbiotas and precipitates is related to the depositional environment of the Mesoproterozoic tidal flats with high carbonate saturation.

  8. Pediatric residents experience a significant decline in their response capabilities to simulated life-threatening events as their training frequency in cardiopulmonary resuscitation decreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin M; Miller, Michael P; Schmidt, Kathleen; Sagy, Mayer

    2011-05-01

    To determine the frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation education using high-fidelity patient simulators during pediatric residency training. Randomized controlled trial. Suburban tertiary care children's hospital residency training program. Twenty-four second year pediatric residents. Twenty-four second year pediatric residents were randomized into two study groups, 12 residents in each. Both groups completed a formal resuscitation training course utilizing lectures, skill stations, and six scenarios on high-fidelity patient stimulators. Group A was retested on three scenarios 4 months after training and group B was similarly retested 8 months after training. Time intervals from induction of a clinical problem to its definitive management were recorded for each resident. Residents were also asked to complete surveys following each episode of training and testing. The mean time intervals, for group A, to start effective bag mask ventilation and chest compressions in response to apnea and cardiac arrest were 17.75 secs (± 3.39 secs) and 23.42 secs (± 9.33 secs), respectively. These were significantly shorter than 32.7 secs (± 18.6 secs) and 81.2 secs (± 74.9 secs), for group B, respectively (p training, when compared to 4 months after training. These results may indicate that residents require more frequent training than currently recommended.

  9. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Shuhui; Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Hou, Jue; Wang, Rongmin; Liu, Chang; Ji, Xu; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  10. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  11. Decreased expression of Kallmann syndrome 1 sequence gene (KAL1) contributes to oral squamous cell carcinoma progression and significantly correlates with poorly differentiated grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiannan; Cao, Wei; Chen, Wantao; Xu, Liqun; Zhang, Chenping

    2015-02-01

    Kallmann syndrome 1 sequence gene (KAL1) protein is an extracellular matrix associated protein which plays vital roles in neurons development and cell migration. However, its biological functions and clinical implications have yet not been revealed in oral carcinogenesis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of KAL1 in oral cancer and determine clinical significance of KAL1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The expression pattern of KAL1 was examined in a testing cohort including OSCCs (n = 42) and paired adjacent tissues (PATs) (n = 14) by real-time PCR. The result was further validated in a validating cohort of OSCCs (n = 32). Correlation between clinicopathological parameters and KAL1 mRNA levels was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. In vitro, the effects of KAL1 ablation through siRNA-mediated knockdown on the proliferation of OSCC cells were determined by CCK-8, BrdU, and colonies formation assays, respectively. In addition, cell cycle distribution was further evaluated by cytometry. We observed that remarkably decreased expression of KAL1 mRNA in two independent cohorts (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.033, respectively). Furthermore, downregulated KAL1 mRNA was significantly associated with worse pathological grade (P = 0.013 and P = 0.035, respectively). Upon KAL1 silencing, the proliferation and colonies formation potentials of OSCC cells were notably promoted by accelerating G1 to M phase transition. These data indicated that KAL1 plays a potential suppressive role on OSCC initiation and progression, and KAL1 gene may serve as an adjuvant biomarker for the identification of pathological grade. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Delaying discharge after the stimulus significantly decreases muscle activation thresholds with small impact on the selectivity: an in vivo study using TIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejasz, Paweł; Badia, Jordi; Boretius, Tim; Andreu, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Jensen, Winnie; Navarro, Xavier; Guiraud, David

    2015-04-01

    The number of devices for electrical stimulation of nerve fibres implanted worldwide for medical applications is constantly increasing. Stimulation charge is one of the most important parameters of stimulation. High stimulation charge may cause tissue and electrode damage and also compromise the battery life of the electrical stimulators. Therefore, the objective of minimizing stimulation charge is an important issue. Delaying the second phase of biphasic stimulation waveform may decrease the charge required for fibre activation, but its impact on stimulation selectivity is not known. This information is particularly relevant when transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrode (TIME) is used, since it has been designed to provide for high selectivity. In this in vivo study, the rat sciatic nerve was electrically stimulated using monopolar and bipolar configurations with TIME. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of a 100-μs delay between the cathodic and the anodic phase of the stimulus allows to reduce charge requirements by around 30 %, while only slightly affecting stimulation selectivity. This study shows that adding a delay to the typical stimulation waveform significantly ([Formula: see text]) reduces the charge required for nerve fibres activation. Therefore, waveforms with the delayed discharge phase are more suitable for electrical stimulation of nerve fibres.

  13. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate significantly decreases serum lipoprotein levels compared with entecavir nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy in chronic hepatitis B carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, A A; AlMattooq, M; Yazdanfar, S; Burak, K W; Swain, M G; Congly, S E; Borman, M A; Lee, S S; Myers, R P; Coffin, C S

    2017-09-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Studies suggest lipid lowering effect of TDF in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals, but the effect on lipids and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in CHB is unknown. To compare TDF vs ETV effects on lipid levels in CHB. In this retrospective cohort study, data on serum lipids and CVD risk factors at baseline and ~1 year on TDF or ETV were collected from CHB carriers. We used propensity score matched models to assess the effect on total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL and triglycerides (TGL). In 348 patients, median age was 57 (IQR: 47-65 years), 63% were male, 77% were Asian, 19% were cirrhotic, 25% were HBeAg positive at baseline, and 72% received TDF vs 28% ETV. ETV-treated patients were older (median age: 60 vs 55, P<.01), had similar smoking and hypertension rates, but diabetes and dyslipidemia were more prevalent (19% vs 9%, P=.01; 14% vs 6%, P=.05, respectively). In propensity score matched models for age, gender, usage of lipid lowering agents, dyslipidemia and diabetes, TDF-treated patients were more likely to show a 20% decrease in TC (95% CI: 3%-25%), LDL-C (95% CI: 1%-25%) and HDL-C (CI: 10%-30%) levels compared with those on ETV. No change in TGL was observed in either group. A greater decline in TC, LDL-C and HDL was observed in CHB carriers receiving TDF compared with ETV. These data may influence anti-viral choice in CHB carriers at risk for CVD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Incidence rates of specific histological types of lung cancer in Singapore Chinese dialect groups, and their aetiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C H; Day, N E; Shanmugaratnam, K

    1976-03-15

    Significant differences in the incidence levels of lung cancer have been observed among major Chinese dialect groups or communities (Kokkien, Teochew and Cantonese) in Singapore. Among males, the incidence rate is highest in the Hokkiens (age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 persons per year in Hokkien 67.8, Teochew 55.3, Cantonese 54.0) and among females, it is highest in the Cantonese (Hokkien 12.4, Teochew 12.8, Cantonese 27.2). The present investigation was undertaken to determine the incidence rates of each of the main histological types of lung cancer in the Chinese population and to determine whether there are any correlations between histological patterns and the dialect group differentials that may be of aetiological significance. During the period 1968-1972, a total of 1,747 cases of lung cancer (1,285 males and 462 females) were reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry. It proved possible to type the neoplasms histologically in 476 males (37.0%) and 154 females (33.3%). Age-standardized rates by histological type were computed on the assumption that those histologically typed were a representative sample of all lung cancers. This study shows that Hokkien males have a significantly higher incidence rate of epidermoid carcinoma than the other dialect groups (Hokkien 36.1, Teochew 21.1, Cantonese 17.3). The Cantonese females have significantly higher incidence rates of both epidermoid carcinoma (Hokkien 3.7, Teochew 2.3, Cantonese 5.9) and adenocarcinoma (Hokkien 4.6, Teochew 3.6, Cantonese 11.9). Various sources of bias in studied of this type were examined; it is concluded that the differences in the histologic-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the various Chinese dialect groups in Singapore are real and not artefactual. The significance of these findings in relation to possible aetiological factors is discussed.

  15. Clinical significance of serum high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮雪华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the levels of high mobility group box 1 protein(HMGB1),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-6(IL-6),C-reactive protein(CRP)in order to explore the clinical significance of HMGB1 in patients with severely traumatic brain injury.Methods A total of 75 patients composed of 40 male and35 female with severely traumatic brain

  16. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  17. The efficacy of adult christian support groups in coping with the death of a significant loved one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Herbert; Stone, Mark H

    2009-09-01

    Psychologists sometimes minimize important resources such as religion and spiritual beliefs for coping with bereavement. Alienation of therapeutic psychology from religious values contrasts to professional and public interest in religious experience and commitment. A supportive viewpoint has come about partially as a result of recognizing important values which clinicians have found absent in many of their clients. Until spiritual belief systems become integrated into the work of clinicians, clients may not be fully integrative in coping with loss. The key finding of this study was that individuals who participated in Christian and secular support groups showed no statistically significant difference in their mean endorsement of negative criteria on the BHS, and no statistically significant difference for their mean score endorsement of positive criteria on the RCOPE. However, a Christian-oriented approach was no less effective than a psychological-oriented one. In both groups, a spiritual connection to a specific or generalized higher power was frequently identified which clients ascribed to facilitating the management of their coping.

  18. Provenance and U-Pb geochronology of the Upper Cretaceous El Chanate Group, northwest Sonora, Mexico, and its tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques-Ayala, C.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Jacobson, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous El Chanate Group, northwest Sonora, Mexico, is a 2.8km thick clastic sedimentary sequence deposited in a continental basin closely related to volcanic activity. It consists of three formations: the Pozo Duro (oldest), the Anita, and the Escalante (youngest). Petrographic study, conglomerate pebble counts, and U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons were performed to determine the source and age of this sequence, and to interpret its tectonic setting. In the sandstones of all three formations, the most abundant grains are those of volcanic composition (Q38F22L 40, Q35F19L46, and Q 31F22L47, respectively). The Pozo Duro Formation includes well-rounded quartz-arenite clast conglomerates, whereas conglomerates of the two upper units have clasts predominantly of andesitic and rhyolitic composition. The most likely source for these sediments was the Jurassic volcanic arc exposed in northern Sonora and southern Arizona. Zircons from five sandstone samples define two main age groups, Proterozoic and Mesozoic. The first ranges mostly from 1000 to 1800Ma, which suggests the influence of a cratonic source. This zircon suite is interpreted to be recycled and derived from the same source area as the quartz-rich sandstone clasts in the basal part of the section. Mesozoic zircons range from Triassic to Late Cretaceous, which confirms the proposed Late Cretaceous age for the sequence, and also corroborates Jurassic felsic source rocks. Another possible source was the Alisitos volcanic arc, exposed along the western margin of the Baja California Peninsula. Of regional significance is the great similarity between the El Chanate Group and the McCoy Mountains Formation of southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Both are Cretaceous, were deposited in continental environments, and have similar zircon-age patterns. Also, both exhibit intense deformation and locally display penetrative foliation. These features strongly suggest that both units underwent

  19. Trajectories of Change in University Students' General Views of Group Work Following One Single Group Assignment: Significance of Instructional Context and Multidimensional Aspects of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitza, Marold; Volet, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how distinct trajectories of change in students' general views of group work over the duration of one single group assignment could be explained by multidimensional aspects of their experience and the overall instructional context. Science (336) and Education (377) students involved in a semester-long group assignment…

  20. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  1. Significance of grooming behavior in two polygynous groups of western black crested gibbons: Implications for understanding social relationships among immigrant and resident group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Bei; Ning, Wen-He; Ni, Qing-Yong; Sun, Guo-Zheng; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2013-12-01

    In primates, grooming is considered among the most common behaviors for maintaining social bonds; however, to date, few studies have examined grooming behavior in gibbon species in detail. We used both a 5-min interval scan method and social network analysis to study grooming in two groups of polygynous western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in Wuliang Mountain, Central Yunnan, China. Individuals in both groups spent little time in social grooming (1.45% and 1.97% of active time). We compared the two groups' grooming networks and found that the group that maintained a more stable social unit had a more complex grooming network while the group with new immigrants had a grooming network characterized by fewer grooming pairs. Females in both groups played important roles in the grooming network. A newly immigrant female spent the most time grooming others and chose the resident adult female as her main adult grooming partner. Other females from both groups chose the adult male as their primary grooming partner (except their offspring). A sub-adult male who had resided in his natal group for 2 years after maturing into an adult also groomed more and was at the center of the network. This male finally replaced the breeding male in his group 3 years after our data collection period ended. We hypothesize that the immigrant female and the resident young adult male engaged in more extensive grooming interactions as a behavioral strategy to gain tolerance from long-term residents. Our results suggest that female gibbons in polygynous groups actively cooperate in maintaining social relationships rather than co-exist through tolerance or avoidance. Our observations indicate that grooming networks in crested gibbons reflect individual dynamics and partly support the social cohesion hypothesis for primate grooming. In this regard, we suggest that changes in gibbon grooming networks can be used to predict social change.

  2. Label-free LC-MSMS analysis of vitreous from autoimmune uveitis reveals a significant decrease in secreted Wnt signalling inhibitors DKK3 and SFRP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Stefanie M; Hofmaier, Florian; Dietter, Johannes; Swadzba, Margarete E; Blindert, Marcel; Amann, Barbara; Behler, Jennifer; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2012-07-19

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a severe and frequent blinding disease in horses which presents with auto-reactive invading T-cells, resulting in the destruction of the inner eye. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the retina and vitreous is driven by currently unknown guidance cues, however surgical removal of the vitreous (vitrectomy) has proven therapeutically successful. Therefore, proteomic analyses of vitrectomy samples are likely to result in detection of proteins contributing to disease pathogenesis. Vitreous from healthy and ERU diseased horses were directly compared by quantitative mass spectrometry based on label-free quantification of peak intensities across samples. We found a significant upregulation of complement and coagulation cascades and downregulation of negative paracrine regulators of canonical Wnt signalling including the Wnt signalling inhibitors DKK3 and SFRP2. Based on immunohistochemistry, both proteins are expressed in equine retina and suggest localisation to retinal Müller glial cells (RMG), which may be the source cells for these proteins. Furthermore, retinal expression levels and patterns of DKK3 change in response to ERU. Since many other regulated proteins identified here are associated with RMG cells, these cells qualify as the prime responders to autoimmune triggers.

  3. Self-reinnervated cat medial gastrocnemius muscles. II. analysis of the mechanisms and significance of fiber type grouping in reinnervated muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafuse, V F; Gordon, T

    1996-01-01

    1. The technique of glycogen depletion was used to determine whether regenerating motor axons reestablish the normal regionalization of motor units (MUs) in the cat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle, 2) whether the extent of clumping between MU fibers and/or type grouping of muscle fibers progressively increases with a decrease in reinnervated MU numbers, and 3) whether the pattern of innervation can explain why MUs fail to increase significantly in size when the cut nerve is sutured directly to the muscle, even when few axons make functional connections. 2. Distributions of MU fibers were analyzed in 5 normal and 14 reinnervated cat MG muscles 4.5-16 mo after sectioning of its nerve and suturing of the proximal end to the distal nerve sheaths (N-N suture) or directly to the muscle fascia (N-M suture). Muscle unit distributions were quantified according to location, territory size, density, and extent of clumping between fibers from the same MU. 3. Normal MU fibers were regionalized within five regions along the muscle's longitudinal and transverse axes. Reinnervated MUs were located within similar regions, indicating that regenerating axons follow the major proximal nerve branches to restore normal compartmentalization. 4. Muscle unit fibers were diffusely scattered within discrete MU territories in normal muscles. Territory size tended to increase with MU size, whereas density of muscle unit fibers within the territory decreased. 5. Territories increased with MU size after N-N suture but were smaller and showed little size variation after N-M suture. The extent of muscle unit fiber clumping was inversely related to the number of reinnervated MUs. On average, the extent of clumping was substantially higher in muscles reinnervated after N-M suture. These results indicate that distal nerve sheaths facilitate proximal axon branching, which establishes MU territory size. Once the territory is established, motor axons branch distally to increase MU size, which in turn

  4. The emergence of the non-profit foundation as a significant organizational format for group practice in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R

    1988-01-01

    The non-profit foundation is fast becoming a factor in the organizational structure of group practices. A growing number of group practices have adopted this format as a means of positioning themselves for survival and success in the turbulent, changing environment of the health care delivery system.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Decrease Job Burnout in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents Using a Facilitated Discussion Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Fallar, Robert; Korenstein, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Background Burnout is common in internal medicine (IM) trainees and is associated with depression and suboptimal patient care. Facilitated group discussion reduces burnout among practicing clinicians. Objective We hypothesized that this type of intervention would reduce incident burnout among first-year IM residents. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014, participants from a convenience sample of 51 incoming IM residents were randomly assigned (in groups of 3) to the intervention or a control. Twice-monthly theme-based discussion sessions (18 total) led by expert facilitators were held for intervention groups. Surveys were administered at study onset and completion. Demographic and personal characteristics were collected. Burnout and burnout domains were the primary outcomes. Following convention, we defined burnout as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results All 51 eligible residents participated; 39 (76%) completed both surveys. Initial burnout prevalence (10 of 21 [48%] versus 7 of 17 [41%], P = .69), incidence of burnout at year end (9 of 11 [82%] versus 5 of 10 [50%], P = .18), and secondary outcomes were similar in intervention and control arms. More residents in the intervention group had high year-end depersonalization scores (18 of 21 [86%] versus 9 of 17 [53%], P = .04). Many intervention residents revealed that sessions did not truly free them from clinical or educational responsibilities. Conclusions A facilitated group discussion intervention did not decrease burnout in resident physicians. Future discussion-based interventions for reducing resident burnout should be voluntary and effectively free participants from clinical duties.

  6. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-01

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging.

  7. Real-Space Renormalization Group for Quantum Gravity I: Significance of terms linear and quadratic in curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Sharatchandra, H S

    2016-01-01

    Real-Space renormalization group techniques are developed for tackling large curvature fluctuations in quantum gravity. Within cells of invariant volume $a^4$, only certain types of fluctuations are allowed. Normal coordinates are used to avoid redundancy of the degrees of freedom. The relevant integration measure is read off from the metric on metrics. All fluctuations in a group of cells are averaged over to get an effective action for the larger cell. In this paper the simplest type of fluctuations are kept. The measure is simply an integration over independent components of the curvature tensor at the center of each cell. Terms of higher order in $a$ are required for convergence in case of Einstein-Hilbert action. With only next order (in $a$) contribution to the action, there is no renormalization of Newton's or cosmological constants. The `massless Gaussian surface' in the renormalization group space is given by actions that have linear and quadratic terms in curvature and determines the evolution of co...

  8. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D; Altınışık, N Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Konovalova, Olga P; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V; Travinsky, Igor V; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2016-02-11

    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal'ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal'ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed.

  9. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D.; Altınışık, N. Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Gerasimov, Evgeny S.; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Konovalova, Olga P.; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V.; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V.; Travinsky, Igor V.; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal’ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal’ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217

  10. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the detrital zircons from the Longshoushan Group and its tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KuoAn TUNG; HoungYi YANG; LIU DunYi; ZHANG JianXin; ChienYuan TSENG; WAN YuSheng

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-two geologically meaningful U-Pb dates were obtained by using SHRIMP technique for the detrital zircons in three mettasedimentary rocks from stratigraphically uppermost parts of the Longshoushan Group in the present study.Eighty percents of these dates range from 1.7 Ga to 2.2 Ga with a peak at 1.8-2.0 Ga and twenty percents from 2.3 Ga to 2.7 Ga.The youngest detrital zircon is dated at 1724±19Ma which is interpreted as the maximum depositional age of the metasedimentary rocks.Therefore,the age for the diagenesis and lithification of the original sedimentary rocks of the Longshoushan Group before the metamorphism must be younger than 1724±19 Ma.Comparison of the age histograms of these detrital zircons with the ages of the igneous rocks on the surrounding older massifs suggests that the sediments of the Longshoushan Group were most likely derived from the Alaxa Block and Tarim Craton.This implies that the affinity between Alaxa Block and Tarim Craton was strong and that they might have been a unified craton during middle-early Proterozoic time

  11. Permian bivalves of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, and their biostratigraphic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Guimarães Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A small and poorly diversified bivalve fauna from Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin (State of Santa Catarina,Mafra Municipality, is described in this paper for the first time, based on new findings. The fauna is recorded in a 30 cmthick interval of fine sandstone locally at the top of Taciba Formation, in the Butiá quarry. The studied fossil-bearing sandstonebed is a marine intercalation recording a brief eustatic rise in sea-level, probably following glacier retreat and climateamelioration at the end of a broad glacial scenario. The fauna is mainly dominated by productid brachiopods, which are notdescribed here, and rare mollusk shells (bivalves and gastropods. Two bivalve species were identified: Myonia argentinensis(Harrington, 1955, and Aviculopecten multiscalptus (Thomas, 1928. The presence of Myonia argentinensis is noteworthysince this species is also present in the Baitaca assemblage found in marine siltstones (Baitaca assemblage of theRio do Sul Formation, cropping out at the Teixeira Soares region, Paraná State. This species is also recorded in the bivalvefauna from the Bonete Formation, Pillahinco Group, Sauce Grande Basin, Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina. Hence, themarine bivalves of the Taciba Formation are associated with the transgressive event that characterizes the Eurydesma fauna,indicating a Late Asselian-Sakmarian age for the bivalve fauna. Presence of the Myonia argentinensis megadesmid speciesreinforces the Gondwanic nature of the studied fauna.

  12. Occurrence of helically coiled microfossil Obruchevella in the Owk Shale of the Kurnool Group and its significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukund Sharma; Yogmaya Shukla

    2012-06-01

    The present study reports occurrence of helically coiled microfossil Obruchevella Reitlinger from the Owk Shale of the Kurnool Group from the peninsular India. The age of the Kurnool Group is poorly constrained due to the absence of direct radiometric dating and meager palaeobiological data. Occurrence of Obruchevella is considered as a typical Vendian marker genus recorded mostly from close to the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary successions. Hence, the present assemblage is important to ascertain the age of the basin. In the Owk Shale, four species of Obruchevella, viz., O. delicata, O. parva, O. minor and O. valdaica are recorded as organic walled microfossils. Among them O. valdaica is the largest in terms of size parameters. On the global scale, the recovered species occur in the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian sediments. Therefore, the occurrence of microfossil Obruchevella in the Owk Shale and known burrow structures in the Narji Limestone suggest Ediacaran age close to the Cambrian for the Kurnool Basin and challenges the recently assigned esoproterozoic age of the basin.

  13. The occurrence and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation/-flutter following acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study group. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evalution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, O D; Bagger, H; Køber, L;

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the occurrence and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation/-flutter following acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation/-flutter were studied in 6676 consecutive patients with acute myocardial...... extensive, thrombolytic therapy was received less frequently, and anterior Q wave myocardial infarction was experienced more frequently than patients without atrial fibrillation/-flutter. History of acute myocardial infarction and/or angina pectoris was similar in patients with and without atrial......, relative risk=1.4 (95% Cl: 1.2-1.7). CONCLUSION: Atrial fibrillation/-flutter often occurs after acute myocardial infarction and our analysis demonstrated that it was an independent predictor of an increased short and long-term mortality....

  14. On the significance of the anchoring group in the design of antenna materials based on phthalocyanine stopcocks and zeolite L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Duarte, Ismael; Dieu, Le-Quyenh; Dolamic, Igor; Martínez-Díaz, M Victoria; Torres, Tomás; Calzaferri, Gion; Brühwiler, Dominik

    2011-02-07

    The synthesis of stopcocks based on zinc phthalocyanine for selective adsorption at the channel entrances of zeolite L is reported. The introduction of either an inert SiMe₃ moiety, an imidazolium cation or a reactive isothiocyanate (NCS) group allows attachment to the channel entrances of zeolite L through van der Waals interactions, electrostatic interactions, or covalent binding, respectively. Stopcocks that rely on van-der-Waals-driven adsorption require careful selection of the solvent used for the deposition onto the zeolite surface to avoid a nonspecific distribution of the molecules. Regarding the design of photonic antenna systems, a stopcock with a cationic tail was found to be the most convenient, based on the observation that efficient energy transfer from molecules located in the zeolite nanochannels is more readily obtained than in the other cases.

  15. [The difficult concept of "internal objects" (1934-1943). Its significance for the formation of the Klein group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshelwood, R D

    1996-06-01

    Although the concept of "inner objects" developed by Melanie Klein is hardly a major object of discussion today, it caused a furore in the ranks of the British Psychoanalytical Society in the thirties and forties. Notably the analysts from Vienna were unable to agree to the existence of inner objects engendered via processes of internalisation. The author traces the course of these discussions of a clinical problem and the confusion they caused, placing them at the same time in a specific historical context. He sees the controversy as the expression of conflicts and fears unsettling the British Psychoanalytical Society during that period, caused on the one hand by the necessary integration of the exiled Freud family and on the other by tensions within its own ranks leading ultimately to a division of the Society and the constitution of the Klein Group.

  16. Trace fossils from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram India and their palaeoenvironmental significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghavendra P Tiwari; Chinmoy Rajkonwar; Lalchawimawii; Paul Lalnuntluanga Jehova Malsawma; Victor Z Ralte; Satish J Patel

    2011-12-01

    A detailed ichnological study performed on the Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram, India reveals the occurrence of rich and diverse trace fossils. These have been collected from the two localities in Aizawl, i.e., Bawngkawn and Ropaiabawk, where sandstone-shale sequence is well exposed. Total 20 ichnospecies of 14 ichnogenera have been identified which include Arenicolites isp., Cochlichnus anguineus, Helminthopsis abeli, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Ophiomorpha borneensis, Palaeophycus tubularis, Palaeophycus heberti, Palaeophycus sulcatus, Palaeophycus alternatus, Pholeus abomasoformis, Pholeus bifurcatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Planolites annularis, Polykladichnus irregularis, Rhizocorallium isp., Skolithos linearis, Taenidium satanassi, Teichichnus rectus, Thalassinoides horizontalis and Thalassinoides paradoxicus. Ethologically these ichnogenera display dwelling and feeding activities of the infaunal organisms. Arenicolites, Ophiomorpha, Polykladichnus and Skolithos are the members of the Skolithos ichnofacies while Palaeophycus, Planolites, Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides are the members of the Cruziana ichnofacies. The presence of Skolithos ichnofacies indicates sandy shifting substrate and high energy conditions in foreshore zone while the Cruziana ichnofacies indicate unconsolidated, poorly sorted soft substrate and low energy condition in the shoreface/offshore zone. These ichnogenera indicate foreshore to shoreface-offshore zone of shallow marine environment for the deposition of the rocks of the Bhuban Formation of Mizoram.

  17. Formation and geochemical significance of micrometallic aggregates including fissiogenic platinum group elements in the Oklo natural reactor, Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Makiko; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2010-08-01

    Metallic aggregates with a size of a few tens μm and consisting mainly of Ru, Rh, Pd, Te, Pb, As, Sb, S and Bi were found in the acid residue of SD37-S2/CD uraninite taken from Oklo natural reactor zone (RZ) 13. Quantitative analyses of major elements using an electron probe microanalyzer and in situ isotopic analyses of Zr, Mo, Ru, Pb and U using a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe were performed on the metallic aggregates to determine the geochemical behaviors of fission products and actinides and to ascertain the processes of formation of the aggregates in the RZs. The chemical compositions of the aggregates investigated in this study are significantly different from those reported previously, showing lower Pb content and no correlation between the contents of Pb and S in the individual grains. The 235U/ 238U ratios in metallic aggregates vary significantly from 0.00478 to 0.01466, indicating chemical fractionation between U and Pu during the formation of the aggregates. The Pb isotopic data indicate that most of the Pb in the aggregates decayed from 2.05 Ga-old uraninite that existed in the RZ originally and that there was chemical fractionation between U and Pb in some aggregates. The Zr and Mo isotopic ratios, 90Zr/ 91Zr and 95Mo/ 97Mo, for most of the aggregates had small variations, which can be simply explained by constant separate mixing of fissiogenic and nonfissiogenic components. On the other hand, a large variation in the 99Ru/ 101Ru ratio (0.324-1.73) cannot be explained only by a two component mixing theory; thus, chemical fractionation between Tc and Ru during the reactor criticality is suggested. The large variations in the 235U/ 238U and 99Ru/ 101Ru isotopic ratios suggest that the aggregates formed under various redox conditions owing to the radiolysis of water.

  18. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R

    2004-04-01

    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  19. Plasma levels of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) are significantly lower preoperatively in colorectal cancer patients than in cancer-free patients and are further decreased during the first month after minimally invasive colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha Kumara, H M C; Kirchoff, Daniel; Herath, Sajith A; Jang, Joon Ho; Yan, Xiaohong; Grieco, Michael; Cekic, Vesna; Whelan, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    Surgery has been associated with proangiogenic plasma protein changes that may promote tumor growth. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is expressed by endothelial cells and other tissues in response to hypoxia. Both intact ANGPTL4 and its partly degraded C-terminal fragment may promote tumor angiogenesis. This study had two purposes: to measure and compare preoperative plasma ANGPTL4 levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and benign colorectal disease (BCD) and to determine plasma levels after minimally invasive colorectal resection (MICR) for CRC. Plasma was obtained from an IRB-approved plasma/data bank. Preoperative plasma ANGPTL4 levels were measured for CRC and BCD patients, but postoperative levels were determined only for CRC patients for whom a preoperative, a postoperative day (POD) 3, and at least one late postoperative sample (POD 7-55) were available. Late samples were bundled into four time blocks and considered as single time points. ANGPTL4 levels (mean ± SD) were measured via ELISA and compared (significance, p MICR for CRC, levels are significantly lower for over a month compared with the preoperative level; the cause for this persistent decrease is unclear. The implications of both the lower preoperative level and the persistently decreased postoperative levels are unclear. Further studies are needed.

  20. Clinical significance of pretransplant serum ferritin on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT: a prospective cohort study by the Kanto Study Group for Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M; Kanamori, H; Matsumoto, K; Tachibana, T; Numata, A; Ohashi, K; Kobayashi, T; Nakaseko, C; Kanda, Y; Yamazaki, E; Fujisawa, S; Ooi, J; Sakura, T; Aotsuka, N; Onoda, M; Machida, S; Kato, J; Usuki, K; Watanabe, R; Taguchi, J; Yano, S; Saito, T; Takahashi, S; Sakamaki, H; Okamoto, S

    2015-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the influence of pretransplant serum ferritin levels on the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). In total, 190 patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome were consecutively enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: low-ferritin group (ferritin group (⩾1000 ng/mL). The primary end point was the cumulative incidence of infection within 100 days after HSCT, which was similar between the two groups: bloodstream infection, 35 vs 38%, P=0.65; bacterial infection, 44 vs 41%, P=0.68; and fungal infection, 6 vs 8%, P=0.71. The 1-year adjusted probability of OS of the high-ferritin group was significantly lower than that of the low-ferritin group (76 vs 63%, P=0.017). Using receiver operating characteristic curve, the threshold of pretransplant serum ferritin levels for bloodstream infection was 1400 ng/mL; the threshold for OS, EFS and non-relapse mortality was 1349 ng/mL. In conclusion, pretransplant serum ferritin levels of ⩾1000 ng/mL did not influence the incidence of infection but adversely affected OS after HSCT. A higher threshold of pretransplant serum ferritin levels may predict HSCT outcomes.

  1. Professionally significant psychophysiological qualities of information logical group of specialties at implementation of the experimental program of professionally applied physical training of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Y.O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve vocational and applied physical training of students of economics. Material: the pedagogical study involved 72 male students (aged 19-20 years. Results: job study was conducted. Defined professionally significant neurobehavioral performance of students of information logical group. Matched professionally applied exercises for their development. The results showed that in the process of purposeful muscle activity improved mechanisms of regulation of neural processes, adaptive changes occur that affect the temporal parameters of sensorimotor motor responses. A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological indicators of students of the control and experimental groups was done. Conclusions: it was found that matched professionally applied exercises positively affect the development of psycho-physiological qualities of students information and logical group of specialties.

  2. Near infra-red photoimmunotherapy with anti-CEA-IR700 results in extensive tumor lysis and a significant decrease in tumor burden in orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A Maawy

    Full Text Available Photoimmunotherapy (PIT of cancer utilizes tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a photosensitizer phthalocyanine dye IR700 which becomes cytotoxic upon irradiation with near infrared light. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PIT on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic nude mouse model. The binding capacity of anti-CEA antibody to BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells was determined by FACS analysis. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was used to determine cell death following treatment with PIT. For in vivo determination of PIT efficacy, nude mice were orthotopically implanted with BxPC-3 pancreatic tumors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. After tumor engraftment, the mice were divided into two groups: (1 treatment with anti-CEA-IR700 + 690 nm laser and (2 treatment with 690 nm laser only. Anti-CEA-IR700 (100 μg was administered to group (1 via tail vein injection 24 hours prior to therapy. Tumors were then surgically exposed and treated with phototherapy at an intensity of 150 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Whole body imaging was done subsequently for 5 weeks using an OV-100 small animal imaging system. Anti-CEA-IR700 antibody bound to the BxPC3 cells to a high degree as shown by FACS analysis. Anti-CEA-IR700 caused extensive cancer cell killing after light activation compared to control cells in cytotoxicity assays. In the orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer, the anti-CEA-IR700 group had significantly smaller tumors than the control after 5 weeks (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in the body weights of mice in the anti-CEA-IR700 and control groups indicating that PIT was well tolerated by the mice.

  3. Significant immediate and long-term improvement in quality of life and disease coping in patients with vitiligo after group climatotherapy at the Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christian; Smythe, Jim W; Spencer, Jennifer D; Hasse, Sybille; Panske, Angela; Chiuchiarelli, Giorgia; Schallreuter, Karin U

    2011-03-01

    Quality of life in patients with vitiligo is impaired. This study explored the immediate effect of 20 days of climatotherapy at the Dead Sea on quality of life, coping with the disease, general well-being and individual stress levels in a group of 71 patients with vitiligo and 42 matched controls. The long-term effect was assessed after 12 months in 33/71 patients and 12/42 controls. Study instruments were Dermatology Life Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory and the Adjustment to Chronic Skin Disorders Questionnaire. Stress measurements were based on cortisol and β-endorphin concentrations in saliva samples. Quality of life was significantly improved at day 20 at the Dead Sea compared with day 1, and this was still significant after 12 months. Moreover, social anxiety/avoidance, anxious-depressive mood and helplessness as measured by the Adjustment to Chronic Skin Disorders Questionnaire were significantly reduced. There was no difference in levels of cortisol and β-endorphin between patients and controls, indicating that stress per se is not a significant contributor in vitiligo. In conclusion, therapy in patient groups offers an effective tool for long-lasting improvement in quality of life and patients' well-being.

  4. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  5. Immunocompromentation of persons from groups with high risk of parenteral contamination with hepatitis B and C viruses: mechanisms of development and clinical pathogenetical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mamedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains data demonstrated that majority of persons belonged to groups with high risk of parenteral contamination with hepatitis B and C viruses yet before contamination with these viruses have complex of immunological disorders. In the article is presented the data reflecting main causes of these disorders development at different categories of such persons and main aspects of their pathogenetical and clinical significance are discussed.

  6. Clinical significance of hTERC and C-Myc genes amplification in a group of Egyptian patients with cancer cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, M M; Nossair, H M; Ismael, M T; Amira, G; Hosney, M M; Abdul Rahman, R

    2011-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide after breast cancer. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The implementation of cervical cancer screening programs has greatly decreased the morbidity and mortality, as precancerous lesions and early invasive cervical cancer could be detected and treated effectively. The detection of hTERC gene amplification was suggested as a possible diagnostic marker for use in routine cytological screening. The present study was designed to detect genomic gains of the hTERC and C-MYC genes using FISH technique and to investigate the relationship between genes amplification and the clinical data of the patients. The current study was carried out on twelve cases with cervical cancer at different grades (three cases were grade I, six cases were grade II and three cases were grade III). Interphase FISH analysis using LSI probe, Cervical Cancer probe hTERC (3q26) & C-MYC (8q24), was successfully performed on 12 patients with cancer cervix. Interphase FISH analysis revealed positive hTERC gene amplification in all cases of cancer cervix (100%). However C-MYC gene amplification was detected in four cases only (33.3%). Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant correlation between hTERC amplification and grading. Also, there was significant correlation between C-MYC amplification and grading and highly significant correlation between C-MYC amplification and hTERC amplification. On the other hand hTERC and C-MYC genes amplification showed an inverse correlation with the ages of the patients. The present study highlights the importance of using hTERC and C-MYC genes FISH probes for cases with cancer cervix or pre-malignant lesions as a sensitive technique. This method provides an easy and effective applicable approach which helps in the diagnosis and prognosis, as an increased copy number is associated with a more advanced grade that could be detected in the early stages of the disease.

  7. The screening and clinical significance of Rh blood group system%Rh血型系统阴性血型筛查及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕红琳; 刘更夫; 龚永启; 左芳; 郑璐琳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the RhD( — ) ,RhE( — ) and RhC( — ) of Rh blood group system and to provide the experiment basis for preventing hemolytic transfusion reaction(HTR) and newborn hemolytic disease(NHD). Methods 11 035 cases of blood samples were examined for ABO,RhD,RhE and RhC blood groups by using micro-column gel method. Results A mong all of the detected samples,0. 21% (23/11 035) were with RhD( — ),47. 8%(5 275/11 035)with RhE( — ) and 7. 6% (839/11 035) with RhE( — ). Conclusion To take Rh blood group system,including RhD,RhE and RhC,as routine blood group tests might have important clinical significance in the prevention of HTR and NHD,as well as in the improvement of the safety of a blood transfusion treatment.%目的 筛查Rh血型系统Rh(D)、Rh(E)、Rh(C)阴性血型,为临床预防溶血性输血反应及新生儿溶血性疾病的发生提供实验依据.方法 用微柱凝胶法对11 035例作ABO血型鉴定标本同时进行Rh血型系统Rh(D)、Rh(E)、Rh(C)阴性血型筛查.结果 Rh(D)抗原阴性23例,检出率为0.21%;Rh(E)抗原阴性5 275例,检出率为47.8%;Rh(C)抗原阴性839例,检出率为7.6%.结论 将Rh血型系统Rh(D)、Rh(E)、Rh(C)纳入到血型的常规检验项目,对预防溶血性输血反应的发生、提高输血治疗的安全性,以及预防新生儿溶血性疾病的发生具有十分重要的临床意义.

