WorldWideScience

Sample records for group corticomotor facilitation

  1. Tactile-dependant corticomotor facilitation is influenced by discrimination performance in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay François

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active contraction leads to facilitation of motor responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. In small hand muscles, motor facilitation is known to be also influenced by the nature of the task. Recently, we showed that corticomotor facilitation was selectively enhanced when young participants actively discriminated tactile symbols with the tip of their index or little finger. This tactile-dependant motor facilitation reflected, for the large part, attentional influences associated with performing tactile discrimination, since execution of a concomitant distraction task abolished facilitation. In the present report, we extend these observations to examine the influence of age on the ability to produce extra motor facilitation when the hand is used for sensory exploration. Methods Corticomotor excitability was tested in 16 healthy seniors (58-83 years while they actively moved their right index finger over a surface under two task conditions. In the tactile discrimination (TD condition, participants attended to the spatial location of two tactile symbols on the explored surface, while in the non discrimination (ND condition, participants simply moved their finger over a blank surface. Changes in amplitude, in latency and in the silent period (SP duration were measured from recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEP in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle in response to TMS of the left motor cortex. Results Healthy seniors exhibited widely varying levels of performance with the TD task, older age being associated with lower accuracy and vice-versa. Large inter-individual variations were also observed in terms of tactile-specific corticomotor facilitation. Regrouping seniors into higher (n = 6 and lower performance groups (n = 10 revealed a significant task by performance interaction. This latter interaction reflected differences between higher and lower performance groups; tactile-related facilitation being

  2. Afferent facilitation of corticomotor responses is increased by IgGs of patients with NMDA-receptor antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Dalmau, Josep; Didelot, Adrien; Rogemond, Véronique; Honnorat, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    A severe subacute encephalitis associated with auto-antibodies to the NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) has been reported in humans. These antibodies are directed to NR1/NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor. We studied the effects of patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) injected in rFr2 (the prefrontal area) on the afferent facilitation in a conditioning paradigm for corticomotor responses. The afferent facilitation was assessed in forelimbs and hindlimbs of rats, before and after application of trains of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) which are known to modulate the excitability of M1. Before HFS, patients' CSF did not modify afferent facilitation. After HFS, the amplitudes of corticomotor responses before conditioning were significantly larger in forelimbs and hindlimbs. There was an increase of the afferent facilitation in forelimbs. The same effect was observed after injection of purified IgGs from patients' sera. Our results highlight that IgGs of patients with NMDA-R antibodies induce a state of corticomotor hyperexcitability following application of HFS over the prefrontal area.

  3. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  4. Characterizing differential poststroke corticomotor drive to the dorsi- and plantarflexor muscles during resting and volitional muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jacqueline A; Zarzycki, Ryan; Morton, Susanne M; Kesar, Trisha M; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A

    2017-04-01

    Imbalance of corticomotor excitability between the paretic and nonparetic limbs has been associated with the extent of upper extremity motor recovery poststroke, is greatly influenced by specific testing conditions such as the presence or absence of volitional muscle activation, and may vary across muscle groups. However, despite its clinical importance, poststroke corticomotor drive to lower extremity muscles has not been thoroughly investigated. Additionally, whereas conventional gait rehabilitation strategies for stroke survivors focus on paretic limb foot drop and dorsiflexion impairments, most contemporary literature has indicated that paretic limb propulsion and plantarflexion impairments are the most significant limiters to poststroke walking function. The purpose of this study was to compare corticomotor excitability of the dorsi- and plantarflexor muscles during resting and active conditions in individuals with good and poor poststroke walking recovery and in neurologically intact controls. We found that plantarflexor muscles showed reduced corticomotor symmetry between paretic and nonparetic limbs compared with dorsiflexor muscles in individuals with poor poststroke walking recovery during active muscle contraction but not during rest. Reduced plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry during active muscle contraction was a result of reduced corticomotor drive to the paretic muscles and enhanced corticomotor drive to the nonparetic muscles compared with the neurologically intact controls. These results demonstrate that atypical corticomotor drive exists in both the paretic and nonparetic lower limbs and implicate greater severity of corticomotor impairments to plantarflexor vs. dorsiflexor muscles during muscle activation in stroke survivors with poor walking recovery.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study observed that lower-limb corticomotor asymmetry resulted from both reduced paretic and enhanced nonparetic limb corticomotor excitability compared with

  5. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  6. Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Geralyn E.; Roberts, Kathryn L.

    2017-01-01

    Demonstrating the ability to collaborate effectively is essential for students moving into 21st century workplaces. Employers are expecting new hires to already possess group-work skills and will seek evidence of their ability to cooperate, collaborate, and complete projects with colleagues, including remotely or at a distance. Instructional…

  7. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2009-01-01

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  8. Facilitating peer learning in study groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    the preliminary results from the facilitated study groups. After one term (February-May), student satisfaction with both the social and the disciplinary environment had increased. The project shows how academic and social integration can be achieved with minimum faculty member involvement. This is done by relying...... 'Facilitating study environment' at one of DPU's educations in spring 2009. The pilot project consisted of three elements: Facilitated study groups, a student bar with facilitated activities, and academic identity events. Subsequently, we have studied students' experiences with the project. This paper outlines...... on the students' own resources, using peer-learning and facilitating these activities....

  9. Modifiers for quality assurance in group facilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.; Grünbacher, P.; Briggs, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    A key task of a professional facilitator is to assure the quality of the knowledge products created through collaborative effort. To manage the quality of the knowledge a group generates, facilitators attend to, judge, and question the quality of the contributions a group makes, the decisions it mak

  10. Facilitating Group Decision-Making: Facilitator's Subjective Theories on Group Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kolbe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of group facilitation is motivating and coordinating people to perform their joint work. This paper focuses on group coordination which is a prerequisite to group effectiveness, especially in complex tasks. Decision-making in groups is a complex task that consequently needs to be coordinated by explicit rather than implicit coordination mechanisms. Based on the embedded definition that explicit coordination does not just happen but is purposely executed by individuals, we argue that individual coordination intentions and mechanisms should be taken into account. Thus far, the subjective perspective of coordination has been neglected in coordination theory, which is understandable given the difficulties in defining and measuring subjective aspects of group facilitation. We therefore conducted focused interviews with eight experts who either worked as senior managers or as experienced group facilitators and analysed their approaches to group coordination using methods of content analysis. Results show that these experts possess sophisticated mental representations of their coordination behaviour. These subjective coordination theories can be organised in terms of coordination schemes in which coordination-releasing situations are facilitated by special coordination mechanisms that, in turn, lead to the perception of specific consequences. We discuss the importance of these subjective coordination theories for effectively facilitating group decision-making and minimising process losses. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901287

  11. A day awake attenuates motor learning-induced increases in corticomotor excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toon T de Beukelaar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ‘synaptic homeostasis hypothesis’ proposes that the brain’s capacity to exhibit synaptic plasticity is reduced during the day but restores when sleeping. While this prediction has been confirmed for declarative memories, it is currently unknown whether it is also the case for motor memories. We quantified practice-induced changes in corticomotor excitability in response to repetitive motor sequence training as an indirect marker of synaptic plasticity in the primary motor cortex. Subjects either practiced a motor sequence in the morning and a new motor sequence in the evening, i.e. after a 12h period of wakefulness (wake group; or they practiced a sequence in the evening and a new sequence in the morning, i.e. after a 12h period including sleep (sleep group. In both wake and sleep groups motor training improved movement performance irrespective of the time of day. Learning a new sequence in the morning triggered a clear increase in corticomotor excitability suggesting that motor training triggered synaptic adaptation in the primary motor cortex that was absent when a new sequence was learned in the evening. Thus, the magnitude of the practice-induced increase in corticomotor excitability was significantly influenced by time of day while the magnitude of motor performance improvements were not. These results suggest that the motor cortex’s potential to efficiently adapt to the environment by quickly adjusting synaptic strength in an activity-dependent manner is higher in the morning than in the evening.

  12. Encountering Carl Rogers: His Views on Facilitating Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents Carl Rogers' views on facilitating groups, as expressed in a telephone dialogue seminar with graduate students in counselor education at North Texas State University. Discusses extended group marathons, cocounseling, nonverbal group exercises and the future of group work. (JAC)

  13. Facilitating a Summer Reading Book Group Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Ginger Goldman

    2007-01-01

    Summer book groups enhance and sustain student literacy behaviors over the break, making available an enjoyable social forum for critical-thinking and critical-reading practices to occur naturally. Significantly, the book groups grant faculty and students an informal space to connect meaningfully through reflective discussion of texts. Because…

  14. Facilitating Learning in Multidisciplinary Groups with Transactive CSCL Scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Teasley, S.D.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Weinberger, A.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and transfer are essential for learning in groups, especially when group members have different disciplinary expertise and collaborate online. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments have been designed to facilitate transactive knowledge sharing and transfer i

  15. Group Essay Writing: Facilitating Team Learning Using ICT for Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group Essay Writing: Facilitating Team Learning Using ICT for Life Long ... Teacher Training Programme (TTTP) of Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos. ... the group without ICT used the traditional method of writing individual essays.

  16. Altered corticomotor-cerebellar integrity in young ataxia telangiectasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahama, Ishani; Sinclair, Kate; Fiori, Simona; Pannek, Kerstin; Lavin, Martin; Rose, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research in identifying altered brain structure and function in ataxia-telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, is limited. Diffusion-weighted MRI were obtained from 11 ataxia telangiectasia patients (age range, 7-22 years; mean, 12 years) and 11 typically developing age-matched participants (age range, 8-23 years; mean, 13 years). Gray matter volume alterations in patients were compared with those of healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry, whereas tract-based spatial statistics was employed to elucidate white matter microstructure differences between groups. White matter microstructure was probed using quantitative fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity measures. Reduced gray matter volume in both cerebellar hemispheres and in the precentral-postcentral gyrus in the left cerebral hemisphere was observed in ataxia telangiectasia patients compared with controls (P ataxia telangiectasia patients along with white matter tract degeneration projecting from the cerebellum into corticomotor regions. The lack of cortical involvement may reflect early-stage white matter motor pathway degeneration within young patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. How experienced tutors facilitate tutorial dynamics in PBL groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gin-Hong; Lin, Chaou-Shune; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial are conducted in small groups, and successful learning in such groups requires good group facilitating skills. There is a lack of research on actual skills employed by tutors in facilitating the group dynamics. To explore the process of PBL tutorial small groups, focusing on the tutors' actual behavior in facilitating group dynamics. Eight experienced tutors from various departments in medical colleges participated in this research. Forty tutorial group sessions were videotaped. Among the 636 tutorial intervention episodes, 142 of them were associated with facilitating group dynamics. Tutors interventions as well as their recalls were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative research methods were utilized to analyze the data. There were 10 tutorial group dynamic situations and 48 tutorial skills. Analysis of the tutors' intentions employing these skills in the 10 situations showed that tutors were trying to achieve the following aims: (1) iteration of PBL principles, (2) delegation of responsibility to the students, (3) creation of a good discussion forum, and (4) the generation of a good learning atmosphere. Results from this study provide PBL tutors with a practical frame of reference on group dynamic facilitating skills and stimulate further research on this topic.

  18. When Compatibility Interferes with Group Effectiveness: Facilitation of Learning in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marvin, E.; Webb, Jeaninne N.

    1982-01-01

    Examined whether compatible groups facilitate learning more than incompatible groups. Used peer groups to facilitate learning in college courses. Computed compatibility scores for pairs and four-person groups working together. Used examinations to measure peer group procedure effectiveness. Results did not indicate a positive relationship between…

  19. Dynamics of group knowledge production in facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Franco, L. Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘facilitated modelling’ is used in the literature to characterise an approach to structuring problems, developing options and evaluating decisions by groups working in a model-supported workshop environment, and assisted by a facilitator. The approach involves an interactive process...... by which models are jointly developed with group members interacting face-to-face, with or without computer support. The models produced are used to inform negotiations about the nature of the issues faced by the group, and how to address them. While the facilitated modelling literature is impressive...... the form of three distinct group knowledge production patterns: generative, collaborative and assertive. Further, each pattern is characterised by a particular mix of communicative behaviours and model-supported interactions that has implications for the creation of new knowledge within the workshop. Our...

  20. Challenges facing PBL tutors: 12 tips for successful group facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2005-12-01

    One of the main tasks of a problem-based learning (PBL) tutor is to facilitate group discussion. Group facilitation is about process rather than content. In this process, a tutor helps the group increase their skills and progress in their discussion. Several studies have highlighted strategies and training used in preparing PBL tutors. However, PBL tutors usually feel that it is not that easy to change their teaching style to the PBL format. They are sometimes unsure about their role or what strategy they might use to facilitate their students' discussion. This article in the '12 Tips' series is a detailed description of, and provides answers to, common challenges faced by PBL tutors. The tips provided in this manuscript should help tutors with practical answers. The article may be useful to PBL tutors, medical and health educators and those responsible for PBL training workshops.

  1. Ipsilateral corticomotor responses are confined to the homologous muscle following cross-education of muscular strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joel; Frazer, Ashlyn K; Horvath, Deanna M; Pearce, Alan J; Avela, Janne; Howatson, Glyn; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2017-08-22

    Cross-education of strength occurs when strength-training one limb increases the strength of the untrained limb and is restricted to the untrained homologous muscle. Cortical circuits located ipsilateral to the trained limb might be involved. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the corticomotor responses from the untrained homologous (biceps brachii) and non-homologous (flexor carpi radialis) muscle following strength-training of the right elbow flexors. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the untrained left biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis during a submaximal contraction from 20 individuals (10 women, 10 men, aged 18-35 years; training group; n = 10 and control group; n = 10) before and after 3-weeks of strength-training the right biceps brachii at 80% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). Recruitment-curves for corticomotor excitability and inhibition of the untrained homologous and non-homologous muscle were constructed and assessed by examining the area under the recruitment curve (AURC). Strength-training increased strength of the trained elbow flexors (29%), resulting in a 18% increase in contralateral strength of the untrained elbow flexors (P homologous muscle (P homologous muscle (P > 0.05). These findings show that the cross-education of muscular strength is spatially distributed; however, the neural adaptations are confined to the motor pathway ipsilateral to the untrained homologous agonist.

  2. Facilitating Meaningful Discussion Groups in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Lindsey; Ogden, Meridith; Kelly, Laura Beth

    2015-01-01

    This Teaching Tips describes a yearlong process of facilitating meaningful discussion groups about literature with first-grade students in an urban Title I school. At the beginning of the year, the teacher provided explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills to support students with the social skills needed for thoughtful discussion. She…

  3. Teacher’s action zone in facilitating group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Gałajda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As believed by many researchers (Dörnyei & Murphey 2003, Hadfield 1992, classroom climate is strongly determined by the dynamics of the learning group and its development over time. For this reason, the role of the teacher in facilitating group processes seems to be of primary importance since it is the teacher who has long been regarded as the group leader in both teacher-centred and learner-centred classrooms.The presentation focuses not only on positive but also on negative forms of classroom dynamics together with management techniques for dealing with conflicts, educational alienation and psychological defensiveness. This, in turn, leads to the concept of facilitator style based on Heron’s (2006 model of facilitation, which consists of six dimensions and three modes. In the paper particular emphasis is placed on the presentation and comparison of various theories of leadership, namely Heron’s system of facilitation, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational-leadership theory (1982 and Bass and Avolio’s transactional versus transformational leadership theory (1984.

  4. Hand muscles corticomotor excitability in hereditary spastic paraparesis type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginanneschi, Federica; Carluccio, Maria A; Mignarri, Andrea; Tessa, Alessandra; Santorelli, Filippo M; Rossi, Alessandro; Federico, Antonio; Dotti, Maria T

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies on the pathways to the upper limbs have revealed inconsistent results in patients harboring mutations in SPAST/SPG4 gene, responsible for the commonest form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). This paper is addressed to study the corticomotor excitability of the pathways to the upper limbs in SPG4 subjects. We assessed the corticomotor excitability of hand muscles in 12 subjects belonging to 7 unrelated SPG4 families and in 12 control subjects by stimulus-response curve [input-output (I-O) curve]. All the parameters of the recruitment curve (threshold, V50, slope and plateau) did not differ significantly from those of the controls. Presence of upper limb hyper-reflexia did not influence the results of I-O curve. Considering the multiplicity of possible genes/loci accounting for pure HSPs, performing TMS analyses could be helpful in differential diagnosis of pure HSPs in the absence of other clinical or neuroimaging tools.

  5. Effects of periodontal afferent inputs on corticomotor excitability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Boudreau, S; Wang, M

    2010-01-01

    .004) in the LA session and a burning pain sensation (VAS peak pain: 6.4 +/- 1.0) in the capsaicin session. No significant changes in cortical excitability of the MI, as reflected by TMS-MEP stimulus-response curves or corticomotor maps for the tongue, masseter or FDI were found between baseline and post...... for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) as an internal control. Burning pain intensity and mechanical sensitivity ratings to a von Frey filament applied to the application site were recorded on an electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). All subjects reported a decreased mechanical sensitivity (anova: P = 0...

  6. Facilitating Active Engagement of the University Student in a Large-Group Setting Using Group Work Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Gemma K.; Mahon, Catherine; Lillis, Seamus

    2017-01-01

    It is envisaged that small-group exercises as part of a large-group session would facilitate not only group work exercises (a valuable employability skill), but also peer learning. In this article, such a strategy to facilitate the active engagement of the student in a large-group setting was explored. The production of student-led resources was…

  7. Facilitating Group Cohesion among Adolescents through Challenge Course Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. Scott; Benshoff, James M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the effects of participation in a low-element challenge course on younger adolescents' perceptions of group cohesion. Pre- and post-tests of group cohesion were administered to 167 North Carolina adolescents aged 11-14. Participants perceived an increase in group cohesion after the daylong program, regardless of their age, race,…

  8. Beliefs About the Malleability of Immoral Groups Facilitate Collective Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Halperin, Eran; Saguy, Tamar; van Zomeren, Martijn

    Although negative out-group beliefs typically foster individuals' motivation for collective action, we propose that such beliefs may diminish this motivation when people believe that this out-group cannot change in its very essence. Specifically, we tested the idea that believing in the malleability

  9. Beliefs About the Malleability of Immoral Groups Facilitate Collective Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Halperin, Eran; Saguy, Tamar; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Although negative out-group beliefs typically foster individuals' motivation for collective action, we propose that such beliefs may diminish this motivation when people believe that this out-group cannot change in its very essence. Specifically, we tested the idea that believing in the malleability

  10. mCell: Facilitating Mobile Communication of Small Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyri Virtanen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication technology offers a potential platform for new types of communication applications. Here, we describe the development and experiences with a mobile group communication application, mCell, that runs on a mobile phone. We present the underlying design implications, the application implementation, and a user study, where three groups used the application for one month. The findings of the user study reveal general user experiences with the application and show different patterns of usage depending on the social setting of the group and how the preferred features vary accordingly.

  11. Mirror symmetric bimanual movement priming can increase corticomotor excitability and enhance motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston D Byblow

    Full Text Available Repetitive mirror symmetric bilateral upper limb may be a suitable priming technique for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. Here we demonstrate neurophysiological and behavioural after-effects in healthy participants after priming with 20 minutes of repetitive active-passive bimanual wrist flexion and extension in a mirror symmetric pattern with respect to the body midline (MIR compared to an control priming condition with alternating flexion-extension (ALT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS indicated that corticomotor excitability (CME of the passive hemisphere remained elevated compared to baseline for at least 30 minutes after MIR but not ALT, evidenced by an increase in the size of motor evoked potentials in ECR and FCR. Short and long-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI, short afferent inhibition (SAI and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI were also examined using pairs of stimuli. LICI differed between patterns, with less LICI after MIR compared with ALT, and an effect of pattern on IHI, with reduced IHI in passive FCR 15 minutes after MIR compared with ALT and baseline. There was no effect of pattern on SAI or FCR H-reflex. Similarly, SICI remained unchanged after 20 minutes of MIR. We then had participants complete a timed manual dexterity motor learning task with the passive hand during, immediately after, and 24 hours after MIR or control priming. The rate of task completion was faster with MIR priming compared to control conditions. Finally, ECR and FCR MEPs were examined within a pre-movement facilitation paradigm of wrist extension before and after MIR. ECR, but not FCR, MEPs were consistently facilitated before and after MIR, demonstrating no degradation of selective muscle activation. In summary, mirror symmetric active-passive bimanual movement increases CME and can enhance motor learning without degradation of muscle selectivity. These findings rationalise the use of mirror symmetric bimanual movement as a

  12. Mixed-Gender Co-Facilitation in Therapeutic Groups for Men Who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence: Group Members' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Valerie; Lindsay, Jocelyn; Dallaire, Louis-Francois

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study that explored the use of mixed-gender co-facilitation in intimate partner violence groups, especially regarding its potential for gender role socialization. Using an interpretive approach, interviews with men from different mixed-gender co-facilitated groups in Canada were analyzed, with a focus on the men's…

  13. Mixed-Gender Co-Facilitation in Therapeutic Groups for Men Who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence: Group Members' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Valerie; Lindsay, Jocelyn; Dallaire, Louis-Francois

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study that explored the use of mixed-gender co-facilitation in intimate partner violence groups, especially regarding its potential for gender role socialization. Using an interpretive approach, interviews with men from different mixed-gender co-facilitated groups in Canada were analyzed, with a focus on the men's…

  14. A Review of the Creative Group Work Training Program for Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Kevin; Blatch, Chris; Toh, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the first review of the Creative Group Work (CGW) training program for facilitators who provide group-based intervention programs to offenders in Corrective Services New South Wales, Australia. The program emphasizes the interpersonal aspects of group work and seeks to equip facilitators to engage with participants in a way…

  15. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  16. Lexical Bundles: Facilitating University "Talk" in Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chan Swee; Kashiha, Hadi; Tan, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Group discussion forms an integral language experience for most language learners, providing them with an opportunity to express themselves in a naturalistic setting. Multi-word expressions are commonly used and one of them is lexical bundles. Lexical bundles are types of extended collocations that occur more commonly than we expect; they are…

  17. 112 fadama users group characteristics that influence facilitators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... cultivation, mono cropping, mixed cropping ... Nigeria into three regions based on ecological .... realized by using the logit regression model. ... extension performance (Leonard, 1977). The .... This implies negative effect on effective role ..... Fadama users group variable. Estimated. Standard error. R-value.

  18. Facilitating Personal Transformations in Small Groups: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes personal transformation in small groups method that employs Matrix Model as its operational structure in Part I of two-part article. Describes method's reliance on metaphors and nature and manner in which they are employed. Defines personal transformation within framework of analytical psychology. (Author/CM)

  19. Facilitation by exogenous attention for static and dynamic gestalt groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Fahrettin F; Hallal, Hamza; Ogmen, Haluk

    2014-08-01

    Attentional mechanisms allow the brain to selectively allocate its resources to stimuli of interest within the huge amount of information reaching its sensory systems. The voluntary component of attention, endogenous attention, can be allocated in a flexible manner depending on the goals and strategies of the observer. On the other hand, the reflexive component, exogenous attention, is driven by the stimulus. Here, we investigated how exogenous attention is deployed to moving stimuli that form distinct perceptual groups. We showed that exogenous attention is deployed according to a reference frame that moves along with the stimulus. Moreover, in addition to the cued stimulus, exogenous attention is deployed to all elements forming a perceptual group. These properties provide a basis for the efficient deployment of exogenous attention under ecological viewing conditions.

  20. The development, facilitation and initial evaluation of a mindfulness group for a clinical psychology training course

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Paul; Hemanth, P

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of a Mindfulness group facilitate for trainee and qualified psychologists working in a university psychology clinic. the group was shown to have both personal and professional benefits for participants, but further evaluation is required.

  1. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Methods Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. Results The s...

  2. Forming and activating an internal facilitation group for successful implementation: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Megan B; Gillespie, Chris; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Jones, Ellen A; Park, Angela M; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen; Rose, Adam J

    detailing how internal facilitators learn their skills over time, and how a group of internal facilitators can help each other succeed. These findings can guide those who wish to incorporate internal facilitation teams as an implementation strategy, and demonstrate how sites can build capacity for implementation efforts. This study focuses on an implementation facilitation strategy to improve the delivery of anticoagulation care within pharmacy-run clinics across 8 Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Internal facilitators (IFs) guided by and supported by an external facilitators (EF), successfully implemented the clinical innovation. This study examines how the IF group became instrumental in the successful implementation of evidence-based practice change. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. The skills of facilitators included 10 intervention techniques and 1 problem in interventions. Intervention techniques, which promote group dynamics and thereby help participants acquire improvements in their coping abilities and quality of life (QOL), were somewhat different between new and experienced facilitators, with the content showing immaturity and maturity in the new and experienced facilitators, respectively. Both experienced and new facilitators faced the risk of experiencing problems in interventions, which countered the purpose of the intervention of improving the participants' coping abilities or QOL. While intervention skills are necessary for facilitators to execute group interventions, it must be borne in mind, that even well-experienced facilitators may not always be able to accomplish skillful intervention.

  4. The facilitation of groups and networks: capabilities to shape creative cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The facilitator, defined as a process guide of creative cooperation, is becoming more and more in focus to assist groups,teams and networks to meet these challenges. The author defines and exemplifies different levels of creative coorperation. Core capabilities of facilitation are defined...

  5. Mental Health Consultation: An Untapped Tool for Facilitating Volatile Intercultural Diversity Group Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    marbley, aretha faye; Stevens, Hal; Taylor, Colette M.; Ritter, Rachelle Berg; Robinson, Petra A.; McGaha, Valerie; Bonner, Fred A., II; Li, Jiaqi

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for leadership skills when facilitating communication and engendering acceptance and respect among people from culturally different backgrounds, opposing viewpoints, and vastly different experiences. Thus, when facilitating intercultural group dialogs, varying institutions, agencies, and businesses need culturally competent…

  6. Recontextualizing the Role of the Facilitator in Group Interaction in the Outdoor Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Ina

    2009-01-01

    The traditional role of the facilitator in outdoor education is frequently seen as outside the group of participants, either in a position of power over the participants or detached and passive. Following an ethnographic study at a residential outdoor centre, an in-depth analysis of the facilitation process was carried out, which revealed that the…

  7. Problem-based learning: facilitating multiple small teams in a large group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Jennifer H; Raidal, Sharanne L

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is often described as resource demanding due to the high staff-to-student ratio required in a traditional PBL tutorial class where there is commonly one facilitator to every 5-16 students. The veterinary science program at Charles Sturt University, Australia, has developed a method of group facilitation which readily allows one or two staff members to facilitate up to 30 students at any one time while maintaining the benefits of a small PBL team of six students. Multi-team facilitation affords obvious financial and logistic advantages, but there are also important pedagogical benefits derived from uniform facilitation across multiple groups, enhanced discussion and debate between groups, and the development of self-facilitation skills in students. There are few disadvantages to the roaming facilitator model, provided that several requirements are addressed. These requirements include a suitable venue, large whiteboards, a structured approach to support student engagement with each disclosure, a detailed facilitator guide, and an open, collaborative, and communicative environment.

