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Sample records for group cross-section library

  1. Multi-group helium and hydrogen production cross section libraries for fusion neutronics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Seiji; Zimin, S.; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1993-09-01

    The helium and hydrogen production cross section libraries based on the JENDL-3 data file were compiled for use in neutronics and shielding design calculation of a fusion reactor. These libraries have the same group structures as the transport cross section sets, FUSION-J3 and FUSION-40 which are often used in fusion neutronics design and can be used as the response function libraries for the reaction rate calculation code, APPLE-3. These libraries were processed from the JENDL gas production cross section file which is one of the JENDL special purpose files. Some sample calculations using the discrete ordinate code, ANISN with these libraries were performed and the results were compared with the existing results. Consequently it was found that the appropriate results can be obtained with these libraries. The generated multi-group cross sections for helium and hydrogen production are presented in graphs and tables in appendices. (author)

  2. Development of a Multi-Group Neutron Cross Section Library Generation System for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Hong, Ser Gi; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Ha Yong; Koo, Bon Seung; Shim, Hyung Jin; Park, Sang Yoon

    2008-10-15

    This report describes a generation system of multi-group cross section library which is used in the KARMA lattice calculation code. In particular, the theoretical methodologies, program structures, and input preparations for the constituent programs of the system are described in detail. The library generation system consists of the following five programs : ANJOY, GREDIT, MERIT, SUBDATA, and LIBGEN. ANJOY generates automatically the NJOY input files and two batch files for automatic NJOY run for all the nuclides considered. The automatic NJOY run gives TAPE 23 (PENDF output file of BROADR module of NJOY) and TAPE24 (GENDF output file of GROUPR module of NJOY) files for each nuclide. GREDIT prepares a formatted multi-group cross section file in which the cross sections are tabulated versus temperature and background cross section after reading the TAPE24 file. MERIT generates the hydrogen equivalence factors and the resonance integral tables by solving the slowing down equation with ultra-fine group cross sections which are prepared with the TAPE 23 file. SUBDATA generates the subgroup data including subgroup levels and weights after reading the MERIT output file. Finally, LIBGEN generates the final multi-group library file by assembling the data prepared in the previous steps and by reading the other data such as fission product yield data and decay data.The multi-group cross section library includes general multi-group cross sections, resonance data, subgroup data, fission product yield data, kappa-values (energy release per fission), and all the data which are required in the depletion calculation. The addition or elimination of the cross sections for some nuclides can be easily done by changing the LIBGEN input file if the general multi-group cross section and the subgroup data files are prepared.

  3. Role of ''standard'' fine-group cross section libraries in shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbin, C.R.; Roussin, R.W.; Oblow, E.M.; Cullen, D.E.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.

    1977-01-01

    The Divisions of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE) and Reactor Development and Demonstration (DRDD) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have jointly sponsored the development of a 171 neutron, 36 gamma ray group pseudo composition independent cross section library based upon ENDF/B-IV. This library (named VITAMIN-C and packaged by RSIC as DLC-41) is intended to be generally applicable to fusion blanket and LMFBR core and shield analysis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate this library as a possible candidate for specific designation as a ''standard'' in light of American Nuclear Society standards for fine-group cross section data sets. The rationale and qualification procedure for such a standard are discussed. Finally, current limitations and anticipated extensions to this processed data file are described

  4. Improvements on burnup chain model and group cross section library in the SRAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akie, Hiroshi; Okumura, Keisuke; Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1992-01-01

    Data and functions of the cell burnup calculation of the SRAC system were revised to improve mainly the accuracy of the burnup calculation of high conversion light water reactors (HCLWRs). New burnup chain models were developed in order to treat fission products (FPs) and actinide nuclides in detail. Group cross section library, SRACLIB-JENDL2, was generated based on JENDL-2 nuclear data file. In generating this library, emphasis was placed on FPs and actinides. Also revised were the data such as the average energy release per fission for various actinides. These improved data were verified by performing the burnup analysis of PWR spent fuels. Some new functions were added to the SRAC system for the convenience to yield macroscopic cross sections used in the core burnup process. (author)

  5. Damage cross-section library DAMSIG81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.; Rieffe, H.Ch.

    1981-11-01

    The damage cross-section library DAMSIG81 is an updated and extended version of the damage cross-section library (DAMSIG77). The library contains energy dependent group cross section data for a number of materials to facilitate the calculations of damage production (based on displacements of atoms), the calculation of probable zones and the calculation of gas production due to (n,α) and (n,p) reactions. The group cross-section data are given for a fine group structure of the SAND-II type with 640 groups. This library contains for some materials more than one cross-section set originating from different evaluations. Cross section data sets for the activation reactions 54 Fe(n,p), 58 Ni(n,p), and 63 Cu(n,α), which reactions are commonly used to determine thermal and fast neutron fluences, have been included also. Moreover also some artificial cross-sections are incorporated in this library which can be used to calculate values for some physical quantities characterizing neutron spectra, such as mean lethargy , mean energy . Also cross-sections for B, Al, and Cd are included; these are required to reach compatibility with other libraries in the SAND-II format

  6. Generation of ENDF/B-IV based 35 group neutron cross-section library and its application in criticality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.; Sinha, A.

    1985-01-01

    A 35 group cross-section library with P/sub 3/-anisotropic scattering matrices and resonance self-shielding factors has been generated from the basic ENDF/B-IV cross-section files for 57 elements. This library covers the neutron energy range from 0.005 ev to 15 MeV and is well suited for the neutronics and safety analysis of fission, fusion and hybrid systems. The library is contained in two well known files, namely, ISOTXS and BRKOXS. In order to test the efficacy of this library and to bring out the importance of resonance self-shielding, a few selected fast critical assemblies representing large dilute oxide and carbide fueled uranium and plutonium based systems have been analysed. These assemblies include ZPPR/sub 2/, ZPR-3-48, ZPR-3-53, ZPR-6-6A, ZPR-6-7, ZPR-9-31 and ZEBRA-2 and are amongst those recommended by the US Nuclear Data Evaluation Working Group for testing the accuracy of cross-sections. The evaluated multiplication constants of these assemblies compare favourably with those calculated by others

  7. Design and producing of fine-group cross section library HENDL3.0/FG for subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, J.; Zeng, Q.; Xu, D.; Hu, L.; Long, P.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the neutron analyses for subcritical system with thermal fission blanket, a coupled neutron and photon (315 n + 42γ) fine-group cross section library HENDL3.0/FG based on ENDF/B-VII, JEFF3.1 and JENDL3.3 was produced by FDS team. In order to test the availability and reliability of the HENDL3.0/FG data library, shielding and critical safety benchmarks were performed with VisualBUS code. The testing results indicated that the discrepancy between calculation and experimental values of nuclear parameters fell in a reasonable range. It showed that the nuclear data library had accuracy and availability. (authors)

  8. Production and testing of HENDL-2.1/CG coarse-group cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dezheng; He Zhaozhong; Zou Jun; Zeng Qin

    2010-01-01

    A coarse-group coupled neutron and photon (27n + 21γ) cross-section library HENDL-2.1/CG, based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluate data source, has been produced by FDS Team in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). HENDL-2.1/CG containing 350 nuclide cross-section files (from 1 H to 252 Cf) was generated in MATXS format with the NJOY processing system and then by compiling coarse-group problem-dependent format using the TRANSX code. In order to verify the availability and reliability of the HENDL-2.1/CG data library, requisite benchmark calculations were performed and compared with HENDL-2.0/MG fine-group coupled neutron and photon (175n + 42γ) cross-section library. In general, results using the coarse-group library showed similarly believable as fine-group library.

  9. Generation of seven group cross section library for TRIGA LEU fuel in CITATION format and benchmarking some experimental and operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, M.M.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Akramuzzaman, M.

    2007-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to validate the seven group cross section library in CITATION format for TRIGA LEU Fuel. This presentation deals with the 'generation of a cross section library for the CITATION and its validation. We used WIMSD-5B version for the generation of all group constants. The overall strategy is: (1) use WIMS package to generate few group neutron macroscopic cross section (cell constants) for all of the materials in the core and its immediate neighborhood (2) use 3-D code CITATION to perform the global analysis of the core to study: multiplication factor, neutron flux distribution and power peaking factors. Various options available in WIMS program were studied in depth to finalize the models to generate the most appropriate group constants. For the global analysis the code CITATION and a post processing program FCAP were chosen. Thus a seven group cross section library for the calculations of TRIGA Research Reactor was generated. To investigate the validity of the generated library a critical experiment of the TRIGA research reactor was benchmarked. (author)

  10. ENEA-Bologna production and testing of Jeff-3.1 multi-group cross section libraries for nuclear fission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescarini, M.; Orsi, R.; Sinitsa, V.

    2008-01-01

    The ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group produced the JEFF-3.1 VITJEFF31.BOLIB and MATJEFF31. BOLIB fine-group coupled neutron and photon (199 n + 42 γ) cross section libraries for nuclear fission applications, respectively in AMPX and MATXS format, with the same specifications and energy group structure of the Endf/B-VI-3 VITAMIN-B6 American library. Each library, containing 181 nuclide cross section files, was generated from the same set of cross section data files in GENDF format, obtained through the Bondarenko (f-factor) method, with an ENEA-Bologna revised version of the GROUPR module of the NJOY-99.160 system. Collapsed working libraries of self-shielded cross sections in FIDO-ANISN format, used by the deterministic transport codes of the DANTSYS and DOORS systems, can be generated from VITJEFF31.BOLIB and MATJEFF31.BOLIB through, respectively, further data processing with an ENEA-Bologna revised version of the SCAMPI system and with the TRANSX code. This paper describes the methodology and specifications of the data processing performed and presents some results of the VITJEFF31.BOLIB validation. (authors)

  11. Preparation of next generation set of group cross sections. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kunio

    2002-03-01

    This fiscal year, based on the examination result about the evaluation energy range of heavy element unresolved resonance cross sections, the upper energy limit of the energy range, where ultra-fine group cross sections are produced, was raised to 50 keV, and an improvement of the group cross section processing system was promoted. At the same time, reflecting the result of studies carried out till now, a function producing delayed neutron data was added to the general-purpose group cross section processing system , thus the preparation of general purpose group cross section processing system has been completed. On the other hand, the energy structure, data constitution and data contents of next generation group cross section set were determined, and the specification of a 151 groups next generation group cross section set was defined. Based on the above specification, a concrete library format of the next generation cross section set has been determined. After having carried out the above-described work, using the general-purpose group cross section processing system , which was complete in this study, with use of the JENDL-3. 2 evaluated nuclear data, the 151 groups next generation group cross section of 92 nuclides and the ultra fine group resonance cross section library for 29 nuclides have been prepared. Utilizing the 151 groups next generation group cross section set and the ultra-fine group resonance cross-section library, a bench mark test calculation of fast reactors has been performed by using an advanced lattice calculation code. It was confirmed, by comparing the calculation result with a calculation result of continuous energy Monte Carlo code, that the 151 groups next generation cross section set has sufficient accuracy. (author)

  12. Development of fine-group (315n/42γ) cross section library ENDL3.0/FG for fusion-fission hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qin; Zou Jun; Xu Dezhen; Jiang Jieqiong; Wang Minghuang; Wu Yican; Qiu Yuefeng; Chen Zhong; Chen Yan

    2011-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the neutron analyses for subcritical systems with thermal fission blanket, a coupled neutron and photon (315 n + 42γ) fine-group cross section library HENDL3.0/FG based on ENDF/B-Ⅶ. 0 has been produced by FDS team. In order to test the availability and reliability of the HENDL3.0/FG data library, shielding and critical safety benchmarks were performed with VisualBUS code. The testing results indicated that the discrepancy between calculation and experimental values of nuclear parameters fell in a reasonable range. (authors)

  13. Assessment of Degree of Applicability of Benchmarks for Gadolinium Using KENO V.a and the 238-Group SCALE Cross-Section Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goluoglu, S.

    2003-12-01

    A review of the degree of applicability of benchmarks containing gadolinium using the computer code KENO V.a and the gadolinium cross sections from the 238-group SCALE cross-section library has been performed for a system that contains {sup 239}Pu, H{sub 2}O, and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The system (practical problem) is a water-reflected spherical mixture that represents a dry-out condition on the bottom of a sludge receipt and adjustment tank around steam coils. Due to variability of the mixture volume and the H/{sup 239}Pu ratio, approximations to the practical problem, referred to as applications, have been made to envelop possible ranges of mixture volumes and H/{sup 239}Pu ratios. A newly developed methodology has been applied to determine the degree of applicability of benchmarks as well as the penalty that should be added to the safety margin due to insufficient benchmarks.

  14. C4P cross-section libraries for safety analyses with SIMMER and related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rineiski, A.; Sinitsa, V.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A code and data system, C 4 P, is under development at KIT. It includes fine-group master libraries and tools for generating problem-oriented cross-section libraries, primarily for safety studies with the SIMMER code and related analyses. In the paper, the 560-group master library and problem oriented 40-group and 72-group cross-section libraries, for thermal and fast systems, respectively, are described and their performances are investigated. (author)

  15. AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

    2011-03-01

    materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Covariances are given in 33-energy groups, from 10?5 eV to 19.6 MeV, obtained by processing with LANL processing code NJOY using 1/E flux. In addition to these 110 files, the library contains 20 files with nu-bar covariances, 3 files with covariances of prompt fission neutron spectra (238,239,240-Pu), and 2 files with mu-bar covariances (23-Na, 56-Fe). Over the period of three years several working versions of the library have been released and tested by ANL and INL reactor analysts. Useful feedback has been collected allowing gradual improvements of the library. In addition, QA system was developed to check basic properties and features of the whole library, allowing visual inspection of uncertainty and correlations plots, inspection of uncertainties of integral quantities with independent databases, and dispersion of cross sections between major evaluated libraries. The COMMARA-2.0 beta version of the library was released to ANL and INL reactor analysts in October 2010. The final version, described in the present report, was released in March 2011.

  16. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations

  17. Production and testing of the ENEA-Bologna VITJEFF32.BOLIB (JEFF-3.2) multi-group (199 n + 42 γ) cross section library in AMPX format for nuclear fission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescarini, Massimo; Orsi, Roberto; Frisoni, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    The ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group produced the VITJEFF32.BOLIB multi-group coupled neutron/photon (199 n + 42 γ) cross section library in AMPX format, based on the OECD-NEA Data Bank JEFF-3.2 evaluated nuclear data library. VITJEFF32.BOLIB was conceived for nuclear fission applications as European counterpart of the ORNL VITAMIN-B7 similar library (ENDF/B-VII.0 data). VITJEFF32.BOLIB has the same neutron and photon energy group structure as the former ORNL VITAMIN-B6 reference library (ENDF/B-VI.3 data) and was produced using similar data processing methodologies, based on the LANL NJOY-2012.53 nuclear data processing system for the generation of the nuclide cross section data files in GENDF format. Then the ENEA-Bologna 2007 Revision of the ORNL SCAMPI nuclear data processing system was used for the conversion into the AMPX format. VITJEFF32.BOLIB contains processed cross section data files for 190 nuclides, obtained through the Bondarenko (f-factor) method for the treatment of neutron resonance self-shielding and temperature effects. Collapsed working libraries of self-shielded cross sections in FIDO-ANISN format, used by the deterministic transport codes of the ORNL DOORS system, can be generated from VITJEFF32.BOLIB through the cited SCAMPI version. This paper describes the methodology and specifications of the data processing performed and presents some results of the VITJEFF32.BOLIB validation.

  18. Production and testing of the ENEA-Bologna VITJEFF32.BOLIB (JEFF-3.2 multi-group (199 n + 42 γ cross section library in AMPX format for nuclear fission applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescarini Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group produced the VITJEFF32.BOLIB multi-group coupled neutron/photon (199 n + 42 γ cross section library in AMPX format, based on the OECD-NEA Data Bank JEFF-3.2 evaluated nuclear data library. VITJEFF32.BOLIB was conceived for nuclear fission applications as European counterpart of the ORNL VITAMIN-B7 similar library (ENDF/B-VII.0 data. VITJEFF32.BOLIB has the same neutron and photon energy group structure as the former ORNL VITAMIN-B6 reference library (ENDF/B-VI.3 data and was produced using similar data processing methodologies, based on the LANL NJOY-2012.53 nuclear data processing system for the generation of the nuclide cross section data files in GENDF format. Then the ENEA-Bologna 2007 Revision of the ORNL SCAMPI nuclear data processing system was used for the conversion into the AMPX format. VITJEFF32.BOLIB contains processed cross section data files for 190 nuclides, obtained through the Bondarenko (f-factor method for the treatment of neutron resonance self-shielding and temperature effects. Collapsed working libraries of self-shielded cross sections in FIDO-ANISN format, used by the deterministic transport codes of the ORNL DOORS system, can be generated from VITJEFF32.BOLIB through the cited SCAMPI version. This paper describes the methodology and specifications of the data processing performed and presents some results of the VITJEFF32.BOLIB validation.

  19. Production and Testing of the VITAMIN-B7 Fine-Group and BUGLE-B7 Broad-Group Coupled Neutron/Gamma Cross-Section Libraries Derived from ENDF/B-VII.0 Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risner, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wiarda, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, M. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, T. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, D. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, B. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-09-30

    New coupled neutron-gamma cross-section libraries have been developed for use in light water reactor (LWR) shielding applications, including pressure vessel dosimetry calculations. The libraries, which were generated using Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VII Release 0 (ENDF/B-VII.0), use the same fine-group and broad-group energy structures as the VITAMIN-B6 and BUGLE-96 libraries. The processing methodology used to generate both libraries is based on the methods used to develop VITAMIN-B6 and BUGLE-96 and is consistent with ANSI/ANS 6.1.2. The ENDF data were first processed into the fine-group pseudo-problem-independent VITAMIN-B7 library and then collapsed into the broad-group BUGLE-B7 library. The VITAMIN-B7 library contains data for 391 nuclides. This represents a significant increase compared to the VITAMIN-B6 library, which contained data for 120 nuclides. The BUGLE-B7 library contains data for the same nuclides as BUGLE-96, and maintains the same numeric IDs for those nuclides. The broad-group data includes nuclides which are infinitely dilute and group collapsed using a concrete weighting spectrum, as well as nuclides which are self-shielded and group collapsed using weighting spectra representative of important regions of LWRs. The verification and validation of the new libraries includes a set of critical benchmark experiments, a set of regression tests that are used to evaluate multigroup crosssection libraries in the SCALE code system, and three pressure vessel dosimetry benchmarks. Results of these tests confirm that the new libraries are appropriate for use in LWR shielding analyses and meet the requirements of Regulatory Guide 1.190.

  20. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ν, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given

  1. Production and testing of the VITAMIN-B6 fine-group and the BUGLE-93 broad-group neutron/photon cross-section libraries derived from ENDF/B-VI nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.; Hunter, H.T.; Slater, C.O.; Greene, N.M.; MacFarlane, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A new multigroup cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI data has been produced and tested for light water reactor shielding and reactor pressure vessel dosimetry applications. The broad-group library is designated BUGLE-93. The processing methodology is consistent with ANSI/ANS 6.1.2, since the ENDF data were first processed into a fine-group, ''pseudo problem-independent'' format and then collapsed into the final broad-group format. The fine-group library is designated VITAMIN-B6. An extensive integral data testing effort was also performed. In general, results using the new data show significant improvements relative to earlier ENDF data

  2. Differences between cross-section libraries for neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardelli, T.C.; Stecher, L.C.; Coelho, T.S.; Castro, V.A. De; Cavalieri, T.A.; Menzel, F.; Giarola, R.S.; Domingos, D.B.; Yoriyaz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Absorbed dose calculations depend on a consistent set of nuclear data used in simulations in computer codes. Nuclear data are stored in libraries, however, the information available about the differences in dose caused by different libraries are rare. The libraries are processed by a computer system to be able to be used by a radiation transport code. One of the systems capable of processing nuclear data is the NJOY system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nuclear data libraries for neutrons available in the literature, and to quantify the differences in absorbed dose obtained using the libraries JENDL 4.0, JEFF 3.3.1 and ENDF/B.VII. The absorbed dose calculation was performed on a simple geometric model, as spheres, and in anthropomorphic model of the human body based on the ICRP-110 for neutron transport simulation using the MCNP5 code. The results were compared with literature data. The results obtained with cross sections from the libraries JEFF and ENDF/B.VII have shown to be identical in most cases, except for one case where the difference has exceeded 10%. The results obtained with JENDL library has shown to be considerably different in most cases comparing to other two libraries. Some differences were over 200%. The dose calculations showed differences between the libraries, which is justified by differences in the cross sections. It has been observed that the cross sections values of certain nuclides assume quite different values in different libraries. These differences in turn cause considerable differences in dose calculations. (author)

  3. The LAW Library -- A multigroup cross-section library for use in radioactive waste analysis calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, N.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Wright, R.Q.; Parks, C.V.

    1994-08-01

    The 238-group LAW Library is a new multigroup neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-V data, with five sets of data taken from ENDF/B-VI ({sup 14}N{sub 7}, {sup 15}N{sub 7}, {sup 16}O{sub 8}, {sup 154Eu}{sub 63}, and {sup 155}Eu{sub 63}). These five nuclides are included because the new evaluations are thought to be superior to those in Version 5. The LAW Library contains data for over 300 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, although it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections.

  4. XNWLUP, Graphical user interface to plot WIMS-D library multigroup cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.; Jagannathan, V.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: XnWlup is a computer program with user-friendly graphical interface to help the users of WIMS-D library to enable quick visualisation of the plots of the energy dependence of the multigroup cross sections of any nuclide of interest. This software enables the user to generate and view the histogram of 69 multi-group cross sections as a function of neutron energy under Microsoft Windows environment. This software is designed using Microsoft Visual C++ and Microsoft Foundation Classes Library. IAEA1395/05: New features of version 3.0: - Plotting absorption and fission cross sections of resonant nuclide after applying the self-shielding cross section. - Plotting the data of Resonant Integral table, as a function of dilution cross section for a selected temperature and for a given energy group. - Plotting the data of Resonant Integral table, as a function of temperature for a selected background dilution cross section and for a given energy group. - Clearing all the graphs except one graph from the display screen is easily done by using a tool bar button. - Displaying the coordinate of the cursor point with appropriate units. 2 - Methods: XnWlup helps to obtain histogram plots of the values of cross section data of an element/isotope available as 69-group WIMS-D library as a function of energy bins. The software XnWlup is developed with this graphical user interface in order to help those users who frequently refer to the WIMS-D library cross section data of neutron-nuclear reactions. The software also helps to produce handbook of WIMS-D cross sections

  5. Bonderenko self-shielded cross sections and multiband parameters derived from the LLL Evaluated-Nuclear-Data Library (ENDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Bonderenko self-shielded cross sections and multiband parameters from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Evaluated-Nuclear-Data Library (ENDL) as of July 4, 1978 are presented. These data include total, elastic, capture, and fission cross sections in the TART 175 group structure. Multiband parameters are listed. Bonderenko self-shielded cross section and the multiband parameters are presented on microfiche

  6. JSD1000: multi-group cross section sets for shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Naoki

    1984-03-01

    A multi-group cross section library for shielding safety analysis has been produced by using ENDF/B-IV. The library consists of ultra-fine group cross sections, fine-group cross sections, secondary gamma-ray production cross sections and effective macroscopic cross sections for typical shielding materials. Temperature dependent data at 300, 560 and 900 K have been also provided. Angular distributions of the group to group transfer cross section are defined by a new method of ''Direct Angular Representation'' (DAR) instead of the method of finite Legendre expansion. The library designated JSD1000 are stored in a direct access data base named DATA-POOL and data manipulations are available by using the DATA-POOL access package. The 3824 neutron group data of the ultra-fine group cross sections and the 100 neutron, 20 photon group cross sections are applicable to shielding safety analyses of nuclear facilities. This report provides detailed specifications and the access method for the JSD1000 library. (author)

  7. Three-Dimensional (X,Y,Z Deterministic Analysis of the PCA-Replica Neutron Shielding Benchmark Experiment using the TORT-3.2 Code and Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescarini Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the ORNL TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes employed in LWR shielding and radiation damage calculations, reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a PWR pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with the same energy group structure (47 n + 20 γ and based on different nuclear data were alternatively used: the ENEA BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1 and BUGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries and the ORNL BUGLE-96 (ENDF/B-VI.3 library. Dosimeter cross sections derived from the IAEA IRDF-2002 dosimetry file were employed. The calculated reaction rates for the Rh-103(n,n′Rh-103 m, In-115(n,n′In-115m and S-32(n,pP-32 threshold activation dosimeters and the calculated neutron spectra are compared with the corresponding experimental results.

  8. Description of the ENDF-NJOY system for the generation of cross sections libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.

    1991-01-01

    The physics of nuclear reactors requires of a great number of data to be able to evaluate the different phenomena that happen in a nuclear reactor; these data are mainly the microscopic neutron cross sections, but it is also required of data of radioactive decay and of nuclear structure for a great number of materials as well as of the cross sections of the photons and the production of these for the neutron interaction. These data group in nuclear databases, being the main ones: ENDF Nuclear Evaluated File, ENDL Dates Nuclear Evaluated Library it Dates (of the Laboratory Lawrence Livermore). JENDL Japanese Nuclear Evaluated Library Dates. Soviet SOKRATOR Nuclear Evaluated KEDAF Nuclear Karlsruhe File Dates. JEF Join Evaluated File (coordinated by NEA Data Bank). The existent codes that execute neutron and photon calculations require libraries of data that are very different some of other and of the databases. Of here that it is required of a series of processing codes that use the database like enter and its generate a secondary library of cross sections, which is read as enter for a code of spectra generation. Generally average cross sections by group are obtained; this library is that it is used in the codes that execute neutron calculations. (Author)

  9. Cross sections in 25 groups obtained from ENDF/B-IV and ENDL/78 libraries, processed with GALAXY and NJOY computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalhoub, E.S.; Corcuera, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The discrepancies existing between ENDF/B-IV and ENDL/78 libraries, in diferent energy regions are identified, and the order of the differences in multigroup sections are determined, when GALAXY or NJOY computer codes are used. (E.G.) [pt

  10. ZZ ANSLV, Multigroup Cross Sections Library for ANS Reactor Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Fine Group (99 energy groups) General Purpose Neutron Library. Materials: H, He, Be, B, Graphite, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Kr, Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ce, Pr, Pm, Sm, Eu, Hf, Ta, U, C, F, Cu, Sn, Pb, Rh, I, Xe, Nd, Th, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, MAFP, WAFP. Origin: ENDF/B-V. - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Broad Group (39 energy groups) General Purpose Neutron Library. Materials: H, He, Be, B, Graphite, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Kr, Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ce, Pr, Pm, Sm, Eu, Hf, Ta, U, C, F, Cu, Sn, Pb, Rh, I, Xe, Nd, Th, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, MAFP, WAFP. Origin: ENDF/B-V. - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Gamma-Ray Interaction (GRI) Library in 44-groups. Materials: H, He, Be, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Xe, Sm, Eu, Hf, Ta, Ir, Pb, Th, U, Pu. Origin: ENDF/B-V; LENDL-V evaluations for 12 materials. - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Coupled Library containing (CNG) 99-group neutron and 44-group gamma-ray data. Materials: H, Be, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Eu, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, U, Pu. Origin: ENDF/B-V. - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Coupled neutron-gamma (CNG) Library containing 39-group, and 44-group gamma-ray data. Materials: H, Be, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Eu, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, U, Pu. Origin: ENDF/B-V. Weighting spectrum: Maxwellian 300 K + 1/(E*sigma-total) + fission spectrum4 types of boundaries have been used depending isotope and library type (see report). Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross section libraries were generated to support the Advanced Neutron source (ANS) reactor design studies. The ANS was

  11. Generation of neutron cross sections library for the Thermos code of the Fuel management System (FMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.; Viais J, J.

    1990-10-01

    There is developed a method to generate the library of neutron cross sections for the Thermos code by means of the database ENDF-B/IV and the NJOY code. The obtained results are compared with the version previous of the library of neutron cross sections which was processed using the version ENDF-B/III. (Author)

  12. Development of Cross Section Library and Application Programming Interface (API)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marin-Lafleche, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-04-09

    The goal of NEAMS neutronics is to develop a high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code termed PROTEUS for use on all reactor types of interest, but focused primarily on sodium-cooled fast reactors. While PROTEUS-SN has demonstrated good accuracy for homogeneous fast reactor problems and partially heterogeneous fast reactor problems, the simulation results were not satisfactory when applied on fully heterogeneous thermal problems like the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is mainly attributed to the quality of cross section data for heterogeneous geometries since the conventional cross section generation approach does not work accurately for such irregular and complex geometries. Therefore, one of the NEAMS neutronics tasks since FY12 has been the development of a procedure to generate appropriate cross sections for a heterogeneous geometry core.

  13. Research on the display of nuclear cross-section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shien; Wang Kan; Yu Ganglin

    2008-01-01

    Minutely parsed the dot cross-section format (ACE format) data of the ENDF/ B-6.8 database, which is the foundation of the program that achieved the reading and related handling of ACE format data. This program achieved the plotting, zooming and comparing display functions of nuclear cross section-energy of ENDF/B-6.8 database. It also provides the standard picture formatting file output and/or standard text formatting file output of interesting nuclear data. It accomplished some appropriate validations of this program via the comparing between program results and reference data. (authors)

  14. PCS a code system for generating production cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document outlines the use of the PCS Code System. It summarizes the execution process for generating FORMAT2000 production cross section files from FORMAT2000 reaction cross section files. It also describes the process of assembling the ASCII versions of the high energy production files made from ENDL and Mark Chadwick's calculations. Descriptions of the function of each code along with its input and output and use are given. This document is under construction. Please submit entries, suggestions, questions, and corrections to (ljc at sign llnl.gov) 3 tabs

  15. BUGLE-96: A revised multigroup cross section library for LWR applications based on ENDF/B-VI Release 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.E.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Slater, C.O.; Roussin, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    A revised multigroup cross-section library based ON ENDF/B-VI Release 3 has been produced for light water reactor shielding and reactor pressure vessel dosimetry applications. This new broad-group library, which is designated BUGLE-96, represents an improvement over the BUGLE-93 library released in February 1994 and is expected to replace te BUGLE-93 data. The cross-section processing methodology is the same as that used for producing BUGLE-93 and is consistent with ANSI/ANS 6.1.2. As an added feature, cross-section sets having upscatter data for four thermal neutron groups are included in the BUGLE-96 package available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center. The upscattering data should improve the application of this library to the calculation of more accurate thermal fluences, although more computer time will be required. The incorporation of feedback from users has resulted in a data library that addresses a wider spectrum of user needs

  16. Comparative analysis of the neutron cross-sections of iron from various evaluated data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.M.; Vozyakov, V.V.; Manokhin, V.N.; Smoll, F.; Resner, P.; Seeliger, D.; Hermsdorf, D.

    1983-09-01

    The comparative analysis of neutron cross-sections of iron from evaluated nuclear data libraries SOKRATOR, KEDAK, ENDL is done in energy interval from 0.025 eV to 20 MeV. Some of iron cross-sections from SOKRATOR library are revised and new data, which are obtained by using new experimental data and more comprehensive theoretical methods, are recommended. As a result the new version of the iron neutron cross-section file (BNF-2012) is produced for SOKRATOR library. (author)

  17. FENDL/E-2.0. Evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections and photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. Version 1, March 1997. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections, photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. It is part of the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications FENDL-2. The data are available cost-free from the Nuclear Data Section upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author)

  18. Activities of the Shielding Subcommittee of the ENDF/B Cross Section Evaluation Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussin, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Shielding Subcommittee of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) was established in 1967 to help ensure that the content of the ENDF/B cross section library was adequate for treating shielding problems. Early work of the subcommittee concentrated on devising formats for gamma-ray interaction and production data, as well as providing programs for testing the clerical and physics consistency of the files. The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) collaborated directly with evaluators on behalf of the National Neutron Cross Section Center (NNCSC) to begin testing and adding data sets to be fed into the official ENDF/B libraries. These efforts, which were sponsored by AEC-DRDT (now ERDA-DRDD), were augmented greatly through the Defense Nuclear Agency program of establishing a working cross section library in ENDF format. The effort concentrated on evaluation and testing of materials of interest to DNA programs and providing these for inclusion in the ENDF/B library. Shielding data testing efforts, as a part of the CSEWG Data Testing Program, are now also an integral part of the Shielding Subcommittee effort. Procedures for writing and approving the shielding benchmarks were devised by Shielding Subcommittee members. Data testing benchmark experiments have been documented and analyzed, and the most recent results for ENDF/B-IV are as reported as part of ENDF-230, ''Benchmark Testing of ENDF/B-IV.''

  19. ROSFOND based heating-damage cross sections sub-library: Preliminary uncertainty assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsa, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of radiation damage calculations for the most important LWR component, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), directly linked with the RPV End-of-Life (EoL) prediction which is in its turn connected with fundamental nuclear safety aspects and relevant economic impacts. In this connection, for nearly ten years the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group conducts the nuclear data processing and validation activities addressed to update the specialized broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries for shielding and radiation damage calculations through NJOY and Bologna revised version of SCAMPI data processing systems. A number of working group-wise data libraries has been prepared and transferred to the ENEA Data Bank for dissemination. Several years ago the NRC ”Kurchatov Institute” has reset the GRUCON project, originally designed to provide group constants for fast nuclear reactor calculations [12], with aim to expand its application area and to use in the WWER safety tasks, in particular, in the RPV radiation damage analyses. By means of updated GRUCON and NJOY-99 processing codes, and calculation procedure, developed in the NDG of ENEA Bologna, a sample of kerma&damage energy point-wise data sub-libraries from different evaluated data libraries has been generated. On the base of this sample, the quantitative assessment of kerma/dpa data precision in the RPV calculations is obtained

  20. Development of modern CANDU PHWR cross-section libraries for SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoman, Nathan T., E-mail: nshoman@vols.utk.edu; Skutnik, Steven E., E-mail: sskutnik@utk.edu

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • New ORIGEN libraries for CANDU 28 and 37-element fuel assemblies have been created. • These new reactor data libraries are based on modern ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section data. • The updated CANDU data libraries show good agreement with radiochemical assay data. • Eu-154 overestimated when using ENDF-VII.0 due to a lower thermal capture cross-section. - Abstract: A new set of SCALE fuel lattice models have been developed for the 28-element and 37-element CANDU fuel assembly designs using modern cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.0 in order to produce new reactor data libraries for SCALE/ORIGEN depletion analyses. These new libraries are intended to provide users with a convenient means of evaluating depletion of CANDU fuel assemblies using ORIGEN through pre-generated cross sections based on SCALE lattice physics calculations. The performance of the new CANDU ORIGEN libraries in depletion analysis benchmarks to radiochemical assay data were compared to the previous version of the CANDU libraries provided with SCALE (based on WIMS-AECL models). Benchmark comparisons with available radiochemical assay data indicate that the new cross-section libraries perform well at matching major actinide species (U/Pu), which are generally within 1–4% of experimental values. The library also showed similar or better results over the WIMS-AECL library regarding fission product species and minor actinoids (Np, Am, and Cm). However, a notable exception was in calculated inventories of {sup 154}Eu and {sup 155}Eu, where the new library employing modern nuclear data (ENDF/B-VII.0) performed substantially poorer than the previous WIMS-AECL library (which used ENDF-B/VI.8 cross-sections for these species). The cause for this discrepancy appears to be due to differences in the {sup 154}Eu thermal capture cross-section between ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0, an effect which is exacerbated by the highly thermalized flux of a CANDU heavy water reactor compared to that of a

  1. ETOBOX, Cross-Sections Library Generated from ENDF/B for Program BOXER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paratte, J.M.; Grimm, P.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Preparation of a cross section library for the code BOXER from a basic library in ENDF/B format. 2 - Method of solution: According to the recommendations in the ENDF/B manuals: M.K. Drake: Data formats and procedures for the ENDF cross section library, BNL 50274 (T-601) (October 1970) and ENDF 50496 (October 1979). ENDL-102. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Only the formats until ENDF/B-5 can be treated. ETOBOX is not adapted to ENDF/B-6. The gamma-part of ENDF/B is not treated

  2. VITAMIN E: a multipurpose ENDF/B-V coupled neutron-gamma cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhen, J.; Cacuci, D.G.; Ford, W.E. III; Roussin, R.W.; Wagschal, J.J.; Weisbin, C.R.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.

    1979-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy and the Division of Reactor Research and Technology jointly sponsored the development of a coupled fine-group cross section library (VITAMIN-C). The experience gained in the generation, validation, and utilization of the VITAMIN-C library along with its broad range of applicability has led to the request for updating this data set using ENDF/B-V. Additional support in this regard has been provided by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and by EPRI in support of weapons analyses and light water reactor shielding and dosimetry problems, respectively. The rationale for developing the multipurpose ENDF/B-V-based VITAMIN-E library is presented, with special emphasis on new models used in the data generation algorithms. The library specifications and testing procedures are also discussed in detail. The distribution of the VITAMIN-E library is currently subject to the same restrictions as the distribution of the ENDF/B-V data. 2 tables

  3. Neutron cross section library production code system for continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP. LICEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1996-05-01

    A code system has been developed to produce neutron cross section libraries for the MVP continuous energy Monte Carlo code from an evaluated nuclear data library in the ENDF format. The code system consists of 9 computer codes, and can process nuclear data in the latest ENDF-6 format. By using the present system, MVP neutron cross section libraries for important nuclides in reactor core analyses, shielding and fusion neutronics calculations have been prepared from JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, JENDL-FUSION file and ENDF/B-VI data bases. This report describes the format of MVP neutron cross section library, the details of each code in the code system and how to use them. (author)

  4. Neutron cross section library production code system for continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP. LICEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio

    1996-05-01

    A code system has been developed to produce neutron cross section libraries for the MVP continuous energy Monte Carlo code from an evaluated nuclear data library in the ENDF format. The code system consists of 9 computer codes, and can process nuclear data in the latest ENDF-6 format. By using the present system, MVP neutron cross section libraries for important nuclides in reactor core analyses, shielding and fusion neutronics calculations have been prepared from JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, JENDL-FUSION file and ENDF/B-VI data bases. This report describes the format of MVP neutron cross section library, the details of each code in the code system and how to use them. (author).

  5. ZZ DLC-11 RITTS, 121-Group Coupled Cross-Section for ANISN, DOT, MORSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A - Nature of physical problem solved: Format: ANISN, DTF-4, DOT and MORSE. Number of groups: 100 neutron energy groups (14.92 MeV to thermal) 21 gamma-ray energy groups (14.0 to 0.01 MeV) Nuclides: H, C, O, N, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca, (microscopic cross sections) and 9 organic materials including 11-element standard man, 4-element standard man, skin, bone, tissue, brain, lung, red marrow, and muscle (macroscopic cross sections). Origin: ENDF/B for H, C, N, O, Na, and Mg; O5R library for Ca, S, and K; GAM-2 library for Cl; Evaluation by J.J. Ritts for P. Weighting spectrum: 1/E for the top 99 groups and Maxwellian for the thermal group values. DLC-11 data is suitable for neutron, gamma-ray, or coupled neutron and gamma-ray transport calculations. It is intended for use in multigroup discrete ordinates or Monte Carlo transport codes which treat anisotropic scattering by Legendre expansion up to order P3. DLC-11 is a collection of multigroup cross section data which were compiled by J. J. Ritts for use in depth-dose calculations in anthropomorphic phantoms. For convenience the data are grouped as follows - 1. A coupled 121-group (100 neutron, 21 gamma-ray) set of data for the 11 elements H, C, O, N. Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca. This set includes P3 coupled 121-group microscopic cross sections plus 121-group kerma factors for the 11 elements. 2. A 100-group set of neutron cross sections for the 11 elements. 3. A coupled 121-group set of macroscopic cross sections for 9 organic materials including 11-element standard man, 4-element standard man, skin, bone, tissue, brain, lung, red marrow, and muscle. B - Method of solution: The basic data sources were ENDF/B for H, C, N, O, Na, and Mg, the O5R library for Ca, S, and K, the GAM-2 library for Cl and an evaluation by Ritts for P. A 1/E spectrum was assumed for averaging the top 99 groups and a Maxwellian for averaging the thermal group values. The gamma-ray cross sections were computed from DLC-3/HPIC using MUG. The

  6. Up to date cross sections library for Thermos and Record codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Lopez, H.

    1993-01-01

    Reactor cell analysis is the first step in determining reactor core behavior and is required in the reload licensing process. For best results, reactor cell analysis should be carried out with libraries of up to date, accurate cross sections produced with well described methods from standard evaluated nuclear data. At first step in this work were determined the library structure for RECORD and THERMOS and were prepared the cross sections libraries using the NJOY nuclear data processing system and the ENDF-B/IV evaluated nuclear data. These libraries were used by the codes and some samples were perform, the result show some differences against the results obtained using the previous libraries. By other hand the libraries contain various adjustments to correct for deficiencies in nuclear data or analytical methods. These adjustments doesn't have any documentation, although some of them were identified in this work. (Author). 25 refs, 78 figs, 55 tabs

  7. Basis calculation of phase cross section library in a low power fast reactor neutronic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachic, J.

    1993-09-01

    In order to implement the utilization of the efficient multidimensional cubic SPLINE interpolation, we determine the phase library bases for net like relevant state components. A generic cubic surface and a weighted plane pertinent alternative interpolating methods used capable to generate cross sections values for fixed coordinates from cell code calculated data points is used. It is verified that the phase library bases increases or decrease smoothly and monotonically with the spectrum asymmetry and total flux buckling. This justifies its use in cross section updating avoiding cell calculations. (author)

  8. New evaluated neutron cross section libraries for the GEANT4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Guerrero, C.; Capote, R.

    2012-04-01

    The so-called High Precision neutron physics model implemented in the GEANT4 simulation package allows simulating the transport of neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV. It relies on the G4NDL cross section libraries, prepared by the GEANT4 collaboration from evaluated cross section files and distributed freely together with the code. Even though the performance of the G4NDL library has been improved over the time, users running complex simulations which involve the transport of neutrons do need more flexibility, in particular when assessing the uncertainties in the simulation results due to the neutron (and hence the nuclear) data library used. For this reason, a software tool has been developed for transforming any evaluated neutron cross section library in the ENDF-6 format into the G4NDL format. Furthermore, eight different releases of ENDF-B, JEFF, JENDL, CENDL and BROND national libraries have been translated into the G4NDL format and are distributed by the IAEA nuclear data service at www-nds.iaea.org/geant4. In this way, GEANT4 users have access to the complete list of standard evaluated neutron data libraries when performing Monte Carlo simulations with GEANT4. Consistency checks and a first validation of the libraries have been made following the methods described in this report. (author)

  9. VELM61 and VELM22: Multigroup cross-section libraries for sodium-cooled reactor shield analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C.Y.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two coupled neutron and photon multigroup cross-section libraries, derived from ENDF/B-V nuclear data, are described. The energy group structures, 61n/23..gamma.. and 22n/10..gamma.., are subsets of the Vitamin-E 174n/38..gamma.. group structure, and are tailored to the iron and sodium resonances, windows, and capture gamma-ray spectra. Each of the two libraries are available in two formats, the AMPX master format and the ANISN format. Cross sections for all materials in the Vitamin-E library were collapsed using a standard energy weighting function, and in addition, several cross-section sets for each of the major constituents of commercial grade sodium, stainless steel (types 304 and 316), and carbon steel were derived using several problem-dependent weighting functions for averaging the fine groups. Effects of various group structures and weighting functions on the accuracy of the broad group libraries are studied by ANISN analysis of a typical sodium-iron shield configuration.

  10. Analysis of fusion neutronics calculations and appraisal of UW cross-section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jianping; Li Xingzhong; Ying Chuntong

    1989-01-01

    A series of calculations for different cases (especially for the values of tritium breeding ratio T, and the fuel breeding ratio F in the blanket of a hybrid reactor) were carried out by using ANISN program and UW cross-section library. The comparison with other results in China and abroad kalso was done. It was shownwn that the installation and execution of ANISN program on ELXSI machine at Tsinghua University are successful, and the UW cross-section library is reliable. It may be used for fusion neutronics calculation in the future. The paper also points out that the difference between the calculations and by the authors are due to jthe different in cross-section data used

  11. Temperature dependent ENDF/B-VI, release 7 cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D E

    2000-01-01

    The ENDF/B data library has recently been updated and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This most recent library is identified as ENDF/B-VI, Release 7. Release 7 completely supersedes all preceding releases. As distributed the ENDF/B-VI, Release 7 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in applications this library has been processed into the form of temperature dependent cross sections at eight temperatures between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF/B-VI character format [1], which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form this library is approximately 1.6 gigabyte in size and is distributed on three CDs

  12. Preliminary assessment of Geant4 HP models and cross section libraries by reactor criticality benchmark calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Xiao-Xiao; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Mullet, Steven

    2013-01-01

    , U and O in uranium dioxide, Al metal, Be metal, and Fe metal. The native HP cross section library G4NDL does not include data for elements with atomic number larger than 92. Therefore, transuranic elements, which have impacts for a realistic reactor, can not be simulated by the combination of the HP...