  8. Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) registry VII: prevalence and clinical significance of serositis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Bai, W; Zhu, P; Zhang, X; Liu, S; Wu, L; Ma, L; Bi, L; Zuo, X; Sun, L; Huang, C; Tian, X; Li, M; Zhao, Y; Zeng, X

    2016-05-01

    To investigate both the prevalence and clinical characteristics of serositis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a large cohort in the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) database. A prospective cross-sectional study of patients with SLE was conducted based on the data from the CSTAR registry. Serositis was defined according to the 1999 revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE - that is, pleuritis/pleural effusion and/or pericarditis/pericardial effusion detected by echocardiography, chest X-ray or chest computerized tomography (CT) scan. Peritonitis/peritoneal effusion were confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. We analysed the prevalence and clinical associations of serositis with demographic data, organ involvements, laboratory findings and SLE disease activity. Of 2104 patients with SLE, 345 were diagnosed with serositis. The prevalence of lupus nephritis (LN), interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as the presence of leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypocomplementemia and anti-dsDNA antibodies was significantly higher in patients with serositis (P Lupus-related peritonitis had similar clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles as serositis caused by SLE. There is a significant association of nephropathy, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, hypocomplementemia, leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated anti-dsDNA antibodies with serositis. The results suggest that higher SLE disease activity contributes to serositis development, and should be treated aggressively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. [Micro-area characteristics of laminated chert in the volcanic rocks of Xionger Group of Ruyang area and its geological significances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, An; Li, Hong-zhong; Zhao, Ming-zhen; Yang, Zhi-jun; Liang, Jin; He, Jun-guo

    2014-12-01

    sedimentation contributed to the bands (or lamellars) with minerals of much smaller grain size, which therefore resulted in diversities from the other bands (or lamellars). According to this, the repeated bands (or lamellars) denoted the volcanic activities were cyclic during the formation of the chert. What's more, the carbonate vein came from the precipitation of subsequent hydrothermal fluids in the fracture of the chert, which contributed to the changes (e. g. rising in crystallinity degree of silica and formation of micro-structure of new silicate) near the interface between chert and the carbonate vein. Although there were many impurity minerals with complex genesis, the relatively lower content of silica in the chert of Xionger Group was due to the volcanic mineral mainly. Since there were impurity minerals of volcanic genesis in relatively large amount, the content of silica in the chert of Xionger Group was hence relatively low. In this study, the Raman analysis was witnessed to be an effective way in the researches on the chert, and could open out the type of mineral, micro-structure and degrees of crystallinity (or order). These characteristics were well kept in the micro-area, and played significant roles to reflect and understand the formation mechanism and subsequent evolution of the chert.

  10. 钙结合蛋白在前列腺癌中的下调表达及其临床意义%The clinical significance of decreased expression of calcium binding protein 39 in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建国; 陈卫红; 徐述雄; 王元林; 孙兆林; 何慧婵; 钟惟德

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨钙结合蛋白(CAB39)在前列腺癌中的作用及其临床意义.方法 应用蛋白组学二维荧光差异凝胶电泳(2D-DIGE)技术筛选出在局限性前列腺癌与癌旁组织差异性表达的CAB39蛋白,质谱分析(MS)鉴定、免疫组织化学技术检测CAB39蛋白在24例前列腺癌与癌旁组织中的表达,结合CAB39免疫组织化学评分和前列腺癌患者的临床病理参数进行分析.结果 CAB39蛋白在癌旁组织中的免疫组织化学染色阳性率高于前列腺癌组织(70.8%比33.3%,P<0.01),CAB39蛋白表达在前列腺癌患者年龄、血清前列腺特异抗原(PSA)水平、Gleason评分和肿瘤TNM分期各不同分组中的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 CAB39蛋白在前列腺癌患者中下调表达,它可能是前列腺癌抑制因子.%Objective To explore the role and clinical significance of calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39) protein in prostate cancer (PCa).Methods Using the two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen CAB39 protein in PCa and adjacent tissues,and mass spectrometry analysis verification,to analyze the differentially expressed degree of CAB39 protein in 24 cases of PCa and adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) technology,the combination of CAB39 IHC score and clinicopathological parameters of PCa patients were analyzed.Results Using the method of IHC,we found that the expression of CAB39 protein in adjacent tissues was significantly higher than that in PCa tissues (70.8% vs 33.3%,P <0.01).The expression of CAB39 protein in different age stages of PCa patients,serum PSA levels,Gleason score and TNM stage in tumor group had no significant difference(P >0.05).Conclusion CAB39 protein is down-regulated expression in PCa,it may be prostate tumor suppressor.

  11. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug; Anna Quialheiro Abreu da Silva; Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider; Luiz Roberto Ramos; Eleonora d’Orsi; André Junqueira Xavier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160) attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each). The control group (n = 133)...

  12. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papaxoinis

    Full Text Available The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9 and kinase (exon 20 domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer.Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20 and qPCR (exon 9 (Sanger/qPCR mutations. In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive, molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR negative tumors.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23% with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24% with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82. Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel, while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin. The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004. Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified.The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer

  13. Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease diagnostic criteria: updated International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) consensus criteria--history, rationale, description, and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard P; Picchietti, Daniel L; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Ondo, William G; Walters, Arthur S; Winkelman, John W; Zucconi, Marco; Ferri, Raffaele; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Lee, Hochang B

    2014-08-01

    In 2003, following a workshop at the National Institutes of Health, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) developed updated diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). These criteria were integral to major advances in research, notably in epidemiology, biology, and treatment of RLS/WED. However, extensive review of accumulating literature based on the 2003 NIH/IRLSSG criteria led to efforts to improve the diagnostic criteria further. The clinical standards workshop, sponsored by the WED Foundation and IRLSSG in 2008, started a four-year process for updating the diagnostic criteria. That process included a rigorous review of research advances and input from clinical experts across multiple disciplines. After broad consensus was attained, the criteria were formally approved by the IRLSSG executive committee and membership. Major changes are: (i) addition of a fifth essential criterion, differential diagnosis, to improve specificity by requiring that RLS/WED symptoms not be confused with similar symptoms from other conditions; (ii) addition of a specifier to delineate clinically significant RLS/WED; (iii) addition of course specifiers to classify RLS/WED as chronic-persistent or intermittent; and (iv) merging of the pediatric with the adult diagnostic criteria. Also discussed are supportive features and clinical aspects that are important in the diagnostic evaluation. The IRLSSG consensus criteria for RLS/WED represent an international, interdisciplinary, and collaborative effort intended to improve clinical practice and promote further research. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  15. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  16. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Anna Quialheiro Abreu da; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Xavier, André Junqueira

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160) attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each). The control group (n = 133) received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91) in the MMSE compared to the control group. The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  17. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Can "The New Social Studies" Survive in the Public Schools?: A Case Study of the Perceptions of Significant School Related Groups Regarding Nationalistic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, David T.

    A review and discussion of the new social studies introduces the problem of whether nationalism and patriotism are "closed areas" or if an open examination of these areas is possible in the public schools. Two sets of hypotheses, one dealing with public school educators and the other with school-related groups, were tested by administration of a…

  19. Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): an open clinical feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvikoski, T.; Waaler, E.; Lindström, T; Bölte, S.; Jokinen, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new psychoeducative intervention program (PEGASUS) for adults with ADHD and their significant others in a psychiatric outpatient context. At three outpatient psychiatric clinics, adults with ADHD and their significant others took part in PEGASUS, a psychoeducational program based on theories from cognitive behavioral therapy, neuropsychology, and cross-disciplinary evidence regarding ADHD. In total, 108 adul...

  20. 集体心理治疗对精神分裂症患者家属的意义%THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY ON THE FAMILIES OF SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芹; 唐岩; 温云辉; 李惠仙

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of group psychotherapy for caregivers of schizophrenia patients in the treatment of anxiety and depression. [Methods] In relatives of schizophrenic patients, used self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS) rating scale for assessment, 72 cases of SDS > 50 points and SAS> SO points were given with collective psychotherapy. 3 months, 6 months, 12 months before treatment respectively, carried out evaluation. [ Re-Sults] The SAS and SDS after treatment were significantly decreased comparing with before treatment, the differences were significant [Conclusion] The group psychotherapy for caregivers of schizophrenia patients can effectively reduce anxiety and depression.%[目的]探讨集体心理治疗对精神分裂症病人照料者焦虑与抑郁的治疗与效果.[方法]对社区中精神分裂症患者的照料亲属采用焦虑自评量表(SAS),抑郁白评量表(SDS)进行评定量表测评,对SDS>50分及SAS>50分的72例照料者亲属进行集体心理治疗.分别于治疗前、3个月、6个月、12个月进行评测.[结果]治疗结束SAS及SDS分显著下降,与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义.[结论]集体心理治疗对精神分裂症病人照料者减轻焦虑与抑郁有效.

  1. Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): an open clinical feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, T; Waaler, E; Lindström, T; Bölte, S; Jokinen, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new psychoeducative intervention program (PEGASUS) for adults with ADHD and their significant others in a psychiatric outpatient context. At three outpatient psychiatric clinics, adults with ADHD and their significant others took part in PEGASUS, a psychoeducational program based on theories from cognitive behavioral therapy, neuropsychology, and cross-disciplinary evidence regarding ADHD. In total, 108 adults were allocated to treatment (51 with ADHD and their 57 significant others). Feasibility was evaluated regarding suitability of the intervention at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and treatment completion. Preliminary efficacy was evaluated per protocol from baseline to post-intervention (n = 41 adults with ADHD and 40 significant others). In a feasibility analysis, the intervention was judged to be a suitable treatment option for 94.5 % of all individuals with a primary diagnosis of ADHD at an outpatient psychiatric clinic. In total, 43 out of 51 allocated individuals with ADHD (84.3 %) completed the intervention. The corresponding figures for their significant others were 42 out of 57 (73.7 %). Knowledge about ADHD increased, and both the quality of relationships and psychological well-being improved from baseline to post-intervention in all participants. The significant others reported a reduction in the subjective burden of care, such as worry and guilt. The objective burden of care (such as financial problems) did not change. The findings support the potential value of psychoeducation for adults with ADHD and their significant others. An ongoing randomized controlled trial will generate further evidence concerning the PEGASUS program.

  2. Liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes cross the blood-brain barrier and significantly decrease PrP on neuronal cells and PrP in infected cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Pulford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent advances toward an effective therapy for prion diseases employ RNA interference to suppress PrP(C expression and subsequent prion neuropathology, exploiting the phenomenon that disease severity and progression correlate with host PrP(C expression levels. However, delivery of lentivirus encoding PrP shRNA has demonstrated only modest efficacy in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a new siRNA delivery system incorporating a small peptide that binds siRNA and acetylcholine receptors (AchRs, acting as a molecular messenger for delivery to neurons, and cationic liposomes that protect siRNA-peptide complexes from serum degradation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes (LSPCs delivered PrP siRNA specifically to AchR-expressing cells, suppressed PrP(C expression and eliminated PrP(RES formation in vitro. LSPCs injected intravenously into mice resisted serum degradation and delivered PrP siRNA throughout the brain to AchR and PrP(C-expressing neurons. These data promote LSPCs as effective vehicles for delivery of PrP and other siRNAs specifically to neurons to treat prion and other neuropathological diseases.

  3. [Movement and its significance: natural healing physiotherapy and modern pharmacological therapy of osteoporosis in the semantic differential. A quantitative study of a self-help group and two comparison groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitzer, M; Fischer, G C; Doering, T J

    2003-06-01

    Physiotherapy is a frequently applied concomitant therapy for patients with osteoporosis. Compared to modern pharmacological therapy physiotherapy appears to receive sustained high regard, which should be further examined in view of the attribution pattern of the patients. Elements of physiotherapy and Kneipp therapy were quantitatively examined in terms of their semantic content in a three-dimensional space of meaning. This was done in comparison with elements of modern pharmacological therapy. The questions regarding possible patterns of the attributions and a possible hierarchy of the therapy forms were analyzed by a survey of a self-help group for osteoporosis patients and two control groups. According to the methods of semantic differentials, a self-help group for osteoporosis patients and two control groups (high-school female pupils, breast carcinoma patients) were queried about the individual elements of physiotherapy and modern pharmacological therapy in a polar profile of a questionnaire. The results were arranged onto a numerical matrix and by means of factor analysis, a location in a three-dimensional space of meaning was calculated for each element questioned. For purpose of illustration, the results were transferred to a succession of diagrams so that the assessments for the three axes of meaning became more distinct. The results are discussed on the background of a current neurolinguistic theory of meaning: Sensomotoric experience generates meaning in form of 'primary metaphors'; if reactivated e.g. by physiotherapy, these metaphors can give fundaments for an emergent and salutogenic system of meaning, which helps to reconstruct the patient's 'subjective anatomy' and helps to create new values of living one's life. If sensomotoric experience has a central function in generating meaning, the axis of 'motion' and therapies stressing on sensomotoric experience (e.g. exercise group) will show a corresponding profile of evaluation throughout the three

  4. Using chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) modelling to identify groups of methadone treatment clients experiencing significantly poorer treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Emma L; Comiskey, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    In times of scarce resources it is important for services to make evidence based decisions when identifying clients with poor outcomes. chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) modelling was used to identify characteristics of clients experiencing statistically significant poor outcomes. A national, longitudinal study recruited and interviewed, using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), 215 clients starting methadone treatment and 78% were interviewed one year later. Four CHAID analyses were conducted to model the interactions between the primary outcome variable, used heroin in the last 90 days prior to one year interview and variables on drug use, treatment history, social functioning and demographics. Results revealed that regardless of these other variables, males over 22 years of age consistently demonstrated significantly poorer outcomes than all other clients. CHAID models can be easily applied by service providers to provide ongoing evidence on clients exhibiting poor outcomes and requiring priority within services.

  5. Petrology and palaeoenvironmental significance of authigenic iron-rich clays, carbonates and apatite in the Claiborne Group, Middle Eocene, NE Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, J. M.; Gale, A. S.; McCarty, D.

    2010-07-01

    The Claiborne Group (Eocene) in North East Texas consists of clayey sandstones and mudrocks, both with variable proportions of dark green to brown clay pellets deposited in a marginal to open marine setting on the Gulf Coast margin. The composition of concretionary carbonate and clay pellets, from 5 localities, has been investigated using a wide variety of analytical techniques. Our palaeontological, sedimentological, C/S and stable isotope data support an interpretation of marginal marine facies with limited freshwater input, for the Claiborne Group. Dark green (mature) pellets are predominantly associated with transgressive, bioturbated, marine sediments. From the Weches Formation through to the youngest Crockett Formation there is a trend from pellets composed mostly of dark green serpentine-rich mixed layer clay to those of mostly brown (immature) nontronite-rich mixed layer clay. The serpentine is intermediate between odinite and berthierine and may have been originally odinite that has undergone partial transformation to berthierine. Pellet maturity apparently corresponds with the degree of winnowing and sedimentation rate. It does not appear to correspond with global temperature fluctuations, though the serpentine-rich rather than glauconite-rich composition may do. Siderite cement, mostly in the form of concretions, post-dates the iron-rich clay pellets and pre-dates calcite cement. Carbonate and apatite concretions show a wide range of mineral cement textures, reflecting variation in sedimentary environment and early diagenetic processes. Based on water temperatures derived from verneriacardia bivalves a precipitation temperature of 20 °C is assumed for the concretionary siderite. Using this temperature we surmise that the siderite precipitated from marine pore waters with intermittent meteoric water mixing.

  6. On the significance of natural gas with regard to tomorrow's customer target group; Zur Bedeutung von Erdgas in der Kundenzielgruppe von morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstrup, Dominik [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Professur fuer BWL und Strategisches Management; Groeblinghoff, Sebastian [EVU, Essen (Germany); Walsh, Gianfranco [Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Management

    2011-10-15

    Competition between the energy carriers in Germany's heating market has become harsher over the past years and is expected to grow still further. Successful customer acquisition and long-term customer retention will become increasingly important for natural gas supply companies. For this reason decision makers at public utilities that have a significant share of natural gas in their sales portfolio should have the foresight to ask themselves what sentiment tomorrow's home and house owners will have towards natural gas as an energy product as well as towards their company.

  7. The southern Araçuaí belt and the Dom Silvério Group: geologic architecture and tectonic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Peres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Araçuaí belt corresponds to the external portion of the western half of the Araçuaí-West Congo Neopro-terozoic orogen. TheAraçuaí belt fringes the São Francisco craton to east and is separated from the crystalline core of the orogen by the Abre Campo geophysical discontinuity. The southern Araçuaí belt involves four major lithologic units: the Archean and Paleoproterozoic gneisses of the Mantiqueira Complex, the Pedra Dourada Charnockite, the Paleoproterozoic Borrachudos Granitoid, and the metavolcanosedimentary rocks of the Dom Silvério Group. The Dom Silvério Group occurs in a NNE-SSW striking belt and consists of a thick package of metapelitic rocks with intercalations of quartzites, amphibolites, meta-ultramafics, banded iron formations, gondites and marbles. All units of the southern Araçuaí belt underwent four syn-metamorphic phases of deformation in the course of the Brasiliano event. The first phase, synchronous to a regional amphibolite facies metamorphism, was associated to a general tectonic transport towards north along the left-lateral Dom Silvério shear zone and its low angle segment. The second and third phases represent progressive stages of a west directed shortening, which led to the development of local thrusts and pervasive folds in several scales. The fourth phase is extensional and reflects the collapse of the orogen.A Faixa Araçuaí corresponde à porção ocidental externa do orógeno neoproterozóico Araçuaí-Congo Ocidental. Margeia a borda leste do Cráton do São Francisco e é separada do núcleo cristalino do orógeno pela descontinuidade geofísica de Abre Campo. A porção meridional da Faixa Araçuaí envolve quatro unidades litológicas principais: os ortognaisses arqueanos e paleoproterozóicos do Complexo Mantiqueira, os charnoquitos Pedra Dourada, os granitóides paleoproterozóicos da Suíte Borrachudos e as rochas metavulcanossedimentares do Grupo Dom Silvério. O Grupo Dom Silv

  8. European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Centers with FACT-JACIE Accreditation Have Significantly Better Compliance with Related Donor Care Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Chloe; O'Donnell, Paul V; Kiefer, Deidre M; Yared, Jean; Norkin, Maxim; Anderlini, Paolo; Savani, Bipin N; Diaz, Miguel A; Bitan, Menachem; Halter, Joerg P; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have identified healthcare practices that may place undue pressure on related donors (RDs) of hematopoietic cell products and an increase in serious adverse events associated with morbidities in this population. As a result, specific requirements to safeguard RD health have been introduced to Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy/The Joint Accreditation Committee ISCT and EBMT (FACT-JACIE) Standards, but the impact of accreditation on RD care has not previously been evaluated. A survey of transplant program directors of European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation member centers was conducted by the Donor Health and Safety Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to test the hypothesis that RD care in FACT-JACIE accredited centers is more closely aligned with international consensus donor care recommendations than RD care delivered in centers without accreditation. Responses were received from 39% of 304 centers. Our results show that practice in accredited centers was much closer to recommended standards as compared with nonaccredited centers. Specifically, a higher percentage of accredited centers use eligibility criteria to assess RDs (93% versus 78%; P = .02), and a lower percentage have a single physician simultaneously responsible for an RD and their recipient (14% versus 35%; P = .008). In contrast, where regulatory standards do not exist, both accredited and nonaccredited centers fell short of accepted best practice. These results raise concerns that despite improvements in care, current practice can place undue pressure on donors and may increase the risk of donation-associated adverse events. We recommend measures to address these issues through enhancement of regulatory standards as well as national initiatives to standardize RD care. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  10. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  11. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect b

  12. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teutsch U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Teutsch,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009.Methods: The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed.Results: Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years.Conclusion: To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races.Keywords: endurance, men, women, gender

  13. Decreasing strabismus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A; Williams, B; Arora, A K; McNamara, R; Yates, J; Fielder, A

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there has been a consistent change across countries and healthcare systems in the frequency of strabismus surgery in children over the past decade. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on all strabismus surgery performed in NHS hospitals in England and Wales, on children aged 0–16 years between 1989 and 2000, and between 1994 and 2000 in Ontario (Canada) hospitals. These were compared with published data for Scotland, 1989–2000. Results: Between 1989 and 1999–2000 the number of strabismus procedures performed on children, 0–16 years, in England decreased by 41.2% from 15 083 to 8869. Combined medial rectus recession with lateral rectus resection decreased from 5538 to 3013 (45.6%) in the same period. Bimedial recessions increased from 489 to 762, oblique tenotomies from 43 to 121, and the use of adjustable sutures from 29 to 44, in 2000. In Ontario, operations for squint decreased from 2280 to 1685 (26.1%) among 0–16 year olds between 1994 and 2000. Conclusion: The clinical impression of decrease in the frequency of paediatric strabismus surgery is confirmed. In the authors’ opinion this cannot be fully explained by a decrease in births or by the method of healthcare funding. Two factors that might have contributed are better conservative strabismus management and increased subspecialisation that has improved the quality of surgery and the need for re-operation. This finding has a significant impact upon surgical services and also on the training of ophthalmologists. PMID:15774914

  14. Voice examination in patients with decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Hyo Sang; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Hong, Jong Chul; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Kang Dae

    2012-06-01

    Decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy due to injury of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) may be a critical, especially to professional voice users. The author studied the usefulness of VRP (voice range profile) and MDVP (multi-dimensional voice program) to evaluate patients who have decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy. A study was performed with 58 females and 9 males who underwent voice assessment between January 2008 and June 2009. The patients were classified as the group of female with no decreased high pitch (group A, n = 52), decreased high pitch (group B, n = 6) and the group of male with no decreased high pitch (group C, n = 9). VRP and laryngeal electromyogram (EMG) was performed in group B. The preoperative frequency range of group A and B were statistically not different. In Group B, the result of VRP showed that the frequency range was 443.11 ± 83.97, 246.67 ± 49.41, 181.37 ± 80.13 Hz showing significant decrease after the surgery compared to that of the preoperative result. (P VRP revealed no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative result. VRP is a noninvasive, quick, and practical test to demonstrate decreased frequency range visually and helps to evaluate EBSLN injury in patient with thyroidectomy.

  15. Frequencies of two functionally significant SNPs and their haplotypes of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 SLCO1B1 gene in six ethnic groups of Pakistani population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausif Ahmed Rajput

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Organic anion transporter polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1 encoded by solute carrier organic transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1 gene; a transporter involved in the uptake of drugs and endogenous compounds is present in hepatocyte sinusoidal membrane. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of functionally significant SNPs (388A>G and 521T>C and their haplotypes in 6 ethnic groups of Pakistani population through the development of rapid and efficient Tetra amplification refractory mutation system (T. ARMS genotyping assay. Materials and Methods: Frequencies of alleles, genotype, and haplotypes of two functionally significant Single nucleotide polymorphism in 180 healthy Pakistani subjects and distributions in six ethnic groups by using a single step T. ARMS genotyping assay. Results: The allelic frequency for 388A>G SNP was 50% in total Pakistani population with distributions of 9.7%, 15.1%, 19.4%, 16.1%, 18.3%, and 21.5% in Punjabi, Sindhi, Balouchi, Pathan, Kashmiri and Hazara/Baltistan groups respectively; and for 521T>C SNP it was 23.9% in total Pakistani population with distributions of 11.1%, 8.9%, 15.6%, 11.1%, 31.1% and 22.2% in Punjabi, Sindhi, Balouchi, Pathan, Kashmiri, and Hazara/Baltistan groups. Both functionally significant SNPs occurred in four major haplotypes with a frequency of 35.5% for 388A/521T (*1A, 40.5% for 388G/521T (*1B, 14.4% for 388A/521C (*5, and 9.4% for 388G/521C (*15 with varying distributions among six ethnic groups. Conclusion: The 388A>G and 521T>C genotypes and corresponding haplotypes are present at varying frequencies in various ethnic groups of Pakistani population. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic

  16. Six-month feeding of low-dose fish oil decreases vascular expression of high mobility group box1 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products in rat chronic allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Zhu, Y; Wang, J; Guo, M; Li, Y; Li, Ji

    2013-06-01

    Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a typical feature of chronic rejection of small bowel transplantations (SBTx). Our previous studies revealed that feeding fish oil, a natural source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), protected against CAV. The underlying mechanism remains to be clarified. The pathway mediated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligand, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of CAV, is potentially regulated by n-3 PUFAs. Using a chronic rejection model of rat SBTx, the present study investigated whether amelioration of CAV by fish oil feeding was associated with regulation of the RAGE signaling pathway. Moreover, our previous studies also showed that feeding low-dose fish oil for 3 months had no effect. Since an relatively short duration of treatment might fail to produce a visible response, we fed low-dose fish oil for 190 postoperative days. Male inbred Lewis rats and F344 rats were used to establish a chronic rejection model of SBTx. The recipient rats were administered phosphate-buffered saline or fish oil at a daily dose of 3 mL/kg. All rats survived over 190 postoperative days. The expression of HMGB1 and RAGE increased in CAV-bearing vessels. Feeding low-dose fish oil for 6 months attenuated CAV, and significantly reduced HMGB1 and RAGE expressions, indicating beneficial effects of low-dose fish oil on CAV may occur via down-regulation of the HMGB1-RAGE pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  18. Obesity Decreases Perioperative Tissue Oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabon, Barbara; Nagele, Angelika; Reddy, Dayakar; Eagon, Chris; Fleshman, James W.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Kurz, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an important risk factor for surgical site infections. The incidence of surgical wound infections is directly related to tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Fat tissue mass expands without a concomitant increase in blood flow per cell, which might result in a relative hypoperfusion with decreased tissue oxygenation. Consequently, we tested the hypotheses that perioperative tissue oxygen tension is reduced in obese surgical patients. Furthermore, we compared the effect of supplemental oxygen administration on tissue oxygenation in obese and non-obese patients. Methods: Forty-six patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were assigned to one of two groups according to their body mass index (BMI): BMI < 30 kg/m2 (non-obese) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (obese). Intraoperative oxygen administration was adjusted to arterial oxygen tensions of ≈150 mmHg and ≈300 mmHg in random order. Anesthesia technique and perioperative fluid management were standardized. Subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was measured with a polarographic electrode positioned within a subcutaneous tonometer in the lateral upper arm during surgery, in the recovery room, and on the first postoperative day. Postoperative tissue oxygen was also measured adjacent to the wound. Data were compared with unpaired two tailed t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Intraoperative subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was significantly less in the obese patients at baseline (36 vs. 57 mmHg, P = 0.002) and with supplemental oxygen administration (47 vs. 76 mmHg, P = 0.014). Immediate postoperative tissue oxygen tension was also significantly less in subcutaneous tissue of the upper arm (43 vs. 54 mmHg, P = 0.011) as well as near the incision (42 vs. 62 mmHg, P = 0.012) in obese patients. In contrast, tissue oxygen tension was comparable in each group on the first postoperative morning. Conclusion: Wound and tissue hypoxia were common in obese

  19. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  20. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  1. 团体心理辅导在高职教育中的作用和意义%The role and the significance of group psychological guidance in higher vocational education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡宁

    2014-01-01

    Group psychological guidance is derived from the method of psychological counseling, mental health education in higher vocational plays an important role and significance, is an indispensable part of in the mental health education, should cause the whole society, especially the attention of the college of higher vocational education teaching workers.%团体心理辅导是源自美国的心理辅导方法,在高职心理健康教育中有着重要的作用和意义,是心理健康教育中不可缺少的一部分,应引起全社会,尤其是高职学院教育教学工作者的重视。

  2. Low and decreasing vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3) in 2011/12 among vaccination target groups in Europe: results from the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kissling, E

    2013-01-01

    Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project we conducted a multicentre case–control study in eight European Union (EU) Member States to estimate the 2011\\/12 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza A(H3) among the vaccination target groups. Practitioners systematically selected ILI \\/ acute respiratory infection patients to swab within seven days of symptom onset. We restricted the study population to those meeting the EU ILI case definition and compared influenza A(H3) positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients. We used logistic regression with study site as fixed effect and calculated adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), controlling for potential confounders (age group, sex, month of symptom onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, number of practitioner visits in the previous year). Adjusted IVE was 25% (95% confidence intervals (CI): -6 to 47) among all ages (n=1,014), 63% (95% CI: 26 to 82) in adults aged between 15 and 59 years and 15% (95% CI: -33 to 46) among those aged 60 years and above. Adjusted IVE was 38% (95%CI: -8 to 65) in the early influenza season (up to week 6 of 2012) and -1% (95% CI: -60 to 37) in the late phase. The results suggested a low adjusted IVE in 2011\\/12. The lower IVE in the late season could be due to virus changes through the season or waning immunity. Virological surveillance should be enhanced to quantify change over time and understand its relation with duration of immunological protection. Seasonal influenza vaccines should be improved to achieve acceptable levels of protection.

  3. Low and decreasing vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3) in 2011/12 among vaccination target groups in Europe: results from the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, E; Valenciano, M; Larrauri, A; Oroszi, B; Cohen, J M; Nunes, B; Pitigoi, D; Rizzo, C; Rebolledo, J; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, I; Jiménez-Jorge, S; Horváth, J K; Daviaud, I; Guiomar, R; Necula, G; Bella, A; O'Donnell, J; Głuchowska, M; Ciancio, B C; Nicoll, A; Moren, A

    2013-01-31

    Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project we conducted a multicentre case–control study in eight European Union (EU) Member States to estimate the 2011/12 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza A(H3) among the vaccination target groups. Practitioners systematically selected ILI / acute respiratory infection patients to swab within seven days of symptom onset. We restricted the study population to those meeting the EU ILI case definition and compared influenza A(H3) positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients. We used logistic regression with study site as fixed effect and calculated adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), controlling for potential confounders (age group, sex, month of symptom onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, number of practitioner visits in the previous year). Adjusted IVE was 25% (95% confidence intervals (CI): -6 to 47) among all ages (n=1,014), 63% (95% CI: 26 to 82) in adults aged between 15 and 59 years and 15% (95% CI: -33 to 46) among those aged 60 years and above. Adjusted IVE was 38% (95%CI: -8 to 65) in the early influenza season (up to week 6 of 2012) and -1% (95% CI: -60 to 37) in the late phase. The results suggested a low adjusted IVE in 2011/12. The lower IVE in the late season could be due to virus changes through the season or waning immunity. Virological surveillance should be enhanced to quantify change over time and understand its relation with duration of immunological protection. Seasonal influenza vaccines should be improved to achieve acceptable levels of protection.

  4. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  5. An Object-Group Threat Assessment Method Based on Attribute Significance of Multi-Field Expert Systems%基于专家知识属性重要度的集群目标威胁评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大荣; 郭安学; 李云生; 徐红兵; 霍勇谋

    2009-01-01

    结合计算机网络和专家知识库集成技术,研究了集群目标威胁评估的一类新方法.首先,在给出多领域专家知识集成评估系统定义和集群目标威胁度赋值规则的基础上,结合统计方法和历史数据库建立专家知识属性重要度模型;然后,提出了该集成评估系统的运行规则,并结合多领域专家知识集成技术,构造了集群目标威胁评估的网络化评估系统;最后,仿真实验验证了系统的有效性和合理性.该系统成功应用于型号武器系统的实际工程实例表明,这种评估方法具有良好的更新能力和应用前景.%A new method of threat assessment to object-group was researched by combining computer network with integrated technology of experts' database. The attribute significance model of experts' database was presented by combining integrated system of multi-field experts and assignment rule of threat degree of object-group with statistical method and historical database; the network evaluation system used for evaluating object-group threat was constructed by the proposed operation rule of the system combined with multi-field experts knowledge intergrated technology; the simulation used for e-valuating object-group threat was performed by a certain type gun-missile intergrated air defense system. The simulated results show that the evaluation method has better updating capability and applied prospect.

  6. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  7. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  8. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  9. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Philbeck, John W; Wirtz, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water), a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1) and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2) were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  10. Prognostic significance of ESR1 gene amplification, mRNA/protein expression and functional profiles in high-risk early breast cancer: a translational study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pentheroudakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discrepant data have been published on the incidence and prognostic significance of ESR1 gene amplification in early breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks were collected from women with early breast cancer participating in two HeCOG adjuvant trials. Messenger RNA was studied by quantitative PCR, ER protein expression was centrally assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC and ESR1 gene copy number by dual fluorescent in situ hybridization probes. RESULTS: In a total of 1010 women with resected node-positive early breast adenocarcinoma, the tumoral ESR1/CEP6 gene ratio was suggestive of deletion in 159 (15.7%, gene gain in 551 (54.6% and amplification in 42 cases (4.2%, with only 30 tumors (3% harboring five or more ESR1 copies. Gene copy number ratio showed a significant, though weak correlation to mRNA and protein expression (Spearman's Rho <0.23, p = 0.01. ESR1 clusters were observed in 9.5% (57 gain, 38 amplification of cases. In contrast to mRNA and protein expression, which were favorable prognosticators, gene copy number changes did not obtain prognostic significance. When ESR1/CEP6 gene ratio was combined with function (as defined by ER protein and mRNA expression in a molecular classifier, the Gene Functional profile, it was functional status that impacted on prognosis. In univariate analysis, patients with functional tumors (positive ER protein expression and gene ratio normal or gain/amplification fared better than those with non-functional tumors with ESR1 gain (HR for relapse or death 0.49-0.64, p = 0.003. Significant interactions were observed between gene gain/amplification and paclitaxel therapy (trend for DFS benefit from paclitaxel only in patients with ESR1 gain/amplification, p = 0.066 and Gene Functional profile with HER2 amplification (Gene Functional profile prognostic only in HER2-normal cases, p = 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: ESR1 gene deletion and

  11. Prognostic significance of the S-phase fraction of light-chain-restricted cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) positive plasma cells in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group treatment trial E9486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendle, M C; Leong, T; Kyle, R A; Katzmann, J A; Oken, M M; Kay, N E; Van Ness, B G; Greipp, P R

    1999-08-01

    The bone marrow plasma cell labeling index (PCLI) as measured by bromodeoxyuridine uptake is a well-established independent prognostic factor for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, but the test is not easily done in most laboratories. The purpose of this study was to determine if the proliferative activity (% S-phase) as determined by two-color flow cytometry for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) light chain and DNA content also had prognostic significance. As part of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group clinical trial E9486, 500 patients had successful performance of the bone marrow PCLI. Of 349 patients who had flow cIg and DNA content cytometry, 210 had adequate data to reliably calculate S-phase %. Patients with low % S-phase fraction (/=2%), median survivals 4.1 vs. 2.9 years (P = 0.032). Measurement of the S-phase % by flow cytometry gives significant prognostic information in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. However, in multivariate analysis, S-phase % did not add prognostic information when PCLI was in the model. S-phase % added prognostic information only when all cases with flow measurement of S-phase % were included, and when PCLI was excluded from the model. Discriminating a population of only cIg positive cells proved difficult in patients with a low percentage of bone marrow plasma cells. Methodology to measure S-phase % in patients with a low percent plasma cells is needed before this technique can be used for diagnosis and prognosis in myeloma. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Prognostic significance of the initial cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) involvement of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated without cranial irradiation: results of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Children Leukemia Group study 58881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, Nicolas; Suciu, Stefan; Rialland, Xavier; Millot, Frédéric; Benoit, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Ferster, Alice; Robert, Alain; Lutz, Patrick; Nelken, Brigitte; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Norton, Lucilia; Bertrand, Yves; Otten, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of the initial cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) involvement of children with ALL enrolled from 1989 to 1996 in the EORTC 58881 trial. Patients (2025) were categorised according to initial central nervous system (CNS) status: CNS-1 (CNS negative, n=1866), CNS-2 (<5 leucocytes/mm(3), CSF with blasts, n=50), CNS-3 (CNS positive, n=49), TLP+ (TLP with blasts, n=60). CNS-directed therapy consisted in intravenous (i.v.) methotrexate (5 g/sqm) in 4-10 courses, and intrathecal methotrexate injections (10-20), according to CNS status. Cranial irradiation was omitted in all patients. In the CNS1, TLP+, CNS2 and CNS3 group the 8-year EFS rate (SE%) was 69.7% (1.1%), 68.8% (6.2%), 71.3% (6.5%) and 68.3% (6.2%), respectively. The 8-year incidence of isolated CNS relapse (SE%) was 3.4% (0.4%), 1.7% (1.7%), 6.1% (3.5%) and 9.4% (4.5%), respectively, whereas the 8-year isolated or combined CNS relapse incidence was 7.6% (0.6%), 3.5% (2.4%), 10.2% (4.4%) and 11.7% (5.0%), respectively. Patients with CSF blasts had a higher rate of initial bad risk features. Multivariate analysis indicated that presence of blasts in the CSF had no prognostic value: (i) for EFS and OS; (ii) for isolated and isolated or combined CNS relapse; WBC count<25 × 10(9)/L and Medac E-coli asparaginase treatment were each related to a lower CNS relapse risk. The presence of initial CNS involvement has no prognostic significance in EORTC 58881. Intensification of CNS-directed chemotherapy, without CNS radiation, is an effective treatment of initial meningeal leukaemic involvement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Kubicky, Charlotte, E-mail: charlottedai@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered.