  8. Lorazepam-induced effects on silent period and corticomotor excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiskidis, V K; Papagiannopoulos, S; Kazis, D A; Sotirakoglou, K; Vasiliadis, G; Zara, F; Kazis, A; Mills, K R

    2006-09-01

    TMS studies on the CNS effects of benzodiazepines have provided contradictory results. The objective of this study is to describe the effects of lorazepam on silent period (SP) and corticomotor excitability. Twelve healthy male subjects (median age 35 years) were studied at baseline, following i.v. lorazepam administration and after reversal of the benzodiazepine effects with i.v. flumazenil. Lorazepam was given at a low-dose in one subject (0.0225 mg/kg bolus + 2 microg/kg/h infusion) and at a high-dose (0.045 mg/kg bolus + 2.6 microg/kg/h infusion) in the rest. Threshold (Thr) was measured at 1% steps. SPs were investigated with two complementary methods. First, SPs were elicited using a wide range of stimulus intensities (SIs) (from 5 to 100% maximum SI at 5% increments). At each SI, four SPs were obtained and the average value of SP duration was used to construct a stimulus/response (S/R) curve of SI versus SP .The resulting S/R curves were then fitted to a Boltzman function, the best-fit values of which were statistically compared for each experimental condition (i.e., baseline vs. lorazepam vs. flumazenil). Second, a large number of SPs (n=100) was elicited during each of the three experimental conditions using blocks of four stimuli with an intensity alternating between MT and 200% MT. This method was employed so as to reveal the dynamic, time-varying effects of lorazepam and flumazenil on SP duration at two stimulus intensity (SI) levels. MEP recruitment curves were constructed at rest and during activation and fitted to a Boltzman function the best-fit values of which were statistically compared for each experimental condition. Lorazepam at a low dose did not affect Thr, SP, or the active MEP recruitment curves. The high dose also had no effect on Thr and the active MEPs whereas the resting MEP recruitment curves were depressed post-lorazepam at the higher range of stimulus intensities. With regard to SP, the Max value of the S/R curve decreased from 251

  9. Lecturers' experiences of facilitating guided group reflection with pre-registration BSc Nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Carthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Tuohy, Dympna

    2013-01-01

    The development of reflective practitioners is integral to undergraduate nursing degree programmes. This study reports on lecturers' experiences of facilitating guided group reflection with pre-registration BSc Nursing students.The research purposively sampled lecturers (n=7) working in a department of nursing and midwifery at a third level institute in Ireland, all of whom were registered nurses. Using a qualitative research approach, data was collected through audio-taped semi-structured individual interviews. The data were thematically analysed using guidelines developed by Braun and Clarke (2006). Tripartite researcher discussion and further analysis of these initial individual analyses led to consensus regarding the three themes arising from the study. These were: Being a facilitator; Facilitating reflective learning and Creating structure. The discussion centred on: having knowledge and experience to effectively facilitate guided group reflection; the influence of the facilitator's personal philosophy on reflection and adult learning on group facilitation; and finally concerns regarding professional responsibility in response to students' reflective practice accounts.

  10. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Lucas Pereira; de Campos, Edemilson Antunes

    2014-01-01

    to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups. ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique. four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study. the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  11. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pereira de Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups.METHOD: ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique.RESULTS: four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study.CONCLUSION: the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  12. Depression of corticomotor excitability after muscle fatigue induced by electrical stimulation and voluntary contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi eKotan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effect of muscle fatigue induced by tetanic electrical stimulation (ES and submaximal isometric contraction on corticomotor excitability. Experiments were performed in a cross-over design. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs were elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Corticomotor excitability was recorded before and after thumb opposition muscle fatigue tasks, in which 10% of the maximal tension intensity was induced by tetanic ES or voluntary contraction (VC. The participants were 10 healthy individuals who performed each task for 10 min. Surface electrodes placed over the abductor pollicis brevis (APB muscle recorded MEPs. F- and M-waves were elicited from APB by supramaximal ES of the median nerve. After the ES1-and VC tasks, MEP amplitudes were significantly lower than before the task. However, F-and M-wave amplitudes remained unchanged. These findings suggest that corticospinal excitability is reduced by muscle fatigue as a result of intracortical inhibitory mechanisms. Our results also suggest that corticomotor excitability is reduced by muscle fatigue caused by both VC and tetanic ES.

  13. Uptake of inorganic mercury by human locus ceruleus and corticomotor neurons: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental toxins are suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In an attempt to determine which pathways these toxins can use to enter motor neurons we compared the distribution of mercury in the CNS of a human and of mice that had been exposed to inorganic mercury. Results In the human who had been exposed to metallic mercury, mercury was seen predominantly in the locus ceruleus and corticomotor neurons, as well as in scattered glial cells. In mice that had been exposed to mercury vapor or mercuric chloride, mercury was present in lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem. Conclusions In humans, inorganic mercury can be taken up predominantly by corticomotor neurons, possibly when the locus ceruleus is upregulated by stress. This toxin uptake into corticomotor neurons is in accord with the hypothesis that ALS originates in these upper motor neurons. In mice, inorganic mercury is taken up predominantly by lower motor neurons. The routes toxins use to enter motor neurons depends on the nature of the toxin, the duration of exposure, and possibly the amount of stress (for upper motor neuron uptake) and exercise (for lower motor neuron uptake) at the time of toxin exposure. PMID:24252585

  14. Trains of epidural DC stimulation of the cerebellum tune corticomotor excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Manto, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the effects of anodal/cathodal direct current stimulation (DCS) applied epidurally over the cerebellum. We studied the excitability of both the motor cortex and the anterior horn of the spinal cord in adult rats under continuous anesthesia. We also investigated the effects on the spatial representation of a couple of agonist/antagonist muscles on primary motor cortex. Moreover, we evaluated the effects on the afferent inhibition in a paradigm of conditioned corticomotor responses. Anodal DCS of the cerebellum (1) decreased the excitability of the motor cortex, (2) reduced the excitability of F waves, as shown by the decrease of both mean F/mean M ratios and persistence of F waves, (3) exerted a "smoothing effect" on corticomotor maps, reshaping the representation of muscles on the motor cortex, and (4) enhanced the afferent inhibition of conditioned motor evoked responses. Cathodal DCS of the cerebellum exerted partially reverse effects. DCS of the cerebellum modulates the excitability of both motor cortex and spinal cord at the level of the anterior horn. This is the first demonstration that cerebellar DCS tunes the shape of corticomotor maps. Our findings provide a novel mechanism by which DCS of the cerebellum exerts a remote neuromodulatory effect upon motor cortex.

  15. Trains of Epidural DC Stimulation of the Cerebellum Tune Corticomotor Excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordeyn Oulad Ben Taib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of anodal/cathodal direct current stimulation (DCS applied epidurally over the cerebellum. We studied the excitability of both the motor cortex and the anterior horn of the spinal cord in adult rats under continuous anesthesia. We also investigated the effects on the spatial representation of a couple of agonist/antagonist muscles on primary motor cortex. Moreover, we evaluated the effects on the afferent inhibition in a paradigm of conditioned corticomotor responses. Anodal DCS of the cerebellum (1 decreased the excitability of the motor cortex, (2 reduced the excitability of F waves, as shown by the decrease of both mean F/mean M ratios and persistence of F waves, (3 exerted a “smoothing effect” on corticomotor maps, reshaping the representation of muscles on the motor cortex, and (4 enhanced the afferent inhibition of conditioned motor evoked responses. Cathodal DCS of the cerebellum exerted partially reverse effects. DCS of the cerebellum modulates the excitability of both motor cortex and spinal cord at the level of the anterior horn. This is the first demonstration that cerebellar DCS tunes the shape of corticomotor maps. Our findings provide a novel mechanism by which DCS of the cerebellum exerts a remote neuromodulatory effect upon motor cortex.

  16. Reduced corticomotor excitability and motor skills development in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Julia B; Schneider, Luke A; Burns, Nicholas R; Drysdale, John L; Higgins, Ryan D; Ridding, Michael C; Nettelbeck, Theodore J; Haslam, Ross R; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2012-11-15

    The mechanisms underlying the altered neurodevelopment commonly experienced by children born preterm, but without brain lesions, remain unknown. While individuals born the earliest are at most risk, late preterm children also experience significant motor, cognitive and behavioural dysfunction from school age, and reduced income and educational attainment in adulthood. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional assessments to examine corticomotor development in 151 children without cerebral palsy, aged 10-13 years and born after gestations of 25-41 completed weeks. We hypothesized that motor cortex and corticospinal development are altered in preterm children, which underpins at least some of their motor dysfunction. We report for the first time that every week of reduced gestation is associated with a reduction in corticomotor excitability that remains evident in late childhood. This reduced excitability was associated with poorer motor skill development, particularly manual dexterity. However, child adiposity, sex and socio-economic factors regarding the child's home environment soon after birth were also powerful influences on development of motor skills. Preterm birth was also associated with reduced left hemisphere lateralization, but without increasing the likelihood of being left handed per se. These corticomotor findings have implications for normal motor development, but also raise questions regarding possible longer term consequences of preterm birth on motor function.

  17. Library faculty role in problem-based learning: facilitating small groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, R K; Helms, M E; Nouravarsani, R; Van Antwerp, M; Woelfl, N N

    1995-10-01

    Since 1986, the library faculty of the McGoogan Library of Medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) has participated in small group activities during the week-long orientation for first-year medical students. This involvement paved the way for library faculty members to act as facilitators for small groups of medical students within the new problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum introduced in 1992 by the College of Medicine. The UNMC curriculum consists of traditional PBL groups as well as Integrated Clinical Experience (ICE) small groups. The ICE groups provide opportunities for discussion of the social and behavioral issues that arise in medicine, with the majority of the sessions designed to give students interviewing practice with simulated patients. The ICE small groups meet once a week with either one or two facilitators. Several library faculty members act as facilitators for ICE groups. As a result of this involvement, librarian contacts with College of Medicine faculty have grown in number and depth, there has been a corresponding increase in related activities with the first- and second-year medical students. Participation in ICE groups has caused some difficulties with respect to library work schedules, but it has been immensely rewarding and enriching in terms of professional growth. This paper describes the UNMC curriculum, the evolution and extent of the librarians' involvement, and the future involvement, ramifications, and challenges envisioned for McGoogan faculty and their medical library colleagues.

  18. Student Perceptions of Independent versus Facilitated Small Group Learning Approaches to Compressed Medical Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J.; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J. D.; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and…

  19. Pioneer CESA Guidance Project: A Staff Development Program for School Counselors. Group Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Robert F.

    This document on group facilitation is one of seven staff development programs which target performance skills of school counselors. The staff development programs are designed to be used by students who aspire to become school counselors, by entry level counselors who are seeking to demonstrate their skill for certification purposes, and by…

  20. Students as Facilitators: An Evaluation of Student-Led Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a two year study evaluating student-led group work in the context of a clinical legal education module. The aim of the study was to shift the balance of control from tutor to student, by allowing students to take on the facilitator role in weekly meetings. The findings suggest that (a) students can successfully design and…

  1. Library faculty role in problem-based learning: facilitating small groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Satterthwaite, R K; Helms, M E; Nouravarsani, R; Van Antwerp, M; Woelfl, N N

    1995-01-01

    Since 1986, the library faculty of the McGoogan Library of Medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) has participated in small group activities during the week-long orientation for first-year medical students. This involvement paved the way for library faculty members to act as facilitators for small groups of medical students within the new problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum introduced in 1992 by the College of Medicine. The UNMC curriculum consists of traditional PBL...

  2. Facilitating dental student reflections: using mentor groups to discuss clinical experiences and personal development

    OpenAIRE

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Christiaens, Véronique; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the consensus on the importance of reflection for dental professionals, a lack of understanding remains about how students and clinicians should develop their ability to reflect. The aim of this study was to investigate dental students’ and mentors’ perceptions of mentor groups as an instructional method to facilitate students’ reflection in terms of the strategy’s learning potential, role of the mentor, group dynamics, and feasibility. At Ghent University in Belgium, third- and fourt...

  3. Group work: Facilitating the learning of international and domestic undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julie; Mitchell, Creina; Del Fabbro, Letitia

    2015-01-01

    Devising innovative strategies to address internationalization is a contemporary challenge for universities. A Participatory Action Research (PAR) project was undertaken to identify issues for international nursing students and their teachers. The findings identified group work as a teaching strategy potentially useful to facilitate international student learning. The educational intervention of structured group work was planned and implemented in one subject of a Nursing degree. Groups of four to five students were formed with one or two international students per group. Structural support was provided by the teacher until the student was learning independently, the traditional view of scaffolding. The group work also encouraged students to learn from one another, a contemporary understanding of scaffolding. Evaluation of the group work teaching strategy occurred via anonymous, self-completed student surveys. The student experience data were analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, and free text comments were analysed using content analysis. Over 85% of respondents positively rated the group work experience. Overwhelmingly, students reported that class discussions and sharing nursing experiences positively influenced their learning and facilitated exchange of knowledge about nursing issues from an international perspective. This evaluation of a structured group work process supports the use of group work in engaging students in learning, adding to our understanding of purposeful scaffolding as a pathway to enhance learning for both international and domestic students. By explicitly using group work within the curriculum, educators can promote student learning, a scholarly approach to teaching and internationalization of the curriculum.

  4. The in vivo reduction of afferent facilitation induced by low frequency electrical stimulation of the motor cortex is antagonized by cathodal direct current stimulation of the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Manto, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency electrical stimulation to the motor cortex (LFSMC) depresses the excitability of motor circuits by long-term depression (LTD)-like effects. The interactions between LFSMC and cathodal direct current stimulation (cDCS) over the cerebellum are unknown. We assessed the corticomotor responses and the afferent facilitation of corticomotor responses during a conditioning paradigm in anaesthetized rats. We applied LFSMC at a frequency of 1 Hz and a combination of LFSMC with cDCS. LFSMC significantly depressed both the corticomotor responses and the afferent facilitation of corticomotor responses. Simultaneous application of cDCS over the cerebellum antagonized the depression of corticomotor responses and cancelled the depression of the afferent facilitation. Our results demonstrate that cDCS of the cerebellum is a potent modulator the inhibition of the motor circuits induced by LFSMC applied in vivo. These results expand our understanding of the effects of cerebellar DCS on motor commands and open novel applications for a cerebellar remote control of LFSMC-induced neuroplasticity. We suggest that the cerebellum acts as a neuronal machine supervising not only long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects, but also LTD-like effects in the motor cortex, two mechanisms which underlie cerebello-cerebral interactions and the cerebellar control of remote plasticity. Implications for clinical ataxiology are discussed.

  5. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Lida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two....... EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5kPa, 10kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during...

  6. Revisiting the Corticomotor Plasticity in Low Back Pain: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Massé-Alarie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP is a recurrent debilitating condition that costs billions to society. Refractoriness to conventional treatment, lack of improvement, and associated movement disorders could be related to the extensive brain plasticity present in this condition, especially in the sensorimotor cortices. This narrative review on corticomotor plasticity in CLBP will try to delineate how interventions such as training and neuromodulation can improve the condition. The review recommends subgrouping classification in CLBP owing to brain plasticity markers with a view of better understanding and treating this complex condition.

  7. Women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group incorporating yoga and facilitated group discussion: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Frances; Hornibrook, Julie

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a small qualitative research study which explored women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group that incorporated yoga and facilitated discussion. The group is offered through a community based feminist non-government women's health Centre in Northern NSW Australia. The purpose of the research was to explore women's experiences of attending this pregnancy and postnatal group. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to explore women's experiences of attending the group. Fifteen women participated in individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was undertaken to analyse the qualitative data. Six themes were developed, one with 3 subthemes. One theme was labelled as: 'the pregnancy and motherhood journey' and included 3 sub-themes which were labelled: 'preparation for birth', 'connecting with the baby' and 'sharing birth stories.' The other five themes were: 'feminine nurturing safe space', 'watching and learning the mothering', 'building mental health, well-being and connections', the "group like a rock and a seed' and 'different from mainstream'. This research adds to the overall body of knowledge about the value of yoga in pre and postnatal care. It demonstrates the value of sharing birth stories and the strong capacity women have to support one another, bringing benefits of emotional and social well-being, information, resources and support derived from group based models of care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibres on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, M; Baad-Hansen, L; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs. The aim of this study was to determine whether bilateral local anaesthesia (LA) of the lingual nerve affects the excitability of the tongue motor cortex (MI) as measured by TMS. The effect on MEPs after bilateral LA of the lingual nerve was studied, while the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle served as a control in ten healthy participants. MEPs were measured on the right side of the tongue dorsum in four different conditions: (i) immediately prior to anaesthesia (baseline), (ii) during bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve, (iii) after anaesthesia had subjectively subsided (recovery) and (iv) 3 h after bilateral lingual block injection. MEPs were assessed using stimulus-response curves in steps of 10% of motor threshold (T). Eight stimuli were given at each stimulus level. The amplitudes of the tongue MEPs were significantly influenced by the stimulus intensity (P < 0·001) but not by condition (P = 0·186). However, post hoc tests showed that MEPS were statistically significantly higher during bilateral LA block condition compared with baseline at T + 40%, T + 50% and T + 60% (P < 0·028) and also compared with recovery at T + 60% (P = 0·010) as well as at 3 h after injection at T + 50% and T + 60% (P < 0·029). Bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve seems to be associated with a facilitation of the corticomotor pathways related to the tongue musculature.

  9. Hand Function in Relation to Brain Lesions and Corticomotor-Projection Pattern in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, Linda; Vollmer, Brigitte; Tedroff, Kristina; Islam, Mominul; Persson, Jonas Ke; Kits, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate relationships between hand function, brain lesions, and corticomotor projections in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 17 children (nine males, eight females; mean age 11.4 [SD 2.4] range 7-16y), with unilateral CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and Manual Ability…

  10. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter

    2015-11-19

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41 min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5 kPa and 10 kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5 kPa, 10 kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (Ptongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles.

  11. Evidence of altered corticomotor excitability following targeted activation of gluteus maximus training in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Beth E; Southam, Anna C; Kuo, Yi-Ling; Lee, Ya-Yun; Powers, Christopher M

    2016-04-13

    It has been proposed that strengthening and skill training of gluteus maximus (GM) may be beneficial in treating various knee injuries. Given the redundancy of the hip musculature and the small representational area of GM in the primary motor cortex (M1), learning to activate this muscle before prescribing strength exercises and modifying movement strategy would appear to be important. This study aimed to determine whether a short-term activation training program targeting the GM results in neuroplastic changes in M1. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were obtained in 12 healthy individuals at different stimulation intensities while they performed a double-leg bridge. Participants then completed a home exercise program for ∼1 h/day for 6 days that consisted of a single exercise designed to selectively target the GM. Baseline and post-training input-output curves (IOCs) were generated by graphing average MEP amplitudes and cortical silent period durations against corresponding stimulation intensities. Following the GM activation training, the linear slope of both the MEP IOC and cortical silent period IOC increased significantly. Short-term GM activation training resulted in a significant increase in corticomotor excitability as well as changes in inhibitory processes of the GM. We propose that the observed corticomotor plasticity will enable better utilization of the GM in the more advanced stages of a rehabilitation/training program.

  12. Immediate increases in quadriceps corticomotor excitability during an electromyography biofeedback intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, Brian; McLeod, Michelle M; Florea, David; Gribble, Phillip A; Tevald, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of EMG-BF on vastus lateralis corticomotor excitability, measured via motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes elicited using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). We also determined the effect of EMG-BF on isometric knee extensor strength. Fifteen healthy participants volunteered for this crossover study with two sessions held one-week apart. Participants were randomly assigned to condition order, during which five intervention MVICs were performed with or without EMG-BF. MEP amplitudes were collected with TMS during five knee extension contractions (5% of MVIC) at baseline and again during intervention MVICs within each session. During the control condition, participants were instructed to perform the same number of MVICs without any EMG-BF. Percent change scores were used to calculate the change in peak-to-peak MEP amplitudes that occurred during EMG-BF and Control MVICs compared to the baseline MEPs. Peak knee extension torque was recorded during MVICs prior to TMS for each condition. EMG-BF produced significantly increased MEP change scores and significantly greater torque than the control condition. The results of the current study suggest that EMG-BF may be a viable clinical method for targeting corticomotor excitability.

  13. Identification of strategies to facilitate organ donation among African Americans using the nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jayme E; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard; Mannon, Roslyn B; Gaston, Robert; Segev, Dorry L; Mannon, Elinor C; Martin, Michelle Y

    2015-02-06

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants' reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one's death among African Americans and suggest that improving knowledge about organ donation, particularly

  14. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors reduce excitotoxic injury and may facilitate neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baskys, Andrius; Bayazitov, Ildar; Fang, Liwei

    2005-01-01

    Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist DHPG reduced nerve cell death caused by their exposure to NMDA ("neuroprotective effect") and attenuated NMDA receptor-mediated currents [Blaabjerg, M., Baskys, A., Zimmer, J., Vawter, M. P., 2003b. Changes in hippocampal gene expression aft......GluRs reduces nerve cell susceptibility to excitotoxic injury in a PLC-dependent manner; (2) this reduction is associated with a PLC-dependent depression of excitatory synaptic transmission; and (3) mGluR1 activation may facilitate neurogenesis....

  15. Effects of trains of high-frequency stimulation of the premotor/supplementary motor area on conditioned corticomotor responses in hemicerebellectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Manto, Mario

    2008-07-01

    We studied the effects of low- and high-frequency premotor electrical stimulations on conditioned corticomotor responses, intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) and spinal excitability in hemicerebellectomized rats (left side). Trains of stimulation were applied in prefrontal region rFr2 (the equivalent of the premotor/supplementary motor area in primates) at a rate of 1 Hz (low-frequency stimulation LFS) or 20 Hz (high-frequency stimulation HFS). Test stimuli on the motor cortex were preceded by a conditioning stimulus in contralateral sciatic nerve (two inter-stimulus intervals ISIs were studied: 5 ms or 45 ms). (A) At ISI-5, conditioning increased amplitudes of MEPs (motor evoked potentials) in the left motor cortex. This afferent facilitation was enhanced if preceded by trains of stimuli administered over the ipsilateral rFr2 area, and HFS had higher effects than LFS. The facilitation was lower for the right motor cortex, for both LFS and HFS. (B) At ISI-45, conditioned motor evoked responses were depressed as compared to unconditioned responses in the left motor cortex (afferent inhibition). Following LFS, the degree of inhibition was unchanged while it increased with HFS. At baseline, inhibition was enhanced in the right motor cortex. Interestingly, the afferent inhibition decreased significantly following HFS. (C) ICF was depressed in the right motor cortex, but increased similarly on both sides following LFS/HFS. These results (1) confirm the increased inhibition in the motor cortex contralaterally to the hemicerebellar ablation, (2) demonstrate for the first time that the cerebellum is necessary for tuning amplitudes of corticomotor responses following a peripheral nerve stimulation, (3) show that the application of LFS or HFS does not cancel the defect of excitability in the motor cortex for short ISIs, and (4) suggest that for longer ISIs, HFS could have interesting properties for the modulation of afferent inhibition in case of extensive cerebellar lesion

  16. Supervisors’ Strategies to Facilitate Work Functioning among Employees with Musculoskeletal Complaints: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Ask

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore what strategies the supervisors found beneficial to prevent or reduce sickness absence among employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Methods. Five focus groups were conducted and 26 supervisors from health and social sector participated. Commonly used strategies to prevent sickness absence and interdisciplinary cooperation in this work were discussed in the focus groups. Systematic text condensation was used to analyse the data. Results. The supervisors described five strategies for sick leave management: (1 promoting well-being and a healthy working environment, (2 providing early support and adjustments, (3 making employees more responsible, (4 using confrontational strategies in relation to employees on long-term sick leave, and (5 cooperation with general practitioners (GPs. Conclusions. Strategies of promoting a healthy working environment and facilitating early return to work were utilised in the follow-up of employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Supportive strategies were found most useful especially in the early phases, while finding a balance between being supportive, on one side, and confronting the employee, on the other, was endeavoured in cases of recurrent or long-term sick leave. Further, the supervisors requested a closer cooperation with the GPs, which they believed would facilitate return to work.

  17. Task-related enhancement in corticomotor excitability during haptic sensing with the contra- or ipsilateral hand in young and senior adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Master Sabah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haptic sensing with the fingers represents a unique class of manipulative actions, engaging motor, somatosensory and associative areas of the cortex while requiring only minimal forces and relatively simple movement patterns. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, we investigated task-related changes in motor evoked potential (MEP amplitude associated with unimanual haptic sensing in two related experiments. In Experiment I, we contrasted changes in the excitability of the hemisphere controlling the task hand in young and old adults under two trial conditions, i.e. when participants either touched a fine grating (smooth trials or touched a coarse grating to detect its groove orientation (grating trials. In Experiment II, the same contrast between tasks was performed but with TMS applied over the hemisphere controlling the resting hand, while also addressing hemispheric (right vs. left and age differences. Results In Experiment I, a main effect of trial type on MEP amplitude was detected (p = 0.001, MEPs in the task hand being ~50% larger during grating than smooth trials. No interaction with age was detected. Similar results were found for Experiment II, trial type having a large effect on MEP amplitude in the resting hand (p Conclusions Collectively, these results indicate that adding a haptic component to a simple unilateral finger action can elicit robust corticomotor facilitation not only in the working hemisphere but also in the opposite hemisphere. The fact that this facilitation seems well preserved with age, when task difficulty is adjusted, has some potential clinical implications.

  18. [Facilitators and barriers regarding end of life care at nursing homes: A focus group study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, María Remedios; Moreno-Rodríguez, Marina; Hueso-Montoro, César; Campos-Calderón, Concepción; Varella-Safont, Ana; Montoya-Juárez, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    To identify the facilitators and barriers experienced by professional related to end of life care in nursing homes. Descriptive qualitative research with phenomenological orientation, through content analysis. Nursing Homes at Primary Care District in Granada (Spain). Fifteen clinical professionals with, at least 6 months of experience in nursing homes, without specific background in palliative care. Three focus groups were undertaken with professionals of different disciplines and nursing homes. Interviews were recorded and transcribed literally. An open and axial coding was performed to identify relevant categories. Professionals identified difficulties in the communication with families related to relatives' feelings of guilt, difficulty in understanding the deterioration of their relative, and addressing too late the issue of death. Regarding decision making, professionals recognized that they do not encourage participation of patients. Advance directives are valued as a necessary tool, but they do not contemplate implementing them systematically. Other difficulties that professionals highlighted are lack of coordination with other professionals, related to misunderstanding of patients' needs, as well as lack of training, and lack of material and human resources. Facilitators include relationships with primary care teams. It is necessary to improve communication among nursing homes professionals, families, patients and other health workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Peer-support writing group in a community family medicine teaching unit: Facilitating professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Imari, Lina; Yang, Jaisy; Pimlott, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Aspiring physician writers need an environment that promotes self-reflection and can help them improve their skills and confidence in writing. To create a peer-support writing group for physicians in the Markham-Stouffville community in Ontario to promote professional development by encouraging self-reflection and fostering the concept of physician as writer. The program, designed based on a literature review and a needs assessment, was conducted in 3 sessions over 6 months. Participants included an emergency physician, 4 family physicians, and 3 residents. Four to 8 participants per session shared their projects with guest physician authors. Eight pieces of written work were brought to the sessions, 3 of which were edited. A mixed quantitative and qualitative evaluation model was used with preprogram and postprogram questionnaires and a focus group. This program promoted professional development by increasing participants' frequency of self-reflection and improving their proficiency in writing. Successful elements of this program include creating a supportive group environment and having a physician-writer expert facilitate the peer-feedback sessions. Similar programs can be useful in postgraduate education or continuing professional development. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  20. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on neuroplasticity in corticomotor pathways of the tongue muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Figlewski, Krystian

    2017-01-01

    performing 30 min of TDS training. Sessions were spaced at least 2 weeks apart and participants randomly received anodal and sham tDCS stimulation in the first session and the other condition in the second session. Single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to elicit motor evoked......To investigate effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on neuroplasticity in corticomotor pathways related to tongue muscles evoked by a training task using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Using a cross-over design, 13 healthy participants completed two sessions of tDCS while...... stimulation on single or paired pulse stimulation MEP amplitude immediately or 30 min after TDS training. Irrespective of tDCS type, training with TDS induced cortical plasticity in terms of increased MEP amplitudes for higher stimulus intensities after 30 min compared with before and immediately after...

  1. Creatine supplementation enhances corticomotor excitability and cognitive performance during oxygen deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-01-28

    Impairment or interruption of oxygen supply compromises brain function and plays a role in neurological and neurodegenerative conditions. Creatine is a naturally occurring compound involved in the buffering, transport, and regulation of cellular energy, with the potential to replenish cellular adenosine triphosphate without oxygen. Creatine is also neuroprotective in vitro against anoxic/hypoxic damage. Dietary creatine supplementation has been associated with improved symptoms in neurological disorders defined by impaired neural energy provision. Here we investigate, for the first time in humans, the utility of creatine as a dietary supplement to protect against energetic insult. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of oral creatine supplementation on the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of healthy young adults during acute oxygen deprivation. Fifteen healthy adults were supplemented with creatine and placebo treatments for 7 d, which increased brain creatine on average by 9.2%. A hypoxic gas mixture (10% oxygen) was administered for 90 min, causing global oxygen deficit and impairing a range of neuropsychological processes. Hypoxia-induced decrements in cognitive performance, specifically attentional capacity, were restored when participants were creatine supplemented, and corticomotor excitability increased. A neuromodulatory effect of creatine via increased energy availability is presumed to be a contributing factor of the restoration, perhaps by supporting the maintenance of appropriate neuronal membrane potentials. Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation augments neural creatine, increases corticomotor excitability, and prevents the decline in attention that occurs during severe oxygen deficit. This is the first demonstration of creatine's utility as a neuroprotective supplement when cellular energy provision is compromised.