  13. On the use of the Serpent Monte Carlo code for few-group cross section generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, E.; Leppaenen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → B1 methodology was used for generation of leakage-corrected few-group cross sections in the Serpent Monte-Carlo code. → Few-group constants generated by Serpent were compared with those calculated by Helios deterministic lattice transport code. → 3D analysis of a PWR core was performed by a nodal diffusion code DYN3D employing two-group cross section sets generated by Serpent and Helios. → An excellent agreement in the results of 3D core calculations obtained with Helios and Serpent generated cross-section libraries was observed. - Abstract: Serpent is a recently developed 3D continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MC) reactor physics burnup calculation code. Serpent is specifically designed for lattice physics applications including generation of homogenized few-group constants for full-core core simulators. Currently in Serpent, the few-group constants are obtained from the infinite-lattice calculations with zero neutron current at the outer boundary. In this study, in order to account for the non-physical infinite-lattice approximation, B1 methodology, routinely used by deterministic lattice transport codes, was considered for generation of leakage-corrected few-group cross sections in the Serpent code. A preliminary assessment of the applicability of the B1 methodology for generation of few-group constants in the Serpent code was carried out according to the following steps. Initially, the two-group constants generated by Serpent were compared with those calculated by Helios deterministic lattice transport code. Then, a 3D analysis of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core was performed by the nodal diffusion code DYN3D employing two-group cross section sets generated by Serpent and Helios. At this stage thermal-hydraulic (T-H) feedback was neglected. The DYN3D results were compared with those obtained from the 3D full core Serpent MC calculations. Finally, the full core DYN3D calculations were repeated taking into account T-H feedback and

  14. A computer program with graphical user interface to plot the multigroup cross sections of WIMS-D library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Ganesan, S.; Jagannathan, V.; Karthikeyan, R.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme entitled 'Final Stage of the WIMS Library Update Project', new and updated WIMS-D libraries based upon ENDF/B-VI.5, JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2.2 have become available. A project to prepare an exhaustive handbook of WIMS-D cross sections from old and new libraries has been taken up by the authors. As part of this project, we have developed a computer program XnWlup with user-friendly graphical interface to help the users of WIMS-D library to enable quick visualization of the plots of the energy dependence of the multigroup cross sections of any nuclide of interest. This software enables the user to generate and view the histogram of 69 multi-group cross sections as a function of neutron energy under Microsoft Windows environment. This software is designed using Microsoft Visual C++ and Microsoft Foundation Classes Library. The current features of the software, on-line help manual and future plans for further development are described in this paper

  15. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format (R2), which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  16. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D E

    2011-04-07

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format [R2], which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  17. ZZ FCXSEC, Coupled Cross-Section Library for Shielding from VITAMIN-C in AMPX, ANISN Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Format: (a) and (b) AMPX, (c) and (d) ANISN; Number of groups: (a) Fine-group 171 neutron and 36 gamma-ray; (b) Broad-group 22 neutron and 21 gamma-ray; (c) Broad-group microscopic (22n-21 gamma); (d) Broad-group macroscopic; Nuclides: Mixtures: H 2 O, Borated water, Concrete, D 2 O, Lithium hydride, Boral, Dry air, Nitric acid, Uranium dioxide, S 3 0 4 , UF 6 TBP in dodecane, Sm 2 O 3 , Eu 2 O 3 , Gd 2 O 3 , Gd(NO 3 ) 3 in water, WB2, Spen fuel oxide, Thorium oxide, Uranium metal, Silver zeolite. Individual materials: C, Na, Al, Fe, Zircaloy, Cd Nb, Mo, Pb, Be, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Sn, Ta. Origin: VITAMIN-C; Weighting spectrum: From 1.1109+5 eV to 1.7333+7 eV → 239 Pu thermal fission; From 4.1399-1 eV to 1.1109+5 eV → 1/E; From 1.0000-5 eV to 4.1399-1 eV → Maxwellian. FSXSEC is a collection of cross section libraries to be used for nuclear fuel cycle shielding calculations, generated from the pseudo-composition-independent VITAMIN-C cross section library: (a) A composition-dependent self-shielded fine-group library with 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups, and a broad-group library with 22 neutron and 21 gamma groups for AMPX. (b) A broad-group microscopic and a broad-group macroscopic library in ANISN format. 2 - Method of solution: To generate library (a), AMPX modules BONAMI, CHOX, and MALOCS were used. To generate library (b), AMPX modules NITAWL and AXMIX were used

  18. EJ2-MCNPlib. Contents of the JEF-2.2 based neutron cross-section library for MCNP4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Oppe, J.

    1995-05-01

    In this report a description is given of the EJ2-MCNPlib library. The EJ2-MCNPlib library is to be used for reactivity/critically calculations and general neutron/photon transport calculations with the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The library is based on the European JEF-2.2 nuclear data evaluation and contains data for all (i.e. 313) nuclides available on this evaluation.The cross-section data were generated using the NJOY cross-section processing code system, version 91.118. For easy reference cross-section plots are given in this report for the total, elastic and absorption cross sections for all nuclides on the EJ2-MCNPlib library. Furthermore, for verification purposes a graphical intercomparison is given of the results of standard benchmark calculations performed with JEF-2.2 cross-section data and with ENDF/B-V cross-section data (whenever available). 6 refs

  19. Development of ANJOYMC Program for Automatic Generation of Monte Carlo Cross Section Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Lee, Chung Chan

    2007-03-01

    The NJOY code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to generate the cross section libraries in ACE format for the Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP and McCARD by processing the evaluated nuclear data in ENDF/B format. It takes long time to prepare all the NJOY input files for hundreds of nuclides with various temperatures, and there can be some errors in the input files. In order to solve these problems, ANJOYMC program has been developed. By using a simple user input deck, this program is not only to generate all the NJOY input files automatically, but also to generate a batch file to perform all the NJOY calculations. The ANJOYMC program is written in Fortran90 and can be executed under the WINDOWS and LINUX operating systems in Personal Computer. Cross section libraries in ACE format can be generated in a short time and without an error by using a simple user input deck

  20. ANSL-V: ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Waddell, M.W.; Webster, C.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Multigroup P3 neutron, P0-P3 secondary gamma ray production (SGRP), and P6 gamma ray interaction (GRI) cross section libraries have been generated to support design work on the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross-Section Libraries), are data bases in a format suitable for subsequent generation of problem dependent cross sections. The ANSL-V libraries are available on magnetic tape from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  1. Assessment and comparison of different multigroup neutron cross section libraries for dosimetry purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erradi, L.; Karouani, K.

    1994-01-01

    Many multigroup neutron cross section libraries have been processed from basic evaluated nuclear data for use in neutron dosimetry, reactor shielding calculation and in the development of fusion reactors. Most of these libraries have been tested only for fission spectra and were not validated for fusion spectra. Fifteen of these libraries such as DOSCROS84, IRDF85 and ENDFB5 have been used along with the neutron spectra unfolding code SAND II to evaluate about fifteen threshold detector saturated activities. The comparison between these computed activities and the measured ones of a set of foils placed in different places along the axis of a paraffin cylinder and irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons generated by a D-T source, hence giving rise to complex spectra, leads to different types of discrepancies. The analysis of these discrepancies allows to select from these libraries the ones that can be recommended. 1 fig., 4 refs. (author)

  2. Achievement and qualification of multigroup cross-section library for light water reactor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastaldi, B.

    1986-07-01

    This study intends to improve then to check on integral experiments, the calculation of the main neutronic parameters in light water moderated lattices: Uranium 238 capture and consequently Plutonium 239 build-up, multiplication factor, temperature coefficient. The first part of this work concerns the resonant reaction rate calculation method implemented in the APOLLO code, the so-called LIVOLANT and JEANPIERRE formalism. The errors introduced by the corresponding assumptions are quantified and we propose substitution methods which avoid large biases and supply satisfactory results. The second part is dedicated to the cross-section evaluation of uranium major isotopes and to the achievement of APOLLO multigroup cross-sections. This cross-section set takes into considerations on the one hand the recent differential information and the other hand the various integral information obtained in the French Atomic Energy Commission facilities. The nuclear data file (JEF abd ENDF/B5) processing, for multigroup and self-shielded cross-sections achieving enable us to check the new THEMIS computer code. In the last part, the experimental validation of the proposed procedure (accurate formalism mutuel shielding and new multigroup library) is presented. This qualification is based on the reinterpretation of critical experiments performed in the EOLE reactor at Cadarache and spent fuel analysis. The corresponding results demonstrate that our propositions provide improvements on the computation of the PWR neutronic parameters; calculation-experiment discrepancies are now consistent with experimental uncertainty margins. 46 refs; 31 figs; 23 tabl [fr

  3. BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1 and BUGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0 – Generation Methodology and Preliminary Testing of two ENEA-Bologna Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescarini Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format, dedicated to LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry applications, were generated following the methodology recommended by the US ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009 standard. These libraries, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, are respectively based on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data and adopt the same broad-group energy structure (47 n + 20 γ of the ORNL BUGLE-96 similar library. They were respectively obtained from the ENEA-Bologna VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB libraries in AMPX format for nuclear fission applications through problem-dependent cross section collapsing with the ENEA-Bologna 2007 revision of the ORNL SCAMPI nuclear data processing system. Both previous libraries are based on the Bondarenko self-shielding factor method and have the same AMPX format and fine-group energy structure (199 n + 42 γ as the ORNL VITAMIN-B6 similar library from which BUGLE-96 was obtained at ORNL. A synthesis of a preliminary validation of the cited BUGLE-type libraries, performed through 3D fixed source transport calculations with the ORNL TORT-3.2 SN code, is included. The calculations were dedicated to the PCA-Replica 12/13 and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes in LWR shielding and radiation damage analyses.

  4. Two-level MOC calculation scheme in APOLLO2 for cross-section library generation for LWR hexagonal assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Nikolay; Todorova, Galina; Kolev, Nikola; Damian, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and efficient MOC calculation scheme in APOLLO2, developed by CEA for generating multi-parameterized cross-section libraries for PWR assemblies, has been adapted to hexagonal assemblies. The neutronic part of this scheme is based on a two-level calculation methodology. At the first level, a multi-cell method is used in 281 energy groups for cross-section definition and self-shielding. At the second level, precise MOC calculations are performed in a collapsed energy mesh (30-40 groups). In this paper, the application and validation of the two-level scheme for hexagonal assemblies is described. Solutions for a VVER assembly are compared with TRIPOLI4® calculations and direct 281g MOC solutions. The results show that the accuracy is close to that of the 281g MOC calculation while the CPU time is substantially reduced. Compared to the multi-cell method, the accuracy is markedly improved. (author)

  5. IAEA nuclear data for applications: Cross section standards and the reference input parameter library (RIPL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Pronyaev, Vladimir G.

    2003-01-01

    develop a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). The first stage of this work was initiated in 1994 and the second step began in 1998, both as IAEA CRPs. A consistent library of recommended nuclear theoretical input parameters is now available (RIPL-2) that includes a large amount of theoretical information suitable for nuclear reaction calculations, along with a number of computer codes for parameter retrieval and related calculations. A third further phase of this project has been recently initiated in order to extend the applicability of the RIPL library to cross sections for reactions on nuclei far from the line of stability, incident energies up to 200 MeV, and reactions induced by charged particles. (authors)

  6. Creation of the equilibrium core PBMR ORIGEN-S cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, C.C.; Reitsma, F.; Karriem, Z.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the design calculations for the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), fuel inventories, neutron and gamma sources and decay heat needs to be determined for the fuel spheres. Using the SCALE4.4 code system, a PBMR specific cross section library was created for the ORIGEN-S depletion calculations, assuming a 10-pass refueling system for the PBMR. In this paper the rationale for the creation of the PBMR library is evaluated in terms of the spectrum dependence due to burn-up. The ORIGEN-S PBMR library was further evaluated comparing the results for different parameters calculated with the reactor analysis diffusion code VSOP and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4C. (author)

  7. Specifications for adjusted cross section and covariance libraries based upon CSEWG fast reactor and dosimetry benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbin, C.R.; Marable, J.H.; Collins, P.J.; Cowan, C.L.; Peelle, R.W.; Salvatores, M.

    1979-06-01

    The present work proposes a specific plan of cross section library adjustment for fast reactor core physics analysis using information from fast reactor and dosimetry integral experiments and from differential data evaluations. This detailed exposition of the proposed approach is intended mainly to elicit review and criticism from scientists and engineers in the research, development, and design fields. This major attempt to develop useful adjusted libraries is based on the established benchmark integral data, accurate and well documented analysis techniques, sensitivities, and quantified uncertainties for nuclear data, integral experiment measurements, and calculational methodology. The adjustments to be obtained using these specifications are intended to produce an overall improvement in the least-squares sense in the quality of the data libraries, so that calculations of other similar systems using the adjusted data base with any credible method will produce results without much data-related bias. The adjustments obtained should provide specific recommendations to the data evaluation program to be weighed in the light of newer measurements, and also a vehicle for observing how the evaluation process is converging. This report specifies the calculational methodology to be used, the integral experiments to be employed initially, and the methods and integral experiment biases and uncertainties to be used. The sources of sensitivity coefficients, as well as the cross sections to be adjusted, are detailed. The formulae for sensitivity coefficients for fission spectral parameters are developed. A mathematical formulation of the least-square adjustment problem is given including biases and uncertainties in methods

  8. Evaluation of HYLIFE-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566-group neutron transport and activation cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code allow enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross-section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from the FENDL/A-2.0 pointwise data. Neutron spectra have been calculated for the first walls of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero inertial fusion energy power plant designs and have been used in subsequent neutron activation calculations. The results obtained using the two different group structures are compared with each other as well as to those obtained using a 175-group version of the EAF3.1 activation cross-section library.

  9. Methods for calculating group cross sections for doubly heterogeneous thermal reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The report discusses methods used at LASL for calculating group cross sections for doubly heterogeneous HTGR systems of the General Atomic design. These cross sections have been used for the neutronic safety analysis calculations of such HTGR systems at various points in reactor lifetime (e.g., beginning-of-life, end-of-equilibrium cycle). They were also compared with supplied General Atomic cross sections generated with General Atomic codes. The overall agreement between the LASL and the GA cross sections has been satisfactory

  10. Modernization of Cross Section Library for VVER-1000 Type Reactors Internals and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloschenko Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad-group library BGL1000_B7 for neutron and gamma transport calculations in VVER-1000 internals, RPV and shielding was carried out on a base of fine-group library v7-200n47g from SCALE-6 system. The comparison of the library BGL1000_B7 with the library v7-200n47g and the library BGL1000 (the latter is using for VVER-1000 calculations is demonstrated on several calculation and experimental tests.

  11. New Standard Evaluated Neutron Cross Section Libraries for the GEANT4 Code and First Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, Emilio; Koi, Tatsumi; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of neutrons with matter relies on evaluated nuclear data libraries and models. The evaluated libraries are compilations of measured physical parameters (such as cross sections) combined with predictions of nuclear model calculations which have been adjusted to reproduce the experimental data. The results obtained from the simulations depend largely on the accuracy of the underlying nuclear data used, and thus it is important to have access to the nuclear data libraries available, either of general use or compiled for specific applications, and to perform exhaustive validations which cover the wide scope of application of the simulation code. In this paper we describe the work performed in order to extend the capabilities of the GEANT4 toolkit for the simulation of the interaction of neutrons with matter at neutron energies up to 20 MeV and a first verification of the results obtained. Such a work is of relevance for applications as diverse as the simulation of a n...

  12. One-, two- and three-dimensional transport codes using multi-group double-differential form cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto.

    1988-11-01

    We have developed a group of computer codes to realize the accurate transport calculation by using the multi-group double-differential form cross section. This type of cross section can correctly take account of the energy-angle correlated reaction kinematics. Accordingly, the transport phenomena in materials with highly anisotropic scattering are accurately calculated by using this cross section. They include the following four codes or code systems: PROF-DD : a code system to generate the multi-group double-differential form cross section library by processing basic nuclear data file compiled in the ENDF / B-IV or -V format, ANISN-DD : a one-dimensional transport code based on the discrete ordinate method, DOT-DD : a two-dimensional transport code based on the discrete ordinate method, MORSE-DD : a three-dimensional transport code based on the Monte Carlo method. In addition to these codes, several auxiliary codes have been developed to process calculated results. This report describes the calculation algorithm employed in these codes and how to use them. (author)

  13. IAEA consultants' meeting on selection of evaluations for the FENDL/A-2 activation cross section library. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1996-02-01

    FENDL/A is a nuclear data library of neutron activation cross-sections prepared for use in nuclear fusion reactor development. The present report contains recommendations for the creation of a second improved version of FENDL/A, including a list of 400 neutron reactions to be considered with priority. (author)

  14. A procedure for automatic updating of total cross section libraries of the Mercure IV code for nuclear safeguard applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, C.; Amici, S.

    1991-01-01

    The measuring utilization of Montecarlo codes for the simulation of the measurement techniques used in the field of Nuclear Safeguards and the high performances required (error<1%), needs the implementation of libraries with updated nuclear data. MERCURE IV is a computer code especially developed for the non destructive measurement techniques simulation. In addition to an analysis of the MERCURE IV code features, this work presents an algorithm developed for generating the library of the total gamma cross section used by the code

  15. Dorsiflexor muscle-group thickness in children with cerebral palsy: Relation to cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2009-01-01

    If the thickness and cross-sectional area of the dorsiflexor muscle group are related in children with cerebral palsy, measurements of muscle thickness may be used to monitor changes in muscle size due to training or immobilisation in these patients. We assessed the validity and reliability.......001), and the reliability of the muscle-thickness measurements was high in the healthy subjects (ICC_{2.1} = 0.94, standard error of measurement = 0.04 cm). The dorsiflexor muscle-thickness was 22% less in the affected compared to the non-affected leg in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (P ..., the dorsiflexor cross-sectional area was 32% less in the affected compared to the non-affected leg (P = 0.002). Measurements of dorsiflexor muscle-thickness can be reliably obtained, and they reflect dorsiflexor cross-sectional area in children with cerebral palsy....

  16. Differences between cross-section libraries for neutron dosimetry; Diferencas entre bibliotecas de secoes de choque para dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardelli, T.C.; Stecher, L.C.; Coelho, T.S.; Castro, V.A. De; Cavalieri, T.A.; Menzel, F.; Giarola, R.S.; Domingos, D.B.; Yoriyaz, H., E-mail: tiago.tardelli@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-08-15

    Absorbed dose calculations depend on a consistent set of nuclear data used in simulations in computer codes. Nuclear data are stored in libraries, however, the information available about the differences in dose caused by different libraries are rare. The libraries are processed by a computer system to be able to be used by a radiation transport code. One of the systems capable of processing nuclear data is the NJOY system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nuclear data libraries for neutrons available in the literature, and to quantify the differences in absorbed dose obtained using the libraries JENDL 4.0, JEFF 3.3.1 and ENDF/B.VII. The absorbed dose calculation was performed on a simple geometric model, as spheres, and in anthropomorphic model of the human body based on the ICRP-110 for neutron transport simulation using the MCNP5 code. The results were compared with literature data. The results obtained with cross sections from the libraries JEFF and ENDF/B.VII have shown to be identical in most cases, except for one case where the difference has exceeded 10%. The results obtained with JENDL library has shown to be considerably different in most cases comparing to other two libraries. Some differences were over 200%. The dose calculations showed differences between the libraries, which is justified by differences in the cross sections. It has been observed that the cross sections values of certain nuclides assume quite different values in different libraries. These differences in turn cause considerable differences in dose calculations. (author)

  17. Evaluated cross-section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Blann, M.; Cox, L.; Young, P.G.; Meigooni, A.

    1995-01-01

    A program is being carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop high-energy evaluated nuclear data libraries for use in Monte Carlo simulations of cancer radiation therapy. In this report we describe evaluated cross sections and kerma factors for neutrons with incident energies up to 100 MeV on 12 C. The aim of this effort is to incorporate advanced nuclear physics modeling methods, with new experimental measurements, to generate cross section libraries needed for an accurate simulation of dose deposition in fast neutron therapy. The evaluated libraries are based mainly on nuclear model calculations, benchmarked to experimental measurements where they exist. We use the GNASH code system, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms. The libraries tabulate elastic and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated production spectra for light ejectiles with A≤and kinetic energies given to light ejectiles and heavy recoil fragments. The major steps involved in this effort are: (1) development and validation of nuclear models for incident energies up to 100 MeV; (2) collation of experimental measurements, including new results from Louvain-la-Nueve and Los Alamos; (3) extension of the Livermore ENDL formats for representing high-energy data; (4) calculation and evaluation of nuclear data; and (5) validation of the libraries. We describe the evaluations in detail, with particular emphasis on our new high-energy modeling developments. Our evaluations agree well with experimental measurements of integrated and differential cross sections. We compare our results with the recent ENDF/B-VI evaluation which extends up to 32 MeV

  18. Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, C.P.U.T, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Eisa, M.E.M., E-mail: memeisa@yahoo.co [Sudan University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2010-06-15

    Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering and Micro-PIXE were used to determine the matrix composition and content of light and middle transition elements, with beam energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV. Mapping analysis showed a relatively similar content distribution for S, Cl, K and Ca within each group. However significant differences, particularly for heavier metals, such as Fe and Zn were also found. Correspondence Analysis of the data showed a clear separation between the two groups when the total content over the hair cross section was considered.

  19. Development and benchmark of high energy continuous-energy neutron cross Section library HENDL-ADS/MC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chong; Wang Minghuang; Zou Jun; Xu Dezheng; Zeng Qin

    2012-01-01

    The ADS (accelerator driven sub-critical system) has great energy spans, complex energy spectrum structures and strong physical effects. Hence, the existing nuclear data libraries can't fully meet the needs of nuclear analysis in ADS. In order to do nuclear analysis for ADS system, a point-wise data library HENDL-ADS/MC (hybrid evaluated nuclear data library) was produced by FDS team. Meanwhile, to test the availability and reliability of the HENDL-ADS/MC data library, a series of shielding and critical safety benchmarks were performed. To validate and qualify the reliability of the high-energy cross section for HENDL-ADS/MC library further, a series of high neutronics integral experiments have been performed. The testing results confirm the accuracy and reliability of HENDL-ADS/MC. (authors)

  20. The needs for program and cross-section library improvement in calculation of neutron-induced activity inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavshitz, S.G.; Rubchenya, V.A.; Rimski-Korsakov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the possibility of an approach to evaluate the radioactive inventory - induced activity of structural materials and surface contamination of reactor components, that will fit well into ORIGEN code structure and could be used on a modest PC directly on the decommissioning site. This approach would also require only one well tested set of pre-calculated and adjusted by experiment cross-section libraries (averaged by typical neutron spectra outside the reactor core). 15 refs, 1 fig

  1. Analysis of variation in few-group cross section behavior subjected to burnup and boron concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zongyao; Li Dongsheng.

    1986-01-01

    The paper analyzes the variations of few-group cross section behavior in neutron diffusion subjected to fuel burnup and critical boron concentration in a core. The influences of the behavior on the core excess reactivity, crirical boron concentration, power distribution and the yield of isotopes are also analyzed. A reactor core of samll-medium-sized nuclear power plant is analyzed as an example

  2. Observations on processing neutron nuclear data from the JEF-1 fundamental cross section library with the Karlsruhe version of the processing system NJOY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, A.

    1988-11-01

    During the generation of a new group constant set for application in PWR fuel cycle analysis, many irregularities in the group cross sections and selfshielding factors were observed. As the fundamental cross section library the Joint Evaluated File JEF-1 was used, the processing of these data to group constants was performed with the Karlsruhe version of the processing system NJOY. Most of the irregularities occur for high concentration of the nuclide in question, especially in the unresolved resonance region. The irregularities are discussed in some detail and possible reasons for their occurrence are given. This investigation is done for all group cross sections of the heavy nuclei (U-232, -234, -235, -236, -238, Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, -242, Am-241, -243), structural materials, oxygen, boron, and hydrogen bound in water. All irregularities are removed, partly formally. The application of this new group constant library to the analysis of the PWR-fuel cycle will be described in another paper. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Nuclide Importance to One-Group Neutron Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Yoshikane

    2001-01-01

    The importance of nuclides is useful when investigating nuclide characteristics in a given neutron spectrum. However, it is derived using one-group microscopic cross sections, which may contain large errors or uncertainties. The sensitivity coefficient shows the effect of these errors or uncertainties on the importance.The equations for calculating sensitivity coefficients of importance to one-group nuclear constants are derived using the perturbation method. Numerical values are also evaluated for some important cases for fast and thermal reactor systems.Many characteristics of the sensitivity coefficients are derived from the derived equations and numerical results. The matrix of sensitivity coefficients seems diagonally dominant. However, it is not always satisfied in a detailed structure. The detailed structure of the matrix and the characteristics of coefficients are given.By using the obtained sensitivity coefficients, some demonstration calculations have been performed. The effects of error and uncertainty of nuclear data and of the change of one-group cross-section input caused by fuel design changes through the neutron spectrum are investigated. These calculations show that the sensitivity coefficient is useful when evaluating error or uncertainty of nuclide importance caused by the cross-section data error or uncertainty and when checking effectiveness of fuel cell or core design change for improving neutron economy

  4. Nuclear data, cross section libraries and their application in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named seminar. The articles deal with evaluated nuclear data libraries, computer codes for neutron transport and reactor calculations using nuclear data libraries, and the application of nuclear data libraries for the calculation of the interaction of neutron beams with materials. (HSI)

  5. The activation cross section library UKACT1 and the inventory code FISPACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The UK activation library for fusion applications, UKACT1, supersedes the existing UKCTRIIIA library. It contains neutron induced reaction data for 8719 reactions on 625 target nuclides. The library is used by the inventory code FISPACT which is a modified version of the existing code FISPIN. A library of decay information for all the 1314 nuclides involved is also required for calculations and this is also briefly described. UKACT1 will be used for irradiation calculations and as the starting point for a new version which will contain improved data for the most important reactions. These will be identified using the sensitivity subroutine in FISPACT. 16 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. New approach to the adjustment of group cross sections fitting integral measurements - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.A.

    1980-01-01

    The method developed in the first paper concerning group cross sections fitting integral measurements is generalized to cover the case when the source of the extracted negligence discrepancy cannot be identified and the theoretical relation between the integral and differential measurements is also subject to uncertainty. The question of how to divide in such a case the negligence discrepancy between the integral and differential data is resolved. Application to a specific problem with real experimental data is shown as a demonstration of the method. 4 refs

  7. RCPL1: a program to prepare neutron and photon cross-section libraries for RCP01 (LWBR Development Program). [In FORTRAN for CDC 6600 or 7600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dralle, A V; Candelore, N R; Gast, R C

    1978-08-01

    RCPL1 is a FORTRAN digital computer program designed and developed to prepare neutron and photon cross section libraries for the RCP01 Monte Carlo computer program for solving neutron and photon transport problems in three-dimensional geometry with detailed energy description. The neutron libraries prepared by RCPL1 contain detailed Doppler-broadened resonance cross sections from unresolved and either single-level or multilevel resonance parameters, for any number of nuclides, within an arbitrary energy structure, and the photon libraries contain tabulations of the interaction cross sections and gamma emission spectra. This report describes the various RCPL1 program options, calculational details, and input requirements. All data used for library construction are extracted from a multigroup cross section library system XAP, described in an appendix to the report, which contains Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) data. 5 figures, 6 tables.

  8. POINT 2012: ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D E

    2012-02-26

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B [R1]. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes: (1) publicly available nuclear data (the current ENDF/B data, available on-line at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/) and, (2) publicly available computer codes (the current PREPRO codes, available on-line at the Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, http://www-nds.iaea.or.at/ndspub/endf/prepro/) and, (3) My own personal computer located in my home. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and described in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results: by its very nature I consider this data to be born in the public domain.

  9. POINT 2012: ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B [R1]. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes: (1) publicly available nuclear data (the current ENDF/B data, available on-line at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/) and, (2) publicly available computer codes (the current PREPRO codes, available on-line at the Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, http://www-nds.iaea.or.at/ndspub/endf/prepro/) and, (3) My own personal computer located in my home. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and described in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results: by its very nature I consider this data to be born in the public domain.

  10. Covariances of the few-group homogenized cross-sections for diffusion calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Cervera, S.; Castro, S.; García-Herranz, N.

    2015-07-01

    In the context of the NEA/OECD benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM), Exercise I-3 consists of neutronic calculations to propagate uncertainties to core parameters such as k-effective or power distribution. In core simulators, the input uncertainties arise, among others, from few-group lattice-averaged cross-section uncertainties. In this paper, an analysis of those uncertainties due to nuclear data is performed. The core analyzed in Exercise I-3 is the initial loading of the PWR TMI-1, composed by 11 different types of fuel assemblies. By statistically sampling the nuclear data input, the sequence SAMPLER from SCALE system (using its NEWT lattice code) allows to obtain the few-group homogenized cross-sections and with a statistical analysis generates the covariance matrices. The correlations among different reactions and energy groups of the covariance matrices are analyzed. The impact of burnable poisons, control rods or the environment of the assembly is also assessed. It is shown the importance of the correlation between different assembly types. The global covariance matrix will permit to compute the uncertainties in k-eff in a core simulator, once sensitivity coefficients are known. Only if the complete covariance matrix is considered, similar uncertainties to the ones provided by other methodologies are obtained. (Author)

  11. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  12. Summary of new T-16 actinide (U, Pu isotope) cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of the results of a major multi-year effort, involving the T-16 nuclear reaction theory modelling and evaluation, experimental data from LANSCE and ORELA, integral data testing from T-18 critical assemblies and the X-5 libraries and legacy codes created

  13. Measurement committee of the US cross section evaluation working group. Annual report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; McLane, V.

    1995-08-01

    The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group is a long-standing committee charged with the responsibility for organizing and overseeing the U.S. cross-section evaluation effort. It's main product is the official U.S. evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF; the current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the U.S. Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the U.S. nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This was based on recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the U.S. were declining at an alarming rate. The mission of the Committee is to establish a network of experimentalists in the U.S. which would provide encouragement to the national nuclear data measurement effort through improved communication and facilitation of collaborative activities. The Committee currently has 19 members, and interested scientists are welcome to join the network simply by contacting the Chairman. For reference, the names of the current members and contact information are contained in this report. This annual report is the first such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from 10 laboratories in the U.S. which have been prepared by members of the Committee and submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing. This report is being distributed in hard copy and is also available on-line via the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is hoped that the information provided here on the work that is going on at the reporting laboratories will prove interesting and stimulating to the readers

  14. Motivational Factors in Women Seeking Augmentation Mammoplasty Across Different Age Groups: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherf, Matan; Wiser, Itay; Klein, Dov; Heller, Lior

    2018-02-19

    Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most common esthetic procedures worldwide. A wide range of motivations leads women to undergo this procedure, among them socioeconomic status and age group. The aim of this study was to identify the motivation spectrum for augmentation mammoplasty through different age groups. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey given to Israeli women seeking augmentation mammoplasty consults in a hospital and private clinic settings, using a 17-item Motivation for Augmentation questionnaire. Three motivation domains were examined: appearance, sexuality and social. Study participants were divided into three age groups: 18-29, 30-39 and over 40 years. A total of 101 women participated in the study. Motivations were rated similar among all age groups. Appearance and sexuality domains were rated significantly higher compared with the social domain throughout all age groups (3.28 ± 0.91 and 3.15 ± 1.03 vs. 1.88 ± 1.16, p age. The desire to improve one's appearance and sexuality is more prominent than improving social and work status. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  15. Integral test for Np237 and Am241 cross sections in JENDL, ENDF and JEF libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Unesaki, Hironobu; Kitada, Takanori

    2002-01-01

    Experiments using Kyoto University critical assembly (KUCA) were performed for measuring the capture and fission reaction rates of 237 Np and 241 Am. A back-to-back fission chamber was employed for the measurement of the fission rate of 237 Np and 241 Am relative to 235 U. The capture rate of 237 Np relative to 197 Au was measured by using activation method. Eleven cores, of which the spectra were changed systematically, were mocked up for the present measurements. Five cores among the eleven were utilized for the fission reaction rate measurement. The experiment was analyzed using the Monte Carlo code MVP, the transport code TWOTRAN and the diffusion code CITATION using the libraries based on JENDL3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF2.2. As the results, for 237 Np, JENDL3.2 showed good agreement for both capture and fission. However, for the fission rate of 241 Am, JENDL3.2 underestimates 15-20%. On the other hand, ENDF/B-VI and JEF2.2 show different C/Es for 237 Np and 241 Am. (author)

  16. Validation of Nuclear Criticality Safety Software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The validation documented in this report is based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992, and was completed in June 1993. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Martin Marietta Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM 3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. When the validation results are treated as a single group, there is 95% confidence that 99.9% of future calculations of similar critical systems will have a calculated K{sub eff} > 0.9616. Based on this result the Portsmouth Nuclear Criticality Safety Department has adopted the calculational acceptance criteria that a k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} {le} 0.95 is safety subcritical. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  17. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  18. New approach to the adjustment of group cross sections fitting integral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.A.

    1979-01-01

    The adjustment of group cross sections fitting integral measurements is viewed as a process of estimating theoretical and/or experimental negligence errors to bring statistical consistency to the integral and differential data so that they can be combined to form an enlarged ensemble, based on which an improved estimation of the physical constants can be made. A three-step approach is suggested, and its formalism of general validity is developed. In step one, the data of negligence error are extracted from the given integral and differential data. The method of extraction is based on the concepts of prior probability and information entropy. It automatically leads to vanishing negligence error as the two sets of data are statistically consistent. The second step is to identify the sources of negligence error and adjust the data by an amount compensating for the extracted negligence discrepancy. In the last step, the two data sets, already adjusted to mutual consistency are combined as a single unified ensemble. Standard methods of statistics can then be applied to reestimate the physical constants. 1 figure

  19. Encoded physics knowledge in checking codes for nuclear cross section libraries at Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. Kent

    2017-09-01

    Checking procedures for processed nuclear data at Los Alamos are described. Both continuous energy and multi-group nuclear data are verified by locally developed checking codes which use basic physics knowledge and common-sense rules. A list of nuclear data problems which have been identified with help of these checking codes is also given.

  20. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D

    2013-10-15

    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  1. Assessing availability of scientific journals, databases, and health library services in Canadian health ministries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Grégory; Ouimet, Mathieu; Lavis, John N; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2013-03-21

    Evidence-informed health policymaking logically depends on timely access to research evidence. To our knowledge, despite the substantial political and societal pressure to enhance the use of the best available research evidence in public health policy and program decision making, there is no study addressing availability of peer-reviewed research in Canadian health ministries. To assess availability of (1) a purposive sample of high-ranking scientific journals, (2) bibliographic databases, and (3) health library services in the fourteen Canadian health ministries. From May to October 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among librarians employed by Canadian health ministries to collect information relative to availability of scientific journals, bibliographic databases, and health library services. Availability of scientific journals in each ministry was determined using a sample of 48 journals selected from the 2009 Journal Citation Reports (Sciences and Social Sciences Editions). Selection criteria were: relevance for health policy based on scope note information about subject categories and journal popularity based on impact factors. We found that the majority of Canadian health ministries did not have subscription access to key journals and relied heavily on interlibrary loans. Overall, based on a sample of high-ranking scientific journals, availability of journals through interlibrary loans, online and print-only subscriptions was estimated at 63%, 28% and 3%, respectively. Health Canada had a 2.3-fold higher number of journal subscriptions than that of the provincial ministries' average. Most of the organisations provided access to numerous discipline-specific and multidisciplinary databases. Many organisations provided access to the library resources described through library partnerships or consortia. No professionally led health library environment was found in four out of fourteen Canadian health ministries (i.e. Manitoba Health, Northwest

  2. CSEWG SYMPOSIUM, A CSWEG RETROSPECTIVE. 35TH ANNIVERSARY CROSS SECTION EVALUATION WORKING GROUP, NOV. 5, 2001, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNFORD, C.; HOLDEN, N.; PEARLSTEIN, S.

    2001-11-05

    This publication has been prepared to record some of the history of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). CSEWG is responsible for creating the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF/B) which is widely used by scientists and engineers who are involved in the development and maintenance of applied nuclear technologies. This organization has become the model for the development of nuclear data libraries throughout the world. The data format (ENDF) has been adopted as the international standard. On November 5, 2001, a symposium was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory to celebrate the 50 th meeting of the CSEWG organization and the 35 th anniversary of its first meeting in November 1966. The papers presented in this volume were prepared by present and former CSEWG members for presentation at the November 2001 symposium. All but two of the presentations are included. I have included an appendix to list all of the CSEWG members and their affiliations, which has been compiled from the minutes of each of the CSEWG meetings. Minutes exist for all meetings except the 4 th meeting held in January 1968. The list includes 348 individuals from 71 organizations. The dates for each of the 50 CSEWG meetings are listed. The committee structure and chairmen of all committees and subcommittees are also included in the appendix. This volume is dedicated to three individuals whose foresight and talents made CSEWG possible and successful. They are Henry Honeck who lead the effort to develop the ENDF format and the CSEWG system, Ira Zartman, the Atomic Energy Commission program manager who provided the programmatic direction and support, and Sol Pearlstein who led the development of the CESWG organization and the ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data library.

  3. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  4. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  5. The effect of uncertainty in cross sections in the ENDF/B-VI library on the neutronic parameters of the ETRR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refeat, R.; Amin, E.; Elmorsy, M.; Gaafar, M.; Noah, S.

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of a large number of approximations that lead to numerous errors in the neutronic reactor calculations was the main purpose behind developing Monte Carlo codes. The MCNP series of codes (Monte Carlo Nuclear Particle) are developed and extensively used in neutronic core calculations. Although the neutronic data input to these codes is the pointwise cross section files as presented by ENDF libraries or similar ones, are comprehensive and detailed. Yet the major sources of errors in the core calculations stem from the uncertainty in the cross section data. In this paper the effect of estimated uncertainty in the values of cross sections in the ENDF/B-V1 library, on the neutronic parameters of the ETRR-2 reactor is studied. MCNP code is used to simulate a three dimensional model for the reactor core considering all the materials composition and geometrical details. Perturbation technique is used to determine the effect of uncertainty in cross sections for a number of isotopes in the reactor on the fission rates and a comparison is made between the fission rate values with and without the uncertainty values for the different cross section types and different energy ranges. It is shown that for all the considered isotopes the effect of uncertainty in the cross section data on the fission rate values is very small, where the differences in fission rates do not exceed 10% and this value is accepted

  6. Evaluated cross section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 16}O and {sup 14}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1995-07-01

    We present evaluations of the interaction of 20 to 100 MeV neutrons with oxygen and nitrogen nuclei, which follows on from our previous work on carbon. Our aim is to accurately represent integrated cross sections, inclusive emission spectra, and kerma factors, in a data library which can be used in radiation transport calculations. We apply the FKK-GNASH nuclear model code, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms, and use experimental measurements to optimize the calculations. We determine total, elastic, and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated emission spectra, for light ejectiles with A{<=}4 and gamma-rays, and average energy depositions. Our results for charged-particle emission spectra agree well with the measurements of Subramanian et al.. We compare kerma factors derived from our evaluated cross sections with experimental data, providing an integral benchmarking of our work. The evaluated data libraries are available as electronic files.

  7. Standard reference and other important nuclear data by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report is a current review of the status of standard reference and other important nuclear data pointing out data discrepancies, recommending new measurements, and comparing the current version of ENDF/B with data. Neutron reactions with 1 H, 3 H, 6 Li, 10 B, 12 C, 59 Co, 80 Kr, 136 Xe, 153 Eu, and 197 Au are included, along with reaction and other data for the actinide nuclei. Cross sections, spectra, etc., are given for some of the nuclides considered

  8. COVFILS: 30-group covariance library based on ENDF/B-V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1981-03-01

    A library of 30-group cross sections and covariances called COVFILS has been prepared from ENDF/B-V data using the NJOY code system. COVFILS includes data on the total cross section, scattering cross sections, and the most important absorption cross sections for 1 H, 10 B, C, 16 O, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb. This report contains detailed descriptions of various features of the library, a listing of a FORTRAN retrieval program, and 143 plots of the multigroup cross-section uncertainties and their correlations

  9. ERRFILS: a preliminary library of 30-group multigroup covariance data for use in CTR sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBauve, R.J.; Muir, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    A library of 30-group multigroup covariance data was prepared from preliminary ENDF/B-V data with the NJOY code. Data for Fe, Cr, Ni, 10 B, C, Cu, H, and Pb are included in this library. Reactions include total cross sections, elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections, and the most important absorption cross sections. Typical data from the file are shown. 3 tables

  10. The REAC-ECN-3 data library with neutron activation and transmutation cross-sections for use in fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Kamp, H.A.J. van der; Kopecky, J.; Nierop, D.

    1988-05-01

    The work performed to revise the REAC data file of Mann et al., containing cross-sections for neutron activation and transmutation reactions for use in fusion-reactor technology, is described. The revisions were made by means of renormalizations of the cross-sections to experimental data at 14.5 MeV or to data from 14.5 MeV systematics. Uncertainty estimates are given for the systematics. Furthermore, a number of reactions have been added. The file essentially contains cross-sections for almost all stable and unstable nuclides with half lives exceeding 1 day. If a reaction can produce one or two isomers the cross-sections for producing the ground and isomeric states are given separately. In most cases these cross-sections were obtained by a simple scaling using isomer ratios at 14.5 MeV, based upon experimental data or recently developed systematics. For about 50 reactions leading to long-lived states a special treatment was followed including a detailed uncertainty analysis. The revised file is called REAC-ECN-3. A version with multi-group cross-sections has also been generated (GREAC-ECN-3). The report contains an Appendix with 14.5 MeV cross-sections for all isotopes considered in the data file. 7 figs.; 29 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 appendix

  11. Validation of MCNP6 Version 1.0 with the ENDF/B-VII.1 Cross Section Library for Plutonium Metals, Oxides, and Solutions on the High Performance Computing Platform Moonlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gough, Sean T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-05

    This report documents a validation of the MCNP6 Version 1.0 computer code on the high performance computing platform Moonlight, for operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that involve plutonium metals, oxides, and solutions. The validation is conducted using the ENDF/B-VII.1 continuous energy group cross section library at room temperature. The results are for use by nuclear criticality safety personnel in performing analysis and evaluation of various facility activities involving plutonium materials.

  12. Generation of the library of neutron cross sections for the Record code of the Fuel Management System (FMS); Generacion de la biblioteca de secciones eficaces de neutrones para el codigo Record del Sistema de Administracion de Combustible (FMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Hernandez L, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-11-15

    On the basis of the library structure of the RECORD code a method to generate the neutron cross sections by means of the ENDF-B/IV database and the NJOY code has been developed. The obtained cross sections are compared with those of the current library which was processed using the ENDF-B/III version. (Author)

  13. Use of smokeless tobacco among groups of Pakistani medical students – a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Mahwish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of smokeless tobacco is common in South Asia. Tobacco is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Doctors make one of the best avenues to influence patients' tobacco use. However, medical students addicted to tobacco are likely to retain this habit as physicians and are unlikely to counsel patients against using tobacco. With this background, this study was conducted with the objective of determining the prevalence of smokeless tobacco among Pakistani medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in three medical colleges of Pakistan – one from the north and two from the southern region. 1025 students selected by convenient sampling completed a peer reviewed, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Questions were asked regarding lifetime use (at least once or twice in their life, current use (at least once is the last 30 days, and established use (more than 100 times in their life of smokeless tobacco. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results Two hundred and twenty (21.5% students had used tobacco in some form (smoked or smokeless in their lifetime. Sixty six (6.4% students were lifetime users of smokeless tobacco. Thirteen (1.3% were daily users while 18 (1.8% fulfilled the criterion for established users. Niswar was the most commonly used form of smokeless tobacco followed by paan and nass. Most naswar users belonged to NWFP while most paan users studied in Karachi. On univariate analysis, lifetime use of smokeless tobacco showed significant associations with the use of cigarettes, student gender (M > F, student residence (boarders > day scholars and location of the College (NWFP > Karachi. Multivariate analysis showed independent association of lifetime use of smokeless tobacco with concomitant cigarette smoking, student gender and location of the medical college. Conclusion The use of smokeless tobacco among medical students cannot be ignored. The

  14. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  15. Measurements of D-T neutron induced radioactivity in plasma-facing materials and their role in qualification of activation cross-section libraries and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    The D-T neutron-induced radioactivity constitutes one of the foremost issues in fusion reactor design. The validation of activation cross-sections and decay data libraries is one of the important requirements for validating ITER design from safety and waste disposal viewpoints. An elaborate, experimental program was initiated in 1988, under USDOE-JAERI collaborative program, to validate the radioactivity codes/libraries. The measurements of decay-γ spectra from irradiated, high purity samples of Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn-Cu alloy, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, stainless steel 316 (AISI 316), Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, In, Sn, Ta, W, and Pb, among others, were conducted under D-T neutron fluences varying from 1.6 x 10 10 ncm -2 to 6.1 x 10 13 ncm -2 . As many as 14 neutron energy spectra were covered for a number of materials. The analysis of isotopic activities of the irradiated materials using activation cross-section libraries of four leading radioactivity codes, i.e. ACT4/THIDA-2, REAC-3, DKR-ICF, and RACC, has shown large discrepancies among the calculations, on the one hand, and between the calculations and the measurements, on the other. A discussion is also presented on definition and obtention of safety cum quality factors for various activation libraries. (orig.)