  14. Clinical Significance of Screening of Rh-negative Blood Group and Detection of Irregular Antibody%Rh阴性血型筛查及不规则抗体检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚; 伍昌林; 党鑫堂; 董洪强; 朱奕

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过Rh阴性血型筛查及不规则抗体的检测,对抗体阳性的Rh阴性患者选择相合的血液输注,并分析其临床意义.方法 采用微柱凝集法对363例RhD阴性输血患者进行抗体筛查及Rh血型鉴定,选择Rh因子相合的血液输注,对有抗-c和抗-e抗体Rh阴性患者在血源紧缺的情况下,选择O型ccdEE和CCdee表型红细胞输注,观察临床输血效果.结果 在363例RhD阴性患者中,不规则抗体阳性21例,其中抗-D抗体5例,抗-E抗体8例,抗-c抗体3例,抗-c、E抗体2例,抗-C抗体2例,抗-e抗体1例,对存在不规则抗体的患者选择Rh因子相合的血液输注,临床效果良好.结论 根据抗体筛查及Rh血型鉴定结果,选择Ph因子相合的血液输注,可避免不规则抗体的产生,提高临床输血的有效性,减少输血不良反应的发生.%Objective To choose the matching blood to Rh-negative patients who were positive for irregular antibody by the screening of Rh-negative blood group and the detection of irregular antibody, and analyze its clinical significance.Methods A total of 363 RhD-negative patients were subjected to antibody screening and Rh blood grouping by micro-column agglutination method,based on which the Rh factor-matched blood was selected for transfusion.For lack of matched blood source, the RhD-negative patients with anti-c and anti-e antibodies were transfused with erythrocytes group O of ccdEE and CCdee phenotypes.Results Of the 363 RhD-negative patients, 21 were positive for irregular antibody, including 5 for anti-D, 8 for anti-E, 3 for anti-c, 2 for anti-c and E,2 for anti-C and 1 for anti-e.The patients with irregular antibodies were transfused with selected Rh factor-matched blood, and sarisfactory clinical efficacy was observed.Conclusion By transfusion with Rh factor-matched blood selected based on antibody screening and Rh blood grouping, the production of irregular antibodies was avoided, the efficacy of clinical blood transfusion was

  15. Correlation and clinical significance of the decreased cervical mobility in ankylosing spondylitis patient with thoracolumbar kyphosis%强直性脊柱炎胸腰椎后凸畸形患者颈椎活动受限的相关因素及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆; 钱邦平; 邱勇; 王斌; 俞杨; 朱泽章; 季明亮; 胡俊; 史本龙

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the risk factors and its clinical significance of limited cervical range of motion in ankylosing spondylitis(AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis.Methods:From May 2012 to Octobcr 2012,38 AS patients (with complete medical records) from the 51 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis in our hospital werc cnrolled.There were 36 males and 2 females,with an average age of 32.6 years(range,17-53 years).The clinical data consisted of age,discase course,erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR),C-reaction protein(CRP).The radiographic parameters were composed by global kyphosis(GK),cervical mSASSS(the modified Stokes ankylosing spondylitis spinal score),cervical curve and C2-C7 SVA.The quality of life questionnaires consisted of bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI),bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index(BASFI) and Oswestry disability index(ODI).According to the value of cervical range of motion(CROM),the subjects were divided into two groups:group A,CROM >40°; group B,CROM <20°.The independent t-test was used to compare the parameters between the two groups.Furthermore,the Pearson correlation test was performed to investigate the risk factors correlated with CROM.Results:In group A,there were 16 patients with an average CROM of 65.8°±14.3°(41°-92°),while 17 patients in group B with an average CROM of 9.2°±6.6°(1°-19°).With respect to the disease course,BASFI,GK,mSASSS,cervical curve and C2-C7 SVA,significant differences were found between two groups(P<0.05).However,the age,ODI,BASDAI,ESR or CRP showed no significant difference between group A and B(P>0.05).There were remarkable correlations between CROM and disease course,mSASSS,cervical curve,C2-C7 SVA and BASFI(r=-0.524,-0.895,0.494,-0.813,and-0.501 respectively,P<0.05).Especially,there was no significant correlation between GK and CROM(r=-0.275,P=0.122).Conclusions:Longer disease course and cervical structural damage are high risk

  16. Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmitz, Tim G; Besier, Tanja; Herschbach, Peter; Henrich, Gerhard

    2007-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase associated with significant somatic and psychosocial changes. So far there are few studies on developmental aspects of life satisfaction. This cross-sectional study examines the effects of age and gender on adolescent's life satisfaction. 1,274 German adolescents (aged 11-16 years) participated in a school-based survey study. They completed the adolescent version of the Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ(M) - Fragen zur Lebenszufriedenheit), a multidimensional instrument measuring the subjective importance and satisfaction with eight domains of general and eight domains of health-related life satisfaction. Effects of gender and age were analysed using ANOVAs. Girls reported significantly lower general (F = 5.0; p = .025) and health-related life satisfaction (F = 25.3; p life domains, there was a significant decrease in general (F = 14.8; p life satisfaction (F = 8.0; p Satisfaction with friends remained on a high level, whereas satisfaction with family relations decreased. Only satisfaction with partnership/sexuality increased slightly, however this effect cannot compensate the general loss of satisfaction. Decreasing life satisfaction has to be considered as a developmental phenomenon. Associations with the increasing prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation during adolescence are discussed. Life satisfaction should be considered a relevant aspect of adolescent's well-being and functioning.

  17. Typhonium flagelliforme decreases protein expression in murine breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodidjah Chodidjah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer treatment is still ineffective, having also various side effects. Breast cancer growth is affected by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu and B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 expression. In vitro studies on continuous culture of continuous culture of human lymphoblasts (CEMs showed that Typhonium flagelliforme (TF increases apoptosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether TF syrup (TFS could decrease HER2/ neu and BCL2 expression as well as breast cancer volume (BCV in mice. METHODS An experimental post-test only control group design was conducted on 18 C3H mice with breast cancers, randomly allocated to 3 groups of 6. Group 1 received 0.2 ml of distilled water. Group 2 and 3 animals were each given 0.2 ml of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml TFS, respectively. The treatment was given orally once daily for 25 days. Assessment of HER2/neu and BCL2 expression was by immunohistochemistry, whereas BCV was measured by caliper. Anova and LSD were used for data analysis. RESULTS There was a significant difference in HER2/neu and BCL2 expression as well as in BCV among the treatment groups. LSD analysis showed that HER2/neu and BCL2 expression in group 3 (51.60%; 24.60% was significantly lower than in group 1 (245.40%; 114.40% as well as group 2 (235.50%; 54.20% (p=0.000. BCV in group 3 (4392.33 mm3 was significantly greater than BCV in group 1 (253.87 mm3 (p=0.002, but was not significantly different from BCV in group 2 (3667.16 mm3 (p=0.306. CONCLUSION Suplementation with TFS decreases HER2/neu and BCL2 expression. TF appears to be a promising plant demonstarting anti cancer activity.

  18. Moderate systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Burgess, Pamela; Cartie, Richard J; Prasad, Balakrishna M

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been proposed to be beneficial in an array of human pathologies including cardiac arrest, stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and hemorrhagic shock. Burn depth progression is multifactorial but inflammation plays a large role. Because hypothermia is known to reduce inflammation, we hypothesized that moderate hypothermia will decrease burn depth progression. We used a second-degree 15% total body surface area thermal injury model in rats. Burn depth was assessed by histology of biopsy sections. Moderate hypothermia in the range of 31-33°C was applied for 4h immediately after burn and in a delayed fashion, starting 2h after burn. In order to gain insight into the beneficial effects of hypothermia, we analyzed global gene expression in the burned skin. Immediate hypothermia decreased burn depth progression at 6h post injury, and this protective effect was sustained for at least 24h. Burn depth was 18% lower in rats subjected to immediate hypothermia compared to control rats at both 6 and 24h post injury. Rats in the delayed hypothermia group did not show any significant decrease in burn depth at 6h, but had 23% lower burn depth than controls at 24h. Increased expression of several skin-protective genes such as CCL4, CCL6 and CXCL13 and decreased expression of tissue remodeling genes such as matrix metalloprotease-9 were discovered in the skin biopsy samples of rats subjected to immediate hypothermia. Systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression in a rodent model and up-regulation of skin-protective genes and down-regulation of detrimental tissue remodeling genes by hypothermia may contribute to its beneficial effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Mortgage loan accessibility for risk groups decreased / Aleksei Gunter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gunter, Aleksei, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Uuringu "Eluaseme kättesaadavus riskirühmadele" kokkuvõttes tõdetakse, et eluasemetest ei ole Eestis puudust, kuid enamik elamuid on vananenud. Samuti on eluasemeturg orienteeritud eelkõige vaid heal majanduslikul järjel olevatele inimestele

  20. Mortgage loan accessibility for risk groups decreased / Aleksei Gunter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gunter, Aleksei, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Uuringu "Eluaseme kättesaadavus riskirühmadele" kokkuvõttes tõdetakse, et eluasemetest ei ole Eestis puudust, kuid enamik elamuid on vananenud. Samuti on eluasemeturg orienteeritud eelkõige vaid heal majanduslikul järjel olevatele inimestele

  1. Assessing the Prognostic Significance of Histologic Response in Osteosarcoma: A Comparison of Outcomes on CCG-782 and INT0133—A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group Bone Tumor Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michael W.; Chang, Yu-Chen; Krailo, Mark D.; Meyers, Paul A.; Provisor, Arthur J.; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Marina, Neyssa M.; Teot, Lisa A.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Gorlick, Richard; Janeway, Katherine A.; Chou, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of histologic response for osteosarcoma may have changed with induction chemotherapy schedules over time. We hypothesized that the increased intensity of induction therapy provided on INT0133 compared to the Children’s Cancer Group study CCG-782 would diminish the impact of histologic response on the risk of events after definitive surgery. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed for patients aged osteosarcoma enrolled on CCG-782 and INT0133. Clinical factors were evaluated for association with response and outcome. Good response was defined as <5% viable tumor at resection. Associations of response, study, and post-definitive surgery event-free survival (EFS-DS)were determined using Cox proportional hazard models. EFS-DS was estimated by Kaplan–Meier methodology. Results Data were available for 814 patients (206 CCG-782, 608 INT0133). For good responders, 10-year EFS-DS (±SE) was 75.4% ± 7.7% for CCG-782 and 70.8% ± 3.1% for INT0133. For poor responders, 10-year EFS-DS was 39.9% ± 4.9% for CCG-782 and 58.4% ± 3.1% for INT0133. Histologic response predicted outcome across studies (P < 0.0001). Significant interaction between study and histologic response was observed for EFS-DS (P = 0.011). Using proportional hazards regression, INT0133 poor responders had less risk of events compared to CCG-782 poor responders (relative hazard ratio (RHR) = 0.6:1), but good responders on INT0133 had a greater risk of events compared to CCG-782 good responders (RHR = 1.53:1). Conclusion We observed an inverse relationship between the predictive value of tumor necrosis and intensity of induction therapy, raising questions about the true prognostic value of histologic response. This highlights the need for novel markers to develop strategies for treatment in future trials. PMID:27128693

  2. Assessing the Prognostic Significance of Histologic Response in Osteosarcoma: A Comparison of Outcomes on CCG-782 and INT0133-A Report From the Children's Oncology Group Bone Tumor Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michael W; Chang, Yu-Chen; Krailo, Mark D; Meyers, Paul A; Provisor, Arthur J; Schwartz, Cindy L; Marina, Neyssa M; Teot, Lisa A; Gebhardt, Mark C; Gorlick, Richard; Janeway, Katherine A; Chou, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    The prognostic value of histologic response for osteosarcoma may have changed with induction chemotherapy schedules over time. We hypothesized that the increased intensity of induction therapy provided on INT0133 compared to the Children's Cancer Group study CCG-782 would diminish the impact of histologic response on the risk of events after definitive surgery. Retrospective analysis was performed for patients aged osteosarcoma enrolled on CCG-782 and INT0133. Clinical factors were evaluated for association with response and outcome. Good response was defined as <5% viable tumor at resection. Associations of response, study, and postdefinitive surgery event-free survival (EFS-DS) were determined using Cox proportional hazard models. EFS-DS was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methodology. Data were available for 814 patients (206 CCG-782, 608 INT0133). For good responders, 10-year EFS-DS (±SE) was 75.4% ± 7.7% for CCG-782 and 70.8% ± 3.1% for INT0133. For poor responders, 10-year EFS-DS was 39.9% ± 4.9% for CCG-782 and 58.4% ± 3.1% for INT0133. Histologic response predicted outcome across studies (P < 0.0001). Significant interaction between study and histologic response was observed for EFS-DS (P = 0.011). Using proportional hazards regression, INT0133 poor responders had less risk of events compared to CCG-782 poor responders (relative hazard ratio (RHR) = 0.6:1), but good responders on INT0133 had a greater risk of events compared to CCG-782 good responders (RHR = 1.53:1). We observed an inverse relationship between the predictive value of tumor necrosis and intensity of induction therapy, raising questions about the true prognostic value of histologic response. This highlights the need for novel markers to develop strategies for treatment in future trials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Fogelman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective: This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design: Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL] and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results: Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001 and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08, respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01 and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01 in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion: Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Working group on the modes of a TGAP remission or decrease concerning the intermediate energy consumptions; Groupe de travail sur les modalites d'exoneration et d'attenuation d'une tgap sur les consommations intermediaires d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The french government decided to examine conditions of the application of the TGAP tax on intermediate energy consumption, in order to enforce the fight against the greenhouse effect and to better control the energy consumption. A working group has been created to examine the possibilities of the TGAP remission. This report presents the conclusions of the working group and analyses different scenario. (A.L.B.)

  5. Relationship between Decrease in Serum Sodium Level and Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporotic Fracture Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Mi Kyung; Choi, Dughyun; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Suh, Kyo Il; Yoo, Myung Hi; Byun, Dong Won

    2015-02-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that decrease in serum sodium level is associated with osteoporosis. However, no study in Korea has reported the association of decrease in serum sodium level with osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the decrease in serum sodium level and severity of osteoporotic fracture in patients. We enrolled 290 subjects who were admitted and operated at Soonchunhyang University Hospital due to major fractures. For the control group, we enrolled 1,027 subjects who visited a health promotion center. We carried a 1:1 matching with age and sex from the case group. In a total of 164 age- and sex-matched subjects, serum sodium level was significantly lower in the fracture group than in the non-fracture group (P=0.001). Serum sodium level was significantly lower in the severe osteoporosis group than that in the non-severe osteoporosis group (P=0.002). Old age and decrease in serum sodium level were independent risk factors of osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR]=1.088, P=0.008, confidence interval [CI]=[1.022-1.157]; OR= 0.840, P=0.037, CI=0.713-0.989). Serum sodium level was significantly lower in the fracture group than that in the non-fracture group and in the severe osteoporosis group than that in the non-severe osteoporosis group. Based on our results, the decrease in serum sodium level could be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis.

  6. Biomechanics Significance of Femoral Head and Neck of Grafting-bone Group After Femoral Neck Fracture-healing%股骨颈骨折愈合后钉道植骨的生物力学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐洪涛; 仝允辉; 杨茹萍; 朱太永; 张美超; 赵卫东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study biomechanical performance of fracture-healing femoral head and neck after the hollow compressionb screws are taken out in ungrafting-bone group, grafting-bone group, normal group, and provide theoretical basis for the treatment of necrosis of the femoral head by bone grafting in the channel of screws. Methods Nine femurs fixed and preserved by formalin were used in this test. They were randomly divided into three groups: normal group, ungrafting-bone group, grafting-bone group. According to inversed-triangle, at the range of physiological load, it tested the defixed bias-value of three group femoral head at different load. The data were collected and analyzed. The three-dimension finite element model of the femoral head and neck was calculated. Nodal solution of stress value and max-offset was calculated at area of femoral head and neck, then the data were compared and analyzed.Results Compared with the mean of load-offset about the femoral head and neck, biomechanical capability of ungrafting-bone group was lowest with regard to other two groups , the influence was very hard, P <0.05. But there was no singnificant difference between normal group and graflng-bone group, P >0.05. Analysis of the three-dimension finite element model showed that the massive stress was concentrated at weight loading region of ungrafting-bone group's femoral head, it was an dangerous chance to lead to femoral head collapse. Conclusion For the treatment of femur neck fractures with cannulated compression screws, bone grafting in the channel of screw should be used to improve biomechanical integrity after fracture healed and cannulated compression screws are taken out. This is of benefit to loading in early stage and to preventing the collapse of femoral head, etc.%目的 探讨股骨颈骨折愈合后取出空心加压螺钉遗留钉道不植骨、植骨及正常的股骨头颈部的生物力学特性,为临床提供实验依据.方法 收集9付股骨标本测量

  7. Interrelation of group, micro-group and interpersonal identities of employees in production groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenkov A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of mathematical and statistical analysis of the links between the levels of the identity of employees (group, micro-group and interpersonal by three components (cognitive, affective and behavioral in 37 industrial groups with expertise in different fields. The significant linear relationship between micro-group and interpersonal identity (for all components, high linear relationship between group identity and micro-group identity (only for affective component and the lack of linear relationship between the components of inter- personal and group identity are revealed. Higher influence of group identity on micro-group (for all components and interpersonal identity (for cognitive and behavioral components is found out in the totality of intercorrelation between group, micro-group and interpersonal identities. Non-linear relationship between group and micro-group identity for all components is revealed. This non-linear relation indicates that increase in expressiveness of one of the components of group iden- tity leads to decrease in expressiveness of the respective component of micro-group identity. This effect occurs until definite moment, after which, on the contrary, further reinforcement of the components of group identity leads to the increase in expressiveness of micro-group identity. These established consistent patterns are interpreted in the article.

  8. Significance of thickness of epithelial corneum layer of prepuce in circumcision and decreasing HIV infection%包皮上皮角质层厚度对包皮环切术降低HIV感染率的指导意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金天; 李森恺; 梁浩; 高云周; 李强; 谢林海; 丁健; 周传德; 李峰永; 周宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨包皮内板、外板上皮角质层的厚度及对成年人包皮环切术降低HIV感染率的指导意义.方法 共取19例包皮标本,分为纵向(7例)、横向(12例),分别测量包皮内板、外板上皮角质层厚度.并以1例变性手术切取的包皮内板、阴茎头及阴茎皮肤的上皮角质层作为比较.结果 包皮内板的角质层比外板薄,靠近冠状沟的远端包皮内板角质层比近端的包皮内板角质层薄.远端及近端的包皮外板上皮角质层无统计学意义.1例阴茎标本的包皮内板角质层比阴茎皮肤角质层薄.结论 为了减少HIV感染率,包皮环切术中应保留较少的包皮内板,包皮外板可以适当多保留.%Objective To investigate the significance of thickness of epithelial corneum layer of prepuce in circumcision and decreasing HIV infection. Methods Nineteen preputial specimen were harvested and divided into 7 cases (longitudinal) and 12 cases (horizontal). The corneum layer thickness of epithelial inner plate and epithelial outer plate was measured respectively. The epithelial corneum layer of foreskin from the case who underwent the transsexual operation was as the control sample. Results The corneum layer of the inner plate was thinner than that of the outer plate. The corneum layer of the inner plate of distal prepuce was thinner than that of the proximal prepuce. Conclusion To reduce HIV infection, less inner plate of prepuce should be reserved, whde more outer plate of prepuce should be retained during the circumcision.

  9. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups Hard Fd and Soft Fd according to size of Fd at Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable for the present purpose than that of power-exponential type or of power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd.

  10. The prognostic significance of post-infarction angina pectoris and the effect of verapamil on the incidence of angina pectoris and prognosis. The Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, C M; Hansen, J F; Mortensen, L S

    1994-01-01

    The prognostic significance of angina pectoris and the effect of intervention with verapamil on the incidence of angina pectoris were studied in patients recovering from myocardial infarction and included in the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II. During the second week after admission patients...... were doubly-blindly randomized to treatment with verapamil 360 mg.day-1 or placebo. Treatment was continued for up to 18 months. At discharge angina pectoris was reported in 11% of 869 patients randomized to verapamil and in 12% of 888 randomized to placebo (ns). One month after discharge a significant...... increase in the prevalance of angina pectoris was reported in both the verapamil (33%) (P angina pectoris (P = 0.03) and the 18 months overall incidence of angina pectoris (P = 0.002) were both significantly lower...

  11. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.;

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... the pleomorphic subtype of LCIS was added to histological subtypes. The present work reviews the DBCG guidelines and recommendations concerning CIS adding a brief characterization of the Danish CIS population. It also refers to the introduction of modern molecular pathology and distinction between low...

  12. The significance of Lactobacillus crispatus and L. vaginalis for vaginal health and the negative effect of recent sex: a cross-sectional descriptive study across groups of African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespers, Vicky; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Cools, Piet; Verhelst, Rita; Verstraelen, Hans; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Mwaura, Mary; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Mandaliya, Kishor; Menten, Joris; Hardy, Liselotte; Crucitti, Tania

    2015-03-04

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection and reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the vaginal microbiota, has been shown to be strongly associated with HIV infection. Risk factors related to potentially protective or harmful microbiota species are not known. We present cross-sectional quantitative polymerase chain reaction data of the Lactobacillus genus, five Lactobacillus species, and three BV-related bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia) together with Escherichia coli and Candida albicans in 426 African women across different groups at risk for HIV. We selected a reference group of adult HIV-negative women at average risk for HIV acquisition and compared species variations in subgroups of adolescents, HIV-negative pregnant women, women engaging in traditional vaginal practices, sex workers and a group of HIV-positive women on combination antiretroviral therapy. We explored the associations between presence and quantity of the bacteria with BV by Nugent score, in relation to several factors of known or theoretical importance. The presence of species across Kenyan, South African and Rwandan women was remarkably similar and few differences were seen between the two groups of reference women in Kenya and South Africa. The Rwandan sex workers and HIV-positive women had the highest G. vaginalis presence (p = 0.006). Pregnant women had a higher Lactobacillus genus mean log (7.01 genome equivalents (geq)/ml) compared to the reference women (6.08 geq/ml). L. vaginalis (43%) was second to L. iners (81.9%) highly present in women with a normal Nugent score. Recent sexual exposure negatively affected the presence of L. crispatus (e. L. crispatus and L. vaginalis in women with a normal Nugent score appeared lower compared to non-African studies. Furthermore, Lactobacillus species were negatively affected by sexual behavioural. Strategies to support protective

  13. Changes and significances of islet β-cell function, oxidative stress and adipocyte factor in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Yu Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes and significances of islet β-cell function, oxidative stress and adipocyte factor in gestational diabetes mellitusthe. Methods:A total of 60 cases of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients were regarded as GDM group, a total of 60 cases of normal pregnant women were regarded as pregnant group, and a total of 60 cases of healthy women were regarded as control group. Isletβ-cell function, oxidative stress and adipocyte factor were measured and compared in the three groups. Results:For isletβ-cell function, the levels of FBG, FINS and HOMA-IR in GDM group significantly increased and the levels of HOMA-β and ISI in GDM group significantly decreased compared with control group and pregnant group. For oxidative stress, the level of MDA in GDM group significantly increased and the levels of SOD, GSH and TAOC in GDM group significantly decreased compared with control group and pregnant group. For adipocyte factor, the levels of adiponectin and visfatin in GDM group significantly decreased and the levels of leptin and resistin in GDM group significantly increased compared with control group and pregnant group. Conclusion:Gestational diabetes mellitus could result in impairment of islet β-cell function, decrease of insulin, oxidative stress and abnormality of adipocyte factor .

  14. The Utilization of Exercise to Decrease Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Caldwell, Charmaine; Shen, Yu-Pei

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent issue for women on college campuses. Undergraduate women participated in (a) an aerobic exercise class, (b) a weight-lifting class, or (c) a control group to determine the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms. Participants in the aerobic exercise group exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms.…

  15. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  16. Decreased serum prohepcidin concentration in patients with polycythemia vera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justyna KWAPISZ; Ewa ZEKANOWSKA; Joanna JASINIEWSKA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is a common complication in patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Hepcidin is a principal regulator of iron homeostasis. The aim of our study was to assess prohepcidin, a hepcidin precursor, and other iron status pa-rameters in the serum of PV patients. Methods: The study was performed in 60 patients (F/M 26/34) aged 38~84 (66±10) years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers, age and sex matched. The following parameters were determined in blood serum samples: prohepcidin concentration, iron content, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TfS), and concentrations of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTIR). Results: All PV patients showed significantly lower levels of prohepcidin, higher levels of sTIR and TIBC compared to the control group. 40% of the patients from the study group showed concentrations of ferritin below the normal range and significantly lower levels of serum iron and TfS, and significantly higher levels of sTfR, UIBC and TIBC in comparison with the rest of the study group. In this group of patients, prohepcidin concentrations were significantly lower than those in other patients. Conclusion: The results indicate that PV patients suffer from iron metabolism disorders. The decreased serum level ofprohepcidin in PV patients may be a result of iron deficiency.

  17. Daidzin decreases ethanol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, G M; Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1996-09-01

    In a previous study, daidzin, a constituent of an ancient Chinese herbal treatment for alcoholism, decreased home-cage ethanol consumption in laboratory Syrian golden hamsters. The present study tested the generality of daidzin's antidipsotropic effects. Rats served as subjects in a two-lever choice procedure. At one lever, responses earned 10% ethanol, flavored with saccharin. At the other lever, responses earned an isocaloric starch solution. Daidzin decreased both ethanol and starch consumption, but the decreases in ethanol intake were larger. Changes in consumption were dose dependent, and differences in ethanol and food consumption increased slightly (but significantly) as dose increased. Daidzin produced a similar pattern of decreases in lever pressing. In baseline, there was an approximately equal distribution of responses between the two levers; at the highest daidzin dose, the relative number of responses at the ethanol lever decreased to 30%. These results replicate and extend earlier findings, and they encourage further research on daidzin's capacity to decrease ethanol consumption.

  18. Psychodrama groups for girls coping with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, D M; Parteleno-Barehmi, C

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of psychodrama groups with traumatized middle-school girls. Comparisons of treatment and control group members' pre- and postintervention adjustment revealed significant decreases in group participants' self-reported difficulties in withdrawn behavior and anxiety/depression. Interviews with the participants reinforced the value of psychodrama group participation in the resolution of trauma and in increasing a sense of competence and self-efficacy. A brief outline of the group structure and a description of the process offer examples that illustrate the practice methodology and provide guidance for conducting psychodrama groups with vulnerable populations. Concerns with safety and containment are addressed.

  19. Expression and significance of high mobility group box 1 in the renal tissues of urosepsis rabbits%高迁移率族蛋白-1在尿源性脓毒血症家兔肾脏组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶庠; 袁也晴; 魏育英; 张学齐; 黄建生; 黄东龙; 刘红燕; 杨江根

    2015-01-01

    group were significantly increased at every time point (P < 0.05).The serun levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were first increased and then decreased in urosepsis group as compared with sham group at 12th h [TNF-α (ng/L):124.6 ± 4.42 vs.18.18 ± 1.26;IL-6 (ng/L):120.5 ±6.99 vs.51.65 ±2.26] and 24 h [TNF-α (ng/L):96.94 ±7.95 vs.19.04 ±0.89;IL-6 (ng/L):83.22 ±4.23 vs.53.95 ±2.26].The expression of HMGB1 mRNA was gradually increased from 12th to 36th h in urosepsis group as compared with sham group at the same time point (P < 0.05).Conclusion In the progression of acute kidney injury induced by urosepsis,the expression of HMGB1 mRNA was gradually increased in renal tissues.

  20. Does oral clonidine premedication decrease bleeding during open rhinoplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Pourdanesh, Freydoun; Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saleh

    2014-05-01

    This uni-blind randomized clinical trial study investigated the effect of clonidine premedication on preoperative blood loss during open rhinoplasty. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. The members of the first group received oral clonidine as a single dose (0.2 mg) 2 hours before the induction of general anesthesia, whereas the members of the second group received a placebo. All subjects underwent open rhinoplasty without septoplasty. One anesthetic protocol was followed for all subjects. Variable factors include the subjects' weight, age, sex, and blood pressure during the surgery as well as blood loss during rhinoplasty. Group 1 consisted of 22 women and 11 men, whereas group 2 was composed of 16 women and 17 men. The mean for blood loss amounted to 68.03 ± 22.49 mL for group 1 and 132.12 ± 78.53 mL for group 2. An assessment demonstrated a significant difference in blood loss between the 2 groups (P clonidine premedication thus may decrease preoperative bleeding during open rhinoplasty.

  1. Short-term differential training decreases postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Differential training has been shown to enhance motor learning in sports skills. In the present study differential training was applied to the minimization of postural sway. A differential training group performed 15 one minute practice trials, each with different postural movement instructions. A repetitive practice group performed 15 trials standing as still as possible for one minute. Pre- and post-tests were performed standing as still as possible in 1 and 2-leg stance. Accelerometry data were collected approximately at the level of the center of mass (COM) and at the head. The root mean square jerk (RMSJ) of movement at the COM and head was estimated for the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes of motion. A significant Group × Test interaction revealed that the differential training led to lower anteroposterior RMSJ on the post-test than on the Pre-test in both the 1 and 2-leg stance tasks. A significant Group × Effector × Test interaction revealed that the decrease in anteroposterior RMSJ with differential training occurred in the RMSJ of the head but not the COM. The repetitive practice did not lead to a significant change in anteroposterior RMSJ at either the COM or the head. Neither form of training led to a significant change in mediolateral RMSJ. The results indicated that differential training can enhance motor learning not only in complex sports skills but in relatively simple motor tasks such as maintaining quiet stance.

  2. The decrease of serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives:To detect the concentration of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) as well as to explore the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of PIH.Methods:Serum VEGF concentrations in 23 healthy nonpregnant women (normal group),30 normal pregnant women (control group) and 37 women with PIH (PIH group) were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum concentrations of VEGF in control group were significantly higher (149.39±27.15ng/L) than those in normal group (11.98±3.99ng/L) (P<0.001),peaking in the second trimester of pregnancy (183.84±49.02ng/L) and decreasing in the third trimester (118.37±34.29ng/L).Serum VEGF concentrations (64.45±24.33ng/L) in PIH group were significantly lower than those in normal late pregnancy women of control group (118.37±34.29ng/L) (P<0.01).There was a trend that serum VEGF concentrations in PIH group decreased with the severity of PIH (P<0.05).Conclusion:The serum VEGF concentration in PIH women are significantly decreased,which suggests that VEGF may play an important role in the pathogenic mechanism of PIH.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Consumers’ Increased vs. Decreased Online Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Zhou; Yaobin Lu; Bin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on online consumer purchases has focused on increased purchases and neglected decreased purchases. However, factors impacting these purchases are different. Drawing on the two-factor theory, in this paper, the authors compare factors affecting increase and decrease in Chinese consumers’ online purchases. The authors conducted separate group analyses with PLS. The results show that consumers’ perception of service quality significantly affects increases in their online pu...

  4. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  5. Effective group training techniques in job-search training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Jukka; Price, Richard H; Mutanen, Pertti; Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira

    2005-07-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of group training techniques in job-search training on later reemployment and mental health. The participants were 278 unemployed workers in Finland in 71 job-search training groups. Five group-level dimensions of training were identified. The results of hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that preparation for setbacks at the group level significantly predicted decreased psychological distress and decreased symptoms of depression at the half-year follow-up. Trainer skills at the group level significantly predicted decreased symptoms of depression and reemployment to stable jobs. Interaction analyses showed that preparation for setbacks at the group level predicted fewer symptoms of psychological distress and depression, and shared perceptions of skilled trainers at the group level predicted fewer symptoms of depression among those who had been at risk for depression. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Konarzewska, Beata; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Kowzan, Urszula; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-07-04

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A), and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C) with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth), gingival index (GI) and papilla bleeding index (PBI) were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A), compared to the control group (C). Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower biosynthesis or

  7. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower

  8. Growth phase significantly decreases the DHA-to-EPA ratio in marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; Van Mastrigt, Audrey; Van De Bovenkamp, Henk H.; Heeres, Hero J.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    Microalgae are the principal producers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine ecosystems. Algae are used in aquaculture systems as direct or indirect feed for zooplankton, filter-feeding mollusks and larval

  9. Intensity of HLA-A2 Expression Significantly Decreased in Occult Hepatitis B Infection

    OpenAIRE

    ASKARI, Azam; Hassanshahi, Gholam Hossein; Ghalebi, Seyed Razi; Jafarzadeh,Abdollah; Mohit, Maryam; Hajghani, Masomeh; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infected (OBI) patients cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA from their liver and peripheral blood, completely. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the rate of HLA-A2 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with OBI. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, intensity of HLA-A2 was measured on the PBMCs of 57 OBI patients and 100 HBsAg-/anti-HBc+/HBV-DNA samples were enrolled as controls; measur...

  10. Polyclonal neural cell adhesion molecule antibody prolongs the effective duration time of botulinum toxin in decreasing muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Pan, Lizhen; Liu, Wuchao; Pan, Yougui; Nie, Zhiyu; Jin, Lingjing

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate if the effective duration time of botulinum toxin A (Btx-A) could be prolonged by polyclonal neural cell adhesion molecule antibody (P-NCAM-Ab). 175 male SD rats were randomly divided into three major groups: control group (n = 25), Btx-A group (n = 25), and P-NCAM-Ab groups. P-NCAM-Ab groups were composed of five sub-groups, with 25 rats each in the dose-response study. Muscle strength of rat lower limbs was determined using a survey system. The expressions of muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) and western blotting (WB). The muscle strength was significantly decreased by Btx-A in Btx-A/P-NCAM-Ab groups compared with normal control group. Besides, the muscle strength of P-NCAM-Ab group was significantly decreased compared with the Btx-A group. The recovery time of muscle strength in P-NCAM-Ab group was significantly longer compared with Btx-A group. RT-PCR and WB assay showed that PNCAM-Ab delayed the increase of MuSK and NCAM after Btx-A injection. P-NCAM-Ab prolongs the effective duration time of Btx-A in decreasing muscle strength, which could provide a novel enhancement in clinical application.

  11. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    that TRAb decrease significantly during treatment with antithyroid drugs. This decrease during treatment cannot be explained by Heg RNA, which remains unchanged. Cdk1 mRNA decreased significantly during treatment to values below values obtained in normal subjects. Thus both Heg RNA and Cdk1 mRNA may...

  12. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks.

  13. Onion decreases the ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Mühlbauer, Roman C; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Hsiun-Ing; Chang, Guan-Liang; Huang, Yi-Wei; Lai, Yu-Ting; Lin, Hsin-Shi; Yang, Wei-Ting; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2008-06-01

    It has been suggested that fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with good bone health. Onion, in particular, has been verified in its efficacy in bone resorption activity. In this study, we further investigated the effects of an onion-containing diet on ovariectomy-induced bone loss using methods of serum marker assay, histomorphometric analysis and biomechanical tests. Sixty-four female Wistar rats (14-week-old) with sham operations or ovariectomy were assigned to 6 groups: CON, sham-operated control group; OVX, ovariectomized group; ALN, ovariectomized rats treated with alendronate (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.); and 3% ON, 7% ON and 14% ON, ovariectomized rats fed with diets containing 3%, 7% and 14% (wt/wt) onion powder, respectively. Animals were sacrificed after a six-week treatment course. In the serum marker assay, alendronate and all three onion-enriched diets significantly decreased serum calcium level (pbone turnover. The histomorphometric analysis showed that ovariectomy markedly decrease bone trabeculae. The ALN and 14% ON rats were 80% and 46% higher, respectively, in BV/TV than the OVX rats (povariectomy-induced bone loss in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, both ALN and 14% ON groups had significantly more trabecular number, less separated trabeculae, and fewer osteoclasts (pOvariectomy also significantly decreased tissue weight and biomechanical strength in the OVX group (povariectomy-induced decrease in bending load and bending energy (povariectomy-induced bone loss and deterioration of biomechanical properties.

  14. BIHOURLY DIAGRAMS OF FORBUSH DECREASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihourly diagrams were made of Forbush decreases of cosmic ray intensity as observed at Uppsala from 31 Aug 56 to 31 Dec 59, at Kiruna from Nov 56 to 31 Dec 59, and at Murchison Bay from 26 Aug 57 to 30 Apr 59. (Author)

  15. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  16. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  17. Role of Cyperus rotundus oil in decreasing hair growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHADA FAROUK ABD EL-KAREAM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack on the value of Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil in the treatment of Androgenic hair. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of application Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil in comparison to 0.9% saline on androgenic hair. Patients and Methods: Ninety one female patients with Androgenic hair (hirsutism and axillary hair completed the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: group I (active group (n=47 and group II (control group (n=44. Patients used topical Cyperus rotundus essential oil for six months and were evaluated at 6th month. Results: The topical Cyperus rotundus oil was significantly more effective (p<0.05 than placebo with out side effects. This result was proved by three assessment methods; difference in hair count, independent observer assessment and patients' self assessment. Conclusion: The topical Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil is an effective method in treating moderate degrees of hirsutism and axillary hair. But without affecting serum testosterone. This study is the first report on using Cyperus rotundus essential oil for decreasing hair growth. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 111-118

  18. Development of new group members' in-group and out-group stereotypes: changes in perceived group variability and ethnocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C S; Bogart, L M

    1997-10-01

    Changes in new members' in-group and out-group stereotypes were examined, distinguishing among three stereotype components: stereotypicality, dispersion, and ethnocentrism. Pledges in 4 sororities judged their in-group and out-groups 4 times during their 8-month induction. Overall, out-groups were judged more stereotypically than in-groups at every wave. Although out-groups were initially perceived as more dispersed than in-groups, decreased out-group dispersion resulted in a shift toward out-group homogeneity. Ethnocentrism was present at every wave but decreased because of decreased in-group positivity. The authors discuss implications of these results for existing explanations of stereotype development. It is suggested that other aspects of group socialization (R.L. Moreland & J.M. Levine, 1982) are needed to explain fully the development of intergroup perceptions for new group members.