  2. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Does the Longer Application of Anodal-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increase Corticomotor Excitability Further? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Jaberzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to be effective in increasing corticomotor excitability.Methods: We investigated whether longer applications of a-tDCS coincide with greater increases in corticomotor excitability compared to shorter application of a-tDCS. Ten right-handed healthy participants received one session of a-tDCS(1mA current with shorter (10 min and longer (10+10 min stimulation durationsapplied to the left M1 of extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR. Corticomotorexcitability following application of a-tDCS was assessed at rest with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS elicited motor evoked otentials (MEP and compared with baseline data for each participant.Results: MEP amplitudes were increased following 10 min of a-tDCS by 67%(p = 0.001 with a further increase (32% after the second 10 min of a-tDCS (p = 0.005. MEP amplitudes remained elevated at 15 min post stimulation compared to baseline values by 65% (p = 0.02.Discussion: The results demonstrate that longer application of a-tDCS within the recommended safety limits, increases corticomotor excitability with after effects of up to 15 minutes post stimulation.

  4. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, James W.; Kanekar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT) has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1) in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors. PMID:27738524

  5. Changes in corticomotor excitability and intracortical inhibition of the primary motor cortex forearm area induced by anodal tDCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have investigated how tDCS over the primary motor cortex modulates excitability in the intrinsic hand muscles. Here, we tested if tDCS changes corticomotor excitability and/or cortical inhibition when measured in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR and if these aftereffects can be successfully assessed during controlled muscle contraction. METHODS: We implemented a double blind cross-over design in which participants (n = 16 completed two sessions where the aftereffects of 20 min of 1 mA (0.04 mA/cm2 anodal vs sham tDCS were tested in a resting muscle, and two more sessions where the aftereffects of anodal vs sham tDCS were tested in an active muscle. RESULTS: Anodal tDCS increased corticomotor excitability in ECR when aftereffects were measured with a low-level controlled muscle contraction. Furthermore, anodal tDCS decreased short interval intracortical inhibition but only when measured at rest and after non-responders (n = 2 were removed. We found no changes in the cortical silent period. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that targeting more proximal muscles in the upper limb with anodal tDCS is achievable and corticomotor excitability can be assessed in the presence of a low-level controlled contraction of the target muscle.

  6. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  7. Facilitating Peer-Group Entry in Kindergartners with Impairments in Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilinson, Jill Selber; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of three kindergarten students with social difficulties illustrate an intervention program emphasizing a sequential peer-entry hierarchy in which children move from low-risk strategies to high-risk strategies and use props to facilitate the production of high-risk verbal statements. Increases were found in use of props and verbal…

  8. Using Group Drawings Activities to Facilitate the Understanding of Systemic Aspects of Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio; Gonçalves, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    ) Making drawings in groups promotes knowledge sharing among team members; 3) Making drawings in group fosters creativity and communication between students; 4) Drawing in groups reduces the students’ boredom, makes the lecture more dynamic and interesting; 5) Drawing in groups reinforces bonds between...... students. Our systems analysis suggests that group drawing improves student participation in classroom activities, strengthens bonds between students, and enhances learning....

  9. The Use of Group Therapy as a Means of Facilitating Cognitive-Behavioural Instruction for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an action research enquiry examining the efficacy of group therapy as a means of facilitating cognitive-behavioural instruction for students who exhibit disruptive behaviours. A curriculum comprising the key tenets of cognitive-behaviour modification was developed and taught over a 9-week period to a group…

  10. Through the Looking Glass: The Facilitation of Mirroring in Group Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Lane

    2008-01-01

    The mirror is often used as a metaphor in the therapeutic literature to explain how we see and experience ourselves through others. An examination of therapeutic mirrors, real and figurative, precedes a discussion of mirroring in group process. The reflections of self encountered by a group member in the group as a whole, in a fellow group member,…

  11. Building Social Capital in Groups: Facilitating Skill Development for Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the experiences of four farmer groups set up to learn how to jointly manage local natural resource issues shows that the groups are going though two simultaneous processes. One builds technical competency in natural resource management and the other is the underpinning social process that allows the groups to make decisions and work…

  12. The Influence of Collaborative Group Work on Students' Development of Critical Thinking: The Teacher's Role in Facilitating Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…

  13. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai W. F. BODE, A. Jamie WOOD, Daniel W. FRANKS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Group navigation is of great importance for many animals, such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish. One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders (“Many-wrongs principle”. Here, we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connections as preferential interactions between individuals. Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion. We use network summary statistics, in particular network motifs, to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements. It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered, but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups. We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2: 329-341, 2012].

  14. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolai W.F.BODE; A.Jamie WOOD; Daniel W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    Group navigation is of great importance for many animals,such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish.One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders ("Many-wrongs principle").Here,we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connectious as preferential interactions between individuals.Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion.We use network summary statistics,in particular network motifs,to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements.It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered,but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups.We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2):329-341,2012].

  15. Dignity and Deferral Narratives as Strategies in Facilitated Technology-Based Support Groups for People with Advanced Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette F. Street

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value of facilitated telephone and online support groups for palliative care. Telephone interviews were conducted with twenty people living with advanced cancer who had participated in either a telephone or online support group facilitated by the Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Two dominant participant narratives emerged: a focus on dying with dignity or an interest in deferring discussion of death and dying to focus on the present. Despite the different approaches, participants found the technology-based support groups to be accessible and safe environments in which to discuss difficult topics in privacy. Technology-based strategies provide opportunities for health professionals to provide social and emotional care to more people by moving beyond individualised care and facilitate peer-to-peer support at the end of life, especially to those with specific needs. Such options are feasible for palliative care services to set up and acceptable to a group of clients, especially for younger clients or those socially or geographically isolated.

  16. A model for small-group problem-based learning in a large class facilitated by one instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Tessa A; Lou, Kelvin

    2012-08-10

    To implement and evaluate a model for small-group problem-based learning (PBL) in a large class facilitated by 1 instructor. A PBL model that included weekly assignments, quizzes, peer feedback, and case wrap-up sessions was developed and implemented in the final year of the pharmacy program to allow 1 instructor to facilitate PBL for up to 16 student teams in a large classroom. Student and team scores on multiple-choice examinations confirmed achievement of learning objectives. Students reported on course evaluation surveys that they were able to engage in the learning process and were satisfied with the new PBL model. This model achieved a cost savings of $42,000 per term. A revised PBL model without individual group tutors allowed students to achieve the required learning outcomes in an interactive and engaging atmosphere, avoided classroom-scheduling conflicts, and produced a large cost savings for the university.

  17. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tiainen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the outcomes of the work is a model for collaborative research. It highlights, among others, the importance of creating a climate for collaboration within the research group and following a process of individual and collaborative writing to achieve the potential benefits of such research. The article also identifies a set of remaining challenges relevant to collaborative research.

  18. Cotranscriptional splicing of a group I intron is facilitated by the Cbp2 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, A.S.; Thomas, J. Jr.; Tirupati, H.K. [Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the coupling between transcription and splicing of a mitochondrial group I intron in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the effect of the Cbp2 protein on splicing. 65 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lin Siew

    2016-01-01

    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  20. Crossing the Communication Barrier: Facilitating Communication in Mixed Groups of Deaf and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Carol; Foster, Susan; Long, Gary; Stinson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of introductory technical courses such as statistics face numerous challenges in the classroom, including student motivation and mathematical background, and difficulties in interpreting numerical results in context. Cooperative learning through small groups addresses many such challenges, but students for whom spoken English is not their…

  1. Dream Interpretation Groups: Facilitating Identity Development of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanne

    A systems perspective recognizes the necessity of drawing on numerous resources for strengthening the family. The dream interpretation group method, in some ways an elitist approach, focuses on the transitional individual as the nodal point for building family strengths. The individual experiencing changes in identity development is equipped with…

  2. Integrating Identities: Facilitating a Support Group for LGBTQ Students on a Christian College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespone, Brianna M.

    2016-01-01

    College can be a challenging time for young adults, as many are experiencing life on their own for the first time, adjusting to new lifestyles, new social groups, and new ways to express themselves. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) college students, the challenges are increased as they face harassment, discrimination, and…

  3. Dream Interpretation Groups: Facilitating Identity Development of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanne

    A systems perspective recognizes the necessity of drawing on numerous resources for strengthening the family. The dream interpretation group method, in some ways an elitist approach, focuses on the transitional individual as the nodal point for building family strengths. The individual experiencing changes in identity development is equipped with…

  4. Integrating Identities: Facilitating a Support Group for LGBTQ Students on a Christian College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespone, Brianna M.

    2016-01-01

    College can be a challenging time for young adults, as many are experiencing life on their own for the first time, adjusting to new lifestyles, new social groups, and new ways to express themselves. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) college students, the challenges are increased as they face harassment, discrimination, and…

  5. Exploring reforms while learning to teach science: Facilitating exploration of theory-practice relationships in a teacher education study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jacob G.

    This dissertation inserts a new view into an old problem in teacher education. The study explores the theory-practice gap, the large distance between what preservice science teachers experience in schools, are able to enact, and are told they should hold themselves to in their practice. It does so by narrowing the focus of analysis to a secondary science study group and examining how the facilitator uses sociocultural constructivism to promote discussion. The analysis surfaces key communicative moves made by the facilitator and preservice teachers that yield fruitful discussion of theory-practice relationships. Additionally, the study's use of discourse analysis as a methodology and intertextuality as a conceptual framework opens new directions for applied sociolinguistic research and scholarship in science teacher education. Findings from the study focus on what was discussed and how explorations of theory-practice relationships were facilitated. Preservice teachers in the study group engaged in meaningful conversations about constructivist theory and its application to their students and teaching of science. They discussed many science education topics such as planning science lessons that actively engage students, assessment of content understanding, and management of content-based activities. Discussions of broader science education goals, including implementation of inquiry or development of collaborative communities, were not promoted. Examination of the facilitation illuminates a number of strategies found to be helpful in supporting these explorations. This study shows that facilitation can successfully support preservice teachers to construct understanding of social constructivist assumptions underlying the National Science Education Standards (NSES), as well as a few components of the Standards themselves. The focus on the underlying assumptions suggests that science teacher education should focus on these so that preservice teachers can build a strong

  6. Does group identification facilitate or prevent collective guilt about past misdeeds? Resolving the paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Olivier; Licata, Laurent; Pierucci, Sabrina

    2011-09-01

    The influence of group identification on collective guilt and attitudes towards reparation was examined in the context of the Belgian colonization of Congo. People should experience collective emotions to the extent that being a member of the relevant group is part of their self-concept. Yet, the acknowledgement of ingroup responsibility for past misdeeds is particularly threatening for high identifiers and may lead to defensive reactions aimed at avoiding guilt. We therefore predicted, and found, a curvilinear effect of identification on collective guilt. Attitudes towards reparation of past wrongdoings were also assessed and yielded a linear trend: identification predicted less favourable attitudes towards reparation but this effect was marginally stronger as identification increased.

  7. Facilitated spin models in one dimension: a real-space renormalization group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen; Garrahan, Juan P

    2004-10-01

    We use a real-space renormalization group (RSRG) to study the low-temperature dynamics of kinetically constrained Ising chains (KCICs). We consider the cases of the Fredrickson-Andersen (FA) model, the East model, and the partially asymmetric KCIC. We show that the RSRG allows one to obtain in a unified manner the dynamical properties of these models near their zero-temperature critical points. These properties include the dynamic exponent, the growth of dynamical length scales, and the behavior of the excitation density near criticality. For the partially asymmetric chain, the RG predicts a crossover, on sufficiently large length and time scales, from East-like to FA-like behavior. Our results agree with the known results for KCICs obtained by other methods.

  8. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2014 for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration. The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program.

  9. Effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous Easier: a group format 12-step facilitation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Witbrodt, Jane; Zemore, Sarah E

    2009-10-01

    Most treatment programs recommend clients attend 12-step groups, but many drop out posttreatment. The effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous [AA] Easier (MAAEZ ), a manual-guided intervention designed to help clients connect with individuals encountered in AA, was tested using an "OFF/ON" design (n = 508). MAAEZ effectiveness was determined by comparing abstinence rates of participants recruited during ON and OFF conditions and by studying the effect of the number of MAAEZ sessions attended. At 12 months, more clients in the ON condition (vs. OFF) reported past 30-day abstinence from alcohol (p = .012), drugs (p = .009), and both alcohol and drugs (p = .045). In multivariate analyses, ON condition participants had significantly increased odds of abstinence from alcohol (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and from drugs (OR = 2.21); abstinence odds also increased significantly for each additional MAAEZ session received. MAAEZ appeared especially effective for those with more prior AA exposure, severe psychiatric problems, and atheists/agnostics. MAAEZ represents an evidence-based intervention that is easily implemented in existing treatment programs.

  10. Tackling fuel poverty through facilitating energy tariff switching: a participatory action research study in vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, A; Pedro, L; Badesha, B; Dize, C; Fernow, I; Dias, L

    2013-10-01

    A fifth of UK households live in fuel poverty, with significant health risks. Recent government strategy integrates public health with local government. This study examined barriers to switching energy tariffs and the impact of an energy tariff switching 'intervention' on vulnerable peoples' likelihood to, success in, switching tariffs. Participatory Action Research (PAR), conducted in West London. Community researchers from three voluntary/community organisations (VCOs) collaborated in recruitment, study design, data collection and analysis. VCOs recruited 151 participants from existing service users in three groups: Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities, older people (>75 yrs) and families with young children. Researchers conducted two semi-structured interviews with each participant, a week apart. The first interview asked about demographics, current energy supplier, financial situation, previous experience of tariff-switching and barriers to switching. Researchers then provided the 'intervention' - advice on tariff-switching, printed materials, access to websites. The second interview explored usefulness of the 'intervention', other information used, remaining barriers and information needs. Researchers kept case notes and a reflective log. Data was analysed thematically and collaboratively between the research coordinator and researchers. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS, with descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests. A total of 151 people were interviewed: 47 older people over 75 years, 51 families with young children, 51 BME (two were missing demographics). The majority were not White British or UK-born. Average household weekly income was £230. Around half described 'difficult' financial situations, 94% were receiving state benefits and 62% were in debt. Less than a third had tried to find a better energy deal; knowledge was the main barrier. After the intervention 19 people tried to switch, 13 did. Young families were most likely to

  11. Facilitating improved road safety based on increased knowledge about driving behaviour and profiling sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne

    with underlying mechanisms of lack of focus, emotional stress, recklessness and confusion, and hence it is highly important to further explore means to making drivers become more focused or attentive when driving, and to deal with emotional responses in traffic like impatience and frustration (Article 1). 2......The aim of the Ph.D. study presented in this thesis was to facilitate improved road safety through increased understanding of methods used to measure driving behaviour, and through increased knowledge about driving behaviour in sub-groups of drivers. More specifically, the usefulness of the Driver...... Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) within a Danish context was explored, sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic were identified, and the relationship between implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving and self-reported driving behaviour was explored. The methods applied were...

  12. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.

    2013-10-30

    This project covers facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) for federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG) for estuary habitat restoration. The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The EOS is tasked by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Action Agencies (AAs) to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the river’s plume in the ocean. Initiated in 2002, the EOS is composed of members from BPA, the Corps, NMFS, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) Marine Sciences Laboratory, and other agencies as necessary.

  13. Facilitators of Attendance and Adherence to Group-Based Physical Activity for Older Adults: A Literature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy-Vawdon, Cassandra J; Schwarzman, Joanna; Nolan, Genevieve; de Silva, Renee; Menzies, David; Smith, Ben J

    2017-05-22

    This review examines program features that influence attendance and adherence to group-based physical activity (PA) by older adults. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL plus, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from 1995-2016. Quantitative and qualitative studies investigating factors related to PA group attendance or adherence by persons aged 55 years and over, were included. Searching yielded eight quantitative and 13 qualitative studies, from 2044 titles. Quantitative findings identified social factors, instructor characteristics, PA types, class duration and frequency, and perceived PA outcomes as important for attendance and adherence, whilst qualitative studies identified settings, leadership, PA types, observable benefits and social support factors. Studies were predominantly low- to moderate-quality. This review identified design and delivery considerations for group-based PA programs to inform best-practice frameworks and industry capacity-building. Future research should use longitudinal and mixed-methods designs to strengthen evidence about facilitators of program reach and engagement.

  14. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Annual Report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document is the annual report for the period September 1, 2014 through August 31, 2015 for the project—Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). BPA/Corps (2015) explain the CEERP and the role of RME and the ERTG. For the purposes of this report, the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) includes the floodplain from Bonneville Dam down through the lower river and estuary into the river’s plume in the ocean. The main purpose of this project is to facilitate EOS and ERTG meetings and work products. Other purposes are to provide technical support for CEERP adaptive management, CEERP restoration design challenges, and tributary RME. From 2002 through 2008, the EOS worked to design the federal RME program for the estuary/ocean (Johnson et al. 2008). From 2009 to the present day, EOS activities have involved RME implementation; however, EOS activities were minimal during the current reporting period. PNNL provided technical support to CEERP’s adaptive management process by convening 1.2 meetings of the Action Agencies (AAs) and drafting material for the “CEERP 2015 Restoration and Monitoring Plan” (BPA/Corps 2015).

  15. Identifying barriers and facilitators to ambulance service assessment and treatment of acute asthma: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute asthma is a common reason for patients to seek care from ambulance services. Although better care of acute asthma can prevent avoidable morbidity and deaths, there has been little research into ambulance clinicians’ adherence to national guidelines for asthma assessment and management and how this might be improved. Our research aim was to explore paramedics’ attitudes, perceptions and beliefs about prehospital management of asthma, to identify barriers and facilitators to guideline adherence. Methods We conducted three focus group interviews of paramedics in a regional UK ambulance trust. We used framework analysis supported by NVivo 8 to code and analyse the data. Results Seventeen participants, including paramedics, advanced paramedics or paramedic operational managers at three geographical sites, contributed to the interviews. Analysis led to five themes: (1) guidelines should be made more relevant to ambulance service care; (2) there were barriers to assessment; (3) the approach needed to address conflicts between clinicians’ and patients’ expectations; (4) the complexity of ambulance service processes and equipment needed to be taken into account; (5) and finally there were opportunities for improved prehospital education, information, communication, support and care pathways for asthma. Conclusions This qualitative study provides insight into paramedics’ perceptions of the assessment and management of asthma, including why paramedics may not always follow guidelines for assessment or management of asthma. These findings provide opportunities to strengthen clinical support, patient communication, information transfer between professionals and pathways for prehospital care of patients with asthma. PMID:25086749

  16. Influence of a Highly Focused Case on the Effect of Small-Group Facilitators' Content Expertise on Students' Learning and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wayne K.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of 211 medical students in small-group classes taught by both subject-area experts and non-experts found that the facilitator's content expertise alone did not determine the amount of teacher-directed behavior in a group, student learning, or student satisfaction. Case focus and case training were also significant factors. (Author/MSE)

  17. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  18. Will Gay Sex–Seeking Mobile Phone Applications Facilitate Group Sex? A Cross-Sectional Online Survey among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Weiming; Tang, Songyuan; Qin, Yilu; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Chuncheng; Tso, Lai Sze; Wei, Chongyi; Yang, Ligang; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Tucker, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction China is amidst a sexual revolution, with changing sexual practices and behaviors. Sex–seeking mobile phone applications (gay apps) that allow multiple people to meet up quickly may facilitate group sex. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate group sex among Chinese MSM and to better understand factors associated with group sex. Methods An online survey was conducted from September-October 2014, collecting data on socio-demographics, sexual behaviors, use of gay apps and...

  19. The effects of centrally acting muscle relaxants on the intrathecal noradrenaline-induced facilitation of the flexor reflex mediated by group II afferent fibers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitama, K

    1993-11-01

    The effects of centrally acting muscle relaxants on the flexor reflex mediated by group II afferent fibers (group II flexor reflex) in anesthetized intact rats and on the intrathecal noradrenaline-HCl-induced facilitation of the group II flexor reflex in anesthetized spinal rats were investigated. In anesthetized intact rats, mephenesin, tolperisone-HCl, chlorpromazine-HCl and baclofen inhibited the group II flexor reflex dose-dependently, whereas the inhibitory effect of tizanidine-HCl was bell-shaped. The effect of diazepam tended to be saturated. In anesthetized spinal rats, mephenesin, tolperisone-HCl, chlorpromazine-HCl, diazepam and baclofen also depressed the group II flexor reflex, but tizanidine-HCl slightly increased it. The intrathecal noradrenaline-HCl-induced facilitation of the group II flexor reflex was not affected by mephenesin or diazepam, but was inhibited by tizanidine-HCl, tolperisone-HCl, chlorpromazine-HCl and baclofen. These results suggest that compounds with centrally acting muscle relaxant activity depress the group II flexor reflex in different manners, and the inhibition of descending noradrenergic tonic facilitation within the spinal cord participates in the depressant action of the group II flexor reflex produced by tolperisone-HCl, tizanidine-HCl, chlorpromazine-HCl and baclofen.

  20. Use of participant focus groups to identify barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence in randomized controlled trials involving firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available John M Mayer,1 James L Nuzzo,1 Simon Dagenais2 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2Palladian Health, West Seneca, NY, USA Background: Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective: To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods: Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results: A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion: Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on

  1. Individual, social, and environmental barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among Latinas living in San Diego County: focus group results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Arredondo, Elva M; Perez, Gabriela; Baquero, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to and facilitators of physical activity (PA) relevant to a faith-based community living in a border region. Two focus groups were conducted with 25 Latina churchgoers. Latinas identified barriers to PA that included individual (eg, lack of motivation and time, language, economics, social support, family/household responsibilities), sociocultural (eg, fear of border patrol, machismo, and neighborhood safety), and environmental barriers (eg, traffic-related and dogs). Facilitators of PA were PA knowledge, child care, time management, and advocacy skills. The authors concluded that a church-based multilevel intervention targeting Latinas may be ideal for promoting PA and facilitating environmental changes.

  2. Effects of stimulation of group I afferents from flexor muscles on heterosynaptic facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes produced by Ia and descending inputs: a test for presynaptic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudomin, P; Jiménez, I; Enriquez, M

    1991-01-01

    1. In the chloralose anesthetized cat, conditioning stimulation of group I flexor afferents depresses the monosynaptic potentials generated by Ia afferents in single spinal motoneurons or in populations of motoneurons without affecting the monosynaptic potentials produced by stimulation of descending fibers in the ipsilateral ventromedial fasciculus (VMF). 2. Heterosynaptic facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes was used to test changes in the presynaptic effectiveness of excitatory inputs with direct connections with motoneurons. We found that the heterosynaptic facilitation of Ia origin was reduced by conditioning stimulation of group I afferents from flexors, without affecting the heterosynaptic facilitation produced by stimulation of the VMF. 3. These results confirm and expand previous observations showing that the synaptic effectiveness of descending fibers synapsing with motoneurons is not subjected to a presynaptic control mechanism of the type acting on Ia fiber terminals, and provide further basis for the use of changes in heterosynaptic facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes of Ia origin as an estimate of changes in presynaptic inhibition of Ia fibers (Hultborn et al. 1987a).

  3. Will Gay Sex–Seeking Mobile Phone Applications Facilitate Group Sex? A Cross-Sectional Online Survey among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yilu; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Chuncheng; Tso, Lai Sze; Wei, Chongyi; Yang, Ligang; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Tucker, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction China is amidst a sexual revolution, with changing sexual practices and behaviors. Sex–seeking mobile phone applications (gay apps) that allow multiple people to meet up quickly may facilitate group sex. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate group sex among Chinese MSM and to better understand factors associated with group sex. Methods An online survey was conducted from September-October 2014, collecting data on socio-demographics, sexual behaviors, use of gay apps and occurrence of group sex among Chinese MSM. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to compare group sex and non-group sex participants. Results Of the 1,424 MSM, the majority were under 30 years old (77.5%), unmarried (83.9%), and were gay apps users (57.9%). Overall, 141 (9.9%) participants engaged in group sex in the last 12 months. Multivariate analyses showed that men living with HIV, engaged in condomless anal intercourse with men, and used gay apps were more likely to engage in group sex, with adjusted ORs of 3.74 (95% CI 1.92–7.28), 2.88 (95% CI 2.00–4.16) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.00–2.13), respectively. Among gay app users, the likelihood of group sex increases with the number of sex partners and the number of sex acts with partners met through a gay app. Conclusions Chinese MSM who engage in group sex are also more likely to engage in other risky sexual behaviors, and gay app use may facilitate group sex. Further research is needed among MSM who engage in group sex in order to target interventions and surveillance. PMID:27880823

  4. A Dialogue with Carl Rogers: Cross-Cultural Challenges of Facilitating Person-Centered Groups in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain-Hill, Alicia; Rogers, Carl R.

    1988-01-01

    Presents brainstorming dialogue with Carl Rogers which was held in January of 1987, shortly before Rogers's death. Explores basic challenges involved in a large-scale, cross-cultural application of person-centered group work in South Africa. (Author)

  5. Barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity: The experiences of a group of South African adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchar, Lauren; Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Derman, Wayne

    2016-02-01

    Participation in regular physical activity promotes physical health and psychosocial well-being. Interventions are thus needed to promote physical activity, particularly among groups of individuals, such as persons with disability, who are marginalised from physical activity. This study explored the experiences of a group of South African adolescents with cerebral palsy. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 adolescents with cerebral palsy. The results provided insight into a range of factors that promote and hinder participation in physical activity among adolescents with cerebral palsy in resource-scarce environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Decrease Job Burnout in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents Using a Facilitated Discussion Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Fallar, Robert; Korenstein, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Background Burnout is common in internal medicine (IM) trainees and is associated with depression and suboptimal patient care. Facilitated group discussion reduces burnout among practicing clinicians. Objective We hypothesized that this type of intervention would reduce incident burnout among first-year IM residents. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014, participants from a convenience sample of 51 incoming IM residents were randomly assigned (in groups of 3) to the intervention or a control. Twice-monthly theme-based discussion sessions (18 total) led by expert facilitators were held for intervention groups. Surveys were administered at study onset and completion. Demographic and personal characteristics were collected. Burnout and burnout domains were the primary outcomes. Following convention, we defined burnout as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results All 51 eligible residents participated; 39 (76%) completed both surveys. Initial burnout prevalence (10 of 21 [48%] versus 7 of 17 [41%], P = .69), incidence of burnout at year end (9 of 11 [82%] versus 5 of 10 [50%], P = .18), and secondary outcomes were similar in intervention and control arms. More residents in the intervention group had high year-end depersonalization scores (18 of 21 [86%] versus 9 of 17 [53%], P = .04). Many intervention residents revealed that sessions did not truly free them from clinical or educational responsibilities. Conclusions A facilitated group discussion intervention did not decrease burnout in resident physicians. Future discussion-based interventions for reducing resident burnout should be voluntary and effectively free participants from clinical duties.

  7. An ethnographic investigation of healthcare providers' approaches to facilitating person-centredness in group-based diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate approaches among healthcare providers (HCPs) that support or hinder person-centredness in group-based diabetes education programmes targeting persons with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork in a municipal and a hospital setting in Denmark. The two programmes incl......-centred approaches in a group context. CONCLUSION: Teacher-centredness undermined person-centredness because HCPs primarily delivered disease-specific recommendations, leading to biomedical information overload for participants....... on delivering disease-specific information. Communication was dialog based, but HCPs primarily asked closed-ended questions with one correct answer. Additional hindering approaches included ignoring participants with suboptimal health behaviours and a tendency to moralize that resulted in feelings of guilt...