  16. ANITA-IEAF activation code package - updating of the decay and cross section data libraries and validation on the experimental data from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoni, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    ANITA-IEAF is an activation package (code and libraries) developed in the past in ENEA-Bologna in order to assess the activation of materials exposed to neutrons with energies greater than 20 MeV. An updated version of the ANITA-IEAF activation code package has been developed. It is suitable to be applied to the study of the irradiation effects on materials in facilities like the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and the DEMO Oriented Neutron Source (DONES), in which a considerable amount of neutrons with energies above 20 MeV is produced. The present paper summarizes the main characteristics of the updated version of ANITA-IEAF, able to use decay and cross section data based on more recent evaluated nuclear data libraries, i.e. the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library and the EAF-2010 neutron activation cross section library. In this paper the validation effort related to the comparison between the code predictions and the activity measurements obtained from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron is presented. In this integral experiment samples of two different steels, SS-316 and F82H, pure vanadium and a vanadium alloy, structural materials of interest in fusion technology, were activated in a neutron spectrum similar to the IFMIF neutron field.

  17. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy in insomnia: a cross-sectional case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongjing; Ji, Yutian; Xu, You; Tang, Guangzheng; Yu, Zhenghe; Xu, Lianlian; Shen, Chanchan; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) might meet the considerable treatment demand of insomnia, but its effectiveness needs to be addressed. This study recruited 27 insomnia patients treated with 16-weeks of zolpidem (zolpidem group), 26 patients treated with 4-weeks of zolpidem and also treated with 12-weeks of GCBT (GCBT group), and 31 healthy control volunteers. Before treatment and 16 weeks after intervention, participants were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaires (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 [PHQ-15]), the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep-16 (DBAS-16), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Compared to the zolpidem and healthy control groups, the scale scores of PHQ-9, PHQ-15, DBAS-16 and PSQI were significantly reduced after intervention in the GCBT group. Regarding the score changes, there were correlations between PSQI, DBAS-16, PHQ-9, and PHQ-15 scales in the zolpidem group, but there were limited correlations between PSQI and some DBAS-16 scales in the GCBT group. Our results indicate that GCBT is effective to treat insomnia by improving sleep quality and reducing emotional and somatic disturbances; thus, the study supports the advocacy of applying group psychotherapy to the disorder.

  18. Group cognitive–behavioral therapy in insomnia: a cross-sectional case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hongjing Mao,1,* Yutian Ji,2,* You Xu,1 Guangzheng Tang,1 Zhenghe Yu,1 Lianlian Xu,1 Chanchan Shen,2 Wei Wang1,2 1Department of Psychosomatic Disorders, The Seventh People’s Hospital, Mental Health Center, 2Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Group cognitive–behavioral therapy (GCBT might meet the considerable treatment demand of insomnia, but its effectiveness needs to be addressed.Participants: This study recruited 27 insomnia patients treated with 16-weeks of zolpidem (zolpidem group, 26 patients treated with 4-weeks of zolpidem and also treated with 12-weeks of GCBT (GCBT group, and 31 healthy control volunteers.Methods: Before treatment and 16 weeks after intervention, participants were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaires (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 [PHQ-15], the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep-16 (DBAS-16, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI.Results: Compared to the zolpidem and healthy control groups, the scale scores of PHQ-9, PHQ-15, DBAS-16 and PSQI were significantly reduced after intervention in the GCBT group. Regarding the score changes, there were correlations between PSQI, DBAS-16, PHQ-9, and PHQ-15 scales in the zolpidem group, but there were limited correlations between PSQI and some DBAS-16 scales in the GCBT group.Conclusion: Our results indicate that GCBT is effective to treat insomnia by improving sleep quality and reducing emotional and somatic disturbances; thus, the study supports the advocacy of applying group psychotherapy to the disorder. Keywords: cognitive–behavioral therapy, group psychotherapy, insomnia 

  19. Development of a one-group cross section data base of the ORIGEN2 computer code for research reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Do; Gil, Choong Sub; Lee, Jong Tai; Hwang, Won Guk

    1992-01-01

    A one-group cross section data base of the ORIGEN2 computer code was developed for research reactor applications. For this, ENDF/B-IV and -V data were processed using the NJOY code system into 69-group data. The burnup dependent weighting spectra for KMRR were calculated with the WIMS-KAERI computer code, and then the 69-group data were collapsed to one-group using the spectra. The ORlGEN2-predicted burnup-dependent actinide compositions of KMRR spent fuel using the newly developed data base show a good agreement with the results of detailed multigroup transport calculation. In addition, the burnup characteristics of KMRR spent fuel was analyzed with the new data base. (Author)

  20. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hendriksen, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work

  1. Group cognitive–behavioral therapy in insomnia: a cross-sectional case-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Mao H; Ji Y; Xu Y; Tang G; Yu Z; Xu L; Shen C; Wang W

    2017-01-01

    Hongjing Mao,1,* Yutian Ji,2,* You Xu,1 Guangzheng Tang,1 Zhenghe Yu,1 Lianlian Xu,1 Chanchan Shen,2 Wei Wang1,2 1Department of Psychosomatic Disorders, The Seventh People’s Hospital, Mental Health Center, 2Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Group cognitive–behavioral therapy...

  2. Application of a new cross section library based on ENDF/B-IV to reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Bezerra, J. de.

    1991-04-01

    The use of the ENDF/B-IV library in the LEOPARD code for the Angra-1 reactor simulation is presented. The results are compared to those obtained using the ENDF/B-II library and show better values for the power distribution but an underestimated global reactivity as compared to experimental results. (F.E.). 1 ref, 55 figs, 1 tab

  3. Measurement and Basic Physics Committee of the U.S. Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. [ed.] [comp.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McLane, V. [ed.] [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. It`s main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the Us and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  4. Development of the V4.2m5 and V5.0m0 Multigroup Cross Section Libraries for MPACT for PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gentry, Cole [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wiarda, Dorothea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kochunas, Brendan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Liu, Yuxuan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Palmtag, Scott [Core Physics, Inc., Wilmington, NC (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The MPACT neutronics module of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator is a 3-D whole core transport code being developed for the CASL toolset, Virtual Environment for Reactor Analysis (VERA). Key characteristics of the MPACT code include (1) a subgroup method for resonance selfshielding and (2) a whole-core transport solver with a 2-D/1-D synthesis method. The MPACT code requires a cross section library to support all the MPACT core simulation capabilities which would be the most influencing component for simulation accuracy.

  5. Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaci, Tiziana; Pellerone, Monica; Ledda, Caterina; Presti, Giovambattista; Squatrito, Valeria; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2017-01-01

    Gender beliefs represent cultural schemas for interpreting or making sense of the social and employment world, as they can influence attitudes, career aspirations, and the vocational decision process of young people, especially the adolescence. This study examined the influence of gender stereotypes on the choice of career in adolescents. A group of 120 students were recruited to complete an ad hoc questionnaire, Scale of Perceived Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Semantic Differentials. The objectives of the study were to analyze the relationship between occupational self-efficacy and professional preference; to measure the influence of independent variables, such as age and gender, on the representation that students have of themselves and of the profession; and to identify the predictor variables of self-efficacy in the vocational decision. Data showed that the distance between professional identity and social identity increases with age. Results underline that males seem to perceive themselves more self-efficient in military, scientific-technological, and agrarian professions than females. Furthermore, the type of job performed by parents appears to be a self-efficacy predictor variable in the choice of professions in the services area. Individuals' perceived occupational self-efficacy, gender, age, and parents' profession have implications for exploratory behavior. The conditions that make gender differences salient are more likely to favor self-representations of the career and consistent assessments with these representations.

  6. Internet addiction in a group of medical students: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, T; Sherpa, M T; Shrestha, R

    2012-03-01

    The use of Internet for education, recreation and communication is increasing day by day. Nevertheless, the possibility of exploitation and addiction leading to impairment in academic performance and emotional balance cannot be denied, especially among young population. The study was aimed to measure the degree of Internet addiction among a group of medical students. Internet addiction test questionnaire developed by Young was used to assess mild, moderate and severe addiction. Amongst the study population (n=130, age 19-23 years), 40% had mild addiction. Moderate and severe addiction was found in 41.53% and 3.07% of the participants respectively. The study revealed that 24% often and 19.2% always found themselves using Internet longer than they had planned or thought. Late night Internet surfing leading to sleep deprivation was found in 31.53% of the participants. Almost one fourth of them (25.38%) occasionally tried to cut down the time they spent on the Internet but failed and 31.53% sometimes experienced restlessness when deprived of Internet access. Results reflected that a significant number of participants suffered from mild to moderate addiction. The role of counseling and education should be emphasized for prevention of Internet addiction.

  7. Association of ABO Blood Group and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Ghanaian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Smith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABO blood group and body mass index (BMI have individually been appraised as risk factors for certain diseases. From statistical perspective, it may be important to examine the relationship between the ABO blood antigen and BMI. This cross-sectional study involved 412 participants aged 18 to 46 at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST, Kumasi. Weight and height of participants were measured for BMI calculation; blood group determination was done using antisera. Blood group O was the most prevalent (51.2%, while Rhesus-positive individuals constituted 90.3%. 6.3% of the participants were obese, while 18.7% were overweight. There was significant (p=0.006 higher prevalence of obesity in females (10.3% than in males (3.4%. The study did not observe any significant difference by association of ABO blood group with gender (p=0.973, BMI (p=0.307, or Rhesus status (p=0.723. Regarding gender (p=0.400 and BMI (p=0.197, no statistically significant difference was observed between Rhesus blood groups. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, blood type O, and rhesus positive observed among students in this study is largely similar to what has been reported in published studies in Ghana and from other countries. Overweight and obesity were not associated with ABO blood groups or Rhesus in this study.

  8. Measurement and Basic Physics Committee of the US cross-section evaluation working group. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; McLane, V.

    1996-11-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with the responsibility for organizing and overseeing the U.S. cross-section evaluation effort. It's main product is the official U.S. evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the U.S. Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the U.S. nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the U.S. were declining at an alarming rate and needed all possible encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain a network of experimentalists in the U.S. that would provide needed encouragement to the national nuclear data measurement effort through improved communication and facilitation of collaborative activities. In 1994, an additional charge was added to the responsibilities of this Committee, namely, to serve as an interface between the more applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. This annual report is the second such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from eleven laboratories in the U.S. which have been prepared by members of the Committee and submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing. It is hoped that the information provided here on the work that is going on at the reporting laboratories will prove interesting and stimulating to the readers

  9. Measurement and basic physics committee of the U.S. cross-section evaluation working group, annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; McLane, V.

    1998-01-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. Its main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF, as well as periodic modifications and updates to the file, are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the US Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the US nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the US and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing

  10. MEASUREMENT AND BASIC PHYSICS COMMITTEE OF THE U.S. CROSS-SECTION EVALUATION WORKING GROUP, ANNUAL REPORT 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH,D.L.; MCLANE,V.

    1998-10-20

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. Its main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF, as well as periodic modifications and updates to the file, are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the US Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the US nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the US and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  11. Measurement and Basic Physics Committee of the US cross-section evaluation working group. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McLane, V. [Brookhaven National Labs, Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with the responsibility for organizing and overseeing the U.S. cross-section evaluation effort. It`s main product is the official U.S. evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the U.S. Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the U.S. nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the U.S. were declining at an alarming rate and needed all possible encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain a network of experimentalists in the U.S. that would provide needed encouragement to the national nuclear data measurement effort through improved communication and facilitation of collaborative activities. In 1994, an additional charge was added to the responsibilities of this Committee, namely, to serve as an interface between the more applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. This annual report is the second such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from eleven laboratories in the U.S. which have been prepared by members of the Committee and submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing. It is hoped that the information provided here on the work that is going on at the reporting laboratories will prove interesting and stimulating to the readers.

  12. Validation of evaluated neutron standard cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, S.; Golashvili, T.

    2008-01-01

    Some steps of the validation and verification of the new version of the evaluated neutron standard cross sections were carried out. In particular: -) the evaluated covariance data was checked for physical consistency, -) energy-dependent evaluated cross-sections were tested in most important neutron benchmark field - 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron field, -) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation for preparation of specialized libraries of the neutron standards was verified. The results of the validation and verification of the neutron standards can be summarized as follows: a) the covariance data of the evaluated neutron standards is physically consistent since all the covariance matrices of the evaluated cross sections are positive definite, b) the 252 Cf spectrum averaged standard cross-sections are in agreement with the evaluated integral data (except for 197 Au(n,γ) reaction), c) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation was tested, as a result a specialized library of neutron standards in the ABBN 28-group structure was prepared for use in reactor applications. (authors)

  13. The development of a collapsing method for the mixed group and point cross sections and its application on multi-dimensional deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor-Jing Chang; Yen-Wan H. Liu

    1992-01-01

    The HYBRID, or mixed group and point, method was developed to solve the neutron transport equation deterministically using detailed treatment at cross section minima for deep penetration calculations. Its application so far is limited to one-dimensional calculations due to the enormous computing time involved in multi-dimensional calculations. In this article, a collapsing method is developed for the mixed group and point cross section sets to provide a more direct and practical way of using the HYBRID method in the multi-dimensional calculations. A testing problem is run. The method is then applied to the calculation of a deep penetration benchmark experiment. It is observed that half of the window effect is smeared in the collapsing treatment, but it still provide a better cross section set than the VITAMIN-C cross sections for the deep penetrating calculations

  14. Trials of large group teaching in Malaysian private universities: a cross sectional study of teaching medicine and other disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too LaySan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a pilot cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approach towards tutors teaching large classes in private universities in the Klang Valley (comprising Kuala Lumpur, its suburbs, adjoining towns in the State of Selangor and the State of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The general aim of this study is to determine the difficulties faced by tutors when teaching large group of students and to outline appropriate recommendations in overcoming them. Findings Thirty-two academics from six private universities from different faculties such as Medical Sciences, Business, Information Technology, and Engineering disciplines participated in this study. SPSS software was used to analyse the data. The results in general indicate that the conventional instructor-student approach has its shortcoming and requires changes. Interestingly, tutors from Medicine and IT less often faced difficulties and had positive experience in teaching large group of students. Conclusion However several suggestions were proposed to overcome these difficulties ranging from breaking into smaller classes, adopting innovative teaching, use of interactive learning methods incorporating interactive assessment and creative technology which enhanced students learning. Furthermore the study provides insights on the trials of large group teaching which are clearly identified to help tutors realise its impact on teaching. The suggestions to overcome these difficulties and to maximize student learning can serve as a guideline for tutors who face these challenges.

  15. Trials of large group teaching in Malaysian private universities: a cross sectional study of teaching medicine and other disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Subramaniam, Shamini; Abraham, Mathew; Too, Laysan; Beh, Loosee

    2011-09-09

    This is a pilot cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approach towards tutors teaching large classes in private universities in the Klang Valley (comprising Kuala Lumpur, its suburbs, adjoining towns in the State of Selangor) and the State of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The general aim of this study is to determine the difficulties faced by tutors when teaching large group of students and to outline appropriate recommendations in overcoming them. Thirty-two academics from six private universities from different faculties such as Medical Sciences, Business, Information Technology, and Engineering disciplines participated in this study. SPSS software was used to analyse the data. The results in general indicate that the conventional instructor-student approach has its shortcoming and requires changes. Interestingly, tutors from Medicine and IT less often faced difficulties and had positive experience in teaching large group of students. However several suggestions were proposed to overcome these difficulties ranging from breaking into smaller classes, adopting innovative teaching, use of interactive learning methods incorporating interactive assessment and creative technology which enhanced students learning. Furthermore the study provides insights on the trials of large group teaching which are clearly identified to help tutors realise its impact on teaching. The suggestions to overcome these difficulties and to maximize student learning can serve as a guideline for tutors who face these challenges.

  16. Association between quality management and performance indicators in Dutch diabetes care groups: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J E; Baan, Caroline A; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Klomp, Maarten L H; Romeijnders, Arnold C M; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2015-05-11

    To enhance the quality of diabetes care in the Netherlands, so-called care groups with three to 250 general practitioners emerged to organise and coordinate diabetes care. This introduced a new quality management level in addition to the quality management of separate general practices. We hypothesised that this new level of quality management might be associated with the aggregate performance indicators on the patient level. Therefore, we aimed to explore the association between quality management at the care group level and its aggregate performance indicators. A cross-sectional study. All Dutch care groups (n=97). 23 care groups provided aggregate register-based performance indicators of all their practices as well as data on quality management measured with a questionnaire filled out by 1 or 2 of their quality managers. The association between quality management, overall and in 6 domains ('organisation of care', 'multidisciplinary teamwork', 'patient centredness', 'performance management', 'quality improvement policy' and 'management strategies') on the one hand and 3 process indicators (the percentages of patients with at least 1 measurement of glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile and systolic blood pressure), and 3 intermediate outcome indicators (the percentages of patients with glycated haemoglobin below 53 mmol/mol (7%); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol below 2.5 mmol/L; and systolic blood pressure below 140 mm Hg) by weighted univariable linear regression. The domain 'management strategies' was significantly associated with the percentage of patients with a glycated haemoglobin management were not associated with aggregate process or outcome indicators. This first exploratory study on quality management showed weak or no associations between quality management of diabetes care groups and their performance. It remains uncertain whether this second layer on quality management adds to better quality of care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  17. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. Methods This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. Results At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. Conclusions The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. PMID:28292765

  18. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.L. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); D`Aquila, D.M. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k{sub eff} including 2{sigma} of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  19. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; D'Aquila, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k eff including 2σ of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25

  20. Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis for Cross Sections and Thermohydraulic Parameters in Lattice and Core Physics Codes. Methodology for Cross Section Library Generation and Application to PWR and BWR.

    OpenAIRE

    Mesado Melia, Carles

    2017-01-01

    This PhD study, developed at Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), aims to cover the first phase of the benchmark released by the expert group on Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM-LWR). The main contribution to the benchmark, made by the thesis' author, is the development of a MATLAB program requested by the benchmark organizers. This is used to generate neutronic libraries to distribute among the benchmark participants. The UAM benchmark pretends to determine the uncertainty introdu...

  1. RCN-2.CP. Evaluated neutron cross-section library for 13 corrosion products, cover-gas nuclides and other nuclides in the primary cooling circuit of a fast power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-08-01

    This document summarizes the contents of the evaluated neutron cross-section library ''RCN-2.CP'' released in 1982 by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN. - Upon request, this library is available on magnetic tape, in KEDAK format, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree. (author)

  2. Tables and graphs of electron-interaction cross sections from 10 eV to 100 GeV derived from the LLNL Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), Z = 1--100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, S.T.; Cullen, D.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Seltzer, S.M. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NML), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Center for Radiation Research)

    1991-11-12

    Energy-dependent evaluated electron interaction cross sections and related parameters are presented for elements H through Fm (Z = 1 to 100). Data are given over the energy range from 10 eV to 100 GeV. Cross sections and average energy deposits are presented in tabulated and graphic form. In addition, ionization cross sections and average energy deposits for each shell are presented in graphic form. This information is derived from the Livermore Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL) as of July, 1991.

  3. Comparing antibiotic self-medication in two socio-economic groups in Guatemala City: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramay, Brooke M; Lambour, Paola; Cerón, Alejandro

    2015-04-27

    Self-medication with antibiotics may result in antimicrobial resistance and its high prevalence is of particular concern in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC) like Guatemala. A better understanding of self-medication with antibiotics may represent an opportunity to develop interventions guiding the rational use of antibiotics. We aimed to compare the magnitude of antibiotic self-medication and the characteristics of those who self-medicate in two pharmacies serving disparate socio-economic communities in Guatemala City. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in one Suburban pharmacy and one City Center pharmacy in Guatemala City. We used a questionnaire to gather information about frequency of self-medication, income and education of those who self-medicate. We compared proportions between the two pharmacies, using two-sample z-test as appropriate. Four hundred and eighteen respondents completed the survey (221 in the Suburban pharmacy and 197 in the City Center pharmacy). Most respondents in both pharmacies were female (70%). The reported monthly income in the suburban pharmacy was between $1,250.00-$2,500.00, the city-center pharmacy reported a monthly income between $125.00- $625.00 (p self-medication was 79% in the Suburban pharmacy and 77% in City Center pharmacy. In both settings, amoxicillin was reported as the antibiotic most commonly used. High proportions of self-medication with antibiotics were reported in two pharmacies serving disparate socio-economic groups in Guatemala City. Additionally, self-medicating respondents were most often women and most commonly self-medicated with amoxicillin. Our findings support future public health interventions centered on the regulation of antibiotic sales and on the potential role of the pharmacist in guiding prescription with antibiotics in Guatemala.

  4. Sensitivity of primary knock-on atom spectra and displacement per atom cross sections to different secondary neutron energy and angular distributions and ''in-group'' weighting schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivity of primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra and displacement per atom (DPA) cross sections to different secondary neutron energy and angular distributions and ''in-group'' weighting schemes is investigated. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PKA spectra and DPA cross sections for the (n,n' unresolved) and (n,2n) reactions in Fe to different angular distributions and the same secondary neutron spectrum is reasonably large (approximately 15%), whereas the sensitivity of these quantities to grossly different secondary neutron spectra and the same angular distribution is unexpectedly small. It is also shown that for Al the sensitivity of damage energy cross sections to different ''in-group'' weighting schemes is, for the most part, small

  5. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  6. The correction of pebble bed reactor nodal cross sections for the effects of leakage and depletion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathanael Harrison

    An accurate and computationally fast method to generate nodal cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) was presented. In this method, named Spectral History Correction (SHC), a set of fine group microscopic cross section libraries, pre-computed at specified depletion and moderation states, was coupled with the nodal nuclide densities and group bucklings to compute the new fine group spectrum for each node. The relevant fine group cross-section library was then recollapsed to the local broad group cross-section structure with this new fine group spectrum. This library set was tracked in terms of fuel isotopic densities. Fine group modulation factors (to correct the homogeneous flux for heterogeneous effects) and fission spectra were also stored with the cross section library. As the PBR simulation converges to a steady state fuel cycle, the initial nodal cross section library becomes inaccurate due to the burnup of the fuel and the neutron leakage into and out of the node. Because of the recirculation of discharged fuel pebbles with fresh fuel pebbles, a node can consist of a collection of pebbles at various burnup stages. To account for the nodal burnup, the microscopic cross sections were combined with nodal averaged atom densities to approximate the fine group macroscopic cross-sections for that node. These constructed, homogeneous macroscopic cross sections within the node were used to calculate a numerical solution for the fine group spectrum with B1 theory. This new fine spectrum was used to collapse the pre-computed microscopic cross section library to the broad group structure employed by the fuel cycle code. This SHC technique was developed and practically implemented as a subroutine within the PBR fuel cycle code PEBBED. The SHC subroutine was called to recalculate the broad group cross sections during the code convergence. The result was a fast method that compared favorably to the benchmark scheme of cross section calculation with the lattice

  7. Amino acids analysis using grouping and parceling of neutrons cross sections techniques; Analise de aminoacidos atraves das tecnicas do agrupamento e parcelamento de secoes de choque para neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante Luiz Voi [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Helio Fenandes da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira

    2002-07-01

    Amino acids used in parenteral administration in hospital patients with special importance in nutritional applications were analyzed to compare with the manufactory data. Individual amino acid samples of phenylalanine, cysteine, methionine, tyrosine and threonine were measured with the neutron crystal spectrometer installed at the J-9 irradiation channel of the 1 kW Argonaut Reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN). Gold and D{sub 2}O high purity samples were used for the experimental system calibration. Neutron cross section values were calculated from chemical composition, conformation and molecular structure analysis of the materials. Literature data were manipulated by parceling and grouping neutron cross sections. (author)

  8. Neutron cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Donald J; Dunworth, J V

    1957-01-01

    Neutron Cross Sections presents the principles of cross-section measurement and use, as well as sufficient theory so that the general behavior of cross sections is made understandable. This compilation is a direct result of experiences connected with the collection and evaluation of cross-section data during the past eight years at """"Sigma Centre"""", Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here, experimental results received from laboratories throughout the world are carefully evaluated and compiled in the curves and tables of the large volume Neutron Cross Sections, The most recent version of the

  9. Vertical transmission of group B Streptococcus and associated factors among pregnant women: a cross-sectional study, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadeta TA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Gudina Egata,3 Berhanu Seyoum,4 Dadi Marami,4 Yemane Berhane5 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 5Department of Epidemiology, Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Vertically transmitted group B Streptococcus (GBS causes fetal and neonatal infections. However, there is limited information on the vertical transmission of GBS in low-income countries. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission of GBS and associated factors among pregnant women in Eastern Ethiopia.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, facility-based study was conducted among pregnant women in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia, from June to October, 2016. GBS positivity of pregnant women was confirmed by culture of rectovaginal swab. Vertical transmission at birth was confirmed by culture on swabs taken from the ear canal, umbilicus, axilla, groin, and nose within 6 hours after birth. Prevalence ratio (PR along with 95% CI was estimated to examine factors associated with vertical transmission using log binomial regression analysis.Results: Out of 231 GBS-colonized pregnant women at delivery, 104 births were identified as GBS colonized with a vertical transmission rate of 45.02% and 95% CI: 38.49, 51.68. Of 104 vertical transmission cases, 65 (62.50% received no intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP, 28 (26.92% received it <4 hours before delivery, and 11 (10.58% received it ≥4 hours before delivery. Pre-labor rupture of membranes at term (PR: 1.93; 95

  10. Concrete reflected cylinders of highly enriched solutions of uranyl nitrate ICSBEP Benchmark: A re-evaluation by means of MCNPX using ENDF/B-VI cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzate, J.A.; Carelli, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical re-evaluation of a set of original experiments included in the 2009 issue of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, as “Concrete Reflected Cylinders of Highly Enriched Solutions of Uranyl Nitrate” (identification number: HEU-SOL-THERM- 002) [4]. The present evaluation has been made according to benchmark specifications [4], and added data taken out of the original published report [3], but applying a different approach, resulting in a more realistic calculation model. In addition, calculations have been made using the latest version of MCNPX Monte Carlo code, combined with an updated set of cross section data, the continuous-energy ENDF/B-VI library. This has resulted in a comprehensive model for the given experimental situation. Uncertainties analysis has been made based on the evaluation of experimental data presented in the HEU-SOLTHERM-002 report. Resulting calculations with the present improved physical model have been able to reproduce the criticality of configurations within 0.5%, in good agreement with experimental data. Results obtained in the analysis of uncertainties are in general agreement with those at HEU-SOL-THERM-002 benchmark document. Qualitative results from analyses made in the present work can be extended to similar fissile systems: well moderated units of 235 U solutions, reflected with concrete from all directions. Results have confirmed that neutron absorbers, even as impurities, must be taken into account in calculations if at least approximate proportions were known. (authors)

  11. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  12. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Tadashi

    1990-07-01

    Neutron cross-section curves from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 3, JENDL-3, are presented in both graphical and tabular form for users in a wide range of application areas in the nuclear energy field. The contents cover cross sections for all the main reactions induced by neutrons with an energy below 20 MeV including; total, elastic scattering, capture, and fission, (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,α), (n,p) reactions. The 2200 m/s cross-section values, resonance integrals, and Maxwellian- and fission-spectrum averaged cross sections are also tabulated. (author)

  13. Factors associated with self-medication in Spain: a cross-sectional study in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclós, Gracia; Olivar, Teresa; Rodilla, Vicent

    2017-08-17

    The identification of factors which may influence a patient's decision to self-medicate. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of the adult population (at least 16 years old), using data from the 2009 European Health Interview Survey in Spain, which included 22 188 subjects. Logistic regression models enabled us to estimate the effect of each analysed variable on self-medication. In total, 14 863 (67%) individuals reported using medication (prescribed and non-prescribed) and 3274 (22.0%) of them self-medicated. Using logistic regression and stratifying by age, four different models have been constructed. Our results include different variables in each of the models to explain self-medication, but the one that appears on all four models is education level. Age is the other important factor which influences self-medication. Self-medication is strongly associated with factors related to socio-demographic, such as sex, educational level or age, as well as several health factors such as long-standing illness or physical activity. When our data are compared to those from previous Spanish surveys carried out in 2003 and 2006, we can conclude that self-medication is increasing in Spain. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. A program for calculating group constants on the basis of libraries of evaluated neutron data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsa, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The GRUKON program is designed for processing libraries of evaluated neutron data into group and fine-group (having some 300 groups) microscopic constants. In structure it is a package of applications programs with three basic components: a monitor, a command language and a library of functional modules. The first operative version of the package was restricted to obtaining mid-group non-block cross-sections from evaluated neutron data libraries in the ENDF/B format. This was then used to process other libraries. In the next two versions, cross-section table conversion modules and self-shielding factor calculation modules, respectively, were added to the functions already in the package. Currently, a fourth version of the GRUKON applications program package, for calculation of sub-group parameters, is under preparation. (author)

  15. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  16. Development of the neutron-transport code TransRay and studies on the two- and three-dimensional calculation of effective group cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, C.

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally the data preparation of the neutron cross sections for reactor-core calculations pursues with 2D cell codes. Aim of this thesis was, to develop a 3D cell code, to study with this code 3D effects, and to evaluate the necessarity of a 3D data preparation of the neutron cross sections. For the calculation of the neutron transport the method of the first-collision probabilities, which are calculated with the ray-tracing method, was chosen. The mathematical algorithms were implemented in the 2D/3D cell code TransRay. For the geometry part of the program the geometry module of a Monte Carlo code was used.The ray tracing in 3D was parallelized because of the high computational time. The program TransRay was verified on 2D test problems. For a reference pressured-water reactor following 3D problems were studied: A partly immersed control rod and void (vacuum or steam) around a fuel rod as model of a steam void. All problems were for comparison calculated also with the programs HELIOS(2D) and MCNP(3D). The dependence of the multiplication factor and the averaged two-group cross section on the immersion depth of the control rod respectively of the height of the steam void were studied. The 3D-calculated two-group cross sections were compared with three conventional approximations: Linear interpolation, interpolation with flux weighting, and homogenization, At the 3D problem of the control rod it was shown that the interpolation with flux weighting is a good approximation. Therefore here a 3D data preparation is not necessary. At the test case of the single control rod, which is surrounded by the void, the three approximation for the two-group cross sections were proved as unsufficient. Therefore a 3D data preparation is necessary. The single fuel-rod cell with void can be considered as the limiting case of a reactor, in which a phase interface has been formed [de

  17. SCAMPI: A code package for cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Bowman, S.M.; Broadhead, B.L.; Greene, N.M.; White, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The SCAMPI code package consists of a set of SCALE and AMPX modules that have been assembled to facilitate user needs for preparation of problem-specific, multigroup cross-section libraries. The function of each module contained in the SCANTI code package is discussed, along with illustrations of their use in practical analyses. Ideas are presented for future work that can enable one-step processing from a fine-group, problem-independent library to a broad-group, problem-specific library ready for a shielding analysis.

  18. Neutron and proton transmutation-activation cross section libraries to 150 MeV for application in accelerator-driven systems and radioactive ion beam target-design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Mashnik, S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    New transmutation-activation nuclear data libraries for neutrons and protons up to 150 MeV have been created. These data are important for simulation calculations of radioactivity, and transmutation, in accelerator-driven systems such as the production of tritium (APT) and the transmutation of waste (ATW). They can also be used to obtain cross section predictions for the production of proton-rich isotopes in (p,xn) reactions, for radioactive ion beam (RIB) target-design studies. The nuclear data in these libraries stem from two sources: for neutrons below 20 MeV, we use data from the European activation and transmutation file, EAF97; For neutrons above 20 MeV and for protons at all energies we have isotope production cross sections with the nuclear model code HMS-ALICE. This code applies the Monte Carlo Hybrid Simulation theory, and the Weisskopf-Ewing theory, to calculate cross sections. In a few cases, the HMS-ALICE results were replaced by those calculated using the GNASH code for the Los Alamos LA150 transport library. The resulting two libraries, AF150.N and AF150.P, consist of 766 nuclides each and are represented in the ENDF6-format. An outline is given of the new representation of the data. The libraries have been checked with ENDF6 preprocessing tools and have been processed with NJOY into libraries for the Los Alamos transmutation/radioactivity code CINDER. Numerous benchmark figures are presented for proton-induced excitation functions of various isotopes compared with measurements. Such comparisons are useful for validation purposes, and for assessing the accuracy of the evaluated data. These evaluated libraries are available on the WWW at: http://t2.lanl.gov/. 21 refs

  19. View-CXS neutron and photon cross-sections viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiah, K.V.; Sunil Sunny, C.

    2004-01-01

    A graphical user-friendly interface is developed in Visual Basic (VB)-6 to view the variation of neutron and photon interaction cross-sections of different isotopes as a function of energy. VB subroutines developed read the binary data files of cross-sections created in MCNP-ACE (Briesmeister, J.F., 1993. MCNP - a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code. Version 4A. LANL, USA), ANISN-DLC (Engle W.W. Jr., 1967, A User's Manual for ANISN, K-1693; ORNL, 1974. 100 group neutron cross section data based on ENDF/B-III. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA) and KENO-AMPX (Petrie, L.M., Landers, N.F., 1984 KENO-Va- An Improved Monte Carlo Criticality Program with Super Grouping. RSICC-CCC-548, USA) formats using LAHEY-77 Fortran Compiler. The information on isotopes present in each library will be displayed with the help of database files prepared using Micro-Soft ACESS. The cross-section data can be viewed in different presentation styles namely, line graphs, bar graphs, histograms etc., with different color and symbol options. The cross-section plots generated can be saved as Bit-Map file to embed in any other text files. This software enables inter comparison of cross-sections from different type of libraries for isotopes as well as mixtures. Provision is made to view the cross-sections for nuclear reactions such as (n,γ), (n,f), (n,α), etc. The software can be obtained from Radiation Safety Information and Computational Centre (RSICC), ORNL, USA with the code package identification number PSR-514. The software package needs a hard disk space of about 80 MB when installed and works in WINDOWS-95/98/2000 operating systems

  20. Testing neutron cross-section files from the BROND-2 and ENDF/B-6 libraries in benchmark experiments on neutron transmission through spherical layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.; Blokhin, A.I.; Kulagin, N.T.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Simakov, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of angular anisotropy in inelastic secondary neutron scattering on neutron leakage spectra from the surface of spherical specimens is investigated. It is shown how inadequate representation of the cross-section structure in the neutron energy resonance region can affect the neutron leakage spectrum. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  2. Risk Factors for Obesity in Adolescents of Ethnic Groups in Rural Areas of the Republic of Buryatia: a Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubov V. Rychkova; Z. G. Ajurova; A. V. Pogodina; A. S. Kosovtseva

    2017-01-01

    Background. Obesity develops as a result of interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The impact of environmental factors on the risk of obesity in children can be determined by socially conditioned causes.Objective. Our aim was to identify the risk factors associated with  overweight/obesity in children of different ethnic groups living in  rural areas of the Republic of Buryatia.Methods. The cross-sectional study included adolescents aged 11– 17 years. Overweight was considered to b...

  3. Cross-section methodology in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.

    1975-11-01

    The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated

  4. FENDL/MG-2.0 and FENDL/MC-2.0. The processed cross-section libraries for neutron photon transport calculations. Version 1, March 1997. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, H.; Herman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated neutron reaction data and photon-atom interaction cross sections for materials contained in the general purpose Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL/E2.0) have been processed with the NJOY code system into VITAMIN-J multigroup structure, for use in discrete-ordinates transport codes, and into continuous energy ACE format, for use in the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. This document summarizes the resulting data libraries FENDL/MG-2.0 version 1 and FENDL/MC-2.0 version 1. The data are available costfree from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section online or on magnetic tape. (author)

  5. Multigroup cross section collapsing optimization of a He-3 detector assembly model using deterministic transport techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Mi; Yi, Ce; Manalo, Kevin L.; Sjoden, Glenn E.

    2011-01-01

    Multigroup optimization is performed on a neutron detector assembly to examine the validity of transport response in forward and adjoint modes. For SN transport simulations, we discuss the multigroup collapse of an 80 group library to 40, 30, and 16 groups, constructed from using the 3-D parallel PENTRAN and macroscopic cross section collapsing with YGROUP contribution weighting. The difference in using P 1 and P 3 Legendre order in scattering cross sections is investigated; also, associated forward and adjoint transport responses are calculated. We conclude that for the block analyzed, a 30 group cross section optimizes both computation time and accuracy relative to the 80 group transport calculations. (author)

  6. SUSY Production cross sections.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E. L.; Harris, B.; Klasen, M.; Tait, T.

    1999-03-19

    We summarize the status of next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculations of the cross sections for the production of squarks, gluinos, neutralinos, charginos, and sleptons as a function of the produced particle masses in proton-antiproton collisions at the hadronic center-of-mass energy 2 TeV.

  7. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, S; Jain, Jithesh; Simon, Sequiera Peter; Battur, Hemanth; Supreetha, S; Haridas, Reshmi

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups. An epidemiological study was was carried out on 220 subjects who were randomly selected from individuals referred for periodontal treatment or for other reasons regarding Oral health at Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences. The findings of our study revealed that subject's blood group O (65.8) and Rh positive (73.33%) had a greater propensity for periodontitis. The results of the present study revealed blood groups and Rh factor can act as a determinant of periodontitis. How to cite this article: Vivek S, Jain J, Simon SP, Battur H, Supreetha S, Haridas R. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):30-34.

  8. Socio-economic determinants of health behaviours across age groups: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Stronegger, W J; Hoffmann, K; Stein, K Viktoria; Niederkrotenthaler, T

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different socio-economic variables on the lifestyle factors, like lack of physical activity, diet rich in meat, and smoking, across sex and age groups in the general Austrian population to formulate more targeted public health measures. The Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006-07 contains data of 15,474 people, representative for the general population. Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression models. Lack of physical activity was more prevalent in women, while unhealthy nutrition and daily smoking were more prevalent in men. Overall, profession was the strongest predictor for health behaviour in men, while the educational level played the most significant role in women. Subjects in higher age groups had a more healthy nutrition and were less likely to smoke, but had a higher chance for lack of physical activity. Socio-economic factors predict lifestyle choices differently in different age groups. For example, in men, the highest percentage of daily smokers was found in the middle age, while the youngest age group was the one that smoked the most in women. Furthermore, the educational level had a reverse effect on women in the oldest age group, where those with tertiary education smoked three times more than those with less education. Our results emphasise the importance of taking a holistic approach towards health, including educational, cultural and age-specific policies to improve the overall health status and health equality of a population.

  9. Are GOLD ABCD groups better associated with health status and costs than GOLD 1234 grades? A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.S. Boland (Melinde); A. Tsiachristas (Apostolos); A.L. Kruis (Annemarije); N.H. Chavannes (Nicolas); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Aims: To investigate the association of the GOLD ABCD groups classification with costs and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and to compare this with the GOLD 1234 grades classification that was primarily based on lung function only. Methods: In a

  10. Association between quality management and performance indicators in Dutch diabetes care groups : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J E; Baan, Caroline A.; Lemmens, Lidwien C.; Klomp, Maarten L H; Romeijnders, Arnold C M; Rutten, Guy E H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074622781

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To enhance the quality of diabetes care in the Netherlands, so-called care groups with three to 250 general practitioners emerged to organise and coordinate diabetes care. This introduced a new quality management level in addition to the quality management of separate general practices.

  11. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Devillé, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods: Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000-2002) were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and

  12. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In

  13. Do unfavourable working conditions explain mental health inequalities between ethnic groups? Cross-sectional data of the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2015-08-20

    Ethnic inequalities in mental health have been found in many high-income countries. The purpose of this study is to test whether mental health inequalities between ethnic groups are mediated by exposure to unfavourable working conditions. Workers (n = 6278) were selected from baseline data of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study. Measures included two indices of unfavourable working conditions (lack of recovery opportunities, and perceived work stress), and two mental health outcomes (generic mental health: MCS-12 and depressive symptoms: PHQ-9). Mediation of the relationships between ethnicity and mental health by unfavourable working conditions was tested using the bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals technique. Linear models with and without the mediators included, and adjusted for gender and age. Attenuation was calculated as the change in B between the models with and without mediators. The sample comprised Dutch (1355), African Surinamese (1290), South-Asian Surinamese (1121), Turkish (1090), Ghanaian (729), and Moroccan (693) workers. After controlling for age and gender, all ethnic minorities had a higher risk of mental health problems as compared to the Dutch host population, with the exception of Ghanaians in the case of depressive symptoms, and African Surinamese workers with regard to both outcomes. The Turkish group stands out with the lowest mental health on both mental health indices, followed by Moroccan and South-Asian Surinamese workers. A lack of recovery opportunities mediated the relationship between ethnic group and a higher risk of mental health problems. Perceived work stress did not contribute to the explanation of ethnic inequalities. The higher risk of mental health problems in ethnic minority groups can be partly accounted for by a lack of recovery opportunities at work, but not by perceived work stress. This may imply that workplace prevention targeting recovery opportunities have the potential to reduce ethnic inequalities, but

  14. MC2-3: Multigroup Cross Section Generation Code for Fast Reactor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, W. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-08

    The MC2-3 code is a Multigroup Cross section generation Code for fast reactor analysis, developed by improving the resonance self-shielding and spectrum calculation methods of MC2-2 and integrating the one-dimensional cell calculation capabilities of SDX. The code solves the consistent P1 multigroup transport equation using basic neutron data from ENDF/B data files to determine the fundamental mode spectra for use in generating multigroup neutron cross sections. A homogeneous medium or a heterogeneous slab or cylindrical unit cell problem is solved in ultrafine (~2000) or hyperfine (~400,000) group levels. In the resolved resonance range, pointwise cross sections are reconstructed with Doppler broadening at specified isotopic temperatures. The pointwise cross sections are directly used in the hyperfine group calculation whereas for the ultrafine group calculation, self-shielded cross sections are prepared by numerical integration of the pointwise cross sections based upon the narrow resonance approximation. For both the hyperfine and ultrafine group calculations, unresolved resonances are self-shielded using the analytic resonance integral method. The ultrafine group calculation can also be performed for two-dimensional whole-core problems to generate region-dependent broad-group cross sections. Multigroup cross sections are written in the ISOTXS format for a user-specified group structure. The code is executable on UNIX, Linux, and PC Windows systems, and its library includes all isotopes of the ENDF/BVII. 0 data.

  15. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  16. Development of a common nuclear group constants library system: JSSTDL-295n-104γ based on JENDL-3 nuclear data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.

    1992-01-01

    JSSTDL 295n-104γ: A common group cross-section library system has been developed in JAERI to be used in fairly wide range of applications in nuclear industry. This system is composed of a common 295n-104γ group cross-section library based on JENDL-3 nuclear data file and its utility codes. Target of this system is focused to the criticality or shielding calculations in fast and fusion reactors using ANISN, DOT, or MORSE code. Specifications of the common group constants were decided responding to the request from various nuclear data users, particularly from nuclear design group in Japan. Group structure is decided so as to cover almost all group structures currently used in our country. This library includes self-shielding factor tables for primary reactions. A routine for generating macro-scopic cross-section using the self-shielding factor table is also provided. Neutron cross-sections and photon production cross-sections are processed by Prof. GROUCH-G/B code system and γ ray transport cross-sections are generated by GAMLEG-JR. In this paper, outline and present status of the JSSTDL library system is described along with two examples adopted in JENDL-3 benchmark test. One is for shielding calculation, where effects of self-shielding factor (f-table) is shown in conjunction with the analysis of the ASPIS natural iron deep penetration experiment. Without considering resonance self-shielding effect in resonance energy region for resonant nuclides like iron, the results is completely missled in the attenuation profile calculation in the shields. The other example is fast rector criticality calculations of very small critical assemblies with very high enrichment fuel materials where some basic characteristics of this library is presented. (orig.)

  17. [A cross-sectional study of trait-anxiety in a group of 111 intellectually gifted children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, F; Louis, J; Creveuil, C; Montlahuc, C; Baleyte, J-M; Fourneret, P; Revol, O

    2013-09-01

    Intellectually gifted children are often thought to display a high risk for psychopathology. However, this assertion has received only few direct arguments to date, and there is in fact a lack of knowledge on this subject. The aim of this study was to compare trait-anxiety - which is considered as a sensitive and early indicator of psychoaffective difficulties in children - in intellectually gifted children to the norm. One hundred and eleven children aged 8 to 12 and with an intellectual quotient (IQ) higher than 129 participated in the study. They were recruited in a hospital department of child and adolescent psychiatry and through psychologists' private practice, where they attended consultation because of academic underachievement and/or social maladjustment. All the children were examined by trained psychiatrists and psychologists: none had a present or past medical or psychiatric condition and, additionally, none had an elevated score on the French version of the Children's Depressive Rating Scale Revised (Moor & Mack, 1982). Parents filled in a questionnaire for the collection of socio-demographic data and children answered the French version of the Revised-Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS; Reynolds, 1999), a 37-items self-assessment of trait-anxiety, the psychometric properties of which have been validated in children with high IQ. Mean scores and subscores on the R-CMAS in the whole studied group and as a function of gender and age were compared to French normative data (Reynolds, 1999) by calculation of 95% confidence intervals; subgroups were compared using Student's t-tests. Proportions of children who's score and subscores exceeded anxiety cut-off norms were compared to normative data using chi-square tests. Statistical significance was considered at the Pgiftedness constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology. The studied group was a clinical one, which could limit the generalisation of the results. However, mental disorders were ruled out

  18. BACTERIAL PROFILES FOR CHRONIC AND AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS IN A SAMPLE POPULATION GROUP. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cornelia TEODORESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study aims at determining some possible significant differences in the subgingival microbial profiles of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, as a tool in helping with differential diagnostic. Materials and methods. 20 subgingival fluid samples (10 from GAP and 10 from GCP patients were subjected to a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in order to determine the prevalence and the counts of 9 periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptococcus micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium nodatum and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. Results and discussion. Fusobacterium nucleatum was singnificantly correlated with the aggressive periodontitis group, but no significant differences were found for the other 8 periodontal bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence or count of some periodontal pathogens could help clinicians make an easier differential diagnostic between GCP and GAP, however further studies, conducted on larger population samples, are still needed.