  19. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  20. Detection and significance of inflammatory factors and immunoglobulin in acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Zheng Meng; Liang Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the detection and significance of inflammatory factors and immunoglobulin in acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia.Methods:A total of 80 cases of acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia were divided into mild group (n=33) and severe group (n=47) according to illness degrees, and 40 cases of healthy children were selected as control group. Serum CRP, Ig A, Ig G and Ig M levels were detected by nephelometry, IL-6 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of inflammatory factors (CRP, IL-6) and immunoglobulin indexes (Ig A, Ig G and Ig M) were compared among 3 groups.Results: The inflammatory factors (CRP, IL-6) in mild and severe group increased significantly compared with control group, CRP and IL-6 levels in severe group were were significantly higher than that in mild group (P<0.05). The levels of Ig A in mild and severe group decreased significantly compared with control group, Ig A level in severe group was significantly lower than that in mild group (P<0.05), the levels of Ig G and Ig M in mild and severe group increased significantly compared with control group, the levels of Ig G and Ig M in severe group were significantly higher than that in mild group (P<0.05). Conclusions:The levels of inflammatory factors are increased while immune function is decreased in acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia. Inflammation is stronger and immune function is worse with the severity of the disease. Detection of inflammatory factors and immunoglobulin levels is helpful to diagnose and treatment of acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia.

  1. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagosa, Anna; Allerson, Matt; Gramer, Marie; Joo, Han Soo; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2011-12-20

    Limited information is available on the transmission and spread of influenza virus in pig populations with differing immune statuses. In this study we assessed differences in transmission patterns and quantified the spread of a triple reassortant H1N1 influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pig populations by estimating the reproduction ratio (R) of infection (i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by an infectious individual) using a deterministic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model, fitted on experimental data. One hundred and ten pigs were distributed in ten isolated rooms as follows: (i) non-vaccinated (NV), (ii) vaccinated with a heterologous vaccine (HE), and (iii) vaccinated with a homologous inactivated vaccine (HO). The study was run with multiple replicates and for each replicate, an infected non-vaccinated pig was placed with 10 contact pigs for two weeks and transmission of influenza evaluated daily by analyzing individual nasal swabs by RT-PCR. A statistically significant difference between R estimates was observed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs (p transmission was observed in the vaccinated groups where R (95%CI) was 1 (0.39-2.09) and 0 for the HE and the HO groups respectively, compared to an Ro value of 10.66 (6.57-16.46) in NV pigs (p Transmission in the HE group was delayed and variable when compared to the NV group and transmission could not be detected in the HO group. Results from this study indicate that influenza vaccines can be used to decrease susceptibility to influenza infection and decrease influenza transmission.

  2. Surgeon commitment to trauma care decreases missed injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ko; Lin, Chia-Ju; Chan, Hon-Man; Lee, Wei-Che; Chen, Chao-Wen; Lin, Hsing-Lin; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Cheng, Yuan-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Missed injuries sustain an important issue concerning patient safety and quality of care. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of surgeon commitment to trauma care on missed injuries. We hypothesised that surgeons committed to the trauma service has less missed injuries than surgeons not committed to the trauma service would have. By retrospective analysis of 976 adult patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) at an urban, university-based trauma centre. Missed injuries were compared between two groups; in group 1 the patients were evaluated and treated by the surgeons who were committed to the trauma service and in group 2 the patients were evaluated and treated by surgeons practicing mainly in other specialties. Patients had significantly lower rates of missed major or life-threatening injuries when treated by group 1 surgeons. Logistic regression model revealed significant factors associated with missed major or life-threatening injuries including ISS and groups in which patients were treated by different group surgeons. Physicians will perform better when they are trained and interested in a specific area than those not trained, or even not having any particular interest in that specific area. Surgeons committed to the trauma service had less missed injuries in severely injured patients, and it is vital to improve patient safety and quality of care for trauma patients. Staff training and education for assessing severely injured patients and creating an open culture with detection and reduction of the potential for error are important and effective strategies in decreasing missed injuries and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  5. Decreased Brain and Placental Perfusion in Omphalopagus Conjoined Twins on Fetal MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureyya Burcu Gorkem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate perfusional changes in brain and placenta of omphalopagus conjoined twins and to compare them with singleton fetuses by using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient. Fetal MRIs of 28-week-old omphalopagus conjoined twins with a shared liver with two separate gallbladders and portal and hepatic venous systems and three singleton fetuses with unilateral borderline ventriculomegaly at the same gestational week as control group were enrolled retrospectively. There was a significant decrease in ADC values of brain regions (p=0.018 and placenta (p=0.005 of conjoined twins compared to the control group. The decreased ADC values in placenta and brain regions in conjoined twins might be due to decreased placental perfusion compared to singleton pregnancy. Our results would be a keystone for future studies which will compare larger group of monochorionic multiple pregnancies with singleton pregnancies.

  6. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  7. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleck Steven J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI and decreasing rest intervals (DI between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR. Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm. Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets. Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001; however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the

  8. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  9. Glycoproteins: Occurrence and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Valentin

    Protein glycosylation is regarded as the most complex form of post-translational modification leading to a heterogeneous expression of glycoproteins as mixtures of glycoforms. This chapter describes the structure and occurrence of glycoproteins with respect to their glycan chains. Discussed are different carbohydrate-peptide linkages including GPI anchors, common structures of N- and O-glycans, and the structure of glycosaminoglycans contained in proteoglycans. Also covered are the bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan and the glycopeptide antibiotics of the vancomycin group. Properties and functions of the glycans contained in glycoproteins are dealt with in the next chapter of this book.

  10. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  11. Postanesthesia care unit visitation decreases family member anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amy J; Deselms, JoAnn; Ruyle, Shelley; Morrissey-Lucas, Marcella; Kollar, Suzie; Cannon, Shelly; Schick, Lois

    2012-02-01

    Despite advocacy by professional nursing organizations, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the response of family members to a visit with an adult patient during a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Therefore, the purpose of this RCT was to evaluate the impact of a brief PACU visitation on the anxiety of family members. The study was conducted in a phase I PACU of a large community-based hospital. Subjects were designated adult family members or significant others of an adult PACU patient who had undergone general anesthesia. A pretest-posttest RCT design was used. The dependent variable was the change in anxiety scores of the visitor after seeing his or her family member in the PACU. Student t test (unpaired, two tailed) was used to determine if changes in anxiety scores (posttest score-pretest score) were different for the PACU visit and no visit groups. A total of 45 participants were studied over a 3-month period, with N=24 randomly assigned to a PACU visit and N=21 assigned to usual care (no PACU visit). Participants in the PACU visit group had a statistically significant (P=.0001) decrease in anxiety after the visitation period (-4.11±6.4); participants in the usual care group (no PACU visit) had an increase in anxiety (+4.47±6.6). The results from this study support the value and importance of PACU visitation for family members.

  12. Impaired synthesis contributes to diabetes-induced decrease in liver glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, Anna Lisa; Nitti, Mariapaola; Marengo, Barbara; Domenicotti, Cinzia; Cottalasso, Damiano; Marinari, Umberto Maria; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Traverso, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Diabetes-induced glutathione (GSH) decrease is usually ascribed to GSH oxidation. Here we investigate, in streptozotocin-treated rats, if impairment of GSH synthesis contributes to GSH decrease in diabetic liver, and if antioxidant treatments can provide protection. Diabetic rats were divided into 3 groups: untreated diabetic rats (UD); N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC)-treated diabetic rats; taurine (TAU)-treated diabetic rats; a group of non-streptozotocin-treated rats was used as control (CTR). All rats were sacrificed at 40 weeks of age. Diabetes induced hepatic glutathione decrease, but oxidized glutathione (GSSG) did not increase significantly. Accumulations of cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine in UD suggest respectively decreased glutathione synthesis and increased loss through the plasma membrane with subsequent degradation. Decreased expression of γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase in UD is consistent with repressed GSH synthesis. Moreover, diabetes caused increase of GSSG/GSH ratio and induction of heme oxygenase-1, both signs of oxidative stress. Supplementation with NAC or TAU resulted in amelioration of glutathione levels, probably depending on antioxidant activity, more efficient glutathione synthesis and decreased GSH loss and degradation. In conclusion, impaired synthesis and increased loss and degradation of GSH appear to contribute to a decrease in GSH levels in diabetic liver. NAC and TAU are able to partially protect from oxidative stress and GSH decrease, while enhancing GSH synthesis and restricting GSH loss.

  13. Decreased 24-hour urinary MHPG in childhood autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J G; Cohen, D J; Caparulo, B K; Brown, S L; Maas, J W

    1979-08-01

    The authors compared a group of boys with childhood autism and a group of normal boys of similar age and found a decrease in urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylene glycol (MHPG) in the autistic group. They hypothesize that autistic children might have an alteration in central and peripheral noradrenergic function, which might be related to impaired regulation of attention, arousal, and anxiety.

  14. The Significance of Ultrasound in Determining Whether SHPT Patients Are Sensitive to Calcitriol Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Xing-xin Liang; Fan Li; Feng Gao; Chun-xiao Li; Xiao-hui Qiao; Jia-jie Zhang; Lian-fang Du

    2016-01-01

    This study was to explore the significance of ultrasound in determining whether the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) are sensitive to calcitriol treatment. According to the decrease value of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 42 SHPT patients were divided into two groups: drug susceptible group and drug insusceptible group. These 42 SHPT patients' ultrasound images were retrospectively analyzed. The morphology, size, number, blood flow, elastic modulus, and perfusion of the parathyr...

  15. Decreased skin-mediated detoxification contributes to oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-Xing; Sun, Chang-Bin; Yang, Ting-Tong; Li, Da; Li, Chun-Yan; Tian, Yan-Jie; Guo, Ming; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The skin, the body's largest organ, plays an important role in the biotransformation/detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous toxic substances, but its role in oxidative stress and insulin resistance is unclear. We investigated the relationship between skin detoxification and oxidative stress/insulin resistance by examining burn-induced changes in nicotinamide degradation. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, sham-nicotinamide, burn, and burn-nicotinamide. Rats received an intraperitoneal glucose injection (2 g/kg) with (sham-nicotinamide and burn-nicotinamide groups) or without (sham-operated and burn groups) coadministration of nicotinamide (100 mg/kg). The results showed that the mRNA of all detoxification-related enzymes tested was detected in sham-operated skin but not in burned skin. The clearance of nicotinamide and N(1)-methylnicotinamide in burned rats was significantly decreased compared with that in sham-operated rats. After glucose loading, burn group showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels with a lower muscle glycogen level than that of sham-operated and sham-nicotinamide groups, although there were no significant differences in blood glucose levels over time between groups. More profound changes in plasma H(2)O(2) and insulin levels were observed in burn-nicotinamide group. It may be concluded that decreased skin detoxification may increase the risk for oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  16. Decreased Skin-Mediated Detoxification Contributes to Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xing Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin, the body's largest organ, plays an important role in the biotransformation/detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous toxic substances, but its role in oxidative stress and insulin resistance is unclear. We investigated the relationship between skin detoxification and oxidative stress/insulin resistance by examining burn-induced changes in nicotinamide degradation. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, sham-nicotinamide, burn, and burn-nicotinamide. Rats received an intraperitoneal glucose injection (2 g/kg with (sham-nicotinamide and burn-nicotinamide groups or without (sham-operated and burn groups coadministration of nicotinamide (100 mg/kg. The results showed that the mRNA of all detoxification-related enzymes tested was detected in sham-operated skin but not in burned skin. The clearance of nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide in burned rats was significantly decreased compared with that in sham-operated rats. After glucose loading, burn group showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels with a lower muscle glycogen level than that of sham-operated and sham-nicotinamide groups, although there were no significant differences in blood glucose levels over time between groups. More profound changes in plasma H2O2 and insulin levels were observed in burn-nicotinamide group. It may be concluded that decreased skin detoxification may increase the risk for oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  17. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  18. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  19. Decreased prostacyclin production in the infant of the diabetic mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.J.; Sunderji, S.G.; Allen, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is recognized to be a predisposing factor to thrombosis in the neonate. In the adult with diabetes, abnormalities in the metabolism of AA by the platelet and vessel wall occur, which result in an increase in proaggregatory platelet thromboxane A2. A decrease in antiaggregatory vascular PGI2 has been demonstrated in the diabetic rat, although conclusive proof of a similar abnormality is lacking in humans. We evaluated vascular AA metabolism in 10 IDM (groups II and III comparison to 20 control neonates of gestational ages 32 to 40 weeks (group I). Mean uptakes of labeled AA into vascular tissue of both controls and IDM were similar. The conversion of (14C) AA to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was not dependent on gestational age (r . 0.223) in the control neonates, with a mean value of 5.2% +- 1.3 (1 S.D.). A marked decrease (p less than 0.001) in 6-keto-PGF1 alpha formation to 1.7% +- 0.3 was found in the group II IDM of mothers with poor diabetic control (HbA1c . 9.3% +- 0.5). In the group III neonates whose mothers had normal HBA1c levels (6.1% +- 0.9), 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production was normal at 4.9% +- 0.8. Although no correlation between maternal fasting blood glucose and neonatal 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was demonstrable, a significant inverse correlation (r . 0.872; p less than 0.02) was observed between maternal HbA1c levels and the conversion of AA to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the vascular tissues of the IDM. It appear possible that abnormalities in platelet-vascular AA metabolism may play an etiologic role in the vascular complications present in some IDM.

  20. Detection and significance of serum inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indicators in diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Jing Wang; Chao Zhang; Ping Qin

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To determine the serum inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress parameters of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients to explore their possible role in the DR.Methods: 116 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were selected from June 2015 to June 2016 in our hospital as research subjects, divided into diabetic Diabetes without retinopathy (NDR group,n = 63) and diabetic with retinopathy patients (DR group,n = 53). And 60 cases of healthy check-ups of the same period in our hospital medical center were selected as normal control group (NC). The VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α , MDA and SOD levels of three groups of patients were detected. Results:The IL-6 levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The TNF-α levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The VEGF levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group increased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels of NC group, NDR group and DR group were decreased gradually, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: DR patients express high levels of IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF, and there exists significant oxidative stress in DR, which shows that the inflammation occurrence and oxidative stress state play an important role in the development of DR.

  1. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  2. Monounsaturated fat decreases hepatic lipid content in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osamah Hussein; Masha Grosovski; Etti Lasri; Sergio Svalb; Uzi Ravid; Nimer Assy

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of different types of dietary fats on the hepatic lipid content and oxidative stress parameters in rat liver with experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS: A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in the control group (n = 8) were on chow diet (Group 1), rats (n =6) on methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) (Group 2), rats (n = 6) on MCDD enriched with olive oil (Group 3), rats (n = 6) on MCDD with fish oil (Group 4) and rats (n = 6) on MCDD with butter fat (Group 5). After 2 mo, blood and liver sections were examined for lipids composition and oxidative stress parameters.RESULTS: The liver weight/rat weight ratio increased in all treatment groups as compared with the control group. Severe fatty liver was seen in MCDD + fish oil and in MCDD + butter fat groups, but not in MCDD and MCDD + olive oil groups. The increase in hepatic triglycerides (TG) levels was blunted by 30% in MCDD+ olive oil group (0.59 ± 0.09) compared with MCDD group (0.85 ± 0.04, P < 0.004), by 37% compared with MCDD + fish oil group (0.95±0.07, P < 0.001), and by 33% compared with MCDD + butter group (0.09±0.1,P < 0.01). The increase in serum TG was lowered by10% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.9 ± 0.07) compared with MCDD group (1.05 ± 0.06). Hepatic cholesterol increased by 15-fold in MCDD group [(0.08 ± 0.02, this increment was blunted by 21% in MCDD + fish oil group(0.09 ± 0.02)]. In comparison with the control group,ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6/omega-3 increased in MCDD + olive oil, MCDD + fish oil and MCDD + butter fat groups by 345-, 30- and 397-fold, respectively. In comparison to MCDD group(1.58±0.08), hepatic MDA contents in MCDD + olive oil(3.3±0.6), MCDD + fish oil (3.0±0.4), and MCDD +butter group (2.9±0.36) were increased by 108%, 91%and 87%, respectively (P < 0.004). Hepatic paraoxonase activity decreased significantly in all treatment groups

  3. Keratinocyte Apoptosis is Decreased in Psoriatic Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Eskioğlu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes are the hallmarks of psoriasis vulgaris. Although psoriasis vulgaris is generally accepted as a disease of decreased keratinocyte apoptosis, the results are contradictory. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether decreased keratinocyte apoptosis contributes to the formation of a thickened epidermis as increased keratinocyte proliferation. Material and Method: Forty-three untreated psoriasis vulgaris patients and 20 healthy control subjects were included into the study. Biopsy specimens taken from the enrollee were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 expressions to show the proliferation of keratinocytes and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL method to show the apoptotic keratinocytes. Results: Apoptotic index (percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was significantly lower in psoriatic epidermis (0.33±0.64 than in normal epidermis (0.75±0.85; whereas Ki-67 index (percentage of positively staining cells for Ki-67 was significantly higher in psoriatic epidermis (30.86±10.49 than in normal epidermis (11.65±2.98, (p=0.021 and p=0.00; respectively. Conclusion: Decreased keratinocyte apoptosis also contribute to increased epidermal thickness in psoriasis as well as increased keratinocyte proliferation.

  4. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  5. 严重烧伤患者外周血高迁移率族蛋白B-1水平的检测及其临床意义%Detection of plasma high mobility group box-1 protein in severely burned patients and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖锦华; 王亚萍; 朱华燕; 潘宇红; 黄璇

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测严重烧伤后患者血浆高迁移率族蛋白B-1 (HMGB1)水平的变化并探讨其临床意义.方法 用酶联免疫吸附试验法检测77例严重烧伤患者血浆HMGB1水平,同步检测肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)含量,并与30名健康对照组进行比较.结果 77例严重烧伤患者按烧伤面积分为3组,A组31例,烧伤总面积30%~49%,B组25例,烧伤总面积50%~69%,C组21例,烧伤总面积70%~95%;烧伤患者血浆HMGB1及TNF-α水平在A组为(22.15±6.34) ng/ml、(89.26±21.41)pg/ml,B组为(26.24±9.71)ng/ml、( 132.45±76.32)pg/ml,C组为(36.45±11.63)ng/ml、(213.61±87.45) pg/ml,对照组为(2.17±1.13)ng/ml、(45.32±13.84)pg/m1,烧伤各组HMGB1及TNF-α水平明显高于对照组(P<0.01);24例特大面积烧伤患者根据预后情况分为生存组和死亡组进行动态观察,两组患者血浆HMGB1水平在伤后第1天即显著升高(P<0.01),在伤后3~21 d,死亡组明显高于生存组(P<0.05),而TNF-α含量在伤后第3~7 d达高峰,以后逐渐下降,到21d时生存组与死亡组相比已差异无统计学意义.结论 严重烧伤后HMGB1的表达异常升高,HMGB1作为重要的晚期炎症介质和TNF-α相互诱生相互作用,参与严重烧伤后全身炎症反应综合征的病理生理过程,动态观察其水平变化有助于烧伤患者病程监测及预后判断.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the changes of plasma high mobility group box-1 protein ( HMGB1) in severely burned patients and its clinical significance. METHODS The plasma HMGB1 and TNF-α levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) simultaneously in all patients and were compared with 30 healthy control subjects. RESULTS Totally 77 burned patients were involved in this study, and they were divided into three burn size groups: 30%-49% total body surface area(TBSA) burn(group A, n = 31), 50% - 69% TBSA burn (group B, n = 25) and 70%-95% TBSA burn(group C, n = 21). The levels of HMGB2 and TNF

  6. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  7. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  8. Happy mood decreases self-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeffrey D; Sedikides, Constantine; Saltzberg, Judith A; Wood, Joanne V; Forzano, Lori-Ann B

    2003-03-01

    Research addressing the influence of happy mood on self-focused attention has yielded inconsistent results. Some studies found that happy mood decreased self-focus relative to sad mood. Other studies did not detect a significant difference between happy and neutral mood, and still other studies found that happy mood, relative to neutral mood, increased self-focus. These investigations have potential shortcomings, such as an insufficiently powerful happy mood induction and a confound between visualization mood inductions and self-focus itself. The present experiment addressed these shortcomings by inducing mood via musical selections, equalizing the approximate potency between happy and sad moods, and using a within-participants design. Relative to neutral mood, happy mood decreased self-focused attention.

  9. ORALLY LACTATE CALCIUM AND SWIMMING DECREASE OSTEOCLAST AND INCREASE OSTEOBLAST IN RADIAL PERIMENOPAUSAL MICE (MUS MUSCULUS BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani **

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and moderate intensity swimming exercise can increase bone density. The aim of this research is to see the effect of orally calcium consumption and swimming activity to decrease osteoclast and increase osteoblast in radial perimenopausal mice (Mus musculus bone. Pretest and pos#est control group design was used in this research. Research subject used 15-16 aged mice (Mus musculus which divided into 4 groups (each group consisted of 13 mice, that was control, lactate calcium, swimming and lactate calcium and swimming. Treatment was given 90 days. This study showed a significant difference of the mean of the pos#est osteoblast between control and experimental groups (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between lactate calcium and swimming groups (P>0.05. Enhancement of osteoblast mean in combination group was greater than the other experimental groups. There was a significant difference of the mean of the pos#est  osteoclast between control and experimental groups (P<0.05, without significant difference between lactate calcium,   swimming groups and combination of lactate calcium and swimming group (P>0.05.  Conclusion: either lactate calcium or swimming decreases osteoclast and increases osteoblast of the mice but the osteoblast enhancement will be bigger when they are given together at once

  10. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6 on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM, DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM, and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83% and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3% expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7% and Cox-2 (48% expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47% compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  11. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elisângela Olegário; Gerez, Juliana Rubira; do Carmo Drape, Thalisie; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6) on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM), DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM), and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83%) and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3%) expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7%) and Cox-2 (48%) expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47%) compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  12. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  13. Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors.

  14. Significance of hyperprolactinemia for cytomorphologic features of breast secretions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Danijela

    2010-01-01

    lower in the clinical group (p < 0.001 than in the control group I. Significantly decreased mammary secretion (p < 0.01, lower lipid (p < 0.01 and protein synthesis (p < 0.01, and less presence of all cellular categories (p < 0.01 were obtained after normalization of serum prolactin levels. Conclusion. Growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone did not show significant influence on creating cytological features of mammary secretion. The most expressive role, hyperprolactinemia demonstrated in the domain of mammary ductal secretory activity, making mammary secretion reach in lipid and protein material and simultaneously increasing number of ductal epithelial cells, ductal histiocytes and 'foam cells'- macrophages. These cytological findings indicate that hyperprolactinemia promote periductal and intraductal steril inflammation which withdraws after serum prolactin normalization.

  15. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuxi Yao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms and long (1,600 ms visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group, individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the

  16. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  17. Decreased functional brain connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. METHODS: Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. RESULTS: Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (∼24% with prefrontal and ∼27% with parietal cortex. Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology.

  18. Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Souza Lima de Souza; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo; Oba, Eunice; Kronka, Sergio do Nascimento; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria

    2006-06-01

    Matricaria chamomilla CH12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH12 in diet and the other the 'control' was not. Animals in both groups were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days. Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels. These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH12, suggesting that this product reduces stress. These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects.

  19. Epidural anaesthesia restores pancreatic microcirculation and decreases the severity of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alp Demirag; Leo H Bühler; Catherine M Pastor; Philippe Morel; Copin Jean-Christophe; Andreas W Sielenk(a)mper; Nilgun Güvener; Gang Mai; Thierry Berney; Jean-Louis Frossard

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of epidural anaesthesia (EA) on pancreatic microcirculation during acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: AP was induced by injection of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct of Sprague-Dawley rats. To realize EA, a catheter was introduced into the epidural space between T7 and T9 and bupivacaine was injected. Microcirculatory flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed. At the end of the experiment (≤ 5 h), pancreas was removed for histology. The animals were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 9), AP without EA; Group 2 (n = 4), EA without AP; and Group 3 (n = 6), AP treated by EA.RESULTS: In Group 1, pancreatic microcirculatory flow prior to AP was 141± 39 perfusion units (PU). After AP,microcirculatory flow obviously decreased to 9±6 PU (P<0.05). Metabolic acidosis developed with base excess (BE) of - 14±3 mmol/L. Histology revealed extensive edema and tissue necrosis. In Group 2, EA did not significantly modify microcirculatory flow. BE remained unchanged and histological analysis showed normal pancreatic tissue. In Group 3, AP initially caused a significant decrease in microcirculatory flow from 155±25 to 11±7PU (P< 0.05). After initiation of EA, microcirculatory flow obviously increased again to 81±31 PU (P<0.05).BE was -6 ±4 mmol/L, which was significantly different compared to Group 1 (P<0.05). Furthermore, histology revealed less extensive edema and necrosis in pancreatic tissue in Group 3 than that in Group 1.CONCLUSION: AP caused dramatic microcirculatory changes within the pancreas, with development of metabolic acidosis and tissue necrosis. EA allowed partial restoration of microcirculatory flow and prevented development of tissue necrosis and systemic complications.Therefore, EA should be considered as therapeutic op-.tion to prevent evolution from edematous to necrotic AP.

  20. Clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Hua Xu; Xin Lin; Mi-Jia Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia.Methods:A total of 100 newborns with asphyxia who visited in our hospital were collected, and divided into severe group (n=20) and mild group (n=80) according to the asphyxia degree, and 50 healthy newborns regarded as control group. The 3 groups received blood gas analysis (pH, BE and PaCO2), electrolyte (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) and 3 kinds of enzymes (CK, CK-MB and HBDH) were tested and compared.Results: Compared with control group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, the level of Ca2+ decreased significantly in severe group (P<0.05); Compared with control group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe and mild group (P<0.05). Compared with mild group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The detection of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH can provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and estimation of severity degree which was helpful in clinical treatment.

  1. Forbush Decrease: A New Perspective with Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Anil; Shaikh, Zubair; Bhaskar, Ankush; Datar, Gauri; Vichare, Geeta

    2017-08-01

    Sudden short-duration decreases in cosmic ray flux, known as Forbush decreases (FDs), are mainly caused by interplanetary disturbances. A generally accepted view is that the first step of an FD is caused by a shock sheath and the second step is due to the magnetic cloud (MC) of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). This simplistic picture does not consider several physical aspects, such as whether the complete shock sheath or MC (or only part of these) contributes to the decrease or the effect of internal structure within the shock-sheath region or MC. We present an analysis of 16 large ({≥} 8 %) FD events and the associated ICMEs, a majority of which show multiple steps in the FD profile. We propose a reclassification of FD events according to the number of steps observed in their respective profiles and according to the physical origin of these steps. This study determines that 13 out of 16 major events ({˜} 81%) can be explained completely or partially on the basis of the classic FD model. However, it cannot explain all the steps observed in these events. Our analysis clearly indicates that not only broad regions (shock sheath and MC), but also localized structures within the shock sheath and MC have a significant role in influencing the FD profile. The detailed analysis in the present work is expected to contribute toward a better understanding of the relationship between FD and ICME parameters.

  2. Masoprocol decreases rat lipolytic activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of HSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, M S; Azhar, R K; Kraemer, F B; Reaven, G M; Azhar, S

    2000-09-01

    Masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a lipoxygenase inhibitor isolated from the creosote bush, has been shown to decrease adipose tissue lipolytic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that the decrease in lipolytic activity by masoprocol resulted from modulation of adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. The results indicate that oral administration of masoprocol to rats with fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased their serum free fatty acid (FFA; P HSL activity were significantly lower (P HSL protein. Incubation of masoprocol with adipocytes from chow-fed rats significantly inhibited isoproterenol-induced lipolytic activity and HSL activity, associated with a decrease in the ability of isoproterenol to phosphorylate HSL. Masoprocol had no apparent effect on adipose tissue phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, but okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, blocked the antilipolytic effect of masoprocol. The results of these in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that the antilipolytic activity of masoprocol is secondary to its ability to inhibit HSL phosphorylation, possibly by increasing phosphatase activity. As a consequence, masoprocol administration results in lower serum FFA and TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic rodents.

  3. F3MB(PANDER decreases mice hepatic triglyceride and is associated with decreased DGAT1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Mo

    Full Text Available Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER, also named as FAM3B is secreted by pancreatic α and β cells. Increasing evidence suggests that it may serve a hormonal function related to glycemic and lipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of PANDER overexpression on hepatic and adipose triglyceride metabolism in high-fat diet-fed male C57BL/6 mice.PANDER overexpression was achieved by tail-vein injection of recombinant Ad-PANDER and Ad-GFP injected mice served as a control. The TG metabolism in both groups were compared.Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of PANDER did not affect body weight, food consumption, or liver enzymes. The triglyceride (TG content of both liver and adipose tissue was significantly decreased in Ad-PANDER mice (liver: 6.16±1.89 mg/g vs. control 14.95±2.27 mg/g, P<0.05; adipose: 39.31±1.99 mg/100mg vs. 47.22±2.21 mg/100mg, P<0.05. The free fatty acid (FFA content of adipose tissue in Ad-PANDER mice was also decreased (1.38±0.18 mg/g vs. 2.77±0.31 mg/g, P<0.01. The investigation of key enzymes of triglyceride hydrolysis and FFA oxidation in liver and adipose tissue showed that p-HSL/HSL was significantly increased and that DGAT1 gene and protein expression were significantly reduced in the liver of PANDER-overexpressing mice. PKA phosphorylation was also significantly increased in the livers of Ad-PANDER mice. No differences in ATGL, CPT1, ACOX1, or DGAT2 expression were observed.Overexpression of PANDER is associated with observable decreases in TG, increases in PKA phosphorylation, and decreased DGAT1 expression, suggesting a possible interrelationship. The mechanisms by which this occurs remain to be elucidated.

  4. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  5. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  6. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  7. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  8. Minocycline increases the life span and motor activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in manganese treated Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, E; Contreras, R; Medina-Leendertz, S; Mora, M; Villalobos, V; Bravo, Y

    2012-03-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Minocycline in the life span, motor activity, and lipid peroxidation of Drosophila melanogaster treated with manganese. Two days after emerging from the pupa male wild-type D. melanogaster were fed for 13 days with corn media containing 15 mM manganese. Then, they were divided in six groups of 300 flies each: group (a) remained treated with manganese (Mn group); group (b) began treatment with Minocycline (0.05 mM) (Mn-Minocycline group); group (c) received no additional treatment (Mn-no treatment group); group (d) simultaneously fed with manganese and Minocycline (Mn+Minocycline group). Additionally, a control (group e) with no treatment and another group (f) fed only with Minocycline after emerging from the pupa were added. All the manganese treated flies (group a) were dead on the 25th day. The life span in group f (101.66±1.33 days, mean S.E.M.) and of group b (97.00±3.46 days) were similar, but in both cases it was significantly higher than in group e (68.33±1.76 days), group c (67.05±2.30 days) and in those of group d (37.33±0.88). Manganese (groups a and d) decreased motor activity in D. melanogaster. In the Minocycline fed flies (groups b and f) a higher motor activity was detected. In Mn-Minocycline and Mn+Minocycline treated flies a significant decrease of MDA levels was detected when compared to the Minocycline group indicating that Minocycline and Mn appear to have a synergistic effect. In conclusion, Minocycline increased the life span and motor activity and decreased MDA formation of manganese treated D. melanogaster, probably by an inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species. Manganese also exerted an antioxidant effect as shown by the significant decrease of MDA levels when compared to control flies.

  9. Decreasing the stigma burden of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diane B

    2013-10-01

    To describe stigmatizing experiences in a group of Mexican-American women with chronic pain and provide clinical implications for decreasing stigma. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semistructured interviews, participant observations, and fieldwork. Participants provided detailed descriptions of communicating about chronic pain symptoms, treatment, and management. The sample consisted of 15 English-speaking Mexican-American women 21-65 years old (average age = 45.6 years) who had nonmalignant chronic pain symptoms for 1 year or more. The cultural and social norm in the United States is the expectation for objective evidence (such as an injury) to be present if a pain condition exists. In this study, this norm created suspicion and subsequent stigmatization on the part of family, co-workers, and even those with the pain syndromes, that the painful condition was imagined instead of real. To decrease stigmatization of chronic pain, providers must understand their own misconceptions about chronic pain, possess the skills and resources to access and use the highest level of practice evidence available, and become an advocate for improved pain care at local, state, and national levels. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  10. Improvement of motor function and decreased need for postnatal shunting in children who had undergone intrauterine myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Carbonari de Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare neuromotor development between patients who did and those who did not undergo intrauterine myelomeningocele repair. Methods Children with myelomeningocele aged between 3.5 and 6 years who did undergo intrauterine repair (Group A, n=6 or not (Group B; n=7 were assessed for neuromotor development at both anatomical and functional levels, need for orthoses, and cognitive function. Results Intrauterine myelomeningocele repair significantly improved motor function. The functional level was higher than the anatomical level by 2 or more spinal segments in all children in Group A and 2 children in Group B, with a significant statistical difference between groups (p<0.05. Five children in Group A and one in Group B were community ambulators. Conclusion Despite the small sample, it was observed that an improvement of motor function and decreased need for postnatal shunting in the 6 children who had undergone intrauterine myelomeningocele repair.

  11. Effects of Contingency Contracting on Decreasing Student Tardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Feng S.; Isack, Lori R.; Rietveld, Jill

    A contingency contract program was implemented in this study to determine the effects of contingency contracting on decreasing student tardiness in high school classrooms. The participants were 32 high school students. Of the 32 participants, 16 were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other 16 to the control group. The…

  12. PPAR-α Agonist Fenofibrate Decreased RANTES Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaomeng; Gao, Xia; Jia, Yumei; Zhang, Heng; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang

    2016-03-05

    BACKGROUND Regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) is associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis. We investigated the effect of fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) agonist, on RANTES in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with hypertriglyceridemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study evaluated cross-sectional and interventional studies of 25 T2DM patients with hypertriglyceridemia (group A) and 32 controls (group B). Group A was treated with fenofibrate (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks. Serum RANTES and clinical characteristics were examined. RESULTS Serum RANTES was significantly higher in group A compared with group B (59.04±16.74 vs. 38.57±12.98 ng/ml, Phypertriglyceridemia (β=11.496, P=0.002) were independently related to high serum RANTES levels. After 8 weeks of fenofibrate treatment, serum RANTES significantly decreased in group A compared with baseline (52.75±17.41 vs. 59.04±16.74 ng/ml, P=0.018). CONCLUSIONS Fenofibrate decreased serum RANTES levels in T2DM patients with hypertriglyceridemia, indicating that PPAR-a agonists may play an important role in inhibiting inflammatory responses.

  13. MEMORY SONGS DECREASE DEPRESSION FOR STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.

  14. Simple methods to decrease sodium and nitrite contents in hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Franco-Avila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ham is a product highly consumed by society; however it contains some elements that make it a non-recommended food. Thus, it has been attempted to eliminate or reduce those components.Material and Methods: Content of sodium, nitrites, peroxides and total coliforms were compared after processes of Washing (W and Simple Cooking (SC in turkey and pork ham in a cross-sectional analytical experimental study. Furthermore, sensory acceptance of thesamples through an acceptance test of five points was evaluated. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni were used to assess the mean difference between groups. The value of p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Both processes reduced the amount of sodium in both types of ham in statistically significant way (p≤0.001. The major percentage of reduction was presented with SC: 73.4% for turkey ham and 63.5% for pork ham. Likewise, the higher percentage of nitrite reduction was 50.6% in pork ham with SC technique (p≤0.05. Peroxide index decreased with both techniques in both hams without statistical significance. Total coliforms count was kept constant in all samples. Higher sensory acceptance of W concerning SC in all sensory characteristics was observed.Conclusions: W and SC techniques reduce sodium, nitrite and peroxide index without affecting the sanitation of hams. Furthermore, W is accepted in all sensory categories. We recommend using W technique before consumption of the product.

  15. 六盘山地区寺口子剖面早白垩世晚期的孢粉组合及其环境意义%Early Cretaceous palynological assemblage and its environmental significance in the sediments of Liupanshan Group (Sikouzi section), Liupanshan Region, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明震; 戴霜; 张永全; 苗运法; 刘俊伟; 黄永波; 赵杰; 刘学

    2012-01-01

    lake. The palynoflora indicates that the climate in the Liupanshan area is hot and dry , and the palaeogeography is characterized by complex and va- rious outlook during the late Early Cretaceous Furthermore, the climate evolution revealed by the vegetation can be divided into two stages in this time window. From 116 Ma to 112 Ma, the concentration of Cheirolepidiaceae and Schizaeaceae which developed in the environment of hot and dry are relatively low, and the concentration of conifers are significantly increased,as well as the concentration of ferns is not varied. All those indicate that the climate is humid and cold during this period. From 112 Ma to 103 Ma,the concentration of Cheirolepidiaceae and Schizaeace- ae which developed in the environment of hot and dry are relatively high, and the concentration of conifers are sig- nificantly decreased. Compared to the upper stage, the total percentage of Lygodiaceae spores were relatively lower. the vegetation change during this period may indicate an increased trend of the dry and hot degree in this regionThe trend of climate change recorded by the pollen assemblages coincide with the global sea surface temperature fluctua- tion,thus indicates that the climate change recorded by the palynological assemblage in the Sikouzi section has the good response to the global climate change.