  8. Family Group Decision Making (FGDM) with Lakota families in two tribal communities: tools to facilitate FGDM implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcynyszyn, Lyscha A; Bear, Pete Small; Geary, Erin; Conti, Russ; Pecora, Peter J; Day, Priscilla A; Wilson, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an adapted Family Group Decision Making (FGDM) practice model for Native American communities, the FGDM family and community engagement process, and FGDM evaluation tools as one example for other native communities. Challenges and successes associated with the implementation and evaluation of these meetings are also described in the context of key historical and cultural factors, such as intergenerational grief and trauma, as well as past misuse of data in native communities.

  9. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  10. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    in teaching facilitation and the literature. These types of skills are most effectively acquired by combining conceptual lectures, classroom exercises and the facilitation of groups in a real-life context. The paper also reflects certain ‘shadow sides’ related to facilitation observed by the students...

  11. Barriers and facilitators to uptake of the school-based HPV vaccination programme in an ethnically diverse group of young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L.; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Methods Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. Results The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. Conclusions The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. PMID:26054910

  12. Factors that facilitate or make difficult the problembased learning in small groups, as seen by students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of La Frontera, Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Hernández, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to explore factors that facilitate or make difficult the tutorial process in problem-based learning (PBL in small groups, at the Faculty of Medicine, University of La Frontera. Research was done under the qualitative paradigm through a case study. The sample consisted of 15 key informant students of the last two curricular levels. Information was collected through six interviews and a focus group. Triangulation was conducted by researcher, expert judgment and verification with study participants. We identified 574 meaning units, out of which 542 were grouped in 22 categories, among them: Tutorial group development, Tutor as an expert in methodology, Group management, Personal characteristics of the student, and Student responsibility. Four macro-categories emerged, namely: Competences of the tutor, Human relationships and learning environment, Characteristics and participation of the students and Organizational aspects. Students considered that the characteristics of the tutor and his/her experience and responsibility are relevant in the tutorial process. They also emphasized on collaborative work, interpersonal relationships, learning environment, and the administrative aspects that may influence the development of PBL.

  13. Barriers and facilitators related to the uptake of four strategies to prevent neonatal early-onset group B haemolytic streptococcus disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Diny G E; Fleuren, Margot A H; Wouters, Maurice G A J; de Groot, Christianne J M; Rijnders, Marlies E B

    2017-05-09

    Actions to prevent early onset disease in neonates are based on different strategies including administering antibiotic prophylaxis during labour in case of 1) maternal GBS colonisation (screening strategy), 2) identified risk factors (risk-based strategy) or 3) a combination of these two conditions (maternal GBS colonisation and identified risk factors: combination strategy and the Dutch guideline). Low adherence to guidelines preventing EOGBS has been reported. Each strategy has drawbacks and clinical outcomes are affected by care providers' and women's adherence. The actual impact of any preventive strategy is the product of efficacy of the strategy and the level of implementation. In order to reduce neonatal death due to EOGBS by developing the optimal guideline, we analysed barriers and facilitators of current used strategies. Focus group and personal interviews with care providers and women were performed. Impeding and enhancing factors in adherence to the preventive strategies were discussed and scored using the Measurement Instrument for Determinants of Innovations (MIDI) and analysed by two independent researchers. Overall, care providers identified 3.6 times more factors that would impede (n = 116) rather than facilitate (n = 32) adherence to the preventive strategies. 28% facilitative factors were reported in relation to the combination strategy and 86% impeding factors in relation to the Dutch guideline. The most preferred strategy was the combination strategy by 74% of the care providers and by 86% of the women. We obtained a detailed understanding of factors that influence adherence to preventive strategies. This insight can be used to develop implementation activities to improve the uptake of new strategies. The trial is registered in the Dutch Trial Register NTR3965 .

  14. Barriers and Facilitators for the Practice of Physical Exercise in Patients With Spondyloarthritis: Qualitative Study of Focus Groups (EJES-3D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curbelo Rodríguez, Rafael; Zarco Montejo, Pedro; Almodóvar González, Raquel; Flórez García, Mariano; Carmona Ortells, Loreto

    To explore barriers to exercise of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and to propose facilitators. Analysis of the speech of focus groups. It included the identification the elements that shape the studied reality, description of the relationship between them and synthesis through: 1) Thematic segmentation, 2) Categorization according to situations, relationships, opinions, feelings or others, 3) Coding of the various categories and 4) Interpretation of results. Two focus groups of one hour each with 11 patients recruited from associations and social networks in Madrid and surrounding provinces took place (64% men, 72% between 40 and 60 years, 57% with disease duration longer than 10 years, 80% performed some type of exercise or physical activity). The following were identified: 1) barriers to exercise, among which the following pointed out: disinformation, fear, pain, distrust, and prior negative experiences with exercise; 2) facilitators to exercise: the complementary to barriers plus regularity and social and professional support; 3) items that could influence in either way, negative or positively; and 4) four phases of coping with exercise or physical activity in SpA. Apart from recognizing the existence of some modifiable personal factors, patients generally demand: more knowledge and education on exercise, including the pros and cons in the context of their disease, and coherence of messages received, together with better monitors that accompany them in their coping with disease and exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. The Professional Development of a Facilitator through a Study Group Desarrollo profesional de un facilitador a través de un estudio de grupo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sierra Piedrahita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents part of the results of a study that was conducted to observe the professional development of a group of foreign language teacher educators and preservice teachers. The study focused on the knowledge, skills and attitudes these teachers developed through their participation in a study group. This article reports specifically on the skills and attitudes the facilitator of the study group developed due to her role in it.Este artículo presenta parte de los resultados de una investigación que se realizó para mirar el desarrollo profesional de un grupo de formadores de profesores y futuros profesores en el área de las lenguas extranjeras. El estudio indagó particularmente qué conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes desarrollaron los profesores a través de su participación en un grupo de estudio. En este artículo se reportan específicamente las habilidades y actitudes que la facilitadora del grupo de estudio desarrolló debido a su papel en éste.

  16. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals' person-centered communication skills are pivotal for successful group-based diabetes education. However, healthcare professionals are often insufficiently equipped to facilitate person-centeredness and many have never received post-graduate training. Currentl...

  17. Facilitating identity formation, group membership, and learning in science classrooms: What can be learned from out-of-field teaching in an urban school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores both the obstacles and the possibilities for students developing identities associated with science by engaging in solidarity-building classroom interactions. Data come from ethnographic research conducted in a diverse eighth-grade urban magnet school classroom in which the teacher taught out of field for part of the year. Contrary to expectations, more students participated and reported enjoying science when the teacher was out of field. Analysis of classroom interactions indicated that while in field, the teacher primarily engaged in front stage performances that hid her struggles with the material and accentuated students' views of science as an elite status group. The types of solidarity that developed among students often did not involve science language and sometimes involved students rejecting peers' claims to membership. However, when out of field, the teacher allowed students into her backstage, where her struggles and learning processes were more explicit. These practices lessened the social distance between teacher and students, and reduced the risks of using science language, thereby encouraging solidarity and group membership. This study provides insights into some of the ways that teachers, particularly those in urban settings characterized by diversity, might be more successful at facilitating identity formation and learning in science.

  18. The challenges of facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    and at the same time make closures in order to secure progress in the process? The analysis draws upon theoretical perspectives on deliberative democracy and facilitation. Whereas, the scholarly literature on deliberative democracy is rich in describing potential outcomes and criteria for deliberative processes...... hours transcriptions of three table deliberations; questionnaires of 91 participants, 2 focus group interviews with participants and facilitators....

  19. Structure determination of a major facilitator peptide transporter: Inward facing PepTSt from Streptococcus thermophilus crystallized in space group P3121

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistgaard, Esben M.; Martinez Molledo, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) peptide transporters (typically referred to as PepT, POT or PTR transporters) mediate the uptake of di- and tripeptides, and so play an important dietary role in many organisms. In recent years, a better understanding of the molecular basis for this process has emerged, which is in large part due to a steep increase in structural information. Yet, the conformational transitions underlying the transport mechanism are still not fully understood, and additional data is therefore needed. Here we report in detail the detergent screening, crystallization, experimental MIRAS phasing, and refinement of the peptide transporter PepTSt from Streptococcus thermophilus. The space group is P3121, and the protein is crystallized in a monomeric inward facing form. The binding site is likely to be somewhat occluded, as the lobe encompassing transmembrane helices 10 and 11 is markedly bent towards the central pore of the protein, but the extent of this potential occlusion could not be determined due to disorder at the apex of the lobe. Based on structural comparisons with the seven previously determined P212121 and C2221 structures of inward facing PepTSt, the structural flexibility as well as the conformational changes mediating transition between the inward open and inward facing occluded states are discussed. In conclusion, this report improves our understanding of the structure and conformational cycle of PepTSt, and can furthermore serve as a case study, which may aid in supporting future structure determinations of additional MFS transporters or other integral membrane proteins. PMID:28264013

  20. Action perception in individuals with congenital blindness or deafness: how does the loss of a sensory modality from birth affect perception-induced motor facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2011-05-01

    Seeing or hearing manual actions activates the mirror neuron system, that is, specialized neurons within motor areas which fire when an action is performed but also when it is passively perceived. Using TMS, it was shown that motor cortex of typically developed subjects becomes facilitated not only from seeing others' actions, but also from merely hearing action-related sounds. In the present study, TMS was used for the first time to explore the "auditory" and "visual" responsiveness of motor cortex in individuals with congenital blindness or deafness. TMS was applied over left primary motor cortex (M1) to measure cortico-motor facilitation while subjects passively perceived manual actions (either visually or aurally). Although largely unexpected, congenitally blind or deaf subjects displayed substantially lower resonant motor facilitation upon action perception compared to seeing/hearing control subjects. Moreover, muscle-specific changes in cortico-motor excitability within M1 appeared to be absent in individuals with profound blindness or deafness. Overall, these findings strongly argue against the hypothesis that an increased reliance on the remaining sensory modality in blind or deaf subjects is accompanied by an increased responsiveness of the "auditory" or "visual" perceptual-motor "mirror" system, respectively. Moreover, the apparent lack of resonant motor facilitation for the blind and deaf subjects may challenge the hypothesis of a unitary mirror system underlying human action recognition and may suggest that action perception in blind and deaf subjects engages a mode of action processing that is different from the human action recognition system recruited in typically developed subjects.

  1. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  2. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  3. The role of support groups in facilitating families in coping with a genetic condition and in discussion of genetic risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Gillian; Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-09-01

      Giving children and young people information about genetic conditions and associated risk has been shown to be important to their identity, coping and decision making. Parents, however, find talking to their children difficult, and support from health professionals is often not available to them.   To explore the role of support groups in family coping, and in assisting parents' communication about risk with children in families affected by an inherited genetic condition.   Semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory and informed by models focusing on aspects of family communication.   Affected and unaffected children and their parents, from families affected by one of six genetic conditions, that represent different patterns of inheritance, and variations in age of onset, life expectancy and impact on families.   Parents often sought support they did not receive elsewhere from support groups. They identified benefits, but also potential disadvantages to this involvement. These related to the specific condition and also whether groups were run solely by parents or had professional input. Support groups rarely helped directly with family communication, but attendance often stimulated family discussion, and they provided information that improved parents' confidence in discussing the condition.   Support groups should be seen only as additional to the support offered by health and social care professionals. An increased understanding of the role of support groups in assisting families with genetic conditions has been highlighted, but further work is needed to explore more fully how this may be made more sustainable and far-reaching. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Means to facilitate Smart Grid. Issue paper - working group 2; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Virkemidler til fremme af Smart Grid. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjortkjaer, A.-G. (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Madsen, Claus (ABB A/S, Skovlunde (Denmark)); Tang, J. (Dansk Fjernvarme, Kolding (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 2 of the Smart Grid Network is stated as: ''The group will, building on existing surveys and analyses propose what new tools are needed in the years to 2020 to ensure intelligence in both transmission and distribution systems for the power grid in Denmark. Moreover, how public and private investments can be effectively brought into play. Among the measures envisaged are e.g. tariffs and charges''. The working group 2 identifies four areas that will promote the development of a smart grid. The proposed tools and means are related to: 1) Price signals to customers that reflect the value of consumption flexibility; 2) New economic regulation of network utilities' smart grid activities; 3) Taxes that support an effective electrification; 4) Effective activation of distributed storage and production. (LN)

  5. The GH67 α-glucuronidase of Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 removes hexenuronic acid groups and facilitates biodegradation of the model xylooligosaccharide hexenuronosyl xylotriose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiningrum, Krisna; Ohi, Hiroshi; Waeonukul, Rattiya; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Sermsathanaswadi, Junjarus; Deng, Lan; Prawitwong, Panida; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2015-04-01

    4-O-Methylglucuronic acid (MeGlcA) side groups attached to the xylan backbone through α-1,2 linkages are converted to hexenuronic acid (HexA) during alkaline pulping. α-Glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.139) hydrolyzes 1,2-linked MeGlcA from xylooligosaccharides. To determine whether α-glucuronidase can also hydrolyze HexA-decorated xylooligosaccharides, a gene encoding α-glucuronidase (AguA) was cloned from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6. The purified protein degraded hexenuronosyl xylotriose (ΔX3), a model substrate prepared from kraft pulp. AguA released xylotriose and HexA from ΔX3, but the Vmax and kcat values for ΔX3 were lower than those for MeGlcA, indicating that HexA side groups may affect the hydrolytic activity. To explore the potential for biological bleaching, ΔX3 degradation was performed using intracellular extract from P. curdlanolyticus B-6. The intracellular extract, with synergistic α-glucuronidase and β-xylosidase activities, degraded ΔX3 to xylose and HexA. These results indicate that α-glucuronidase can be used to remove HexA from ΔX3 derived from pulp, reducing the need for chemical treatments in the pulping process.

  6. Facilitating organisational development using a group-based formative assessment and benchmarking method: design and implementation of the International Family Practice Maturity Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Tapp, Laura; Edwards, Adrian; Newcombe, Robert; Eriksson, Tina; Braspenning, Jozé; Kuch, Christine; Adzic, Zlata Ozvacic; Ayankogbe, Olayinka; Cvetko, Tatjana; In 't Veld, Kees; Karotsis, Antonis; Kersnik, Janko; Lefebvre, Luc; Mecini, Ilir; Petricek, Goranka; Pisco, Luis; Thesen, Janecke; Turón, José María; van Rossen, Edward; Grol, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Well-organised practices deliver higher-quality care. Yet there has been very little effort so far to help primary care organisations achieve higher levels of team performance and to help them identify and prioritise areas where quality improvement efforts should be concentrated. No attempt at all has been made to achieve a method which would be capable of providing comparisons--and the stimulus for further improvement--at an international level. The development of the International Family Practice Maturity Matrix took place in three phases: (1) selection and refinement of organisational dimensions; (2) development of incremental scales based on a recognised theoretical framework; and (3) testing the feasibility of the approach on an international basis, including generation of an automated web-based benchmarking system. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of developing an organisational assessment tool for primary care organisations that is sufficiently generic to cross international borders and is applicable across a diverse range of health settings, from state-organised systems to insurer-based health economies. It proved possible to introduce this assessment method in 11 countries in Europe and one in Africa, and to generate comparison benchmarks based on the data collected. The evaluation of the assessment process was uniformly positive with the view that the approach efficiently enables the identification of priorities for organisational development and quality improvement at the same time as motivating change by virtue of the group dynamics. We are not aware of any other organisational assessment method for primary care which has been 'born international,' and that has involved attention to theory, dimension selection and item refinement. The principal aims were to achieve an organisational assessment which gains added value by using interaction, engagement comparative benchmarks: aims which have been achieved. The next step is to achieve wider

  7. Facilitering som styringsredskab

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Karen Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    #This thesis surveys facilitation as a new tool of steering within the public sector in Denmark. It is explored how facilitation is articulated and practiced among facilitators from the public, private and voluntary sector. Furthermore, the facilitator’s challenges by using facilitation are examined. The thesis is based on the presumption that facilitation is articulated by rationalities, which influence how facilitation is practiced and performed. Also, a facilitator is seen as a performer a...

  8. Interaction Patterns and Facilitation of Peer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Data show that giving information to members of a group is more important in determining the perception by others that the person is facilitating group performance. Asking for information and opinions is more important in actual facilitation of group learning. Social-emotional support becomes important after initial phases of group interaction.…

  9. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement......, etc.. We argue that facilitating meetings is a competence worth developing in students and describe the main knowledge and skill components that pertain to this competence. We then describe some implemented software tools that can be used in schools and colleges to provide opportunities for practicing...... and developing group facilitation skills....

  10. Facilitating Facilitators to Facilitate, in Problem or Enquiry Based Learning Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable…

  11. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....

  12. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  13. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian;

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  14. Facilitating facilitators to facilitate, in problem or enquiry based learning sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem based learning (PBL has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable contribution from individual learners. Learners are encouraged to appreciate that they individually perform better when they actively participate in the group and share resources, than when they learn in isolation (Bandura, 1977, Freire, 1972, Lave and Wenger, 1991, Kolb, 1984 and Vygotsky, 1978.

  15. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  16. The social facilitation of eating. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C Peter

    2015-03-01

    The social facilitation of eating (i.e., people eating more in groups than when alone) has been studied for about three decades now. In this paper, we review the empirical research (diary studies, observational studies, and experimental studies) of social facilitation, attending to factors that increase or decrease socially facilitated eating. We also review the various explanations (e.g., "time extension") that have been offered for the effect and offer our own speculations as to the underlying mechanisms. Further, we discuss promising directions for future research on the social facilitation of eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Facilitating lifelong learning with OpenU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred; Counotte, Anda

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W., & Counotte, A. (2012). Facilitating lifelong learning with OpenU. In R. Jacobi, & N. van der Woert (Eds.), Trendreport Open Educational Resources 2012 (pp. 22-26). Utrecht: SURF Foundation - Special Interest Group Open Educational Resources SURF.

  18. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  19. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  20. Consistent wind Facilitates Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ogawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether a consistent haptic cue suggesting forward self-motion facilitated vection. We used a fan with no blades (Dyson, AM01 providing a wind of constant strength and direction (wind speed was 6.37 m/s to the subjects' faces with the visual stimuli visible through the fan. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. we tested three conditions for fan operation, which were normal operation, normal operation with the fan reversed (ie, no wind, and no operation (no wind and no sound. Vection was facilitated by the wind (shorter latency, longer duration and larger magnitude values with the expansion stimuli. The fan noise did not facilitate vection. The wind neither facilitated nor inhibited vection with the contraction stimuli, perhaps because a headwind is not consistent with backward self-motion. We speculate that the consistency between multi modalities is a key factor in facilitating vection.

  1. Facilitation skills for trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cilliers

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop the facilitation skills of trainers. Facilitation is defined form the Person-Centered approach, as providing an opportunity for the trainee to experience personal growth and learning. A facilitation skills workshop was presented to 40 trainers, focussing on enhancing selfactualisation, its intra and inter personal characteristics, and attending and responding behaviour. Measurement with the Personal Orientation Inventory and Carkhuff scales, indicate enhanced cognitive, affective and conative sensitivity and interpersonal skills. A post-interview indicates the trainers experienced empowerment in dealing with the providing of opportunities for growth amongst trainees, in all kinds of training situations. Recommendations are made to enhance facilitation development amongst trainers. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing poog om die fasiliteringsvaardighede van opieiers te ontwikkel. Fasilitering word gedefinieer vanuit die Persoonsgesentreerde benadering as die beskikbaarstelling van 'n geleentheid om persoonlike groei en leer te ervaar. 'n Fasiliteringsvaardighede werkswinkel is aangebied vir 40 opieiers, met die fokus op die stimulering van selfaktualisering, die intra en interpersoonlike kenmerke daarvan, en aandagskenk- en responderings- gedrag. Meting met die Persoonlike Orientasievraelys en die Carkhuff skale, dui op n toename in kognitiewe, affektiewe en konatiewe sensitiwiteit en interpersoonlike vaardighede. n Post-onderhoud dui op die opleier se ervaarde bemagtiging in die beskikbaarstelling van groeigeleenthede vir opleidelinge, in all tipe opleidingsituasies. Aanbevelings word gemaak om die ontwikkeling van fasiliteringsvaardighede by opleiers te verhoog.

  2. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  3. Facilitation skills for nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cilliers

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the pcrson-centered approach, facilitation in this study was conceptualised as providing opportunities for personal growth in the patient, and operationalised in a skills workshop for 40 nurses from different hospitals in Gauteng. The first objective was to evaluate the workshop and the second to ascertain its effect on the participant’s experienced performance. A combined quantitative and qualitative research design was used. The quantitative measurement (Personal Orientation Inventory, Carkhuff scales indicated that the workshop stimulated self-actualisation in terms of intrapersonal awareness, and the interpersonal skills of respect, realness, concreteness, empathy, as well as in terms of attending and responding behaviour. The qualitative measurement (a semi-structured interview indicated that the participants were able to empower patients to find their own answers to difficult personal questions. The alternative hypothesis was accepted, namely that this workshop in facilitations skills significantly enhanced the intra- and interpersonal characteristics associated with self-actualisation and the facilitation of growth in patients. The findings highlighted the difference between the two roles of instructor and facilitator, and recommendations to this effect were formulated.

  4. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  5. Gruppenleistungen beim Review von Multiple-Choice-Fragen - Ein Vergleich von face-to-face und virtuellen Gruppen mit und ohne Moderation [Review of multiple-choice-questions and group performance - A comparison of face-to-face and virtual groups with and without facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are often used in exams of medical education and need careful quality management for example by the application of review committees. This study investigates whether groups communicating virtually by email are similar to face-to-face groups concerning their review process performance and whether a facilitator has positive effects.Methods: 16 small groups of students were examined, which had to evaluate and correct MCQs under four different conditions. In the second part of the investigation the changed questions were given to a new random sample for the judgement of the item quality.Results: There was no significant influence of the variables “form of review committee” and “facilitation”. However, face-to-face and virtual groups clearly differed in the required treatment times. The test condition “face to face without facilitation” was generally valued most positively concerning taking over responsibility, approach to work, sense of well-being, motivation and concentration on the task.Discussion: Face-to-face and virtual groups are equally effective in the review of MCQs but differ concerning their efficiency. The application of electronic review seems to be possible but is hardly recommendable because of the long process time and technical problems.[german] Einleitung: Multiple-Choice-Fragen (MCF werden in vielen Prüfungen der medizinischen Ausbildung verwendet und bedürfen aus diesem Grund einer sorgfältigen Qualitätssicherung, beispielsweise durch den Einsatz von Review-Komitees. Anhand der vorliegenden empirischen Studie soll erforscht werden, ob virtuell per E-Mail kommunizierende Review-Komitees vergleichbar sind mit face-to-face Review-Komitees hinsichtlich ihrer Leistung beim Review-Prozess und ob sich Moderation positiv auswirkt.Methodik: 16 Kleingruppen von Psychologie-Studenten hatten die Aufgabe unter vier verschiedenen Versuchsbedingungen MCF zu bewerten und zu

  6. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...

  7. Program Facilitates Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    KNET computer program facilitates distribution of computing between UNIX-compatible local host computer and remote host computer, which may or may not be UNIX-compatible. Capable of automatic remote log-in. User communicates interactively with remote host computer. Data output from remote host computer directed to local screen, to local file, and/or to local process. Conversely, data input from keyboard, local file, or local process directed to remote host computer. Written in ANSI standard C language.

  8. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  9. Issues in the design of facilitated collaboration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.; Hengst, den; Bruggeling, M.; Vreede, G.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Groups often rely on the expertise of facilitators to support them in their collaboration processes. The design and preparation of a collaboration process is an important facilitation task. Although there is a significant body of knowledge about the effects of facilitation, there is a dearth of know

  10. Assessing Facilitator Performance as an Influence on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Scotty; May, David

    2011-01-01

    Growth in class size within the online environment has resulted in a facilitator model in which an instructor teaches the class with the assistance of facilitators who interact with students in smaller groups. This research sought to determine the effectiveness of a structured performance evaluation for facilitators and the correlation to student…

  11. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... intensified cropping systems using chemical and mechanical inputs also show that facilitative interactions definitely can be of significance. It is concluded that a better understanding of the mechanisms behind facilitative interactions may allow us to benefit more from these phenomena in agriculture...

  12. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  13. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators of Using a Web-Based Interactive Decision Aid for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Community Practice Settings: Findings From Focus Groups With Primary Care Clinicians and Medical Office Staff

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Information is lacking about the capacity of those working in community practice settings to utilize health information technology for colorectal cancer screening. Objective To address this gap we asked those working in community practice settings to share their perspectives about how the implementation of a Web-based patient-led decision aid might affect patient-clinician conversations about colorectal cancer screening and the day-to-day clinical workflow. Methods Five focus group...

  14. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  15. Best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Judith; McMurray, Anne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2016-09-01

    Clinical facilitation is critical to successful student clinical experience. The research reported in this paper used an interpretive case study to explore perspectives of clinical facilitators on what constitutes best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students. Eleven clinical facilitators from South East Queensland, Australia, participated in focus groups, interviews and a concept mapping exercise to gather their perspectives on best practice. The data gathered information regarding their prior and current experiences as registered nurses and facilitators, considering reasons they became clinical facilitators, their educational background and self-perceived adequacy of their knowledge for clinical facilitation. Analysis was through constant comparison. Findings of the study provided in-depth insight into the role of clinical facilitators, with best practice conceptualised via three main themes; 'assessing', 'learning to facilitate' and 'facilitating effectively'. While they felt there was some autonomy in the role, the clinical facilitators sought a closer liaison with academic staff and feedback about their performance, in particular their assessment of the students. Key strategies identified for improving best practice included educational support for the clinical facilitators, networking, and mentoring from more experienced clinical facilitators. When implemented, these strategies will help develop the clinical facilitators' skills and ensure quality clinical experiences for undergraduate nursing students.

  16. Facilitating Collaboration through Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Messeter, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In recent years both companies and research communities call for collaborative work practices and user-centered approaches in various design fields. There are several challenges and issues to take into consideration. For instance there is a need to find ways of collaborating across various...... in collaboration with industrial partners and potential users, and use of the games in three educational settings.The overall aim of the design games is to help facilitate a user-centered design process for cross-disciplinary design groups early in the design process. Framing collaborative design activities...... understanding of the development task. This paper presents a set of four design games, which offers solutions to the challenges mentioned. The design games have been developed in the Space Studio during several projects and years. Here experiences are discussed on the basis of two research projects carried out...

  17. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...

  18. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  19. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  20. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, de Sales; Cox, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth. PMID:15248894

  1. Orienting attention during phonetic training facilitates learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Eric; Guion-Anderson, Susan

    2010-02-01

    The role of consciously directed attention toward speech input in learning has not yet been determined. Previous phonetic learning studies have manipulated acoustic signals and response feedback, but not conscious control over attentional orienting. This study tests whether directed attention facilitates learning of phonetic information. Two monolingual English-speaking groups were trained with feedback on the same auditory stimuli: Hindi words. One group was instructed to attend to the consonants and the other to the vowels. The consonant-oriented group, but not the vowel-oriented group, demonstrated post-training improvement in consonant perception, confirming a role for consciously directed attentional mechanisms during phonetic learning.

  2. Developing Supporting Groups: a manual for facilitators and participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Leo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Howard Kirschenbaum and Barbara Glaser are co-directors of the National Humanistic Educational Centre in Saratoga Springs, New York. These co-directors have gained extensive experience in leading seminars and conducting workshops on humanistic education and parent education amongst other things. The book is published by University Associates Publishers and Consultants, who engage in international publishing and consulting in the areas of human relations training, research and education.

  3. BLENDED LEARNING FACILITATION OF INDIVIDUAL LEARNING PROCESSES IN LARGE GROUPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PÜTZ Claus; INTVEEN Geesche

    2010-01-01

    By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best...

  4. Facilitated Communication in Mainstream Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington-Gurney, Jane; Crossley, Rosemary

    Facilitated communication is described as a method of training communication partners or facilitators to provide physical assistance to communication aid users, to help them overcome physical and emotional problems in using their aids. In Melbourne (Victoria, Australia), the DEAL (Dignity, Education and Language) Centre has identified 96 people…

  5. Biohydrogen facilitated denitrification at biocathode in bioelectrochemical system (BES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Reductive removal of nitrate in bioelectrochemical system (BES) at abiotic cathode, biocathode and biohydrogen facilitated biocathode were investigated. It was found that nitrate removal efficiency reached 95% and 59% at the biohydrogen facilitated biocathode and biocathode respectively, while which was only 13% at the abiotic cathode. Meanwhile, activity of nitrate reductase reached 0.701 g-N/Lh for the biohydrogen facilitated group, which was about 9.3 times of the biocathode group. Moreover, electrochemical performances as power density, ohmic resistance, and polarization resistance of the biohydrogen facilitated group reached 76.96 mW/m(3), 8.63 ohm and 383 ohm, respectively, which were better than two other groups. Finally, an obvious shift of bacterial community responsible for the enhanced nitrate reduction between the two biocathode groups was observed. Therefore, nitrate reduction in BES could be enhanced at the biocathode than that of the abiotic cathode, and then be further boosted with the combination of biohydrogen.