  19. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. Materials and methods This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Results Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. Conclusion This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development. PMID:28203113

  20. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria

    2017-01-01

    The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years ( M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Data show that being a younger adult male with mother's parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development.

  1. Informed consent in oncology clinical trials: A Brown University Oncology Research Group prospective cross-sectional pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Schumacher

    Full Text Available Informed consent forms (ICFs for oncology clinical trials have grown increasingly longer and more complex. We evaluated objective understanding of critical components of informed consent among patients enrolling in contemporary trials of conventional or novel biologic/targeted therapies.We evaluated ICFs for cancer clinical trials for length and readability, and patients registered on those studies were asked to complete a validated 14-question survey assessing their understanding of key characteristics of the trial. Mean scores were compared in groups defined by trial and patient characteristics.Fifty patients, of whom half participated in trials of immunotherapy or biologic/targeted agents and half in trials of conventional therapy, completed the survey. On average, ICFs for industry-originated trials (N = 9 trials were significantly longer (P < .0001 and had lower Flesch ease-of-reading scores (P = .003 than investigator-initiated trials (N = 11. At least 80% of patients incorrectly responded to three key questions which addressed the experimental nature of their trial therapy, its purported efficacy and potential risks relative to alternative treatments. The mean objective understanding score was 76.9±8.8, but it was statistically significantly lower for patients who had not completed high school (P = .011. The scores did not differ significantly by type of cancer therapy (P = .12 or trial sponsor (P = .38.Many participants enrolled on cancer trials had poor understanding of essential elements of their trial. In order to ensure true informed consent, innovative approaches, such as expanded in-person counseling adapted to the patient's education level or cultural characteristics should be evaluated across socio-demographic groups.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01772511.

  2. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Calogero Iacolino,1 Giuseppe Mannino,2 Ivan Formica,3 Simona Maria Zabbara1 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Jurisprudence, “LUMSA” University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cognitive, Psychological, Pedagogical Sciences and Cultural Studies, University of Study of Messina, Messina, Sicily, Italy Background: The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders.Materials and methods: This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females living in Sicily (Italy aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42. The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns.Results: Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and

  3. Neurological Soft Signs and Psychopathology in Chronic Schizophrenia: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christina J; Lässer, Marc M; Seidl, Ulrich Wilhelm; Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Schröder, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    As established in a wealth of studies subtle motor and sensory neurological abnormalities or neurological soft signs (NSS) are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia at any stage of their illness. However, the potential impact of chronicity and age on NSS was scarcely investigated. Therefore, we assessed NSS in 90 patients with subchronic ( n  = 22) or chronic ( n  = 68) schizophrenia and in 60 healthy controls who were assigned to three age groups (18-29, 30-49, and +50 years). NSS were measured on the Heidelberg Scale, psychopathological symptoms including apathy were rated on established instruments. As demonstrated by analysis of variance, NSS scores in patients were significantly ( p  age effects arose in all NSS subscores, with older subjects scoring well above the younger ones. These age effects were more pronounced in patients than controls, indicating that NSS in chronic schizophrenia exceed age-associated changes. Moreover, the NSS scores in patients were significantly associated with duration of illness, thought disturbance, positive symptoms, and apathy. These results were confirmed after age/duration of illness and years of education were partialed out and via regression analyses. Our findings conform to the hypothesis that NSS are associated with chronicity of the disorder as indicated by the correlations of NSS with both, duration of illness and apathy. The correlations between NSS and positive symptoms/thought disturbance correspond to the fluctuation of positive symptoms during the course of the disorder. The significantly more pronounced age effects on NSS in patients may either point to ongoing cerebral changes or to a greater susceptibility of patients toward physiological age effects, which may be mediated among other factors by a lower cognitive reserve.

  4. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort. The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35 and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43 of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1 basic information, 2 alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3 their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms.Results: Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms.Conclusion: Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged

  5. Poor reproductive health among a group of socially damaged Middle Eastern women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi G

    2011-11-01

    well as emotionally and sexually. The violence was reported to be exerted by husband (42.6%, parents (38.4%, or both (19.0%. Among 39 participants who ran away from home, 38 participants reported to be inflicted by violence. Unwanted pregnancy was reported by 64.6% of the participants. Abortion was reported in 50.0% of participants. Contraception was completely ignored in 44.6% of participants. Among eligible women, 53.3% never participated in cervical cancer screening examination. Mean sexual performance scale score was 21.9 (5.5 and 75 (83.3% participants scored less than 28.Conclusion: A high prevalence of poor reproductive health was documented among a group of Middle Eastern socially damaged women.Keywords: sexual behavior, domestic violence, pregnancy, drop-in center, abortion, contraception, cervical cancer screening

  6. [A cross-sectional study on serum uric acid level and the distribution of metabolic syndrome among Uigur, Han and Kazak prediabetic groups in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-wu; Jiang, Sheng; Xu, Yan-cheng

    2013-10-01

    To explore the levels of uric acid, blood pressure, serum lipid metabolic disorders and the distribution of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) among Uygur, Han and Kazak pre-diabetic groups in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2053 Uygur residents, 2219 Kazak residents and 2656 Han residents aged 30-80, all with prediabetic syndromes. The pre-dialectic patients were divided into three groups for analysis on metabolic features and inter-group comparisons. (1)In total, 1934 pre-diabetic cases (28.3%)were diagnosed, with the highest prevalence (31.6%) seen in Uygurs and the lowest (25.5%) in Kazaks and medium (27.0%) in Hans. Data from the inter-group comparison showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.00). (2)Prevalence of high LDL-C was 80.5% , with hyperuricemia as 30.3% and MS as 58.3% , while the inter-group comparison did not show any statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). (3) Prevalence of pre-diabetic when combined with hypertension or earlier-stage hypertension, reached 88.0%, with the highest (96.8%) among Kazak group, 85.1% in Uygurs and 83.7% in Han population. Data from the inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference(χ(2) = 59.959, P = 0.00). (4)The overall prevalence of prediabetic, when combined with obesity was 35.4%, with 29.6% in Han, 36.8% in Uygur and 41.0% in Kazak groups. Data from the inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference(χ(2) = 19.097, P = 0.00). According to results from this cross-sectional study regarding the metabolic features of Uygur, Kazak and Han prediabetic groups, differences were seen in the prevalence rates of pre-diabetic among Uygur, Kazak and Han ethnic groups, with the highest seen in Uygurs and the lowest in Kazaks. Hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia,MS and obesity were commonly seen in all the prediabetic groups, with the highest prevalence of hypertension seen in the Kazak group and the highest rate of obesity in Uygur group.

  7. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  8. Research of the application of multi-group libraries based on ENDF/B-VII library in the reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Aijun; Li Junjie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the multi-group libraries were constructed by processing ENDF/B-VII neutron incident files into multi-group structure, and the application of the multi-group libraries in the pressurized-water reactor(PWR) design was studied. The construction of the multi-group library is realized by using the NJOY nuclear data processing system. The code can process the neutron cross section files form ENDF format to MATXS format which was required in SN code. Two dimension transport theory code of discrete ordinates DORT was used to verify the multi-group libraries and the method of the construction by comparing calculations for some representative benchmarks. We made the PWR shielding calculation by using the multi-group libraries and studied the influence of the parameters involved during the construction of the libraries such as group structure, temperatures and weight functions on the shielding design of the PWR. This work is the preparation for the construction of the multi-group library which will be used in PWR shielding design in engineering. (authors)

  9. Generation and Testing of the ENDF/B-VI Continuous-Energy Cross-Section Library for Use with Continuous-Energy Versions of KENO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluoglu, Sedat; Dunn, Michael E.; Greene, Norman Maurice; Petrie Jr, Lester M.; Hollenbach, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    KENO V.a and KENO-VI are Monte Carlo codes that solve the multigroup form of the Boltzmann transport equation. These codes are part of the SCALE system of codes and are used for performing criticality calculations of systems with fissionable material. In general, continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods are preferred because such an approach avoids many of the assumptions inherent in the multigroup treatment. On the other hand, continuous-energy treatment is much more demanding in terms of computer storage space for data, memory requirements, and calculation speed. Continuous-energy versions of KENO V.a and KENO-VI have been created and are being extensively tested. Generation of ENDF/B-VI continuous-energy cross sections is explained, and the results of the validation and verification of the codes and the data are presented

  10. Identification of group affinity from cross-sectional contours of the human midfacial skeleton using digital morphometrics and 3D laser scanning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Walker, Phillip L; Kuzminsky, Susan C; Miller, Kevin W P; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2011-03-01

    Identifying group affinity from human crania is a long-standing problem in forensic and physical anthropology. Many craniofacial differences used in forensic skeletal identification are difficult to quantify, although certain measurements of the midfacial skeleton have shown high predictive value for group classifications. This study presents a new method for analyzing midfacial shape variation between different geographic groups. Three-dimensional laser scan models of 90 crania from three populations were used to obtain cross-sectional midfacial contours defined by three standard craniometric landmarks. Elliptic Fourier transforms of the contours were used to extract Fourier coefficients for statistical analysis. After cross-validation, discriminant functions based on the Fourier coefficients provided an average of 86% correct classifications for crania from the three groups. The high rate of accuracy of this method indicates its usefulness for identifying group affinities among human skeletal remains and demonstrates the advantages of digital 3D model-based analysis in forensic research. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups in China: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min

    2017-12-03

    ABO and RhD blood groups are key factors affecting blood transfusion safety. The distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups varies globally, but limited data exist for ethnic distributions of these blood groups in Asian populations. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups among Chinese ethnic groups. A population-based cross-sectional study. Data on ABO groups and ethnicities were obtained from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP) with participants from 220 counties of 31 provinces in China PARTICIPANTS: There were 3 832 034 participants aged 21-49 years who took part in the NFPHEP from January 2010 to December 2012 and were included in this study. The proportion of ABO and RhD blood groups among different ethnic groups was calculated. ABO and RhD blood distribution was significantly different among nine ethnic groups (Pgroups, the Yi group had more A phenotypes (34.0%), and the Manchu (33.7%) and Mongolian (33.3%) ethnic groups had more B phenotypes. The Zhuang group had the greatest proportion of O phenotypes (41.8%), followed by the Miao group (37.7%). AB phenotypes were more frequent in the Uygur ethnic group (10.6%) but lower in the Zhuang group (5.5%). Meanwhile, RhD negativity (RhD-) was greater in the Uygur group (3.3%) than in the Mongolian (0.3%) and Manchu ethnic groups (0.4%). O RhD- blood groups were more frequent in the Uygur group (0.8%) than in the other ethnic groups (0.1%-0.4%, Pblood phenotypes vary across different ethnic groups in China. The diversity in the distribution of the ABO and RhD blood groups in different ethnic groups should be considered when developing rational and evidence-based strategies for blood collection and management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Relationship of ABO and Rh blood groups with history of gastritis in the undergraduate medical and dental students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilu Manandhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The various ABO and Rh blood groups with different distribution frequencies in the general population have been found to be associated with different diseases, most notably gastritis. Many studies have claimed Rh groups to be indifferent to such association. Nonetheless, ABO group is found to linked with chronic gastritis. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups and the gastritis amongst the first and second year undergraduate medical and dental students; and to study their relationships. Materials & Methods: In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 247 study participants were enrolled. After procuring clearance from the institutional review committee and the informed and written consent from the study participants, data collection was done on the variables, year of study (first or second year, gender, blood groups (ABO and Rh and history of gastritis (present or absent.Results: Blood group O was the commonest (n=99; 40.1% followed by group B (n=77; 31.2%. Similarly, 239 (96.8% participants were Rh-positive as compared to 8 (3.2% Rh-negative. Interestingly, 46 (18.6% of the participants reported positive history of gastritis. Participants with blood group O had the greatest odds (OR=1.64 of having history of gastritis compared with those with other blood groups combined. Distribution of study participants based on gender and history of gastritis in either systems of blood grouping shoed no significant difference in their proportions (p>0.05. Conclusion: In light of the above findings, further longitudinal studies can be designed to better asses the relationship.

  13. ENDF/B-VIII.0: The 8th Major Release of the Nuclear Reaction Data Library with CIELO-project Cross Sections, New Standards and Thermal Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Capote, R.; Kahler, A. C.; Trkov, A.; Herman, M. W.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Danon, Y.; Carlson, A. D.; Dunn, M.; Smith, D. L.; Hale, G. M.; Arbanas, G.; Arcilla, R.; Bates, C. R.; Beck, B.; Becker, B.; Brown, F.; Casperson, R. J.; Conlin, J.; Cullen, D. E.; Descalle, M.-A.; Firestone, R.; Gaines, T.; Guber, K. H.; Hawari, A. I.; Holmes, J.; Johnson, T. D.; Kawano, T.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Koning, A. J.; Kopecky, S.; Leal, L.; Lestone, J. P.; Lubitz, C.; Márquez Damián, J. I.; Mattoon, C. M.; McCutchan, E. A.; Mughabghab, S.; Navratil, P.; Neudecker, D.; Nobre, G. P. A.; Noguere, G.; Paris, M.; Pigni, M. T.; Plompen, A. J.; Pritychenko, B.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Roubtsov, D.; Rochman, D.; Romano, P.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Simakov, S.; Sin, M.; Sirakov, I.; Sleaford, B.; Sobes, V.; Soukhovitskii, E. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Thompson, I.; van der Marck, S.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Wiarda, D.; White, M.; Wormald, J. L.; Wright, R. Q.; Zerkle, M.; Žerovnik, G.; Zhu, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We describe the new ENDF/B-VIII.0 evaluated nuclear reaction data library. ENDF/B-VIII.0 fully incorporates the new IAEA standards, includes improved thermal neutron scattering data and uses new evaluated data from the CIELO project for neutron reactions on 1H, 16O, 56Fe, 235U, 238U and 239Pu described in companion papers in the present issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. The evaluations benefit from recent experimental data obtained in the U.S. and Europe, and improvements in theory and simulation. Notable advances include updated evaluated data for light nuclei, structural materials, actinides, fission energy release, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray spectra, thermal neutron scattering data, and charged-particle reactions. Integral validation testing is shown for a wide range of criticality, reaction rate, and neutron transmission benchmarks. In general, integral validation performance of the library is improved relative to the previous ENDF/B-VII.1 library.

  14. A cross sectional study of nutritional status among a group of school children in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine nutritional status among a school children of Barru Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 127 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from Barru Regency were included in this study as a sample of simple random sampling. Nutritional status of children (BMI index, degree of gingival inflammation (using chi-square test statistic, and missing teeth (DMF-T index were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about dental health, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. The data were processed using the program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. A group of who severe underweight (102 children, had higher odds for mild gingivitis (GI 79.4% than others group of who has an ideal weight (16 children, had mild gingivitis (GI 62.5%. Children, who severe underweight, had higher odds for moderate caries (38.2% than others group of who has an ideal weight, had moderate caries (18.8%. Based on chi-square test, there are correlation of nutritional status and dental caries severity (p=0.000

  15. Lower Limb Strength Is Significantly Impaired in All Muscle Groups in Ambulatory People With Chronic Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Simone; Ada, Louise; Canning, Colleen Grace

    2016-04-01

    To measure the strength of the major muscle groups of the affected and intact lower limbs in people with stroke compared with age-matched controls. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Ambulatory stroke survivors (n=60; mean age, 69±11y), who had had a stroke between 1 and 6 years previously, and age-matched controls (n=35; mean age, 65±9y) (N=95). Not applicable. The maximum isometric strength of 12 muscle groups (hip flexors and extensors, hip adductors and abductors, hip internal rotators and external rotators, knee flexors and extensors, ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors, ankle invertors and evertors) of both lower limbs was measured using handheld dynamometry. All strength measurements were taken in standardized positions by 1 rater. The affected lower limb of the participants with stroke was significantly weaker than that of the control participants for all muscle groups (PStrength (adjusted for age, sex, and body weight) was 48% (range, 34%-62%) of that of the control participants. The most severely affected muscle groups were hip extensors (34% of controls), ankle dorsiflexors (35%), and hip adductors (38%), and the least severely affected muscle groups were ankle invertors (62%), ankle plantarflexors (57%), and hip flexors (55%). The intact lower limb of the participants with stroke was significantly weaker than that of the control participants for all muscle groups (PStrength (adjusted for age, sex, and body weight) was 66% (range, 44%-91%) of that of the control participants. The most severely affected muscle groups were hip extensors (44% of controls), ankle dorsiflexors (52%), and knee flexors (54%). Ambulatory people with chronic stroke have a marked loss of strength in most of the major muscle groups of both lower limbs compared with age-matched controls. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Barriers to HIV and sexual and reproductive health care for female sex workers in Tete, Mozambique: results from a cross-sectional survey and focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lafort

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of an operational research project in Tete, Mozambique, use of, and barriers to, HIV and sexual and reproductive health (HIV/SRH commodities and services for female sex workers (FSWs were assessed as part of a baseline situational analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional survey 311 FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling and interviewed face-to-face, and three focus group discussions were held with respectively 6 full-time Mozambican, 7 occasional Mozambican and 9 full-time Zimbabwean FSWs, to investigate use of, and barriers to, HIV/SRH care. Results The cross-sectional survey showed that 71 % of FSWs used non-barrier contraception, 78 % sought care for their last sexually transmitted infection episode, 51 % of HIV-negative FSWs was tested for HIV in the last 6 months, 83 % of HIV-positive FSWs were in HIV care, 55 % sought help at a health facility for their last unwanted pregnancy and 48 % after sexual assault, and none was ever screened for cervical cancer. Local public health facilities were by far the most common place where care was sought, followed by an NGO-operated clinic targeting FSWs, and places outside the Tete area. In the focus group discussions, FSWs expressed dissatisfaction with the public health services, as a result of being asked for bribes, being badly attended by some care providers, stigmatisation and breaches of confidentiality. The service most lacking was said to be termination of unwanted pregnancies. Conclusions The use of most HIV and SRH services is insufficient in this FSW population. The public health sector is the main provider, but access is hampered by several barriers. The reach of a FSW-specific NGO clinic is limited. Access to, and use of, HIV and SRH services should be improved by reducing barriers at public health facilities, broadening the range of services and expanding the reach of the targeted NGO clinic.

  17. Assessment of self-perceived and normative dental needs among teaching faculty of Visveswarapura Group of Institutions: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess and compare self-perceived and normative dental needs among teaching faculty of Visveswarapura Group of Institutions, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The study population included 217 teaching faculty from four Visveswarapura Group of Institutions namely Arts and Commerce, Law, Science College and Engineering College. The study population was subjected to a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire inquiring about their socioeconomic status, Oral health status and treatment needs. Clinical examinations, employing WHO dentition status and community periodontal index were performed to determine normative status and needs. Perceived and normative assessments were compared for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using Kappa statistics. Results: The degree of agreement (κ values and sensitivity was seen in filled teeth (0.839, 80%, missing teeth (0.696, 85.2%, and mobile teeth (0.57, 55.6%. However, the disagreement was seen with all other questions with average κ = 0.20. Regarding overall proportions, a large discrepancy was found between self-perceived and normative needs for both dental and periodontal health status. Conclusion: Self-assessment questionnaires were of low value in evaluating oral health status and treatment needs compared with clinical examination.

  18. Differences between LASL- and ANL-processed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Becker, M.

    1978-03-01

    As part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) cross-section processing development, LASL cross sections and results from MINX/1DX system are compared to the Argonne National Laboratory cross sections and results from the ETOE-2/MC 2 -2 system for a simple reactor problem. Exact perturbation theory is used to establish the eigenvalue effect of every isotope group cross-section difference. Cross sections, cross-section differences, and their eigenvalue effects are clearly and conveniently displayed and compared on a group-by-group basis

  19. Relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Gamage, Prasanna; Katulanda, Prasad; Andraweera, Nalinda; Thilakarathne, Sithira; Tharanga, Praveen

    2013-09-03

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI-BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its' linearity or curvilinearity. A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18-83 years were grouped into young (18-39 years) middle aged (40-59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons' correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its' linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p bioelectrical impedance, in this sub population of South Asian adults. This relationship was curvilinear in nature and was significantly influenced by age and gender. Our findings support the importance of taking age and gender in to consideration when using BMI to predict body fat percentage/obesity, in a population.

  20. Conflict of Interest Policies and Industry Relationships of Guideline Development Group Members: A Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lisa; Krimsky, Sheldon; Wheeler, Emily E; Peters, Shannon M; Brodt, Madeline; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2017-01-01

    Because of increased attention to the issue of trustworthiness of clinical practice guidelines, it may be that both transparency and management of industry associations of guideline development groups (GDGs) have improved. The purpose of the present study was to assess a) the disclosure requirements of GDGs in a cross-section of guidelines for major depression; and, b) the extent and type of conflicts of panel members. Treatment guidelines for major depression were identified and searched for conflict of interest policies and disclosure statements. Multi-modal screens for undeclared conflicts were also conducted. Fourteen guidelines with a total of 172 panel members were included in the analysis. Eleven of the 14 guidelines (78%) had a stated conflict of interest policy or disclosure statement, although the policies varied widely. Most (57%) of the guidelines were developed by panels that had members with industry financial ties to drug companies that manufacture antidepressant medication. However, only a minority of total panel members (18%) had such conflicts of interest. Drug company speakers bureau participation was the most common type of conflict. Although some progress has been made, organizations that develop guidelines should continue to work toward greater transparency and minimization of financial conflicts of interest.

  1. System-Wide and Group-Specific Health Service Improvements: Cross-Sectional Survey of Outpatient Improvement Preferences and Associations with Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Zucca, Alison; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2018-01-23

    Efficient patient-centred quality improvement requires an understanding of the system-wide areas of dissatisfaction along with evidence to identify the programs which can be strategically targeted according to specific patient characteristics and preferences. This cross-sectional study reports the proportion of chronic disease outpatients selecting 23 patient-centred improvement initiatives. Using univariate tests and multivariable logistic regressions, this multi-site study also identifies initiatives differentially selected by outpatients according to clinical and demographic characteristics. A total of 475 outpatients participated (49% response). Commonly selected initiatives included: reducing wait-times (22.3%); convenient appointment scheduling (16.0%); and receiving up-to-date treatment information (16.0%). Within univariate tests, preferences for information and service accessibility initiatives were not significantly associated with specific subgroups. However, seven initiatives were preferred according to age, gender, diagnosis status, and chronic disease type within multivariate models. For example, neurology outpatients were more likely to select assistance to manage psychological symptoms when compared to oncology outpatients (OR: 2.89). Study findings suggest that system-wide programs to enhance information provision are strategic approaches to improve experiences across patient characteristics. Furthermore, a few initiatives can be targeted to specific groups and emphasized the importance of detailed scoping analyses and tailored implementation plans when designing patient-centred quality improvement programs.

  2. System-Wide and Group-Specific Health Service Improvements: Cross-Sectional Survey of Outpatient Improvement Preferences and Associations with Demographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Fradgley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient patient-centred quality improvement requires an understanding of the system-wide areas of dissatisfaction along with evidence to identify the programs which can be strategically targeted according to specific patient characteristics and preferences. This cross-sectional study reports the proportion of chronic disease outpatients selecting 23 patient-centred improvement initiatives. Using univariate tests and multivariable logistic regressions, this multi-site study also identifies initiatives differentially selected by outpatients according to clinical and demographic characteristics. A total of 475 outpatients participated (49% response. Commonly selected initiatives included: reducing wait-times (22.3%; convenient appointment scheduling (16.0%; and receiving up-to-date treatment information (16.0%. Within univariate tests, preferences for information and service accessibility initiatives were not significantly associated with specific subgroups. However, seven initiatives were preferred according to age, gender, diagnosis status, and chronic disease type within multivariate models. For example, neurology outpatients were more likely to select assistance to manage psychological symptoms when compared to oncology outpatients (OR: 2.89. Study findings suggest that system-wide programs to enhance information provision are strategic approaches to improve experiences across patient characteristics. Furthermore, a few initiatives can be targeted to specific groups and emphasized the importance of detailed scoping analyses and tailored implementation plans when designing patient-centred quality improvement programs.

  3. A CROSS-SECTIONAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON CUTANEOUS DISEASES IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS BELONGING TO LOW INCOME GROUP FAMILIES ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES AT BANGALORE RURAL, SOUTH

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    Megha Chandrashekar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The incidence and the spectrum of paediatric dermatological diseases vary from one part of the world to another.1 Skin diseases, though very common in many developing countries are not often regarded as a significant health problem.2 Majority of the skin diseases tend to occur in children under the age of 5 years. This high prevalence could be due to the lower immunity or higher frequency of hospital visits by infants due to greater parental care. The aim of the study is to compare the present spectrum of cutaneous disorders between two age groups of children less than 5 years and 5-14 years old and their correlation with socioeconomic status attending primary health centre, Bangalore rural, south. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 22 to November 22, 2017, in children with skin disorders under 14 years old who attended primary health centre at Bangarappanagar and Uttarahalli in Bangalore. RESULTS A total of 522 children with skin diseases, 486 children were included in the study and they were divided into two groups of those less than 5 years with the sex ratio (M:F 1.5:1 and 5-14 years old with the sex ratio (M:F 1.3:1. The most common dermatological disease among less than 5 years age group was infections, eczema, infestations and pigmentary disorders and the most common dermatological diseases between 5-14 years was infections, scabies, eczema and acne. CONCLUSION Skin problems mainly scabies, tinea, impetigo and eczema were common in children who attended the primary health centres at Bangalore rural. There is a high prevalence of communicable diseases among children belonging to parents of low socioeconomic status. Community health education regarding personal hygiene coupled with that of the surrounding environment can help in controlling these diseases in the long run.

  4. Comparison of Oral Health Status and Knowledge on Oral Health in Two Age Groups of Schoolchildren: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethapriya, P R; Asokan, Sharath; Kandaswamy, D

    2017-01-01

    Oral health plays a pivotal role in the overall wellbeing of children. As children grow, there is a variation in their oral health status due to the changing trends and lifestyle. To evaluate and compare the factors related to oral health status in two age groups of school going children. A total of 582 children aged 8 to 11 years from 3 schools were included. Based on their school grade, they were grouped as younger (third grade) and older (fifth grade) children. Their dental caries status, caries treatment needs, oral hygiene status were assessed. A questionnaire was given to them to assess their knowledge on oral health. Both third and fifth grade children had similar caries status. The caries treatment needs was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in fifth grade children of school III. The oral hygiene status was significantly better (p = 0.004) in fifth grade children of school I and third grade children (p oral health and it was statistically significant in school II (p = 0.001). In school III, as caries status increased, the oral hygiene index score significantly increased (p = 0.001). Age did not have any influence on the oral health status of children. The older children had better knowledge on oral health, but the oral hygiene practices were not followed effectively How to cite this article: Geethapriya PR, Asokan S, Kandaswamy D. Comparison of Oral Health Status and Knowledge on Oral Health in Two Age Groups of Schoolchildren: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4): 340-345.

  5. Workplace availability, risk group and perceived barriers predictive of 2016-17 influenza vaccine uptake in the United States: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Paula M; Johnson, Riley E; Brown, Heidi E

    2017-10-13

    Seasonal influenza, though mostly self-limited in the healthy adult, may lead to severe disease and/or complications in subpopulations. Annual influenza vaccination is available in many countries with coverage goals rarely being met. We conducted a cross-sectional study of influenza vaccine uptake and explored socio-demographic, economic, and psychological factors that explained vaccine uptake. The survey was administered via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to United States residents in January 2017, using the Qualtrics platform. Using principal axis factor analysis, we reduced the 25 items theory-based psychological determinants into the primary constructs they measure if/when internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach's alpha >0.60). Logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of socio-demographic, economic, and psychological factors with reported vaccine behavior in the 2016-17 flu season. 1007 participants completed the survey, sex distribution was even, 67% had 25-44years of age, and 61% annual household income of $30-99 thousand United States dollars. About 25% had the flu shot offered at their workplace and 20% reported belonging to a group for whom the flu shot is recommended. Vaccine uptake was 31.5%. Eight predictors remained in the final adjusted model (R 2 =0.489), having the vaccine offered at the workplace, belonging to a group for whom the vaccine is recommended, and higher perceived barriers were the strongest predictors of vaccine uptake, increasing (and decreasing in the case of barriers) the odds by >3-fold. Additionally, higher household income, higher perceived susceptibility and higher perceived benefits also independently predicted vaccine uptake. We found evidence that perceived barriers significantly impaired vaccine uptake to the same extent that having the vaccine offered at the workplace or belonging to a group for whom the vaccine is recommended facilitated uptake. Ideally, a better understanding of drivers of

  6. What have we learned from reporting safety incidents in the Surgical Block?: Cross-sectional descriptive study of two-years of activity of a multidisciplinary analytical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba Barrientos, F; Rodríguez Morillo, A; Galisteo Domínguez, R; Del Nozal Nalda, M; Almeida González, C V; Echevarría Moreno, M

    2018-01-17

    Incident Reporting Systems (IRS) are considered a tool that facilitates learning and safety culture. Using the experience gained with SENSAR, we evaluated the feasibility and the activity of a multidisciplinary group analyzing incidents in the surgical patient notified to a general community system, that of the Observatory for Patient Safety (OPS). Cross-sectional observational study planned for two years. After training in the analysis, a multidisciplinary group was created in terms of specialties and professional categories, which would analyze the incidents in the surgical patient notified to the OPS. Incidents are classified and their circumstances analyzed. Between March 2015 and 2017, 95 incidents were reported (4 by non-professionals). Doctors reported more than nurses, at 54 (56.84%) vs. 37 (38.94%). The anaesthesia unit reported most at 46 (48.42%) (P=.025). The types of incidents mainly related to the care procedure (30.52%); to the preoperative period (42.10%); and to the place, the surgical area (48.42%). Significant differences were detected according to the origin of the notifier (P=.03). No harm, or minor morbidity, constituted 88% of the incidents. Errors were identified in 79%. The analysis of the incidents directed the measures to be taken. The activity undertaken by the multidisciplinary analytical group during the period of study facilitated knowledge of the system among the professionals and enabled the identification of areas for improvement in the Surgical Block at different levels. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving activation cross section data with TALYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzysiuk, Nataliia; Koning, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Needs for accurate (n,x) activation cross sections for fusion technology have been considered with reference to the current status of the TENDL library. The current work is focused on improving activation cross section data for nuclear reactions relevant mainly for fusion and astrophysical needs. The fits have been performed with the TALYS-1.8 code by means of nuclear model parameter variation, mostly for the optical model and level densities, followed by comparison to recent experimental data taken from EXFOR and other evaluated nuclear databases. The updated cross section data are going to be adopted into the new version of TENDL. The improvements have been performed both for differential as well as integral data sets.

  8. Assessing the knowledge and attitudes of group of mothers living in Saudi Arabia with regards to their children’s oral health: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlBandary AlJameel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The knowledge of mothers with respect to health can affect their children’s health either directly by promoting health practices or indirectly by influencing the health-related attitudes and behaviours of children. Aims The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of a group of mothers living in Saudi Arabia with regard to their children’s oral health. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 614 mothers living across Saudi Arabia. An electronic web-based questionnaire was developed and distributed among the participants using different social media outlets. Results Almost 80 per cent of study participants were knowledgeable regarding their child’s primary and permanent teeth’s eruption time and agreed that their child’s primary teeth were as important as the permanent teeth. The results also indicated that 79 per cent of the participants were aware that bottle feeding during sleep causes tooth decay and 73.7 per cent knew that the frequency of sugar consumption has a greater impact on oral health than the quantity of sugar consumed. Almost all participants (97 per cent reported that they watch and help their children to brush their teeth. More than half (55.8 per cent of them reported that they take their children for their first dental check-up when the children are one-year old, and almost three-quarters (73 per cent reported they take their children to regular dental check-ups. Conclusion Most mothers had a positive attitude toward their children’s oral health and were reasonably knowledgeable about it; however, further health education is required among some groups and in some aspects particularly those concerning oral and systemic health.

  9. Attitudes and beliefs among high- and low-risk population groups towards β-thalassemia prevention: a cross-sectional descriptive study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Swati; Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S; Vadlamudi, Raghavendra Rao

    2017-07-01

    " and "subjective norm." As this study is cross-sectional and descriptive in nature, the constructs of the theory should be considered as perceptions. However, we believe the patterns observed are indicative of "predicting behavior" that has far-reaching implications on health planners and administrators in designing β-thalassemia screening and prevention program.

  10. Risk Factors for Obesity in Adolescents of Ethnic Groups in Rural Areas of the Republic of Buryatia: a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubov V. Rychkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity develops as a result of interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The impact of environmental factors on the risk of obesity in children can be determined by socially conditioned causes.Objective. Our aim was to identify the risk factors associated with  overweight/obesity in children of different ethnic groups living in  rural areas of the Republic of Buryatia.Methods. The cross-sectional study included adolescents aged 11– 17 years. Overweight was considered to be the body mass index  (BMI values exceeding the 85th percentile of distribution for a given sex and age, obesity was considered to be the BMI the 95th  percentile. We assessed the anthropometric measures of adolescents and their parents, socio-demographic characteristics, features of early history, eating behaviour, and lifestyle.Results. The study included 151 adolescents of the indigenous Asian (girls — 39.7% and 118 Slavic (girls — 42.4% ethnic groups.  Overweight and obesity were detected in 53 (35% and 36 (31%  adolescents, respectively. Independent risk factors for  overweight/obesity in adolescents of both ethnic groups were BMI in  their mothers — odds ratio (OR 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]  1.1–1.3 and 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.4, respectively; in adolescents of  indigenous Asian ethnic groups, infrequent food intake — OR 4.2  (95% CI 1.1–16.1, living in an incomplete family — OR 4.4 (95% CI 1.3–14.1, and motherhousewife — OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.3–9.7; in  adolescents of the Slavic ethnic groups — eating at night [OR 17.3  (95% CI 1.8–163.0].Conclusion. The risk factors for overweight/obesity in rural adolescents, regardless of their ethnicity, are overweight in mothers and irregular food intake of children. The risk factors for  adolescents of indigenous Asian ethnic groups include social (family- related characteristics such as living in single-parent families and  families with non-working mothers.

  11. Establishment of an international reference data library of nuclear activation cross sections. Summary report of the first research co-ordination meeting held in Debrecen, Hungary, from 4 to 7 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1995-02-01

    The report contains the Summary of the First IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the new Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Establishment of an International Reference Data Library of Nuclear Activation Cross Sections''. The meeting was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section with co-operation and assistance of local organizers from the Institute of Experimental Physics and held in Debrecen, Hungary, from 4 to 7 October 1994. The purpose of the RCM was to discuss the scope and goals of the CRP, to report and evaluate the first results of the research carried out by each participating laboratory, to review the current tasks, identify further actions of participants and agree on the coordination of work under this CRP. The detailed agenda, the list of participants, conclusions and recommendations of the meeting are presented in the summary report. (author)

  12. Population normative data for the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery from Latin America, India and China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1 To report site-specific normative values by age, sex and educational level for four components of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery; 2 to estimate the main and interactive effects of age, sex, and educational level by site; and 3 to investigate the effect of site by region and by rural or urban location. Methods Population-based cross-sectional one phase catchment area surveys were conducted in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China and India. The protocol included the administration of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI 'D', generating the COGSCORE measure of global function, and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD verbal fluency (VF, word list memory (WLM, immediate recall and recall (WLR, delayed recall tests. Only those free of dementia were included in the analysis. Results Older people, and those with less education performed worse on all four tests. The effect of sex was much smaller and less consistent. There was a considerable effect of site after accounting for compositional differences in age, education and sex. Much of this was accounted for by the effect of region with Chinese participants performing better, and Indian participants worse, than those from Latin America. The effect of region was more prominent for VF and WLM than for COGSCORE and WLR. Conclusion Cognitive assessment is a basic element for dementia diagnosis. Age- and education-specific norms are required for this purpose, while the effect of gender can probably be ignored. The basis of cultural effects is poorly understood, but our findings serve to emphasise that normative data may not be safely generalised from one population to another with quite different characteristics. The minimal effects of region on COGSCORE and WLR are reassuring with respect to the cross-cultural validity of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis, which uses only these elements of the 10

  13. Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Sarah; Agyemang, Charles; Matsha, Tandi E; Peer, Nasheeta; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P

    2017-01-01

    Factors influencing the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa remain unclear. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity and effects on cardio-metabolic profile in school learners in the Western Cape, South Africa. Cross-sectional data were collected from 7 to 18-year-old South African school learners attending 14 schools, randomly selected from 107 government schools in the areas. The learners were selected through stratified random sampling techniques. Logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of overweight/obesity and its association with cardio-metabolic profile. Among the 1559 participants, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 22.9%. Being a girl (Odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI: 1.92-3.29), or Black African (1.35, 1.04-.75) was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese. The identified health consequences among the overweight/obese learners differed between the ethnic groups. Overweight/obese coloured (mixed ancestry) learners were more likely to have hypertension (3.27, 1.18-9.08), hypertriglyceridemia (1.94, 0.99-3.78) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (3.65, 2.33-5.72), overweight/obese Black African learners had higher odds for hypertension (3.62, 1.31-10.04) and low HDL-C (1.56, 1.01-2.40) and overweight/obese White learners were prone to low HDL-C (5.04, 1.35-18.80). Overweight/obesity is highly prevalent among school learners in Western Cape (South Africa), with being female or Black African increasing the odds. That overweight/obesity is also associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile aggravates the problem and suggests worse cardiovascular outcomes in South African young adults in the future.

  14. Epidemiology of group A streptococcal pharyngitis & impetigo: a cross-sectional & follow up study in a rural community of northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Vohra, H; Chakraborty, A; Sharma, Y P; Bandhopadhya, S; Dhanda, V; Sagar, V; Sharma, M; Shah, B; Ganguly, N K

    2009-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide array of human diseases. Epidemiological picture of streptococcal infection in India is not complete. Hence, disease burden due to GAS in 5-15 yr old school children in northern India was studied and emm typing of GAS isolates was carried out to help in designing prevention strategies. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 4249 school children (5-15 yr) from Raipur Rani Block of Panchkula district in Haryana during 2000-2002; 334 children were followed up fortnightly for one year. Standard clinical and microbiological procedures were used for collection of swabs from throat and skin and confirmation of GAS and its emm types. Of the 4249 children studied, 658 (15.5%) had pharyngitis; 579 of them could be swabbed, of which 2.8 per cent had GAS. From 3591 children without pharyngitis, 3385 who could be swabbed, GAS was found in 1.3 per cent of them. Impetigo was rare (0.7%), but 7.1 per cent (2/28) children had GAS. In the followup study, 17.4 per cent (776/4447 child-contacts) had pharyngitis, 761 could be swabbed and 2.4 per cent had GAS; among those without pharyngitis, 2016 swabs could be taken and GAS was found in 1.3 per cent; whereas only 2.6 per cent (2/75) of skin sores had GAS. Three children had GAS pharyngitis twice during follow up. Fourteen different GAS emm types were found. emm 71, 77 and 81 constituted 69 per cent of the pharyngeal isolates. GAS pharyngitis and impetigo were more common in winters and summers respectively. In north India, pharyngitis was more common than impetigo. Most prevalent emm types of GAS in this region differ from those included in M protein-based vaccines.

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of Muscle Thickness, Echo-Intensity and Cross Sectional Area of Quadriceps and Hamstrings Muscle Groups Using B-mode Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio V. Ruas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound muscle images have been extensively used as tools for investigating, diagnosing and monitoring thigh muscles. However, there is a lack of information examining ultrasound reliability of quadriceps and hamstrings images for research and clinical use. Objectives: To determine the reliability of muscle thickness (MT, echo intensity (EI and cross sectional area (CSA of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups. Methods: Single transverse images of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus intermedius (VI, vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris long head (BFlh, semitendinosus (ST, and semimembranosus (SM muscles were scanned in the right and left legs of ten healthy collegiate men (age 23.4 ± 2.2 yrs, mass 71.7 ± 11.7 kg, height 1.73 ± 0.06 m between two sessions with one day interval. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, standard error of measurement (SEM, and minimum difference to be considered “real” (MD were measured for MT, EI, and CSA. Results: A range of 0.97-0.99, 0.83-0.88, and 0.86-0.97 (ICC; 0.72-1.38, 2.73-3.41, and 0.36-1.04 (SEM; and 2.01-3.82, 7.56-9.46, and 0.99-2.89 (MD were found for quadriceps muscles, and 0.93-0.99, 0.74-0.90, and 0.89-0.96 (ICC; 0.73-1.94, 3.29-4.98, and 0.69-1.08 (SEM; and 2.03-5.38, 9.13-13.81, and 1.91-2.98 (MD were found for hamstrings muscles. Conclusions: These results suggest that ultrasound imaging of both quadriceps and hamstrings muscle architecture is a reliable technique for assessing thigh musculoskeletal tissue. The anatomical sites, as well as ultrasound adjustments, images, and results utilized here may assist future researchers and clinicians as reference tools when measuring quadriceps and hamstrings musculature.

  16. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  17. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  18. Calculation of the fine spectrum and integration of the resonance cross sections in the cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paratte, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    The code BOXER is used for the neutronics calculations of two-dimensional LWR arrays. During the calculation of the group constants of the cells (pin, clad and moderator), the program SLOFIN, a BOXER module, allows taking into account the self-shielding of the resonances. The resonance range is devided into two parts: - above 907 eV the cross sections are condensed into groups by the library code ETOBOX. In SLOFIN, these values are interpolated over the equivalent cross section and the temperature. The interpolation formula chosen gives an accuracy better than 1% for values of the equivalent cross section larger than 5 barns. - between 4 and 907 eV, the cross sections are given in pointwise form as a function of the lethargy. At first a list of pointwise macroscopic cross section is established. Then the fine spectrum in the cell is calculated in 2 or 3 zones by means of the collision probability theory. In the central zone one resonant pseudo-nuclide is considered for the calculation of the scattering source, while the light nuclides are explicitly treated but under the assumption of energy independent cross sections. The fine spectrum is then used as a weihting function for the condensation of the pointwise cross sections of the resonant nuclides into energy groups. The procedure was checked on the basis of the TRX-1 to -4 and BAPL-UO 2 -1 to -3 experiments which are used as benchmarks for the tests of the ENDF/B libraries. The comparisons with other calculation results show that the deviations observed are typical for the basic cross sections. The method proposed shows a good accuracy in the application range foreseen for BOXER. It is also fast enough to be used as a standard method in a cell code. (author)

  19. Experiences with and expectations of maternity waiting homes in Luapula Province, Zambia: a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study with women, community groups and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibuye, Peggy S; Bazant, Eva S; Wallon, Michelle; Rao, Namratha; Fruhauf, Timothee

    2018-01-25

    Luapula Province has the highest maternal mortality and one of the lowest facility-based births in Zambia. The distance to facilities limits facility-based births for women in rural areas. In 2013, the government incorporated maternity homes into the health system at the community level to increase facility-based births and reduce maternal mortality. To examine the experiences with maternity homes, formative research was undertaken in four districts of Luapula Province to assess women's and community's needs, use patterns, collaboration between maternity homes, facilities and communities, and promising practices and models in Central and Lusaka Provinces. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods design was used. In Luapula Province, qualitative data were collected through 21 focus group discussions with 210 pregnant women, mothers, elderly women, and Safe Motherhood Action Groups (SMAGs) and 79 interviews with health workers, traditional leaders, couples and partner agency staff. Health facility assessment tools, service abstraction forms and registers from 17 facilities supplied quantitative data. Additional qualitative data were collected from 26 SMAGs and 10 health workers in Central and Lusaka Provinces to contextualise findings. Qualitative transcripts were analysed thematically using Atlas-ti. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively using Stata. Women who used maternity homes recognized the advantages of facility-based births. However, women and community groups requested better infrastructure, services, food, security, privacy, and transportation. SMAGs led the construction of maternity homes and advocated the benefits to women and communities in collaboration with health workers, but management responsibilities of the homes remained unassigned to SMAGs or staff. Community norms often influenced women's decisions to use maternity homes. Successful maternity homes in Central Province also relied on SMAGs for financial support, but the sustainability of these

  20. Serum vitamin D3 level inversely correlates with uterine fibroid volume in different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Mohamed; Halder, Sunil K; Allah, Abdou S Ait; Roshdy, Eman; Rajaratnam, Veera; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Currently there is no effective medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids (UFs), a common health disorder that affects women of reproductive age. Identification of modifiable risk factors such as vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency could help develop novel strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of UFs. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum Vit D3 levels correlate with increased risk of UFs. Methods A total of 154 premenopausal women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The control group comprised 50 subjects with a normal, fibroid-free uterine structure, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The 104 case subjects had at least one fibroid lesion that was 2 cm3 in volume or larger, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. For each case subject, total uterine volume and total volume of all existing fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes, with volume determined according to the prolate ellipse formula (a × b × c × 0.523), where a is height, b is width, and c is depth. Serum Vit D [25(OH) D3] levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The independent t-test was used to compare serum Vit D levels across groups. Correlations were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results Lower serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of UFs (P = 0.01). A statistically significant inverse correlation was also observed between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total UF volume (r = −0.31; P = 0.002) within the case cohort. Subjects with larger fibroid volumes had lower serum Vit D levels and vice versa. Data stratified for ethnicity showed a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total fibroid volume in black subjects (r = −0.42; P = 0.001). An inverse correlation was also evident in white subjects (r = −0.86; P = 0.58) but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Lower serum Vit D levels are inversely correlated with

  1. A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study of Vaginal Carriage of Group B Streptococci (GBS and Escherichia coli in Resource-Poor Settings: Prevalences and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Cools

    Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of

  2. Predictors of modern contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age groups in Western Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Melka, Alemu Sufa; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, the prevalence of modern contraceptive use is very low (27?%) and the percentage of those with unmet needs for family planning is 25?%. The current study identified factors associated with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods among married women in Western Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was employed from April 10 to April 25, 2014, among married women of reproductive age in Nekemte Town. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used t...