  16. Dysregulated but not decreased salience network activity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eWhite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective estimation of the salience of environmental stimuli underlies adaptive behaviour, while related aberrance is believed to undermine rational thought processes in schizophrenia. A network including bilateral frontoinsular cortex (FIC and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been observed to respond to salient stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To test the hypothesis that activity in this salience network (SN is less discriminately modulated by contextually-relevant stimuli in schizophrenia than in healthy individuals, fMRI data were collected in 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 13 matched controls during performance of a modified monetary incentive delay task. After quantitatively identifying spatial components representative of the FIC and dACC features of the SN, two principal analyses were conducted. In the first, modulation of SN activity by salience was assessed by measuring response to trial outcome. First-level general linear models were applied to individual-specific time-courses of SN activity identified using spatial independent component analysis. This analysis revealed a significant salience-by-performance-by-group interaction on the best-fit FIC component’s activity at reward outcome, whereby healthy individuals but not individuals with schizophrenia exhibited significantly greater distinction between the response to hits and misses in high salience trials than in low salience trials. The second analysis aimed to ascertain whether SN component amplitude differed between the study groups over the duration of the experiment. Independent-samples T-tests on back-projected, percent-signal-change scaled SN component images importantly showed that the groups did not differ in the overall amplitude of SN expression over the entire dataset. These findings of dysregulated but not decreased SN activity in schizophrenia provide physiological support for mechanistic conceptual frameworks of delusional

  17. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  18. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  19. Groups of Circle Diffeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Navas, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    In recent years scholars from a variety of branches of mathematics have made several significant developments in the theory of group actions. Groups of Circle Diffeomorphisms systematically explores group actions on the simplest closed manifold, the circle. As the group of circle diffeomorphisms is an important subject in modern mathematics, this book will be of interest to those doing research in group theory, dynamical systems, low dimensional geometry and topology, and foliation theory. The book is mostly self-contained and also includes numerous complementary exercises, making it an excell

  20. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter

  1. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Josele Neves de Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group, and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001. However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001 and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  2. Clinical study of Shenqi Fuzheng injection decreasing side-effects of chemotherapy for patients with ovarian epithelial cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Jing Wan; Yuebo Yang; Xiaomao Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to observe the clinical ef ects of Shenqi Fuzheng injection decreasing side-ef ects of chemotherapy for patients with ovarian epithelial cancer. Methods:The 36 cases of ovarian epithelial cancer in The Third Af iliated Hospital of SUN Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China) from June 2010 to June 2013, were randomly divided into the study group and the control group. The study group contained 18 cases using Shenqi Fuzheng injection combined with TP (Taxol+Carboplatin/cisplatin) chemotherapy, and the control group contained 18 cases only using TP chemotherapy without Shenqi Fuzheng injection. During and after chemotherapy, the side-ef ects and therapy ef ects were observed. Re-sults:The grade II of nausea and vomit were less in the study group than that in the control group, which was significantly dif-ferent (P0.05). There was less degree of decrease of lymphocyte in the study group than that in the control group, which was significantly dif erent (P0.05). There was no significant dif erence in chemotherapy ef ect between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion:Shenqi Fuzheng injection can in some degree relieve the side ef ects of TP chemotherapy for the patients with ovarian epithelial cancer, including relieving nausea and vomiting, protecting lymphocytes, and has no conflict ef ect on chemotherapy ef icacy.

  3. Coconut oil increases HDL-c and decreases triglycerides in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiani Figueiredo Santana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile in rats, supplemented with coconut oil, are evaluated and compared to other lipid sources. Female Wistar rats received by gavage 1 mL kg-1 of saline, soybean oil, lard or coconut oil during 21 days. At the end of the study period, body composition, food intake, feces, urine, organ weight and serum lipid profile were assessed. No statistical differences between the groups were found in body composition, food intake, fecal and urinary analysis, and organ weight. In the case or plasma lipid concentrations, coconut oil and lard raised total cholesterol levels, without changes in LDL levels. On the other hand there was no change in total cholesterol levels in the soybean oil group. HDL fraction increased in all groups when compared to that in the saline group; this increase was more significant in the coconut oil group. There was significant reduction of serum triglycerides only in the coconut oil group when compared to the saline group. Supplementation with coconut oil did not interfere in weight and body composition of the animals used in current study, but revealed significant effect on the increase of HDL-c levels and decrease of serum triglycerides.

  4. Increasing Physical Activity Decreases Hepatic Fat and Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the changes in time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammation. Longitudinal data were generated from 66 Hispanic adolescents (15.6±1.1 yr; BMI percentile 97.1±3.0) who participated in a 16-wk nutrition or nutrition+exercise intervention. There were no effects of the intervention on PA, but there were inter-individual changes in PA. For purposes of this analysis, all intervention groups were combined to assess how changes in PA during 16 wk affected changes in adiposity, insulin action, and markers of inflammation. MVPA was assessed by 7-day accelerometry, total body fat via DXA, liver fat by MRI, and insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR via a fasting blood draw. A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of MVPA on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammatory markers. Sixty-two percent of participants increased MVPA (mean increase, 19.7±16.5 min/day) and 38% decreased MVPA (mean decrease, 10.7±10.1 min/day). Those who increased MVPA by as little as 20 min per day over 16 wk, compared to those who decreased MVPA, had significant reductions in liver fat (-13% vs. +3%; P=0.01), leptin levels (-18% vs. +4%; P=0.02), and fasting insulin (-23% vs. +5%; P=0.05). These findings indicate that a modest increase in MVPA can improve metabolic health in sedentary overweight Hispanic adolescents.

  5. Listening to music decreases need for sedative medication during colonoscopy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, R; Raj, Mehroof; Paul, Antony; Harish, K; Kumar, Sunil K; Sandesh, K; Asharaf, Syed; Thomas, Varghese

    2006-01-01

    Music played during endoscopic procedures may alleviate anxiety and improve patient acceptance of the procedure. A prospective randomized, controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether music decreases the requirement for midazolam during colonoscopy and makes the procedure more comfortable and acceptable. Patients undergoing elective colonoscopy between October 2003 and February 2004 were randomized to either not listen to music (Group 1; n=40) or listen to music of their choice (Group 2; n=38) during the procedure. All patients received intravenous midazolam on demand in aliquots of 2 mg each. The dose of midazolam, duration of procedure, recovery time, pain and discomfort scores and willingness to undergo a repeat procedure using the same sedation protocol were compared. Patients in Group 2 received significantly less midazolam than those in Group 1 (p=0.007). The pain score was similar in the two groups, whereas discomfort score was lower in Group 2 (p=0.001). Patients in the two groups were equally likely to be willing for a repeat procedure. Listening to music during colonoscopy helps reduce the dose of sedative medications and decreases discomfort experienced during the procedure.

  6. Intralipid decreases apolipoprotein M levels and insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels. AIMS: To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array. RESULTS: Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8 was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  7. The effectiveness of attachment based intervention using video feedback method on decreasing negative representations and separation anxiety of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa sadat Seyedmousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: With regard to the importance of attachment in developing separation anxiety, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of attachment based intervention via video feedback on decreasing negative representations and separation anxiety problems in preschool children. Materials and Method: The research method was semi experimental with pretest-posttest and follow up. For this, 21 mother-child dyads (11 dyads in experimental and 10 dyads in control group were selected from 2 child counseling centers based on including criteria. The experimental group received 8 to 10 individual attachment based intervention sessions and the control group received the other relation based intervention for comparison of their effectiveness. The participants were assessed using maternal behavior Q-SORT, MacArthur story stems and child psychopathological symptoms inventory in pretest, post-test and 3 months interval follow up. Results: The findings revealed the effectiveness of attachment-based intervention on increasing maternal sensitivity, decreasing negative representations of child and also separation anxiety symptoms in children of experimental group. The mean scores of experimental group in comparison to witness group have significantly decreased in all variables. Conclusion: Considering this results, it seems attachment-based intervention could increas maternal sensitivity and this change with decreasing negative representation of child via recovering interactions have a positive effect on decreasing separation anxiety problems of children.

  8. Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10 in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF and surface electromyography (sEMG of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and vastus lateralis (VL were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD. ANOVA (2x2 (group x condition was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM, vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001. A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control for peak force for control group (p = 0.045. Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL. In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation.

  9. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  10. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  11. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  12. Attending to music decreases inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Allen, Rosemary A; Pammer, Kristen

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates how auditory attention affects inattentional blindness (IB), a failure of conscious awareness in which an observer does not notice an unexpected event because their attention is engaged elsewhere. Previous research using the attentional blink paradigm has indicated that listening to music can reduce failures of conscious awareness. It was proposed that listening to music would decrease IB by reducing observers' frequency of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). Observers completed an IB task that varied both visual and auditory demands. Listening to music was associated with significantly lower IB, but only when observers actively attended to the music. Follow-up experiments suggest this was due to the distracting qualities of the audio task. The results also suggest a complex relationship between IB and TUTs: during demanding tasks, as predicted, noticers of the unexpected stimulus reported fewer TUTs than non-noticers. During less demanding tasks, however, noticers reported more TUTs than non-noticers.

  13. Assortativity Decreases the Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Di; Scala, Antonio; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The protection of critical infrastructures is one of the highest priorities in our technological society. It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and hence system-wide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. We find, in particular, that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture, and thus enhance the level of protecti...

  14. Acupuncture decreases competitive anxiety prior to a competition in young athletes: a randomized controlled trial pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sahar; Shayestehfar, Monir; Memari, Amir-Hossein; SeifBarghi, Tohid; Sobhani, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    Background Although a certain level of competitive anxiety may increase performance, many athletes with anxiety experience uncontrolled negative feelings and cognition that in turn can have overwhelming effects on their performance. Methods We aimed to assess the effect of acupuncture on competitive anxiety of the adolescent football players prior to the competition using psychological and physiological markers. A total of 30 athletes were randomly and equally allocated to either acupuncture or sham control group. Results The results of t-test on posttest scores showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on cognitive anxiety (p=0.001) and somatic anxiety (p0.05). Furthermore, the results showed that acupuncture significantly decreased the skin conductance in acupuncture group compared to sham group (p=0.006) (p<0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, the results suggested that acupuncture has the capacity to decrease cognitive and somatic anxiety prior to competition in adolescent athletes while this was accompanied by significant physiological changes.

  15. [Intraocular pressure decrease after manual small incision cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga Ngabou, C G F; Makita, C; Ndalla, S S; Nkokolo, F; Madzou, M

    2017-05-01

    We decided to evaluate the decrease in intraocular pressure six months after cataract surgery. We evaluated patients' IOP using an applanation tonometer. The patients then underwent cataract surgery. Six months after cataract surgery, we reevaluated the IOP by the same method, and we determined the post-operative change. Among the 147 operated eyes, 123 eyes or 83.67% exhibited a decrease in IOP. The mean preoperative IOP for the operative eye was 15.61±4.5mmHg; the mean post-operative IOP was 12.57±3.5mmHg; the mean IOP decrease after surgery was 3.16±4mmHg, for a mean decrease of 20%. This decrease is statistically significant, Pdecrease in IOP varies proportionally to the initial IOP. In glaucomatous patients, the mean preoperative IOP was 23.16±5.68mmHg and mean post-operative IOP was 14.5±2.7mmHg, a decrease of 37.39%. The decrease in IOP after cataract surgery was generally moderate. However, this IOP decreased proportionally to the initial IOP, thus giving significant decreases for higher IOPs. This decrease in IOP, well known after phacoemulsification, was also obtained after Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, a surgical technique which is increasingly employed in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Involvement of decreased neuroglobin protein level in cognitive dysfunction induced by 1-bromopropane in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Yuan, Hua; Jiang, Lulu; Yang, Junlin; Zeng, Tao; Xie, Keqin; Zhang, Cuili; Zhao, Xiulan

    2015-03-10

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is used as a substitute for ozone-depleting solvents (ODS) in industrial applications. 1-BP could display central nervous system (CNS) neurotoxicity manifested by cognitive dysfunction. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an endogenous neuroprotectant and is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate Ngb involvement in CNS neurotoxicity induced by 1-BP in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=14) and treated with 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw 1-BP, respectively, by gavage for consecutive 12 days. Rats displayed cognitive dysfunction dose-dependently through Morris water maze (MWM) test. Significant neuron loss in layer 5 of the prelimbic cortex (PL) was observed. Moreover, 1-BP decreased Ngb protein level in cerebral cortex and Ngb decrease was significantly positively correlated with cognitive dysfunction. Glutathione (GSH) content, GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) activity decreased in cerebral cortex, coupled with the increase in GSSG content. GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio decrease were significantly positively correlated with cortical Ngb decrease. Additionally, levels of N-epsilon-hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) modified proteins in cerebral cortex of 1-BP-treated rats increased significantly. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1-BP resulted in decreased endogenous neuroprotectant Ngb in cerebral cortex, which might play an important role in CNS neurotoxicity induced by 1-BP and that 1-BP-induced oxidative stress in cerebral cortex might partly be responsible for Ngb decrease.

  17. Interventions to Decrease Postoperative Edema and Ecchymosis after Rhinoplasty: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Adrian A; Farhood, Zachary; Kyle, Andrew R; Patel, Krishna G

    2016-05-01

    Today, minimally invasive procedures are becoming more popular because of the fast recovery. Rhinoplasty is a common facial plastic surgery procedure that can be associated with significant postoperative morbidities, especially periorbital edema and ecchymosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of published literature that studied interventions that decrease postoperative edema and ecchymosis after rhinoplasty, and provide evidence-based strategies for surgeons to incorporate into practice. A systematic review of the PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE databases was performed to investigate interventions studied to decrease postoperative edema and ecchymosis after rhinoplasty. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, articles were grouped into one of the following categories: corticosteroids, other medications and herbal supplements, interventions to decrease intraoperative bleeding, other postoperative interventions, and surgical techniques. A total of 50 articles were included for review. Fourteen articles studied corticosteroids exclusively, whereas another 10 articles reviewed other medications and herbal supplements. Nine articles evaluated methods to decrease intraoperative bleeding during rhinoplasty, and four articles studied postoperative interventions to decrease edema and ecchymosis. Thirteen articles studied various surgical techniques to decrease postoperative morbidities. There was a consensus within the literature that steroids, intraoperative hypotension, intraoperative cooling, and head elevation postoperatively decrease postoperative edema and ecchymosis, whereas nasal packing and periosteal elevation before osteotomy increased these postoperative morbidities. Studies of herbal supplements may be incorporated into practice with minimal risk to the patient. More studies must be performed before recommending an external or internal approach to lateral osteotomy.

  18. The Effect of Social Skills Training on Decreasing the Aggression of Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davood Hosseini-Nasab

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Social skills training (SST aims to increase the ability to perform key social behaviors that are important in achieving success in social situations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of social skills intervention for aggressive pre-school children. Method: The sample consisted of 25 children (13 for the experimental group, 12 for the control group. Children in intervention and Control groups were assessed by parent ratings, teacher ratings at-home and kindergarten. Assessments were made at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-ups. The assessment battery consisted of the social skills rating system-teacher form, teacher-rated aggression, and intelligence test. These skills were carried out in 11 sessions and on two stages and were taught twice a week. Results: Significant results emerged with respect to aggression and social skill levels. With respect to parent ratings, aggressive behaviors decreased more so in the treatment group than the control group. In addition, social skills significantly increased between post-treatment and follow-ups in the treatment group compare to the control group. In other words, teacher ratings of social behavior showed improvement over time. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that aggression would decrease in the treatment group largely over time than the control group. Several directions for future research are discussed, including the addition of more sessions to the curriculum, a parent-involvement component, and a contingency management program. It would also be helpful to evaluate SST in a larger number of pre-school centers and to extend follow-up assessments beyond three months periods.

  19. [Prevalence and significance of anaemia in patients with chronic congestive heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelykke, Katrine; Petersen, Helle; Haghfelt, Torben H

    2006-05-08

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and significance of anaemia in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), as well as the prevalence of impaired renal function. We did a retrospective study of 50 women and 113 men with systolic CHF. Data were collected by reviewing clinical records. Age at inclusion was 70 +/- 8 years. The follow-up period was 30 +/- 7.5 months. Patients in NYHA class IV were not included in this study. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) count of anemia in the follow-up period (group B), 26 did not have anemia at either inclusion or follow-up (group C) and 3 had anemia at inclusion but not at follow-up (group D). A decrease in Hb in group A, B and C and an elevation in S-creatinine in all four groups was observed. In group B and C the decrease in Hb and S-creatinine was significant. Ninety-six patients' S-creatinine was measured at both inclusion and follow-up, and a significant decrease was observed. 18% of the patients died in the intervening period, and 7% were lost to follow-up. This study showed that both anaemia and impaired renal function are found in CHF patients (23-32% and 20-27%, respectively) and that these may influence patients' quality of life and functional level. In the future, there should be a greater focus on both anaemia and impaired renal function in CHF patients.

  20. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  1. Decreased mean platelet volume in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göğçegöz Gül I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Işil Göğçegöz Gül, Gül Eryilmaz, Eylem Özten, Gökben Hizli Sayar Neuropsychiatry Health, Practice, and Research Center, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied. It is well known that platelets may reflect certain biochemical changes that occur in the brain when different mental conditions occur. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is also extensively studied in psychiatry. The mean platelet volume (MPV, the accurate measure of platelet size, has been considered a marker and determinant of platelet function. The aim of the present study was to search for any probable difference in the MPV of subjects with panic disorder (PD.Methods: A total of 37 drug-free subjects, aged 18 to 65 years, diagnosed with PD, with or without agoraphobia, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV criteria and 45 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Platelet count and MPV were measured and recorded for each subject.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of female/male ratio, age, or body mass index between the PD group and control group (P=0.91, P=0.82, and P=0.93, respectively. The MPV was found to be significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group (8.8±0.9 fL vs 9.2±0.8 fL; P=0.02. All the participants had MPV values in the standard range of 6.9–10.8 fL.Conclusion: We concluded that abnormalities of the 5-HT1A receptor function in the central nervous system of subjects with a diagnosis of PD are also mirrored in as an alteration in platelet activity. Measurements of platelet activity may be used as a tool for neuropsychiatric and psychopharmacological research and for studying how certain mental diseases and medications affect the central nervous system. Keywords: 5-HT, thrombocyte, anxiety 

  2. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  3. Does the aging process significantly modify the Mean Heart Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Reis, Francisco Prado; Santos, Thayná Ramos; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto

    2013-11-01

    The Mean Heart Rate (MHR) tends to decrease with age. When adjusted for gender and diseases, the magnitude of this effect is unclear. To analyze the MHR in a stratified sample of active and functionally independent individuals. A total of 1,172 patients aged > 40 years underwent Holter monitoring and were stratified by age group: 1 = 40-49, 2 = 50-59, 3 = 60-69, 4 = 70-79, 5 = > 80 years. The MHR was evaluated according to age and gender, adjusted for Hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Several models of ANOVA, correlation and linear regression were employed. A two-tailed p value MHR tended to decrease with the age range: 1 = 77.20 ± 7.10; 2 = 76.66 ± 7.07; 3 = 74.02 ± 7.46; 4 = 72.93 ± 7.35; 5 = 73.41 ± 7.98 (p MHR (p MHR decreased with age. Women had higher values of MHR, regardless of the age group. Correlations between MHR and age or gender, albeit significant, showed the effect magnitude had little statistical relevance. The prevalence of SAH, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus did not influence the results.

  4. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  5. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  6. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  7. Depositional Environment and Paleoclimatic Significance of the Early Oligocene Yaxicuo Group in the Hoh Xil Basin%可可西里盆地早渐新世雅西措群沉积环境分析及古气候意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志飞; 王成善

    2000-01-01

    The Hoh Xil basin, which is the largest Tertiary sedimentary basin in the hinterland of the Tibet plateau, isbounded on the north margin by the Kunlun Mountains and the South Kunlun suture zone, and on the south mar-gin by the Tanggula Mountains and the Kangbataqing fault. The basin contains a Tertiary sediment pile of approx-imately 5.4 km thick of fluvial mudstone, sanadstone, and conglomerate and 0.4 km thick of limestone, which wasreported to have a closed relationship with the continental collision and early uplift of the Tibet plateau. From low-er to upper, the Tertiary sediments include the Early Eocene to Early Oligocene Fenghuoshan Group, the EarlyOligocene Yaxicuo Group, and the Early Miocene Wudaoliang Group. Here we clarify the facies analysis of theYaxicuo Group, which was magnetostratigraphically dated as 32.0 - 30.0 Ma, and discuss its paleoclimatic signifi-cance. The Yaxicuo Group is 670.0 m thick and consists mainly of violet alternating sandstone and mudstone withintercalated gray layered and tubercular gypsolith. The standard section GG2 of the Yaxicuo Group is situated inthe southern part of the Wudaoliang area of the Hoh Xil basin. The Yaxicuo Group consists mainly of lacustrine fa-cies, but contains fluvial facies in the lower-middle part. The lacustrine facies includes shore, shallow lake, andsalt lake subfacies. They are characterized by coarsening and thickening upward of sandstone and siltstone. Thefluvial facies consists of point bars, natural levees, and flood plains and is characterized by sandstone and conglom-erate that fine and thin upward. Paleocurrent directions were measured from sedimentary structures of, for exam-ples, lamination, planar cross- bedding, parallel bedding, and climbing - ripple cross - lamination. They indicatethat the depocenter of the Hoh Xil basin was migrated eastward and northward during the period of 32.0 - 30.0Ma. The very thin stratified and nodulated types of gypsolith started to suddenly abundantly

  8. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  9. Decreasing seagrass density negatively influences associated fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Rosemary M; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows globally are disappearing at a rapid rate with physical disturbances being one of the major drivers of this habitat loss. Disturbance of seagrass can lead to fragmentation, a reduction in shoot density, canopy height and coverage, and potentially permanent loss of habitat. Despite being such a widespread issue, knowledge of how such small scale change affects the spatial distribution and abundances of motile fauna remains limited. The present study investigated fish and macro faunal community response patterns to a range of habitat variables (shoot length, cover and density), including individual species habitat preferences within a disturbed and patchy intertidal seagrass meadow. Multivariate analysis showed a measurable effect of variable seagrass cover on the abundance and distribution of the fauna, with species specific preferences to both high and low seagrass cover seagrass. The faunal community composition varied significantly with increasing/decreasing cover. The faunal species composition of low cover seagrass was more similar to sandy control plots than to higher cover seagrass. Shannon Wiener Diversity (H') and species richness was significantly higher in high cover seagrass than in low cover seagrass, indicating increasing habitat value as density increases. The results of this study underline how the impacts of small scale disturbances from factors such as anchor damage, boat moorings and intertidal vehicle use on seagrass meadows that reduce shoot density and cover can impact upon associated fauna. These impacts have negative consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services such as the provision of nursery habitat.

  10. Group Milieu in systemic and psychodynamic group therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    in a randomized study of systemic versus psychodynamic group therapy, that the short-term outcome for patients who received systemic group psychotherapy was significantly better than the outcome for patients who received psychodynamic group psychotherapy. The current study assessed the group milieu in both groups....... Methods: This randomized prospective study included 106 women: 52 assigned to psychodynamic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. The Group Environment Scale (GES) was filled in the mid phase of therapy and analysed in three dimensions and 10 subscales. Results: The systemic...... group was characterized by statistically significant highest scores on Relationship (ES = 1.27) and System Maintenance / Change Dimension (ES= 1.28), while the scores for Personal Growth Dimension were comparable in the two groups. Group S had statistically significant higher scores on the following...

  11. Dysregulated but not decreased salience network activity in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas P.; Gilleen, James; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.

    2013-01-01

    Effective estimation of the salience of environmental stimuli underlies adaptive behavior, while related aberrance is believed to undermine rational thought processes in schizophrenia. A network including bilateral frontoinsular cortex (FIC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been observed to respond to salient stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To test the hypothesis that activity in this salience network (SN) is less discriminately modulated by contextually-relevant stimuli in schizophrenia than in healthy individuals, fMRI data were collected in 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 13 matched controls during performance of a modified monetary incentive delay (MID) task. After quantitatively identifying spatial components representative of the FIC and dACC features of the SN, two principal analyses were conducted. In the first, modulation of SN activity by salience was assessed by measuring response to trial outcome. First-level general linear models were applied to individual-specific time-courses of SN activity identified using spatial independent component analysis (ICA). This analysis revealed a significant salience-by-performance-by-group interaction on the best-fit FIC component's activity at trial outcome, whereby healthy individuals but not individuals with schizophrenia exhibited greater distinction between the response to hits and misses in high salience trials than in low salience trials. The second analysis aimed to ascertain whether SN component amplitude differed between the study groups over the duration of the experiment. Independent-samples T-tests on back-projected, percent-signal-change scaled SN component images importantly showed that the groups did not differ in the overall amplitude of SN expression over the entire dataset. These findings of dysregulated but not decreased SN activity in schizophrenia provide physiological support for mechanistic conceptual frameworks of delusional thought formation

  12. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Hałasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey. Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75% in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  13. Treatment with pioglitazone is associated with decreased preprandial ghrelin levels: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Shervin; Esteghamati, Alireza; Rashidi, Armin; Tavakkoli, Hosein Moin; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Kebriaee-Zadeh, Abbas

    2013-02-01

    The effects of metformin and pioglitazone on ghrelin, a physiologic regulator of appetite and food intake, have not been clearly established. In a randomized clinical trial, we randomly assigned 60 type 2 diabetic patients to either metformin (Group A; n=30) or pioglitazone (Group B; n=30) treatment groups. The groups were similar in their baseline characteristics. A standard fasting 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed at time zero before starting metformin or pioglitazone, and 3 months later. After 3 months of treatment, pioglitazone, but not metformin, was significantly associated with weight gain. Both groups experienced a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (ppioglitazone group had a significant reduction in preprandial ghrelin levels after treatment (ppioglitazone on ghrelin was independent of changes in body weight, body mass index, glucose control, insulin resistance, and plasma insulin. In conclusion, treatment with pioglitazone is associated with a decrease in preprandial ghrelin levels and therefore, the weight gain and increased food intake related to pioglitazone use cannot be explained by its effects on ghrelin. The effect of pioglitazone on ghrelin is independent of changes in body weight, body mass index, plasma insulin, insulin resistance, or glucose control.

  14. Is the renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA decreased in microalbuminuric diabetic patient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease and the incidence is progressively increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal uptake among diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria, and then to determine the clinical usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in predicting early diabetic nephropathy. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scan was performed and a total renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA was measured in 145 diabetic patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the amount of 24 hour urinary albumin excretion as Group I (normoalbuminuria, 74 cases ), Group II (microalbuminuria, 39 cases), and Group III (overt proteinuria, 32 cases). The differences of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal uptake among the 3 groups and the correlation between the renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and other clinical parameters were analyzed. The total renal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA of Group II (40.8{+-}11.0%) was significantly lower than that of Group I (54.4{+-}6.3%, p<0.001). The uptake of Group III (27.7{+-}12.0%) was significantly lower than those of both Group I and Group II (p<0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA total renal uptakes correlated negatively with serum creatinine level (r=0.629, p<0.001) and positively correlated with creatinite clearance rate (r=0.702, p<0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA total renal uptake of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria was significantly decreased compared with that of patients of normoalbuminuria. Therefore, {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scan can be used as a diagnostic study for early detection of the diabetic nephropathy.

  15. GROUP LAZINESS: THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL LOAFING ON GROUP PERFORMANCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiangyu Ying; Huanhuan Li; Shan Jiang; Fei Peng; Zhongxin Lin

    2014-01-01

      Social loafing has been defined as a phenomenon in which people exhibit a sizable decrease in individual effort when performing in groups as compared to when they perform alone, and has been regarded...

  16. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the blood. Diuretics are commonly used ...

  17. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-05-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  18. Individual Reminiscence Therapy can Decrease Depression Level on Elderly at Social Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in oldest old. The psychosocial development of the elderly to enhance self-integration. Reminiscence therapy is one of psychosocial treatment for elderly using memory recall of one’s life event in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on depression among elderly in the social homes. Method: The study design was used Quasy-Eksperiment Pre-Post Test with Control Group. A total of 60 elderly people were recruited in this study and assigned into two groups,  31 participants in the intervention group and 29 participants in the control group. Independent variable was reminiscence therapy five sessions, which given to the intervention group. While, dependent variable was the level of depression on elderly. Data were collected by using GDS, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney statistical test with level of significance α≤0.05. Result: After providing individual reminiscence therapy, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared to those in the control group was found (p=0.008. Discussion: The individual reminiscence therapy is useful to overcome depression among elderly. The nurse can know the personality of each elderly so as to improve the quality of nursing care for elderly Keywords: individual reminiscence therapy, depression, elderly

  19. Crystallization: A phase transition process driving by chemical potential decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congting; Xue, Dongfeng

    2017-07-01

    A chemical bonding model is established to describe the chemical potential decrease during crystallization. In the nucleation stage, in situ molecular vibration spectroscopy shows the increased vibration energy of constituent groups, indicating the shortened chemical bonding and the decreased chemical potential towards the formation of nuclei. Starting from the Gibbs free energy formula, the chemical potential decrease during crystallization is scaled, which depends on the released chemical bonding energy per unit phase transition zone. In the crystal growth, the direction-dependent growth rate of inorganic single crystals can be quantitatively determined, their anisotropic thermodynamic morphology can thus be constructed on the basis of relative growth rates.

  20. Persistent Postconcussive Symptoms Are Accompanied by Decreased Functional Brain Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Ingo; Saluja, Rajeet S; Lausberg, Hedda; Kempe, Mathias; Furley, Philip; Berger, Alisa; Chen, Jen-Kai; Ptito, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic methods are considered a major concern in the determination of mild traumatic brain injury. The authors examined brain oxygenation patterns in subjects with severe and minor persistent postconcussive difficulties and a healthy control group during working memory tasks in prefrontal brain regions using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The results demonstrated decreased working memory performances among concussed subjects with severe postconcussive symptoms that were accompanied by decreased brain oxygenation patterns. An association appears to exist between decreased brain oxygenation, poor performance of working memory tasks, and increased symptom severity scores in subjects suffering from persistent postconcussive symptoms.

  1. Stem cells decreased neuronal cell death after hypoxic stress in primary fetal rat neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tetsuro; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    To explore stem cell-mediated neuronal protection through extracellular signaling pathways by transplanted stem cells, we sought to identify potential candidate molecules responsible for neuronal protection using an in vitro coculture system. Primary fetal rat hippocampal neurons underwent hypoxia (≤1% oxygen) for 96 h nad then were returned to a normoxic condition. The study group then received rat umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells, while the control group received fresh media only. The experimental group showed decreased neuronal apoptosis compared to the control group [44.5 ± 1.6% vs. 71.0 ± 4.2% (mean ± SD, p = 0.0005) on day 5] and higher neuronal survival (4.9 ± 1.2 cells/100× field vs. 2.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.02 on day 5). Among 90 proteins evaluated using a protein array, stem cell coculture media showed increased protein secretion of TIMP-1 (5.61-fold), TIMP-2 (4.88), CNTF-Rα (3.42), activin A (2.20), fractalkine (2.04), CCR4 (2.02), and decreased secretion in MIP-2 (0.30-fold), AMPK α1 (0.43), TROY (0.48), and TIMP-3 (0.50). This study demonstrated that coculturing stem cells with primary neurons in vitro decreased neuronal cell death after hypoxia with significantly altered protein secretion. The results suggest that stem cells may offer neuronal protection through extracellular signaling.

  2. Targeting CYP450 modulation to decrease the risk of induced cataract in the experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the major causes of cataract. Some drugs prescribed for the treatment of diabetes are the modulators of CYP450, which may alter the risk of cataract. Objective: To study the effect of CYP450 modulation in galactosemic cataract. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley suckling rats were allotted to four groups (n = 6, as follows: Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: Galactose control, Group 3: CYP450 inhibitor pretreated and Group 4: CYP450 inducer pretreated. Cataract was induced in animals of all groups except group 1 by feeding them galactose (50%, 21 days after parturition. From the eighteenth day of life, CYP450 inhibitor (nifedipine; 8.1 mg/kg and CYP450 inducer (pioglitazone; 3.8 mg/kg were given orally to groups 3 and 4, respectively. The maturation pattern of the cataract was observed by an operating microscope, every third day. Biochemical changes in the lenses of all groups, for example, CYP450 activity expressed as ΅M NADPH oxidized / unit time, alterations in the levels of total proteins, soluble proteins, and reduced glutathione (GSH following the induction of cataract, were estimated. Results: The microscopic examination of the lenses indicated that CYP450 inhibitor pre-treatment delayed (fourteenth day the occurrence of cataract, while CYP450 inducer pretreatment demonstrated an early (ninth day cataract as compared to galactose control rats (twelfth day. A significant decrease and increase in CYP450 activity was observed with the CYP450 inhibitor and inducer pre-treatment, respectively. There was no alteration in the GSH level, but a significant increase in total and soluble protein was found in groups 3 and 4 as compared to group 2. Conclusion: CYP450 may have a role in the initiation of cataract without any effect on the maturation pattern, as revealed by the delayed occurrence of cataract with the CYP450 inhibitor and an early onset of cataract with the CYP450 inducer.

  3. Epigallocatechin gallate improves insulin signaling by decreasing toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activity in adipose tissues of high-fat diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Suqing; Cao, Yanli; Fan, Chenling; Fan, Yuxin; Bai, Shuting; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects and the underlying mechanism of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in adipose tissues of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Fasting plasma insulin, epididymal fat coefficient and free fatty acids, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and the average glucose infusion rate were determined. EGCG significantly decreased free fatty acids, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and epididymal fat coefficient, and increased glucose infusion rate in HFD group. The levels of toll-like receptor 4, TNF receptor associated factor 6, inhibitor-kappa-B kinase β, p-nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-6 in the EGCG group were all significantly lower than the HFD control group. EGCG also decreased the level of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 and increased phosphoinositide-3-kinase and glucose transporter isoform 4 in the HFD group. Decreased macrophage infiltration was in EGCG group versus HFD group, and the protein level of CD68 in EGCG group was also significantly lower than that of HFD group. EGCG attenuated inflammation by decreasing the content of macrophages, interfered the toll-like receptor 4 mediated inflammatory response pathway, thus, improving insulin signaling in adipose tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  5. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  6. Increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization in women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengli; Yang, Rui; Chi, Hongbin; Lian, Ying; Wang, Jiejing; Huang, Shuo; Lu, Cuiling; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2017-01-16

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions.Strategies were used to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy, but ectopic pregnancy still occurs. In the present study, women were selected with decreased ovarian reserve (defined as FSH > 10 IU/L) aged 20 to 38 years who underwent IVF-ET between 2009 and 2014. These 2,061 women were age-matched with an equal number of women with normal ovarian reserve (defined as FSH ≤ 10 IU/L). During cycles following fresh embryo transfer, 93 patients were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in clinical pregnancies was significantly higher in the decreased ovarian reserve than in the normal ovarian reserve group (5.51% vs. 2.99%). After adjusting for confounding factors, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased ovarian reserve. Our results showed that decreased ovarian reserve is an independent risk factor for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  7. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  8. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  9. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea decreases central nervous system-derived proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yo-El S; Finn, Mary Beth; Sutphen, Courtney L; Herries, Elizabeth M; Jerome, Gina M; Ladenson, Jack H; Crimmins, Daniel L; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that one mechanism underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease is OSA leading to decreased slow wave activity (SWA), increased synaptic activity, decreased glymphatic clearance, and increased amyloid-β. Polysomnography and lumbar puncture were performed in OSA and control groups. SWA negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β-40 among controls and was decreased in the OSA group. Unexpectedly, amyloid-β-40 was decreased in the OSA group. Other neuronally derived proteins, but not total protein, were also decreased in the OSA group, suggesting that OSA may affect the interaction between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Neurol 2016;80:154-159.

  11. BARD1剪切变异体在汉族女性散发性乳腺癌中的表达及临床意义探讨%Expression of BARD1 in sporadic breast carcinoma of the female Han ethnic group and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华彬; 肖文政; 李波; 陆旭; 李尧; 修典荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential relationship between isoforms of BRCA1 associated RING domain 1 ( BARD1 ) and the pathophysiologic markers of sporadic breast carcinoma of female Han ethnic group. Methods The expression of BARD1 isoforms in 39 breast carcinomatous tissue, 12paracancerous-normal breast tissue and 7 controlled normal breast tissue was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then cloned and sequenced.The difference of isoforms expression and their clinical significance were analyzed. Results There were four transcriptive products of BARD1 found in all these candidates,named full lenth,isoform γ,isoform δ and isoform e.The positive rate of isoform γ and δ was higher in carcinomatous tissues than in paracancerous-normal tissues and normal breast tissue in healthy women ( P < 0.05 ). Carcinomatous tissue expressed more kinds of isoforms.There was significant difference between carcinomatous tissue and paranormal/nomal tissue ( P =0.0075 ).There was significant correlation between isoform ε positive and poor prognosis factors such as poorly differentiation,HER2 positive,poor pathologic type and larger breast cancer lumps(P < 0.05 ). Conclusions There are significant differences in the expression of BARD1 isoforms among different kinds breast tissues in the female Han ethnic group.Positive isoform ε may predict poor prognosis of breast carcinoma in the female Han ethnic group.%目的 探讨乳腺癌基因1相关环指结构域蛋白1 (BRCA1 associated RING domain 1,BARD1)剪切变异体在乳腺癌组织中的表达及其临床意义.方法 对北京医院乳腺中心液氮冷冻储存的39例汉族女性散发性乳腺癌组织、12例癌旁乳腺组织和7例正常汉族女性乳腺组织提取目的基因,检测BARD1剪切变异体在不同组织中的表达状况,分析剪切变异体在不同组织中表达的差异及其临床意义.结果 在各种组织中共发现4种BARD1基因的转录产物,分别

  12. Olfactory deficits decrease the time resolution for trigeminal lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, A; Meusel, T; Güpfert, M; Westermann, B; Hummel, T; Welge-Lüssen, A

    2017-09-15

    To date the temporal resolution of the detection of almost simultaneously applied intranasal trigeminal stimuli is unknown. The aim of our study was to examine this temporal resolution in an/hyposmic subjects, who are known to have reduced trigeminal sensitivity and compare it with healthy controls. Participants were 20 posttraumatic an/hyposmic patients, and 23 healthy controls (matched with regard to sex and age). Olfactory function was tested psychophysically using the Sniffin´ Sticks test battery. Bilateral trigeminal stimulation was carried out using a birhinal high-precision olfactometer. The trigeminal stimulus used was CO₂ 60% v/v, the interstimulus interval ranged from 28 to 32s, stimulus duration was 200ms. Time-lags tested between right and left side of stimulation were at 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200ms. Subjects raised their left or right hand to indicate the side on which the stimulus had been perceived first. In both groups the accuracy in the trigeminal lateralization task increased with the time-lag but normosmic subjects significantly outperformed an/hyposmics in the 200ms time-lag condition. Normosmics significantly exceeded 50% chance level at the time-lag of 80ms, whereas an/hyposmics were only able to score above chance starting from 120ms time-lag. Lateralization scores significantly decreased with age. At a time lag of 200ms intranasal trigeminal stimuli can be lateralized. The reduced trigeminal sensitivity in patients with anosmia or hyposmia leads to an increased time lag required for correct perception of intranasal, almost simultaneously, applied stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Foam Rolling of Quadriceps Decreases Biceps Femoris Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Mark Tyler; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Hodgson, Daniel; Behm, David George

    2016-09-06

    Foam rolling has been shown to increase range of motion without subsequent performance impairments of the rolled muscle, however, there are no studies examining rolling effects on antagonist muscles. The objective of this study was to determine whether foam rolling the hamstrings and/or quadriceps would affect hamstrings and quadriceps activation in men and women. Recreationally active men (n=10, 25 ± 4.6 years, 180.1 ± 4.4 cm, 86.5 ± 15.7 kg) and women (n=8, 21.75 ± 3.2 years, 166.4 ± 8.8 cm, 58.9 ± 7.9 kg) had surface electromyographic activity analyzed in the dominant vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles upon a single leg landing from a hurdle jump under four conditions. Conditions included rolling of the hamstrings, quadriceps, both muscle groups and a control session. BF activation significantly decreased following quadriceps foam rolling (F(1,16) = 7.45, p = 0.015, -8.9%). There were no significant changes in quadriceps activation following hamstrings foam rolling. This might be attributed to the significantly greater levels of perceived pain with quadriceps rolling applications (F(1,18) = 39.067, p foam rolling for VL (F(6,30) = 1.31, p = 0.283) VM (F(6,30) = 1.203, p = 0.332) or BF (F(6,36) = 1.703, p = 0.199). Antagonist muscle activation may be altered following agonist foam rolling, however, it can be suggested that any changes in activation are likely a result of reciprocal inhibition due to increased agonist pain perception.