  6. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  7. The social facilitation of eating or the facilitation of social eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C Peter

    2017-01-01

    People eat more when they eat in groups. Various explanations have been offered for this "social facilitation" of eating. We consider these explanations and find most of them wanting, especially insofar as they do not take into account the increased per capita provision of food when people eat together. We suggest that people often prefer to eat in groups precisely because it offers them an opportunity to overindulge.

  8. Den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    tværfaglig lektorgruppe fra social og sundhedssektoren.’Learning by doing’, selvevaluering og sparring følger herefter som bud på, hvordan man kan leve op til de tilsyneladende ret utopiske krav til en god facilitator. At kunne skabe det tillidsfulde refleksionsrum og at kunne stille gode...... præsenteres i det følgende afsnit, og forfatteren argumenterer for begrebet facilitator af refleksionsarbejde. Herefter udfoldes rollen som facilitator ifølge Ghay og Lillyman. De har fokus på positive praksisoplevelser og tillidsfulde relationer. Gillie Boltons teoretiske og praktiske referenceramme...... for facilitatorrollen beskrives herefter. Bolton beskriver refleksionsarbejde som en fysisk (ikke ren kognitiv), passioneret (ikke ren intellektuel) kontekstbunden kunstnerisk proces, som kræver flair, stil og intuition. I de følgende afsnit beskrives den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde detaljeret af en...

  9. Facilitating Value Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    ) introduced a new dominant logic in the marketing literature, the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic), in which service, interactions, and enhanced experiences help create value, and this potential for value is what attracts consumers. Therefore organizations must be customer-centric in order to facilitate...... unique, positive experiences. As the name indicates, both organizations and consumers (should) obtain value when co-creating, which is why both parties are willing to increase their degree of involvement, e.g. spending more resources, sharing tacit knowledge, etc., because a high degree of involvement....... Through an exploratory qualitative study, 9 facilitators for B2C value co-creation were uncovered. The study was set in the creative industries. The 9 facilitators are a combination of the main facilitators found in the literature review and the ones found through the empirical research. The 9...

  10. Nicotine facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  11. Democratic Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  12. Facilitator, Teacher, or Leader? Managing Conflicting Roles in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    A facilitator is commonly defined as a substantively neutral person who manages the group process in order to help groups achieve identified goals or purposes. However, outdoor educators rarely experience the luxury of only managing the group process, because they are typically responsible for the provision of leadership, skill instruction, and…

  13. Facilitation as a Governance Strategy: Unravelling Governments’ Facilitation Frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grotenbreg (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGovernments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how

  14. Facilitation as a governance strategy: Unravelling governments' facilitation frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenbreg, S. (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGovernments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how

  15. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-06

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.

  16. What can we learn from facilitator and student perceptions of facilitation skills and roles in the first year of a problem-based learning curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Michelle

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small group tutorial is a cornerstone of problem-based learning. By implication, the role of the facilitator is of pivotal importance. The present investigation canvassed perceptions of facilitators with differing levels of experience regarding their roles and duties in the tutorial. Methods In January 2002, one year after problem-based learning implementation at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, facilitators with the following experience were canvassed: trained and about to facilitate, facilitated once only and facilitated more than one six-week theme. Student comments regarding facilitator skills were obtained from a 2001 course survey. Results While facilitators generally agreed that the three-day training workshop provided sufficient insight into the facilitation process, they become more comfortable with increasing experience. Many facilitators experienced difficulty not providing content expertise. Again, this improved with increasing experience. Most facilitators saw students as colleagues. They agreed that they should be role models, but were less enthusiastic about being mentors. Students were critical of facilitators who were not up to date with curriculum implementation or who appeared disinterested. While facilitator responses suggest that there was considerable intrinsic motivation, this might in fact not be the case. Conclusions Even if they had facilitated on all six themes, facilitators could still be considered as novices. Faculty support is therefore critical for the first few years of problem-based learning, particularly for those who had facilitated once only. Since student and facilitator expectations in the small group tutorial may differ, roles and duties of facilitators must be explicit for both parties from the outset.

  17. Corpus Linguistics Facilitates English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思亲

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been widely applied in English teaching. Corpus linguistics has changed the way to teach English. The essay discusses two approaches in English teaching based on corpus, corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach. It finds out that both corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach facilitate English teaching in their own ways.

  18. Brug af mindfulness til facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...

  19. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    -based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...

  20. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  1. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    , etc.. We argue that facilitating meetings is a competence worth developing in students and describe the main knowledge and skill components that pertain to this competence. We then describe some implemented software tools that can be used in schools and colleges to provide opportunities for practicing...

  2. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.

    Primary and high school students (277 in grades 5-6; 615 in grades 7-12) in the United States (47 percent boys) responded to 26 items of the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Results indicate 7 distinct FCQ factors: perceived value of schooling; affect toward schooling; peer positive academic climate (Peer Positive); encouragement from…

  3. Evidence for social facilitation of preening in the common tern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestis; Burger

    1998-11-01

    Social facilitation of reproductive behaviour has been studied extensively in gulls and terns, but social facilitation of preening has been reported only anecdotally, and has not been previously quantified. We studied a common tern, Sterna hirundo, colony during the summers of 1996 and 1997 to test for socially facilitated preening. Scan sampling provided evidence of spatial and temporal synchrony of preening behaviour. Preening occurred more often than expected in groups of three or more neighbours. Breeding pairs also preened simultaneously more often than expected. In loafing (resting) areas, the proportion of preeners present increased with tern density. Behavioural observations suggest that preening spread from neighbour to neighbour. The observed clumping in preening behaviour could not be explained by differences in date, time of day or weather. Social facilitation of preening and other maintenance behaviour may be an important aspect of group living that is often overlooked. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. Patient advocacy: barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikravesh Mansoure

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the two recent decades, advocacy has been a topic of much debate in the nursing profession. Although advocacy has embraced a crucial role for nurses, its extent is often limited in practice. While a variety of studies have been generated all over the world, barriers and facilitators in the patient advocacy have not been completely identified. This article presents the findings of a study exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing the role of advocacy among Iranian nurses. Method This study was conducted by grounded theory method. Participants were 24 Iranian registered nurses working in a large university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and simultaneously Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results Through data analysis, several main themes emerged to describe the factors that hindered or facilitated patient advocacy. Nurses in this study identified powerlessness, lack of support, law, code of ethics and motivation, limited communication, physicians leading, risk of advocacy, royalty to peers, and insufficient time to interact with patients and families as barriers to advocacy. As for factors that facilitated nurses to act as a patient advocate, it was found that the nature of nurse-patient relationship, recognizing patients' needs, nurses' responsibility, physician as a colleague, and nurses' knowledge and skills could be influential in adopting the advocacy role. Conclusion Participants believed that in this context taking an advocacy role is difficult for nurses due to the barriers mentioned. Therefore, they make decisions and act as a patient's advocate in any situation concerning patient needs and status of barriers and facilitators. In most cases, they can not act at an optimal level; instead they accept only what they can do, which we called 'limited advocacy' in

  5. Concept of Learning Organization: Facilitators and Flow of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Sachan; Sonakshi Aroura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to ascertain that various facilitators of learning such as learning culture, climate, semantic web technology, information communication technology and knowledge management hold importance to facilitate the flow of learning, which begins at individual-group-and ultimately at organizational level in an organization. Design/methodology/approach – This review paper is based on the research papers written by other authors, who have studied the...

  6. Learning is in the facilitation: faculty perspectives with facilitated teaching and learning-recommendations from informal discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prospero, Lisa; Bhimji-Hewitt, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Small group learning is an interactive activity that requires a skilled teacher with the ability to facilitate and debrief. Approximately 250 students from seven health professions were enrolled in a first year interprofessional education course that focused on the importance of communication and collaboration. Weekly faculty debrief sessions were conducted and were utilized to share the teachers perspectives with facilitative teaching as well as for feedback and improvement strategies. Recommendations included linking the learning within the small group sessions back to clinical and professional practice in order to validate the course content and thereby increase student engagement; creation of facilitator guides with specific debrief instructions for the given objectives in order to encourage effective learning dialogue among all participants; and providing faculty with formalized facilitator training as well as debrief strategies in order to attain the skills to better guide student learning.

  7. On novice facilitators doing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...... on autoethnography and PSMs combined with reflections on the author’s experience as a PSM novice and young academic. Autoethnography is presented as a means to enable access to real-world interventions, enhance novices’ confidence, and identify research and publishing opportunities. The author outlines strengths...

  8. Social facilitation of long-lasting memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Isabel, Guillaume; Kaiser, Laure; Preat, Thomas

    2009-10-13

    Recent studies demonstrate that social interactions can have a profound influence on Drosophila melanogaster behavior and cuticular pheromone patterns. Olfactory memory performance has mostly been investigated in groups, and previous studies have reported that grouped flies do not interact with each other and behave in the same way as individual flies during short-term memory retrieval. However, the influence of social effects on the two known forms of Drosophila long-lasting associative memory, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-term memory (LTM), has never been reported. We show here that ARM is displayed by individual flies but is socially facilitated; flies trained for ARM interact within a group to improve their conditioned performance. In contrast, testing shows LTM improvement in individual flies rather than in a group. We show that the social facilitation of ARM during group testing is independent of the social context of training and does not involve nonspecific aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that social interactions facilitate ARM retrieval. We also show that social interactions necessary for this facilitation are specifically generated by trained flies: when single flies trained for ARM are mixed with groups of naive flies, they display poor retrieval, whereas mixing with groups trained either for ARM or LTM enhances performance.

  9. Stochastic facilitation in the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the context for three unsolved problems of noise in the brain as well as provide some new results relevant to one of them. The problems are: are neural oscillations better described as noisy limit cycles or as noise-driven quasicycles, does noise facilitate synchronization and information transmission in the brain, and do noise-driven spatial patterns (quasipatterns) coexist with noise-driven quasicycles in the brain? We provide a few new results indicating that, in models at least, spatial quasipatterns of quasicycles can occur, and resemble patterns observed in other areas, such as predator-prey systems and chemical reactions.

  10. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    -based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...... on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home...

  11. Group Assessment and Structured Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Warren; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two new techniques that were used with a group of seven blind, multiply handicapped young adults in a half-way house are described. Structured learning therapy is a social skills training technique and group assessment is a method of averaging psychological data on a group of clients to facilitate program planning based on client needs.…

  12. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  13. Facilitation of learning: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Houghton, Trish; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-27

    The previous article in this series of 11, Facilitation of learning: part 1, reviewed learning theories and how they relate to clinical practice. Developing an understanding of these theories is essential for mentors and practice teachers to enable them to deliver evidence-based learning support. This is important given that effective learning support is dependent on an educator who possesses knowledge of their specialist area as well as the relevent tools and methods to support learning. The second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice relates to the facilitation of learning. To fulfil this domain, mentors and practice teachers are required to demonstrate their ability to recognise the needs of learners and provide appropriate support to meet those needs. This article expands on some of the discussions from part 1 of this article and considers these from a practical perspective, in addition to introducing some of the tools that can be used to support learning.

  14. FACILITATION AND EVALUATION OF STUDENTS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of teaching are lectures, seminars, tutorials, group discussions and demonstrations. Most of these methods involve only passive learning. Increased emphasis is being laid on students centred and integrated teaching. Both vertical and horizontal integrated teaching has been recommended by the medical council of India. The superiority of such novel methods over other existing methods in facilitating students learning has not been adequately assessed and hence the present study was undertaken. A 3 year study was performed in MBBS Phase -II students of 3 batches. Integrated teaching (seminar on various segments of a topic was carried out in 3 different ways to each batch of students. Batch 1: Subject experts (faculty delivered talk on segments of topic allotted. Batch 2: Randomly selected 7-10 students presented the topic (it was guided by faculty Batch 3: similar to batch 2 but here a pre-session test (validated MCQs was conducted. About 10 topics were covered in a year (same for all the batches and were announced 15days prior to the seminar for the students to prepare. The seminar was for 2 hrs and a post -session test was conducted using pre- validated MCQs to assess the learning outcome. Post-sessions score (mean ± SD of all batches was calculated and analyzed by ANOVA. There was a significant improvement in the performance of batch 3 as compared to other batches. Pre-session tests promote students participation in teaching learning activities and also facilitates the learning process and the outcome.

  15. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture.

  16. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Murphy, Eila; James, Ross; Adams, Mike

    2011-10-01

    The 2008 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness (DMP) study took place in Aceh province, Indonesia. It sought to help develop radio programmes and messages to increase resilience to disasters. The role of radio was evaluated during and after the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. The study team interviewed 984 tsunami survivors from nine sub-districts of Banda Aceh, and local nongovernmental organisations convened eight focus groups around the area of Aceh Besar. Six key informant interviews were held with government disaster management agencies. The DMP survey is the first of its kind to interview a representative random sample of Banda Aceh residents. It reveals the importance of community and social networks, during disaster situations, when essential communications are down. A disaster warning information system based on a multi-media approach needs to be developed. The wider community should be involved in the planning, education and training of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar residents to facilitate appropriate personal and community survival strategies.

  17. Facilitating Value Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    ) introduced a new dominant logic in the marketing literature, the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic), in which service, interactions, and enhanced experiences help create value, and this potential for value is what attracts consumers. Therefore organizations must be customer-centric in order to facilitate...... unique, positive experiences. As the name indicates, both organizations and consumers (should) obtain value when co-creating, which is why both parties are willing to increase their degree of involvement, e.g. spending more resources, sharing tacit knowledge, etc., because a high degree of involvement......). Therefore, for instance, being part of the process is a key incentive for consumers. Postmodern consumers' search for unique experiences calls for individualization, personalization, etc. Although Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004), Karpen et al. (2008), and Karpen et al. (2011) have presented S-D Logic...

  18. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    for identity work was introduced. The empirical starting point was progressive performativity and constructionistic process consultation with the intention to engage with a practical context, a company. The empirical study was based on a) individual interviews with three middle managers in a project......-based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...... project work and professional development, and the role of Department Heads. Theoretically, the study contributes to discussions on the need for legitimizing different mixtures of bureaucratic and post bureaucratic ideals. Methodological reflections are made in the discussion as well....

  19. Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.

  20. Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes: Testing the "Teaching Team" Approach to Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Lang, Sarah; Maas, Martha

    2010-01-01

    We tested the effect of voluntary peer-facilitated study groups on student learning in large introductory biology lecture classes. The peer facilitators (preceptors) were trained as part of a Teaching Team (faculty, graduate assistants, and preceptors) by faculty and Learning Center staff. Each preceptor offered one weekly study group to all…

  1. Evaluation of the Facilitated Communication Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Special Education and Student Services asked the Office of Shared Accountability to evaluate the "Facilitated Communication Pilot." In facilitated communication (FC), people with communication impairments express themselves by typing with the aid of a communication partner, called a facilitator, who provides physical (and…

  2. Determining the Impact of Online Practicum Facilitation for Inservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a project-based graduate practicum experience that was facilitated online. The study investigated the effects of the online practicum experience by: (a) using quantitative data to assess the learning and professional growth of the practicum participants in comparison to a group of teachers that did not…

  3. Facilitator's Guide to The Moral Imperative of School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The author provides staff developers and educational leaders with tools needed to facilitate a workshop or study group, designed around his book. It gives chapter-by chapter activities focused on moral purpose and why it plays such a critical role in changing the context of school leadership. This guide explores in depth: (1) "Changing the…

  4. Neophyte facilitator experiences of interprofessional education: implications for faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan-Lee, Eileen; Baker, Lindsay; Tobin, Stasey; Hollenberg, Elisa; Dematteo, Dale; Reeves, Scott

    2011-09-01

    The facilitation of learners from different professional groups requires a range of interprofessional knowledge and skills (e.g. an understanding of possible sources of tension between professions) in addition to those that are more generic, such as how to manage a small group of learners. The development and delivery of interprofessional education (IPE) programs tends to rely on a small cohort of facilitators who have typically gained expertise through 'hands-on' involvement in facilitating IPE and through mentorship from more experienced colleagues. To avoid burn-out and to meet a growing demand for IPE, a larger number of facilitators are needed. However, empirical evidence regarding effective approaches to prepare for this type of work is limited. This article draws on data from a multiple case study of four IPE programs based in an urban setting in North America with a sample of neophyte facilitators and provides insight into their perceptions and experiences in preparing for and delivering IPE. Forty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted before (n = 20) and after (n = 21) program delivery with 21 facilitators. Findings indicated that despite participating in a three-fold faculty development strategy designed to support them in their IPE facilitation work, many felt unprepared and continued to have a poor conceptual understanding of core IPE and interprofessional collaboration principles, resulting in problematic implications (e.g. 'missed teachable moments') within their IPE programs. Findings from this study are discussed in relation to the IPE, faculty development and wider educational literature before implications are offered for the future delivery of interprofessional faculty development activities.

  5. Social facilitation of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detillion, Courtney E; Craft, Tara K S; Glasper, Erica R; Prendergast, Brian J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2004-09-01

    It is well documented that psychological stress impairs wound healing in humans and rodents. However, most research effort into influences on wound healing has focused on factors that compromise, rather than promote, healing. In the present study, we determined if positive social interaction, which influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in social rodents, promotes wound healing. Siberian hamsters received a cutaneous wound and then were exposed to immobilization stress. Stress increased cortisol concentrations and impaired wound healing in isolated, but not socially housed, hamsters. Removal of endogenous cortisol via adrenalectomy eliminated the effects of stress on wound healing in isolated hamsters. Treatment of isolated hamsters with oxytocin (OT), a hormone released during social contact and associated with social bonding, also blocked stress-induced increases in cortisol concentrations and facilitated wound healing. In contrast, treating socially housed hamsters with an OT antagonist delayed wound healing. Taken together, these data suggest that social interactions buffer against stress and promote wound healing through a mechanism that involves OT-induced suppression of the HPA axis. The data imply that social isolation impairs wound healing, whereas OT treatment may ameliorate some effects of social isolation on health.

  6. Facilitating Collaboration through Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Messeter, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    competences, interests, responsibilities and perhaps professional languages both within one organization, between several organizations and between the organizations and a group of (potential) users. It is necessary to find ways to learn about users and the contexts of use, and to create a common...

  7. OHS consultants as facilitators of learning processes in client enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    . In a traditional conflict-oriented brewery organization the consultant had a major role in facilitating a cross functional work group of workers and managers that were able to set up and implement an action plan for the implementation of new technology and new work organization in the logistic department focussing...... on reduc-ing the work loads of delivery and warehouse personnel. In facilitating learning processes, deliberately or by incidence, the OHS consultants used different boundary objects. An example: In order to involve users in the design process it was better making a walk-through in a new catering centre...

  8. The functions of ritual in social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    Ritual cognition builds upon social learning biases that may have become specialized for affiliation within social groups. The adaptive problems of group living required a means of identifying group members, ensuring commitment to the group, facilitating cooperation, and maintaining group cohesion. We discuss how ritual serves these social functions.

  9. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  10. Training Facilitators for Face-to-Face Electronic Meetings: An Experiential Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Yoong

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for effective facilitation in Group Support Systems (GSS environments is well documented. Results from recent studies of facilitation in face-to-face electronic meetings have demonstrated that more and different research is required before we have a clearer picture of GSS facilitation. The training of GSS facilitators has been acknowledged as an important issue in GSS research but, up to now, has received little research attention. This paper describes an experiential learning approach to the training of facilitators for face-to-face electronic meetings. It begins with a description of the nature of GSS facilitation training. The experiential learning method of training is then explained. Finally, the GSS facilitation training program is described.

  11. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  12. Ghana - Land Tenure Facilitation Impact Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...

  13. Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes: Testing the “Teaching Team” Approach to Peer Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Lang, Sarah; Maas, Martha

    2010-01-01

    We tested the effect of voluntary peer-facilitated study groups on student learning in large introductory biology lecture classes. The peer facilitators (preceptors) were trained as part of a Teaching Team (faculty, graduate assistants, and preceptors) by faculty and Learning Center staff. Each preceptor offered one weekly study group to all students in the class. All individual study groups were similar in that they applied active-learning strategies to the class material, but they differed ...

  14. Concept of Learning Organization: Facilitators and Flow of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Sachan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this study is to ascertain that various facilitators of learning such as learning culture, climate, semantic web technology, information communication technology and knowledge management hold importance to facilitate the flow of learning, which begins at individual-group-and ultimately at organizational level in an organization. Design/methodology/approach – This review paper is based on the research papers written by other authors, who have studied the concept of learning organization, importance of conducive learning culture and climate, impact of facilitators on the flow of learning in an enterprise. A model is developed to illustrate the impact of the facilitators of learning on the flow of learning in an organization. Findings – The study expresses that a conducive and harmonious learning culture and climate, web technology, knowledge management leads to smooth flow of learning at individual-group- and organizational level. Such a culture and climate contributes to an ethical organization, has a direct relationship with the performance of an enterprise, learning capability and competitive advantage. Limitations –This study is based on secondary research which has been published by reputed authors in this field. Acronyms – LO (Learning Organization, OL (Organization Learning, KM (Knowledge Management, SWT (Semantic Web Technology, ICT (Information and Communication technology.

  15. Facilitation of calcium-dependent potassium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S H

    1994-12-01

    The activation of Ca-dependent K+ current, Ic, was studied in macropatches on the cell bodies of molluscan neurons. When a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse was applied repeatedly, Ic facilitated in a manner that resembled the facilitation of synaptic transmitter release. Facilitation was characterized by an increase in Ic amplitude, a progressive increase in instantaneous outward current, and a decrease in utilization time. Experiments were done to investigate the mechanism responsible for Ic facilitation. Facilitation was reduced by microinjection of an exogenous Ca2+ buffer into the cytoplasm, indicating that facilitation is a Ca(2+)-dependent process. It was also reduced at elevated temperatures. Conversely, facilitation was greatly potentiated by blocking the Na/Ca exchange mechanism. It is concluded that the facilitation of Ca-dependent K+ current results from the accumulation of Ca2+ at the inner face of the membrane during the repeated activation of Ca2+ channels by depolarization. The Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 was used in fluorescence imaging experiments to measure changes in [Ca]i near the cell membrane during repeated depolarizing pulses and the interpretation of these results was aided by numerical simulations of Ca2+ accumulation, diffusion, and buffering in the peripheral cytoplasm. These experiments showed that the time course of Ic facilitation matches the time course of Ca2+ accumulation at the membrane. It was found that the strength of Ic facilitation varies among patches on the same neuron, suggesting that the accumulation of Ca2+ is not uniform along the inner surface of the membrane and that gradients in [Ca]i develop and are maintained during trains of depolarizing pulses. Potential mechanisms that may lead to local differences in Ca2+ accumulation and Ic facilitation are discussed.

  16. Cerebrovascular and corticomotor function during progressive passive hyperthermia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Emma Z; Cotter, James D; Wilson, Luke; Fan, Jui-Lin; Lucas, Samuel J E; Ainslie, Philip N

    2012-03-01

    The present study examined the integrative effects of passive heating on cerebral perfusion and alterations in central motor drive. Eight participants underwent passive hyperthermia [0.5°C increments in core temperature (Tc) from normothermia (37 ± 0.3°C) to their limit of thermal tolerance (T-LIM; 39.0 ± 0.4°C)]. Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (CBFv) and respiratory responses were measured continuously. Arterial blood gases and blood pressure were obtained intermittently. At baseline and each Tc level, supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were performed to assess neuromuscular and cortical function, respectively. At T-LIM, measures were (in a randomized order) also made during a period of breathing 5% CO(2) gas to restore eucapnia (+5% CO(2)). Mean heating time was 179 ± 51 min, with each 0.5°C increment in Tc taking 40 ± 10 min. CBFv was reduced by ∼20% below baseline from +0.5°C until T-LIM. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors was decreased at T-LIM (-9 ± 10%; P ventilation (Ve; R(2) = 0.76; P < 0.05) and partial pressure of end-tidal CO(2) (Pet(CO(2)); R(2) = 0.63; P < 0.05) and to changes in CBFv (R(2) = 0.61; P = 0.067). Interestingly, although CBFv was not fully restored, MVC and cortical VA were restored towards baseline values during inhalation of 5% CO(2). These results indicate that descending voluntary drive becomes progressively impaired as Tc is increased, presumably due, in part, to reductions in CBFv and to hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and subsequent hypocapnia.

  17. Paired pulse TMS stimulation and human tongue corticomotor pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk

    Objectives: Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) can be used to assess short-term interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI) and facilitatory (ICF) networks. The degree of SICI and ICF varies with interstimulus intervals (ISI) and stimulus intensities of the conditioning stimulus...... intensities (P = 0.984). Post-hoc tests revealed that there was significant SICI with ppTMS ISI of 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5 ms compared with single pulse stimulation (Pstimulation (P=0.988). There was no interaction between...

  18. Paired pulse TMS stimulation and human tongue corticomotor pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk;

    (CS) and the test stimulus (TS). The aim of the present methodological study was to optimize stimulus parameters for ppTMS studies of tongue motor control by examining the influence of different ISI and intensities of the CS on SICI and ICF. Methods: 17 healthy volunteers participated (mean age: 22.......6±0.8 years). ppTMS was applied to the “hot-spot” of the tongue motor cortex and motor evoked potential (MEPs) were recorded from the tongue muscles with surface EMG electrodes. TS intensity was set at 120% of resting motor threshold (rMT). Single pulse and six different ISIs for ppTMS: 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 10, 15...... different intensities of CS and ISIs. Conclusion: Significant SICI but no ICF was evoked with the present stimulus paradigms. The two stimulus intensities of the CS evoked similar responses. These results may be applied in future studies on the effect of tongue training on SICI and ICF in the tongue motor...

  19. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognate facilitation effects in trilingual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Szubko-Sitarek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is nonselective with respect to language, i.e., that word representations of both languages become active during recognition. One piece of evidence supporting nonselective access is that bilinguals recognize cognates (words that are identical or similar in form and meaning in two or more languages faster than noncognates. In fact, any difference between how cognates and ‘monolingual’ words are processed by multilinguals would indicate that the other, currently irrelevant language must have played a role as well, at least as long as the two groups of words are comparable with respect to all dimensions other than language membership. The aim of the present paper is to report on two visual perceptual experiments conducted within the lexical decision task paradigm whose aim was to test the assumptions concerning the special position of cognates (the cognate facilitation effect, cf. Dijkstra, 2005 within a trilingual mind and to answer the question whether trilinguals rely upon their second language lexical knowledge when recognizing L3 words. The results of the experiments attest to simultaneous activation and parallel processing as well as interaction among all the three languages. At the same time, they point to the fact that cross-linguistic lexical access and the source and strength of transfer may be constrained by variables such task demands.

  1. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  2. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  3. Using Undergraduate Facilitators for Active Learning in Organic Chemistry: A Preparation Course and Outcomes of the Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Hannah E.; Friedman, Lee A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe a course to educate and prepare undergraduate "facilitators" for small group problem solving sessions in a large, first semester, introductory undergraduate organic chemistry course. We then explore the outcomes of the facilitator experience for one cohort of facilitators through qualitative analysis of written…

  4. [Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: results of a qualitative study in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poffald, Lucy; Hirmas, Macarena; Aguilera, Ximena; Vega, Jeanette; González, María José; Sanhueza, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. . The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the "delayed access group". This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect.

  5. Teachers as Friendship Facilitators: Respeto and Personalismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights three teachers who were actively involved as friendship facilitators by illuminating their use of a friendship-facilitator framework with three students with moderate/severe disabilities. The framework includes three strategies: finding opportunities to bring children and youth together, acknowledging individual strengths…

  6. Reconceptualizing the Pedagogical Value of Student Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Sustained discourse is critical to the learning potential of online courses. And, while research has surfaced many factors that mediate interaction, it further suggests that sustained interaction remains elusive. In this paper, I propose that student facilitation may have an impact on the quality of facilitators' interactions following a week of…

  7. The Limited Facilitative Effect of Typographical Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jonathan M.; Fowler, Susan B.