  3. Nuclear data library in design calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Go; Kosaka, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    In core design calculation, nuclear data takes part as multi group cross section library during the assembly calculation, which is the first stage of a core design calculation. This report summarizes the multi group cross section libraries used in assembly calculations and also presents the methods adopted for resonance and assembly calculation. (author)

  4. Current status of Russian Evaluated Neutron Data Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Manokhin, V.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    The status of Russian Evaluated Data Libraries is discussed. The last modifications of the BROND-2 files and their relations to the additional files of the FOND library and the ABBN-90 group constants are considered. The main characteristics of new libraries for the photoneutron data, dosimetry and activation reaction cross sections and transmutation cross sections for intermediate energies are described briefly. (author)

  5. A new approach to make collapsed cross section for burnup calculation of subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaka, Masayuki; Kondo, Keitaro; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Murata, Isao

    2008-01-01

    A general-purpose transport and burnup code system for precise analysis of subcritical reactors like a fusion-fission (FF) hybrid reactor was developed and used for analyzing their performance. The FF hybrid reactor is a subcritical system, which has a concept of fusion reactor with a blanket region containing nuclear fuel and has been under discussion by author's group for years because the present burnup calculation system mainly consists of a general-purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B, a point burnup code ORIGEN2. JENDL-3.3 pointwise cross section library and JENDL Activation Cross Section File 96 were used as base cross section libraries to make group constant for burnup calculation. A new method has been proposed to make group constant for the burnup calculation as accurate as possible directly using output data of the neutron transport calculation by MCNP and evaluated nuclear data libraries. This method is strict and a general procedure to make one group cross sections in Monte Carlo calculations, while it takes very long computation time. Some speed-up techniques were discussed for the present group constant making process so as to decrease calculation time. Adoption of postprocessing to make group constant improved the calculation accuracy because of increasing number of cross sections to be updated in each burnup cycle. The present calculation system is capable of performing neutronics analysis of subcritical reactors more precise than our previous one. However, at the moment, it still takes long computation time to make group constants. Further speed-up techniques are now under investigation so as to apply the present system to neutronics design analysis for various subcritical systems. (author)

  6. ENDF Cross Sections are not Uniquely Defined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Most evaluated data that is coded into the ENDF format [1] does not uniquely define cross sections, because the evaluator defined total is not equal to the sum of evaluator defined partial cross sections, i.e., the total is not equal to elastic plus capture, etc. So we have always had the question: What is the correct total cross section? This is not a new problem; it has existed since the very beginning of ENDF over forty years ago. It is a problem that is periodically discussed and apparently handled, only to have it pop up again every ten years or so, as we have the next generation of ENDF format users who are not aware of the problem. See the Appendices for a summary of the differences that exist today for the ENDF/B-VII.0 (Appendix C), JEFF- 3.1(Appendix D), JENDL-3.3 (Appendix E), and CENDL-3.1 (Appendix F) data libraries. For use in our application we need consistent, unique data. To accomplish this for decades we [2, 3] have been ignoring the evaluator defined total, and re-defining it as equal to the sum of its evaluator defined parts. This has never been completely satisfactory to us, because we have been doing this without consulting evaluators, or obtaining their approval, so that the data we actually use in our applications may or may not be what the evaluators intended.

  7. Differential cross section of He

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angular distribution; differential cross section; electronic excitation; ionization of molecules. PACS Nos 34.50.Fa; 34.80.Dp. 1. Introduction. It is well known that ... proper accounting of electron–electron correlation in the final state, there are complica- tions due to the multi-electron structure of the target and the residual ion.

  8. ZZ MATXS70-JEFF87, 69+1 Group MATXS Library in WIMS BOXER Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vontobel, P.; Pelloni, S.

    1990-01-01

    Description of program or function: Format: WIMS-BOXER; Number of groups: 69 + 1 groups neutron library; Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Kr, Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, I, Xe, Cs, La, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au, Pb, Pa, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm. Origin: JEF-1, EFF-1; Weighting spectrum: yes. The 70 group WIMS-BOXER structure MATXS library contains data for 80 isotopes of 40 chemical elements. Several temperatures, background cross sections and P1 scattering anisotropy are included. The data can be used by most transport and diffusion codes after pre-processing with the MATXS interface codes TRAMIX or TRANSX-CTR

  9. Predictors of modern contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age groups in Western Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Melka, Alemu Sufa; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-07-17

    In Ethiopia, the prevalence of modern contraceptive use is very low (27 %) and the percentage of those with unmet needs for family planning is 25 %. The current study identified factors associated with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods among married women in Western Ethiopia. A community based, cross-sectional study was employed from April 10 to April 25, 2014, among married women of reproductive age in Nekemte Town. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 1003 study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data, and data collectors who had completed high school were involved in the data collection process. A bivariate, multivariable logistic regression model was fit, and statistical significance was determined with a 95% confidence level. The overall utilization rate of modern contraceptives in this study was 71.9%. The most common form of modern contraceptives used was injectable (60.3%). Age (AOR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.35-2.98), women's educational level (AOR = 2.50, 95 % CI = 1.62-3.84), monthly income (AOR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.24-4.10), respondent's fertility (AOR = 2.60, 95 % CI = 1.48-4.56), fertility-related decision (AOR = 3.70, 95 % CI = 2.45-5.58), and having radio (AOR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.37-2.71) showed significant positive associations with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods. The findings showed that women's empowerment, fertility-related discussions among couples, and the availability of the media were important factors that influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Thus, policymakers and implementers should work on those factors to increase the utilization of modern contraceptive methods.

  10. Chronic disease prevalence and care among the elderly in urban and rural Beijing, China - a 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Renata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic ageing is occurring at an unprecedented rate in China. Chronic diseases and their disabling consequences will become much more common. Public policy has a strong urban bias, and older people living in rural areas may be especially vulnerable due to limited access to good quality healthcare, and low pension coverage. We aim to compare the sociodemographic and health characteristics, health service utilization, needs for care and informal care arrangements of representative samples of older people in two Beijing communities, urban Xicheng and rural Daxing. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey of all those aged 65 years and over was conducted in urban and rural catchment areas in Beijing, China. Assessments included questionnaires, a clinical interview, physical examination, and an informant interview. Prevalence of chronic diseases, self-reported impairments and risk behaviours was calculated adjusting for household clustering. Poisson working models were used to estimate the independent effect of rural versus urban residence, and to explore the predictors of health services utilization. Results We interviewed 1002 participants in rural Daxing, and 1160 in urban Xicheng. Those in Daxing were more likely to be younger, widowed, less educated, not receiving a pension, and reliant on family transfers. Chronic diseases were more common in Xicheng, when based on self-report rather than clinical assessment. Risk exposures were more common in Daxing. Rural older people were much less likely to access health services, controlling for age and health. Community health services were ineffective, particularly in Daxing, where fewer than 3% of those with hypertension were adequately controlled. In Daxing, care was provided by family, who had often given up work to do so. In Xicheng, 45% of those needing care were supported by paid caregivers. Caregiver strain was higher in Xicheng. Dementia was strongly associated with

  11. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  12. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional rad...... information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm....

  13. THOR: thermal cross section generation code using ENDF/B data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.B. II; Hassan, N.M.; Wittkopf, W.A.

    1975-12-01

    THOR processes ENDF/B data files to produce a master thermal library containing multigroup cross sections, scattering kernels, and slowing-down source distributions for use in thermal spectrum calculations. The thermal energy range may be described by up to 80 energy groups, and a weighting spectrum may be either input or calculated by the program for use in obtaining average group coefficients. Resonance contributions to the thermal cross sections are added to the appropriate smooth cross sections to obtain the cross section for each reaction type. Scattering kernels may be produced using either thermal neutron scattering law data or free gas scattering law data, depending on the form of the data present on the ENDF/B data file for the material. Slowing-down source distributions are calculated for each material assuming a 1/E neutron flux in the epithermal energy range. The master thermal library produced by THOR may contain up to 100 materials with coefficient data present at a maximum of 25 temperatures for each material

  14. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  15. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  16. Consistent evaluation of neutron cross sections for the 242-244Cm isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.; Maslov, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The knowledge of neutron cross-sections for Curium isotopes is necessary for solving the problems of the external fuel cycle. Experimental information on the cross-sections is very meager and does not satisfy requirements and existing evaluations in different libraries differ substantially for fission and (n,2n) reaction cross-sections. This situation requires a critical review of the entire set of evaluations of the neutron cross-sections for Curium. 17 refs, 3 figs

  17. Porosity effects in the neutron total cross section of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R; Dawidowski, J; Petriw, S. N

    2009-01-01

    Graphite has been used in nuclear reactors since the birth of the nuclear industry due to its good performance as a neutron moderator material. Graphite is still an option as moderator for generation IV reactors due to its good mechanical and thermal properties at high operation temperatures. So, there has been renewed interest in a revision of the computer libraries used to describe the neutron cross section of graphite. For sub-thermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a larger total cross section (between 4 and 8 barns) than predicted by existing theoretical models (0.2 barns). In order to investigate the origin of this discrepancy we measured the total cross section of graphite samples of three different origins, in the energy range from 0.001 eV to 10 eV. Different experimental arrangements and sample treatments were explored, to identify the effect of various experimental parameters on the total cross section measurement. The experiments showed that the increase in total cross section is due to neutrons scattered around the forward direction. We associate these small-angle scattered neutrons (SANS) to the porous structure of graphite, and formulate a very simple model to compute its contribution to the total cross section of the material. This results in an analytic expression that explicitly depends on the density and mean size of the pores, which can be easily incorporated in nuclear library codes. [es

  18. COMBINE7.1 - A Portable ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Neutron Spectrum and Cross-Section Generation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo Y. Yoon; David W. Nigg

    2009-08-01

    COMBINE7.1 is a FORTRAN 90 computer code that generates multigroup neutron constants for use in the deterministic diffusion and transport theory neutronics analysis. The cross-section database used by COMBINE7.1 is derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VII.0). The neutron energy range covered is from 20 MeV to 1.0E-5 eV. The Los Alamos National Laboratory NJOY code is used as the processing code to generate a 167 fine-group cross-section library in MATXS format for Bondarenko self-shielding treatment. Resolved resonance parameters are extracted from ENDF/B-VII.0 File 2 for a separate library to be used in an alternate Nordheim self-shielding treatment in the resolved resonance energy range. The equations solved for energy dependent neutron spectrum in the 167 fine-group structure are the B-3 or B-1 approximations to the transport equation. The fine group cross sections needed for the spectrum calculation are first prepared by Bondarenko self-shielding interpolation in terms of background cross section and temperature. The geometric lump effect, when present, is accounted for by augmenting the background cross section. Nordheim self-shielded fine group cross sections for a material having resolved resonance parameters overwrite correspondingly the existing self-shielded fine group cross sections when this option is used. The fine group cross sections in the thermal energy range are replaced by those self-shielded with the Amouyal/Benoist/Horowitz method in the three region geometry when this option is requested. COMBINE7.1 coalesces fine group cross sections into broad group macroscopic and microscopic constants. The coalescing is performed by utilizing fine-group fluxes and/or currents obtained by spectrum calculation as the weighting functions. The multigroup constant may be output in any of several standard formats including ANISN 14** free format, CCCC ISOTXS format, and AMPX working library format. ANISN-PC, a one-dimensional, discrete

  19. Neutron standard cross sections in reactor physics - Need and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The design and improvement of nuclear reactors require detailed neutronics calculations. These calculations depend on comprehensive libraries of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Most of the cross sections that form the data base for these evaluations have been measured relative to neutron cross-section standards. The use of these standards can often simplify the measurement process by eliminating the need for a direct measurement of the neutron fluence. The standards are not known perfectly, however; thus the accuracy of a cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross section relative to which it is measured. Improvements in a standard cause all cross sections measured relative to that standard to be improved. This is the reason for the emphasis on improving the neutron cross-section standards. The continual process of measurement and evaluation has led to improvements in the accuracy and range of applicability of the standards. Though these improvements have been substantial, this process must continue in order to obtain the high-quality standards needed by the user community

  20. Measurement of neutron-induced activation cross-sections using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish Sharma et al. Table 1. Geometrical details of Co- and Ta-activation detectors used in Gam- ma-2 experiment. Element. 181Ta. 59Co. Cross-sectional area. 2.64 cm2 ... the details of the activated detectors, Au, Bi, and Th as well as the methodology of analysis for the estimation of 'one group cross-section'. Further ...

  1. Development of perturbation theory expressions for the evaluation of reactivity effects and sensitivity coefficient of reactivity effect to the group cross-sections on the basis of improved coarse mesh method for 3D diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seregin, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the formulae for perturbation theory functionals calculation are given and equations are based on improved coarse mesh discretization of diffusion problem in 3-dimensional geometry (Hex-Z). Expressions for the reactivity effect components and reactivity coefficients, written in the framework of the first order perturbation theory, are presented. On this basis the formulae for estimation of the sensitivity coefficients of different reactivity effects group cross-sections were derived. Expressions for the reactivity effect and its components obtained in the framework of the strict perturbation theory, are also presented in the paper. (author)

  2. SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ganda, francesco (090771)

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the

  3. [The libraries of the public hospitals in Spain. An economic analysis. The Research Group on Libraries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, C; Lázaro y de Mercado, P; Poza Sanz, M A; Estrada Lorenzo, J M

    1999-01-01

    The continuous increase in scientific knowledge in the health field, the development of new technologies and the rising cost of publications means that libraries are essential for patient care, medical education and research. In Spain some deficiencies have been seen in hospital libraries, and their cost is unknown. To analyze the cost of public hospital libraries in Spain and to estimate the cost of adapting them to international standards. Cross-sectional survey of public hospitals larger than 100 beds, or smaller public hospitals with teaching accreditation. Information on the variables of interest was collected by questionnaire mailed to the libraries and followed up by telephone. Data collection was completed in 1996. The information on costs is for 1994. A sensitivity analysis was done to examine the effects of imprecise estimates and assumptions. Of the 314 hospitals identified, 211 (67.2%) had libraries. The 1994 cost of the of the 211 libraries was 3,060 million pesetas (mean cost: 14.5 million pesetas). Personnel costs were the most important item (38% of the total), followed by the cost of subscriptions (29%). The cost of hospital libraries represented 0.08% of national public expenditures on health. The cost of correcting inadequacies in accordance with international standards would increase spending by about 400 million pesetas the first year (0.01% of public spending on health). The cost of hospital libraries represents only a small fraction of public spending on health. Correction of the observed deficiencies and the importance of libraries in the health system would require increasing spending to about 0.1% of public spending on health.

  4. COMBINE7.0 - A Portable ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Neutron Spectrum and Cross-Section Generation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo Y. Yoon; David W. Nigg

    2008-09-01

    COMBINE7.0 is a FORTRAN 90 computer code that generates multigroup neutron constants for use in the deterministic diffusion and transport theory neutronics analysis. The cross-section database used by COMBINE7.0 is derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VII.0). The neutron energy range covered is from 20 MeV to 1.0E-5 eV. The Los Alamos National Laboratory NJOY code is used as the processing code to generate a 167 finegroup cross-section library in MATXS format for Bondarenko self-shielding treatment. Resolved resonance parameters are extracted from ENDF/B-VII.0 File 2 for a separate library to be used in an alternate Nordheim self-shielding treatment in the resolved resonance energy range. The equations solved for energy dependent neutron spectrum in the 167 fine-group structure are the B-3 or B-1 approximations to the transport equation. The fine group cross sections needed for the spectrum calculation are first prepared by Bondarenko selfshielding interpolation in terms of background cross section and temperature. The geometric lump effect, when present, is accounted for by augmenting the background cross section. Nordheim self-shielded fine group cross sections for a material having resolved resonance parameters overwrite correspondingly the existing self-shielded fine group cross sections when this option is used. The fine group cross sections in the thermal energy range are replaced by those selfshielded with the Amouyal/Benoist/Horowitz method in the three region geometry when this option is requested. COMBINE7.0 coalesces fine group cross sections into broad group macroscopic and microscopic constants. The coalescing is performed by utilizing fine-group fluxes and/or currents obtained by spectrum calculation as the weighting functions. The multigroup constant may be output in any of several standard formats including ANISN 14** free format, CCCC ISOTXS format, and AMPX working library format. ANISN-PC, a onedimensional, discrete

  5. Participation in rural community groups and links with psychological well-being and resilience: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Fletcher, Gillian; Farmer, Jane; Kenny, Amanda; Bourke, Lisa; Carra, Kylie; Bariola, Emily

    2016-04-08

    Fostering the development of community groups can be an important part of boosting community participation and improving health and well-being outcomes in rural communities. In this article, we examine whether psychological well-being and resilience are linked to participating in particular kinds of rural community groups. We conducted a household survey involving 176 participants aged 18 to 94 years from a medium-sized rural Australian town. We gathered data on psychological well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), resilience (Brief Resilience Scale), and the types of community groups that people participated in as well as a range of characteristics of those groups, such as size, frequency of group meetings, perceived openness to new members, and whether groups had leaders, defined roles for members, hierarchies, and rules. Univariable regression analyses revealed significant links between particular group characteristics and individual psychological well-being and resilience, suggesting that the characteristics of the group that an individual participates in are strongly tied to that person's well-being outcomes. Multivariable analyses revealed two significant independent factors. First, psychological well-being was greatest among those who participated in groups without a hierarchy, that is, equal-status relationships between members. Second, resilience was greater among those who reported having a sense of influence within a group. Our findings suggest that policymakers wishing to promote participation in rural community groups for health and well-being benefits may do well to encourage the development of particular characteristics within those groups, in particular equal-status relationships and a sense of influence for all group members.

  6. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  7. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  8. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered.

  9. Agreement between Cochrane Neonatal Group reviews and clinical guidelines for newborns at a Copenhagen University Hospital - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Greisen, Gorm; Jacobsen, Robert Thorkild

    2007-01-01

    To assess the agreement between Cochrane Neonatal Group reviews and clinical guidelines of a University Neonatology Department, to evaluate the reasons for potential disagreements and to ascertain whether Cochrane reviews were considered for the guidelines development.......To assess the agreement between Cochrane Neonatal Group reviews and clinical guidelines of a University Neonatology Department, to evaluate the reasons for potential disagreements and to ascertain whether Cochrane reviews were considered for the guidelines development....

  10. Neutron cross-sections database for amino acids and proteins analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin, E-mail: dante@ien.gov.br, E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: Chaffin@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Helio F. da, E-mail: hrocha@gbl.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPMG/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pediatria

    2015-07-01

    Biological materials may be studied using neutrons as an unconventional tool of analysis. Dynamics and structures data can be obtained for amino acids, protein and others cellular components by neutron cross sections determinations especially for applications in nuclear purity and conformation analysis. The instrument used for this is the crystal spectrometer of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN-RJ), the only one in Latin America that uses neutrons for this type of analyzes and it is installed in one of the reactor Argonauta irradiation channels. The experimentally values obtained are compared with calculated values using literature data with a rigorous analysis of the chemical composition, conformation and molecular structure analysis of the materials. A neutron cross-section database was constructed to assist in determining molecular dynamic, structure and formulae of biological materials. The database contains neutron cross-sections values of all amino acids, chemical elements, molecular groups, auxiliary radicals, as well as values of constants and parameters necessary for the analysis. An unprecedented analytical procedure was developed using the neutron cross section parceling and grouping method for data manipulation. This database is a result of measurements obtained from twenty amino acids that were provided by different manufactories and are used in oral administration in hospital individuals for nutritional applications. It was also constructed a small data file of compounds with different molecular groups including carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, all linked to hydrogen atoms. A review of global and national scene in the acquisition of neutron cross sections data, the formation of libraries and the application of neutrons for analyzing biological materials is presented. This database has further application in protein analysis and the neutron cross-section from the insulin was estimated. (author)

  11. Neutron cross-sections database for amino acids and proteins analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin; Rocha, Helio F. da

    2015-01-01

    Biological materials may be studied using neutrons as an unconventional tool of analysis. Dynamics and structures data can be obtained for amino acids, protein and others cellular components by neutron cross sections determinations especially for applications in nuclear purity and conformation analysis. The instrument used for this is the crystal spectrometer of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN-RJ), the only one in Latin America that uses neutrons for this type of analyzes and it is installed in one of the reactor Argonauta irradiation channels. The experimentally values obtained are compared with calculated values using literature data with a rigorous analysis of the chemical composition, conformation and molecular structure analysis of the materials. A neutron cross-section database was constructed to assist in determining molecular dynamic, structure and formulae of biological materials. The database contains neutron cross-sections values of all amino acids, chemical elements, molecular groups, auxiliary radicals, as well as values of constants and parameters necessary for the analysis. An unprecedented analytical procedure was developed using the neutron cross section parceling and grouping method for data manipulation. This database is a result of measurements obtained from twenty amino acids that were provided by different manufactories and are used in oral administration in hospital individuals for nutritional applications. It was also constructed a small data file of compounds with different molecular groups including carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, all linked to hydrogen atoms. A review of global and national scene in the acquisition of neutron cross sections data, the formation of libraries and the application of neutrons for analyzing biological materials is presented. This database has further application in protein analysis and the neutron cross-section from the insulin was estimated. (author)

  12. Radiative neutron capture cross section from 236U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Roman, A. R.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C. L.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.

    2017-08-01

    The 236U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section has been measured for the incident neutron energy range from 10 eV to 800 keV by using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) γ -ray calorimeter at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The cross section was determined with the ratio method, which is a technique that uses the 235U(n ,f ) reaction as a reference. The results of the experiment are reported in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. Individual neutron resonance parameters were obtained below 1 keV incident energy by using the R -matrix code sammy. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is determined with improved experimental uncertainty. It agrees with both ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data libraries. The results above 10 keV agree better with the JEFF-3.2 library.

  13. The characteristics and mortality risk factors for acute kidney injury in different age groups in China-a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Hong; Tu, Yan-; Tang, Ri-Ning; Wang, Yan-Li; Pan, Ming-Ming; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Age is an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). The causes and outcomes of AKI in children, middle-aged, and older patients are different. The objective of this country-based study was to identify the characteristics and mortality factors for AKI in different age groups in China. Using data from 374,286 adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to 44 study hospitals, we investigated the characteristics and mortality risk factors for AKI in four different age groups: 18-39 years of age, 40-59 years of age, 60-79 years of age, and ≥80 years of age. The identification criteria for AKI included the 2012 KDIGO AKI definition and an expanded criterion. The country-based survey included 7604 AKI patients (7604/374,286, 2.03%). The proportions of AKI in the four age groups were 11.52%, 30.79%, 41.03%, and 16.66%, respectively. In any age group, the patients with AKI stage 1 were the majority (43.4%, 42.4%, 46.4%, and 52.2%, respectively), and the most common classification of AKI was pre-renal AKI (44.3%, 51.3%, 52.3%, and 56.4%, respectively). The higher AKI peak stage occurred for the in-hospital mortality factors for AKI in all age groups; except for the AKI stage 2 patients in the 18-39 age group. The characteristics and mortality factors for AKI vary by age in China. Elderly patients were the primary population with AKI, and the most common type of AKI was pre-renal AKI. Special caution should be taken to the old population in hospitalized patients to prevent the pre-renal AKI.

  14. Dutch versus English advantage in the epidemic of central and generalised obesity is not shared by ethnic minority groups: comparative secondary analysis of cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyemang, C; Kunst, A; Bhopal, R; Zaninotto, P; Nazroo, J; Nicolaou, M; Unwin, N; van Valkengoed, I; Redekop, K; Stronks, K

    2011-10-01

    Ethnic minority groups in Western European countries tend to have higher levels of overweight than the majority populations for reasons that are poorly understood. Investigating relative differences between countries could enable an investigation of the importance of national context in determining these inequalities. To explore: (1) whether Indian and African origin populations in England and the Netherlands are similarly disadvantaged compared with the White populations in terms of the prevalence of overweight and central obesity; (2) whether the previously known Dutch advantage of relatively low overweight prevalence is also observed in Dutch ethnic minority groups and (3) the contribution of health behaviour and socio-economic position to the differences observed. Secondary analyses of population-based studies of 16 406 participants from England and the Netherlands. Prevalence ratios were estimated using regression models. Except for African men, ethnic minority groups in both countries had higher rates of overweight and central obesity than their White counterparts. However, the Dutch minority groups were relatively more disadvantaged than English minority groups as compared with the majority populations. The Dutch advantage of the low prevalence of obesity was only seen in White men and women and African men. In contrast, English-Indian (prevalence ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-0.93) and English-Caribbean (prevalence ratio=0.82, 95% CI: 0.76-0.89) women were less centrally obese than their Dutch equivalents. The Dutch-Indian men were very similar to the English-Indian men. The contribution of health behaviour and socio-economic position to the observed differences were small. Contrary to the patterns in White groups, the Dutch ethnic minority women were more obese than their English equivalents. More work is needed to identify factors that may contribute to these observed differences.

  15. Comparison of Oral Health Status and Knowledge on Oral Health in Two Age Groups of Schoolchildren: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Geethapriya, PR; Asokan, Sharath; Kandaswamy, D

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral health plays a pivotal role in the overall wellbeing of children. As children grow, there is a variation in their oral health status due to the changing trends and lifestyle. Aim To evaluate and compare the factors related to oral health status in two age groups of school going children. Materials and methods A total of 582 children aged 8 to 11 years from 3 schools were included. Based on their school grade, they were grouped as younger (third grade) and older (fifth grade)...

  16. Cross section generation for LWR pin lattices simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Macedo, Anderson A.P.; Cardoso, Fabiano S.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Barros, Graiciany de P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The majority of the neutron data library provided with the MCNP code is set at room temperature. Therefore, it is important to generate continuous energy cross section library for MCNP code for different temperatures. To evaluate the methodology used, the criticality calculations obtained using MCNP with the cross section generated at DEN/UFMG, are compared with the criticality data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmarks Experiments about the PIN lattices for light water reactors. It was used nuclear data from the ENDF-VII.1, JEFF-3.1 and TENDL-2014, which were processed using the NJOY99 code for different energies and temperatures. This code provides the nuclear data in ACE libraries, which then are added to MCNP libraries to perform the simulations. The results indicate the methodology efficiency developed by DEN/UFMG. (author)

  17. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  18. Dutch versus English advantage in the epidemic of central and generalised obesity is not shared by ethnic minority groups: comparative secondary analysis of cross-sectional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; Kunst, A.; Bhopal, R.; Zaninotto, P.; Nazroo, J.; Nicolaou, M.; Unwin, N.; van Valkengoed, I.; Redekop, K.; Stronks, K.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups in Western European countries tend to have higher levels of overweight than the majority populations for reasons that are poorly understood. Investigating relative differences between countries could enable an investigation of the importance of national context in determining

  19. Status of multigroup cross-section data for shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussin, R.W.; Maskewitz, B.F.; Trubey, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Multigroup cross-section libraries for shielding applications in formats for direct use in discrete ordinates or Monte Carlo codes have long been a part of the Data Library Collection (DLC) of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). In recent years libraries in more flexible and comprehensive formats, which allow the user to derive his own problem-dependent sets, have been added to the collection. The current status of both types is described, as well as projections for adding data libraries based on ENDF/B-V

  20. Role of ethnicity in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake: a cross-sectional study of girls from ethnic minority groups attending London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockliffe, Lauren; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S

    2017-02-23

    Research suggests that girls from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than white British girls; however, the specific ethnic minority groups that have lower uptake have not been identified. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school-level uptake and ethnicity as well as uptake and other ethnicity-related factors, to understand which specific groups are less likely to receive the vaccination. Aggregated uptake rates from 195 schools were obtained for each of the three recommended vaccine doses from 2008 to 2010. Census data at the lower super output area (LSOA) level for the postcode of each school were also obtained, describing the ethnic breakdown of the resident population (ethnicity, language spoken, religion, proficiency in English and duration of residency in the UK). These were used as proxy measures of the ethnic make-up of the schools. The most prevalent non-majority group for each ethnicity and ethnicity-related factor was assigned to each school. Analyses explored differences in uptake by ethnicity and ethnicity-related factors. No significant differences in vaccination uptake were found by ethnicity or ethnicity-related factors, although descriptive differences were apparent. Schools in areas where black ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently low rates of uptake for all doses. Schools in areas where some Asian ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently high rates of uptake for all doses. There was evidence of variability in mean uptake rates for ethnicities within 'black' and 'Asian' ethnic groups. Future research would benefit from focusing on specific ethnicities rather than broad ethnic categories. Replication of this study with a larger sample and using complete individual-level data, collected on a national level, would provide a clearer indication of where ethnic differences in HPV vaccination

  1. Generation of neutron scattering cross sections for silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R; Marquez Damian, J.I; Granada, J.R.; Cantargi, F

    2009-01-01

    A set of neutron scattering cross sections for silicon and oxygen bound in silicon dioxide were generated and validated. The cross sections were generated in the ACE format for MCNP using the nuclear data processing system NJOY, and the validation was done with published experimental data. This cross section library was applied to the calculation of five critical configurations published in the benchmark Critical Experiments with Heterogeneous Compositions of Highly Enriched Uranium, Silicon Dioxide and Polyethylene. The original calculations did not use the thermal scattering libraries generated in this work and presented significant differences with the experimental results. For this reason, the newly generated library was added to the input and the multiplication factor for each configuration was recomputed. The utilization of the thermal scattering libraries did not result in an improvement of the computational results. Based on this we conclude that integral experiments to validate this type of thermal cross sections need to be designed with a higher influence of thermal scattering in the measured result, and the experiments have to be performed under more controlled conditions. [es

  2. Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For all isotopes and incident particles, the same methodology is applied to obtain the cross-section ... data library with mutually consistent reactions and covariance information for all isotopes. [24]. 2.3 EMPIRE ..... Medical Applications Statistical Theory of Nuclear Reactions, 30 September–4 October, 2013. [38] H Feshbach ...

  3. Plots of the experimental and evaluated photoneutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Nasyrova, S.M.

    1991-08-01

    Graphical plots of experimental data of photon induced nuclear reaction cross-sections are given for many elements and isotopes. The numerical data were taken from the international EXFOR data library which is available from the nuclear data centers. For selected nuclides evaluated data have been included in the plots. (author). Refs, 3 tabs

  4. Capability beliefs on, and use of evidence-based practice among four health professional and student groups in geriatric care: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Anne-Marie; Sommerfeld, Disa K; Stenhols, Annika W; Kiessling, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is a complex task. This study, conducted in an acute geriatric setting, aims to compare self-reported capability beliefs on EBP between health professionals and students, and to compare the use of EBP between health professional groups. Occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists and registered nurses with three or more months' employment, and all students from the occupational therapy, medical, physiotherapy and nursing programs, who had conducted workplace learning at the department, were invited. Data on capability beliefs and use of EBP were collected using the Evidence-based Practice Capabilities Beliefs Scale assessing six activities of EBP: formulate questions; search databases; search other sources; appraise research reports; participate in implementation in practice; and participate in evaluation. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Capability beliefs on EBP: The health professionals (n = 101; response rate 80%) reported high on search other sources but less on appraise research reports. The students (n = 124; response rate 73%) reported high on all EBP activities. The health professionals reported significantly higher on search other sources than the students. The students reported significantly higher on formulate questions and appraise research reports than the health professionals. No significant differences were identified between the health professional groups or between the student groups. Use of EBP: Health professionals reported wide-ranging use from several times each month to once every six months. The physicians reported significantly more frequent use than registered nurses and occupational therapists. Health professionals supervising students reported more frequent use of appraise research reports than the non-supervising group. There is a need for improving the use of EBP, particularly among registered nurses and occupational therapists. Supervision of students might

  5. Capability beliefs on, and use of evidence-based practice among four health professional and student groups in geriatric care: A cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Boström

    Full Text Available Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP is a complex task. This study, conducted in an acute geriatric setting, aims to compare self-reported capability beliefs on EBP between health professionals and students, and to compare the use of EBP between health professional groups. Occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists and registered nurses with three or more months' employment, and all students from the occupational therapy, medical, physiotherapy and nursing programs, who had conducted workplace learning at the department, were invited. Data on capability beliefs and use of EBP were collected using the Evidence-based Practice Capabilities Beliefs Scale assessing six activities of EBP: formulate questions; search databases; search other sources; appraise research reports; participate in implementation in practice; and participate in evaluation. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Capability beliefs on EBP: The health professionals (n = 101; response rate 80% reported high on search other sources but less on appraise research reports. The students (n = 124; response rate 73% reported high on all EBP activities. The health professionals reported significantly higher on search other sources than the students. The students reported significantly higher on formulate questions and appraise research reports than the health professionals. No significant differences were identified between the health professional groups or between the student groups. Use of EBP: Health professionals reported wide-ranging use from several times each month to once every six months. The physicians reported significantly more frequent use than registered nurses and occupational therapists. Health professionals supervising students reported more frequent use of appraise research reports than the non-supervising group. There is a need for improving the use of EBP, particularly among registered nurses and occupational therapists. Supervision of

  6. Capability beliefs on, and use of evidence-based practice among four health professional and student groups in geriatric care: A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is a complex task. This study, conducted in an acute geriatric setting, aims to compare self-reported capability beliefs on EBP between health professionals and students, and to compare the use of EBP between health professional groups. Occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists and registered nurses with three or more months’ employment, and all students from the occupational therapy, medical, physiotherapy and nursing programs, who had conducted workplace learning at the department, were invited. Data on capability beliefs and use of EBP were collected using the Evidence-based Practice Capabilities Beliefs Scale assessing six activities of EBP: formulate questions; search databases; search other sources; appraise research reports; participate in implementation in practice; and participate in evaluation. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Capability beliefs on EBP: The health professionals (n = 101; response rate 80%) reported high on search other sources but less on appraise research reports. The students (n = 124; response rate 73%) reported high on all EBP activities. The health professionals reported significantly higher on search other sources than the students. The students reported significantly higher on formulate questions and appraise research reports than the health professionals. No significant differences were identified between the health professional groups or between the student groups. Use of EBP: Health professionals reported wide-ranging use from several times each month to once every six months. The physicians reported significantly more frequent use than registered nurses and occupational therapists. Health professionals supervising students reported more frequent use of appraise research reports than the non-supervising group. There is a need for improving the use of EBP, particularly among registered nurses and occupational therapists. Supervision of students might

  7. Clinical, physical and lifestyle indicators and relationship with cognition and mood in aging: a cross-sectional analysis of distinct educational groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Correia Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function. Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: less than 4, 4, completed primary education, and more than 4. Participants (n = 1051 were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging.

  8. Cross section weighting spectrum for fast reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Jamil A. do; Ono, Shizuca; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.

    2009-01-01

    Preparation of a nuclear data library is the first task that a reactor analyst needs to perform a neutronic analysis of a reactor type. Today, in fast reactor area, the scheme used to generate this library includes the processing of an evaluated nuclear data file to obtain cross sections, in thousands of groups. Sequentially, the nuclear data are processed by a cell code to obtain neutron flux that is used to condense the large amount of energy groups to a practical calculation number of groups that can be used in reactor analysis. In the first step of the scheme it is necessary a weighting spectrum to generate the nuclear data. Here, it is proposed to use the flux estimated by Monte Carlo code using cell or the exact geometries and actual composition of the problem to obtain the main portion of the weighting spectrum instead of a code built-in function. As an example, it is presented the differences between selected pins spectrums obtained with MCNP5 calculation of a hexagonal fast reactor fuel assembly. Also, it is showed a comparison between these spectra and the one obtained in the representative unit-cell model of this fuel assembly. The comparisons support that the proposed procedure, problem dependent, may be more accurate and a good choice to generate weighting spectrum in ultra-fine energy structure for fast reactor analysis. The proposed method will be used in space reactor neutronic analysis. (author)

  9. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  10. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group “Grain (Cereal)”, Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal)” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal)” group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre (p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity. PMID:28218715

  11. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group "Grain (Cereal)", Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-02-18

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended "grain (cereal)" core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the "grain (cereal)" group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used ( n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI ( p < 0.001), waist circumference ( p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre ( p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference ( p = 0.006) and BMI ( p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity.

  12. Development of the neutron-transport code TransRay and studies on the two- and three-dimensional calculation of effective group cross sections; Entwicklung des Neutronentransportcodes TransRay und Untersuchungen zur zwei- und dreidimensionalen Berechnung effektiver Gruppenwirkungsquerschnitte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckert, C.

    2007-12-19

    Conventionally the data preparation of the neutron cross sections for reactor-core calculations pursues with 2D cell codes. Aim of this thesis was, to develop a 3D cell code, to study with this code 3D effects, and to evaluate the necessarity of a 3D data preparation of the neutron cross sections. For the calculation of the neutron transport the method of the first-collision probabilities, which are calculated with the ray-tracing method, was chosen. The mathematical algorithms were implemented in the 2D/3D cell code TransRay. For the geometry part of the program the geometry module of a Monte Carlo code was used.The ray tracing in 3D was parallelized because of the high computational time. The program TransRay was verified on 2D test problems. For a reference pressured-water reactor following 3D problems were studied: A partly immersed control rod and void (vacuum or steam) around a fuel rod as model of a steam void. All problems were for comparison calculated also with the programs HELIOS(2D) and MCNP(3D). The dependence of the multiplication factor and the averaged two-group cross section on the immersion depth of the control rod respectively of the height of the steam void were studied. The 3D-calculated two-group cross sections were compared with three conventional approximations: Linear interpolation, interpolation with flux weighting, and homogenization, At the 3D problem of the control rod it was shown that the interpolation with flux weighting is a good approximation. Therefore here a 3D data preparation is not necessary. At the test case of the single control rod, which is surrounded by the void, the three approximation for the two-group cross sections were proved as unsufficient. Therefore a 3D data preparation is necessary. The single fuel-rod cell with void can be considered as the limiting case of a reactor, in which a phase interface has been formed. [German] Standardmaessig erfolgt die Datenaufbereitung der Neutronenwirkungsquerschnitte fuer

  13. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months

  14. The generation, validation and testing of a coupled 219-group neutron 36-group gamma ray AMPX-II library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, G.C.; Siciliano, F.; Lioi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The main characteristics of a P 3 coupled 219-group neutron 36-group gamma-ray library in the AMPX-II Master Interface Format obtained processing ENDF/B-IV data by means of various AMPX-II System modules are presented in this note both for the more reprocessing aspects and features of the generated component files-neutrons, photon and secondary gamma-ray production cross sections. As far as the neutron data are concerned there is the avaibility of 186 data sets regarding most significant fission products. Results of the additional validation of the neutron data pertaining to eighteen benchmark experiments are also given. Some calculational tests on both neutron and coupled data emphasize the important role of the secondary gamma-ray data in nuclear criticality safety calculations

  15. Ready, set, go: a cross-sectional survey to understand priorities and preferences for multiple health behaviour change in a highly disadvantaged group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Sanson-Fisher, Robert; Turon, Heidi; Turner, Nicole; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-09-13

    Socially disadvantaged groups, such as Aboriginal Australians, tend to have a high prevalence of multiple lifestyle risk factors, increasing the risk of disease and underscoring the need for services to address multiple health behaviours. The aims of this study were to explore, among a socially disadvantaged group of people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS): a) readiness to change health behaviours; b) acceptability of addressing multiple risk factors sequentially or simultaneously; and c) preferred types of support services. People attending an ACCHS in regional New South Wales (NSW) completed a touchscreen survey while waiting for their appointment. The survey assessed participant health risk status, which health risks they would like to change, whether they preferred multiple health changes to be made together or separately, and the types of support they would use. Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 94 % reported multiple (two or more) health risks. There was a high willingness to change, with 69 % of current smokers wanting to cut down or quit, 51 % of overweight or obese participants wanting to lose weight and 44 % of those using drugs in the last 12 months wanting to stop or cut down. Of participants who wanted to make more than one health change, over half would be willing to make simultaneous or over-lapping health changes. The most popular types of support were help from a doctor or Health Worker and seeing a specialist, with less than a quarter of participants preferring telephone or electronic (internet or smart phone) forms of assistance. The importance of involving family members was also identified. Strategies addressing multiple health behaviour changes are likely to be acceptable for people attending an ACCHS, but may need to allow flexibility in the choice of initial target behaviour, timing of changes, and the format of support provided.

  16. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement

  17. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B: results from the repeated cross-sectional Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Perry J J; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; Mulder, Paul G H; Overbosch, D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. In the years 2002-2009 an annually repeated cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study trends in KAP of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B. The frequently encountered risk groups last-minute travellers, solo-travellers, business travellers, travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and elderly travellers were specifically studied. A total of 3045 respondents were included in the survey. Travellers to destinations with a high risk for hepatitis B had significantly less accurate risk perceptions (knowledge) than travellers to low-risk destinations but no differences were observed in past risk-taking attitude. Protection rates against hepatitis B were significantly higher in travellers to high-risk destinations. There was a positive trend over the years in the proportion of travellers to high-risk destinations seeking travel health advice. In accordance with this, trend analyses also indicated rising protection rates against hepatitis B. No significant trends in protection over time were observed for the travel risk groups. The results of this repeated cross-sectional survey suggest an annual 10% increase in protection rates against hepatitis B in Dutch travellers, both to destinations with a high risk and to destinations with a lower risk of hepatitis B, but these trends in protection rates were not observed for the travel risk groups to high-risk destinations. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers and (to a lesser extent) VFRs showed an increased relative risk in hepatitis B, irrespective of the travel destination, underlining the need for specific targeting of these travel risk groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contextualized theory-based predictors of intention to practice monogamy among adolescents in Botswana junior secondary schools: Results of focus group sessions and a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilisa, Bagele; Mohiemang, Irene; Mpeta, Kolentino Nyamadzapasi; Malinga, Tumane; Ntshwarang, Poloko; Koyabe, Bramwell Walela; Heeren, G Anita

    2016-01-01

    Culture and tradition influences behaviour. Multiple partner and concurrent relationships are made responsible for the increase of HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa. A contextualized "Theory of Planned Behaviour" was used to identify predictors of intention to practice monogamy. A mixed method design using qualitative data from focus groups, stories and a survey were analyzed for quantitative data. The qualitative data added to the behavioural beliefs a socio-cultural belief domain as well as attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control predicted the intention to practice monogamy. The adolescents showed a tendency towards having more than one sexual partner. The normative beliefs and the socio cultural beliefs also predicted intentions while hedonistic belief and partner reaction did not. In contextualizing theory-based interventions, it is important to draw from stories and the langauage that circulate in a community about a given behaviour. More studies are needed on ways to combine qualitative approaches with quantitative approaches to inform the development of theory based culturally appropriate and context specific intervention strategies to reduce the risk of HIV.

  19. Development of a methodology for analysis of the impact of modifying neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenner, M. T.; Haghighat, A.; Adams, J. M.; Carlson, A. D.; Grimes, S. M.; Massey, T. N.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo analysis of a Time-of-Flight (TOF) experiment can be utilized to examine the accuracy of nuclear cross section data. Accurate determination of this data is paramount in characterization of reactor lifetime. We have developed a methodology to examine the impact of modifying the current cross section libraries available in ENDF-6 format (1) where deficiencies may exist, and have shown that this methodology may be an effective methodology for examining the accuracy of nuclear cross section data. The new methodology has been applied to the iron scattering cross sections, and the use of the revised cross sections suggests that reactor pressure vessel fluence may be underestimated. (authors)

  20. Symptomatic fever management among 3 different groups of pediatricians in Northern Lombardy (Italy): results of an explorative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, Alberto; Provero, Maria Cristina; Cogliati, Felice; Villella, Anna; Marinoni, Maddalena; Saettini, Francesco; Bianchetti, Mario Giovanni; Nespoli, Luigi; Galluzzo, Cino; Lava, Sebastiano Antonio Giovanni

    2013-09-02

    In the care of feverish children, symptomatic management is pivotal. Thus, the Italian Pediatric Society has recently published guidelines on fever management in children. Our aim was to investigate whether pediatric hospitalists, community pediatricians and pediatric residents differ in their every-day clinical practice with respect to symptomatic management of feverish children. 79 out of 118 physicians involved in pediatric care in an area of Northern Lombardy (Italy) filled in a modified version of the questionnaire derived from the Swiss national survey on symptomatic fever management. Pediatric hospitalists (N = 29), community pediatricians (N = 30) and pediatric residents (N = 20) did not differ with respect to temperature threshold for symptomatic fever treatment, role of general appearance in modulating the threshold for fever management, first choice antipyretic drug, frequency of ibuprofen prescription, prescription of physical antipyresis, influence of exaggerated fear of fever on its management and potential to reassure families about this fear.On the other side, some significant differences were found. Pediatric residents more frequently lower the treatment threshold in children with a past history of febrile seizures (P < 0.001) and prescribe an aggressive treatment for fever not responding to the first antipyretic drug (P < 0.01) than their more experienced colleagues. Community pediatricians represent the unique investigated group using homeopathic remedies, both in the acute setting (P < 0.001) as well as a prophylaxis (P < 0.0001). Finally, paediatric residents less often (P < 0.05) stated to encounter exaggerated fear of fever among parents than their more experienced colleagues. The present explorative inquiry globally shows limited discordance among pediatric residents, community pediatricians and pediatric hospitalists with respect to symptomatic fever management.