  14. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  15. Ceruloplasmin decreases respiratory burst reaction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeeva, Elena Y; Semenova, Elena V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Aplin, Kirill D; Timofeeva, Kseniya E; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Filatov, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    Testing of pregnant women reveals weakening of neutrophil-mediated effector functions, such as reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides data confirming the phenomenon, gained through application of the flow cytometry technique. Key factors influencing neutrophil functional activity in blood plasma of pregnant women have not been detected so far. At the same time, concentration of ceruloplasmin - a copper-containing glycoprotein - is known to increase in blood significantly during pregnancy. We observed the negative correlation between ceruloplasmin concentration in blood plasma of pregnant women and the intensity of respiratory burst of neutrophils. Fractionation of plasma using gel-filtration revealed that ceruloplasmin-containing fraction demonstrated suppression of the respiratory burst reaction. Partial elimination of ceruloplasmin from the blood of pregnant women, performed with the help of specific antibodies and followed by immunoprecipitation, leads to an increased respiratory burst reaction. On the contrary, addition of ceruloplasmin to blood samples of healthy donors noticeably decreases the respiratory burst reaction. The results presented prove that change in ceruloplasmin level in plasma is necessary and sufficient for modulating the ability of neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species during pregnancy.

  16. Extended Perioperative Antibiotic Coverage in Conjunction with Intraoperative Bile Cultures Decreases Infectious Complications after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Amir H.; Jackson, Terence; Barati, Mehdi; Eghbalieh, Babak; Siegel, Kelly A.; Siegel, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bile contamination from the digestive tract is a well-known risk factor for postoperative complications. Despite the literature concerning prevalence of bacterobilia and fungobilia in patients with biliary pathologies, there are no specific recommendations for perioperative antimicrobial coverage for biliary/pancreatic procedures. We evaluated the effect of at least 72 hours of perioperative broad spectrum antibiotic coverage on outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of all patients at Case Medical Center of Case Western Reserve University undergoing PD procedure, from 2006 to 2011, was performed (n = 122). Perioperative data including demographics, comorbidities, biliary instrumentation, antibiotic coverage, culture results, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Propensity score matching method was used to match the patients according to duration of antibiotic coverage into two groups: 72 hours (A72) and 24 hours (A24). Results. Longer broad spectrum antibiotic coverage in group A72 resulted in significantly less surgical site infections after PD, compared to routine 24 hours of perioperative antibiotics in group A24. This study did not reveal a statistically significant decrease in postoperative fungal infections in patients receiving preoperative antifungals. Conclusion. Prolonged perioperative antibiotic therapy in conjunction with intraoperative bile cultures decreases the short-term infectious complications of PD, with no significant increase in Clostridium difficile colitis incidence. PMID:27147813

  17. Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-09-04

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  18. Early intravenous ibuprofen decreases narcotic requirement and length of stay after traumatic rib fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayouth, Lilly; Safcsak, Karen; Cheatham, Michael L; Smith, Chadwick P; Birrer, Kara L; Promes, John T

    2013-11-01

    Pain control after traumatic rib fracture is essential to avoid respiratory complications and prolonged hospitalization. Narcotics are commonly used, but adjunctive medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be beneficial. Twenty-one patients with traumatic rib fractures treated with both narcotics and intravenous ibuprofen (IVIb) (Treatment) were retrospectively compared with 21 age- and rib fracture-matched patients who received narcotics alone (Control). Pain medication requirements over the first 7 hospital days were evaluated. Mean daily IVIb dose was 2070 ± 880 mg. Daily intravenous morphine-equivalent requirement was 19 ± 16 vs 32 ± 24 mg (P pain scores were lower in the Treatment group (P rib fractures significantly decreases narcotic requirement and results in clinically significant decreases in hospital length of stay. IVIb therapy should be initiated in patients with traumatic rib fractures to improve patient comfort and reduce narcotic requirement.

  19. Effectiveness of Bacterial Vaginosis Screening Program in Routine Prenatal Care and Its Effect on Decrease of Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Mashoufi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Bacterial vaginosis is a condition which is determined by changes in microbial ecosystem of vagina and is considered as a preventable risk factor for preterm delivery. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of bacterial vaginosis screening program in routine prenatal care and its effect on decreasing preterm labor.   Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 474 pregnant women at gestational stage between 2007 and 2008. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention group and control group. Screening was performed in intervention group with Amsel's criteria (3 of 4 needed for diagnosis. Positive cases were given clindamycin cream (2% for one week. The outcome of the delivery was assessed in both groups afterward. Data were analyzed by SPSS11 software using descriptive statistics.   Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding pregnancy rank, wanted and unwanted pregnancy, insufficient weight gain, mother vaccination and complication of pregnancy. Bacterial vaginosis was observed in 17 out of 216 (8% in the intervention group and then treated. Prevalence of preterm delivery in the intervention and control groups were 3 (1.4% and 12 (4.7%, respectively. The relative risk was protective (RR: 0.3, DR: 0.033, NNT: 30.   Conclusion: Screening and treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women could significantly decrease the rate of preterm delivery.

  20. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  1. Chronic urticaria in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Significance of severity of thyroid gland inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gulec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a clear association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA. However, not all patients with AT demonstrate urticaria. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate in which patients with AT did CUA become a problem. A sensitive inflammation marker, neopterine (NP was used to confirm whether the severity of inflammation in the thyroid gland was responsible for urticaria or not. Methods: Neopterine levels were assessed in patients with AT with urticaria and without urticaria. Furthermore, levels were compared in relation to pre and post levothyroxine treatment. Twenty-seven patients with urticaria (Group 1 and 28 patients without urticaria (Group 2 were enrolled in the study. A course of levothyroxine treatment was given to all patients, and urine neopterine levels before and after the trial were obtained. Results: All patients completed the trial. Mean age in Group 1 and Group 2 was similar (35.70 ± 10.86 years and 38.36 ± 10.38 years, respectively (P=0.358. Pre-treatment urine neopterine levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P=0.012. Post-treatment levels decreased in each group, as expected. However, the decrease in the neopterine level was insignificant in the patients of Group 2 (P=0.282. In Group 1, a significant decrease in post-treatment neopterine levels (P=0.015 was associated with the remission of urticaria. Conclusion: In patients with CUA and AT, pre-treatment elevated levels of NP, and its decrease with levothyroxine treatment along with symptomatic relief in urticaria, may be evidence of the relationship between the degree of inflammation in thyroid and presence of urticaria.

  2. Decreased oxygen permeability of EVOH through molecular interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zs. Peter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol of 48 mol% ethylene content was modified with N,N'-bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl-isophthalamide (Nylostab SEED to decrease the oxygen permeability of the polymer. The additive was added in a wide concentration range from 0 to 10 wt%. The structure and properties of the polymer were characterized with various methods including differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, mechanical testing, optical measurements and oxygen permeation. Interactions were estimated by molecular modeling and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that oxygen permeation decreased considerably when the additive was added at less than 2.0 wt% concentration. The decrease resulted from the interaction of the hydroxyl groups of the polymer and the amide groups of the additive. The dissolution of the additive in the polymer led to decreased crystallinity, but also to decreased mobility of amorphous molecules. Stiffness and strength, but also deformability increased as a result. Above 2 wt% the additive forms a separate phase leading to the deterioration of properties. The success of the approach represents a novel way to control oxygen permeation in EVOH and in other polymers with similar functional groups capable of strong interactions.

  3. Decreasing Free Radicals Level on High Risk Person After Vitamin C and E Supplement Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitorus, M. S.; Anggraini, D. R.; Hidayat

    2017-03-01

    Has become a global issue that the increase in global warming mainly caused by high air pollution levels which are donated by motor vehicle emissions. As a rapidly developing country, Indonesia becomes vulnerable to health problems related to air pollution. Excessive free radicals that is produced by air pollution can initiate stress oxidative. Already known that, stress oxidative trigger many health problems. Vitamin C and E is a non enzymatic antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals. This study aims to investigate the decreasing free radicals level by administering vitamin C and E. This research using pre and post experimental design study. There are 24 operators gasoline station Pertamina as samples, with an average age of 26 years. The samples were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 (control), group 2, were given vitamin C doses of 500mg / day, group 3 was given vitamin E doses of 250 IU / day and the group 4 was given a combination of vitamins C and E. The treatment was given for 30 days. Free radicals level is obtained from malonaldehyde (MDA) level by spectrophotometer. Before treatment the average of MDA level is 5.540 µm. After the treatment, MDA is significantly decreased become 3.992 µm (T-test, sigsafety aid and supplement.

  4. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  5. Does Early Reading Failure Decrease Children's Reading Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Cordray, David S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure…

  6. Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NUMBER Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F • 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3-10 AUG 05. 14. ABSTRACT Forbush decreases (FDs) in neutron monitor (NM) counting rates are caused by enhanced magnetic fields in interplanetary...VS-HA-TR-2007-1044 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 2, 267-270 Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases S.W

  7. Inhaled nitric oxide decreases pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in normal newborn rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thông Hua-Huy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO is commonly used in the treatment of very ill pre-term newborns. Previous studies showed that exogenous NO could affect endothelial NO synthase (eNOS activity and expression in vascular endothelial cell cultures or adult rat models, but this has never been fully described in newborn rat lungs. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of iNO on eNOS expression and activity in newborn rats. Rat pups, post-natal day (P 0 to P7, and their dams were placed in a chamber containing NO at 5 ppm (iNO-5 ppm group or 20 ppm (iNO-20 ppm group, or in room air (control group. Rat pups were sacrificed at P7 and P14 for evaluation of lung eNOS expression and activity. At P7, eNOS protein expression in total lung lysates, in bronchial and arterial sections, was significantly decreased in the iNO-20 ppm versus control group. At P14, eNOS expression was comparable among all three groups. The amounts of eNOS mRNA significantly differed at P7 between the iNO-20 ppm and control groups. NOS activity decreased in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7 and returned to normal levels at P14. There was an imbalance between superoxide dismutase and NOS activities in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7. Inhalation of NO at 20 ppm early after birth decreases eNOS gene transcription, protein expression and enzyme activity. This decrease might account for the rebound phenomenon observed in patients treated with iNO.

  8. Does Limiting Oral Contrast Decrease Emergency Department Length of Stay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Barton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact on emergency department (EDlength of stay (LOS of a new protocol for intravenous (IV-contrast only abdominal/pelvic computedtomography (ABCT compared to historical controls.Methods: This was a retrospective case-controlled study performed at a single academic medicalcenter. Patients ≥ 18 undergoing ABCT imaging for non-traumatic abdominal pain were included inthe study. We compared ED LOS between historical controls undergoing ABCT imaging with PO/IVcontrast and study patients undergoing an IV-contrast-only protocol. Imaging indications were thesame for both groups and included patients with clinical suspicion for appendicitis, diverticulitis, smallbowel obstruction, or perforation. We identified all patients from the hospital’s electronic storehouse(imaging code, ordering department, imaging times, and we abstracted ED LOS and dispositionfrom electronic medical records.Results: Two hundred and eleven patients who underwent PO/IV ABCT prep were compared to 184patients undergoing IV-contrast only ABCT prep. ED LOS was shorter for patients imaged with theIV-contrast only protocol (4:35 hrs vs. 6:39 hrs, p < 0.0001.Conclusion: Implementation of an IV-contrast only ABCT prep for select ED patients presentingfor evaluation of acute abdominal pain significantly decreased ED LOS.

  9. RANKL inhibition: a novel strategy to decrease femoral head deformity after ischemic osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Harry K W; Morgan-Bagley, Stephanie; Kostenuik, Paul

    2006-12-01

    A novel therapeutic strategy to decrease the development of femoral head deformity after ischemic osteonecrosis was studied in a large animal model of total head infarction. RANKL inhibition through exogenous osteoprotegerin administration significantly decreased pathologic bone resorption and deformity during repair of the infarcted head. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a juvenile form of osteonecrosis of the femoral head that can produce permanent femoral head deformity (FHD) and premature osteoarthritis. The development of FHD in LCPD is closely associated with the repair process, characterized by a predominance of bone resorption in its early stage that produces a fragmented appearance and collapse of the femoral head. We present here a novel strategy to preserve the femoral head structure after ischemic osteonecrosis based on inhibition of interaction between RANK and RANKL using exogenous administration of osteoprotegerin (OPG-Fc) in a large animal model of ischemic osteonecrosis. Ischemic osteonecrosis was surgically induced in 18 male piglets by placing a ligature tightly around the right femoral neck to disrupt the blood flow to the right femoral head. Two weeks after the induction of total head infarction, OPG-Fc or saline was administered subcutaneously to nine animals per group for 6 weeks. The contralateral, normal (left) femoral heads from the animals treated with saline served as normal, nondisease controls. All animals were killed at 8 weeks when severe FHD has been previously shown to occur because of the repair process dominated by osteoclastic bone resorption. Radiographic, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical assessments were performed. Radiographic assessment showed significantly better preservation of the femoral head structure in the OPG-Fc group compared with the saline group. Epiphyseal quotient (the ratio of epiphyseal height to diameter) was significantly higher in the OPG-Fc group (0.41 +/- 0.09) compared with the saline

  10. Determination of ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor from tooth material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In dentin and pulp, the antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected up to 12 months but showed a progressive decrease in the antigenicity as the time period increased. When compared the results obtained of dentin and pulp in ABO and Rh factor grouping showed similar results with no statistical significance. The sensitivity of ABO blood grouping was better than Rh factor blood grouping and showed a statistically significant result.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii decreases the reproductive fitness in mice.

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    Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a common protozoan parasite that infects warm-blooded animals throughout the world, including mice and humans. During infection, both, the parasite and the host, utilize various mechanisms to maximize their own reproductive success. Mice and humans are both the intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii, which forms specialized vacuoles containing reproductive cysts in the formers' tissue. As half of the human population is infected, developing a disease called toxoplasmosis, along with an ever-growing number of couples suffering with idiopathic infertility, it is therefore surprising that there is a lack of research on how Toxoplasma gondii can alter reproductive parameters. In this study, a detailed histometric screening of the testicular function along with the levels of the pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH were analysed in infected mice. Data on relative testis and epididymis weight, and sperm count were also collected. Based on the results obtained, the level of LH in the urine of Toxoplasma gondii infected mice was lower compared to the control. In direct correlation with the hormone level, testicular function and sperm production was also significantly lower in Toxoplasma gondii positive group using sperm count and histometric analysis as a marker. Not only were the number of leptotene primary spermatocytes and spermatids lowered, but the number of Sertoli cells and the tubule diameter were elevated. In parallel, a pilot epigenetic study on global testicular methylation, and specific methylation of Crem, Creb1 and Hspa1genes essential for successfully ongoing spermatogenesis was performed. Global methylation was elevated in Toxoplasma infected mice, and differences in the DNA methylation of selected genes were detected between the Toxoplasma positive and control group. These findings demonstrate a direct relation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and the decrease of male reproductive fitness in mice, which may

  12. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

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    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  13. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after the...... ionization. These results support the suggestion that ions play a significant role in the life-cycle of clouds....

  14. Drynaria total flavonoids decrease cathepsin K expression in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X L; Li, C W; Wan, Q Z; Li, A Q; Wang, H; Liu, K

    2014-06-09

    This study investigated the effects of Drynaria total flavonoids on cathepsin K serum concentrations and gene expression, biomechanics and bone mineral density (BMD) of the tibial shaft in ovariectomized rat models of osteoporosis, and mechanism in the prevention and cure of osteoporosis. Seventy-two female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. The rats in each group were subjected to gastric lavage after the model was established. The tibial shaft of the right hindlimb was obtained to measure the BMD. Serum cathepsin K concentrations were determined. The cathepsin K mRNA expression was also determined using fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The three-point bending method was performed to measure the maximum bending load of the tibial shaft. The total flavonoid and normal groups had significant differences in serum cathepsin K concentrations compared with that in the estrogen group (Ptotal flavonoid and sham-operated groups also showed significant differences in cathepsin K mRNA expression compared with that in the normal group (Ptotal flavonoid group was significantly different from that in the estrogen group (Ptotal flavonoid group elicited a better effect on BMD than that by the medium- and low-dose groups (Ptotal flavonoids inhibited the serum cathepsin K concentration and increased the maximum bending load of the tibial shaft in ovariectomized rats.

  15. Rosiglitazone Decreases Plasma Levels of Osteoprotegerin in a Randomized Clinical Trial with Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Preil, Simone Rørdam; Juhl, Henning Friis

    2011-01-01

      Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We suggested that plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG), a strong, independent predictor of cardiovascular disease, could discriminate between anti-diabetic treatments depending on their benefits....../placebo or rosiglitazone/placebo). A total of 371 individuals were eligible for the study. Basic variables were analysed along with measurement of plasma OPG and HbA(1c) at the beginning and end of the study. Only rosiglitazone treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma OPG concentrations (p = 0.003), while...... no significant change was seen in the other treatment groups. The effect of rosiglitazone on plasma OPG remained significant in a univariate analysis adjusted for change in HbA(1c) (p = 0.013). Of note, the change in plasma OPG significantly correlated with HbA(1c) improvement in rosiglitazone-treated patients...

  16. Significance of oxidative stress changes in type 2 diabetic patients after gastric bypass

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    Li SHI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the changes in oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic(T2DM patients after gastric bypass,and investigate the mechanism of gastric bypass treatment for T2DM.Methods Thirty T2DM patients who underwent gastric bypass(T2DM group and thirty healthy subjects(control group were included in present study from Aug.2009 to Apr.2010.Values of fasting plasma glucose(FPG,2-hour postprandial plasma glucose(2hPG,glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c,fasting plasma insulin(FIns,superoxide dismutase(SOD,malondialdehyde(MDA and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX were determined in T2DM group before surgery and 1,3,6 months after surgery.All the parameters were determined once in control group.Results Compared with control group,MDA was significantly higher(3.6±1.3 vs 2.2±0.7μmol/L,P < 0.01,and SOD and GSH-PX were significantly lower(45.2±18.8 vs 87.6±20.4kU/L,P < 0.01;53.6±16.8 vs 78.9±15.6mmol/L,P < 0.01 in T2DM group.Compared with the preoperative values,the MDA decreased significantly(P < 0.05,and SOD and GSH-PX increased significantly(P < 0.01 in T2DM group 3 months after operation.Compared with preoperative values,FPG,2hPG and HbA1c decreased significantly(P < 0.01 in T2DM group one month after operation.Compared with the values one month after operation,2hPG and HbA1c decreased significantly(P < 0.01,P < 0.05 3 months after operation.Values of HOMA-IR decreased significantly from one month to six months after surgery(P < 0.01.Conclusions Oxidative stress can be improved markedly after gastric bypass in T2DM patients.It may be one of the mechanisms of suceessful treatment of T2DM with gastric bypass.

  17. Decreased Lumbar Lordosis and Deficient Acetabular Coverage Are Risk Factors for Subchondral Insufficiency Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Woo Lam; Lee, Woo Suk; Chae, Dong Sik; Yang, Ick Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Min; Koo, Kyung Hoi

    2016-10-01

    Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) of the femoral head occurs in the elderly and recipients of organ transplantation. Osteoporosis and deficient lateral coverage of the acetabulum are known risk factors for SIF. There has been no study about relation between spinopelvic alignment and anterior acetabular coverage with SIF. We therefore asked whether a decrease of lumbar lordosis and a deficiency in the anterior acetabular coverage are risk factors. We investigated 37 patients with SIF. There were 33 women and 4 men, and their mean age was 71.5 years (59-85 years). These 37 patients were matched with 37 controls for gender, age, height, weight, body mass index and bone mineral density. We compared the lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, acetabular index, acetabular roof angle, acetabular head index, anterior center-edge angle and lateral center-edge angle. Lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, lateral center edge angle, anterior center edge angle, acetabular index and acetabular head index were significantly different between SIF group and control group. Lumbar lordosis (OR = 1.11), lateral center edge angle (OR = 1.30) and anterior center edge angle (OR = 1.27) had significant associations in multivariate analysis. Decreased lumbar lordosis and deficient anterior coverage of the acetabulum are risk factors for SIF as well as decreased lateral coverage of the acetabulum.

  18. Intraperitoneal Bilirubin Administration Decreases Infarct Area in a Rat Coronary Ischemia/Reperfusion Model

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    Ron eBen-Amotz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bilirubin was previously considered a toxin byproduct of heme catabolism. However, a mounting body of evidence suggests that at physiological doses, bilirubin is a powerful antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic agent. Recent clinical studies have shown that human beings with genetically-induced hyperbilirubinemia (Gilbert Syndrome are protected against coronary heart disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administration of exogenous bilirubin to normal rats would convey similar protective effects in an experimental model of coronary ischemia. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal bilirubin administration 1 hour before injury would decrease infarct area and preserve left ventricular (LV systolic function when compared to non-treated rats. Coronary ischemia was induced by temporary (30 min ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in control or bilirubin treated rats, followed by a 1-hour period of reperfusion. LV function was estimated by measurements of fractional shortening and fractional area shortening using echocardiography. LV function decreased in both experimental groups after ischemia and reperfusion, although in bilirubin-treated rats fractional shortening was less depressed during the period of ischemia (18.8 vs 25.8%, p = 0.034. Infarct size was significantly reduced in the bilirubin treated group compared to the non-treated group (13.34% vs 25.5%, p = 0.0067. Based on the results of this study, bilirubin supplementation appears to provide significant decrease in infarct size although protective effects on LV function were noted only during the period of ischemia. This result also suggests that lipid soluble antioxidant bilirubin prevents the oxidation of cardiolipin and decreases the infarct size in the heart during ischemia.

  19. Using acupressure and Montessori-based activities to decrease agitation for residents with dementia: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Yang, Man-Hua; Kao, Chieh-Chun; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Tang, Sai-Hung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2009-06-01

    To explore the effectiveness of acupressure and Montessori-based activities in decreasing the agitated behaviors of residents with dementia. A double-blinded, randomized (two treatments and one control; three time periods) cross-over design was used. Six special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were the sites for the study. One hundred thirty-three institutionalized residents with dementia. Subjects were randomized into three treatment sequences: acupressure-presence-Montessori methods, Montessori methods-acupressure-presence and presence-Montessori methods-acupressure. All treatments were done once a day, 6 days per week, for a 4-week period. The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Ease-of-Care, and the Apparent Affect Rating Scale. After receiving the intervention, the acupressure and Montessori-based-activities groups saw a significant decrease in agitated behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and physically nonaggressive behaviors than the presence group. Additionally, the ease-of-care ratings for the acupressure and Montessori-based-activities groups were significantly better than for the presence group. In terms of apparent affect, positive affect in the Montessori-based-activities group was significantly better than in the presence group. This study confirms that a blending of traditional Chinese medicine and a Western activities program would be useful in elderly care and that in-service training for formal caregivers in the use of these interventions would be beneficial for patients

  20. Decreasing the Use of Damage Control Laparotomy in Trauma: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvin, John A; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K; Adams, Sasha D; McNutt, Michelle K; Love, Joseph D; Moore, Laura J; Wade, Charles E; Cotton, Bryan A; Holcomb, John B

    2017-08-01

    Our institution has published damage control laparotomy (DCL) rates of 30% and documented the substantial morbidity associated with the open abdomen. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to decrease the rate of DCL at a busy, Level I trauma center in the US. A prospective cohort of all emergent trauma laparotomies from November 2013 to October 2015 (QI group) was followed. The QI intervention was multifaceted and included audit and feedback for every DCL case. Morbidity and mortality of the QI patients were compared with those from a published control (control group: emergent laparotomy from January 2011 to October 2013). A significant decrease was observed immediately on beginning the QI project, from a 39% DCL rate in the control period to 23% in the QI group (p control 16% vs QI 12%; p = 0.15), fascial dehiscence (6% vs 8%; p = 0.20), unplanned relaparotomy (11% vs 10%; p = 0.58), or mortality (9% vs 10%; p = 0.69) were observed. The reduction in use resulted in a decrease of 68 DCLs over the 2-year period. There was a further reduction in the rate of DCL to 17% after completion of the QI project. A QI initiative rapidly changed the use of DCL and improved quality of care by decreasing resource use without an increase morbidity or mortality. This decrease was sustained during the QI period and further improved upon after its completion. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p group erythrocytes were virtually converted to Bombay group-like erythrocytes by the treatment of anti-H lectins extracted from Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis.

  2. From mapping class groups to automorphism groups of free groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    We show that the natural map from the mapping class groups of surfaces to the automorphism groups of free groups, induces an infinite loop map on the classifying spaces of the stable groups after plus construction. The proof uses automorphisms of free groups with boundaries which play the role...... of mapping class groups of surfaces with several boundary components....

  3. Fatty fish intake decreases lipids related to inflammation and insulin signaling--a lipidomics approach.

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    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence of the multiple beneficial health effects of fish consumption is strong, but physiological mechanisms behind these effects are not completely known. Little information is available on the effects of consumption of different type of fish. The aim of this study was to investigate how fatty fish or lean fish in a diet affect serum lipidomic profiles in subjects with coronary heart disease. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A pilot study was designed which included altogether 33 subjects with myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack in an 8-week parallel controlled intervention. The subjects were randomized to either fatty fish (n = 11, lean fish (n = 12 or control (n = 10 groups. Subjects in the fish groups had 4 fish meals per week and subjects in the control group consumed lean beef, pork and chicken. A fish meal was allowed once a week maximum. Lipidomics analyses were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Multiple bioactive lipid species, including ceramides, lysophosphatidylcholines and diacylglycerols, decreased significantly in the fatty fish group, whereas in the lean fish group cholesterol esters and specific long-chain triacylglycerols increased significantly (False Discovery Rate q-value <0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 8-week consumption of fatty fish decreased lipids which are potential mediators of lipid-induced insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be related to the protective effects of fatty fish on the progression of atherosclerotic vascular diseases or insulin resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00720655.

  4. 汝阳地区熊耳群火山岩内夹层硅质岩的微区特征及地质意义%Micro-Area Characteristics of Laminated Chert in the Volcanic Rocks of Xionger Group of Ruyang Area and Its Geological Significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗安; 李红中; 赵明臻; 杨志军; 梁锦; 何俊国

    2014-01-01

    hydrothermal sedimentation contributed to the bands (or lamellars) with minerals of much smaller grain size ,which therefore resulted in diversities from the other bands (or lamellars) .According to this ,the repeated bands (or lamellars) denoted the volcanic activities were cyclic dur-ing the formation of the chert .What’s more ,the carbonate vein came from the precipitation of subsequent hydrothermal fluids in the fracture of the chert ,which contributed to the changes (e.g. rising in crystallinity degree of silica and formation of micro-structure of new silicate) near the interface between chert and the carbonate vein .Although there were many impurity minerals with complex genesis ,the relatively lower content of silica in the chert of Xionger Group was due to the volcanic mineral mainly . Since there were impurity minerals of volcanic genesis in relatively large amount ,the content of silica in the chert of Xionger Group was hence relatively low .In this study ,the Raman analysis was witnessed to be an effective way in the researches on the chert ,and could open out the type of mineral ,micro-structure and degrees of crystallinity (or order) .These characteristics were well kept in the micro-area ,and played significant roles to reflect and understand the formation mechanism and subsequent evolu-tion of the chert .%熊耳群是前寒武纪火山-沉积作用的产物,其顶部的马家河组(玄武)安山质火山岩内发育了夹层状热水成因硅质岩。选择熊耳群马家河组硅质岩夹层中的碧玉岩为对象,利用偏光显微镜,XRD ,Raman和EBSD等方法剖析了其微区特征。研究结果显示:硅质岩内石英颗粒的显微镜和EBSD照片均表现出颗粒细小、结晶程度低和紧密堆积结构等特点,这完全吻合热水沉积硅质岩的特征;硅质岩内粒径不同的颗粒呈条带(或薄层)状交互出现,不同条带(或薄层)内矿物的组成存在明显的差异,这应该反映了原始物

  5. Prenatal infection decreases calbindin, decreases Purkinje cell volume and density and produces long-term motor deficits in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K; Veerisetty, S; Paul, I; May, W; Miguel-Hidalgo, J J; Bennett, W

    2010-01-01

    The cerebellum is involved in the control of motor functions with Purkinje cells serving as the only output from the cerebellum. Purkinje cells are important targets for toxic substances and are vulnerable to prenatal insults. Intrauterine infection (IUI) has been shown to selectively target the developing cerebral white matter through lesioning, necrosis and inflammatory cytokine activation. Developmental and cognitive delays have been associated with animal models of IUI. The aim of this study was to determine if IUI leads to damage to Purkinje cells in the developing cerebellum and if any damage is associated with decreases in calbindin and motor behaviors in surviving pups. Pregnant rats were injected with Escherichia coli (1 × 10⁵ colony-forming units) or sterile saline at gestational day 17. Beginning at postnatal day (PND) 2, the pups were subjected to a series of developmental tests to examine developmental milestones. At PND 16, some pups were sacrificed and their brains extracted and processed for histology or protein studies. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was done to examine the general morphology of the Purkinje cells and to examine Purkinje cell density, area and volume. Calbindin expression was examined in the cerebellum via immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. The remaining rat pups were used to examine motor coordination and balance on a rotating rotarod at the prepubertal and adult ages. Prenatal E. coli injection did not significantly change birth weight or delivery time, but did delay surface righting and negative geotaxis in pups. Pups in the E. coli group also had a decrease in the number of Purkinje cells, as well as a decrease in Purkinje cell density and volume. HE staining demonstrated a change in Purkinje cell morphology. Calbindin expression was decreased in rats from the E. coli group as well. Locomotor tests indicated that while there were no significant changes in gross motor activity, motor coordination and

  6. Fiber purified extracts of carob fruit decrease carbohydrate absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-González, A; Garcimartín, A; López-Oliva, M E; Bertocco, G; Naes, F; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Benedí, J

    2017-06-21

    The postprandial state plays a central role in the development and setting of chronic diseases. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenols with a known ability to modify carbohydrate digestion and absorption. The high concentration of CT in the pulp of carob fruit suggests a potential antidiabetic effect. The aim of this work was to analyze the in vitro and in vivo effects of carob fruit extract (CFE) on the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. α-Glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion were tested in vitro using 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg mL(-1) CFE concentrations. Two in vivo absorption studies, acute and subchronic, were carried out in four groups of 6 two-month-old male Wistar rats (control and CFE 25, 50 and 150 mg per kg b.w.), administering 1 mL of olive oil and 0.5 g per kg b.w. of glucose solution by oral gavage. CFE significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity, through a competitive mechanism, from 1 mg mL(-1), and also reduced glucose diffusion in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute study, CFE (50 and 150 mg per kg b.w.) significantly reduced the area under the curve (AUC) of blood glucose. Subchronic CFE administration induced further AUC decreases; and CFE at 150 mg per kg b.w. reduced sodium-glucose-linked transporter-1 (SGLT1) levels in the duodenum. This study demonstrates the hypoglycemic properties of CFE, highlighting its potential role as a suitable nutritional strategy in diabetic patients.

  7. [Possible mechanism of production of the musical second heart sound and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, N; Hosoi, K; Iuchi, A; Ogawa, S; Kageji, Y; Hayashi, M; Yoshimoto, K; Tanimoto, M; Oki, T

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the predisposing factors and the clinical significance of the musical aortic component of the second heart sound (musical S2), 18 patients with musical S2 (musical group) among the consecutive 2,000 patients with phonocardiographic examination were noninvasively studied by analyzing underlying diseases, phonocardiographic findings, organic changes of the aortic valve, severity of aortic regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. Organic changes of the aortic valve were assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography, and aortic regurgitation was assessed by color Doppler flow imaging. Twenty-two normal subjects (normal group) and 17 patients with essential hypertension (hypertensive group) served as controls. Mean ages were matched among the three groups. 1. Left ventricular dilatation (seven patients) and hypertension (six patients) were the dominant part of underlying disease in the musical group. 2. Musical S2 was classified in the following two types based on the phonocardiographic characteristics; musical vibrations followed immediately after the accentuated S2, and the S2 which was replaced by regular vibratory waves. 3. Frequency of the musical vibrations ranged from 120 to 200 Hz, and its duration ranged from 60 to 120 msec. Amplitude of the musical vibrations decreased by inhalation of amyl nitrite, but increased by infusion of methoxamine. In a case with mild rheumatic valve disease, methoxamine induced marked intensification of the amplitude and prolongation of the duration of the musical vibrations, finally giving a typical cooing murmur. 4. Echo intensity of the aortic valve tended to be higher in the musical group than in the other two groups. 5. Echocardiographically, aortic regurgitation appeared more frequently in the musical group (88%) than in the normal (36%) and hypertensive (41%) groups. Area of the aortic regurgitant signal was significantly larger in the musical group (4.1 +/- 1.4 cm2) than in the normal (1.2 +/- 0.8 cm2

  8. DO FOOT REFLEXOLOGY AND RELAXATION TRAINING DECREASE PREMENSTRUAL SYMPTOMS IN ADOLESCENT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome is a current condition characterized by troublesome symptoms as tension, irritability, depression, headache, anxiety and loss of self-control, so the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foot reflexology augmented with relaxation training on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent females. Methods: A sample of 50 volunteers, virgin females diagnosed as premenstrual syndrome was selected from the students of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Their age was ranged between 19 to 23 years with mean value of (21.53±2.27 yrs and BMI was ≤28 Kg/m² with mean value of (24.04±2.41 Kg/m².A detailed medical history was obtained to screen other pathological conditions that may affect the results. Females were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A consisted of 25 subjects who received foot reflexology in addition to relaxation training techniques twice a week for 8 weeks. Group (B consisted of 25 patients, who received relaxation training techniques only twice a week for 8 weeks. Assessment of all subjects in both groups was carried out before and after the treatment program through heart rate, respiratory rate in addition to plasma cortisol level and daily symptoms report chart. Results: Showed a statistical highly significant decrease (p<0.001 in heart rate, respiratory rate, plasma cortisol level as well as daily symptoms report score in group (A while there was a statistical significant decrease (p<0.05 in all variables in group (B. Conclusions: Adding foot reflexology to relaxation training had a great positive effect on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent females than relaxation training only.

  9. Meditation acutely improves psychomotor vigilance, and may decrease sleep need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passafiume Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of benefits from meditation have been claimed by those who practice various traditions, but few have been well tested in scientifically controlled studies. Among these claims are improved performance and decreased sleep need. Therefore, in these studies we assess whether meditation leads to an immediate performance improvement on a well validated psychomotor vigilance task (PVT, and second, whether longer bouts of meditation may alter sleep need. Methods The primary study assessed PVT reaction times before and after 40 minute periods of mediation, nap, or a control activity using a within subject cross-over design. This study utilized novice meditators who were current university students (n = 10. Novice meditators completed 40 minutes of meditation, nap, or control activities on six different days (two separate days for each condition, plus one night of total sleep deprivation on a different night, followed by 40 minutes of meditation. A second study examined sleep times in long term experienced meditators (n = 7 vs. non-meditators (n = 23. Experienced meditators and controls were age and sex matched and living in the Delhi region of India at the time of the study. Both groups continued their normal activities while monitoring their sleep and meditation times. Results Novice meditators were tested on the PVT before each activity, 10 minutes after each activity and one hour later. All ten novice meditators improved their PVT reaction times immediately following periods of meditation, and all but one got worse immediately following naps. Sleep deprivation produced a slower baseline reaction time (RT on the PVT that still improved significantly following a period of meditation. In experiments with long-term experienced meditators, sleep duration was measured using both sleep journals and actigraphy. Sleep duration in these subjects was lower than control non-meditators and general population norms, with no apparent

  10. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  11. Decrease in the traumatic symptoms observed in child survivors within three years of the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahide; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami caused tremendous damage and traumatized several people, including children. The aim of this study was to assess changes in traumatic symptoms 8, 20, and 30 months of the 2011 tsunami. The study comprised three groups. Copies of the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), a self-rating questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, were distributed to 12,524 children (8-month period), 12,193 children (20-month period), and 11,819 children (30-month period). An effective response of children 8 months, 20 months, and 30 month after the disaster was obtained in 11,639 (92.9%), 10,597 (86.9%), and 10,812 children (91.4%), respectively. We calculated the total score, PTSD subscale, and Depression subscale of PTSSC-15. We calculated the total score, PTSD subscale, and Depression subscale of PTSSC-15. The PTSSC-15 total score and PTSD subscale of children belonging to 1st-9th grade groups who were tested 30 and 20 months after the tsunami significantly decreased compared with those of children tested 8 months after the tsunami. The PTSSC-15 total score and PTSD subscale of children in 1st-9th grade groups tested after 30 months did not decrease significantly compared with those of children tested after 20 months. The PTSSC-15 Depression subscale and PTSD subscale of children in 1st-9th grade groups tested after 30 months significantly decreased compared with those of children tested 8 months after the tsunami. The PTSSC-15 Depression subscale of children in 1st-9th grade groups evaluated after 30 months significantly decreased compared with those of children evaluated after 20 months. This study demonstrates that the traumatic symptoms of children who survived the massive tsunami improved with time. Nonetheless, the traumatic symptoms, which in some cases did not improve with time.