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments with 188 college students investigated the facilitative effect of typographical signals such as underlining, headings, or other devices to help readers identify specific points. Results do not support a general facilitative effect of typographical signals but suggest that use of signals depends on the reader's strategic processing.…

  8. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  9. Improving the teaching skills of residents as tutors/facilitators and addressing the shortage of faculty facilitators for PBL modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Wasim; Mumtaz, Khalid; Burdick, William P; Morahan, Page S; Freeman, Rosslynne; Zehra, Tabassum

    2007-10-08

    Residents play an important role in teaching of medical undergraduate students. Despite their importance in teaching undergraduates they are not involved in any formal training in teaching and leadership skills. We aimed to compare the teaching skills of residents with faculty in facilitating small group Problem Based Learning (PBL) sessions. This quasi experimental descriptive comparative research involved 5 postgraduate year 4 residents and five senior faculty members. The study was conducted with all phase III (Final year) students rotating in Gastroenterology. The residents and faculty members received brief training of one month in facilitation and core principles of adult education. Different aspects of teaching skills of residents and faculty were evaluated by students on a questionnaire (graded on Likert Scale from 1 to 10) assessing i) Knowledge Base-content Learning (KBL), ii) PBL, iii) Student Centered Learning (SCL) and iv) Group Skills (GS). There were 33 PBL teaching sessions in which 120 evaluation forms were filled; out of these 53% forms were filled for residents and 47% for faculty group. The faculty showed a statistically greater rating in "KBL" (faculty 8.37 Vs resident 7.94; p-value 0.02), "GS" (faculty 8.06 vs. residents 7.68; p-value 0.04). Differences in faculty and resident scores in "the PBL" and "SCL" were not significant. The overall score of faculty facilitators, however, was statistically significant for resident facilitators. (p = .05). 1) Residents are an effective supplement to faculty members for PBL; 2) Additional facilitators for PBL sessions can be identified in an institution by involvement of residents in teacher training workshops.

  10. Improving the teaching skills of residents as tutors/facilitators and addressing the shortage of faculty facilitators for PBL modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahan Page S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residents play an important role in teaching of medical undergraduate students. Despite their importance in teaching undergraduates they are not involved in any formal training in teaching and leadership skills. We aimed to compare the teaching skills of residents with faculty in facilitating small group Problem Based Learning (PBL sessions. Methods This quasi experimental descriptive comparative research involved 5 postgraduate year 4 residents and five senior faculty members. The study was conducted with all phase III (Final year students rotating in Gastroenterology. The residents and faculty members received brief training of one month in facilitation and core principles of adult education. Different aspects of teaching skills of residents and faculty were evaluated by students on a questionnaire (graded on Likert Scale from 1 to 10 assessing i Knowledge Base-content Learning (KBL, ii PBL, iii Student Centered Learning (SCL and iv Group Skills (GS. Results There were 33 PBL teaching sessions in which 120 evaluation forms were filled; out of these 53% forms were filled for residents and 47% for faculty group. The faculty showed a statistically greater rating in "KBL" (faculty 8.37 Vs resident 7.94; p-value 0.02, "GS" (faculty 8.06 vs. residents 7.68; p-value 0.04. Differences in faculty and resident scores in "the PBL" and "SCL" were not significant. The overall score of faculty facilitators, however, was statistically significant for resident facilitators. (p = .05. Conclusion 1 Residents are an effective supplement to faculty members for PBL; 2 Additional facilitators for PBL sessions can be identified in an institution by involvement of residents in teacher training workshops.

  11. Using facilitative skills in project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    managers are frequently finding themselves in situations where using facilitating skills is not an option, but a requirement. Facilitation is to be viewed as a process of ‘obstetric’ aid to meet the challenges of coping with the changing conditions for project management described briefly above...... facilitating skills are identified and discussed in relation to the changing circumstances for project management. The approach used to achieve this paper’s objective includes a literature review, model building and reflection on facilitation skills based on the author’s experiences from facilitating workshops......Project management can be seen as a profession, discipline and conceptual framework. It has been developed from different fields, including military engineering, mechanical engineering, social sciences and construction. During recent decades, there has been a number of challenges as to its efficacy...

  12. Practical-theological facilitation as skilled helping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmo Pienaar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the idea of skilled helping in relation to what has been put forward as practical theological facilitation. It has been argued that various helping relationships, amongst which the author refers to coaching, facilitation, and therapy has more in common than what differentiates them if epistemology is viewed as a unifying concept. As such the scope of practical theology in terms of the contexts and themes in which it might be involved is said to widen. The public dimension of the organisational context, more so than the congregational context, has been put forward as an important habitus of practical-theological facilitation. The organisational involvement of the practical-theological facilitator in terms of professional-vocational skilled helping takes on an actual role through facilitation and other helping modalities.

  13. Nurses' perceptions of facilitating genuineness in a nurse–patient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elizabeth Van den Heever

    2015-06-01

    Results: When groups were compared, statistically significant differences were identified in nurses' perceptions of facilitating genuineness with respect to age, years' experience as a nurse and qualifications. It is recommended that nurses' awareness of genuineness and its facilitation should involve learning through socialisation and self-awareness.

  14. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  15. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native ...

  16. Microfinance as a method of facilitating research in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2010-04-22

    Microgrants are a novel concept where small grants are used to facilitate research. The concept might have a place in developing emergency medicine research, especially in countries where emergency medicine is not established or in new areas of research. Two examples of the beneficial effects of microgrants in emergency medicine research are described. Emergency medicine interest groups and foundations should consider setting up microgrant schemes.

  17. Microgrants - a method of facilitating research in emergency medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Microgrants is a novel concept where small grants are used to facilitate research. The concept might have a place in developing emergency medicine research, especially in countries where emergency medicine in not established or in new areas of research. Two examples of the beneficial...... effects of microgrants in emergency medicine research are described. Emergency medicine interest groups and foundations should consider setting up microgrant schemes....

  18. Differential outcomes facilitate same/different concept learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Kelly A; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2010-05-01

    Commonly recognized, the training procedure one employs often affects the results they obtain. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that abstract-concept learning is affected by employing a differential-outcomes procedure. The differential-outcome effect has been shown to occur for item-specific strategies but has not been established for relational strategies. To test whether different-outcome expectancies can facilitate a relational strategy, eight pigeons were trained and tested in a two-item same/different task with pictures. After pecking an upper picture, they pecked a lower picture if the pictures were the same or a white rectangle if the pictures were different. Two groups of pigeons were rewarded with either different outcomes (sounds and food amounts) or same outcomes. Both groups were trained to criterion with successively larger picture sets (8-1,024 items) and were transfer tested with novel pictures following each acquisition. With the smallest training sets, neither group showed any novel-stimulus transfer. But after acquiring the task with 32 pictures, the different-outcomes group responded more accurately to novel pictures than the same-outcome group. As the training set-size increased, both groups' transfer performance converged and became equivalent to training performance. These results show for the first time that training with different outcomes facilitates abstract-concept learning.

  19. Novice facilitators and the use of scripts for managing facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the use of scripts by novice facilitators (novices) in Facilitated Modelling (FM) workshops. To address this gap, this paper illustrates how novices—supported by scripts—switch between and combine facilitation skills and competencies to successfully manage FM workshops...

  20. A lottery incentive system to facilitate dialogue and social support for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lottery incentive system to facilitate dialogue and social support for workplace ... the LIS created excitement in the companies and renewed employees' personal ... social group pressure to seek HCT as a collective in anticipation of a reward.

  1. Barriers and facilitators of consumer use of nutrition labels at sit-down restaurant chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Young, Candace; Davis, Andrea L; Wasson, Sara; Chilton, Mariana; Karamanian, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    .... Five focus groups were conducted with thirty-six consumers. A semi-structured script elicited barriers and facilitators to using nutrition information by showing excerpts of real menus from full-service chain restaurants...

  2. Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management. ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register ... Raw materials required for the manufacturing industry which drives the economy are extracted from the land resource.

  3. Facilitating LOS Debriefings: A Training Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lori K.; Jobe, Kimberly K.; Dismukes, R. Key

    1997-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide to help airline instructors effectively facilitate debriefings of Line Oriented Simulations (LOS). It is based on a recently completed study of Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings at several U.S. airlines. This manual presents specific facilitation tools instructors can use to achieve debriefing objectives. The approach of the manual is to be flexible so it can be tailored to the individual needs of each airline. Part One clarifies the purpose and objectives of facilitation in the LOS setting. Part Two provides recommendations for clarifying roles and expectations and presents a model for organizing discussion. Part Tree suggests techniques for eliciting active crew participation and in-depth analysis and evaluation. Finally, in Part Four, these techniques are organized according to the facilitation model. Examples of how to effectively use the techniques are provided throughout, including strategies to try when the debriefing objectives are not being fully achieved.

  4. Facilitating Creativity in Science Students' through Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating Creativity in Science Students' through Teacher Professional Development. ... and the creativity checklist (CCh) was the instrument used to collect data. ... The research questions were answered using mean while the hypotheses ...

  5. Learning Opportunities for Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Mataveli, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the impact of organizational learning culture and learning facilitators in group learning. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted using a survey method applied to a statistically representative sample of employees from Rioja wine companies in Spain. A model was tested using a structural equation…

  6. Learning Opportunities for Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Mataveli, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the impact of organizational learning culture and learning facilitators in group learning. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted using a survey method applied to a statistically representative sample of employees from Rioja wine companies in Spain. A model was tested using a structural equation…

  7. The Jogging Group: A Positive-Wellness Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, John H., Jr.; Burcky, William D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how to organize and facilitate a jogging group, combining jogging and group counseling as an important intervention strategy for positive wellness. Describes client selection, medical clearance, liability, meeting times and places, as well as group work. (JAC)

  8. Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: Results of a qualitative study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Poffald

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Materials and methods. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. Results. The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the “delayed access group”. This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. Conclusion. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect.

  9. Facilitated inter-firm collaboration in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the mo...... the mechanisms of third-party inter-firm facilitation and assesses how effective the catalyst institutions are in nurturing collaborations between companies in developed and developing countries. The discussions are illustrated with case examples drawn from Ghana....

  10. 团队凝聚力、工作-家庭促进与员工在职行为关系研究%An Empirical Study on Relations between Group Cohesion, Work-Family Facilitation and On-Job-Behaviors: Mediating Effect of Leader Member Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伶; 聂婷

    2013-01-01

    With a sample of 1795 employees in 19 regions and provinces, we use statistical analysis and find out that perceived task cohesion and interpersonal cohesion influence positive behavior and withdrawal behavior of employees in the workplace through the mediating effect of work-family facilitation. We also confirm the moderating effect of leader member exchange on relations between team cohesion and positive behavior of employees, but the moderating effect of leader member exchange does not exist between team cohesion and withdrawal behavior of employees.%通过对中国大陆19个省市自治区的1 795名在职员工的问卷调查发现,员工感知到的团队凝聚力能够通过工作-家庭促进的中介效应影响员工在职行为(积极行为与退缩行为);伴随着领导-成员交换关系的密切,团队凝聚力对员工积极行为的影响也更为显著;而在团队凝聚力与退缩行为的关系中,并没有发现领导-成员交换关系的显著调节作用.

  11. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  12. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  13. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  14. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  15. Using Telestrations™ to Illustrate Small Group Communication Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2014-01-01

    This single class activity described here: (1) illustrates the importance of interdependence in groups; (2) can be used to measure group productivity and performance; (3) can encourage groups to engage in group learning; and (4) can facilitate group cohesion for newly formed groups. Students will be working in groups for the majority of their…

  16. Using Telestrations™ to Illustrate Small Group Communication Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2014-01-01

    This single class activity described here: (1) illustrates the importance of interdependence in groups; (2) can be used to measure group productivity and performance; (3) can encourage groups to engage in group learning; and (4) can facilitate group cohesion for newly formed groups. Students will be working in groups for the majority of their…

  17. Developmental trends in the facilitation of multisensory objects with distractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eDowning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory integration and the ability to discriminate target objects from distractors are critical to survival, yet the developmental trajectories of these abilities are unknown. This study investigated developmental changes in 9- (n=18 and 11-year-old (n=20 children, adolescents (n=19 and adults (n=22 using an audiovisual object discrimination task with uni- and multisensory distractors. Reaction times (RTs were slower with visual/audiovisual distractors, and although all groups demonstrated facilitation of multisensory RTs in these conditions, children’s and adolescents’ responses corresponded to fewer race model violations than adults’, suggesting protracted maturation of multisensory processes. Multisensory facilitation could not be explained by changes in RT variability, suggesting that tests of race model violations may still have theoretical value at least for familiar multisensory stimuli.

  18. [Facilitators and barriers for the consumption of a micronutrient supplement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Théodore, Florence; Nava, Fernanda; Villanueva, María Angeles; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Angel

    2008-01-01

    To define and explore the sociocultural factors that could enhance (facilitators) or interfere with (barriers) the adequate consumption of a nutritional supplement (NS) by children from 6 to 59 months of age, provided as part of the national program Oportunidades. Qualitative study in rural communities of Chiapas and Veracruz. Forty-four semi-structured interviews and 25 focus groups were conducted with mothers and other key informants. The framework analysis approach was used. Facilitators. The NS is free, is highly accessible, is positively accepted and mothers believe the physicians recommendations. Barriers. Lack of adequate storage and distribution, poverty conditions, intrahousehold dilution (within the family members), beliefs regarding child feeding and the purpose of the NS. Results shows the incongruence between the Programs recommendations and the preferences and practices of the target population and provides important elements to be considered in the promotion of the NS .

  19. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  20. Group dynamics basics and pragmatics for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Haynes, Norris M

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a clear and engaging description of group dynamic processes. Group Dynamics will serve as an important text for students and professors and as a valuable guide for those who facilitate groups in a variety of clinical, counseling, educational, research, and organizational settings.

  1. Facilitate sustainable development with Green Engine——On Urban Mine Demonstration Base Construction by New World Environmental Service Group%绿色“引擎”促可持续发展之路——新天地环境服务集团“城市矿产”示范基地建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As the pioneer of new strategic industry in environment protection field,New World Environmental Service Group was ranked among the first national Urban Mine Demonstration Bases.New World Group seizes the opportunities and pursues innovations,as well as explores the new clue and mode in constructing Urban Mine Demonstration Base.Sound progress has been achieved in New World Venous Industry Park.%新天地环境服务集团作为环保战略新兴产业的领跑者,被列为国家首批"城市矿产"示范基地之一。新天地集团抢抓机遇,勇于创新,不断思考和探索"城市矿产"示范基地建设的新思路和新模式,取得了积极成效。

  2. CUSTOMER RETENTION IN FASHION E-TAILING: FACILITATORS AND BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Hallberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed the way consumers gather information and shop. An increasingly competitive market calls for new marketing approaches to attract customers to the companies’ online stores. The aim of the present article is to understand what facilitates and what creates barriers to prioritizing repeat customers. Further, the article discusses repurchasing among young female online fashion shoppers and how these consumers can be retained. Two research questions are addressed: 1. What facilitates repurchasing among online fashion consumers, and why? 2. What creates barriers to re-purchasing among online fashion consumers, and why? In order to gain deeper knowledge of how e-tailers work with customer retention, we conducted a pilot study that included representatives from two clothing companies, as well as an expert interview with an analyst at the company Stroede Ralto. Then two focus groups consisting of young female online shoppers were formed. Results from the focus groups show that several companies use frequent e-mail advertising and targeted advertising on other websites to retain customers and facilitate re-purchasing. All participants found these features annoying rather than helpful. Moreover, the help functions provided in an online store played a major role in facilitating the purchasing, and shopping carts were appreciated as they enable customers to easily view and add items and obtain price information. We discovered that the consumers did most of their shopping on websites they found esthetically appealing and inspiring and that they would often return to these websites for inspiration or to browse. The article further provides advice to managers regarding how to retain customers.

  3. Increasing awareness about self and facilitation practice in preparation for transitioning to a new role – the critical reflective process of becoming a certified professional facilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Bergin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and context: I have been working as a practice developer in the Australian healthcare system for more than 10 years. For the last seven of those I was a lead facilitator for a practice development programme that is being implemented across a large statewide health service. The programme’s purpose is to create person-centred care environments that enable patient and staff empowerment. My role was in a small team that supported facilitators predominantly at local health district and state levels. The intent was to phase out the team over time as capacity increased and local teams gained the required skills and knowledge to continue implementing the programme. During the two-year final transition phase, a strategic plan was implemented to guide the development of systems and capacity that would support the programme once the team had exited. A decision was made to shorten the phasing-out period and during this transition period I found myself facing an unknown and unpredictable future, for the first time in my career promoting something other than my clinical nursing skills. As I transitioned into an independent facilitator role I wanted to consolidate my expertise as a facilitator, to gain further learning in specific areas and to achieve recognition of the facilitation skill set I had honed over time, and which has now become my way of working. Given that my experience was limited to the healthcare context, diverse though it is, I pondered which of my skills would stand me in good stead to enable groups and organisations as an independent professional facilitator and what additional skills I’d need. I was encouraged to become a certified professional facilitator by colleagues who were using process facilitation and person-centredness more broadly. This paper reflects my experience of the preparation, assessment and accreditation process, the feedback I received from my international assessors and how these are influencing my

  4. Children's active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Brockman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii factors which limit children's active play and (iii factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play.

  5. Facilitation as a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Eliot J B; Fajardo, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Models describing the biotic drivers that create and maintain biological diversity within trophic levels have focused primarily on negative interactions (i.e. competition), leaving marginal room for positive interactions (i.e. facilitation). We show facilitation to be a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity by first noting that all species use resources and thus change the local biotic or abiotic conditions, altering the available multidimensional niches. This can cause a shift in local species composition, which can cause an increase in beta, and sometimes alpha, diversity. We show that these increases are ubiquitous across ecosystems. These positive effects on diversity occur via a broad host of disparate direct and indirect mechanisms. We identify and unify several of these facilitative mechanisms and discuss why it has been easy to underappreciate the importance of facilitation. We show that net positive effects have a long history of being considered ecologically or evolutionarily unstable, and we present recent evidence of its potential stability. Facilitation goes well beyond the common case of stress amelioration and it probably gains importance as community complexity increases. While biodiversity is, in part, created by species exploiting many niches, many niches are available to exploit only because species create them.

  6. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter

  7. Facilitated inter-firm collaboration in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the most...... popular forms of assistance in this endeavour. Although such facilitative inter-firm collaborations vary in design, they all involve third-party organisations that identify partners and sponsor the first steps in the establishment of a business platform for the co-operation. This paper discusses...... the mechanisms of third-party inter-firm facilitation and assesses how effective the catalyst institutions are in nurturing collaborations between companies in developed and developing countries. The discussions are illustrated with case examples drawn from Ghana....

  8. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  9. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  10. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  11. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  12. Managerial intervention to facilitate organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J R

    1983-07-01

    Facilitating change in the clinical laboratory is a constant managerial responsibility. Change is often met with resistance when staff members perceive it as threatening their convenience, interpersonal relationships, position, or economic security. This paper examines the application of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model to assess individual concerns regarding change. The model views change as a process rather than an event and examines the various motivations, perceptions, attitudes, and feelings of individuals regarding an innovation. After an individual's concerns have been identified, the manager is better able to target intervention strategies to facilitate organizational change.

  13. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  14. Facilities removal working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  15. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  16. Social facilitation effects of virtual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung; Catrambone, Richard

    2007-12-01

    To investigate whether virtual humans produce social facilitation effects. When people do an easy task and another person is nearby, they tend to do that task better than when they are alone. Conversely, when people do a hard task and another person is nearby, they tend to do that task less well than when they are alone. This phenomenon is referred to in the social psychology literature as social facilitation. The present study investigated whether virtual humans can evoke a social facilitation response. Participants were given different tasks to do that varied in difficulty. The tasks involved anagrams, mazes, and modular arithmetic. They did the tasks alone, in the company of another person, or in the company of a virtual human on a computer screen. For easy tasks, performance in the virtual human condition was better than in the alone condition, and for difficult tasks, performance in the virtual human condition was worse than in the alone condition. As with a human, virtual humans can produce social facilitation. The results suggest that designers of virtual humans should be mindful about the social nature of virtual humans; a design decision as to when and how to present a virtual human should be a deliberate and informed decision. An ever-present virtual human might make learning and performance difficult for challenging tasks.

  17. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  18. Professional nurses as reflective clinical learning facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chabell

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid changes taking place in the country, including the education system in general and nursing education in particular, the role of professional nurses as reflective clinical learning facilitators need to be re-visited in order to meet the changing health needs of the communtiy and to facilitate outcome- based nursing education and evidence-based quality nursing care. The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe the perceptions of professional nurses as reflective clinical learning facilitators in the clinical learning units, within the context of a specific health-care service in Gauteng. A phenomenological method using descriptive naïve sketches was used to collect data from twenty professional nurses complying with certain inclusion criteria. A content analysis was performed and eight categories (main concepts were identified in order of priority as follows: communication/collaboration; role-modelling; continuous assessment and evaluation; up-to-date knowledge; scientific approach; clinical teaching; management and professionalism. After a literature control was conducted, these main concepts were confirmed. It is recommended that a model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education be developed, using these concepts as basis for the provisional conceptual framework.

  19. How Academic Teachers Perceive and Facilitate Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity…

  20. Dialogisk gruppecoaching – facilitering af ledelsesudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrø, Helle; Dahl, Poul Nørgård; Kloster, Per

    læring i ledergrupperne, og at skabe viden om disse udviklings- og læreprocesser. Vi har således været optaget af, hvordan dialogisk gruppecoaching kan facilitere ledelsesudvikling, og hvordan dialogisk coaching kan udvikles som coachingkoncept ift. grupper. Dialogisk gruppecoaching – facilitering af...

  1. Policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska

    2004-01-01

    The authors focus on policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization. They briefly review the effects of trade and investment liberalization on firms, focusing on within-industry effects. They postulate that governments' role in supporting the process is to (1) ensure that firms face "right" incentives to adjust, and (2) intervene in areas where market failures are present. Their ma...

  2. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  3. Effective tactile noise facilitates visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, J E; Doti, R; Faubert, J

    2012-01-01

    The fulcrum principle establishes that a subthreshold excitatory signal (entering in one sense) that is synchronous with a facilitation signal (entering in a different sense) can be increased (up to a resonant-like level) and then decreased by the energy and frequency content of the facilitating signal. As a result, the sensation of the signal changes according to the excitatory signal strength. In this context, the sensitivity transitions represent the change from subthreshold activity to a firing activity in multisensory neurons. Initially the energy of their activity (supplied by the weak signals) is not enough to be detected but when the facilitating signal enters the brain, it generates a general activation among multisensory neurons, modifying their original activity. In our opinion, the result is an integrated activation that promotes sensitivity transitions and the signals are then perceived. In other words, the activity created by the interaction of the excitatory signal (e.g., visual) and the facilitating signal (tactile noise) at some specific energy, produces the capability for a central detection of an otherwise weak signal. In this work we investigate the effect of an effective tactile noise on visual perception. Specifically we show that tactile noise is capable of decreasing luminance modulated thresholds.

  4. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  5. The Facilitator. Technical Note No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Patricio; And Others

    This paper describes the concept, training, and experiences of community facilitators as change agents in a nonformal education project in rural Ecuador. Presently, the social, economic, and political context of the rural Ecuadorian consists of poverty, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, and psychological dependency. The project attempted to…

  6. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    : how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...

  7. Innovation and learning facilitated by play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; O´Connor, Rory

    2008-01-01

    "This paper describes an approach to facilitate interaction between students and industrial companies in a problem based learning environment. The approach is adapted from a methodology developed at the LEGO Company and relies on an improved ability to communicate complex problems when using...

  8. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  9. The Creative Music Workshop: Event, Facilitation, Gift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the desires and tensions inherent within the act of facilitating creative music-making workshops. Following the introduction, the article is divided into three sections: (1) a discussion of the workshop event as a contingent structure through which creative music-making may take place; (2) an exploration…

  10. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  11. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  12. Facilitating value co-creation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo

    The dissertation investigates through two ethnographic case studies how value co-creation takes place in inter-organizational networks that have been facilitated by a municipality. The contribution of the study to business network research is the emphasis on development phases of networks and the...

  13. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  14. Augmented Reality as a Visualizing facilitator in Nursing Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahn, Annette; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2014-01-01

    Title: Augmented Reality as a visualizing facilitator in nursing education Background: Understanding the workings of the biological human body is as complex as the body itself, and because of their complexity, the phenomena of respiration and lung anatomy pose a special problem for nursing students...... to earlier used visualizations, e.g. pictures, videos, and models. In groups of 45, the students worked with the app and with questions inspired by an inquiry based science education approach (IBSE). Data Observation and video recording of student actions and responses took place. In addition, students were...

  15. Structural advances for the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nieng

    2013-03-01

    The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest groups of secondary active transporters conserved from bacteria to humans. MFS proteins selectively transport a wide spectrum of substrates across biomembranes and play a pivotal role in multiple physiological processes. Despite intense investigation, only seven MFS proteins from six subfamilies have been structurally elucidated. These structures were captured in distinct states during a transport cycle involving alternating access to binding sites from either side of the membrane. This review discusses recent progress in MFS structure analysis and focuses on the molecular basis for substrate binding, co-transport coupling, and alternating access.

  16. Theme: The Role of the Teacher in Facilitation of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Contains 13 articles on facilitation in agricultural education that address improving student learning, teaching methods, the teacher's role as a facilitator, preparing students for the workplace, and the facilitator's role in student-centered classrooms. (JOW)

  17. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  18. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  19. Does social facilitation affect responses to natural and anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plautz, Stephanie C; Salice, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    Social facilitation is the initiation or increase of a trait, such as stressor tolerance, when in the presence of conspecifics, members of the same species. It has been shown to alter the outcome of toxicity experiments in colonial organisms. We evaluated whether social facilitation would impact responses to stressors in the noncolonial New Mexico ramshorn snail (Planorbella trivolvis) by exposing snails to stressors either singly or in groups of three. Social facilitation did not impact snail responses to malathion but did affect responses to predator cues and temperature stress. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Following a natural experiment of guideline adaptation and early implementation: a mixed-methods study of facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogherty Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitation is emerging as an important strategy in the uptake of evidence. However, it is not entirely clear from a practical perspective how facilitation occurs to help move research evidence into nursing practice. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, also known as the 'Partnership,' is a Pan-Canadian initiative supporting knowledge translation activity for improved care through guideline use. In this case-series study, five self-identified groups volunteered to use a systematic methodology to adapt existing clinical practice guidelines for Canadian use. With 'Partnership' support, local and external facilitators provided assistance for groups to begin the process by adapting the guidelines and planning for implementation. Methods To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of facilitation, we conducted a mixed-methods study. Specifically, we examined the role and skills of individuals actively engaged in facilitation as well as the actual facilitation activities occurring within the 'Partnership.' The study was driven by and builds upon a focused literature review published in 2010 that examined facilitation as a role and process in achieving evidence-based practice in nursing. An audit tool outlining 46 discrete facilitation activities based on results of this review was used to examine the facilitation noted in the documents (emails, meeting minutes, field notes of three nursing-related cases participating in the 'Partnership' case-series study. To further examine the concept, six facilitators were interviewed about their practical experiences. The case-audit data were analyzed through a simple content analysis and triangulated with participant responses from the focus group interview to understand what occurred as these cases undertook guideline adaptation. Results The analysis of the three cases revealed that almost all of the 46 discrete, practical facilitation activities from the literature were

  1. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)

  2. Tutorial Facilitation in the Humanities Based on the Tenets of Carl Rogers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a model for group facilitation in the humanities based on Carl Rogers' model for group psychotherapy. Certain aspects of Carl Rogers' reflective learning strategies are reappraised and principles, specific only to psychotherapy, are introduced. Five of Rogers' axioms are applied to the tutorial discussion model: a…

  3. Sexuality and the Elderly: A Group Counseling Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, Dave; Gossman, Larry

    1982-01-01

    Describes a 10-session group counseling model to facilitate awareness of sexuality and the legitimacy of its expression for older adults. Considers member selection, session length and setting, and group leadership. (Author/MCF)

  4. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  5. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  6. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  7. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...... the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education....