  1. Evaluation of oral health attitude and behavior among a group of dental students in Puducherry, India: A preliminary cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jananni Muthu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral behavior reflects individual perception on oral health. Behavior and attitude of oral health providers, especially dentists, towards oral health affect their capacity to deliver oral health care services. This attitude plays a important role in determining the oral health condition of population. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the oral health attitude and behavior among a group of dental students in India and to find any gender-based differences in terms of oral health attitude and behavior. Materials and Methods: A total of 282 dental students of Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, SBV University, Puducherry, India participated in the study. A simplified English version of Hiroshima University Dental-Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI was adopted. Statistical Analysis Used: SSP version 2.80 software was used to analyze the data. Chi-square test was used to find the differences in the distribution of “yes” among students from the different academic year as well as between male and female students. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Statistical significance was observed for the responses between the students from different academic years brushing frequency, careful brushing of teeth, using brush with hard bristles, careful self-evaluation of brushing and satisfied appearance of teeth and gums. Male students preferred to use a tooth brush with hard bristles and regular mouth washes than female students. With regards to worrying about bad breath, male students had more “yes” responses than females. Conclusions: Oral health attitude and behavior increased with the increasing levels of dental education, and no significant differences were observed among male and female dental students.

  2. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  3. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  4. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Alessia Passanisi,1 Mario Filippo Paolo Bellomo2 1Faculty of Human and Social Science, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Credito Emiliano Bank, Piazza Armerina, Italy Background: Forming one’s identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. Methods: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16–19 years (197 males and 220 females in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52 and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64 of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. Results: The data showed that high-school performance was positively

  5. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Passanisi, Alessia; Bellomo, Mario Filippo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Forming one's identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16-19 years (197 males and 220 females) in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52) and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64) of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. The data showed that high-school performance was positively associated with rational decision-making style and identity diffusion predicted the use of avoidant style. Interests were related to identity exploration; the differentiation of preferences was related to identity commitment; investigative

  6. ASCAP. Resonance Region Cross Section Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Young, R.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1972-09-01

    ACSAP may be used to compute neutron cross section data from neutron resonance input. Total, fission, capture, or scattering cross section data may be computed. Experimental data may be compared by means of a wide selection of representations. ACSAP can also determine cross section resonance parameters from input experimental data.

  7. Integral nucleus-nucleus cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Kumawat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Expressions approximating the experimental integral cross sections for elastic and inelastic interactions of light and heavy nuclei at the energies up to several GeV/nucleon are presented. The calculated cross sections are inside the corridor of experimental errors or very close to it. Described in detail FORTRAN code and a numerical example of the cross section approximation are also presented

  8. AMPX-77: A modular code system for generating coupled multigroup neutron-gamma cross-section libraries from ENDF/B-IV and/or ENDF/B-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, N.M.; Ford, W.E. III; Petrie, L.M.; Arwood, J.W.

    1992-10-01

    AMPX-77 is a modular system of computer programs that pertain to nuclear analyses, with a primary emphasis on tasks associated with the production and use of multigroup cross sections. AH basic cross-section data are to be input in the formats used by the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B), and output can be obtained in a variety of formats, including its own internal and very general formats, along with a variety of other useful formats used by major transport, diffusion theory, and Monte Carlo codes. Processing is provided for both neutron and gamma-my data. The present release contains codes all written in the FORTRAN-77 dialect of FORTRAN and wig process ENDF/B-V and earlier evaluations, though major modules are being upgraded in order to process ENDF/B-VI and will be released when a complete collection of usable routines is available.

  9. Nuclear data processing for cross-sections generation for fusion-fission, ADS, and IV generation reactors utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Fernandes, Lorena C.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    One of the mains topics about nuclear reactors is the microscopic cross section for incident neutrons. Therefore, in this work, it is evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic cross section for a nuclide and a material. One of the nuclides microscopic cross-section studied is the {sup 56}Fe which is the highest compound from the material macroscopic cross section studied SS316. On the other hand, it was studied the microscopic cross section of the {sup 242}Pu which is one of the nuclides that composes the nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel chosen is a spent fuel reprocessed by UREX+ technique and spiked with thorium with 20% of fissile material. Therefore it was studied the macroscopic cross section from this nuclear fuel. Both of them were compared by using three different ways to reprocess the nuclides, one for LWR, another for ADS and the last one for Fusion reactors. The library used was JEFF-3.2 recommend for the reactors studied. The comparison was made at 1200 K for the nuclear fuel and 700K for the SS316.The results present differences due to the energy discretization, the number of groups chosen for each reactor and some nuclear reactions taken into consideration according to the neutron spectrum for each reactor. The nuclides were processed by NJOY99.364 and plotted with MCNP-Vised. (author)

  10. Validation of the WIMSD4M cross-section generation code with benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Leal, L.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code has been adopted for cross-section generation in support of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Subsequently, the code has undergone several updates, and significant improvements have been achieved. The capability of generating group-collapsed micro- or macroscopic cross sections from the ENDF/B-V library and the more recent evaluation, ENDF/B-VI, in the ISOTXS format makes the modified version of the WIMSD4 code, WIMSD4M, very attractive, not only for the RERTR program, but also for the reactor physics community. The intent of the present paper is to validate the WIMSD4M cross-section libraries for reactor modeling of fresh water moderated cores. The results of calculations performed with multigroup cross-section data generated with the WIMSD4M code will be compared against experimental results. These results correspond to calculations carried out with thermal reactor benchmarks of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) unreflected HEU critical spheres, the TRX LEU critical experiments, and calculations of a modified Los Alamos HEU D{sub 2}O moderated benchmark critical system. The benchmark calculations were performed with the discrete-ordinates transport code, TWODANT, using WIMSD4M cross-section data. Transport calculations using the XSDRNPM module of the SCALE code system are also included. In addition to transport calculations, diffusion calculations with the DIF3D code were also carried out, since the DIF3D code is used in the RERTR program for reactor analysis and design. For completeness, Monte Carlo results of calculations performed with the VIM and MCNP codes are also presented.

  11. Validation of the WIMSD4M cross-section generation code with benchmark results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L.; Leal, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code has been adopted for cross-section generation in support of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Subsequently, the code has undergone several updates, and significant improvements have been achieved. The capability of generating group-collapsed micro- or macroscopic cross sections from the ENDF/B-V library and the more recent evaluation, ENDF/B-VI, in the ISOTXS format makes the modified version of the WIMSD4 code, WIMSD4M, very attractive, not only for the RERTR program, but also for the reactor physics community. The intent of the present paper is to validate the WIMSD4M cross-section libraries for reactor modeling of fresh water moderated cores. The results of calculations performed with multigroup cross-section data generated with the WIMSD4M code will be compared against experimental results. These results correspond to calculations carried out with thermal reactor benchmarks of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) unreflected HEU critical spheres, the TRX LEU critical experiments, and calculations of a modified Los Alamos HEU D 2 O moderated benchmark critical system. The benchmark calculations were performed with the discrete-ordinates transport code, TWODANT, using WIMSD4M cross-section data. Transport calculations using the XSDRNPM module of the SCALE code system are also included. In addition to transport calculations, diffusion calculations with the DIF3D code were also carried out, since the DIF3D code is used in the RERTR program for reactor analysis and design. For completeness, Monte Carlo results of calculations performed with the VIM and MCNP codes are also presented

  12. Validation of MCNP6 Version 1.0 with the ENDF/B-VII.1 Cross Section Library for Uranium Metal, Oxide, and Solution Systems on the High Performance Computing Platform Moonlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); MacQuigg, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wysong, Andrew Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-21

    In this document, the code MCNP is validated with ENDF/B-VII.1 cross section data under the purview of ANSI/ANS-8.24-2007, for use with uranium systems. MCNP is a computer code based on Monte Carlo transport methods. While MCNP has wide reading capability in nuclear transport simulation, this validation is limited to the functionality related to neutron transport and calculation of criticality parameters such as keff.

  13. Review of multigroup nuclear cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.; Hendrickson, H.R. (comps.)

    1978-10-01

    These proceedings consist of 18 papers given at a seminar--workshop on ''Multigroup Nuclear Cross-Section Processing'' held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 14--16, 1978. The papers describe various computer code systems and computing algorithms for producing multigroup neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from evaluated data, and experience with several reference data libraries. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 of the papers. The remaining five have already been cited in ERA, and may be located by referring to the entry CONF-780334-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  14. New SCALE-4 features related to cross-section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Greene, N.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE code system has a standardized scheme for processing problem-dependent cross section from problem-independent waste libraries. Some improvements and new capabilities in the processing scheme have been incorporated into the new Version 4 release of the SCALE system. The new features include the capability to consider annular cylindrical and spherical unit cells, and improved Dancoff factor formulation, and changes to the NITAWL-II module to perform resonance self-shielding with reference to infinite dilute values. A review of these major changes in the cross-section processing scheme for SCALE-4 is presented in this paper

  15. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ''clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ''data production'' phase

  16. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections of fission product nuclei in JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1992-06-01

    Neutron cross sections of 172 nuclei in the fission product region stored in JENDL-3 are shown in graphs and tables. The evaluation work of these nuclei was made by the Fission Product Nuclear Data Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, in the neutron energy region from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. Almost all the cross section data are reproduced in graphs in this report. The cross section averaged over 38 energy intervals are listed in a table. Shown in other tables are thermal cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian neutron flux average cross sections, fission spectrum average cross sections, 14-MeV cross sections, one group average cross sections in neutron flux of typical types of fission reactors and average cross sections in the 30-keV Maxwellian spectrum. (author)

  17. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections of fission product nuclei in JENDL-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo [ed.

    1992-06-15

    Neutron cross sections of 172 nuclei in the fission product region stored in JENDL-3 are shown in graphs and tables. The evaluation work of these nuclei was made by the Fission Product Nuclear Data Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, in the neutron energy region from 10{sup {minus}5} eV to 20 MeV. Almost of the cross section data reproduced in graphs in this report. The cross section averaged over 38 energy intervals are listed in a table. Shown in order tables are thermal cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian neutron flux average cross sections, fission spectrum average cross sections, 14-MeV cross sections, one group average cross sections in neutron flux of typical types of fission reactors and average cross sections in the 30-keV Maxwellian spectrum.

  18. The Group Neutron Data Library (GNDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronkov, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Natrusova, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the structure, organization and basic data representation formats of the GNDL, which was developed at the M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the purpose of neutron data storage and retrieval. A simple method for linking up applications programs with the library is proposed. (author)

  19. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Alekhin, S; Alwall, J; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Blumlein, J; Bolognesi, S; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Cieri, L; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cutajar, M; Dawson, S; Davies, G; De Filippis, N; Degrassi, G; Denner, A; D'Enterria, D; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Ellis, R K; Farilla, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Ferrera, G; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Ganjour, S; Garzelli, M V; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Glazov, S; Goria, S; Grazzini, M; Guillet, J -Ph; Hackstein, C; Hamilton, K; Harlander, R; Hauru, M; Heinemeyer, S; Hoche, S; Huston, J; Jackson, C; Jimenez-Delgado, P; Jorgensen, M D; Kado, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Kovac, M; Kramer, M; Krauss, F; Kuo, C -M; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Lorenzo, N; Maltoni, F; Mellado, B; Moch, S O; Muck, A; Muhlleitner, M; Nadolsky, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Nikitenko, A; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Paganis, S; Papadopoulos, C G; Petersen, T C; Petriello, F; Petrucci, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilon, E; Potter, C T; Price, J; Puljak, I; Quayle, W; Radescu, V; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rojo, J; Rosco, D; Salam, G P; Sapronov, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schonherr, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Stirling, W J; Stockli, F; Sturm, C; Tackmann, F J; Thorne, R S; Tommasini, D; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Trocsanyi, Z; Ubiali, M; Uccirati, S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Wiesemann, M; Weiglein, G; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G

    2012-01-01

    This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) focuses on predictions (central values and errors) for total Higgs production cross sections and Higgs branching ratios in the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, covering also related issues such as Monte Carlo generators, parton distribution functions, and pseudo-observables. This second Report represents the next natural step towards realistic predictions upon providing results on cross sections with benchmark cuts, differential distributions, details of specific decay channels, and further recent developments.

  20. Evaluation of fission product neutron cross sections for JENDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The recent activities on the evaluation of fission product (FP) neutron cross sections for JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) are presented briefly. The integral test of JENDL-1 FP cross section file was performed using the CFRMF sample activation data and the STEK sample reactivity data, and the ratio of experiment to calculation was nearly constant for all the samples in the STEK measurement. Therefore, a tentative analysis was performed by applying the correction to the calculated scattering reactivity component. Better agreement with the experiment was obtained after applying this correction in most cases. The evaluation work on the JENDL-2 FP neutron cross sections is now in progress. The improvement of the data evaluation is presented in an itemized form. The JENDL-2 FP file will contain the evaluated data for 100 nuclides from Kr to Tb. The improvement and the future scope of the integral test for JENDL-2 FP data are summarized. (Asami, T.)

  1. Reaction cross section calculation of some alkaline earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Eyyup; Kavun, Yusuf; Sarpün, Ismail Hakki

    2017-09-01

    Reaction cross section knowledge is crucial to application nuclear physics such as medical imaging, radiation shielding and material evaluations. Nuclear reaction codes can be used if the experimental data are unavailable or are improbably to be produced because of the experimental trouble. In this study, there action cross sections of some target alkaline earth elements have been calculated by using pre-equilibrium and equilibrium nuclear reaction models for nucleon induced reactions. While these calculations, the Hybrid Model, the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model, the Full Exciton Model, the Cascade Exciton Model for pre-equilibrium reactions and the Weisskopf-Ewing Model for equilibrium reactions have been used. The calculated cross sections have been discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data library.

  2. COMBINE7.1 - A Portable ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Neutron Spectrum and Cross-Section Generation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo Y. Yoon; David W. Nigg

    2011-09-01

    COMBINE7.1 is a FORTRAN 90 computer code that generates multigroup neutron constants for use in the deterministic diffusion and transport theory neutronics analysis. The cross-section database used by COMBINE7.1 is derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VII.0). The neutron energy range covered is from 20 MeV to 1.0E-5 eV. The Los Alamos National Laboratory NJOY code is used as the processing code to generate a 167 fine-group cross-section library in MATXS format for Bondarenko self-shielding treatment. Resolved resonance parameters are extracted from ENDF/B-VII.0 File 2 for a separate library to be used in an alternate Nordheim self-shielding treatment in the resolved resonance energy range. The equations solved for energy dependent neutron spectrum in the 167 fine-group structure are the B3 or B1 zero-dimensional approximations to the transport equation. The fine group cross sections needed for the spectrum calculation are first prepared by Bondarenko self-shielding interpolation in terms of background cross section and temperature. The geometric lump effect, when present, is accounted for by augmenting the background cross section. Nordheim self-shielded fine group cross sections for a material having resolved resonance parameters overwrite correspondingly the existing self-shielded fine group cross sections when this option is used. COMBINE7.1 coalesces fine group cross sections into broad group macroscopic and microscopic constants. The coalescing is performed by utilizing fine-group fluxes and/or currents obtained by spectrum calculation as the weighting functions. The multigroup constants may be output in any of several standard formats including INL format, ANISN 14** free format, CCCC ISOTXS format, and AMPX working library format. ANISN-PC, a one-dimensional (1-D) discrete-ordinate transport code, is incorporated into COMBINE7.1. As an option, the 167 fine-group constants generated by zero-dimensional COMBINE portion in the program can be

  3. JENDL-2 fission-product cross section data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The evaluation of the new set of the fission-product cross section data for JENDL-2 was started in 1979 and completed in October 1984. This data file contains 100 nuclides (Z = 36 - 65) which make contributions of about 195 % of the total fission yield from Pu-239 fission, and 99.6 % of the total neutron capture by fission products in a typical fast breeder reactors. Cross section data in the neutron energy range of 10 -5 eV - 20 MeV for the following reactions are stored; total, capture, elastic and inelastic scattering. Recent resonance and KeV capture data and the integral test results on JENDL-1 library were reflected on the new evaluation. The evaluated 2200 m/s capture cross sections and resonance integrals are listed in a table. The values of 30 KeV capture cross sections multiplied by Pu-239 cumulative fission yield for long-lived fission products are also listed in decreasing order, representing the rough order of importance of nuclides for long burnup in a large fast breeder reactor. The integral tests and limited adjustment of cross sections based on integral data are planned as well as the extension of the number of nuclides. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Thermal neutron scattering cross sections of beryllium and magnesium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qasir, Iyad; Jisrawi, Najeh; Gillette, Victor; Qteish, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutron thermalization in BeO and MgO was studied using Ab initio lattice dynamics. • The BeO phonon density of states used to generate the current ENDF library has issues. • The BeO cross sections can provide a more accurate ENDF library than the current one. • For MgO an ENDF library is lacking: a new accurate one can be built from our results. • BeO is a better filter than MgO, especially when cooled down to 77 K. - Abstract: Alkaline-earth beryllium and magnesium oxides are fundamental materials in nuclear industry and thermal neutron scattering applications. The calculation of the thermal neutron scattering cross sections requires a detailed knowledge of the lattice dynamics of the scattering medium. The vibrational properties of BeO and MgO are studied using first-principles calculations within the frame work of the density functional perturbation theory. Excellent agreement between the calculated phonon dispersion relations and the experimental data have been obtained. The phonon densities of states are utilized to calculate the scattering laws using the incoherent approximation. For BeO, there are concerns about the accuracy of the phonon density of states used to generate the current ENDF/B-VII.1 libraries. These concerns are identified, and their influences on the scattering law and inelastic scattering cross section are analyzed. For MgO, no up to date thermal neutron scattering cross section ENDF library is available, and our results represent a potential one for use in different applications. Moreover, the BeO and MgO efficiencies as neutron filters at different temperatures are investigated. BeO is found to be a better filter than MgO, especially when cooled down, and cooling MgO below 77 K does not significantly improve the filter’s efficiency.

  5. Formats and processing of evaluated nuclear data into multigroup cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, M.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of these lectures concerns the data in nuclear files and their manipulation. The structure of the data files as divided into the resonance region (subdivided into the resolved and the unresolved regions) and the continuum region is presented. The reactions concerned are the elastic scattering; the radiative capture and the fission methods for averaging the cross sections are given. Then, the group averaging formulas and the self-shielding factors are presented in some detail. The second part concerns a presentation of nuclear data files handling and conversion. The main libraries are listed and several maintenance computer codes presented. The way the conversion among different files is handled is also presented. The listings of several BASIC programs for different cross section calculations are given. These codes are self-guided

  6. Labor on Campus: Academic Library Service to Labor Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidle, Deborah Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Examines academic library service to labor groups, particularly in the area of Internet training. Results of an informal survey of 53 academic libraries in schools with labor study programs in the United States and Canada indicate that few provide direct services to labor unions, and provides an example of one that does at Cornell University.…

  7. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  8. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmarjav Odsuren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  9. Photoelectric cross sections around the K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingam, S.C.; Babu, K.S.; Reddy, D.V.K.

    1983-01-01

    Total attenuation cross sections for four elements, Ta, W, Au and Pb, were measured at the photon energies 32.1, 52, 72.1, 84.3, 145.4 and 279.2 keV. A good narrow beam geometry with two NaI (Tl) scintillation counters in conjunction with a single-channel analyser was used for the detection of low and medium energy photons. The measured total attenuation cross sections are compared with the theoretical compilations of Storm and Israel and the available earlier investigations. The scattering cross sections obtained by interpolation using the atomic data tables of Storm and Israel were subtracted from the measured total cross sections to obtain the photoelectric cross sections. The photoelectric cross sections thus derived are compared with the latest theoretical values of Scofield. (orig.)

  10. Generation of the V4.2m5 and AMPX and MPACT 51 and 252-Group Libraries with ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL)

    2016-12-12

    The evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF)/B-7.0 v4.1m3 MPACT 47-group library has been used as a main library for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) neutronics simulator in simulating pressurized water reactor (PWR) problems. Recent analysis for the high void boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels and burnt fuels indicates that the 47-group library introduces relatively large reactivity bias. Since the 47- group structure does not match with the SCALE 6.2 252-group boundaries, the CASL Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) MPACT library must be maintained independently, which causes quality assurance concerns. In order to address this issue, a new 51-group structure has been proposed based on the MPACT 47- g and SCALE 252-g structures. In addition, the new CASL library will include a 19-group structure for gamma production and interaction cross section data based on the SCALE 19- group structure. New AMPX and MPACT 51-group libraries have been developed with the ENDF/B-7.0 and 7.1 evaluated nuclear data. The 19-group gamma data also have been generated for future use, but they are only available on the AMPX 51-g library. In addition, ENDF/B-7.0 and 7.1 MPACT 252-g libraries have been generated for verification purposes. Various benchmark calculations have been performed to verify and validate the newly developed libraries.

  11. Neutron scattering cross sections of uranium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.E.; Kegel, G.H.R.; Marcella, T.V.; Barnes, B.K.; Couchell, G.P.; Egan, J.J.; Mittler, A.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Lowell high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer was used to measure angular distributions and 90-deg excitation functions for neutrons scattered from 238 U in the energy range from 0.9 to 3.1 MeV. This study was limited to the elastic and the first two inelastic groups, corresponding to states of 238 U at 45 keV (2 + ) and 148 keV (4 + ). Angular distributions were measured at primary neutron energies of 1.1, 1.9, 2.5, and 3.1 MeV for the same three neutron groups. Whereas the elastic data are in fair agreement with the evaluation in the ENDF/B-IV file, there is substantial disagreement between the inelastic measurements and the evaluated cross sections. 12 figures

  12. Evaluation of FP cross sections for JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation work of cross sections of fission product nuclides for JENDL-3 is in progress as an activity in JNDC FPND sub-working group. Compared to JENDL-2, the number of FP nuclides is extended to 172 by adding As, Se, Br, Sn and Te isotopes and short lived nuclides. Threshold reaction cross sections are also newly contained in the scope of genearal applications. Resonance parameters are evaluated by taking account of recent experimental data up to 1987. The nuclear model parameters are determined for calculating neutron cross sections with the spherical optical model and the statistical theory. The (n,2n), (n,p), (n,α), (n,np) and (n,nα) cross sections are evaluated for all FP nuclides by using the simple evaporation and preequilibrium model. In this paper, evaluation scope and its present status are described. (author)

  13. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  14. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  15. pp Partial cross sections at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedettini, A.; Bertin, A.; Bruschi, M.; Capponi, M.; Collamati, A.; D'Antone, I.; De Castro, S.; Dona, R.; Ferretti, A.; Galli, D.; Giacobbe, B.; Marconi, U.; Massa, I.; Piccinini, M.

    1997-01-01

    New measurements of the pp total annihilation cross-section at very low momenta (around 50 MeV/c) confirm the previous results obtained by the OBELIX collaboration. The measured values are in general agreement with the scattering length approximation of the annihilation cross-section, where the pp scattering lengths are obtained from measurement of the protonium shifts and widths and which accounts for the Coulomb interaction. Partial annihilation cross-sections and annihilation frequencies for some channels have been measured too. The values of the total and partial cross sections at the lowest p momentum show an unexpected behaviour. (orig.)

  16. Muscle quality and age: cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metter, E J; Lynch, N; Conwit, R; Lindle, R; Tobin, J; Hurley, B

    1999-05-01

    We addressed whether muscle quality (force per unit muscle mass) changes with age in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from three groups from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging: (1) Isometric arm strength studied cross-sectionally in 617 subjects with muscle mass estimated by cross-sectional area (CSA) from arm circumference and by 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion (CREAT); (2) longitudinal study for 10 to 25 years in 412 men using the same measures as the first group; and (3) isometric knee extensor strength studied cross-sectionally in 675 subjects; muscle mass estimated by CREAT, CSA from thigh circumference, and leg nonosseous fat free mass (FFM) from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Muscle quality declined in both arm and leg with age in cross-sectional analyses using CSA and FFM, but not CREAT. No age-associated arm muscle quality declines were observed longitudinally using CREAT or CSA. The relationship between muscle quality and age is dependent on how muscle mass is estimated and on whether subjects are studied cross-sectionally or longitudinally. In addition, CREAT may measure a muscle property not accounted for by CSA or FFM.

  17. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B: Results from the repeated cross-sectional Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Perry J. J.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Overbosch, D.; Hoebe, Christian; Felix, Sietse; Overbosch, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies investigating the travellers knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Methods: In the years 2002-2009 an annually repeated cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was

  18. Thermal reactor benchmark testing of 69 group library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng; Wang Yaoqing; Liu Ping; Zhang Baocheng

    1994-01-01

    Using a code system NSLINK, AMPX master library in WIMS 69 groups structure are made from nuclides relating to 4 newest evaluated nuclear data libraries. Some integrals of 10 thermal reactor benchmark assemblies recommended by the U.S. CSEWG are calculated using rectified PASC-1 code system and compared with foreign results, the authors results are in good agreement with others. 69 group libraries of evaluated data bases in TPFAP interface file are generated with NJOY code system. The k ∞ values of 6 cell lattice assemblies are calculated by the code CBM. The calculated results are analysed and compared

  19. Electron Swarm Parameters and Electron Collision Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    Electron collision cross section data for atoms and molecules and electron swarm data in respective gases are important for quantitative modeling of related plasmas. This fact and wide application of plasmas in various fields boos data collection and evaluation activities worldwide. We have been measuring electron swarm parameters (drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, ionization/attachment coefficients, and so on) over a wide E/N range (where E is the electric field and N the gas number density) in a number of gases. We also derived a set of electron collision cross sections for each gas so that the set was consistent with our experimental swarm data. Our speciality in studying molecular target is to measure swarm parameters not only in the pure molecular gas but also in dilute molecular gas-argon gas mixtures, the mix rations of the molecule are 0.5-5.0%. The swarm parameters in pure molecular gas depend primarily on the elastic momentum transfer cross section of the molecule and its vibrational excitation cross sections. Those in the mixtures, on the other hand, depend mainly on the elastic momentum transfer cross section of major argon atom and the vibrational cross sections of minor admixed molecule. Alternative use of swarm parameters in pure molecular gas and those in the mixtures enable us to derive the momentum transfer cross section and vibrational cross sections for the molecule separately. Combination of the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum of argon atom and sharp structures in vibrational cross sections of the molecule frequently gives rise prominent E/N dependences in swarm parameters, which can be used to determine the position and magnitude of resonances in the vibrational excitation cross sections. Detailed accounts of the procedure, including estimated uncertainty in our electron swarm data and also in the resultant set of electron collision cross sections, will be given in the presentation by referring to our recent results. Stress will be

  20. Distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups and their association with hepatitis B virus infection in 3.8 million Chinese adults: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Zhang, S; Liu, M; Wang, Q; Shen, H; Zhang, Y

    2018-04-01

    ABO and Rh blood groups play a vital role in blood transfusion safety and clinical practice and are thought to be linked with disease susceptibility. The results from previous studies that focused on the association between blood groups and HBV infection remain controversial. China has the world's largest burden of HBV infection. We assessed the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups in Chinese adults and examined the association between these groups and HBV infection. We did a nationwide cross-sectional study using data from a physical check-up programme from 31 provinces examined between 2010 and 2012. ELISA was used to test for HBsAg in serologic samples. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate aOR of the association between ABO and Rh blood groups and HBV infection. Among 3 827 125 participants, the proportion of participants with blood group A was highest (30.54%), followed by O (30.37%), B (29.42%) and AB (9.66%). A total of 38 907 (1.02%) were Rh-D negative. The prevalence of HBsAg in blood groups O, A, B and AB were 6.34%, 5.55%, 5.18% and 5.06%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was 5.65% in Rh-D-positive and 3.96% in Rh-D-negative participants. After controlling for other potential risk factors, multivariate models showed that participants with blood group O (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.20-1.25) were at higher risk of HBV infection compared with group AB. Rh-D-positive participants (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.37-1.52) were at higher risk of HBV infection than Rh-D-negative participants. The associations between ABO/Rh blood groups and HBV infection were similar in subgroup analysis. The proportions of O, A, B and AB blood groups were approximately 3:3:3:1, and nearly 1 in 100 people was Rh-D negative among Chinese adults. Blood group O and Rh-D positivity were both associated with increased HBV infection. The risk of HBV infection and blood safety should be taken into consideration in clinical practice, especially when transfusing

  1. Total cross section of highly excited strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.

    1990-01-01

    The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  2. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  3. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1983-01-01

    A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  4. Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors

  5. A subroutine for the calculation of resonance cross sections of U-238 in HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuniberti, R.; Marullo, G.C.

    1971-02-15

    In this paper, a survey of the codes used at Ispra for the calculations of resonance absorption in HTR fuel elements is presented and a subroutine for the calculation of resonance cross-sections, in a seven groups energy structure, for a HTR lattice of annular type is described. A library of homogeneous resonance integrals and a wide tabulation of lump and kernel Bell factors, and moderators efficiency is given. This paper deals mainly with the problem of taking into account the correct slowing down of neutrons in the graphite and with the derivation of Bell factors to be used in a multigroup calculation scheme.

  6. Association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" (Staple food, main dish, and side dish) and intake of nutrients and food groups among Japanese young adults aged 18-24 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakutani, Yuya; Kamiya, Saori; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai" are staple food, main dish, and side dish, respectively. The recommended meal in Japan is a combination of "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai"; however, it remains unclear whether there is an association between the frequency of these meals and intake of nutrients and food groups. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" and intake of nutrients and food groups among 664 Japanese young adults aged 18-24 y. The dietary habits of the subjects during the preceding month were assessed using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" was self-reported according to four categories: "less than 1 d or 1 d/wk," "2 or 3 d/wk," "4 or 5 d/wk," and "every day." In both women and men, there was an association between the higher frequency of these meals and higher intake of the following food groups: pulses, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fish and shellfish, and eggs. Moreover, there was an association with higher intake of protein, polyunsaturated fat, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fat, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, and lower intake of carbohydrate in both women and men. Our findings support the hypothesis that the meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" may be associated with intake of many food groups and nutrients among Japanese young adults.

  7. Investigation of the 93Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.; Mezentseva, Zh.V.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for 93 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% 93 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of 93 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of 93 Nb. Standard capture cross-sections of 238 U and experimental gamma-ray multiplicity spectra were also used for determination of capture cross section 93 Nb in energy groups. Similar values were calculated using the ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries with the help of the GRUKON computer program. Within the limits of experimental errors there is observed an agreement between the experiment and calculation, but in some groups the experimental values differ from the calculated ones. (author)

  8. Measurement of MA fission cross sections at YAYOI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Ohki, Shigeo; Wakabayashi, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Fission cross section ratios of minor actinide nuclides (Am-241, Am-243) relative to U-235 in the fast neutron energy region have been measured using a back-to-back (BTB) fission chamber at YAYOI fast neutron source reactor. A small BTB fission chamber was developed to measure the fission cross section ratios in the center of the core at YAYOI reactor. Dependence of the fission cross section ratios on neutron spectra was investigated by changing the position of the detector in the reactor core. The measurement results were compared with the fission cross sections in the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 libraries. It was found that calculated values of Am-241 using the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by about 15% than the measured value in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6(eV)). And, good agreement can be seen the measured value and calculated value of Am-243 using the JENDL-3.2 data in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6)(eV), but calculated values of Am-243 using the ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by 11% and 13% than the measured value. (author)

  9. Developing cross section sets for fluorocarbon etchants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Successful modeling of plasmas used in materials processing depends on knowledge of a variety of collision cross sections and reaction rates, both within the plasma and at the surface. Electron-molecule collision cross sections are especially important, affecting both electron transport and the generation of reactive fragments by dissociation and ionization. Because the supply of cross section data is small and measurements are difficult, computational approaches may make a valuable contribution, provided they can cope with the significant challenges posed. In particular, a computational method must deal with the full complexity of low-energy electron-molecule interactions, must treat polyatomic molecules, and must be capable of computing cross sections for electronic excitation. These requirements imply that the method will be numerically intensive and thus must exploit high-performance computers to be practical. We have developed an ab initio computational method, the Schwinger multichannel (SMC) method, that possesses the characteristics just described, and we have applied it to compute cross sections for a variety of molecules, with particular emphasis on fluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon etchants used in the semiconductor industry. A key aspect of this work has been an awareness that cross section sets, validated when possible against swarm data, are more useful than individual cross sections. To develop such sets, cross section calculations must be integrated within a focused collaborative effort. Here we describe electron cross section calculations carried out within the context of such a focused effort, with emphasis on fluorinated hydrocarbons including CHF3 (trifluoromethane), c-C4F8 (octafluorocyclobutane), and C2F4 (tetrafluoroethene)

  10. Age-group differences in risk perceptions of non-communicable diseases among adults in Diepsloot township, Johannesburg, South Africa: A cross-sectional study based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Z; Khamisa, N; Tshuma, N

    2017-08-25

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) occur simultaneously with an ageing HIV-positive population, resulting in premature deaths in persons <70 years of age. Poor risk perception of NCDs results in poor adoption practices of NCD preventive measures. There is a gap in age-related research regarding risk perceptions of NCDs among the SA population. To investigate age-group differences in risk perceptions of NCDs based on the Health Belief Model. This cross-sectional design used secondary data obtained from Community AIDS Response (CARe), Johannesburg, SA. Data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in Extension 2 (Blocks I, J, K and L) of Diepsloot township, Johannesburg, SA. The Pearson χ2 test of independence was used to examine the relationship between age groups and risk perceptions of NCDs. A p<0.05 value was considered statistically significant. A total of 2 135 participants were included in the analysis, of whom 71.5% were young adults (18 - 35 years). The mean age of the study participants was 32.1 (standard deviation 9.87) years. Significant associations were found between age groups and risk perceptions of NCDs. More middle-aged adults than young adults and older-aged adults perceived family history (74.00% v. 72.74% v. 62.39%, p=0.045) and smoking (83.80% v. 77.20% v. 74.31%, p=0.004) as risk factors that would increase their risk of NCDs. A higher proportion of older-aged adults than young adults and middle-aged adults perceived effects on life and family (89.91% v. 77.39% v. 75.40%, p=0.004) as risks of NCD morbidities. More middle-aged adults than young adults and older-aged adults perceived the usefulness of not smoking (84.60% v. 81.06% v. 74.31%, p=0.028) as an effective NCD preventive measure. More young adults than middle-aged and older-aged adults considered health check-ups (59.31% v. 58.00% v. 41.28%, p=0.001) as a time-consuming process to prevent risks of NCDs. Young adults had poorer risk perceptions of NCDs than

  11. Differential Top Cross-section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The measurement of the differential top-quark pair production cross-section provides a stringent test of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This talk focuses on differential cross-section measurements in the lepton+jets final state, including using boosted top quarks to probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.

  12. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.

    2010-06-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)

  13. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1984-01-01

    A compilation of integrated cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data, particularly those from the CERN Collider, have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. This volume III contains cross-sections for p and anti p induced reactions. (orig.)

  14. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  15. Measurement of multinucleon transfer cross-sections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ni(C, ), Fe(C, ), =C, C, B, B, Be, Be, Be, Be, Li, Li; = 60 MeV; measured reaction cross-section; elastic scattering angular distribution; deduced transfer probabilities and enhancement factors.

  16. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D.; Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G.

    2005-01-01

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section σ(e + e - ->π + π - γ) at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section σ(e + e - ->π + π - γ) for the mass range 0.35 π 2 . We calculate the hadronic contribution to the muon anomaly for the given mass range: a μ =388.7+/-0.8 stat +/-3.5syst+/-3.5 th

  17. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B: Results from the repeated cross-sectional Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); P.P.A.M. van Thiel (Pieter P. A.); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); D. Overbosch (David)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Methods In the years 2002-2009 an annually repeated cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey

  18. Penning ionization cross sections of excited rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Masatoshi; Hatano, Yoshihiko.

    1988-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer processes involving excited rare gas atoms play one of the most important roles in ionized gas phenomena. Penning ionization is one of the well known electronic energy transfer processes and has been studied extensively both experimentally and theoretically. The present paper reports the deexcitation (Penning ionization) cross sections of metastable state helium He(2 3 S) and radiative He(2 1 P) atoms in collision with atoms and molecules, which have recently been obtained by the authors' group by using a pulse radiolysis method. Investigation is made of the selected deexcitation cross sections of He(2 3 S) by atoms and molecules in the thermal collisional energy region. Results indicate that the cross sections are strongly dependent on the target molecule. The deexcitation probability of He(2 3 S) per collision increases with the excess electronic energy of He(2 3 S) above the ionization potential of the target atom or molecule. Another investigation, made on the deexcitation of He(2 1 P), suggests that the deexcitation cross section for He(2 1 P) by Ar is determined mainly by the Penning ionization cross section due to a dipole-dipole interaction. Penning ionization due to the dipole-dipole interaction is also important for deexcitation of He(2 1 P) by the target molecules examined. (N.K.)

  19. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively α-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture γ rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables

  20. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1 - 2) and sexual risk groups (S3 - 4). S1 - Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2 - Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3 - Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4 - STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and

  1. Patients infected by tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus facing their disease, their reactions to disease diagnosis and its implication about their families and communities, in Burkina Faso: a mixed focus group and cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méda, Ziemlé Clément; Somé, Télesphore; Sombié, Issiaka; Maré, Daouda; Morisky, Donald E; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-07-29

    Patients facing tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receive particular care. Despite efforts in the care, misconceptions about TB and HIV still heavily impact patients, their families and communities. This situation severely limits achievement of TB and HIV programs goals. This study reports current situation of TB patients and patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) facing their disease and its implications, by comparing results from both qualitative and quantitative study design. Cross sectional study using mixed methods was used and excluded patients co-infected by TB and HIV. Focus group included 96 patients (6 patients per group) stratified by setting, disease profile and gender; from rural (Orodara Health District) and urban (Bobo Dioulasso) areas, all from Hauts-Bassins region in Burkina Faso. Quantitative study included 862 patients (309 TB patients and 553 PLWHA) attending TB and HIV care facilities in two main regions (Hauts-Bassins and Centre) of Burkina Faso. A content analysis of reports found TB patients and PLWHA felt discriminated and stigmatized because of misconceptions with its aftermaths (rejection, emotional and financial problems), mainly among PLWHA and women patients. PLWHA go to healers when facing limited solutions in health system. There are fewer associations for TB patients, and less education and sensitization sessions to give them opportunity for sharing disease status and learning from other TB patients. TB patients and PLWHA still need to better understand their disease and its implication. Access to care (diagnosis and treatment) remains one of the key issues in health system, especially for PLWHA. Individual counseling is centered among PLWHA but not for TB patients. With research progress and experiences sharing, TB patients and PLWHA have some hope to implement their life project, and to receive psychosocial and nutritional support. Despite international aid, TB patients and PLWHA are facing

  2. ORYX-E: ORIGEN yields and cross sections, nuclear transmutation and decay data from ENDF/B. [In FORTRAN IV for IBM 360

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    ORYX-E increases the versatility of CCC-217/ORIGEN, the isotope generation and depletion code package, by providing basic cross section and decay information for light element, fission-product, and actinide nuclides. This data library package results from data compiled for ORNL Chemical Technology Division's work with ORIGEN and from a 2-year effort of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Fission Product Task Force. The data are generated from ENDF/B-IV, and are formated for input to the ORIGEN (CCC-217) code. Applications include calculations for waste projection, decay heat, nuclear safeguards, and fuel cycle economics. (RWR)

  3. A Cross-Section Adjustment Method for Double Heterogeneity Problem in VHTGR Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin

    2011-01-01

    Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (VHTGRs) draw strong interest as candidates for a Gen-IV reactor concept, in which TRISO (tristructuralisotropic) fuel is employed to enhance the fuel performance. However, randomly dispersed TRISO fuel particles in a graphite matrix induce the so-called double heterogeneity problem. For design and analysis of such reactors with the double heterogeneity problem, the Monte Carlo method is widely used due to its complex geometry and continuous-energy capabilities. However, its huge computational burden, even in the modern high computing power, is still problematic to perform wholecore analysis in reactor design procedure. To address the double heterogeneity problem using conventional lattice codes, the RPT (Reactivityequivalent Physical Transformation) method considers a homogenized fuel region that is geometrically transformed to provide equivalent self-shielding effect. Another method is the coupled Monte Carlo/Collision Probability method, in which the absorption and nu-fission resonance cross-section libraries in the deterministic CPM3 lattice code are modified group-wise by the double heterogeneity factors determined by Monte Carlo results. In this paper, a new two-step Monte Carlo homogenization method is described as an alternative to those methods above. In the new method, a single cross-section adjustment factor is introduced to provide self-shielding effect equivalent to the self-shielding in heterogeneous geometry for a unit cell of compact fuel. Then, the homogenized fuel compact material with the equivalent cross-section adjustment factor is used in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation for various types of fuel blocks (or assemblies). The procedure of cross-section adjustment is implemented in the MCNP5 code

  4. Review of uncertainty files and improved multigroup cross section files for FENDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    1994-03-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centers and research groups, is creating an internationally available Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL), which will serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the Engineering and Development Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project and other fusion-related development projects. The FENDL project of the International Atomic Energy Agency has the task of coordination with the goal of assembling, processing and testing a comprehensive, fusion-relevant Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library with unrestricted international distribution. The present report contains the summary of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ''Review of Uncertainty Files and Improved Multigroup Cross Section Files for FENDL'', held during 8-12 November 1993 at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, Japan, organized in cooperation with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The report presents the current status of the FENDL activity and the future work plans in the form of conclusions and recommendations of the four Working Groups of the Advisory Group Meeting on (1) experimental and calculational benchmarks, (2) preparation processed libraries for FENDL/ITER, (3) specifying procedures for improving FENDL and (4) selection of activation libraries for FENDL. (author). 1 tab

  5. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  6. Study of vitamin D status of rheumatoid arthritis patients Rationale and design of a cross-sectional study by the osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases study group of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental role of Vitamin D has been long known in regulating calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. An increased contribution of Vitamin D was recently described in association with a lower incidence of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. This must not be surprising, as the immunomodulating effects of Vitamin D are clear, which have been attributed protective effects in autoimmune disorders such as some chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes. An interaction was suggested between Vitamin D metabolism and inflammation indexes through mediation of TNF-a which is also especially involved in osteoclastic resorption and therefore in bone loss processes. Some preliminary data would indicate an association between seasonal changes of Vitamin D serum levels, latitude and disease activity (DAS28 in RA patients. Consequently, the Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases Study Group of SIR believes that there are grounded reasons for assessing the Vitamin D status of RA patients in order to investigate whether this is to be related to physiopathological and clinical aspects of disease other than those of bone involvement. Primary end point of the study will be to assess the levels of 25 OH Vitamin D in RA patients. Secondary endpoints will include correlation with disease activity, densitometry values and bone turnover. The cross-sectional study will enrol patients of both sex genders, age ranging between 30 and 75 years according to the 1988 ACR criteria, onset of symptoms at least 2 years prior to study enrollment. Patients will be excluded suffering from osteometabolic diseases, liver and kidney insufficiency and those administered Vitamin D boli in the previous 12 months. Disease activity will be evaluated with the HAQ. Haematochemical tests and femoral and lumbar bone densitometry will be performed, unless recently undergone by patients. Blood levels of 25 OH C Vitamin D and PHT and of the two bone remodeling markers

  7. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  8. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  9. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G

    2005-07-15

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) at the electron-positron collider DA{phi}NE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) for the mass range 0.35

  10. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  11. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  12. Neutron cross section measurements on {sup 241}Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, C.; Gunsing, F. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFUISPhN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sage, C.; Borella, A.; Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Semkova, V.; Siegler, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Sage, C.; Dessagne, P.; Rudolf, G. [IPHC Strasbourg, IN2P3, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Sage, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguere, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DERISPRC/LEPh, 13 - St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brossard, C.; Fernandez, A.; Holzhauser, M.; Nastren, C.; Ottmar, H.; Somers, J.; Wastin, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bouland, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Semkova, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-07-01

    Several measurements of neutron induced reaction cross sections on {sup 241}Am have been performed at the JRC-IRMM in Geel, Belgium. Raw material coming from the Atalante facility of CEA Marcoule has been transformed by JRC-ITU Karlsruhe into suitable {sup 241}AmO{sub 2} samples embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrices. They were specifically designed for activation and time-of-flight measurements. The irradiations for the {sup 241}Am(n,2n){sup 240}Am reaction cross section were carried out at the 7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator using the activation technique. The measurements were performed in 4 sessions, using quasi mono-energetic neutrons with energies ranging from 8 to 21 MeV produced via the D(d,n){sup 3}He and the T(d,n){sup 4}He reactions. The {sup 241}Am(n,2n) reaction cross section was determined relative to the {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na standard cross section and was investigated for the first time above 15 MeV. The induced activity was measured off-line after the irradiation by standard gamma-ray spectrometry using a high purity germanium detector. A different sample of the same isotope {sup 241}Am has been measured in transmission and capture experiments in the resonance region at the neutron time-of-flight facility Gelina. Concerning the transmission, the experiments were performed during two measurement campaigns, the second one after a recent upgrade of the data acquisition system. The neutron flux was measured using a Li-glass scintillator via the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction. The same sample was used for the capture measurement, in which the detection of the photons produced in the capture events was accomplished by two cylindrical C{sub 6}D{sub 6} detectors. The neutron flux shape was determined with a Frisch gridded {sup 10}B ionisation chamber. This paper will describe the results of the (n,2n) measurement campaign, compared with previously existing data and the current evaluated data libraries Jeff-3.1, BROND-2

  13. Neutron radiation damage studies in the structural materials of a 500 MWe fast breeder reactor using DPA cross-sections from ENDF / B-VII.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Uttiyoarnab; Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Pandikumar, G.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-04-01

    The radiation damage in the structural materials of a 500 MWe Indian prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is re-assessed by computing the neutron displacement per atom (dpa) cross-sections from the recent nuclear data library evaluated by the USA, ENDF / B-VII.1, wherein revisions were taken place in the new evaluations of basic nuclear data because of using the state-of-the-art neutron cross-section experiments, nuclear model-based predictions and modern data evaluation techniques. An indigenous computer code, computation of radiation damage (CRaD), is developed at our centre to compute primary-knock-on atom (PKA) spectra and displacement cross-sections of materials both in point-wise and any chosen group structure from the evaluated nuclear data libraries. The new radiation damage model, athermal recombination-corrected displacement per atom (arc-dpa), developed based on molecular dynamics simulations is also incorporated in our study. This work is the result of our earlier initiatives to overcome some of the limitations experienced while using codes like RECOIL, SPECTER and NJOY 2016, to estimate radiation damage. Agreement of CRaD results with other codes and ASTM standard for Fe dpa cross-section is found good. The present estimate of total dpa in D-9 steel of PFBR necessitates renormalisation of experimental correlations of dpa and radiation damage to ensure consistency of damage prediction with ENDF / B-VII.1 library.