  12. Muscle quality, but not muscle thickness, is decreased in different age groups of active older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bouillod

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the Suunto Memory Belt (SMB heart rate (HR recorder compared with that of a standard electrocardiogram system (ECG and compared the heart rate variability (HRV analyses conducted with each dataset. Heart rate was simultaneously recorded using ECG and SMB in fifteen participants [mean (SD age 27.3 (13.9 years, height 177.4 (10.2 cm and body mass 66.8 (15.3 kg] during an orthostatic tilt test. The two datasets were analysed to compare the number and type of R-R interval artefacts and indices from HRV (RMSSD, pNN50, HF, LF, SD1, and SD2. For artefact detection, 16,742 R-R intervals were analysed during all recordings. Only 18 artefacts, 9 type 1 (long R-R interval and 9 type 2 (short R-R interval, were identified with the SMB. Bland-Altman analysis indicated excellent accuracy for the SMB, with limits of agreement of -2.00 and +1.94 ms. Further, the reference and SMB systems were strongly correlated. The similarity between each device indicated that the SMB could reliably record R-R intervals.

  13. Condom Carnival: Feasibility of a Novel Group Intervention for Decreasing Sexual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mollie B.; Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Thurston, Idia B.

    2017-01-01

    Young people who engage in unprotected sex are at risk of negative consequences. The current study explored pre-post assessment data from 124, mostly Black, young people (M age = 19.6, SD = 2.8) attending an educational and vocational training programme who participated in the Condom Carnival, a novel, brief, interactive, peer-led, culturally…

  14. Neurotrophins expression is decreased in lungs of human infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hanlon LD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lynn D O'Hanlon, Sherry M Mabry, Ikechukwu I EkekezieChildren's Mercy Hospitals/University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USAObjectives: To evaluate neurotrophin (NT (nerve growth factor [NGF], NT-3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] expression in autopsy lung tissues of human congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH infants versus that of infants that expired with: 1 "normal" lungs (controls; 2 chronic lung disease (CLD; and 3 pulmonary hypertension (PPHN.Hypothesis: NT expression will be significantly altered in CDH lung tissue compared with normal lung tissue and other neonatal lung diseases.Study design: Immunohistochemical studies for NT proteins NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 were applied to human autopsy neonatal lung tissue samples.Subject selection: The samples included a control group of 18 samples ranging from 23-week gestational age to term, a CDH group of 15 samples, a PPHN group of six samples, and a CLD group of 12 samples.Methodology: The tissue samples were studied, and four representative slide fields of alveoli/saccules and four of bronchioles were recorded from each sample. These slide fields were then graded (from 0 to 3 by three blinded observers for intensity of staining.Results: BDNF, NGF, and NT-3 immunostaining intensity scores were significantly decreased in the CDH lung tissue (n=15 compared with normal neonatal lung tissue (n=18 (P<0.001. The other neonatal pulmonary diseases that were studied, CLD and PPHN, were much less likely to be affected and were much more variable in their neurotrophin expression.Conclusion: NT expression is decreased in CDH lungs. The decreased expression of NT in CDH lung tissue may suggest they contribute to the abnormality in this condition.Keywords: nerve growth factor, NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, neurotrophin-3, NT-3, chronic lung disease, persistent pulmonary hypertension, lung

  15. Icodextrin decreases technique failure and improves patient survival in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Kuan; Li, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liang, Chih-Chia; Liu, Yao-Lung; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2015-03-01

    It remains unclear whether long-term daily icodextrin use can decrease technique failure and improve survival in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether icodextrin use, once daily, can decrease technique failure and prolong patient survival in incident PD patients. Incident PD patients who survived more than 90 days were recruited from the China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011. All patients were followed until transfer to haemodialysis (HD), renal transplantation, transfer to another centre, death, or 31 December 2011. A total of 306 incident PD patients (89 icodextrin users, 217 icodextrin non-users) were recruited during the study period. Icodextrin users were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes and high or high-average peritoneal transport compared with non-users. During the follow-up period, 43 patients were transferred to HD: seven (7.87%) of the icodextrin group, and 36 (16.59%) of the non-icodextrin group. Thirty-two patients died during the follow-up period: five (5.62%) of the icodextrin group, and 27 (12.44%) of the non-icodextrin group. Icodextrin use was significantly associated with a better prognosis, in terms of technique failure (adjusted HR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.14-0.72). With regard to patient survival, icodextrin use (adjusted HR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.12-0.87) was associated with a significantly lower risk of death. The use of icodextrin once daily may decrease technique failure and improve survival in incident PD patients. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.;

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physi......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response...

  17. Decreasing activated sludge thermal hydrolysis temperature reduces product colour, without decreasing degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jason; Starrenburg, Daniel; Tait, Stephan; Barr, Keith; Batstone, Damien J; Lant, Paul

    2008-11-01

    Activated sludges are becoming more difficult to degrade in anaerobic digesters, due to the implementation of stricter nitrogen limits, longer sludge ages, and removal of primary sedimentation units. Thermal hydrolysis is a popular method to enhance degradability of long-age activated sludge, and involves pressure and heat treatment of the process fluid (150-160 degrees C saturated steam). However, as documented in this study, in a full-scale system, the use of thermal hydrolysis produces coloured, recalcitrant compounds that can have downstream impacts (e.g., failure of UV disinfection, and increased effluent nitrogen). The coloured compound formed during thermal hydrolysis was found to be melanoidins. These are coloured recalcitrant compounds produced by polymerisation of low molecular weight intermediates, such as carbohydrates and amino compounds at elevated temperature (Maillard reaction). By decreasing the THP operating temperature from 165 degrees C to 140 degrees C, THP effluent colour decreased from 12,677 mg-PtCo L(-1) to 3837 mg-PtCo L(-1). The change in THP operating temperature from 165 degrees C to 140 degrees C was shown to have no significant impact on anaerobic biodegradability of the sludge. The rate and extent of COD biodegradation remained largely unaffected by the temperature change with an average first order hydrolysis rate of 0.19 d(-1) and conversion extent of 0.43 g-COD(CH4)g-COD(-1).

  18. Glycine treatment decreases proinflammatory cytokines and increases interferon-gamma in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; Maldonado-Bernal, C; Mondragón-Gonzalez, R; Sanchez-Barrera, R; Wacher, N H; Carvajal-Sandoval, G; Kumate, J

    2008-08-01

    Amino acids have been shown to stimulate insulin secretion and decrease glycated hemoglobin (A1C) in patients with Type 2 diabetes. In vitro, glycine reduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion and increases interleukin-10 secretion in human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to determine whether glycine modifies the proinflammatory profiles of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seventy-four patients, with Type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 58.5 yr, average age of diagnosis was 5 yr, the mean body mass index was 28.5 kg/m2, the mean fasting glucose level was 175.5 mg/dl and the mean A1C level was 8%. They were allocated to one of two treatments, 5 g/d glycine or 5 g/d placebo, po tid, for 3 months. A1C levels of patients given glycine were significantly lower after 3 months of treatment than those of the placebo group. A significant reduction in TNF-receptor I levels was observed in patients given glycine compared with placebo. There was a decrease of 38% in the interferon (IFN)-gamma level of the group treated with placebo, whereas that of the group treated with glycine increased up to 43%. These data showed that patients treated with glycine had a significant decrease in A1C and in proinflammatory cytokines and also an important increase of IFN-gamma. Treatment with glycine is likely to have a beneficial effect on innate and adaptive immune responses and may help prevent tissue damage caused by chronic inflammation in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  19. Small intestinal bacteria overgrowth decreases small intestinal motility in the NASH rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Chun Wu; Wei Zhao; Sheng Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relationship between small intestinal motility and small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) in Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and to investigate the effect of SIBO on the pathogenesis of NASH in rats. The effect of cidomycin in alleviating severity of NASH is also studied.METHODS: Forty eight rats were randomly divided into NASH group (n = 16), cidomycin group (n = 16)and control group (n = 16). Then each group were subdivided into small intestinal motility group (n = 8),bacteria group (n = 8) respectively. A semi-solid colored marker was used for monitoring small intestinal transit.The proximal small intestine was harvested under sterile condition and processed for quantitation for aerobes (E. coli) and anaerobes (Lactobacilli). Liver pathologic score was calculated to qualify the severity of hepatitis.Serum ALT, AST levels were detected to evaluate the severity of hepatitis.RESULTS: Small intestinal transit was inhibited in NASH group (P < 0.01). Rats treated with cidomycin had higher small intestine transit rate than rats in NASH group (P < 0.01). High fat diet resulted in quantitative alterations in the aerobes (E. coli) but not in the anoerobics (Lactobacill). There was an increase in the number of E. coli in the proximal small intestinal flora in NASH group than in control group (1.70 ± 0.12 log10 (CFU/g) vs 1.28 ± 0.07 log10 (CFU/g), P < 0.01). TNF-a concentration was significantly higher in NASH group than in control group (1.13±0.15 mmol/L vs 0.57±0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01). TNF-α concentration was lower in cidomycin group than in NASH group (0.63±0.09 mmol/L vs 1.13 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P < 0.01). Treatment with cidomycin showed its effect by significantly lowering serum ALT, AST and TNF-α levels of NASH rats.CONCLUSION: SIBO may decrease small intestinal movement in NASH rats. SIBO may be an important pathogenesis of Nash. And treatment with cidomycin by mouth can alleviate the severity of NASH.

  20. A cognitive intervention to enhance institutionalized older adults' social support networks and decrease loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winningham, R G; Pike, N L

    2007-11-01

    Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.

  1. Longer Breastfeeding in Infancy Decreases Systolic Hypertension Risk in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Karolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that breastfeeding is associated with numerous direct and indirect health benefits for children in later life, although the relationship between breastfeeding and cardiovascular risk is still equivocal. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and cardiovascular risk in young adults. The cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 128 volunteers (71 women and 57 men at the age of 19 years. It consisted of a questionnaire, together with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. It was demonstrated that 90.3% of the participants had been breastfed and the mean duration of breastfeeding was 8.8±7.6 months. Participants who were breastfed for longer than six months had a significantly lower systolic blood pressure than those breastfed for less than six months. Results of analyses were consistent for the female group, the male group and the combined group. The results suggest that breastfeeding for longer than six months decreases systolic hypertension risk in young adults. The promotion of breastfeeding may decrease the rate of cardiovascular disease and thus improve health status of the population.

  2. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  3. The Forbush decrease of November 17, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The Forbush decrease of November 17, 1966, takes place in two steps, a predecrease is followed by the main decrease. SSCs are observed on both occasions. The decrease is modest, short-lived, and is preceded and followed by an exceptionally steady level of the cosmic ray intensity. Preliminary results from a phenomenological study are presented. The observed changes in the cosmic ray intensity are correlated with interplanetary magnetic field direction at the onset of the predecrease and during part of the recovery phase. A simple explanation is given for the fact that the predecrease is not observed at the stations in the European-zone. It appears that a preferential recovery takes place from some directions in space, during the recovery phase of the Forbush decrease. Off-ecliptic scattering of lower energy cosmic rays is probably responsible for this. The same phenomena is probably also responsible for the difference between the amplitudes of the predecrease observed at different stations.

  4. Greater than predicted decrease in resting energy expenditure with age: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo-González, G; Doucet, E; Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the age-related decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) is explained by variations in body composition. In Study 1, adult subjects (20-70 years) from the Quebec Family Study were classified into five different age groups. Body composition was measured by hydrodensitometry to determine fat mass and fat-free mass as predictors of REE. In the youngest group of individuals these predictors were used to plot a reference regression that was then used to predict REE in the other age groups. In Study 2, this issue was investigated in a longitudinal design (6-year follow-up). Subjects were subdivided into three groups and a reference regression was plotted at the beginning of the follow-up and was then used to predict REE 6 years later in the three age groups. In Study 1, 627 adults (288 men and 339 women), aged between 20 and 70 years. In Study 2, 191 adults (93 men and 98 women). In Study 1, measured REE was 329, 302, 528 and 636 kJ/day (P < 0.0001) below predicted REE at 34, 44, 54 and 64 years, respectively. In Study 2 the most marked deviation from predicted REE in response to the 6-year follow-up in men was observed in young adults (-548 kJ/day, P < 0.001) while in women, the largest deviation occurred later in life (-720 kj/day, P < 0.001). Aging is accompanied by a decrease in REE that is significantly greater than what is predicted by variations in body composition. This decrease may reach a mean level of about 500-800 kj/day.

  5. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seuront

    Full Text Available The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1% impacts (i the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  6. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  7. Analytic and Systemic Specialized Incest Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Henriette Kiilsholm; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    PURPOSE: Women with long-term sequalae of child sexual abuse (CSA) were randomly assigned to analytic (Group A) or systemic group psychotherapy (Group S). Pre-post-analysis indicated that both therapies led to significant improvement, but overall Group S had significantly better outcome than Group...... and the four time points as repeated measures. Intention to treat analysis demonstrated that improvement were significant on all measures (P treated with Group A or Group S treatment...

  8. Fluoxetine causes decrease in intestinal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Afzal

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study has indicated that fluoxetine on isolated ileal intestinal smooth muscle decrease the motility and this decrease in motility is possibly due to the inability of fluoxetine in vitro to enhance the serotonergic transmission and also because of the interaction of these agents with some of the other receptors, present in the intestinal smooth muscles. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 265-268

  9. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  10. Phytoliths indicate significant arboreal cover at Sahelanthropus type locality TM266 in northern Chad and a decrease in later sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Alice; Barboni, Doris; Sylvestre, Florence; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Paillès, Christine; Bourlès, Didier L; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed phytolith and diatom remains preserved at 45 Miocene and Pliocene localities dated between 8 and 1 Ma in northern Chad (16-17°N). Some of these localities yielded cranial remains, lower jaws, and teeth of the hominin species Australopithecus bahrelghazali (∼3.6 Ma) and Sahelanthropus tchadensis (∼7 Ma). Of the 111 sediment samples analyzed, 41 yielded phytoliths, 20 yielded diatoms, and seven yielded both phytoliths and diatoms. Freshwater planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatom species, indicative of lacustrine conditions, are dominant (>91%) in the samples. The phytolith assemblages indicate an opening of the vegetation and a general trend toward an expansion of grass-dominated environments during the time spanning the two hominin occurrences in Chad. The phytoliths suggest the presence of a mosaic environment, including closed forest patches, palm groves, and mixed/grassland formations, between 7.5 and 7 Ma, the replacement by palm grove-like vegetation at approximately 6.5-5 Ma, and the presence of exclusive grass-dominated formations after 4.5 Ma. The type-locality of S. tchadensis (TM266) was likely similar to modern palm grove formations with an arboreal cover percentage ≥40%. The type locality of A. bahrelghazali (KT12) was a grass-dominated ecosystem (likely savanna) with an unrated percentage of arboreal cover. Furthermore, the grass phytolith data support the existence of a (recurrent) Sahelian-like dry climate in northern Chad since at least 8 Ma. Therefore the local closed vegetation formations in the Djurab region at 7.5-7 Ma were sustained by aquatic systems (such as lakes or related rivers, marshes) rather than by extensive annual precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangxu Zou; Hui Zhang; Jie Zuo; Penghe Wang; Dehua Zhao; Shuqing An

    2016-01-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5??C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which ha...

  12. Low Resolution Limits and Inaccurate Algorithms Decrease Significantly the Value of Late Loss in Current Drug-Eluting Stent Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes B. Dahm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative coronary and vascular angiography (QCA resp., QVA remains the current gold standard for evaluation of restenosis. Late loss as one of the most commonly accepted parameters to highlight efficacy of the various devices has shown high correlation to clinical parameters but, surprisingly, has no impact on the evaluation of the remaining amount of restenostic tissue. The current clinical practice leads to unrealistic late loss calculations. Smaller late loss differences are usually not greater than the inherited resolution limits of QCA, which is especially the case in small differences between the various stents in the drug-eluting stent era. Late loss include additional systematic and random errors, due to the fact that measurements were taken at two different time points including the inherited resolution and calibration limits of QCA on two occasions. Due to the limited value of late loss in discriminating the small differences between the one and other DES, late lumen area loss and clearly defined calculation algorithms (e.g., MLD-relocation should be used in future DES studies also to fulfill the more stringent regulatory requirements.

  13. The Decreasing Age at Menarche in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, M Luisa; Catillo-López, Rosa Lilia; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica; Callejo, Diana Del

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the current age at menarche in 2 urban areas from Mexico and to analyze secular trends in the age at menarche in Mexico City. Cross-sectional survey and secondary data analyses. (1) Samples of female students from Mexico City and from the city of Xalapa; and (2) national health surveys. (1) Pre- and postmenarcheal students, aged 8-17 years; and (2) data for women born between 1904 and 1999 who grew up in Mexico City were obtained from 3 relevant national health surveys. (1) Students were asked if they had had their first period and when it occurred; (2) information on year of birth and age at menarche for the remaining women was obtained from the national surveys; data were divided in groups according to the decade in which the women were born. (1) The estimated mean age at menarche was 11.40 and 11.34 years in Mexico City and Xalapa respectively. (2) There were significant differences in age at menarche among women who were born in the different decades analyzed. Women who were born in the 1990s or later reported an earlier age at menarche than those who were born from the 1940s to 1980s (P < .0001). These results could be helpful to health and education professionals who should take into account that because there is currently a widening gap between the physical and psychosocial maturity of girls, they might need special support. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  15. Traditional chinese medicine Xuebijing treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days plus conventional therapy (XBJ group. Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02 compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001 compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all P<0.05, but these values were significant improved in the XBJ group (all P<0.05. Only one patient had skin rash with itch within 30 minutes after injection and no severe adverse events were found in the XBJ group. In conclusion, XBJ treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events.

  16. Evaluation of postoperative cardiac function in severe ischemic heart disease associated with decreased ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuaki, Masafumi; Itoh, Tsuyoshi; Norita, Hiroaki; Naitoh, Kouzou; Suda, Hisao [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    This clinical study was performed to clarify the postoperative cardiac functions after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the cases associated with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) or increased end-diastolic volume index (EDVI). The patients were divided into two groups by preoperative EF. The EF of Group I ranged from 31 to 39% in 42 cases, and the EF of Group II was below 30% in 27 cases. Several parameters of cardiac function such as EF, peak ejection rate (PER), peak filling rate (PFR) or early diastolic peak filling rate were evaluated with radionuclide ventriculography. Postoperative mean values of these parameters significantly improved in both Group I and Group II compared to preoperative values. Although these parameters and left ventricular wall motion did not improve in the 7 cases with an EDVI over 140 ml/m{sup 2} in Group II, the clinical results of these 7 cases were good during the follow-up period except one case which preoperatively had frequent ventricular arrythmia. The clinical condition improved remarkably in the 3 patients who had preoperative angina pectoris among these 7 cases. Surgical indications must be carefully determined in cases with increased EDVI and frequent ventricular arrythmia. (author)

  17. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpu Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10 and normal control group (n = 10. HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8 was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  18. Effect of antiemetic drugs on decrease in gastric emptying in experimental model of motion sickness in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YKGUPTA; GeetaCHAUDHARY

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of pretreatment with different antiemetic drugs on the motion sickness-induced inhibition in gastric emptying.METHODS:The rats were rotated for a period of 45 min at the rate of 30 rotations per min.RESULTS:Rotating the rats caused a significant decrease in gastric emptying as cvompared to the non-rotated group.Pretreatment with scopolamine(5 mg/kg,ip)did not reverse the delay in gastric emptying,while it per se caused inhibition of gastric emptying in the non-rotated group.Similarly other drugs mepyramine,cisapride,and granisetron did not have any effect on delay in gastric emptying caused by rotation.However beta blocker propranolol could partially but significantly reverse the decrease in gastric emptying.CONCLUSION:The present study demonstrated the potential use of propranolol as adjuvant with conventional antiemetics for motion sickness to combat associated secondary symptoms.

  19. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury.

  20. Response of microbial communities to experimental warming and precipitation decrease in Rzecin peatland (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basińska, Anna M.; Gąbka, Maciej; Reczuga, Monika; Łuców, Dominika; Stróżecki, Marcin; Samson, Mateusz; Józefczyk, Damian; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz; Gilbert, Daniel; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Juszczak, Radosław; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade researchers are intensively testing the consequences of different climate change scenarios. Due to high biodiversity, huge amount of stored carbon and their sensitivity to environmental changes, peatlands became important for the temperature increase and drought experiments. Analyses showed that mosses, vascular plants and microbial communities were affected by warming or drought, but still not all effects are clear. Studying the response of microbial groups and indicators (e.g. mixotrophic species of testate amoeba) to warming in combination with decrease of precipitation will allow to better understand the future environmental changes. To recognize the inflow of organic matter and the carbon fixing processes in disturbed environment, we need to analyse the structure and biomass of main groups living in peatlands and the response of those groups to disturbances. The Polish - Norway "WETMAN" project was designed to recognize biotic and abiotic components of ecosystem response to active warming and decrease of precipitation. In this study we present the response of microbial communities and chosen testate amoeba species (TA) to different treatments: warming, warming and decreased precipitation and only decreased precipitation, in relation to control plots. The microbial biomass of upper and lower Sphagnum segments were analysed separately. Particular microbial groups were positively correlated with manipulations e. g. microalgae and rotifers, and other were negatively affected by combination of drought and warming e.g. cyanobacteria and testate amoeba. The structure of community was modified by manipulations, and differed in the case of upper and lower segment of Sphagnum. RDA analyses showed that different factors were crucial for the biomass of microbial groups in upper (conductivity, temperature and phosphorus) and lower (nitrates and sodium) segment. Considering higher taxonomic resolution we found that at the beginning of the experiment TA

  1. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  2. Decreased vitamin B12 and folic Acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Hilal; Bulur, I; Gürer, Ma

    2014-11-01

    Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002), but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566). A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B12 and folic acid levels (P Vitamin B12/folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  3. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mutay, E-mail: mutayaslan@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Basaranlar, Goksun [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Unal, Mustafa [Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Ciftcioglu, Akif [Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Derin, Narin [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Mutus, Bulent [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  4. Standard filtration practices may significantly distort planktonic microbial diversity estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Cruz Padilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of biomass by filtration is a standard method for sampling planktonic microbes. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition of filtered biomass changes depending on sample volume. Using seawater from a marine oxygen minimum zone, we quantified the 16S rRNA gene composition of biomass on a prefilter (1.6 μm pore-size and a downstream 0.2 μm filter over sample volumes from 0.05 to 5 L. Significant community shifts occurred in both filter fractions, and were most dramatic in the prefilter community. Sequences matching Vibrionales decreased from ~40-60% of prefilter datasets at low volumes (0.05-0.5 L to less than 5% at higher volumes, while groups such at the Chromatiales and Thiohalorhabdales followed opposite trends, increasing from minor representation to become the dominant taxa at higher volumes. Groups often associated with marine particles, including members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes, were among those showing the greatest increase with volume (4 to 27-fold. Taxon richness (97% similarity clusters also varied significantly with volume, and in opposing directions depending on filter fraction, highlighting potential biases in community complexity estimates. These data raise concerns for studies using filter fractionation for quantitative comparisons of aquatic microbial diversity, for example between free-living and particle-associated communities.

  5. Standard filtration practices may significantly distort planktonic microbial diversity estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cory C; Ganesh, Sangita; Gantt, Shelby; Huhman, Alex; Parris, Darren J; Sarode, Neha; Stewart, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Fractionation of biomass by filtration is a standard method for sampling planktonic microbes. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition of filtered biomass changes depending on sample volume. Using seawater from a marine oxygen minimum zone, we quantified the 16S rRNA gene composition of biomass on a prefilter (1.6 μm pore-size) and a downstream 0.2 μm filter over sample volumes from 0.05 to 5 L. Significant community shifts occurred in both filter fractions, and were most dramatic in the prefilter community. Sequences matching Vibrionales decreased from ~40 to 60% of prefilter datasets at low volumes (0.05-0.5 L) to less than 5% at higher volumes, while groups such at the Chromatiales and Thiohalorhabdales followed opposite trends, increasing from minor representation to become the dominant taxa at higher volumes. Groups often associated with marine particles, including members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Bacteroidetes, were among those showing the greatest increase with volume (4 to 27-fold). Taxon richness (97% similarity clusters) also varied significantly with volume, and in opposing directions depending on filter fraction, highlighting potential biases in community complexity estimates. These data raise concerns for studies using filter fractionation for quantitative comparisons of aquatic microbial diversity, for example between free-living and particle-associated communities.

  6. Circumcision for the prevention of significant bacteriuria in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayir, A

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether circumcision affects significant bacteriuria in boys. During a 60-month prospective study, 100 boys with microbiologically confirmed symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) were evaluated. Twelve patients with abnormal ultrasonography findings were excluded from the study. Eighteen of the boys had not been circumcised due to parental choice. The remaining 70 boys with normal renal ultrasonography were randomly allocated into two groups. In the first group 35 boys ranging in age from 6 months to 10 years (mean 33.2+/-30.9 months) were observed for 6 months and urinary cultures were taken monthly. When they had a positive urine culture (with or without any symptoms), they received antibiotic treatment. After 6 months they were circumcised and then observed for another 6-month period. Group 2 comprised 35 boys aged from 3 months to 9 years (mean 29.1+/-36.7 months). They were circumcised immediately after the first UTI and were followed for 6 months. Urine samples were obtained by the bag technique in infants and by the mid-stream technique in older patients. In the uncircumcised group, the rate of significant bacteriuria per patient did not change in two 6-month follow-up periods (3.46+/-0.91 and 3.33+/-0.97 episodes). In group 1, the rate of positive urine cultures dropped from 3.57+/-1.11 to 0.14+/-0.35 episodes after circumcision (Pcircumcision. Among the uncircumcised patients, symptomatic UTI was observed in 6 cases (3 cases in the first period of group 1, 1 case in the first and 2 cases in the second period of the uncircumcised group), whereas after circumcision no patient had symptomatic UTI. The mean age at circumcision was 42.7+/-28.4 months. No complication due to circumcision occurred in any patient. UTI may also occur in boys after the 1st year of life. The present study indicated that circumcision in boys decreases the rate of positive urine cultures. Therefore circumcision could be considered as a part of

  7. Decrease in coccolithophore calcification and CO2 since the middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Clara T.; Hernández-Sánchez, María T.; Fuertes, Miguel-Ángel; González-Lemos, Saúl; Abrevaya, Lorena; Mendez-Vicente, Ana; Flores, José-Abel; Probert, Ian; Giosan, Liviu; Johnson, Joel; Stoll, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine algae are instrumental in carbon cycling and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation. One group, coccolithophores, uses carbon to photosynthesize and to calcify, covering their cells with chalk platelets (coccoliths). How ocean acidification influences coccolithophore calcification is strongly debated, and the effects of carbonate chemistry changes in the geological past are poorly understood. This paper relates degree of coccolith calcification to cellular calcification, and presents the first records of size-normalized coccolith thickness spanning the last 14 Myr from tropical oceans. Degree of calcification was highest in the low-pH, high-CO2 Miocene ocean, but decreased significantly between 6 and 4 Myr ago. Based on this and concurrent trends in a new alkenone εp record, we propose that decreasing CO2 partly drove the observed trend via reduced cellular bicarbonate allocation to calcification. This trend reversed in the late Pleistocene despite low CO2, suggesting an additional regulator of calcification such as alkalinity.

  8. Levonorgestrel decreases cilia beat frequency of human fallopian tubes and rat oviducts without changing morphological structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Zhu, Qian; Yan, Mingxing; Li, Cheng; Yuan, Jiangjing; Qin, Guojuan; Zhang, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Levonorgestrel, a derivative of progesterone, effectively protects women against unwanted pregnancy as an emergency contraceptive. Previous studies have not been successful in determining the mechanism by which levonorgestrel acts. In the present study we analysed cilia beat action and cilia morphology following levonorgestrel exposure in vitro and in vivo using both light and electron microscopy. There was a significant decrease in the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of human fallopian tubes between mucosal explants bathed in 5 μmol/L levonorgestrel and those bathed in medium alone (P levonorgestrel produced a similar reduction in CBF (~ 10%) compared with the saline control group (P levonorgestrel treatment in either system. Thus, levonorgestrel reduces CBF without damaging cilia morphology. Decreases in CBF may indicate a pathological role for levonorgestrel in the transportation of the ovum and zygote in the fallopian tube.

  9. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no lon

  10. Gadolinium decreases inflammation related to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolosi Alfred C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lanthanide cation, gadolinium (GdCl3 protects the myocardium against infarction following ischemia and reperfusion. Neutrophils and macrophages are the main leukocytes responsible for infarct expansion after reperfusion. GdCl3 interferes with macrophage and neutrophil function in the liver by decreasing macrophage secretion of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration. We hypothesized that GdCl3 protects against ischemia and reperfusion injury by decreasing inflammation. We determined the impact of GdCl3 treatment for reperfusion injury on 1 circulating monoctye and neutrophil counts, 2 secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and 3 influx of monocytes and neutrophils into the myocardium. Methods Rats (n = 3-6/gp were treated with saline or GdCl3 (20 μmol/kg 15 min prior to a 30 min period of regional ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Sham rats were not subject to ischemia. Blood was collected either after 30 min ischemia or 120 min reperfusion and hearts were harvested at 120 min reperfusion for tissue analysis. Blood was analyzed for leukocytes counts and cytokines. Tissue was analyzed for cytokines and markers of neutrophil and monocyte infiltration by measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO and α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE. Results GdCl3 did not affect the number of circulating neutrophils prior to ischemia. Two hours reperfusion resulted in a 2- and 3- fold increase in circulating monocytes and neutrophils, respectively. GdCl3 decreased the number of circulating monocytes and neutrophils during reperfusion to levels below those present prior to ischemia. Furthermore, after 120 min of reperfusion, GdCl3 decreased ANAE and MPO activity in the myocardium by 1.9-fold and 6.5-fold respectively. GdCl3 decreased MPO activity to levels below those measured in the Sham group. Serum levels of the major neutrophil chemoattractant cytokine, IL-8 were increased from pre-ischemic levels during ischemia and reperfusion in both

  11. The Inhibitory Effect of Camellia sinensis Extract on Decreasing Inductive Teratogenicity of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field in Liver and Spleen of Balb/C Rat Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have an emphasis on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS formation by electromagnetic field. Camellia sinensis is enriched with antioxidants and the antioxidants can neutralize the effects of ROS. In this study, the effect of Camellia sinensis extract on decreasing the inductive teratogenicity of the electromagnetic field (frequency 50Hz and intensity 50G in liver and spleen of Balb/C embryonic rat is examined. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four heads of pregnant female rat (Balb/C were divided into four groups: control group, experimental test group (off-device, empirical group1 (electromagnetic field 50 Gauss, empirical group2 (treated using Camellia sinensis extract + electromagnetic field 50 Gauss, in this empirical-experimental study. Then, liver and spleen tissue cross sections of 19-day embryos were prepared for histological assessments after weight and Crown-Rump length were measured. Resulting quantitative data was analyzed using ANOVA statistical tests and Tukey test with the significance level (p<0.05.Results: In examination of tissue sections, mean lymphocyte number of spleen in empirical group 1 showed a significant difference (p=0.001 comparing to the experimental control group, whereas mean lymphocyte number of spleen in empirical group 1 showed a significant difference (p=0.001 comparing to empirical group 2. Mean number of liver hepatocytes empirical samples 2 showed a significant decrease (p=0.004 comparing to the experimental control group, and mean number of liver hepatocytes empirical samples 2 showed a significant decrease (p=0.042 comparing to empirical samples 1. Conclusion: Consumption of Camellia sinensis could compensate for the inductive impairments in many cells electromagnetic fields, but it is not recommended in pregnancy period cause of changing the number of some cells.

  12. Internal communication in corporate groups

    OpenAIRE

    Grzesik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to internal communication in corporate groups. It discusses internal communication systems operating in the explored corporate groups and their significance for effective human resources management in those organisations. The chapter presents both the theoretical analysis based on the results of literature studies, and empirical research carried out in the explored groups. Narodowe Centrum Nauki Katarzyna Grzesik

  13. ELF alternating magnetic field decreases reproduction by DNA damage induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Karabarbounis, Andreas; Lioliousis, Constantinos

    2013-11-01

    In the present experiments, the effect of 50-Hz alternating magnetic field on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction was studied. Newly eclosed insects were separated into identical groups of ten males and ten females and exposed to three different intensities of the ELF magnetic field (1, 11, and 21 G) continuously during the first 5 days of their adult lives. The reproductive capacity was assessed by the number of F1 pupae according to a well-defined protocol of ours. The magnetic field was found to decrease reproduction by up to 4.3%. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The decline in reproductive capacity was found to be due to severe DNA damage (DNA fragmentation) and consequent cell death induction in the reproductive cells as determined by the TUNEL assay applied during early and mid-oogenesis (from germarium to stage 10) where physiological apoptosis does not occur. The increase in DNA damage was more significant than the corresponding decrease in reproductive capacity (up to ~7.5%). The TUNEL-positive signal denoting DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages of oogenesis: the early and mid-oogenesis checkpoints (i.e. region 2a/2b of the germarium and stages 7-8 just before the onset of vitellogenesis)-in contrast to exposure to microwave radiation of earlier work of ours in which the DNA fragmentation was induced at all developmental stages of early and mid-oogenesis. Moreover, the TUNEL-positive signal was observed in all three types of egg chamber cells, mainly in the nurse and follicle cells and also in the oocyte, in agreement with the microwave exposure of our earlier works. According to previous reports, cell death induction in the oocyte was observed only in the case of microwave exposure and not after exposure to other stress factors as toxic chemicals or food deprivation. Now it is also observed for the first time after ELF magnetic field exposure. Finally, in contrast to microwave

  14. [Serum Protein Expression Level in 47 Patients with Megaloblastic Anemia and Its Clinical Significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yong

    2016-08-01

    To study the clinical significance of serum protein expression level in patients with megaloblastic anemia(MA). A total of 47 patients with MA were enrolled in this study between November 2013 and November 2015, and 50 healthy people in the same period were selected as controls. The levels of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), ferritin (FER), transferrin (TRF) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were compared between 2 groups, and the serum protein expression levels in different types of MA, varous anemia degrees of MA were analyzed. The leves of TP, Alb and FER in MA patients were significantly lower than those in control group, the levels of TRF and sTfR were statistically significantly higher than those in control group(Panemia were significantly higher than those in the patients with moderate and severe anemia, the levels of TRF and sTfR were statistically significantly lower(Panemia were significantly higher than those in the patients with severe anemia, the levels of TRF and sTfR were significantly lower(P<0.05). Compared with levels before treatment, the levels of TP, Alb and FER significantly increased after treatment, while the TRF and sTfR levels significantly decreased (P<0.05). Serum levels of TP, Alb, FER, TRF and sTfR can provide a basis for the diagnosis of MA, and contribute to predict the disease to some extent.

  15. Tolerance of intraoperative hemoglobin decrease during cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Esther; Rosseel, Peter; van der Bom, Johanna; Bentala, Mohamed; Brand, Anneke; van der Meer, Nardo; van de Watering, Leo

    2014-10-01

    It has been suggested that a decrease of at least 50% from the preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level during cardiac surgery is associated with adverse outcomes even if the absolute Hb level remains above the commonly used transfusion threshold of 7.0 g/dL. In this study the relation between intraoperative Hb decline of at least 50% and a composite endpoint was analyzed. This single-center study comprised 11,508 patients who underwent cardiac surgery and had normal preoperative Hb levels (12.0-16.0 g/dL in women, 13.0-18.0 g/dL in men) between January 2001 and December 2011. Logistic regression modeling was used. The composite endpoint comprised in-hospital mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, and renal failure. Patients whose Hb did not decrease at least 50% and remained above 7 g/dL were used as reference (n = 9672). A total of 363 (3.2%) patients had an intraoperative Hb of less than 7 g/dL during surgery but a Hb decrease of less than 50%; 876 patients (7.4%) showed both a nadir Hb less than 7 g/dL and a Hb decrease of at least 50%, while 597 (5.2%) had a Hb decrease of at least 50% and a nadir Hb of at least 7 g/dL. In this last group the incidence of the composite endpoint was higher than in patients in the reference group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.41). Our findings show that a decrease of at least 50% from baseline Hb during cardiac surgery is associated with adverse outcomes, even if the absolute Hb level remains higher than the commonly used transfusion threshold of 7.0 g/dL. © 2014 AABB.