  8. Facilitating phenomenological interviewing by means of reflexology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ross

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how reflexology could facilitate phenomenological interviewing by probing the lifeworld of individual participants. It presents a hybrid study of phenomenological interviewing and reflexology as a holistic method of health care. In this sense, it is an interparadigmatic study, since it rests on the interface of Western and Oriental thought. This article reports on seven cases which were included in the qualitative, empirical investigation. During the sessions, reflexological readings served as impetus for inquiry into the experiences of the participants, as congestions on reflex points and along meridians were interpreted in terms of physical organs and functions. These readings were related to corresponding emotions as accepted within the reflexology paradigm. It was, however, up to the participants to inform the researcher of events and/or circumstances that caused the emotions. Thus, nonverbal data communicated information that facilitated verbal exchange concerning the life-world of each individual participant.

  9. Does supplementary reinforcement of stereotypy facilitate extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Claudia L; Iwata, Brian A; Wilson, David M; Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    Results of several studies suggest that delivery of supplemental (social) reinforcement for stereotypy might facilitate its subsequent extinction. We examined this possibility with 9 subjects who engaged in stereotypy by including methodological refinements to ensure that (a) subjects' stereotypy was maintained in the absence of social consequences, (b) supplementary reinforcers were highly preferred and were shown to be reinforcers for some behavior, and (c) subjects were exposed to lengthy reinforcement and extinction conditions. In spite of these modifications, only 4 subjects' stereotypy increased when supplementary reinforcement was delivered contingent on stereotypy, and no subject's stereotypy decreased below initial baseline levels when social reinforcement was subsequently withheld. Decreases in stereotypy occurred with the implementation of noncontingent reinforcement. Thus, delivery of supplementary reinforcers either did not increase stereotypy or did not facilitate extinction of stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. We discuss the practical and conceptual bases of these results with respect to our current understanding of function-based interventions.

  10. Architectural space characteristics facilitating teaching and apprenticeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de Lima Bezerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relevance of the architectural space as a facilitator of teaching and learning processes. It adopts an analytical methodology based on the architecture and pedagogy literature to know the view of these areas on the subject, and identifies relevant spatial attributes to facilitate education. Research has shown that there are recurrences pointing disciplinary fields of environmental comfort, ergonomics and environmental psychology, which were the subject of this conceptual research about the positive and negative impacts on the school design facility by each attribute of these disciplines. As result, it presents a framework of attributes, characteristics and relevance to teaching and learning to be used as support to the space needs assessment, ie: during the first stage of an architectural design process.

  11. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Busk Kofoed, Lise

    2013-10-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education.

  12. Twelve tips for facilitating Millennials' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David H; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    The current, so-called "Millennial" generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. This generation of learners has also been molded by a unique set of cultural influences that are essential for medical educators to consider in all aspects of their teaching, including curriculum design, student assessment, and interactions between faculty and learners.  The following tips outline an approach to facilitating learning of our current generation of medical trainees.  The method is based on the available literature and the authors' experiences with Millennial Learners in medical training.  The 12 tips provide detailed approaches and specific strategies for understanding and engaging Millennial Learners and enhancing their learning.  With an increased understanding of the characteristics of the current generation of medical trainees, faculty will be better able to facilitate learning and optimize interactions with Millennial Learners.

  13. SME creation facilitation process at Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Carl-Henric; Johnsson, Charlotta; Jin, Jun; Yang, Qinmin; Luo, Shijian

    2012-01-01

    Much research on SMEs is aimed at researching SMEs after the fact that they have become SMEs. However all SMEs as well as larger companies start as an idea in the head or heads of one or many persons - the prospective entrepreneurs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SMEs can be created by transforming ideas into real companies. More specifically we will investigate if and how Universities can facilitate this process by running international cross-functional courses. Our hypot...

  14. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  15. Learning without knowing: subliminal visual feedback facilitates ballistic motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    During daily life we are constantly bombarded by sensory input providing information on the state of our body and the surrounding world. Although we do not consciously perceive all sensory inputs, these may nevertheless have consequences for our future behavior (e.g. Goodale and Milner...... was on the screen during learning. Despite of this, there was a significantly larger learning effect in the subliminal 13-26 ms group compared to the subliminal 0 ms group. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that in addition to supraliminal feedback, subliminal feedback, which was not consciously perceived...... by the learner, indeed facilitated ballistic motor learning. This effect likely relates to multiple (conscious versus unconscious) processing of visual feedback and to the specific neural circuitries involved in optimization of ballistic motor performance....

  16. Voice advisory manikin versus instructor facilitated training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Høiby, Pernilla; Rasmussen, Maria B

    2008-01-01

    individual training. AIMS: To compare a VAM (ResusciAnne CPR skills station, Laerdal Medical A/S, Norway) with IF training in CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) in terms of skills retention after 3 months. METHODS: Forty-three second year medical students were included and CPR performance (ERC Guidelines...... training (P=0.12). However, the IF group performed significantly better than the VAM group in the total score, both immediately after (P=0.0008) and 3 months after training (P=0.02). This difference was primarily related to the BVM skills. CONCLUSION: Skill retention in CPR using a bag-valve-mask......BACKGROUND: Training of healthcare staff in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is time-consuming and costly. It has been suggested to replace instructor facilitated (IF) training with an automated voice advisory manikin (VAM), which increases skill level by continuous verbal feedback during...

  17. COGNITIVE FATIGUE FACILITATES PROCEDURAL SEQUENCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eBorragán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.

  18. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  19. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders.

  20. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  1. The skilled facilitator: a comprehensive resource for consultants, facilitators, managers, trainers, and coaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwarz, Roger

    2002-01-01

    ... Meetings 233 12 Dealing with Emotions 246 PART FOUR: AGREEING TO WORK TOGETHER 13 Contracting: Deciding Whether and How to Work Together 271 14 Working with Another Facilitator 296 PART FIVE: USIN...

  2. Smartphone technology facilitates dietary change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipjian, Michelle L; Johnston, Carol S

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals are advised to adhere to specific diet plans for their personal health; hence, it is important that tools are available to support these behaviors. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist health care professionals in educating their clients on specific dietary modifications. This pilot study focused on a single dietary modification, reducing sodium intake, to determine whether a commercial health app is useful for promoting dietary change. Thirty healthy adults (age 34.4 ± 15.7 y; body mass index 25.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)) were recruited from a university community and completed this 4-wk randomized parallel trial. Participants were instructed to reduce their sodium intake to ≤2300 mg/d by using the MyFitnessPal app to receive feedback on sodium content of foods or by paper tallying of estimated sodium intake. The predicted 24-h sodium excretion, estimated using the ratio of sodium to creatinine from the first morning urine void, and participant satisfaction were the main outcomes measured. The change in the predicted 24-h sodium excretion differed between groups: -838 ± 1093 and +236 ± 1333 mg/24 h predicted for the app and journal groups, respectively (P = 0.010). Moreover, participants in the app group reported significantly greater satisfaction with their method of diet tracking than the journal group (P = 0.001). These data suggest that smartphone apps have the potential to facilitate the implementation of dietary advice. This was a small pilot study with limited scope, and more research is necessary to determine the value of smartphone apps for facilitating dietary change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic constipation: Facilitator factor for development of varicocele

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guldem Kilciler; Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar; Ali Avci; Mete Kilciler; Engin Kaya; Murat Dayanc

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the possible relationship between varicocele and chronic constipation. METHODS: Between April 2009 and May 2010, a total of 135 patients with varicocele or constipation and 120 healthy controls were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups. In both groups detailed medical history was taken and all patients were examined physically by the same urologist and gastroenterologist. All of them were evaluated by color Doppler ultrasonography. All patients with constipation, except for the healthy controls of the second group, underwent a colonoscopy to identify the etiology of the constipation. In the first group, we determined the rate of chronic constipation in patients with varicocele and in the second group, the rate of varicocele in patients with chronic constipation. In both groups, the rate of the disease was compared with age-matched healthy controls. In the second group, the results of colonoscopies in the patients with chronic constipations were also evaluated. RESULTS: In the first group, mean age of the study and control groups were 22.9 ± 4.47 and 21.8 ± 7.21 years, respectively (P < 0.05). In the second group, mean age of the study and control groups were 52.8 ± 33.3 and 51.7 ± 54.3 years, respectively (P < 0.05). In the first group, chronic constipation was observed in 8 of the 69 patients with varicocele (11.6%) and 3 out of 60 in healthy controls (5%), respectively. In this regard, there was no statistical significance between varicocele patients and the healthy control (P = 0.37). In the second group, varicocele was observed in 16 of the 66 patients with chronic constipation (24.24%) and 12 out of 60 in healthy controls (20%) respectively. Similarly, there was no statistical significance between chronic constipation and healthy controls (P = 0.72). Internal/external hemorrhoids were detected in 4 of the 16 patients with chronic constipation and varicocele, in the second group. In the remaining 50 patients with chronic

  4. Role enactment of facilitation in primary care - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    organisations. The complexity of the facilitation field and diversity of potential facilitator roles fosters a need to investigate in detail how facilitation is enacted. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the enactment of external peer facilitation in general practice in order to create a stronger...

  5. Developing a facilitation model to promote organisational development in primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhydderch, Melody; Edwards, Adrian; Marshall, Martin; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard

    2006-06-19

    The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by practices increases.

  6. Developing a facilitation model to promote organisational development in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwyn Glyn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. Method A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. Results The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. Conclusion This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by

  7. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Vera Lúcia Santos de; Correa, Rosalie; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2014-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) can impact the independence and motricity of patients. The aims of this study were to estimate the effects of physiotherapy on the functionality of patients with HAM/TSP during the stable phase of the disease using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and to compare two methods of treatment delivery. Fourteen patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (seven patients), PNF was applied by the therapist, facilitating the functional activities of rolling, sitting and standing, walking and climbing and descending stairs. In group II (seven patients), PNF was self-administered using an elastic tube, and the same activities were facilitated. Experiments were conducted for 1h twice per week for 12 weeks. Low-back pain, a modified Ashworth scale, the functional independence measure (FIM) and the timed up and go test (TUG) were assessed before and after the interventions. In the within-group evaluation, low-back pain was significantly reduced in both groups, the FIM improved in group II, and the results of the TUG improved in group I. In the inter-group analysis, only the tone was lower in group II than in group I. Both PNF protocols were effective in treating patients with HAM/TSP.

  8. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Santos de Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP can impact the independence and motricity of patients. The aims of this study were to estimate the effects of physiotherapy on the functionality of patients with HAM/TSP during the stable phase of the disease using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF and to compare two methods of treatment delivery. Methods: Fourteen patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (seven patients, PNF was applied by the therapist, facilitating the functional activities of rolling, sitting and standing, walking and climbing and descending stairs. In group II (seven patients, PNF was self-administered using an elastic tube, and the same activities were facilitated. Experiments were conducted for 1h twice per week for 12 weeks. Low-back pain, a modified Ashworth scale, the functional independence measure (FIM and the timed up and go test (TUG were assessed before and after the interventions. Results: In the within-group evaluation, low-back pain was significantly reduced in both groups, the FIM improved in group II, and the results of the TUG improved in group I. In the inter-group analysis, only the tone was lower in group II than in group I. Conclusions: Both PNF protocols were effective in treating patients with HAM/TSP.

  9. Small group discussion: Students perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-08-01

    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  10. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  11. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolles S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jolles Department of Immunology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg or subcutaneously (SCIg. While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 has recently enabled the study of repeated and more prolonged use of hyaluronidase in facilitating the delivery of SC medicines. It has been used in a wide range of clinical settings to give antibiotics, local anesthetics, insulin, morphine, fluid replacement, and larger molecules, such as antibodies. Hyaluronidase has been used to help overcome the limitations on the maximum volume that can be delivered into the SC space by enabling dispersion of SCIg and its absorption into lymphatics. The rate of facilitated SCIg (fSCIg infusion is equivalent to that of IVIg, and the volume administered at a single site can be greater than 700 mL, a huge increase over conventional SCIg, at 20–40 mL. The use of fSCIg avoids the higher incidence of systemic side effects of IVIg, and it has higher bioavailability than SCIg. Data on the long-term safety of this approach are currently lacking, as fSCIg has only recently become available. fSCIg may help several areas of patient management in primary antibody deficiency, and the extent to which it may be used in future will depend on long-term safety data and cost–benefit analysis. Keywords: enzyme facilitated IgG infusion, recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20, subcutaneous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, primary immunodeficiency disease

  12. Facilitating Cluster Evolution in Peripheral Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Stoerring, Dagmara

    2012-01-01

    of clusterpreneurs can make this initiative more legitimised and embedded in the regional context, although dilemmas and challenges in the policy making still prevail. We furthermore find the mental and social proximity and agreements on common objectives among clusterpreneurs facilitated the support......This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a need...

  13. Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse; Danielsen, C. C.; Wogensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  14. Intracellular facilitated diffusion: searchers, crowders and blockers

    CERN Document Server

    Brackley, C A; Marenduzzo, D

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria, regulatory proteins search for a specific DNA binding target via "facilitated diffusion": a series of rounds of 3D diffusion in the cytoplasm, and 1D linear diffusion along the DNA contour. Using large scale Brownian dynamics simulations we find that each of these steps is affected differently by crowding proteins, which can either be bound to the DNA acting as a road block to the 1D diffusion, or freely diffusing in the cytoplasm. Macromolecular crowding can strongly affect mechanistic features such as the balance between 3D and 1D diffusion, but leads to surprising robustness of the total search time.

  15. Reality based scenarios facilitate knowledge network development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J; Broughton, V; McConnell, E A

    1995-03-01

    The challenge in nursing education is to create a learning environment that enables students to learn new knowledge, access previously acquired information from a variety of disciplines, and apply this newly constructed knowledge to the complex and constantly changing world of practice. Faculty at the University of South Australia, School of Nursing, City Campus describe the use of reality based scenarios to acquire domain-specific knowledge and develop well connected associative knowledge networks, both of which facilitate theory based practice and the student's transition to the role of registered nurse.

  16. Framework conditions facilitating paediatric clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfarez Deborah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of unlicensed and "off-label" medicines in children is widespread. Between 50-80% of the medicines currently administered to children have neither been tested nor authorized for their use in the paediatric population which represents approximately 25% of the whole European population. On 26 January 2007, entered into force the European Regulation of Paediatric Medicines. It aims at the quality of research into medicines for children but without subjecting the paediatric population to unnecessary clinical trial. This article addresses ethical and legal issues arising from the regulation and makes recommendations for the framework conditions facilitating the development of clinical research with children.

  17. Tonoplast aquaporins facilitate lateral root emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée

    2016-01-01

    that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip...... could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence....

  18. Clinical facilitator learning and development needs: exploring the why, what and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine E; Ford, Karen

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the practice experiences of clinical facilitators providing a voice for nurses undertaking the role, a group who up until now has been silent. Seven clinical facilitators from acute care areas within Tasmania participated in the interpretive and participatory study. Three core aspects of clinical facilitation identified were the why, what and how of facilitation. The study identified why nurses became clinical facilitators, what their experiences involved - both positive and negative; and enabled exploration as to how the role could be better supported in the future, through addressing ongoing professional development learning needs. Results of this study have provided in depth insight into the world of the clinical facilitator. The importance of key strategies to implement ongoing professional development through mentorship, provision of feedback and the development of communities of practice are seen as imperative to ensure the role of clinical facilitator reaches its full potential to bridge the gap between theory and practice experienced by undergraduates during clinical placements. Such strategies will help ensure quality clinical placements for undergraduate nursing students.

  19. The Use of a Student Group Log to Facilitate Student and Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenders, Fer

    2016-01-01

    In 21st century education students should have ample opportunities to collaborate on authentic problems. Many teachers however find it difficult to make the transfer from teacher to student-centered education. Giving students autonomy can be disquieting to teachers, as they fear to lose control of student learning. Teachers in a teacher…

  20. Genetic, individual, and group facilitation of disease resistance in insect societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Rich, Noah; Spivak, Marla; Fefferman, Nina H; Starks, Philip T

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we provide a current reference on disease resistance in insect societies. We start with the genetics of immunity in the context of behavioral and physiological processes and scale up levels of biological organization until we reach populations. A significant component of this review focuses on Apis mellifera and its role as a model system for studies on social immunity. We additionally review the models that have been applied to disease transmission in social insects and elucidate areas for future study in the field of social immunity.

  1. Fostering Student Engagement: Creative Problem-Solving in Small Group Facilitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) can be a transformative teaching methodology that supports a dialogical learning atmosphere that can transcend the traditional classroom and inspire excellence in students by linking real life experiences with the curriculum. It supports a sense of inquiry that incorporates both experiential learning and the…

  2. The use of a student group log to facilitate student and teacher learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Fer

    2016-01-01

    In 21st century education students should have ample opportunities to collaborate on authentic problems. Many teachers however find it difficult to make the transfer from teacher to student-centered education. Giving students autonomy can be disquieting to teachers, as they fear to lose control of s

  3. Facilitating small-group learning: A comparison of student and staff tutors' behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.C. Moust (Jos); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis study focused on students' observations of student and staff tutors' behavior during two academic courses, using a thirtynine-item rating scale. The study took place within an integrated problem-based law curriculum. Six major factors in tutors' behavior were identified. Differences

  4. Collaborative Leadership Learning; Developing Facilitation Skills for Collaborative Learning in Leadership Learning Groups.

    OpenAIRE

    James, Kim; Mann, Jasbir; Creasy, Jane

    2003-01-01

    many organisations working for example, with less hierarchical structures, with cross- organisational partners, or in professional environments. Leadership at all levels must be supported by leaders in top executive positions who develop their own capabilities both as leaders and in their role of leading the learning of leadership throughout their organisations. Their ideas of their role in leading learning will be shaped by their own leadership development experiences. Collaborative learning...

  5. Online Doctoral Writing Groups: Do Facilitators or Communication Modes Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga; Lum, Juliet F.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing doctoral study away from one's institution may have logistical advantages but many off-campus doctoral students face challenges in accessing the sorts of training and collegial support offered to their on-campus counterparts. To enhance and maintain the quality of education offered to off-campus and distance PhD candidates, higher…

  6. Online Doctoral Writing Groups: Do Facilitators or Communication Modes Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga; Lum, Juliet F.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing doctoral study away from one's institution may have logistical advantages but many off-campus doctoral students face challenges in accessing the sorts of training and collegial support offered to their on-campus counterparts. To enhance and maintain the quality of education offered to off-campus and distance PhD candidates, higher…

  7. A poster presentation as an evaluation method to facilitate reflective thinking skills in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M M

    2002-08-01

    This article seeks to establish whether the poster presentation of a specific theme can facilitate the student's thinking skills in nursing education. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design where twenty students volunteered to take part in the study by signing an informed consent was followed. Descriptive naïve sketches were used for data collection followed by individual interviews to validate the findings. Data was analysed by means of the descriptive method of open coding of Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). DENOSA's ethical standards for research (1998:7) were considered. The findings indicated both positive and negative perceptions. The positive perceptions were: a poster presentation as an evaluation method facilitates creative, critical and reflective thinking skills; group work facilitates student participation; it facilitates problem solving skills; it increases the student's independence and a sense of ownership; and the evaluation is fair. The negative perceptions were that there was a lack of clarity on the student's expectations and that group activity is difficult. Trustworthiness was maintained in accordance with Lincoln and Guba's principles (1985:290-327). It is concluded that a poster presentation, used effectively as an evaluation method, can facilitate the learner's critical and reflective thinking skills. It is recommended that other learner-centred methods of assessment and evaluation be researched for their effective use in facilitating the higher order thinking skills of learners.

  8. Facilitating online project collaboration - new directions for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Estelle Harker-Schuch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although research suggests that project collaboration supports deep learning, facilitators frequently face participation and engagement challenges – particularly in 100% online courses and/or courses with students from diverse geographical/cultural backgrounds.  We present our experiences with learning designs featuring online project collaboration by examining student evaluation of the group work component in the course ‘Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation’ and reviewing specific process reports from the course ‘Environmental Management in the Tropics’.  For the CCIAM we discern positive trends over the 2009-2012 period with ‘collaborative dynamics’, ‘organisation/coordination’, ‘burden sharing’ and practical knowledge’ showing significant improvements following revision.  We provide experience from revising the CCIAM course (responding to evaluations - and reflect on the results that such revisions engender.  Determining specific factors that contribute to improvements in student evaluations are not always clear but we offer suggestions for facilitating online project collaboration to circumnavigate the four above-mentioned major issues identified on the CCIAM course: these suggestions are peer assessment, mandatory participation, and grading (as a contribution to the overall final grade.  For EMiT ‘communication’ showed the strongest issue-signal – with organization/coordination ‘cultural issues’ and ‘learning outcomes’ also indicating issue-relevance..  We propose that learning designs for online project collaboration can be improved via teacher-facilitated interventions without undermining the socialisation pathways that students can find motivating and that promote online team building.

  9. Pediatric obesity community programs: barriers & facilitators toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Gesell, Sabina B; Lynne Caples, T; Escarfuller, Juan; Barkin, Shari L

    2010-08-01

    Our current generation of young people could become the first generation to live shorter lives than their parents. Families need resources in their community to address this issue. Identifying barriers and facilitators of community organizations to offer obesity-related services is a first step in understanding sustainable community programs. The objective of this study is to identify common barriers and facilitators in community organizational programs designed to prevent or reduce pediatric obesity. We conducted an exploratory qualitative research study based on grounded theory. Thirty-six community organizations were identified based on self-descriptions of goals involving pediatric obesity. Semi-structured, systematic, face-to-face interviews among program directors (n = 24) were recorded, transcribed, and coded for recurrent themes. Relevant themes were abstracted from interviews by a standardized iterative process by two independent reviewers between December 2007 and November 2008. Theme discordance was reconciled by a third reviewer. Seventy percent of organizations indicated that obesity prevention/treatment was their explicit goal with remaining groups indicating healthy lifestyles as a more general goal. Facilitators to provision of these programs included: programmatic enhancements such as improved curriculums (73%), community involvement such as volunteers (62.5%), and partnerships with other programs (54.2%). Barriers that threatened sustainability included lack of consistent funding (43.8%), lack of consistent participation from the target population (41.7%) and lack of support staff (20.8%). New approaches in fostering partnerships between organizations need to be developed. Building coalitions and engaging community members in developing community based programs may be a helpful strategy to strengthen community-based programs to address the pediatric obesity epidemic.

  10. Neural mechanism of facilitation system during physical fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Tanaka

    Full Text Available An enhanced facilitation system caused by motivational input plays an important role in supporting performance during physical fatigue. We tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of the facilitation system during physical fatigue using magnetoencephalography (MEG and a classical conditioning technique. Twelve right-handed volunteers participated in this study. Participants underwent MEG recording during the imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. Thereafter, fatigue-inducing maximum handgrip trials were performed for 10 min; the metronome sounds were started 5 min after the beginning of the handgrip trials. The metronome sounds were used as conditioned stimuli and maximum handgrip trials as unconditioned stimuli. The next day, they were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, two-crossover fashion to undergo two types of MEG recordings, that is, for the control and motivation sessions, during the imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. The alpha-band event-related desynchronizations (ERDs of the motivation session relative to the control session within the time windows of 500 to 700 and 800 to 900 ms after the onset of handgrip cue sounds were identified in the sensorimotor areas. In addition, the alpha-band ERD within the time window of 400 to 500 ms was identified in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 46. The ERD level in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was positively associated with that in the sensorimotor areas within the time window of 500 to 700 ms. These results suggest that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in the neural substrates of the facilitation system and activates the sensorimotor areas during physical fatigue.

  11. From mapping class groups to automorphism groups of free groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    We show that the natural map from the mapping class groups of surfaces to the automorphism groups of free groups, induces an infinite loop map on the classifying spaces of the stable groups after plus construction. The proof uses automorphisms of free groups with boundaries which play the role...... of mapping class groups of surfaces with several boundary components....

  12. Human neutrophils facilitate tumor cell transendothelial migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wu, Q D

    2012-02-03

    Tumor cell extravasation plays a key role in tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which tumor cells migrate through normal vascular endothelium remain unclear. In this study, using an in vitro transendothelial migration model, we show that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) assist the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 to cross the endothelial barrier. We found that tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) downregulated PMN cytocidal function, delayed PMN apoptosis, and concomitantly upregulated PMN adhesion molecule expression. These PMN treated with TCM attached to tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration through different endothelial monolayers. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells alone did not transmigrate. FACScan analysis revealed that these tumor cells expressed high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but did not express CD11a, CD11b, or CD18. Blockage of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and of ICAM-1 on MDA-MB-231 cells significantly attenuated TCM-treated, PMN-mediated tumor cell migration. These tumor cells still possessed the ability to proliferate after PMN-assisted transmigration. These results indicate that TCM-treated PMN may serve as a carrier to assist tumor cell transendothelial migration and suggest that tumor cells can exploit PMN and alter their function to facilitate their extravasation.

  13. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics: Review of a technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2009-01-01

    Corticotomy found to be effective in accelerating orthodontic treatment. The most important factors in the success of this technique is proper case selection and careful surgical and orthodontic treatment. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics advocated for comprehensive fixed orthodontic appliances in conjunction with full thickness flaps and labial and lingual corticotomies around teeth to be moved. Bone graft should be applied directly over the bone cuts and the flap sutured in place. Tooth movement should be initiated two weeks after the surgery, and every two weeks thereafter by activation of the orthodontic appliance. Orthodontic treatment time with this technique will be reduced to one-third the time of conventional orthodontics. Alveolar augmentation of labial and lingual cortical plates were used in an effort to enhance and strengthen the periodontium, reasoning that the addition of bone to alveolar housing of the teeth, using modern bone grafting techniques, ensures root coverage as the dental arch expanded. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics is promising procedure but only few cases were reported in the literature. Controlled clinical and histological studies are needed to understand the biology of tooth movement with this procedure, the effect on teeth and bone, post-retention stability, measuring the volume of mature bone formation, and determining the status of the periodontium and roots after treatment. PMID:23960473

  15. Facilitating practical knowledge by using ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Jentoft

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical skills constitute essential knowledge in occupational therapy. The knowledge is situation- and experience-based, generated from within the situation. In a particular program for educating Palestinian Occupational Therapists in Gaza, facilitating such knowledge proved to be difficult. Due to travel restrictions and an unstable political situation, teachers and students were separated. Educational communication technology (ECT like videoconferences, internet and videos became new and necessary tools. This article is based on results from an action research project which followed the process of using flexible forms of learning and developing an internet based learning programme named Ergonet. The learning process of the students using it was examined with the aim of answering the following research question: How can flexible forms of learning be developed and used to facilitate practical knowledge in Occupational Therapy education? The development and implementation of Ergonet as a supporting device in students’ learning of practical skills is described through the experience of the teachers involved. The results indicate how rote-learning and lack of reflective and critical thinking, firmly established among Palestinian students, have been challenged and changed by the didactic use of Ergonet.

  16. Shear stress facilitates tissue-engineered odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M J; Shinohara, Y; Sumita, Y; Tonomura, A; Kagami, H; Ueda, M

    2006-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of shear stress on osteoblasts, but its effect on odontogenic cells has never been reported. In this study, we focused on the effect of shear stress on facilitating tissue-engineered odontogenesis by dissociated single cells. Cells were harvested from the porcine third molar tooth at the early stage of crown formation, and the isolated heterogeneous cells were seeded on a biodegradable polyglycolic acid fiber mesh. Then, cell-polymer constructs with and without exposure to shear stress were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. In in vitro studies, the expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic-related mRNAs was significantly enhanced by shear stress for 2 h. At 12 h after exposure to shear stress, the expression of amelogenin, bone sialoprotein and vimentin protein was significantly enhanced compared with that of control. Moreover, after 7 days, alkaline phosphatase activity exhibited a significant increase without any significant effect on cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, enamel and dentin tissues formed after 15 weeks of in vivo implantation in constructs exposure to in vitro shear stress for 12 h. Such was not the case in controls. We concluded that shear stress facilitates odontogenic cell differentiation in vitro as well as the process of tooth tissue engineering in vivo.

  17. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  18. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Roncaglia-Denissen

    Full Text Available In the current event-related potential (ERP study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first. Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  19. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount impor...