  14. Capture cross section measurement analysis in the Californium-252 spectrum with the Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovič, Stanko; Trkov, Andrej; Žerovnik, Gašper; Snoj, Luka

    2015-07-01

    Absolute average capture cross sections of gold, thorium, tantalum, molybdenum, copper and strontium in (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were simulated for two types of experiment setups preformed by Z. Dezso and J. Csikai and by L. Green. The experiments were simulated with MCNP5 using cross section data from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The determination of neutron backscattering was calculated with the use of neutron flagging. Correction factors to experimentally measured values were determined to obtain average cross sections in a pure (252)Cf spontaneous fission spectrum. Influence of concrete wall thickness, air moisture and room size on the average cross section was analyzed. Correction factors amounted to about 30%. Corrected values corresponding to average cross sections in a pure (252)Cf spectrum were calculated for (197)Au, (232)Th, (181)Ta, (98)Mo, (65)Cu and (84)Sr. Average cross sections were also calculated with the RR_UNC software using IRDFF-v.1.05 and ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries. The revised average radiative capture cross sections are 75.5±0.1 mb for (197)Au, 87.0±1.6 mb for (232)Th , 98.0±4.5 mb for (181)Ta, 21.2±0.5 mb for (98)Mo, 10.3±0.3 mb for (63)Cu, and 34.9±6.5 mb for (84)Sr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  16. Single top quark cross sections at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, Kevin Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This presentation covers single top production in the t-channel, s-channel, tW, and tZq production modes. Differential cross-sections for t-channel and tW are covered, as well as the latest inclusive measurements in s-channel and tZq.

  17. Top Quark Production Cross Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sectionsinproton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association witha W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  18. Sensitivity of LWR fuel cycle costs to uncertainties in detailed thermal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Becker, M.; Harris, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Cross sections averaged over the thermal energy (< 1 or 2 eV) group have been shown to have an important economic role for light-water reactors. Cost implications of thermal cross section uncertainties at the few-group level were reported earlier. When it has been determined that costs are sensitive to a specific thermal-group cross section, it becomes desirable to determine how specific energy-dependent cross sections influence fuel cycle costs. Multigroup cross-section sensitivity coefficients vary with fuel exposure. By changing the shape of a cross section displayed on a view-tube through an interactive graphics system, one can compute the change in few-group cross section using the exposure dependent sensitivity coefficients. With the changed exposure dependent few-group cross section, a new fuel cycle cost is computed by a sequence of batch depletion, core analysis, and fuel batch cost code modules. Fuel cycle costs are generally most sensitive to cross section uncertainties near the peak of the hardened Maxwellian flux

  19. MENDF71x. Multigroup Neutron Cross Section Data Tables Based upon ENDF/B-VII.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Parsons, Donald Kent; Gardiner, Steven J.; Gray, Mark Girard; Lee, Mary Beth; White, Morgan Curtis

    2015-01-01

    A new multi-group neutron cross section library has been released along with the release of NDI version 2.0.20. The library is named MENDF71x and is based upon the evaluations released in ENDF/B-VII.1 which was made publicly available in December 2011. ENDF/B-VII.1 consists of 423 evaluations of which ten are excited states evaluations and 413 are ground state evaluations. MENDF71x was created by processing the 423 evaluations into 618-group, downscatter only NDI data tables. The ENDF/B evaluation files were processed using NJOY version 99.393 with the exception of 35 Cl and 233 U. Those two isotopes had unique properties that required that we process the evaluation using NJOY version 2012. The MENDF71x library was only processed to room temperature, i.e., 293.6 K. In the future, we plan on producing a multi-temperature library based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and compatible with MENDF71x.

  20. Elastic and inelastic neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmore, D.

    1967-01-01

    Computer programmes have been developed for the calculation of elastic and inelastic scattering of particles from nuclei. These programmes are written in the S2 dialect of FORTRAN, and run on an IBM-7030 computer. One programme calculates the shape elastic cross-section, the total cross-section and the absorption cross-section according to the optical model. The time taken in performing an optical calculation depends mainly upon the efficiency of the method used to perform the integration of the radial Schroedinger equation. A method is used which takes advantage of the absence of the first derivative term, and this gives a great improvement over more general methods. A least-squares fitting procedure is used which enables any number of parameters to be varied. The number of optical model calculations which are needed for a least-squares fit is less than with usual methods. Another programme will calculate compound nucleus reactions according to the Hauser-Feshbach theory, with or without the fluctuation correction. This programme will accept target and projectiles of any spin and parity, so that deuteron and alpha channels, as well as nucleon channels, may be taken into account. A third programme enables least-squares fits of elastic scattering to be done by taking into account the compound elastic contribution as calculated by the Hauser-Feshbach theory. The use of these programmes is illustrated by the analysis of the inelastic scattering of neutrons from 238 U. The elastic scattering cross-sections were used to obtain optical potentials by a least-squares fitting method. These potentials were subsequently used to predict the inelastic cross-sections to a large number of excited states. The results using the fluctuation correction are in good agreement with experiment. A further example of their use is shown in the analysis of neutron and proton scattering from light nuclei. Proton cross-sections were analysed to obtain potentials which were then used to

  1. Positron total scattering cross-sections for alkali atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2018-01-01

    Positron-impact total scattering cross-sections for Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr atoms are calculated in the energy range from 5-5000 eV employing modified spherical complex optical potential formalism. The main aim of this work is to apply this formalism to the less studied positron-target collision systems. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental data, wherever available. In general, the present data show overall agreement and consistency with other results. Furthermore, we have done a comparative study of the results to investigate the effect of atomic size on the cross-sections as we descend through the group in the periodic table. We have also plotted a correlation graph of the present total cross-sections with polarizability and number of target electrons. The two correlation plots confirm the credibility and consistency of the present results. Besides, this is the first theoretical attempt to report positron-impact total cross-sections of alkali atoms over such a wide energy range.

  2. PROBLEM DEPENDENT DOPPLER BROADENING OF CONTINUOUS ENERGY CROSS SECTIONS IN THE KENO MONTE CARLO COMPUTER CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S. W. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Maldonado, G. Ivan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Celik, Cihangir [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    For many Monte Carlo codes cross sections are generally only created at a set of predetermined temperatures. This causes an increase in error as one moves further and further away from these temperatures in the Monte Carlo model. This paper discusses recent progress in the Scale Monte Carlo module KENO to create problem dependent, Doppler broadened, cross sections. Currently only broadening the 1D cross sections and probability tables is addressed. The approach uses a finite difference method to calculate the temperature dependent cross-sections for the 1D data, and a simple linear-logarithmic interpolation in the square root of temperature for the probability tables. Work is also ongoing to address broadening theS (alpha , beta) tables. With the current approach the temperature dependent cross sections are Doppler broadened before transport starts, and, for all but a few isotopes, the impact on cross section loading is negligible. Results can be compared with those obtained by using multigroup libraries, as KENO currently does interpolation on the multigroup cross sections to determine temperature dependent cross-sections. Current results compare favorably with these expected results.

  3. 239Pu neutron cross-sections in the resolved-resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, A.A.; Kolesov, V.V.; Toshkov, S.; Yaneva, N.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have determined the multi-level parameters for description of the total and fission cross-sections for 239 Pu in the resolved-resonance region up to 500 eV. A method has been developed for the construction of the elastic scattering and radiative capture resonance cross-sections using these parameters. The group-averaged cross-sections for experimental and evaluated data have been calculated in the energy region considered. (author). Refs, 4 tabs

  4. Analytical methods for analysis of neutron cross sections of amino acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin; Carvalheira, Luciana, E-mail: dante@ien.gov.br, E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: Chaffin@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luciana@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Hélio F. da, E-mail: helionutro@gmail.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPMG/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pediatria

    2017-07-01

    Two unpublished analytical processes were developed at IEN-CNEN-RJ for the analysis of neutron cross sections of chemical compounds and complex molecules, the method of data parceling and grouping (P and G) and the method of data equivalence and similarity (E and S) of cross-sections. The former allows the division of a complex compound or molecule so that the parts can be manipulated to construct a value of neutron cross section for the compound or the entire molecule. The second method allows by comparison obtain values of neutron cross-sections of specific parts of the compound or molecule, as the amino acid radicals or its parts. The processes were tested for the determination of neutron cross-sections of the 20 human amino acids and a small database was built for future use in the construction of neutron cross-sections of proteins and other components of the human being cells, also in other industrial applications. (author)

  5. Analytical methods for analysis of neutron cross sections of amino acids and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin; Carvalheira, Luciana; Rocha, Hélio F. da

    2017-01-01

    Two unpublished analytical processes were developed at IEN-CNEN-RJ for the analysis of neutron cross sections of chemical compounds and complex molecules, the method of data parceling and grouping (P and G) and the method of data equivalence and similarity (E and S) of cross-sections. The former allows the division of a complex compound or molecule so that the parts can be manipulated to construct a value of neutron cross section for the compound or the entire molecule. The second method allows by comparison obtain values of neutron cross-sections of specific parts of the compound or molecule, as the amino acid radicals or its parts. The processes were tested for the determination of neutron cross-sections of the 20 human amino acids and a small database was built for future use in the construction of neutron cross-sections of proteins and other components of the human being cells, also in other industrial applications. (author)

  6. Validity of Hansen-Roach cross sections in low-enriched uranium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, R.D.; O'Dell, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Within the nuclear criticality safety community, the Hansen-Roach 16 group cross section set has been the standard for use in k eff calculations over the past 30 years. Yet even with its widespread acceptance, there are still questions about its validity and adequacy, about the proper procedure for calculating the potential scattering cross section, σ p , for uranium and plutonium, and about the concept of resonance self shielding and its impact on cross sections. This paper attempts to address these questions. It provides a brief background on the Hansen-Roach cross sections. Next is presented a review of resonances in cross sections, self shielding of these resonances, and the use of σ p to characterize resonance self shielding. Three prescriptions for calculating σ p are given. Finally, results of several calculations of k eff on low-enriched uranium systems are provided to confirm the validity of the Hansen-Roach cross sections when applied to such systems. (Author)

  7. Validity of Hansen-Roach cross sections in low-enriched uranium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, R.D.; O'Dell, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Within the nuclear criticality safety community, the Hansen-Roach 16 group cross section set has been the ''standard'' for use in k eff calculations over the past 30 years. Yet even with its widespread acceptance, there are still questions about its validity and adequacy, about the proper procedure for calculating the potential scattering cross section, σ p , for uranium and plutonium, and about the concept of resonance self shielding and its impact on cross sections. This paper attempts to address these questions. It provides a brief background on the Hansen-Roach cross sections. Next is presented a review of resonances in cross sections, self shielding of these resonances, and the use of σ p to characterize resonance self shielding. Three prescriptions for calculating σ p are given. Finally, results of several calculations of k eff on low-enriched uranium systems are provided to confirm the validity of the Hansen-Roach cross sections when applied to such systems

  8. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander B.; Haight, Robert C.; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A.; Briscoe, William J.; Paris, Mark W.; Strakovsky, Igor I.; Workman, Ron L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  9. Electron-collision cross sections for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R.; Brunger, M.J.; Hoshino, M.; Buckman, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

  10. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  11. Test of RIPL-2 cross section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2002-01-01

    The new levels and optical segments and microscopic HF-BCS level densities (part of the density segment) were tested in practical calculations of cross sections for neutron induced reactions on 22 targets (40-Ca, 47-Ti, 52-Cr, 55-Mn, 58-Ni, 63-Cu, 71-Ga, 80-Se, 92-Mo, 93-Nb, 100-Mo, 109-Ag, 114-Cd, 124-Sn, 127-I, 133-Cs, 140-Ce, 153-Eu, 169-Tm, 186-W, 197-Au, 208-Pb). For each target all reactions involving up to 3 neutron, 1 proton and 1 α-particle emissions (subject to actual reaction thresholds) were considered in the incident energy range from 1 keV up to 20 MeV (in some cases up to 27 MeV). In addition, total, elastic, and neutron capture cross sections were calculated

  12. Neutron cross section measurements at WNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Archampaugh, G.F.; Moore, M.S.; Morgan, G.L.; Shamu, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Weapons Neutron Research Facility has been used to obtain moderate-resolution total neutron cross section data for H, C, 208 Pb, 232 Th, 238 U, and 242 Pu over the energy range 5 to 200 MeV. Neutrons were produced by bombarding a 2.5-cm diam by 15-cm long Ta target with an 800 MeV pulsed proton beam from LAMPF. A 10.2-cm diam by 15.2-cm thick NE110 proton recoil detector was used at a flight path of 32 meters, giving a time-of-flight resolution of 60 ps/m. The total cross section results are compared to ENDF/BV evaluations and to previous data where possible

  13. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. New Tools to Prepare ACE Cross-section Files for MCNP Analytic Test Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations using one-group cross sections, multigroup cross sections, or simple continuous energy cross sections are often used to: (1) verify production codes against known analytical solutions, (2) verify new methods and algorithms that do not involve detailed collision physics, (3) compare Monte Carlo calculation methods with deterministic methods, and (4) teach fundamentals to students. In this work we describe 2 new tools for preparing the ACE cross-section files to be used by MCNP ® for these analytic test problems, simple a ce.pl and simple a ce m g.pl.

  15. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  16. Cross sections for multistep direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriou, Paraskevi; Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Marianski, Bohdan

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions have been analysed at energies ranging from 14 to 27 MeV using the modified multistep direct reaction theory (MSD) of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The modified theory considers the non-DWBA matrix elements in the MSD cross section formulae and includes both incoherent particle-hole excitations and coherent collective excitations in the continuum, according to the prescriptions. The results show important contributions from multistep processes at all energies considered. (author)

  17. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-04-15

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  18. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow

    2011-04-01

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  19. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central (|η| ≤ 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D null based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 pb -1 ) and 1994-1995 (90 pb -1 ) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made

  20. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  1. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, S; et al.

    2013-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered particle such as couplings to SM particles, spin and CP-quantum numbers etc.

  2. MXS cross-section preprocessor user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.; Ishikawa, M.; Luck, L.

    1987-03-01

    The MXS preprocessor has been designed to reduce the execution time of programs using isotopic cross-section data and to both reduce the execution time and improve the accuracy of shielding-factor interpolation in the SIMMER-II accident analysis program. MXS is a dual-purpose preprocessing code to: (1) mix isotopes into materials and (2) fit analytic functions to the shelf-shielding data. The program uses the isotope microscopic neutron cross-section data from the CCCC standard interface file ISOTXS and the isotope Bondarenko self-shielding data from the CCCC standard interface file BRKOXS to generate cross-section and self-shielding data for materials. The materials may be a mixture of several isotopes. The self-shielding data for the materials may be the actual shielding factors or a set of coefficients for functions representing the background dependence of the shielding factors. A set of additional data is given to describe the functions necessary to interpolate the shielding factors over temperature

  3. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron; Krtička, Milan; Mosby, Shea; Reifarth, René; O'Donnell, John; Rusev, Gencho; Ullmann, John; Weigand, Mario; Wolf, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Neutron capture and β- -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  4. Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is critical to the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly important to train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutron cross-section data are vital components to strategies for detecting explosives and fissile materials, and these measurements require expertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclear spectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trained students in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader in nuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years. Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermal neutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. This file of 35, 000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for all elements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation of nuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutron generators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generator experimental facility

  5. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  6. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  7. Neutron-induced Fission Cross Sections of Am and Cm isotopes (Final Report of Research Contract 14485). Resonance and Fast Neutron Induced Fission Cross Sections of Americium and Curium Nuclides (Third-year Progress Report of Research Contract 14485)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Bergman, A.A.; Berlev, A.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Egorov, A.S.; Samylin, B.F.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fursov, B.I.; Shorin, V.S.

    2012-01-01

    The neutron induced fission cross sections of Am and Cm isotopes were measured relative to 239 Pu in the neutron energy range from 1 eV to 20 keV at the INR RAS lead slowing down spectrometer LSDS-100. The fission resonance integrals were also estimated using the measured cross section data. The results have been compared with the available experimental and evaluated data. This analysis has shown the present status of the measured fission cross sections and the necessity to revise the evaluated cross sections libraries for the minor actinides. (author)

  8. Antineutrino-nucleon total cross section and ratio of antineutrino cross section on neutrons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Erriquez, O; Bisi, V; Bonetti, S; Bullock, F W; Cavalli, D; Engel, J P; Eranzinetti, C; Escubes, B; Esten, M J; Fogli-Muciaccia, M T; Gamba, D; Guyonnet, J L; Halsteinslid, A; Henderson, R C W; Huss, D; Jones, T W; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mauri, F; Myklebost, K; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Paty, M; Pullia, A; Racca, C; Ramzan, F A; Riccati, L; Riester, J L; Rognebakke, A; Rollier, M; Romero, A; Skjeggestad, O

    1979-01-01

    On a selected sample of 2171 events, observed in the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle at CERN, the charged current total cross section for antineutrino on nucleons has been determined to the laboratory energy 8 GeV. (7 refs).

  9. Neutronic calculation and cross section sensitivity analysis of the Livermore mirror fusion/fission hybrid reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Price, W.G. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    The neutronic calculation for the Livermore mirror fusion/fission hybrid reactor blanket was performed using the PPPL cross section library. Significant differences were found in the tritium breeding and plutonium production in comparison to the results of the LLL calculation. The cross section sensitivity study for tritium breeding indicates that the response is sensitive to the cross section of 238 U in the neighborhood of 14 MeV and 1 MeV. The response is also sensitive to the cross sections of iron in the vicinity of 14 MeV near the first wall. Neutron transport in the resonance region is not important in this reactor model

  10. New numerical methods for nuclear cross section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferran, Ghislain

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear data allow to describe how a particle interacts with matter. These data are therefore at the basis of neutron transport and reactor physics calculations. Once measured and evaluated, they are given in libraries as a list of parameters. Before they can be used in neutron transport calculations, processing is required which includes taking into account several physical phenomena. This can be done by several softwares, such as NJOY, which all have the drawback to use old numerical methods derived from the same algorithms. For nuclear safety applications, it is important to rely on independent methods, to have a comparison point and to isolate the effects of the treatment on the final results. Moreover, it is important to properly master processing accuracy during its different steps. The objective of this PhD is then to develop independent numerical methods that can guarantee nuclear data processing within a given precision and to implement them practically, with the creation of the GAIA software. Our first step was the reconstruction of cross sections from the parameters given in libraries, with different approximations of the R-matrix theory. Reconstruction using the general formalism, without any approximation, has also been implemented, which has required the development of a new method to calculate the R-matrix. Tests have been performed on all existing formalisms, including the newest one. They have shown a good agreement between GAIA and NJOY. Reconstruction of angular differential cross sections directly from R-matrix parameters, using the Blatt-Biedenharn formula, has also been implemented and tested. The cross sections we have obtained at this point correspond to a target nucleus at absolute zero temperature. Because of thermal agitation, these cross sections are subject to a Doppler effect that is taken into account by integrating them with Solbrig's kernel. Our second step was then to calculate this integral. First, we have elaborated and

  11. Total neutron cross sections at energies around 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Romero, J.L.; Martens, P.

    1990-09-01

    The results for measurements of total cross sections on C, Al, Mg, Cu, Ge and Pb at 17.6 and 19.8 MeV are reported. A detailed comparison is presented with previous data and with the global optical model by the Ohio group. We also discuss plans for total non elastic cross section measurements. 31 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-05-01

    Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 0 . Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at; 328 +- 13, 419 +- 50, 748 +- 25, 908 +- 26, 1150 +- 38, 1286 +- 25, 1507 +- 20, 1623 +- 30, 1835 +- 20 and 1944 +- 26 keV. The experimental results are used to derive an optical-statistical model that provides a good description of the observed cross sections. The measured values are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  13. Validation of cross sections for Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectric effect

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Min Cheol; Pia, Maria Grazia; Basaglia, Tullio; Batic, Matej; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Saracco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Several total and partial photoionization cross section calculations, based on both theoretical and empirical approaches, are quantitatively evaluated with statistical analyses using a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature to identify the state of the art for modeling the photoelectric effect in Monte Carlo particle transport. Some of the examined cross section models are available in general purpose Monte Carlo systems, while others have been implemented and subjected to validation tests for the first time to estimate whether they could improve the accuracy of particle transport codes. The validation process identifies Scofield's 1973 non-relativistic calculations, tabulated in the Evaluated Photon Data Library(EPDL), as the one best reproducing experimental measurements of total cross sections. Specialized total cross section models, some of which derive from more recent calculations, do not provide significant improvements. Scofield's non-relativistic calculations are not surp...

  14. Evaluation of the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations with continuous-energy and multigroup cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Min-Han; Wang, Jui-Yu; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh

    2014-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor designed and operated for the future development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two detailed full-core models of HTTR have been established by using SCALE6 and MCNP5/X, respectively, to study its neutronic properties. Several benchmark problems were repeated first to validate the calculation models. Careful code-to-code comparisons were made to ensure that two calculation models are both correct and equivalent. Compared with experimental data, the two models show a consistent bias of approximately 20–30 mk overestimation in effective multiplication factor for a wide range of core states. Most of the bias could be related to the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section library or incomplete modeling of impurities in graphite. After that, a series of systematic analyses was performed to investigate the effects of cross sections on the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations, with special interest in the comparison between continuous-energy and multigroup results. Multigroup calculations in this study were carried out in 238-group structure and adopted the SCALE double-heterogeneity treatment for resonance self-shielding. The results show that multigroup calculations tend to underestimate the system eigenvalue by a constant amount of ∼5 mk compared to their continuous-energy counterparts. Further sensitivity studies suggest the differences between multigroup and continuous-energy results appear to be temperature independent and also insensitive to burnup effects

  15. Evaluation of the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations with continuous-energy and multigroup cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Min-Han; Wang, Jui-Yu [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Rong-Jiun, E-mail: rjsheu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering System and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering System and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor designed and operated for the future development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two detailed full-core models of HTTR have been established by using SCALE6 and MCNP5/X, respectively, to study its neutronic properties. Several benchmark problems were repeated first to validate the calculation models. Careful code-to-code comparisons were made to ensure that two calculation models are both correct and equivalent. Compared with experimental data, the two models show a consistent bias of approximately 20–30 mk overestimation in effective multiplication factor for a wide range of core states. Most of the bias could be related to the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section library or incomplete modeling of impurities in graphite. After that, a series of systematic analyses was performed to investigate the effects of cross sections on the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations, with special interest in the comparison between continuous-energy and multigroup results. Multigroup calculations in this study were carried out in 238-group structure and adopted the SCALE double-heterogeneity treatment for resonance self-shielding. The results show that multigroup calculations tend to underestimate the system eigenvalue by a constant amount of ∼5 mk compared to their continuous-energy counterparts. Further sensitivity studies suggest the differences between multigroup and continuous-energy results appear to be temperature independent and also insensitive to burnup effects.

  16. Mechanized evaluation of neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, A.; Parker, J.B.

    1967-01-01

    The evaluation work to provide accurate and consistent neutron cross-section data for multigroup neutronics calculations is not fully exploiting the available theoretical and experimental results; this has been so particularly since the introduction of on-line data handling techniques enabled experimenters to turn out vast quantities of numbers. This situation can be radically improved only by mechanizing the evaluation processes. Systems such as the SC1SRS tape will not only largely overcome the task of collecting data but will provide speedy access to it; by using computers and graph-plotting machines to tabulate and display this data, the labour of evaluation can be very greatly reduced. With some types of cross-section there is hope that by using modern curve-fitting techniques the actual evaluation and statistical accounting of the data can be performed automatically. Some areas where automatic evaluation would seem likely to succeed are specified and a discussion of the mathematical difficulties incurred, such as the elimination of anomalous data, is given. Particularly promising is the use of splines in the mechanized evaluation of data. Splines are the mathematical analogues of the draughtsman's spline used in drawing smooth curves. Their principal properties are the excellent approximations they give to the derivatives of a function; in contrast to conventional polynomial fitting, this feature ensures good interpolation and, when required, stable extrapolation. Various methods of using splines in data graduation and the problem of marrying these methods to standard statistical procedures are examined. The results of work done at AWRE with cubic splines on the mechanized evaluation of neutron scattering total cross-section and angular distribution data are presented. (author)

  17. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  18. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  19. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  20. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Han Xiaogang; Yu Weixiang; Lu Hanlin; Zhao Wenrong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of 71 Ga(n, γ) 72 Ga, 94 Zr(n, γ) 95 Zr and 191 Ir(n, γ) 192 Ir m1+g,m2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of 72 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  1. Empirical continuation of the differential cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.

    1978-12-01

    The theoretical basis as well as the practical methods of empirical continuation of the differential cross section into the nonphysical region of the cos theta variable are discussed. The equivalence of the different methods is proved. A physical applicability condition is given and the published applications are reviewed. In many cases the correctly applied procedure turns out to provide nonsignificant or even incorrect structure information which points to the necessity for careful and statistically complete analysis of the experimental data with a physical understanding of the analysed process. (author)

  2. Effect of new cross-section evaluations on criticality and neutron energy spectrum of a typical material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Ahmad, Nasir; Aslam

    2004-01-01

    Several new WIMSD libraries based on recent cross-section evaluations such as IAEA, ENDFB-VI, JENDL, and JEF have been made available by IAEA. These libraries were used for the computation of multiplication factor and energy spectrum for Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). Methodology was validated for benchmark problems made available by IAEA and comparison with reference results. The value of effective multiplication factors for all newly released libraries are 1.8-3.2% less than that of 1981 WIMSD library. The effect of various cross-section libraries on neutron energy spectrum was also studied. Differences of about -10% to 12.5% were found in thermal flux using the newly released libraries as compared with that obtained using 1981 WIMSD library. From the analysis, it was found that the main source of the difference is the cross-sections of hydrogen bound in water. When these cross-sections of hydrogen (bound in water) from new libraries were used along with all other data in 1981 WIMSD library, the k eff obtained in this way has a difference of only 0.02-0.8% with that obtained from new libraries, while the flux spectrum agreed within 1% below 1 MeV with new libraries

  3. The fission cross section of 228Th near threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, G. D.; Syme, D. B.; Grainger, J.

    1984-05-01

    The fission cross section and fragment angular distribution for the reaction 228Th(n, f) have been measured over the neutron energy range 350 keV to 1200 keV at values of the neutron energy resolution in the range 20 keV to 37 keV. An absolute determination of the fission cross section at 1635 keV gave the value 370 ± 32 mb to which the data are normalised. Forty cross-section data points are available but only twenty-two of these allow a trustworthy anisotropy to be quoted. The data confirm the structure noted by Vorotnikov et al. near 450 keV and at 1.1 MeV but also reveal a pronounced resonance at 760 keV. The fragment anisotropy values are predominantly forward peaked and indicate a spin projection K = {1}/{2} for all resonance groups. The way in which the results reflect on our understanding of the fission potential barrier is noted.

  4. CROSS-SECTIONAL IMAGING EVALUATION OF RENAL REPLACEMENT LIPOMATOSIS (RRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Kumar Boruah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Renal replacement lipomatosis is an uncommon benign entity where abundance of fibrofatty tissue proliferation occurs in renal sinus with further extension of proliferated fatty tissues into renal hilum, perinephric and periureteric spaces. It is usually associated with renal atrophy and marked renal parenchymal destruction. Aim of our study was cross-sectional imaging evaluation of Renal Replacement Lipomatosis (RRL. METHODS A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted. The study group comprised of 16 patients presenting to the Departments of Radio-diagnosis, Surgery and Urology in a tertiary care hospital from May 2014 to April 2016. All patients were initially evaluated clinically and ultrasonographically followed by cross-sectional imaging modality like Computed Tomography (CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI or both. RESULTS Out of 16 patients of renal replacement lipomatosis, 15 patients (93.8% had associated renal pelvic or ureteric calculus while 1 patient (6.2% had left para-aortic mass without associated calculus. Out of fifteen patients of calculus related RRL, 8 patients (53.3% had calculus size more than 40 mm, followed by 4 patients (26.7% who had size from 20 to 40 mm and 3 patients (20% had size less than 20 mm. The mean CT HU value of calculus was 1334±84.5 in our study. Three patients (18.8% had only renal hilar fatty excessive deposition, 1 patient (6.2% had renal hilar and perinephric space fat depositions, 3 patients (18.8% had renal hilar, perinephric and periureteric spaces depositions and 9 patients (56.2% had renal hilar and periureteric excessive fatty depositions. Delayed renal functioning was noted in 9 patients (56%, followed by non-functioning in 5 patients (31.2% and 2 patients (12.5% had normally functioning kidneys. CONCLUSION Cross-sectional imaging like CT and MRI scan helps in diagnosing RRL and proper delineation of extensions of excessive fatty tissue proliferation.

  5. Pion production cross sections and associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems. 16 refs., 6 figs

  6. Calculation of cross sections for heavy isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.

    1976-04-01

    In the present work an integrated system of codes for basic neutron data evaluation were assembled and built. Complete evaluations for the isotopes 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 238 Pu were performed. The following cross sections: total, elastic, radiative capture, fission, total inelastic, partial inelastic, (n,2n), (n,3n) and differential elastic were evaluated as well as the average number of neutrons per neutron-induced fission and the average elastic scattering cosine in the lab system.The data for the plutonium isotopes were incorporated into the German KEDAK file. A method was developed for calculating the energy distributions of the second and third secondary neutrons from the A(n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions in the framework of the compound nucleus theory, and utilizing the nuclear data of the nuclei A, A-1, A-2. This method was used to generate the 238 U secondary neutron energy distributions in the incident neutron energy range of 6 to 15 MeV. A nuclear data evaluation for 237 U in the resolved inelastic scattering range (10-700 keV) was performed. The compound elastic and partial inelastic scattering cross sections were used in the 238 U secondary neutron energy distribution calculations. (B.G.)

  7. Validation of new cross section data for the Loviisa reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusisto, J.

    1995-01-01

    The cross section data used with HEXBU-3D/MOD 5 core simulator code in the reload design calculations of the Loviisa reactors is revised. The new data was calculated with CASMO-HEX code using library based mainly on ENDF/B-IV. The new data is tested against measurements representing both current type low leakage reduced cores and original type full size cores with out-in-in loading patterns. Reactivity coefficients, boron concentration as a function of cycle burnup and assemblywise power distributions are compared to measurements. Slight adjustments are made so that good results are obtained for current type low leakage cores. When the data is applied to initial cores with out-in-in loading pattern some deviations are observed. (orig.) (4 refs., 18 figs.)

  8. Kalpakkam multigroup cross section set for fast reactor applications - status and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanadhan, M.M.; Gopalakrishnan, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the status of the presently created set of multigroup constants at Kalpakkam. The list of nuclides processed and the details of multigroup structure are given. Also included are the particulars of dilutions and temperatures for each nuclide in the multigroup cross section set for which self shielding factors have been calculated. Using this new multigroup cross section set, measured integral quantities such as K-eff, central reaction rate ratios, central reactivity worths etc. were calculated for a few fast critical benchmark assemblies and the calculated values of neutronic parameters obtained were compared with those obtained using the available Cadarache cross section library and those published in literature for ENDF/B-IV based set and Japanese evaluated nuclear data library (JENDL). The details of analyses are documented along with the conclusions. (author). 17 refs., 12 tabs

  9. Photoneutron reaction cross sections from various experiments - analysis and evaluation using physical criteria of data reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, Vladimir; Ishkhanov, Boris; Orlin, Vadim; Peskov, Nikolai; Stepanov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    The majority of photonuclear reaction cross sections important for many fields of science and technology and various data files (EXFOR, RIPL, ENDF, etc.) supported by the IAEA were obtained in experiments using quasimonoenergetic annihilation photons. There are well-known systematic discrepancies between the partial photoneutron reactions (γ, 1n), (γ, 2n), (γ, 3n). For analysis of the data reliability the objective physical criteria were proposed. It was found out that the experimental data for many nuclei are not reliable because of large systematic uncertainties of the neutron multiplicity sorting method used. The experimentally-theoretical method was proposed for evaluating the reaction cross sections data satisfying the reliability criteria. The partial and total reaction cross sections were evaluated for many nuclei. In many cases evaluated data differ noticeably from both the experimental data and the data evaluated before for the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library. Therefore it became evident that the IAEA Library needs to be revised and updated.

  10. Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among urban high-risk groups: findings of a cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In endemic countries such as Bangladesh, consequences of cholera place an enormous financial and social burden on patients and their families. Cholera vaccines not only provide health benefits to susceptible populations but also have effects on the earning capabilities and financial stability of the family. Community-based research and evaluations are necessary to understand perceptions about and practices of the community relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccines. This may help identify the ways in which such vaccines may be successfully introduced, and other preventive measures can be implemented. The present study assessed the knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among an urban population residing in a high cholera-prone setting in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in an area of high cholera prevalence in 15 randomly-selected clusters in Mirpur, Dhaka city. A study team collected data through a survey and in-depth interviews during December 2010–February 2011. Results Of 2,830 families included in the final analysis, 23% could recognize cholera as acute watery diarrhea and 16% had ever heard of oral cholera vaccine. About 54% of the respondents had poor knowledge about cholera-related issues while 97% had a positive attitude toward cholera and oral cholera vaccine. One-third showed poor practice relating to the prevention of cholera. The findings showed a significant (p cholera were the significant predictors to having poor knowledge. Conclusions The findings suggest the strengthening of health education activities to improve knowledge on cholera, its prevention and treatment and information on cholera vaccination among high-risk populations. The data also underscore the potential of mass cholera vaccination to prevent and control cholera. PMID:23509860

  11. Cross section homogenization analysis for a simplified Candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounders, Justin; Rahnema, Farzad; Mosher, Scott; Serghiuta, Dumitru; Turinsky, Paul; Sarsour, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    The effect of using zero current (infinite medium) boundary conditions to generate bundle homogenized cross sections for a stylized half-core Candu reactor problem is examined. Homogenized cross section from infinite medium lattice calculations are compared with cross sections homogenized using the exact flux from the reference core environment. The impact of these cross section differences is quantified by generating nodal diffusion theory solutions with both sets of cross sections. It is shown that the infinite medium spatial approximation is not negligible, and that ignoring the impact of the heterogeneous core environment on cross section homogenization leads to increased errors, particularly near control elements and the core periphery. (authors)

  12. Capture Cross Section of 236U: the n_TOF Results

    CERN Document Server

    Barbagallo, M; Vermeulen, M J; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron induced capture cross section on U-236 has been measured with high accuracy and high resolution at n\\_TOF, in order to improve data libraries needed for the development of advanced nuclear reactors. Preliminary results obtained with two different detection systems are reported.

  13. Propagation of Neutron Cross Section, Fission Yield, and Decay Data Uncertainties in Depletion Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. S.; Zwermann, W.; Gallner, L.; Puente-Espel, F.; Cabellos, O.; Velkov, K.; Hannstein, V.

    2014-04-01

    Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties in reactor calculations is interesting for design purposes and libraries evaluation. Previous versions of the GRS XSUSA library propagated only neutron cross section uncertainties. We have extended XSUSA uncertainty assessment capabilities by including propagation of fission yields and decay data uncertainties due to the their relevance in depletion simulations. We apply this extended methodology to the UAM6 PWR Pin-Cell Burnup Benchmark, which involves uncertainty propagation through burnup.

  14. Shielding Factor Method for producing effective cross sections: MINX/SPHINX and the CCCC interface system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Weisbin, C.R.; Paik, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Shielding Factor Method (SFM) is an economical designer-oriented method for producing the coarse-group space and energy self-shielded cross sections needed for reactor-core analysis. Extensive experience with the ETOX/1DX and ENDRUN/TDOWN systems has made the SFM the method of choice for most US fast-reactor design activities. The MINX/SPHINX system was designed to expand upon the capabilities of the older SFM codes and to incorporate the new standard interfaces for fast-reactor cross sections specified by the Committee for Computer Code Coordination (CCCC). MINX is the cross-section processor. It generates multigroup cross sections, shielding factors, and group-to-group transfer matriccs from ENDF/B-IV and writes them out as CCCC ISOTXS and BRKOXS files. It features detailed pointwise resonance reconstruction, accurate Doppler broadening, and an efficient treatment of anisotropic scattering. SPHINX is the space-and-energy shielding code. It uses specific mixture and geometry information together with equivalence principles to construct shielded macroscopic multigroup cross sections in as many as 240 groups. It then makes a flux calculation by diffusion or transport methods and collapses to an appropriate set of cell-averaged coarse-group effective cross sections. The integration of MINX and SPHINX with the CCCC interface system provides an efficient, accurate, and convenient system for producing effective cross sections for use in fast-reactor problems. The system has also proved useful in shielding and CTR applications. 3 figures, 4 tables

  15. Topological supersymmetric structure of hadron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Ouvry, S.

    1980-12-01

    Recently a way of fully implementing unitarity in the framework of a Dual Topological Unitarization theory, including not only mesons but also baryons, was found. This theory consists in the topological description of hadron interactions involving confined quarks in terms of two 2-dimensional surfaces (a closed 'quantum' surface and a bounded 'classical' surface). We show that this description directly leads, at the zeroth order of the topological expansion, to certain relations between hadron cross-sections, in nice agreement with experimental data. A new topological suppression mechanism is shown to play an important dynamical role. We also point out a new topological supersymmetry property, which leads to realistic experimental consequences. A possible topological origin of the rho and ω universality relations emerges as a by-product of our study

  16. Partial cross sections in H- photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halka, M.

    1993-04-01

    This dissertation reports experimental measurements of partial decay cross sections in the H - photodetachment spectrum. Observed decays of the 1 P 0 H -** (n) doubly-excitedresonances to the H(N=2) continuum are reported for n=2,3, and 4 from 1990 runs in which the author participated. A recent analysis of 1989 data revealing effects of static electric fields on the partial decay spectrum above 13.5 eV is also presented. The experiments were performed at the High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility. the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, with a relativistic H - beam (β=0.842)intersecting a ND:YAG laser. Variation of the intersection angle amounts to Doppler-shifting the photon energy, allowing continuous tuning of the laser energy as viewed from the moving ions' frame

  17. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  18. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  19. Differential cross section of atomic hydrogen photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratovich, V.D.; Ostrovskij, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Differential cross-section of atomic hydrogen photoeffect in external electric field was investigated in semiclassical approximation. Interference was described. It occurred due to the fact that infinite number of photoelectron trajectories leads to any point of classically accessible motion region. Interference picture can reach macroscopic sizes. The picture is determined by location of function nodes, describing finite electron motion along one of parabolic coordinates. The squares of external picture rings are determined only by electric field intensity in the general case at rather high energies. Quantum expression for photocurrent density was obtained using Green function in superposition of Coulomb and uniform field as well as semiclassical approximation. Possible applications of macroscopic interference picture to specification of atom ionization potentials, selective detection of atoms or particular molecules, as well as weak magnetic field and observation of Aaronov-Bom effect are discussed

  20. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  1. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  2. Total Neutron Cross Section Instrumentation at UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, P.-N.; Egan, J. J.; Kegel, G. H. R.; Mittler, A.; Tedesco, J.

    1997-10-01

    The UML type CN Van de Graaff accelerator incorporates a terminal pulsing system operating at 5 MHz. Proton bursts are Mobley-compressed to subnanosecond durations. When used with a thick metallic Li target, a pulsed pseudo-white neutron spectrum is produced suitable for neutron total cross section measurements. The spectrum is characterized by its sharp high energy cut-off, e.g. at 500 keV. Precautions are necessary because neutrons of different energies are recorded in the same time bin if their flight times differ by 200 ns. Pulse height discrimination may be used to eliminate lower energy neutrons; this is inefficient because higher energy neutron signals are also eliminated, to some degree. Two-dimensional data acquisition is the preferred approach. We review two systems of this type and we describe the system in use at UML.

  3. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

  4. Sudakov resummation of multiparton QCD cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, R; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, P

    2003-01-01

    We present the general expressions for the resummation, up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, of Sudakov-type logarithms in processes with an arbirtrary number of hard-scattering partons. These results document the formulae used by the authors in several previous phenomenological studies. The resummation formulae presented here, which are valid for phase-space factorizable observables, determine the resummation correction in a process-independent fashion. All process dependence is encoded in the colour and flavour structure of the leading order and virtual one-loop amplitudes, and in Sudakov weights associated to the cross section kinematics. We explicitly illustrate the application to the case of Drell--Yan and prompt-photon production.

  5. Chronic malnutrition: a cross-section analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emely Beatriz García González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The objective of the study was to determine the main causes of chronic malnutrition worldwide. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was employed to analyze the main determinants of chronic malnutrition in a sample of 86 countries. The variables used are based on the UNICEF conceptual framework of malnutrition. This framework classifies the determinants of malnutrition in three main causes: basic, immediate, and underlying. Findings: Droughts, floods, and extreme temperatures, and GDP per capita are the main basic determinants of malnutrition in the sample of countries. In addition one underlying determinant had a major impact in the prevalence of malnutrition: improved sanitation facilities. Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrated that the variables within the basic and underlying cause classification are the ones with a greater impact on chronic malnutrition.

  6. Chronic malnutrition: a cross-section analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emely Beatriz García González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to determine the main causes of chronic malnutrition worldwide. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was employed to analyze the main determinants of chronic malnutrition in a sample of 86 countries. The variables used are based on the UNICEF conceptual framework of malnutrition. This framework classifies the determinants of malnutrition in three main causes: basic, immediate, and underlying. Findings: Droughts, floods, and extreme temperatures, and GDP per capita are the main basic determinants of malnutrition in the sample of countries. In addition one underlying determinant had a major impact in the prevalence of malnutrition: improved sanitation facilities. Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrated that the variables within the basic and underlying cause classification are the ones with a greater impact on chronic malnutrition.

  7. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  8. Equity in the delivery of community healthcare to older people: findings from 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional surveys in Latin America, China, India and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotheeswaran AT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe patterns of recent health service utilisation, and consequent out-of-pocket expenses among older people in countries with low and middle incomes, and to assess the equity with which services are accessed and delivered. Methods 17,944 people aged 65 years and over were assessed in one-phase population-based cross-sectional surveys in geographically-defined catchment areas in nine countries - urban and rural sites in China, India, Mexico and Peru, urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and a rural site in Nigeria. The main outcome was use of community health care services in the past 3 months. Independent associations were estimated with indicators of need (dementia, depression, physical impairments, predisposing factors (age, sex, and education, and enabling factors (household assets, pension receipt and health insurance using Poisson regression to generate prevalence ratios and fixed effects meta-analysis to combine them. Results The proportion using healthcare services varied from 6% to 82% among sites. Number of physical impairments (pooled prevalence ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.26-1.49 and ICD-10 depressive episode (pooled PR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.38 were associated with service use, but dementia was inversely associated (pooled PR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97. Other correlates were female sex, higher education, more household assets, receiving a pension, and health insurance. Standardisation for age, sex, physical impairments, depression and dementia did not explain variation in service use. There was a strong borderline significant ecological correlation between the proportion of consultations requiring out-of-pocket costs and the prevalence of health service use (r = -0.50, p = 0.09. Conclusions While there was little evidence of ageism, inequity was apparent in the independent enabling effects of education and health insurance cover, the latter particularly in sites where out

  9. Equity in the delivery of community healthcare to older people: findings from 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional surveys in Latin America, China, India and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Emiliano; Liu, Zhaorui; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana L; Uwakwe, Richard; Williams, Joseph D; Borges, Guilherme; Jotheeswaran, A T; Klibanski, Milagros G; McCrone, Paul; Ferri, Cleusa P; Prince, Martin J

    2011-06-28

    To describe patterns of recent health service utilisation, and consequent out-of-pocket expenses among older people in countries with low and middle incomes, and to assess the equity with which services are accessed and delivered. 17,944 people aged 65 years and over were assessed in one-phase population-based cross-sectional surveys in geographically-defined catchment areas in nine countries - urban and rural sites in China, India, Mexico and Peru, urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and a rural site in Nigeria. The main outcome was use of community health care services in the past 3 months. Independent associations were estimated with indicators of need (dementia, depression, physical impairments), predisposing factors (age, sex, and education), and enabling factors (household assets, pension receipt and health insurance) using Poisson regression to generate prevalence ratios and fixed effects meta-analysis to combine them. The proportion using healthcare services varied from 6% to 82% among sites. Number of physical impairments (pooled prevalence ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.26-1.49) and ICD-10 depressive episode (pooled PR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.38) were associated with service use, but dementia was inversely associated (pooled PR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Other correlates were female sex, higher education, more household assets, receiving a pension, and health insurance. Standardisation for age, sex, physical impairments, depression and dementia did not explain variation in service use. There was a strong borderline significant ecological correlation between the proportion of consultations requiring out-of-pocket costs and the prevalence of health service use (r = -0.50, p = 0.09). While there was little evidence of ageism, inequity was apparent in the independent enabling effects of education and health insurance cover, the latter particularly in sites where out-of-pocket expenses were common, and private health insurance an important

  10. Are different groups of patients with stroke more likely to be excluded from the new UK general medical services contract? A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of a large primary care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Paul N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2004, an incentive based contract was introduced to UK primary care. An important element of the new contract is the ability to exclude individuals from quality indicators for a variety of reasons (known as 'exception reporting'. Exception of patients with stroke or TIA from the recording and achievement of quality indicators may have important consequences in terms of stroke recurrence and mortality. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of anonymised patient data was performed using 312 Scottish primary care practices. Results Patients recorded as unsuitable for inclusion in the contract were more likely to be female (odds ratio (OR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.36–1.68, older (>75 years:OR 3.15, 95%CI 2.69–3.69, and have dementia (OR 4.40, 95%CI 3.57–5.43 when compared to those patients without such a code. Patients were less likely to be older (>75 years:OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.56–0.87 and were more likely to be from the most deprived areas of Scotland (Quintile 5: OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.50–2.70 if they refused to attend for review or did not reply to letters asking for attendance at primary care clinics. Patients with multiple co-morbidities were more likely to have exclusions for achieving diagnostic clinical targets such as cholesterol control (3 or more co-morbidities: OR 3.37, 95%CI 2.50–4.50. Conclusion Scottish practices have appeared to use exception reporting appropriately by excluding patients who are older or have dementia. However, younger or more socio-economically deprived patients were more likely to be recorded as having refused to attend for review or not replying to letters asking for attendance at primary care clinics. It is important for primary care practices to identify and monitor these individuals so that all patients fully benefit from the implementation of an incentive based contract and receive appropriate clinical care to prevent stroke recurrence, further disability

  11. Cross-sections for hydrogen production from vanadium in a fusion neutron environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Gomes, I.C.