  16. Decrease in the rate of secondary amyloidosis in Turkish children with FMF: are we doing better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse-Onal, Victoria; Sağ, Erdal; Ozen, Seza; Bakkaloglu, Aysin; Cakar, Nilgun; Besbas, Nesrin; Gucer, Safak

    2010-08-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autoinflammatory disease in the world. The most serious complication of FMF is the development of secondary amyloidosis. Besides genetic factors, environment has been implicated in the development of this complication. The main objective of this study is to analyze whether there has been a substantial decrease of secondary amyloidosis in Turkey and possible effective factors. For this purpose, clinical features of the patients diagnosed with secondary amyloidosis between the years 1978 and 1990 were compared with those diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. Severity scores were determined by the use of a scoring system modified for children. Median ages of the group diagnosed between 1978 and 1990 (n = 115; 12.1% among a total of 947 renal biopsies) and diagnosed after 2000 (n = 19; 2% among a total of 974 renal biopsies) were 12 and 13 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two patient groups according to gender, age, age of onset, disease duration, and disease severity. There was, however, a clear decrease in the percentage of biopsies with secondary amyloidosis from 12.1% (1978-1990) to 2% (after 2000; p < 0.001). Our results have shown that there has been a significant decrease in the rate of secondary amyloidosis in Turkey. The main reason for this decrease is better medical care with increased awareness and treatment of the disease. However, we suggest that the improvement of infectious milieu may possibly have had a positive effect on the course of this monogenic disease, since inflammatory pathways related to innate immunity are deregulated.

  17. Transplantation of ATP7B-transduced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells decreases copper overload in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that transplantation of ATP7B-transduced hepatocytes ameliorates disease progression in LEC (Long-Evans Cinnamon rats, a model of Wilson's disease (WD. However, the inability of transplanted cells to proliferate in a normal liver hampers long-term treatment. In the current study, we investigated whether transplantation of ATP7B-transduced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs could decrease copper overload in LEC rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The livers of LEC rats were preconditioned with radiation (RT and/or ischemia-reperfusion (IRP before portal vein infusion of ATP7B-transduced MSCs (MSCsATP7B. The volumes of MSCsATP7B or saline injected as controls were identical. The expression of ATP7B was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR at 4, 12 and 24 weeks post-transplantation. MSCATP7B repopulation, liver copper concentrations, serum ceruloplasmin levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST levels were also analyzed at each time-point post-transplantation. RESULTS: IRP-plus-RT preconditioning was the most effective strategy for enhancing the engraftment and repopulation of transplanted MSCsATP7B. This strategy resulted in higher ATP7B expression and serum ceruloplasmin, and lower copper concentration in this doubly preconditioned group compared with the saline control group, the IRP group, and the RT group at all three time-points post-transplantation (p<0.05 for all. Moreover, 24 weeks post-transplantation, the levels of ALT and AST in the IRP group, the RT group, and the IRP-plus-RT group were all significantly decreased compared to those of the saline group (p<0.05 compared with the IRP group and RT group, p<0.01 compared with IRP-plus-RT group; ALT and AST levels were significantly lower in the IRP-plus-RT group compared to either the IRP group or the RT group (p<0.01 and p<0.05. respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate

  18. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  19. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  20. Shock drift mechanism for Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Sarris, E. T.; Dodopoulos, C.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the way in which Forbush decreases can arise from variable drifts in nonuniform shocks, where the variation in shock strength along the shock front causes both the shock drift distance and the energy gain to become variable. More particles can then be transported out of a given region of space and energy interval than were transported in, so a spacecraft passing through this region can observe a Forbush decrease in this energy interval despite shock energization and compression. A simple example of how this can occur is presented.

  1. Dental Student Hand Hygiene Decreased With Increased Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaembut, Nanmanas; Ampornaramveth, Ruchanee S; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Subbalekha, Keskanya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness, related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene (HH) among dental students with different levels of clinical experience. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Bacterial samples on the participants' hands were obtained using a swab technique before and after handwashing, for oral surgical procedures. After culturing, the colony-forming units were counted. Self-reported questionnaires reflecting the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HH were completed by the participants. This study was performed in a primary oral health care institution, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok, Thailand). Bacterial samples and self-reported questionnaires were collected in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Bacterial culture was performed in the Department of Microbiology. The 120 participants comprised first, second, third-year clinical training students (CTs), and postgraduate dental students (PGs) (32, 34, 30, and 24 participants, respectively). More than 99% of the bacteria were eliminated from the participants' hands after handwashing. Significantly higher numbers of bacteria were recovered from the hands of the PGs compared with those of the CTs, and the hands of the third-year CTs compared with those of the first-year CTs (p < 0.001), after HH. The first-year CTs had the highest attitude scores, whereas the PGs had the lowest practice scores. The knowledge scores were similar in all groups. HH effectiveness, attitudes, and practices of dental students decreased as students gained more clinical experience, whereas knowledge did not. Our results suggest that HH instruction should be given throughout the duration of dental students' education. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreasing incidence of disseminated coccidioidomycosis among Piman and San Carlos Apache Indians. A probable environmental basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, M.L.; Fisher, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    Among Piman and San Carlos Apache Indians, the rates of disseminated disease and death from coccidioidomycosis have declined 67 percent (p less than 0.001) and 71 percent (p less than 0.01), respectively, between the first and second half of a 22-year observation period (1959-1980), despite a lack of significant change in the rate of primary infection (as determined by the coccidioidin skin test) between the two 11-year periods. The two tribal groups studied comprised 76 percent of the Indian population in the endemic area. More than 90 percent of Pimans and San Carlos Apaches have full Indian heritage, and almost all of them have been lifelong inhabitants of the endemic region. There is no evidence that genetic factors are responsible for the Indians' decrease in mortality and mortality from disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Improvements in housing and working conditions appear to have lessened the exposure to dust laden with C immitis, decreased the size of infecting inoculum, and, thereby, contributed to a decline in disseminated coccidiodomycosis among these native Americans, who have often been considered to have increased susceptibility to this fungal infection. Thus, the outcome of coccidioidal infection in American Indians seems to be largely determined by environmental influences. The possibility of decreasing disseminated disease rates by reducing the inhalation of arthroconidia also has important implications for other ethnic groups.

  3. Elderly with proximal hip fracture present significantly lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Teodoro Ezequiel Guerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels, a serum marker of vitamin D3, between patients with and without proximal hip fracture. METHODS: This was a case-control study in which serum samples of 25(OHD were obtained from 110 proximal hip fracture inpatients and 231 control patients without fractures, all over 60 years of age. Levels of 25(OHD lower than or equal to 20 ng/mL were considered deficient; from 21 ng/mL to 29 ng/mL, insufficient; and above 30 ng/mL, sufficient. Sex, age, and ethnicity were considered for association with the study groups and 25(OHD levels. RESULTS: Patients with proximal hip fracture had significantly lower serum 25(OHD levels (21.07 ng/mL than controls (28.59 ng/mL; p = 0.000. Among patients with proximal hip fracture, 54.5% had deficient 25(OHD levels, 27.2% had insufficient levels, and only 18.2% had sufficient levels. In the control group, 30.3% of patients had deficient 25(OHD levels, 30.7% had insufficient levels, and 38.9% had sufficient levels. Female patients had decreased serum 25(OHD levels both in the fracture group and in the control group (19.50 ng/mL vs. 26.94 ng/mL; p = 0.000 when compared with male patients with and without fracture (25.67 ng/mL vs. 33.74 ng/mL; p = 0.017. Regarding age, there was a significant association between 25(OHD levels and risk of fracture only for the age groups 71-75 years and above 80 years. CONCLUSION: Patients with proximal hip fracture had significantly decreased serum 25(OHD levels when compared with the control group. Female patients had significantly lower serum 25(OHD levels in both groups.

  4. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P levels were also decreased after quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  5. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  6. Temporal Decrease in Upper Atmospheric Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Salawitch, R. J.; Waters, J. W.; Drouin, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report a steady decrease in the upper stratospheric and lower mesospheric abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from August 2004 through January 2006, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. For 60(deg)S to 60(deg)N zonal means, the average yearly change in the 0.7 to 0.1 hPa (approx.50 to 65 km) region is -27 +/- 3 pptv/year, or -0.78 +/- 0.08 percent/year. This is consistent with surface abundance decrease rates (about 6 to 7 years earlier) in chlorine source gases. The MLS data confirm that international agreements to reduce global emissions of ozone-depleting industrial gases are leading to global decreases in the total gaseous chlorine burden. Tracking stratospheric HCl variations on a seasonal basis is now possible with MLS data. Inferred stratospheric total chlorine (CITOT) has a value of 3.60 ppbv at the beginning of 2006, with a (2-sigma) accuracy estimate of 7%; the stratospheric chlorine loading has decreased by about 43 pptv in the 18-month period studied here. We discuss the MLS HCl measurements in the context of other satellite-based HCl data, as well as expectations from surface chlorine data. A mean age of air of approx. 5.5 years and an age spectrum width of 2 years or less provide a fairly good fit to the ensemble of measurements.

  7. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  8. Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

  9. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  10. Treatment of chronic periodontitis decreases serum prohepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Machado Vilela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of periodontal treatment on serum levels of prohepcidin (the prohormone of hepcidin and systemic inflammation markers, as well as correlations among these markers, in patients with chronic periodontitis and chronic kidney disease who were not undergoing dialysis. METHODS: We included 56 chronic periodontitis patients, 36 with chronic kidney disease and 20 without systemic diseases and with normal renal function (control group. Chronic kidney disease was defined as suggested by the clinical practice guidelines in the National Kidney Foundation. Chronic periodontitis was defined through clinical attachment level and by probing pocket depth, according to the American Association of Periodontology. The inflammatory markers ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and prohepcidin were evaluated before and 3 months after periodontal treatment. RESULTS: The efficacy of periodontal treatment was confirmed by the improvement in clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis in the control and chronic kidney disease groups. Periodontal treatment resulted in significant reductions in ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and serum prohepcidin levels in both groups. Moreover, in multivariate linear regression, the reduction in prohepcidin after periodontal treatment was significantly and independently associated with interleukin-6 levels in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: By inducing a decline in the systemic inflammatory response and a decrease in serum prohepcidin, successful periodontal treatment may represent an important means of ameliorating the inflammatory burden seen in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  11. Clinical Trial of an Educational Program to Decrease Monitor Alarms in a Medical Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Arian; Collins-Brown, Sandra; Kirkland, Jasmine; Knapp, Meghan; Pressley, Jackie; Higgins, Melinda; McMurtry, James P

    2016-07-01

    Clinical research to identify effective interventions for decreasing nonactionable alarms has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine if a staff educational program on customizing alarm settings on bedside monitors decreased alarms in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A preintervention, postintervention, nonequivalent group design was used to evaluate an educational program on alarm management in a convenience sample of MICU nurses. A 15-minute session was provided in a 1-week period. The outcome variable (number of alarms for low oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry [SpO2]) was determined from monitor log files adjusted by patient census. Data were collected for 15 days before and after the intervention. χ(2) analysis was used, with P less than .05 considered significant. After 1 week of education, low SpO2 alarms decreased from 502 to 306 alarms per patient monitored per day, a 39% reduction (P alarm settings to patients' clinical condition decreased common monitor alarms by 39%. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Task-related signal decrease on functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Tamura, Shogo [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kitamura, Junji

    2001-10-01

    An atypical pattern of signal change was identified on functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in pathologic patients. Three normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologic lesions near the primary motor cortex underwent fMR imaging with echo-planar imaging while performing a hand motor task. Signal intensities were evaluated with the z-score method, and the time course and changes of the signal intensity were calculated. Nine of the 34 patients with pathologic lesions displayed a significant task-related signal reduction in motor-related areas. They also presented a conventional task-related signal increase in other motor-related areas. The time courses of the increase and decrease were the inverse of each other. There was no significant difference between rates of signal increase and decrease. Our findings suggest that this atypical signal decrease is clinically significant, and that impaired vascular reactivity and altered oxygen metabolism could contribute to the task-related signal reduction. Brain areas showing such task-related signal decrease should be preserved at surgery. (author)

  13. Decreased gallbladder emptying in dogs with biliary sludge or gallbladder mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Taro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Biliary sludge in dogs is dismissed commonly as an incidental finding. On the other hand, gallbladder mucocele is reported increasingly in dogs and can lead to biliary obstruction or gallbladder rupture. Cholestasis is suspected to play a role in development of sludge and mucoceles, though there are no data in dogs to support this. We investigated gallbladder emptying, a key factor in biliary flow, in dogs with mobile sludge, immobile sludge, or gallbladder mucocele and in healthy controls. Gallbladder ejection fraction estimated by ultrasonography was used as the index of gallbladder emptying. The ejection fraction at 60 min after eating was significantly decreased in all three abnormal groups. Moreover, all dogs with sludge or a mucocele had gallbladder distension. These changes were the greatest in the mucocele group. Thus, biliary stasis occurs not only in dogs with gallbladder mucocele but also in dogs with biliary sludge. Cholestasis may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of these diseases in dogs.

  14. A Decreased Responsiveness of Platelet to Nitric Oxide in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJing; ZHANGAi-xia; LUOChun-xia; WANGWei; SUNYong-jun; ZHUDong-ya

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether endothelial dysfunction leads to an abnormal responsiveness of platelet to nitric oxide(NO)during the development of atherosclerosis. Methods:Rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol chow for 12 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. Sermn NOx levels and the responsiveness of platelet to NO donor SNP were determined every 4 weeks during maintaining on a chow containing 1% cholesterol. The measurement of serum lipids and the examination of morphological feature and endothelial-dependent relaxation of aorta were performed after 12 weeks of cholesterol diet. Resu/ts.Cholesterol diet significantly increased sermn levels of cholesterol and LDL, caused a remarkable platelet hyperaggregability, and produced an evident endothelial dysfunction as indicated by the diminished vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and endothelial cell lesion as exhibited by scanning electron microscope examination. The percentage of inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by NO donor SNIP was significantly smaller in cholesterol chow group than that in normal chow group although no significant difference in serum NOx levels between normal and cholesterol chow group was observed throughout the development of atherosclexosis. :The present study suggests that the endothelial dysfunction caused by enhanced sermn cholesterol and LDL levels induces a decreased responsiveness of platelet to NO.

  15. Will Decreasing ART Costs Improve Utilization and Outcomes Among Minority Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Keith, Desireé M.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Robinson, Randal D.; O’Leary, Kathleen; Lucidi, Richard S.; Armstrong, Alicia Y.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate ART utilization and outcomes in minority women seeking care at enhanced access, military ART programs. Design Retrospective cohort Setting Federal ART programs Patients 2,050 women undergoing first cycle, fresh, non-donor ART from 2000–2005 Intervention None Main outcome measure(s ): ART utilization rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate Results African American (AA) women had an almost fourfold increased utilization of ART and Hispanic women had decreased utilization. Clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower for AA women compared to white women (46.1% vs. 52.6%, RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–0.99) as were live birth rates (33.7%. vs. 45.7%, RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.91). Conclusions Economics appear to influence ART utilization by AA women but not Hispanic women. Despite increased utilization by African American women, outcomes in this group were worse when compared to Caucasian women. Improving access through decreased cost may increase utilization by some, but not all minority groups. Improved access may not translate into improved outcomes in some ethnic groups. PMID:20356585

  16. Decreased default-mode network homogeneity in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Yao, Dapeng; Jiang, Jiajing; Su, Qinji; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Liuyu; Zhai, Jinguo; Xiao, Changqing

    2014-12-30

    The dysconnectivity hypothesis proposes that abnormal resting state connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) plays a key role in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about alterations of the network homogeneity (NH) of the DMN in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Unaffected siblings have unique advantages as subjects of neuroimaging studies independent of the clinical and treatment issues that complicate studies of the patients themselves. In the present study, we investigated NH of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia. Participants comprised 46 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls who underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Automated NH and group independent component analysis (ICA) approaches were used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, the unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients showed decreased DMN homogeneity in the left precuneus. No significantly increased DMN homogeneity was found in the sibling group relative to the control group. Our results suggest that there is decreased NH of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and indicate that the alternative perspective of examining the DMN NH in patients׳ siblings may improve understanding of the nature of schizophrenia.

  17. Subacute stress and chronic stress interact to decrease intestinal barrier function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, Adriana; Vanuytsel, Tim; Vanormelingen, Christophe; Vanheel, Hanne; Salim Rasoel, Shadea; Tóth, Joran; Tack, Jan; Fornari, Fernando; Farré, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress increases intestinal permeability, potentially leading to low-grade inflammation and symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed the effect of subacute, chronic and combined stress on intestinal barrier function and mast cell density. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 8/group): 1/sham; 2/subacute stress (isolation and limited movement for 24 h); 3/chronic crowding stress for 14 days and 4/combined subacute and chronic stress. Jejunum and colon were collected to measure: transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER; a measure of epithelial barrier function); gene expression of tight junction molecules; mast cell density. Plasma corticosterone concentration was increased in all three stress conditions versus sham, with highest concentrations in the combined stress condition. TEER in the jejunum was decreased in all stress conditions, but was significantly lower in the combined stress condition than in the other groups. TEER in the jejunum correlated negatively with corticosterone concentration. Increased expression of claudin 1, 5 and 8, occludin and zonula occludens 1 mRNAs was detected after subacute stress in the jejunum. In contrast, colonic TEER was decreased only after combined stress, and the expression of tight junction molecules was unaltered. Increased mast cell density was observed in the chronic and combined stress condition in the colon only. In conclusion, our data show that chronic stress sensitizes the gastrointestinal tract to the effects of subacute stress on intestinal barrier function; different underlying cellular and molecular alterations are indicated in the small intestine versus the colon.

  18. Cortisol level decreases natural killer cell activity among women with aircraft noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Hartono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the impacts of exposure to noise is stress. Natural killer (NK cells are one of the leukocyte subsets that are responsive to physiological and psychological stress. The objective of the present research was to determine the relationship between cortisol levels and NK cell activity among women with aircraft noise stress in the area of Adi Sumarmo Airport, Solo. This study was an analytical survey with a cross sectional design. The number of subjects was 39, who were divided into 3 groups of 13 subjects each. Groups 1 to 3 were exposed to noise levels of 92.29 dB, 71.79 dB and 52.17 dB, respectively. The sample was taken using simple random sampling. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation test and Anova followed by post hoc test using LSD test. The Anova test showed that there were significant differences in circulating cortisol levels among all groups (p = 0.018. The Pearson correlation test showed that there was a positive association between circulating cortisol levels and the number of NK cells (r = 0.547; p< 0.05 and a negative association between circulating cortisol levels and NK cell activity (r = - 0.578; p < 0.05. This study indicated that cortisol levels decreased NK cell activity among women with exposure to aircraft noise. Women who experienced aircraft noise stress showed increased cortisol levels and decreased NK cells activity.

  19. Is Insomnia a Risk Factor for Decreased Influenza Vaccine Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Kelly, Kimberly; Kohut, Marian L; Song, Kai-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Healthy young adult college students (N = 133) with Insomnia (n = 65) or No Insomnia (n = 68) were compared on influenza serum antibody levels pre- and four weeks postvaccination. Volunteers underwent structured clinical interviews for sleep disorders to ensure insomnia diagnoses, as well as psychiatric interviews, physical examinations, and drug testing to ensure comorbid health problems were not potential confounds. There were significant time (both groups had increases in antibody levels pre- to postvaccination) and group (Insomnia group had lower HI antibody levels overall) main effects, but the time × group interaction was nonsignificant. Exploratory analyses did find significant PSQI x Time (p Insomnia Status × Time (p = .002) interaction effects. Results indicate insomnia may be a risk factor for lowered immunity to the influenza virus.

  20. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Shin, E-mail: kajita.shin@nagoya-u.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tsventoukh, Mikhail M. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, Sergey A. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  1. Integrated Groups and Smooth Distribution Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro J. MIANA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we prove directly that α-times integrated groups define algebra homo-morphisms. We also give a theorem of equivalence between smooth distribution groups and α-times integrated groups.

  2. [Expression of MCL-1 and BAK proteins in nutritional anemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yan; Lin, Feng-Ru

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relation of MCL-1 and BAK proteins with incidence and development of nutritional anemia (NA) and their clinical significance. The MCL-1 and BAK protein levels in serum of 66 patients with NA were determined by using ELISA. Eighteen healthy people were randomly selected as normal controls. The results indicated that: (1) as compared with normal control group, the expression level of MCL-1 protein in 3 NA groups (iron-deficiency anemia, macrocytic anemia, mixed anemia) significantly decreased (P < 0.001), while the expression level of BAK protein obviously increased (P < 0.001), but the expression level of MCL-1 and BAK proteins among 3 NA groups showed no obvious differences; (2) the MCL-1 protein expression level increased and BAK protein expression level decreased in 3 NA groups after treatment (P < 0.05). (3) there was negative correlation of expression levels of MCL-1 protein with BAK protein in NA group (r = -0.858 P < 0.05). It is concluded that the MCL-1 and BAK proteins may play an important role in the incidence and development of NA, and can be used as the assist index for defining diagnosis and evaluate prognosis of NA.

  3. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  4. Decreased abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the gut microbiota of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takehide; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Kasumi, Eiji; Bamba, Shigeki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Andoh, Akira

    2013-04-01

    Dysbiosis is thought to be relevant to the etiology and pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). In this study, we investigated the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, as well as Bilophila wadsworthia, in the gut microbiota of Japanese CD patients. Forty-seven CD patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Abundance of F. prausnitzii in fecal samples was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The gut microbiota profile was evaluated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The abundance of F. prausnitzii significantly decreased in CD patients compared with healthy subjects. B. wadsworthia was scarcely detected in the same samples. Among CD patients, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index, C-reactive protein levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly lower, and serum albumin levels were significantly higher in the high F. prausnitzii group compared with the low group. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis showed that fecal bacterial communities of CD patients differed from those of healthy individuals. The changes in simulated bacterial composition indicated that class Clostridia, including genus Faecalibacterium, was significantly less abundant in CD patients as compared with healthy individuals. The bacterial diversity measured by the Shannon Diversity Index was significantly reduced in CD patients compared with healthy individuals. The decreased abundance of class Clostridia, including F. prausnitzii, may translate into a reduction of commensal bacteria-mediated, anti-inflammatory activities in the mucosa, which are relevant to the pathophysiology of CD. In contrast, the role of B. wadsworthia was suspected to be minimal. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Decreased electrophysiological activity represents the conscious state of emptiness in meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stephanie; Kamei, Tsutomu; Walach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Many neuroscientific theories explain consciousness with higher order information processing corresponding to an activation of specific brain areas and processes. In contrast, most forms of meditation ask for a down-regulation of certain mental processing activities while remaining fully conscious. To identify the physiological properties of conscious states with decreased mental and cognitive processing, the electrical brain activity (64 channels of EEG) of 50 participants of various meditation proficiencies was measured during distinct and idiosyncratic meditative tasks. The tasks comprised a wakeful "thoughtless emptiness (TE)," a "focused attention," and an "open monitoring" task asking for mindful presence in the moment and in the environment without attachment to distracting thoughts. Our analysis mainly focused on 30 highly experienced meditators with at least 5 years and 1000 h of meditation experience. Spectral EEG power comparisons of the TE state with the resting state or other forms of meditation showed decreased activities in specific frequency bands. In contrast to a focused attention task the TE task showed significant central and parietal gamma decreases (p waves than a wakeful closed eyes resting condition. A group of participants with none or little meditation practice did not present those differences significantly. Our findings indicate that a conscious state of TE reached by experienced meditators is characterized by reduced high-frequency brain processing with simultaneous reduction of the low frequencies. This suggests that such a state of meditative conscious awareness might be different from higher cognitive and mentally focused states but also from states of sleep and drowsiness.

  6. Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo

    2014-07-29

    Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [(11)C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral ("self-reports" for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [(11)C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors.

  7. Decreasing trends in methyldibromo glutaronitrile contact allergy--following regulatory intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Veien, Niels; Laurberg, Grete; Avnstorp, Christian; Kaaber, Knud; Andersen, Klaus E; Paulsen, Evy; Sommerlund, Mette; Thormann, Jens; Nielsen, Niels H; Vissing, Susanne; Kristensen, Ove; Kristensen, Berit; Agner, Tove; Menné, Torkil

    2008-07-01

    The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) has been banned, first from stay-on, and later from rinse-off cosmetics, in the EU countries because of increasing rates of contact allergy. To evaluate the frequency of contact allergy to MDBGN among patients patch tested by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group just before and following regulatory decisions. The data set comprised 19 279 consecutive eczema patients patch tested from 2003-2007 with MDBGN 0.3% in petrolatum (pet.) or, in a minority of patients, with Euxyl K 400 1.5% in pet. A significantly decreasing trend in the frequency of positive patch tests to MDBGN was found from 4.6% in 2003 to 2.6% in 2007 (P < 0.001). The decreasing trend was seen for both men and women. A significantly decreasing proportion of cases with a current relevance of contact allergy to MDBGN was also seen from 51.3% in 2003 to 29% in 2007 (P < 0.001). Regulatory interventions have already had a major effect on allergic disease due to MDBGN in Denmark. The same trends are likely to be seen in other EU countries.

  8. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  9. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  10. Fresh water acclimation elicits a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in the euryhaline Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew N; Nunez, B Scott

    2015-10-01

    It is thought that the elasmobranch corticosteroid hormone 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-B) functions as both a glucocorticoid (GC) and mineralocorticoid (MC). Classical antinatriuretic MC activities would run counter to the osmoregulatory strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs acclimating to fresh water (FW). Therefore we hypothesize that FW acclimation will be accompanied by a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in these animals. However, events that activate the "fight-or-flight" response could mask changes associated with acclimation to lower salinities. To better define the MC role of corticosteroids in elasmobranchs, we designed a transfer system that allows the acclimation of Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) from seawater (SW) to FW over 12h while minimizing other extraneous stressors. Blood and interrenal glands were sampled from one group of stingrays 24h after FW transfer, while another group was sampled two weeks after FW transfer. Two other groups served as mock-transfer controls in that they were treated and sampled in the same way, but remained in SW for the entire period. Plasma corticosteroids, osmolality, chloride, and urea were significantly lower in FW-acclimated stingrays (compared to mock-transfer stingrays) 24h after FW transfer. This pattern remained after two weeks in FW, with the exception that plasma corticosteroids returned to pre-acclimation levels. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in interrenal levels of mRNAs encoding key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme). Temporally decreased corticosteroid levels during FW acclimation are consistent with the unique strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs, whereby lower plasma osmolality is maintained in FW vs. SW environments to reduce hydromineral gradients.

  11. A theoretical interpretation of Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, R.; Thomas, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the intensity variations of relativistic cosmic rays, at 1 AU, which are associated with the passage of a flare shock wave. The magnitude and time profile obtained is similar to that observed in flare-induced Forbush decreases, and the principal cause of the energy reduction is an increase in adiabatic cooling of the arriving particles due to prolonged containment behind the compressed field of the flare shock wave. The large decreases calculated for the smaller diffusion coefficients are inconsistent with observation, implying larger mean free paths than those traditionally assumed at these rigidities. The method presented may be used to study intensity variations associated with other large-scale structures of the interplanetary field, such as corotating interaction regions.

  12. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  13. Serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB is a serious infectious disease. Carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. Carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons. Aim: To evaluate serum carnitine concentration in adult patients with various clinical types of LB. Material/Methods: Groups: 1 patients with erythema migrans (EM, n=16, 2 neuroborreliosis (NB, n=10, 3 post-Lyme disease (PLD, n=22 and healthy controls (HC, n=32. Total (TC and free (FC carnitine were determined with the spectrophotometric method. Results: TC levels (44.9±10.4, 28.0±8.4, 35.9±15.6 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (54.0±11.4 μmol/L, p < 0.001. FC levels (32.7±7.7, 23.6±6.8, 26.3±11.2 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (40.5±7.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001. AC levels (12.2±5.2, 4.4±2.6, 9.6±7.4 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower in the NB and PLD patients than in HC (13.5±8.40 μmol/L, p <0.001. AC/FC ratio was 0.31±0.14, 0.18±0.09, 0.39±0.33 in the EM, NB and PLD patients. Conclusions: LB patients exhibit a significant decrease of their serum carnitine concentrations. The largest changes were in the NB and PLD patients. To prevent late complications of the disease a possibility of early supplementation with carnitine should be considered. Further studies are required to explain the pathophysiological significance of our findings.

  14. Blood pressure decrease in spontaneously hypertensive rats folowing renal denervation or dopamine β-hydroxylase inhibition with etamicastat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno Miguel; Igreja, Bruno; Moura, Eduardo; Wright, Lyndon Christopher; Serrão, Maria Paula; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2015-09-01

    Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system has an important role in the development and progression of arterial hypertension. Catheter-based renal nerve ablation for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension has recently been developed. An alternative strategy for the modulation of sympathetic nerve function is to reduce the biosynthesis of noradrenaline (NA) by inhibiting dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (DA) to NA in the sympathetic nerves. Renal denervation (RDN) surgery was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to evaluate the effect of RDN on the DA and NA levels and on blood pressure over a 28-day period. The selective peripheral DβH inhibitor etamicastat (30 mg kg (-1)day(-1)) was administered to another cohort of SHR. RDN and etamicastat treatment had no effect on the renal function, as assessed by measuring the water balance response, renal function and urinary electrolyte levels. RDN significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP). A gradual return of the SBP and the DBP to the high baseline levels was observed over time. Conversely, treatment with etamicastat resulted in a significant decrease in the SBP and the DBP at all time points. On the last day of the assessment, NA levels in renal tissue were significantly decreased in both RDN and etamicastat-treated groups. In contrast, the NA levels in the left ventricle were decreased only in the etamicastat-treated group. Thus, RDN produces transitory decreases in blood pressure, whereas prolonged downregulation of sympathetic drive with the DβH inhibitor etamicastat results in a sustained decrease in the SBP and the DBP.

  15. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers.

  16. Decreasing luminescence lifetime of evaporating phosphorescent droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, D. D.; Dam, N. J.; Sweep, A. M.; Kunnen, R. P. J.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Water, W.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced phosphorescence has been used extensively to study spray dynamics. It is important to understand the influence of droplet evaporation in the interpretation of such measurements, as it increases luminescence quenching. By suspending a single evaporating n-heptane droplet in an acoustic levitator, the properties of lanthanide-complex europium-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-trioctylphosphine oxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) phosphorescence are determined through high-speed imaging. A decrease was found in the measured phosphorescence decay coefficient (780 → 200 μs) with decreasing droplet volumes (10-9 → 10-11 m3) corresponding to increasing concentrations (10-4 → 10-2 M). This decrease continues up to the point of shell-formation at supersaturated concentrations. The diminished luminescence is shown not to be attributable to triplet-triplet annihilation, quenching between excited triplet-state molecules. Instead, the pure exponential decays found in the measurements show that a non-phosphorescent quencher, such as free TTA/TOPO, can be attributable to this decay. The concentration dependence of the phosphorescence lifetime can therefore be used as a diagnostic of evaporation in sprays.

  17. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  18. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  19. Atividades em pequenos grupos na Educação Física: jogos de significações Actividades en pequeños grupos en educación física: juegos de significaciones Physical Education activity in small groups: games of significances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lira Peters

    2006-12-01

    /oposiciones /alianzas de puntos de vista entre esos sujetos.The objective of this study was to analyze the organization of an activity within small groups, starting from significations obtained within the context of physical education lessons. As tools of methodology, videography and micro-genetic analysis were employed, both utilized from a cultural-historical perspective. The activity under analysis was the development of a game, on part of a group of students. From the flow of interaction, it became evident that an element of vocal competition had arisen among the group members, in an attempt to occupy a position of prominence over the others, an event that lead to a little mediation on part of the teacher. Therefore, it can be seen that the activity performed in small groups is an important realm of interaction, where participating members act as locus of production of significations, through the possibility of alliances, confrontation and opposition of ideas between participating subjects.

  20. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  1. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  2. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...... the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray...

  3. Yoga May Mitigate Decreases in High School Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Butzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves an exploratory examination of the effects of a 12-week school-based yoga intervention on changes in grade point average (GPA in 9th and 10th grade students. Participants included 95 high school students who had registered for physical education (PE in spring 2010. PE class sections were group randomized to receive either a yoga intervention or a PE-as-usual control condition. The yoga intervention took place during the entire third quarter and half of the fourth quarter of the school year, and quarterly GPA was collected via school records at the end of the school year. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and quarter suggesting that GPA differed between the yoga and control groups over time. Post hoc tests revealed that while both groups exhibited a general decline in GPA over the school year, the control group exhibited a significantly greater decline in GPA from quarter 1 to quarter 3 than the yoga group. Both groups showed equivalent declines in GPA in quarter 4 after the yoga intervention had ended. The results suggest that yoga may have a protective effect on academic performance by preventing declines in GPA; however these preventive effects may not persist once yoga practice is discontinued.

  4. Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.

  5. Epigallocatechin gallate induces a hepatospecific decrease in the CYP3A expression level by altering intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogawa, Sosuke; Hirobe, Ryuta; Kon, Risako; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Yamashita, Marin; Mizukami, Nanaho; Kaneko, Miho; Wakui, Nobuyuki; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-30

    In previous studies, we showed that a high-dose intake of green tea polyphenol (GP) induced a hepatospecific decrease in the expression and activity of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In this study, we examined whether this decrease in CYP3A expression is induced by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is the main component of GP. After a diet containing 1.5% EGCG was given to mice, the hepatic CYP3A expression was measured. The level of intestinal bacteria of Clostridium spp., the concentration of lithocholic acid (LCA) in the feces, and the level of the translocation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) to the nucleus in the liver were examined. A decrease in the CYP3A expression level was observed beginning on the second day of the treatment with EGCG. The level of translocation of PXR to the nucleus was significantly lower in the EGCG group. The fecal level of LCA was clearly decreased by the EGCG treatment. The level of intestinal bacteria of Clostridium spp. was also decreased by the EGCG treatment. It is clear that the hepatospecific decrease in the CYP3A expression level observed after a high-dose intake of GP was caused by EGCG. Because EGCG, which is not absorbed from the intestine, causes a decrease in the level of LCA-producing bacteria in the colon, the level of LCA in the liver decreases, resulting in a decrease in the nuclear translocation of PXR, which in turn leads to the observed decrease in the expression level of CYP3A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Amonites y Bioestratigrafía del grupo Cuyo en la Sierra de Reyes (Cuenca Neuquina central, Argentina y su significado secuencial Ammonites and biostratigraphy of the Cuyo Group in the Sierra de Reyes (central Neuquén Basin, Argentina and their sequential significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Spalletti

    2012-09-01

    Reyes y su comparación con el de regiones vecinas permiten tener un mejor conocimiento de la evolución secuencial del Jurásico Inferior alto a Medio en el sector central de la Cuenca Neuquina.This paper deals with the stratigraphy, the systematics of the ammonite faunas and the biostratigraphy of the Cuyo Group in the Sierra de Reyes (southern Mendoza Province, Argentina. The 230 m-thick marine siliciclastic succession of the Cuyo Group is composed, from base to top, of the Bardas Blancas Formation (mudstones, sandy mudstones and fine-grained sandstones, the Los Molles Formation (black shales and the Lajas Formation (coarse- to fine-grained sandstones. Four ammonite levels have been recognised in the Cuyo Group. The first two levels (I and II are located in the lower section of the Bardas Blancas Formation. The monospecific level I yielded Dumortieria cf. pusilla and is regarded as upper Toarcian-lower Aalenian, whereas level II is composed of an association of Podagrosiceras cf. athleticum,Planammatoceras sp., Phylloceras sp. and Eudmetoceras? sp. which can be assigned to the upper Aalenian-lower Bajocian Malarguense Standard Zone. The third level appears in the middle part of the Bardas Blancas Formation and containsMorphoceras sp., Phylloceras sp. and Lytoceras cf. eudesianum, and is assigned to the lower Bathonian. The younger level (IV was identified in the lower section of the Lajas Formation and yielded Iniskinites crassus, Stehnocephalites gerthi and Lilloettia cf. steinmanni. This association corresponds to the upper Bathonian Steinmanni Standard Zone. The ammonite record of the Cuyo Group in the Sierra de Reyes allowed dating the transgressive succession represented by the Bardas Blancas and Los Molles formations as late Toarcian-early Bathonian. The ammonite fauna identified in the lower section of the Lajas Formation (level IV indicates that the change from transgressive to regressive conditions recorded at the upper part of the Cuyo Group occurred around

  7. Significance of Shale Gas Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman; Wenwu Xia; Nathaniel Harding

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas production from shale formations is growing exponentially in the United States. This paper introduces the five major shale formations in the United States and the technologies used to produce them. The Barnett, Haynesville,Fayetteville, Woodford, and Marcellus combined hold an estimated 978 trillion cubic feet of total gas reserves. These findings along with recent technological advances in horizontal drilling and completion methods have transformed the natural gas exploration and production industry in the U.S. and have fundamentally changed the U.S. energy picture. Specifically this paper states that the United States through the utilization of natural gas from shale can reduce its carbon emissions and can become more energy self-sufficient. Finally, the Harding & Shelton Group states in this paper that the opportunity to locate and produce shale gas in China is very similar to that which has taken place in the United States.

  8. Quassinoids and Their Chemotaxonomic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakshi Khare

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The quassinoids are a group of complex, highly oxygenated, degraded triterpene mostly found in Simaroubaceae family. Two quassinoids (degraded triterpenes, 1 and 2 were isolated first time from the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa. Compound 1 is C19 quassinoid. C19 quassinoid derived biogenetically from a C20 quassinoid, via a 1,2 –dioxo derivative. The structural elucidation is based on the analysis of spectroscopic data. Interest in these quassinoids has increased enormously in recent years due in part to the finding of the American National Cancer Institute that these compounds display marked antileukamic activity. The ways in which plants interact with other organisms in an environment are complex. Ailanthus also produces toxins in its root, bark and leaves. These toxins inhibit the growth of other plants. The isolated quassinoids are currently being studied as a possible source of a natural herbicide. Extracts of this plant have anti-insect activity and anti-tuberculosis activity.

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