    1999-01-01

    The experimental and evaluated information available from the literature on neutron cross-sections for hydrogen production from vanadium in a fusion neutron environment has been reviewed. Discrepancies in these results were identified and likely explanations for their existence are suggested. Nuclear-model calculations were performed using the statistical pre-compound code GNASH. The results from this analysis are compared with existing information. Revised cross-section values for use in contemporary calculations of hydrogen gas production in fusion reactors are recommended. The impact of these revisions on other neutron cross-sections of vanadium that affect neutronic calculations for fusion reactors is also discussed. Finally, integral calculations of hydrogen production were performed for a typical fusion reactor using the present recommended cross-section values. It was found that this alternative cross-section set leads to a calculated value of hydrogen production at the fusion reactor first wall which is a factor of 3.25 smaller than obtained from similar calculations that employ evaluated cross-sections from the ENDF/B-6.4 Library exclusively. (orig.)

  12. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  13. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 4. Deciphering the Nature of the Higgs Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Florian, D. [National Univ. of San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); et al.

    2016-10-25

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group in the period 2014-2016. The main goal of the working group was to present the state-of-the-art of Higgs physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first part compiles the most up-to-date predictions of Higgs boson production cross sections and decay branching ratios, parton distribution functions, and off-shell Higgs boson production and interference effects. The second part discusses the recent progress in Higgs effective field theory predictions, followed by the third part on pseudo-observables, simplified template cross section and fiducial cross section measurements, which give the baseline framework for Higgs boson property measurements. The fourth part deals with the beyond the Standard Model predictions of various benchmark scenarios of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, extended scalar sector, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and exotic Higgs boson decays. This report follows three previous working-group reports: Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002), Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002), and Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs properties (CERN-2013-004). The current report serves as the baseline reference for Higgs physics in LHC Run 2 and beyond.

  14. Energy meshing techniques for processing ENDF/B-VI cross sections using the AMPX code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.E.; Greene, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    Modern techniques for the establishment of criticality safety for fissile systems invariably require the use of neutronic transport codes with applicable cross-section data. Accurate cross-section data are essential for solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation for fissile systems. In the absence of applicable critical experimental data, the use of independent calculational methods is crucial for the establishment of subcritical limits. Moreover, there are various independent modern transport codes available to the criticality safety analyst (e.g., KENO V.a., MCNP, and MONK). In contrast, there is currently only one complete software package that processes data from the Version 6 format of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) to a format useable by criticality safety codes. To facilitate independent cross-section processing, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is upgrading the AMPX code system to enable independent processing of Version 6 formats using state-of-the-art procedures. The AMPX code system has been in continuous use at ORNL since the early 1970s and is the premier processor for providing multigroup cross sections for criticality safety analysis codes. Within the AMPX system, the module POLIDENT is used to access the resonance parameters in File 2 of an ENDF/B library, generate point cross-section data, and combine the cross sections with File 3 point data. At the heart of any point cross-section processing code is the generation of a suitable energy mesh for representing the data. The purpose of this work is to facilitate the AMPX upgrade through the development of a new and innovative energy meshing technique for processing point cross-section data

  15. Theory of neutron resonance cross sections for safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1992-09-01

    Neutron resonances exert a strong influence on the behaviour of nuclear reactors, especially on their response to the temperature changes accompanying power excursions, and also on the efficiency of shielding materials. The relevant theory of neutron resonance cross sections including the practically important approximations is reviewed, both for the resolved and the unresolved resonance region. Numerical techniques for Doppler broadening of resonances are presented, and the construction of group constants and especially of self-shielding factors for neutronics calculations is outlined. (orig.) [de

  16. Theory of neutron resonance cross sections for safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron resonances exert a strong influence on the behaviour of nuclear reactors, especially on their response to the temperature changes accompanying power excursions, and also on the efficiency of shielding materials. The relevant theory of neutron resonance cross sections including the practically important approximations is reviewed, both for the resolved and the unresolved resonance region. Numerical techniques for Doppler broadening of resonance are presented, and the construction of group constants and especially of self-shielding factors for neutronics calculations is outlined. (author). 75 refs, 14 figs, 3 tabs

  17. ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Herman, M.; Author(s): Chadwick,M.B.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Dunn,M.E.; Danon,Y.; Kahler,A.C.; Smith,D.L.; Pritychenko,B.; Arbanas,G.; Arcilla,R.; Brewer,R.; Brown,D.A.; Capote,R.; Carlson,A.D.; Cho,Y.S.; Derrien,H.; Guber,K.; Hale,G.M.; Hoblit,S.; Holloway,S.: Johnson,T.D.; Kawano,T.; Kiedrowski,B.C.; Kim,H.; Kunieda,S.; Larson,N.M.; Leal,L.; Lestone,J.P.; Little,R.C.; McCutchan,E.A.; MacFarlane,R.E.; MacInnes,M.; Mattoon,C.M.; McKnight,R.D.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Nobre,G.P.A.; Palmiotti,G.; Palumbo,A.; Pigni,M.T.; Pronyaev,V.G.; Sayer,R.O.; Sonzogni,A.A.; Summers,N.C.; Talou,P.; Thompson,I.J.; Trkov,A.; Vogt,R.L.; van der Marck,S.C.; Wallner,A.; White,M.C.; Wiarda,D.; Young,P.G.

    2011-12-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment. The principal advances in the new library are: (1) An increase in the breadth of neutron reaction cross section coverage, extending from 393 nuclides to 423 nuclides; (2) Covariance uncertainty data for 190 of the most important nuclides, as documented in companion papers in this edition; (3) R-matrix analyses of neutron reactions on light nuclei, including isotopes of He, Li, and Be; (4) Resonance parameter analyses at lower energies and statistical high energy reactions for isotopes of Cl, K, Ti, V, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zr and W; (5) Modifications to thermal neutron reactions on fission products (isotopes of Mo, Tc, Rh, Ag, Cs, Nd, Sm, Eu) and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd); (6) Improved minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am (we are not making changes to the major actinides {sup 235,238}U and {sup 239}Pu at this point, except for delayed neutron data and covariances, and instead we intend to update them after a further period of research in experiment and theory), and our adoption of JENDL-4.0 evaluations for isotopes of Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, and some other minor actinides; (7) Fission energy release evaluations; (8) Fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on {sup 239}Pu; and (9) A new decay data sublibrary. Integral validation testing of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library is provided for a variety of quantities: For nuclear criticality, the VII.1 library maintains the generally-good performance seen for VII.0

  18. Differences between LASL- and ANL-processed cross sections. [MINX/1DX vs ETOE-2/MC/sup 2/-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidman, R.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Becker, M.

    1978-03-01

    As part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) cross-section processing development, LASL cross sections and results from MINX/1DX system are compared to the Argonne National Laboratory cross sections and results from the ETOE-2/MC/sup 2/-2 system for a simple reactor problem. Exact perturbation theory is used to establish the eigenvalue effect of every isotope group cross-section difference. Cross sections, cross-section differences, and their eigenvalue effects are clearly and conveniently displayed and compared on a group-by-group basis.

  19. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  20. FAIR-DDX, Double Diffusion Cross-Sections Scattering Matrix Generated from ENDF/B-4 or JENDL-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuyoshi; Yamano, Naoki

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FAIR-DDX produces double differential (energy and angle) cross sections (DDX) in the form of group-to-group scattering matrices using the evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-2 or ENDF/B-IV. The DDX form is useful for verification of the evaluated data, such as the inelastic scattering, through comparison with the experimental DDX values. 2 - Method of solution: DDX uses the file 4 data (angular distribution of secondary neutrons) and the energy and momentum conservation laws. For continuum region reactions, file 5 (energy spectrum of secondary neutrons) is used. To express the angular distribution of secondary neutrons in group-to-group scattering matrices FAIR-DDX adopts a direct angular representation method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of energy groups is 200

  1. Atlas of giant dipole resonances. Parameters and graphs of photonuclear reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, A.V.; Varlamov, V.V.; Rudenko, D.S.; Stepanov, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of giant dipole resonances (GDR) observed in photonuclear reaction cross sections using various beams of incident photons are presented. Data, given for 200 stable isotopes from 2 H to 243 Am including their natural compositions, were collected from papers published over the years 1951-1996. GDR parameters, such as energy positions, amplitudes and widths, are included into the table and organized by element, isotope and reaction. Graphs of the majority of the photonuclear reaction cross sections, included in the international nuclear data library EXFOR by the end of 1998, are presented. The graphs are provided for 182 stable isotopes and natural compositions. (author)

  2. Nuclear design manual for generation of cross section and heterogeneous formfunction for CASMO-3/MASTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Cho, Byung Oh; Song, Jae Seong; Lee, Chung Chan

    1996-12-01

    A three-dimensional reactor core simulation code, MASTER, has been developed as a part of the ADONIS project in KAERI. CASMO-3 prepares various two-group cross sections for the constituents of a reactor core such as fuel assembly, radial and axial reflectors, control rod and detector for MASTER. This report includes the standard design procedure for generation of two-group cross sections and heterogeneous formfunction by CASMO-3/FORM for MASTER. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs.

  3. Nuclear design manual for generation of cross section and heterogeneous formfunction for CASMO-3/MASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Cho, Byung Oh; Song, Jae Seong; Lee, Chung Chan.

    1996-12-01

    A three-dimensional reactor core simulation code, MASTER, has been developed as a part of the ADONIS project in KAERI. CASMO-3 prepares various two-group cross sections for the constituents of a reactor core such as fuel assembly, radial and axial reflectors, control rod and detector for MASTER. This report includes the standard design procedure for generation of two-group cross sections and heterogeneous formfunction by CASMO-3/FORM for MASTER. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kappeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  5. The universal library of fission products and delayed neutron group yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koldobskiy, A.B.; Zhivun, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    A new fission product yield library based on the Semiempirical method for the estimation of their mass and charge distribution is described. Contrary to other compilations, this library can be used with all possible excitation energies of fissionable actinides. The library of delayed neutron group yields, based on the fission product yield compilation, is described as well. (author). 15 refs, 4 tabs

  6. Comparisons of Neutron Cross Sections and Isotopic Composition Calculations for Fission-Product Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Heon; Gil, Choong-Sup; Chang, Jonghwa; Lee, Yong-Deok

    2005-05-01

    The neutron absorption cross sections for 18 fission products evaluated within the framework of the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute)-BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) international collaboration have been compared with ENDF/B-VI.7. Also, the influence of the new evaluations on the isotopic composition calculations of the fission products has been estimated through the OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality benchmarks (Phase 1B) and the LWR/Pu recycling benchmarks. These calculations were performed by WIMSD-5B with the 69-group libraries prepared from three evaluated nuclear data libraries: ENDF/B-VI.7, ENDF/B-VI.8 including the new evaluations in the resonance region covering the thermal region, and the expected ENDF/B-VII including those in the upper resonance region up to 20 MeV. For Xe-131, the composition calculated with ENDF/B-VI.8 shows a maximum difference of 5.02% compared to ENDF/B-VI.7. However, the isotopic compositions of all the fission products calculated with the expected ENDF/B-VII show no differences when compared to ENDF/B-VI.7 for the thermal reactor benchmark cases.

  7. A nation-wide cross-sectional study of urinary albumin excretion rate, arterial blood pressure and blood glucose control in Danish children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H B; Marinelli, K; Nørgaard, K

    1990-01-01

    than 20 to 150 micrograms min-1 were compared with those for 569 diabetic adolescents with AER less than or equal to 20 micrograms min-1 and duration of diabetes more than 2 years. The group with AER greater than 20 to 150 micrograms min-1 had significantly higher mean age (16.5 years) than the group...

  8. Improvement of group collapsing in TRANSX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Tae; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Kyun

    1996-07-01

    A cross section generating and processing computer code TRANSX version 2.15 in the K-CORE system, being developed by the KAERI LMR core design technology development team produces various cross section input files appropriated for flux calculation options from the cross section library MATXS. In this report, a group collapsing function of TRANSX has been improved to utilize the zone averaged flux file RZFLUX written in double precision as flux weighting functions. As a result, an iterative calculation system using double precision RZFLUX consisting of the cross section data library file MATXS, the effective cross section producing and processing code TRANSX, and the transport theory calculation code TWODANT has been set up and verified through a sample model calculation. 4 refs. (Author)

  9. ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Herman, Micheal W [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Oblozinsky, Pavel [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Kahler, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Smith, Donald L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Pritychenko, B [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Arbanas, Goran [ORNL; Arcilla, r [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Brewer, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brown, D A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Carlson, A. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Cho, Y S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Derrien, Herve [ORNL; Guber, Klaus H [ORNL; Hale, G. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hoblit, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Holloway, Shannon T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Johnson, T D [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Kawano, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kiedrowski, B C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kim, H [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Kunieda, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larson, Nancy M [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL; Lestone, J P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Little, R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mccutchan, E A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Macfarlane, R E [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); MacInnes, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Matton, C M [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Mcknight, R D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Mughabghab, S F [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nobre, G P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Palmiotti, G [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Palumbo, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Pigni, Marco T [ORNL; Pronyaev, V. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Sayer, Royce O [ORNL; Sonzogni, A A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Summers, N C [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Talou, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, I J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia; Vogt, R L [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Van der Marck, S S [Nucl Res & Consultancy Grp, Petten, Netherlands; Wallner, A [University of Vienna, Austria; White, M C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL; Young, P C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2011-01-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment. The principal advances in the new library are: (1) An increase in the breadth of neutron reaction cross section coverage, extending from 393 nuclides to 423 nuclides; (2) Covariance uncertainty data for 190 of the most important nuclides, as documented in companion papers in this edition; (3) R-matrix analyses of neutron reactions on light nuclei, including isotopes of He; Li, and Be; (4) Resonance parameter analyses at lower energies and statistical high energy reactions for isotopes of Cl; K; Ti, V, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zr and W; (5) Modifications to thermal neutron reactions on fission products (isotopes of Mo, Tc, Rh, Ag, Cs, Nd, Sm, Eu) and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd); (6) Improved minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am (we are not making changes to the major actinides (235,238)U and (239)Pu at this point, except for delayed neutron data and covariances, and instead we intend to update them after a further period of research in experiment and theory), and our adoption of JENDL-4.0 evaluations for isotopes of Cm, Bk, Cf, Es; Fm; and some other minor actinides; (7) Fission energy release evaluations; (8) Fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on (239)Pu; and (9) A new decay data sublibrary. Integral validation testing of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library is provided for a variety of quantities: For nuclear criticality, the VII.1 library maintains the generally-good performance seen for VII.0 for a wide

  10. Surrogate measurement of the 238Pu(n,f) cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressler, J. J.; Burke, J. T.; Escher, J. E.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Casperson, R. J.; Gostic, J.; Henderson, R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Thompson, I. J.; Wiedeking, M.; Angell, C. T.; Goldblum, B. L.; Munson, J.; Basunia, M. S.; Phair, L. W.; Beausang, C. W.; Hughes, R. O.; Hatarik, R.; Ross, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 238 Pu was determined using the surrogate ratio method. The (n,f) cross section over an equivalent neutron energy range 5-20 MeV was deduced from inelastic α-induced fission reactions on 239 Pu, with 235 U(α,α ' f) and 236 U(α,α ' f) used as references. These reference reactions reflect 234 U(n,f) and 235 U(n,f) yields, respectively. The deduced 238 Pu(n,f) cross section agrees well with standard data libraries up to ∼10 MeV, although larger values are seen at higher energies. The difference at higher energies is less than 20%.

  11. Challenges in comparing the quality of life of older people between ethnic groups, and the implications for national well-being indicators: a secondary analysis of two cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Robert L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current international interest in well-being indicators among governmental agencies means that many quality of life scales are potential components of such national indicator sets. Measuring well-being in minority groups is complex and challenging. Scales are available that have been validated in specific parts of the population, such as older people. However, validation among combinations of minority groups, such as older adults of ethnic minority backgrounds, is lacking. Findings We pooled data from two surveys of older adults in Great Britain: one conducted among White British people, and one among four ethnic minority groups. Quality of life was measured by the Older People's Quality of Life (OPQOL; Control, Autonomy, Self-realisation, Pleasure (CASP-19; and World Health Organization Quality of Life scale for older people (WHOQOL-OLD. We found differences, some significant, between groups in terms of self-reported importance of various aspects of quality of life. A regression model of each total quality of life scale revealed greater unexplained variability in the White British group than the others. Principal components analysis within each ethnic group's data showed considerable differences in the correlation structures. Conclusions There are differences between ethnic groups that are consistent across the three scales and are not explained by a battery of predictor variables. If scales such as these are used to compare quality of life between ethnic groups, or equivalently between geographical regions, the different results in each group are liable to bias any comparison which could lead to inequitable policy decisions.

  12. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 4. Deciphering the Nature of the Higgs Sector

    CERN Document Server

    de Florian, D.

    2017-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group in the period 2014-2016. The main goal of the working group was to present the state-of-the-art of Higgs physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first part compiles the most up-to-date predictions of Higgs boson production cross sections and decay branching ratios, parton distribution functions, and off-shell Higgs boson production and interference effects. The second part discusses the recent progress in Higgs effective field theory predictions, followed by the third part on pseudo-observables, simplified template cross section and fiducial cross section measurements, which give the baseline framework for Higgs boson property measurements. The fourth part deals with the beyond the Standard Model predictions of various benchmark scenarios of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, extended scalar sector, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and exotic ...

  13. Creating new library services through collaboration with resident groups : Aimimg at human resource development and information literacy education in ways only libraries can do : Study on activities of an NPO called Ueda Library Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Utako

    Creating new library services through collaboration with resident groups : Aimimg at human resource development and information literacy education in ways only libraries can do : Study on activities of an NPO called Ueda Library Club

  14. Nutritional status and coronary artery disease: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Khaleghparast, Shiva; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition is among the most important factors influencing coronary artery disease. Here we aimed to study the nutritional status of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). We performed a cross-sectional study on 600 patients referred to a cardiology clinic with the signs of ACS. The patients were then classified in to two groups (CAD group and the normal group) based on angiographic findings. The amount of nutritional profile was questioned from all participants. Men were more often diagnosed with CAD compared to women (198/362 vs. 102/238; P nutritional factors predicting CAD. White mean and type of tea were the most important predictors of CAD. Dietary prevention strategies from childhood could prevent early CAD.

  15. Cross-Sections Classes of Structural Steel Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Preda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional classification, introduced in EUROCODE 3, is destined to comply with any type of cross-section, disregarding the slenderness of cross-sectional wall plates. From practical reasons, this classification refers to cross-sections considered as a general matter. But in the same cross-section, the plates loaded with compression stresses, thus exposed to local buckling can belong to different classes of sections depending upon the loads acting on that cross-section. Furthermore, the stress diagrams corresponding to these cross-sectional plates are themselves closely related to applied loads and they influence directly the degrees of sensitivity to local buckling. On the other hand, the different degrees of sensitivity to local buckling depend on the slenderness of cross-sectional plates. A cross-section is normally classified by quoting the highest (least favourable class of its compression elements. The strength calculation (and general stability of structural members depends on the cross-section classes.

  16. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Đinđić, Nataša; Jovanović, Jovica; Đinđić, Boris; Jovanović, Milan; Pešić, Milica; Jovanović, Jovana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI) and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers). The OSI...

  17. High order effects in cross section sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Gilai, D.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of high order effects associated with perturbations in the flux shape are considered: Spectral Fine Structure Effects (SFSE) and non-linearity between changes in performance parameters and data uncertainties. SFSE are investigated in Part I using a simple single resonance model. Results obtained for each of the resolved and for representative unresolved resonances of 238 U in a ZPR-6/7 like environment indicate that SFSE can have a significant contribution to the sensitivity of group constants to resonance parameters. Methods to account for SFSE both for the propagation of uncertainties and for the adjustment of nuclear data are discussed. A Second Order Sensitivity Theory (SOST) is presented, and its accuracy relative to that of the first order sensitivity theory and of the direct substitution method is investigated in Part II. The investigation is done for the non-linear problem of the effect of changes in the 297 keV sodium minimum cross section on the transport of neutrons in a deep-penetration problem. It is found that the SOST provides a satisfactory accuracy for cross section uncertainty analysis. For the same degree of accuracy, the SOST can be significantly more efficient than the direct substitution method

  18. Neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeva, N.; Lukyanov, A.; Koyumdjieva, N.; Volev, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a development of the characteristic function model, created to reveal the resonance cross section structure in the unresolved resonance region is presented. The main advantage of this model is the calculation of resonance averaged self-shielding factors analytically. To determine average values of the cross sections and their functionals the function of joint statistical distribution of the R-matrix real and imaginary parts should be used. The characteristic function of such distribution is determined and the resonance ladder for the unresolved region is optimized to calculate the group averaged functionals in the same way as it is in the resolved resonance region. The main advantage of this model is the calculation of resonance averaged self-shielding factors analytically. The neutron width energy dependence leads to some deformation in the shape of resonances. This deformation is most apparent near the inelastic scattering threshold. For the case when the inelastic channel momentum is zero we present the formula for level shape bellow and over the inelastic threshold and the calculated resonance deformation in dependence of the position of the resonance in respect to the threshold. (authors)

  19. Nuclear energy and astrophysics applications of ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated nuclear library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.

    2012-01-01

    Recently released ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated nuclear library contains the most up-to-date evaluated neutron cross section and covariance data. These data provide new opportunities for nuclear science and astrophysics application development. The improvements in neutron cross section evaluations and more extensive utilization of covariance files, by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) collaboration, allowed users to produce neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, and provide additional insights on the currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations using the ENDF/B-VII.1 library and current computer technologies will be discussed and new results will be presented

  20. Experiments on Antiprotons: Cross Sections of Complex Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Jr., Lewis E.; Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermod, Ronald; Rogers, Ernest H.; Steiner, Herbert M.; Wiegand, Clyde

    1957-07-22

    Experiments are described that have been designed to measure separately annihilation and reaction cross sections for antiprotons of approximately 450 MeV on oxygen, copper, silver, and lead. A new and more luminous spectrograph has been built for this experiment. The antiproton cross sections a r e compared with total proton cross sections, and are found to be larger by a factor varying from 1.74 for oxygen to 1.39 for silver. Calculations based on the optical model give a reasonable connection between these cross sections and the 6-p and 6-n cross sections. Finally, the information available on antiproton production cross sections is collected. There are indications that a free nucleon is several times as effective as a bound one for producing antiprotons.

  1. Comparison of pressure vessel neutron fluences for the Balakovo-3 reactor with measurements and investigation of the influence of neutron cross sections and number of groups on the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, H.U.; Boehmer, B.; Konheiser, J.; Stephan, I.

    1998-10-01

    The general methodical questions of experimental and theoretical determination of neutron fluences have been described in connection with the measurements and 3-D Monte Carlo calculation for the Rovno-3 reactor. The same calculation and measurement methods were applied for the Balakovo-3 reactor. In the first part, the results of the comparison for Balakovo will be given and discussed. However, for this reactor the main attention was focussed on investigations of the accuracy of the calculation. In this connection an important question is the influence of neutron data on the results. With this respect not only the source of the data but also the number of energy groups is important. (orig.)

  2. New ENDF/B-7.0 library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblozinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the new version of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, Endf/B-7.0, of recommended nuclear data for advanced nuclear science and technology applications. The library, produced by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group, was released in December 2006. The library contains data in 14 sub-libraries, primarily for reactions with incident neutrons, protons and photons, based on the experimental data and nuclear reaction theory predictions. The neutron reaction sub-library contains data for 393 materials. The new library was extensively tested and shows considerable improvements over the earlier Endf/B-6.8 library. (author)

  3. Formalism for neutron cross section covariances in the resonance region using kernel approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Cho,Y-S.; Matoon,C.M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-04-09

    We describe analytical formalism for estimating neutron radiative capture and elastic scattering cross section covariances in the resolved resonance region. We use capture and scattering kernels as the starting point and show how to get average cross sections in broader energy bins, derive analytical expressions for cross section sensitivities, and deduce cross section covariances from the resonance parameter uncertainties in the recently published Atlas of Neutron Resonances. The formalism elucidates the role of resonance parameter correlations which become important if several strong resonances are located in one energy group. Importance of potential scattering uncertainty as well as correlation between potential scattering and resonance scattering is also examined. Practical application of the formalism is illustrated on {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}) and {sup 55}Mn(n,el).

  4. Total cross sections for heavy flavour production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We compute total cross sections for charm and bottom photoproduction at HERA energies, and discuss the relevant theoretical uncertainties. In particular we discuss the problems arising from the small-x region, the uncertainties in the gluon parton density, and the uncertainties in the hadronic component of the cross section. Total electroproduction cross sections, calculated in the Weizs\\"acker-Williams approximation, are also given.

  5. Microscopic cross-section measurements by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila L, J.

    1987-08-01

    Microscopic cross sections measured by thermal neutron activation using RP-0 reactor at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute. The method consists in measuring microscopic cross section ratios through activated samples, requiring being corrected in thermal and epithermal energetic range by Westcott formalism. Furthermore, the comptage ratios measured for each photopeak to its decay fraction should be normalized from interrelation between both processes above, activation microscopic cross sections are obtained

  6. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  7. Differential neutron cross section for free interstitial production in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstone, J.A.; Parkin, D.M.; Simpson, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    Free interstitials produced by monoenergetic neutrons were monitored by changes in Young's modulus of a vibrating foil specimen. These changes can be related to the number of pinners on dislocations which depends on the number of defects produced. The pinning rate is compared with displacement cross section calculations and agrees with the Norgett--Robinson--Torrens (NRT) model. Electron irradiations on the same sample yield estimates of the free interstitial production cross section to be approx. 1% of the NRT cross section

  8. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  9. Singular gauge fields in inclusive and differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ore, F.R. Jr.; Sterman, G.

    1981-01-01

    We study differential and inclusive cross sections for the creation of massless fermions in the presence of a static external non-Abelian field A/sub c1/. We calculate to all orders in A/sub cl/ the correction to the quantum cross section which is suppressed by one power of the energy. Corrections of this type are found to be important even at high energy for sufficiently exclusive cross sections if the classical field has singularities along a line. Their contribution to inclusive cross sections, on the other hand, remains small at high energies

  10. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  11. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  12. CFRMF spectrum update and application to dosimeter cross-section data testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Harker, Y.D.; Millsap, D.A.; Rogers, J.W.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurements Facility (CFRMF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) benchmark for data testing of dosimetry, fission-product and actinide cross sections important to fast-reactor technology. In this paper we present the results of our work in updating the CFRMF spectrum characterization and in applying CFRMF integral data to testing ENDF/B-V dosimeter cross sections. Updated characterization of the central neutron spectrum includes the results of neutronics calculations with ENDF/B-V nuclear data, the generation of a fine-group spectrum representation for integral data-testing applications, and a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis which provides a flux-spectrum covariance matrix related to uncertainties and correlations in the nuclear data used in a neutronics calculation. Our application of CFRMF integral data to cross section testing has included both conventional integral testing analyses and least-squares-adjustment analyses with the FERRET code. The conventional integral data-testing analysis, based on C/E ratios, indicates discrepancies outside the estimated integral test uncertainty for the 6 Li(n,He), 10 B(n,He), 47 Ti(n,p), 58 Fe(n,γ), 197 Au(n,γ) and 232 Th(n,γ) cross sections. The integral test uncertainty included contributions from the measured integral data and from the spectrum and cross sections used to obtain the calculated integral data. Within the uncertainty and correlation specifications for the input spectrum and dosimeter cross sections, the least-squares-adjustment analysis indicated a high degree of consistency between the measured integral data and the ENDF/B-V dosimeter cross sections for all reactions except 10 B

  13. Anti-Ro/SSA-p200 antibodies in the prediction of congenital heart block. An Italian multicentre cross-sectional study on behalf of the 'Forum Interdisciplinare per la Ricerca nelle Malattie Autoimmuni (FIRMA) Group'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsi, Mirko; Radice, Antonella; Pregnolato, Francesca; Ramoni, Veronique; Grava, Chiara; Bianchi, Laura; Gerosa, Maria; Mosca, Marta; Ghirardello, Anna; Tani, Chiara; Motta, Mario; Quinzanini, Marzia; Tincani, Angela; Ruffatti, Amelia; Migliorini, Paola; Doria, Andrea; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Brucato, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    To verify the association between the presence of specific anti-52 Ro/SSA-p200 antibodies and congenital heart block (CHB). 207 pregnant Italian women carrying anti-Ro/SSA Ab were retrospectively evaluated. Anti-p200 Ab were investigated in the mothers' sera by ELISA (Euro-Diagnostica,Wieslab SS-A p200). CHB occurred in 42 children (34 complete CHB), whereas 165 were not affected. All CHB cases were previously identified with an ELISA screening for anti-Ro/SSA 60 kD Ab. Anti-p200 Ab were more frequently positive (81.0% vs. 59.1%, p=0.013) and at a higher titer in CHB mothers (Absorbance ratio: 2.030 (0.208-4.052) vs. 0.925 (0.200-3.816); p=0.017). This association was maintained even when the 42 mothers of children with CHB were compared with a control group matched for age and diagnosis (80.9% vs. 50.0%; p=0.006). The presence of anti-p200 Ab provided an odds ratio (OR) for CHB of 2.98 (CI: 1.30-6.83), which was higher than that of other variables, such as maternal disease and other antibody specificities. CHB risk significantly decreased in the absence of this fine specificity (OR:0.34, CI: 0.15-0.77). However, while the negative predictive value related to anti-Ro/SSA 60 kD Ab ELISA was 100%, almost 20% of mothers negative for anti-p200 Ab delivered babies with CHB. Anti-p200 antibodies seem to be associated with CHB with a higher probability than anti-Ro/SSA Ab, and therefore may be an additional test to identify mothers at higher risk to deliver affected children. An ELISA screening for anti-Ro/SSA 60 kD Ab is nevertheless mandatory given the probability of developing CHB also in the absence of anti-p200 Ab.

  14. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section in the PWR fuel element considering burn-up cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belo, Thiago F.; Fiel, Joao Claudio B., E-mail: thiagofbelo@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear reactor core analysis involves neutronic modeling and the calculations require problem dependent nuclear data generated with few neutron energy groups, as for instance the neutron cross sections. The methods used to obtain these problem-dependent cross sections, in the reactor calculations, generally uses nuclear computer codes that require a large processing time and computational memory, making the process computationally very expensive. Presently, analysis of the macroscopic cross section, as a function of nuclear parameters, has shown a very distinct behavior that cannot be represented by simply using linear interpolation. Indeed, a polynomial representation is more adequate for the data parameterization. To provide the cross sections of rapidly and without the dependence of complex systems calculations, this work developed a set of parameterized cross sections, based on the Tchebychev polynomials, by fitting the cross sections as a function of nuclear parameters, which include fuel temperature, moderator temperature and density, soluble boron concentration, uranium enrichment, and the burn-up. In this study is evaluated the problem-dependent about fission, scattering, total, nu-fission, capture, transport and absorption cross sections for a typical PWR fuel element reactor, considering burn-up cycle. The analysis was carried out with the SCALE 6.1 code package. The results of comparison with direct calculations with the SCALE code system and also the test using project parameters, such as the temperature coefficient of reactivity and fast fission factor, show excellent agreements. The differences between the cross-section parameterization methodology and the direct calculations based on the SCALE code system are less than 0.03 percent. (author)

  15. The preparation of cross section data for the ESKOM Koeberg reactor vessel surveillance capsule program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Reactor Theory Division of the AEC has been contracted by ESKOM (South Africa) to prepare cross section data for the surveillance specimens as part of the overall reactor vessel surveillance (RVS) program. Spectrum averaged one energy group cross sections for the Cu 63 (n,α), Ni 58 (n,p), Fe 54 (n,p), U 238 (n,f) and Np 237 (n,f) reactions, has been defined. These cross sections were then used in conjunction with dosimetry measurements to obtain preliminary estimates of the fluence exposure of the surveillance specimens. The basic calculational procedure employed to obtain the spectrum averaged cross sections in the position of the capsule (outside the thermal pads) and the spectrum averaged cross sections are given. A sensitivity analysis of several parameters is involved with a view to determine a suitable error bound for the spectrum averaged cross sections. Comparisons are made with the literature and final conclusions are drawn and some perspective on future calculations is given. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs

  16. Validation of tungsten cross sections in the neutron energy region up to 100 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigni, Marco T.; Žerovnik, Gašper; Leal, Luiz. C.; Trkov, Andrej

    2017-09-01

    Following a series of recent cross section evaluations on tungsten isotopes performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), this paper presents the validation work carried out to test the performance of the evaluated cross sections based on lead-slowing-down (LSD) benchmarks conducted in Grenoble. ORNL completed the resonance parameter evaluation of four tungsten isotopes - 182,183,184,186W - in August 2014 and submitted it as an ENDF-compatible file to be part of the next release of the ENDF/B-VIII.0 nuclear data library. The evaluations were performed with support from the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program in an effort to provide improved tungsten cross section and covariance data for criticality safety sensitivity analyses. The validation analysis based on the LSD benchmarks showed an improved agreement with the experimental response when the ORNL tungsten evaluations were included in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. Comparison with the results obtained with the JEFF-3.2 nuclear data library are also discussed.

  17. Validation of tungsten cross sections in the neutron energy region up to 100 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigni Marco T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a series of recent cross section evaluations on tungsten isotopes performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, this paper presents the validation work carried out to test the performance of the evaluated cross sections based on lead-slowing-down (LSD benchmarks conducted in Grenoble. ORNL completed the resonance parameter evaluation of four tungsten isotopes – 182,183,184,186W – in August 2014 and submitted it as an ENDF-compatible file to be part of the next release of the ENDF/B-VIII.0 nuclear data library. The evaluations were performed with support from the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program in an effort to provide improved tungsten cross section and covariance data for criticality safety sensitivity analyses. The validation analysis based on the LSD benchmarks showed an improved agreement with the experimental response when the ORNL tungsten evaluations were included in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. Comparison with the results obtained with the JEFF-3.2 nuclear data library are also discussed.

  18. Update of PHOENIX-P 42 group library from CENDL-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baocheng

    1998-01-01

    PHOENIX-P is a lattice physics code system, developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WEC), which was transplanted and used at Dayabay Nuclear Power Plant (DNPJVC). The associated multi-group (42-group) library was derived from the evaluated nuclear data of ENDF/B-5. Since the original library is from the old evaluated nuclear data, it can not meet all the requirements of reactor physics calculations of the nuclear power plant. So it is necessary to update the library with the latest version of evaluated nuclear data. To do so, based on the investigation of the old library and the information about the library, some programs were developed at China Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) to produce PHOENIX-P format data sets mainly from CENDL-2 and the new data were used to supersede the old ones of the PHOENIX-P library

  19. The effect of the decay data on activation cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the decay data on evaluation of activation cross section is investigated. Present work shows that these effects must be considered carefully when activation cross section is evaluated. Sometime they are main reason for causing the discrepancies among the experimental data

  20. determination of neutron-induced activation cross sections using nirr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... Keywords: RNAA, Thermal capture cross section, Resonance integral, k0-factors. INTRODUCTION. A database of activation cross sections for neutron energies (of up to 20MeV) is required for the design of a D-T fusion reactor, neutron dosimetry and neutron shielding in a reactor facility, and for confirming.

  1. Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the HNO3 absorption cross sections between 240 and 360 K over the wavelength range 195 to 350 nm has been measured using a diode array spectrometer. Absorption cross sections were determined using both (1) absolute pressure measurements at 298 K and (2) a dual absorption cell arrangement in which the absorption spectrum at various temperatures is measured relative to the room temperature absorption spectrum. The HNO3 absorption spectrum showed a temperature dependence which is weak at short wavelengths but stronger at longer wavelengths which are important for photolysis in the lower stratosphere. The 298 K absorption cross sections were found to be larger than the values currently recommended for atmospheric modeling (DeMore et al., 1992). Our absorption cross section data are critically compared with the previous measurements of both room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of HNO3 are recommended for use in atmospheric modeling. These temperature dependent HNO3 absorption cross sections were used in a two-dimensional dynamical-photochemical model to demonstrate the effects of the revised absorption cross sections on loss rate of HNO3 and the abundance of NO2 in the stratosphere.

  2. Fusion cross sections from measurements of delayed X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.J.; Gregorio, D.E. di; Fernandez Niello, J.O; Elgue, M.

    1988-01-01

    The program XRAY is a FORTRAN 77 computer code for the extraction of fusion cross sections from delayed X-ray measurements. This is accomplished by calculating the theoretical expressions of the time dependence of the evaporation-residue cross sections and taking them as adjustable parameters in a χ 2 minimization procedure. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of covariance for 238U cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kanda, Yukinori

    1995-01-01

    Covariances of 238 U are generated using analytic functions for representation of the cross sections. The covariances of the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions are derived with a spline function, while the covariances of the total and the inelastic scattering cross section are estimated with a linearized nuclear model calculation. (author)

  4. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  5. The 10B(n,α)7Li cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The data base relevant to an evaluation of the 10 B(n,α) standard cross sections have been improved through interlaboratory collaboration. Changes in the evaluated 10 B(n,α) cross sections resulted form the measurements made since the ENDF/B-VI evaluation have been estimated. 12 refs, 4 figs

  6. pp production cross sections and the constraint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, J.C.; Santoro, A.F.S.; Souza, M.H.G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of constructing production cross sections that satisfy the constraints represented by the first few moments is shown to give an excellent account of the data when applied to the high energy pp production cross section ν sub(n) (s) plotted as functions of n. (Author) [pt

  7. An empirical fit to estimated neutron emission cross sections from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron emission cross section for various elements from 9Be to 209Bi have been calculated using the hybrid model code ALICE-91 for proton induced reactions in the energy range 25 MeV to 105 MeV. An empirical expression relating neutron emission cross section to target mass number and incident proton energy has ...

  8. Graphs of neutron cross section data for fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shigeya

    1979-03-01

    Graphs of neutron cross section data relevant to fusion reactor development are presented. Nuclides and reaction types in the present compilation are based on a WRENDA request list from Japan for fusion reactor development. The compilation contains various partial cross sections for 55 nuclides from 6 Li to 237 Np in the energy range up to 20 MeV. (author)

  9. Electron collision cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Takahashi, K.; Satoh, K.; Itoh, H.

    2017-05-01

    Reliable and detailed sets of electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4] and tetraethoxysilane [TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4] vapours are proposed. The cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours include 16 and 20 kinds of partial ionization cross sections, respectively. Electron transport coefficients, such as electron drift velocity, ionization coefficient, and longitudinal diffusion coefficient, in those vapours are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using the proposed cross section sets, and the validity of the sets is confirmed by comparing the calculated values of those transport coefficients with measured data. Furthermore, the calculated values of the ionization coefficient in TEOS/O2 mixtures are compared with measured data to confirm the validity of the proposed cross section set.

  10. Classical scattering cross section in sputtering transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhulin

    2002-01-01

    For Lindhard scaling interaction potential scattering commonly used in sputtering theory, the authors analyzed the great difference between Sigmund's single power and the double power cross sections calculated. The double power cross sections can give a much better approximation to the Born-Mayer scattering in the low energy region (m∼0.1). In particular, to solve the transport equations by K r -C potential interaction given by Urbassek few years ago, only the double power cross sections (m∼0.1) can yield better approximate results for the number of recoils. Therefore, the Sigmund's single power cross section might be replaced by the double power cross sections in low energy collision cascade theory

  11. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  12. Elastic and inelastic cross section measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Simon Holm; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The total pp cross section is a fundamental property of the strong interaction which can not be calculated in perturbative QCD but only described based on phenomenological models. The ATLAS collaboration has measured the total inelastic proton-proton cross section and the diffractive part of the inelastic cross section at 13 TeV in special data sets taken with low beam currents and using forward scintillators. More precise measurements of the total pp cross section and the elastic and inelastic contributions have been extracted from measurements of the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem. The ATLAS Collaboration has performed this measurement in elastic data collected with high beta* optics at 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy with the ALFA Roman Pot detector.

  13. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  14. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  15. Two Photon Absorption Cross-Section Of New Fluophore Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nadi, Lotfia; Farag, Ahmad M.; El-Sherbiny, Ashraf; Gamal, Yosr E.

    2005-03-01

    This study is a continuation of previous work carried by our group to synthesize and develop new fluophore compounds that could be used in fluorescence light microscopy for imaging biological molecules. Marking biological cells by such fluophores allow real time observation of single molecules. We synthesized and determined the absorption and emission spectra of the following new fluophores: ( L1 ) 4-Amino-2-oxo-2H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-carbothioic phenyl-amide. ( L9 ) 3-(2-benzenesulfonyl-3-dimethylamino acryloyl) coumarine. ( L11 ) 1-(4-bromophenyle)-4-(coumarin-3-carbonyl)-1H-pyrazole- 3 - carboxylic acid ethyl ester. The absorption spectra are found to peak at wavelengths 285, 358 and 370 nm. [for (L1)], 285, 320 and 360 nm. [for (L9)] and 285 and 360 nm. [for (L11)] Emission lines are observed at 486 nm., 430 nm. and 470 nm for ( L1 ), (L9) and (L11), respectively. These emission lines peaked when (L1), (L9) and (L11) were excited by 370,366 and 360 nm, respectively. This means that all three fluophores could be excited by two photon absorption (TPA) from IR laser of wavelength 730+- 10 nm. or three photon absorption (THPA) of IR laser at 1064+-20 nm. nearly without tuning. Multiphoton excitation of fluophors marking biological samples is advantageous over single photon excitation. The (TPA) and (THPA) fluorescent intensities have been measured for the three fluophors in DMF solution at different concentrations using both 90 femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser at powers up to 250 MW and 7 nanosecond Nd:YAG laser up to 10 MW. The estimated (TPA) cross-sections are of the order of 10-39 cm2 / photon and the (THPA) cross-sections are less by a factor more than 10 times that of (TPA).

  16. Energy group structure determination using particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ce; Sjoden, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Particle swarm optimization is applied to determine broad group structure. ► A graph representation of the broad group structure problem is introduced. ► The approach is tested on a fuel-pin model. - Abstract: Multi-group theory is widely applied for the energy domain discretization when solving the Linear Boltzmann Equation. To reduce the computational cost, fine group cross libraries are often down-sampled into broad group cross section libraries. Cross section data collapsing generally involves two steps: Firstly, the broad group structure has to be determined; secondly, a weighting scheme is used to evaluate the broad cross section library based on the fine group cross section data and the broad group structure. A common scheme is to average the fine group cross section weighted by the fine group flux. Cross section collapsing techniques have been intensively researched. However, most studies use a pre-determined group structure, open based on experience, to divide the neutron energy spectrum into thermal, epi-thermal, fast, etc. energy range. In this paper, a swarm intelligence algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO), is applied to optimize the broad group structure. A graph representation of the broad group structure determination problem is introduced. And the swarm intelligence algorithm is used to solve the graph model. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated using a fuel-pin model

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the U238 cross sections in fast nuclear systems - Program SENSEAV-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; D'Oliveira, A.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Moura Neto, C. de.

    1980-01-01

    For many performance parameters of reactors the tabulated calculation/experimental ratios indicate that some potential problems exist in the cross sections data or calculation models used to investigate the critical experimental data. A first step toward drawing a more definitiv