  20. Through the eyes of the student: Best practices in clinical facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculate S. Muthathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical facilitation is an essential part of the undergraduate nursing curriculum. A number of studies address the issue of clinical facilitation in South Africa, but there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding what students perceive as best practice in clinical facilitation of their learning.Objective: To determine what type of clinical facilitation undergraduate students believe should be offered by clinical facilitators (nurse educators, professional nurses and clinical preceptors in the clinical area in order to best facilitate their learning.Method: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted. Purposive sampling was performed to select nursing students from the second, third and fourth year of studies from a selected nursing education institution in Johannesburg. The sampling resulted in one focus group for each level of nursing, namely second, third and fourth year nursing students. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, thematic data analysis was used and trustworthiness was ensured by applying credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability.Main findings: The data revealed that participants differentiated between best practices in clinical facilitation in the clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. In the clinical skills laboratory, pre-contact preparation, demonstration technique and optimising group learning were identified as best practices. In the clinical learning environment, a need for standardisation of procedures in simulation and practice, the allocation and support for students also emerged.Conclusion: There is a need for all nurses involved in undergraduate nursing education to reflect on how they approach clinical facilitation, in both clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. There is also a need to improve consistency in clinical practices between the nursing education institution and the

  1. Through the eyes of the student: Best practices in clinical facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthathi, Immaculate S; Thurling, Catherine H; Armstrong, Susan J

    2017-08-28

    Clinical facilitation is an essential part of the undergraduate nursing curriculum. A number of studies address the issue of clinical facilitation in South Africa, but there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding what students perceive as best practice in clinical facilitation of their learning. To determine what type of clinical facilitation undergraduate students believe should be offered by clinical facilitators (nurse educators, professional nurses and clinical preceptors) in the clinical area in order to best facilitate their learning. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted. Purposive sampling was performed to select nursing students from the second, third and fourth year of studies from a selected nursing education institution in Johannesburg. The sampling resulted in one focus group for each level of nursing, namely second, third and fourth year nursing students. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, thematic data analysis was used and trustworthiness was ensured by applying credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. The data revealed that participants differentiated between best practices in clinical facilitation in the clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. In the clinical skills laboratory, pre-contact preparation, demonstration technique and optimising group learning were identified as best practices. In the clinical learning environment, a need for standardisation of procedures in simulation and practice, the allocation and support for students also emerged. There is a need for all nurses involved in undergraduate nursing education to reflect on how they approach clinical facilitation, in both clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. There is also a need to improve consistency in clinical practices between the nursing education institution and the clinical learning environment so as to support students' adaptation to clinical

  2. Using Mnemonic to Facilitate Learning of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Yin Yin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using mnemonic device to increase the economics concept understanding and fostering academic performance of undergraduates. A quasi-experimental method was applied in this study. There were 90 students selected randomly and divided into two groups (experimental and control group. Two hypotheses had been tested. ANCOVA had been employed for testing the significant effect in mean score of performance post-test within groups. The results showed that the students in experimental group significantly outperformed in their academic performance mean score. The findings of this study revealed that mnemonics are effective in enhancing students’ performance.

  3. Facilitating smallholder tree farming in fragmented tropical landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective of smallh......Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective...... of smallholder farmers, the factors that facilitate their adoption of tree farming, and the potential of landscape-scale approaches to foster sustainable land management. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisals, focus group discussions, field observations, semi-structured interviews of farm households...... to adoption will require management at a landscape scale, including elements of both segregation and integration of land uses, supported by competent government policies and local communities having sufficiently high social capital....

  4. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing in Russian and Chinese Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Kate; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    operations hasbecome an issue of increasing importance. Where the cultural distance between homeand host nations is great, as it is between Western industrialised economies and thetransition economies of the (former) Communist nations, there is even greatersaliency for achieving effective knowledge sharing......The unprecedented escalation in the number of organisations that have decided tointernationalise their operations in the last two decades, and the internationalmovement of labour that has accompanied such expansion, has meant thatunderstanding the process of knowledge sharing within subsidiary...... if its potential value for gainingorganisational competitive advantage is to be harnessed. In examining knowledgesharing in Russia and China, this paper specifically addresses how group membershipand personal networking in these countries facilitate and impede knowledge sharing.Ultimately, the paper...

  5. Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative urban design faces three inherent dilemmas of limitations to time and resources, of barriers to language and communication between professionals and stakeholders, and of the reciprocal nature of the relation between influence and understanding. Parametric design tools may address all...... of these dilemmas, as they provide a fast way to test different design scenarios and make it possible keep designs open while at the same time allowing for a level of detailing which is high enough to facilitate an understanding of the generic qualities of proposed designs. This is particularly relevant...... in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some tentative...

  6. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  7. Balancing Design Project Supervision and Learning Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2012-01-01

    set of demands to the design lecturer. On one hand she is the facilitator of the learning process, where the students are in charge of their own projects, and where learning happens through the students’ own experiences, successes and mistakes and on the other hand she is a supervisor, who uses her...... experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...

  8. Facilitating scholarly writing in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda; Knight, Sharon; Dunn, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scholarly writing is a critical skill for faculty in academic medicine; however, few faculty receive instruction in the process. We describe the experience of 18 assistant professors who participated in a writing and faculty development program which consisted of 7 monthly 75-minute sessions embedded in a Collaborative Mentoring Program (CMP). Participants identified barriers to writing, developed personal writing strategies, had time to write, and completed monthly writing contracts. Participants provided written responses to open-ended questions about the learning experience, and at the end of the program, participants identified manuscripts submitted for publication, and completed an audiotaped interview. Analysis of qualitative data using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification showed that this writing program facilitated the knowledge, skills, and support needed to foster writing productivity. All participants completed at least 1 scholarly manuscript by the end of the CMP. The impact on participants' future academic productivity requires long-term follow-up.

  9. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  10. Brief fear preexposure facilitates subsequent fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs following an unexpected exposure to a severe psychological event. A history of a brief trauma is reported to affect a risk for future PTSD development; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which a previous trauma exposure drives the sensitivity to a late-coming trauma. Using a mouse PTSD model, we found that a prior foot shock enhances contextual fear conditioning. This shock-induced facilitation of fear conditioning (i.e., priming effect) persisted for 7 days and was prevented by MK801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Other types of trauma, such as forced swimming or tail pinch, did not induce a priming effect on fear conditioning. Thus, a trauma is unlikely generalized to modify the sensitivity to other traumatic experiences. The behavioral procedure employed in this study may be a useful tool to elucidate the etiology of PTSD.

  11. Balancing Design Project Supervision and Learning Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2012-01-01

    experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......’s balance between the roles: 1) Design Project Supervisor – and 2) Learning Facilitator – with the aim to understand when to apply the different roles, and what to be aware of when doing so. This paper represents the first pilot-study of a larger research effort. It is based on a Lego Serious Play workshop......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...

  12. NIRPS - Solutions Facilitator Team Overview and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas M., III; Childress, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) purpose is to help preserve and align government and private rocket propulsion capabilities to meet present and future US commercial, civil, and defense needs, while providing authoritative insight and recommendations to National decisional authorities. Stewardship: Monitor and analyze the state of the industry in order to formulate and recommend National Policy options and strategies that promote a healthy industrial base and ensure best-value for the American taxpayer. Technology: Identify technology needs and recommend technology insertions by leading roadmap assessments and actively participating in program formulation activities. Solutions Facilitator/Provider: Maintain relationships and awareness across the Government, industry and academia, to align available capacity with emerging demand.

  13. Drug facilitated sexual assault with lethal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...... segments of hair - up to 12 cm distant from the hair scalp - GHB concentrations were higher than the overall found endogenous range of 2-3 ng/mg. Police investigations revealed that the uncle had also administered GHB to the older half-sister. Therefore, a sample of her hair was analysed accordingly......, but unremarkable results were obtained. Comparing our toxicological results with police investigations and the offender's statements it can be assumed that the 6-year-old girl had ingested GHB. By exclusion of other causes of death a lethal intoxication with GHB could be confirmed....

  14. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-09-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction-diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.

  15. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  16. Paradoxical facilitation of working memory after basolateral amygdala damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Morgan

    Full Text Available Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot "see". To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a 'cooperation through competition' networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical

  17. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina eCasaponsa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the nonnative language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a nonnative language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful nonnative reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the nonnative lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good nonnative reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  18. THE TRANSACTIVE MEMORY SYSTEM AND GROUP LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article lies in the understanding of the learning process that occurs in cross-functional groups in automotive companies in light of the Transactive Memory System (TMS. The specific objectives describe the working methodology applied for the operation of multifunctional groups and its relation to learning; the main factors that facilitate group learning and the moments which there was evidence of group learning. The research methodology used is qualitative and exploratory approaches due to the fact those approaches has been less explored in the academic environment. Two different organizations were investigated: the first one is a multinational which works with a strategy of offering complete innovation product, and the other with strategy of offering incremental innovative products for the automotive industry. The results indicated that the fact TMS acts as an important facilitator of group learning.

  19. Designing Group Examinations to Decrease Social Loafing and Increase Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Lee; Elden, Max; Bartsch, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examines a method to decrease social loafing in a group examination. Students who met in teams during the semester took an exam in groups. Rules for the exam, based on the Jeopardy game show, facilitated both group and individual accountability. Feedback from students indicated that compared to a class that did not have group exams,…

  20. Sharing Research Models: Using Software Engineering Practices for Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Stephanie P; Solano, Eric; Cantor, Susanna; Cooley, Philip C; Wagener, Diane K

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly, researchers are turning to computational models to understand the interplay of important variables on systems' behaviors. Although researchers may develop models that meet the needs of their investigation, application limitations-such as nonintuitive user interface features and data input specifications-may limit the sharing of these tools with other research groups. By removing these barriers, other research groups that perform related work can leverage these work products to expedite their own investigations. The use of software engineering practices can enable managed application production and shared research artifacts among multiple research groups by promoting consistent models, reducing redundant effort, encouraging rigorous peer review, and facilitating research collaborations that are supported by a common toolset. This report discusses three established software engineering practices- the iterative software development process, object-oriented methodology, and Unified Modeling Language-and the applicability of these practices to computational model development. Our efforts to modify the MIDAS TranStat application to make it more user-friendly are presented as an example of how computational models that are based on research and developed using software engineering practices can benefit a broader audience of researchers.

  1. Facilitating PSS workshops: a conceptual framework and findings from interviews with facilitators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, P.; Goodspeed, R.; te Brommelstroet, M.; Geertman, S.; Ferreira, J.; Goodspeed, R.; Stillwell, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of workshops as a venue where planning support systems (PSS) are used in planning processes. Empirical studies of these workshops have previously largely overlooked facilitation, in particular the role of a moderator (steering the discussion) and/or a

  2. What are possible barriers and facilitators to implementation of a Participatory Ergonomics programme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Maurice T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP are common among workers. Participatory Ergonomics (PE is used as an implementation strategy to prevent these symptoms. By following the steps of PE, working groups composed and prioritised ergonomic measures, and developed an implementation plan. Working group members were responsible to implement the ergonomic measures in their departments. Little is known about factors that hamper (barriers or enhance (facilitators the implementation of ergonomic measures. This study aimed to identify and understand the possible barriers and facilitators that were perceived during implementation. Methods This study is embedded in a cluster randomised controlled trial that investigated the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP among workers. For the purpose of the current study, questionnaires were sent to 81 working group members. Their answers were used to make a first inventory of possible barriers and facilitators to implementation. Based on the questionnaire information, 15 semi-structured interviews were held to explore the barriers and facilitators in more detail. All interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim, and analysed according to a systematic approach. Results All possible barriers and facilitators were obtained from questionnaire data, indicating that the semi-structured interviews did not yield information about new factors. Various barriers and facilitators were experienced. The presence of implementation plans for ergonomic measures that were already approved by the management facilitated implementation before the working group meeting. In these cases, PE served as a strategy to improve the implementation of the approved measures. Furthermore, the findings showed that the composition of a working group (i.e., including decision makers and a worker who led the implementation process was important. Moreover, stakeholder involvement and collaboration were reported to

  3. Demystifying facilitation of multi-actor learning processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by

  4. Virtual Research Environments: The role of the facilitator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bowers, N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This conference presentation discusses the authors' duties as the facilitators of the POL-SABINA Natural Products Virtual Research Environment. In summary, they facilitated the use and content population of the Natural Products Virtual Research...

  5. Learning to communicate risk information in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuchi Ting

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.

  6. One Stop Group Law Shop?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The article, which is the editorial for February 2012 i European Company Law, argues that the EU must introduce a directive offering the possibility to a European cross-border group of being treated, for company law reasons, in any EU country according to the same provisions which are in force...... in the parent company's country of domicile, thus facilitating cross-border activities and establishment for European groups of companies. The article argues that an analogy should be drawn from the CCCTB Directive (the Directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base) which is on the threshold of being...... adopted in 2012, allowing cross-border groups to be taxed for corporate tax purposes according to the corporate tax provisions in the country of domicile of the parent company....

  7. The Dynamics of Syntax Acquisition: Facilitation between Syntactic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…

  8. A Gestalt Point of View on Facilitating Growth in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    If counselors are to be facilitators of client growth, it would seem essentail that they become familiar with the concept of growth and ways to facilitate it. The author defines growth from a gestalt therapy point of view and provides techniques and examples of ways to facilitate client growth. (Author)

  9. Facilitating the Design of a Campus Leadership Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Renee A.; Johnson, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This essay describes how we facilitated the design of a campus leadership team. What is particularly interesting about this consultative project is that both authors participated--one as facilitator and the other as participant. The facilitation included a needs assessment prior to the event, the use of structured controversy techniques,…

  10. Positive experiences with a specialist as facilitator in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Thorsen, Thorkil

    2012-01-01

    The use of facilitators for quality improvement in general practice has accelerated during the past decade. As general practitioners (GPs) or pharmacists have typically been used as facilitators, there is a lack of knowledge of how other professionals function as facilitators. This article explor...

  11. Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement.

  12. Facilitating involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous during out-patient treatment: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Dermen, Kurt H; Barrick, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluated two strategies to facilitate involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)--a 12-Step-based directive approach and a motivational enhancement approach--during skills-focused individual treatment. Randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline, end of treatment and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND INTERVENTION: A total of 169 alcoholic out-patients (57 women) assigned randomly to one of three conditions: a directive approach to facilitating AA, a motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA or treatment as usual, with no special emphasis on AA. Self-report of AA meeting attendance and involvement, alcohol consumption (percentage of days abstinent, percentage of days heavy drinking) and negative alcohol consequences. Participants exposed to the 12-Step directive condition for facilitating AA involvement reported more AA meeting attendance, more evidence of active involvement in AA and a higher percentage of days abstinent relative to participants in the treatment-as-usual comparison group. Evidence also suggested that the effect of the directive strategy on abstinent days was mediated partially through AA involvement. The motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA had no effect on outcome measures. These results suggest that treatment providers can use a 12-Step-based directive approach to effectively facilitate involvement in AA and thereby improve client outcome.

  13. Facilitating Involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous During Outpatient Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dermen, Kurt H.; Barrick, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    AIM This study evaluated two strategies to facilitate involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) – a 12-step-based directive approach and a motivational enhancement approach – during skills-focused individual treatment. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline, end of treatment, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, and INTERVENTION 169 alcoholic outpatients (57 women) randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a directive approach to facilitating AA, a motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA, or treatment as usual with no special emphasis on AA. MEASUREMENTS Self-report of AA meeting attendance and involvement, alcohol consumption (percent days abstinent, percent days heavy drinking), and negative alcohol consequences. FINDINGS Participants exposed to the 12-step directive condition for facilitating AA involvement reported more AA meeting attendance, more evidence of active involvement in AA, and a higher percent days abstinent relative to participants in the treatment-as-usual comparison group. Evidence suggested also that the effect of the directive strategy on abstinent days was partially mediated through AA involvement. The motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA had no effect on outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that treatment providers can use a 12-step-based directive approach to effectively facilitate involvement in AA and thereby improve client outcome. PMID:19207347

  14. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers and Facilitators of Inclusive Education in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Simi, Janine

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports perceived barriers and facilitators of disability-inclusive education, and outcomes of an effective system of inclusive education in the Solomon Islands. Data were gathered from a variety of stakeholder group participants (n = 10) and individual key informants (n = 2), ranging from parents of children with disabilities to…

  15. The Use of Silent Single Concept Loop Films to Facilitate the Acquisition of Occupational Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Seymour A.

    Would use of silent concept loop films (SSCLF) facilitate the acquisition of manipulative occupational skills for nonacademic students? What is the effect of SSCLF on the teaching-learning climate? An experiment was undertaken to find answers to these questions. The design used was the Post-test Only Group Design No. 6. The subjects were a sample…

  16. Contributions of Early Language and Maternal Facilitation Variables to Later Language and Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, Rebecca; Deutscher, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of four variables (children's expressive language scores at 30 months of age, mother's facilitation of child language, mother's education, and group assignment) to the prediction of IQ at age 3, verbal IQ at ages 5 and 8, and reading at age 8 for 571 children of low-birthweight. Four separate multiple…

  17. Using Sand Trays and Miniature Figures to Facilitate Career Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Magnuson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Sand tray therapy has earned status as a respected, often powerful, therapeutic modality. Counselors have used sand trays and figures for a variety of purposes with children, adolescents, adults, families, and groups. This modality can also be used to facilitate career decision making and related issues as clients create visual representations of…

  18. Using Sand Trays and Miniature Figures to Facilitate Career Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Magnuson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Sand tray therapy has earned status as a respected, often powerful, therapeutic modality. Counselors have used sand trays and figures for a variety of purposes with children, adolescents, adults, families, and groups. This modality can also be used to facilitate career decision making and related issues as clients create visual representations of…

  19. Third Graders' Understanding of Air Concepts Facilitated by the iPod Inquiry Teaching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-san

    2016-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the learning performance of the air concept unit for third graders in a primary school facilitated by the iPod inquiry teaching method. This study adopts a quasi-experimental method. Participants were third graders in a primary school in New Taipei city. The experimental group consisted of 53…

  20. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity for Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, J.; Shields, N.; Taylor, N. F.; Dodd, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down…

  1. Identifying the Barriers and Facilitators to Participation in Physical Activity for Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, M.; Shields, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many children with Down syndrome do not undertake the recommended amount of daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to physical activity for this group. Methods: Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents (16 mothers, 4 fathers) of children with Down syndrome aged…

  2. Are All Latinas the Same?: Perceived Breast Cancer Screening Barriers and Facilitative Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buki, Lydia P.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.; Feigal, Benjamin M.; Carrillo, Iris Y.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we examine perceived breast cancer screening barriers and facilitative conditions for immigrant women from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, El Salvador, and South America (N=58). Focus groups conducted separately with women of each ancestry were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Identified barriers comprise secrecy, lack of…

  3. Identifying the Barriers and Facilitators to Participation in Physical Activity for Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, M.; Shields, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many children with Down syndrome do not undertake the recommended amount of daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to physical activity for this group. Methods: Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents (16 mothers, 4 fathers) of children with Down syndrome aged…

  4. Regioselective Wacker Oxidation of Internal Alkenes: Rapid Access to Functionalized Ketones Facilitated by Cross-Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill

    2013-07-26

    Wacka wacka: The title reaction makes use of a wide range of directing groups (DG) to enable the highly regioselective oxidation of alkenes, and occurs predictably at the distal position. Both E and Z alkenes afford valuable functionalized ketones and cross-metathesis was shown to facilitate the preparation of the starting materials. BQ=benzoquinone.

  5. Trainer Perceptions of Culture, Race and Ethnicity on Facilitation of Training Programs: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Mari Jo

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how trainers perceive and manage training programs with racially and ethnically diverse participants. Five themes emerged: global perspective, learning styles and culturally diverse participants, facilitation style, preparation for training with culturally diverse groups and, culturally sensitive training materials.…

  6. Are All Latinas the Same?: Perceived Breast Cancer Screening Barriers and Facilitative Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buki, Lydia P.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.; Feigal, Benjamin M.; Carrillo, Iris Y.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we examine perceived breast cancer screening barriers and facilitative conditions for immigrant women from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, El Salvador, and South America (N=58). Focus groups conducted separately with women of each ancestry were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Identified barriers comprise secrecy, lack of…

  7. Transformative Parents: Facilitating Transformative Experiences and Interest with a Parent Involvement Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the implementation of a parental involvement intervention coupled with small group discussions aimed at facilitating transformative experiences (TEs) in science courses (biology and chemistry) in an all-girls middle and high school. Specifically, the goal was to generate parental involvement, TE, and interest. Analyses showed…

  8. Facilitating Argumentative Knowledge Construction through a Transactive Discussion Script in CSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Omid; Weinberger, Armin; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin; Chizari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Learning to argue is prerequisite to solving complex problems in groups, especially when they are multidisciplinary and collaborate online. Environments for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) can be designed to facilitate argumentative knowledge construction. This study investigates how argumentative knowledge construction in…

  9. A Qualitative Examination of Perceived Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity for Urban and Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin B.; Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Shores, Kindal A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Brownson, Ross C.; Novick, Lloyd F.

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescents, both rural and urban, are not meeting the recommended levels for physical activity (PA). This investigation was designed to elicit socioecologic barriers and facilitators for PA in rural and urban middle school youth and their parents. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 41 youth and 50 parents from eastern North Carolina.…

  10. Facilitation of plateau potentials in turtle motoneurones by a pathway dependent on calcium and calmodulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Mejia-Gervacio, S; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    or trifluoperazine reduced the amplitude of depolarization-induced plateau potentials. Inactivation of calmodulin also inhibited facilitation of plateau potentials by activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors or muscarinic receptors. 3. In low-sodium medium and in the presence of tetraethylammonium...

  11. New to Facilitating Self-Directed Learning: The Changing Perceptions of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Conttia; Gardner, David; Law, Ellie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the attitudes and perceptions of a group of in-service teachers who are new or relatively new to facilitating self-directed learning (SDL) before and after they taught a course with an integrated SDL component. The study also investigates the impact on those teachers' attitudes of an orientation package…

  12. In or out? Barriers and facilitators to refugee-background young people accessing mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Erminia; Minas, Harry; Szwarc, Josef; Guerra, Carmel; Paxton, Georgia

    2015-12-01

    Refugee young people have been identified as a group with high risk for mental health problems, due to their experience of trauma, forced migration, and stressors associated with settlement. A high prevalence of mental health problems is reported in this group, however some research suggests refugee young people have low rates of mental health service access. There is little information available on barriers and facilitators to mental service delivery for this group. Using data from 15 focus groups and five key informant interviews with a total of 115 service providers from 12 agencies in Melbourne, Australia, this paper explores barriers and facilitators to engaging young people from refugee backgrounds with mental health services. Eight key themes emerged: cultural concepts of mental health, illness, and treatment; service accessibility; trust; working with interpreters; engaging family and community; the style and approach of mental health providers; advocacy; and continuity of care.

  13. How we capitalised on casual PBL facilitators' expertise and experience to add value to our medical programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Arrigoni, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    While problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely implemented in medical education, it has been acknowledged to be resource-intensive, particularly in terms of academics' time. In some institutions, such as Bond University (Australia), casual facilitators have been employed (paid hourly) to oversee the PBL tutorials. Apart from considerable experience as PBL facilitators, they also have expertise as allied health professionals or biomedical scientists. Several facilitators have educational qualifications. Recognising that their roles have expanded beyond the PBL tutorial room, we canvassed PBL facilitators in terms of their contributions to Bond University's medical programme. We can report that our facilitators have contributed to the renewal of Bond's medical programme, from design (e.g. curriculum structure, case-writing) to PBL case reviews. They are also involved in formative and summative assessment. Facilitators identified that, because of their prolonged involvement with the students in small groups, they consider themselves more than facilitators of student learning. They are role models and personal guides. Recognising the value these casually employed facilitators have added to our medical programme, we will continue to develop their skills in, for example, reviewing cases and assessment. We recommend that if institutions do employ casual facilitators, their expertise and experience can add value to the curriculum and to students' experience.

  14. Anomalous excitation facilitation in inhomogeneously broadened Rydberg gases

    CERN Document Server

    Letscher, Fabian; Niederprüm, Thomas; Ott, Herwig; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    When atomic gases are laser driven to Rydberg states in an off resonant way, a single Rydberg atom may enhance the excitation rate of surrounding atoms. This leads to a facilitated excitation referred to as Rydberg anti-blockade. In the usual facilitation scenario, the detuning of the laser from resonance compensates the interaction shift. Here, we discuss a different excitation mechanism, which we call anomalous facilitation. This occurs on the "wrong side" of the resonance and originates from inhomogeneous broadening. The anomalous facilitation may be seen in experiments of attractively interacting atoms on the blue detuned side, where facilitation is not expected to appear.

  15. Transducer model produces facilitation from opposite-sign flanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. A.; Watson, A. B.; Morgan, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Small spots, lines and Gabor patterns can be easier to detect when they are superimposed upon similar spots, lines and Gabor patterns. Traditionally, such facilitation has been understood to be a consequence of nonlinear contrast transduction. Facilitation has also been reported to arise from non-overlapping patterns with opposite sign. We point out that this result does not preclude the traditional explanation for superimposed targets. Moreover, we find that facilitation from opposite-sign flanks is weaker than facilitation from same-sign flanks. Simulations with a transducer model produce opposite-sign facilitation.

  16. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interspecific competition/facilitation among insect parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Competition for limited resources is a widespread ecological interaction in animals. In the case of insect parasitoids, species can compete for host resources both at the adult stage as well as at the larval stage. Interspecific competition can play a role in sizing and shaping community structures. In addition of being relevant for basic ecological studies, understanding how interspecific competition between parasitoids affects pest suppression is important for biological control. In this opinion paper we review recent advances in the field of interspecific competition among parasitoids in a biological control perspective. We first discuss adult competition, highlighting which factors are likely to play a role in the outcome of competition when adults interact either directly or indirectly. Then we focus on the interactions occurring between competing larvae that develop within the same host taking also into account the fitness consequences of competition for the larva surviving interspecific competition. We also explore the possibility of interspecific facilitation among parasitoids in those situations in which a given species may benefit from interspecific competition.

  18. Teacher as Learning Facilitator in ELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Elena Codruta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom is the magic active scenery where many educational things take place simultaneously.Intellectual, emotional, socio-cultural, motivational and curricular factors corroborate their influence onclassroom environments, whether we deal with traditional models of teaching or with the constructivistapproaches. The growing demand for language teachers, English in particular, has determined a new vision oflanguage teaching strategies. The cutting-edge technology has created a fertile ground which successfullyfosters the teacher –student communication, emphasizing the teacher’s role to guide students and to generate achange in their learning approach and in eliciting useable knowledge. This way, the teacher has a larger abilityto convert knowledge into practical information that is of real help and value to students. Students are involvedin a continuous educational scheme and are tested on what they have learned. This ensures they can alwaysenjoy the benefits of active learning from expert teachers. The present paper deals with a brief analysis of therole of teacher as learning facilitator and its importance for student acquisition process, eliciting some strategiesin support of collaborative and student-centered learning.

  19. Aquaporin-8-facilitated mitochondrial ammonia transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Leandro R; Fanelli, Elena; Altamura, Nicola; Svelto, Maria; Marinelli, Raúl A; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2010-03-05

    Aquaporin-8 (AQP8) is a membrane channel permeable to water and ammonia. As AQP8 is expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane of several mammalian tissues, we studied the effect of the AQP8 expression on the mitochondrial transport of ammonia. Recombinant rat AQP8 was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of AQP8 in the inner membrane of yeast mitochondria was demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting analysis. The ammonia transport was determined in isolated mitochondria by stopped flow light scattering using formamide as ammonia analog. We found that the presence of AQP8 increased by threefold mitochondrial formamide transport. AQP8-facilitated mitochondrial formamide transport in rat native tissue was confirmed in liver (a mitochondrial AQP8-expressing tissue) vs. brain (a mitochondrial AQP8 non-expressing tissue). Comparative studies indicated that the AQP8-mediated mitochondrial movement of formamide was markedly higher than that of water. Together, our data suggest that ammonia diffusional transport is a major function for mitochondrial AQP8. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoret, Carine; Gaudrain, Etienne; Tillmann, Barbara; Grimault, Nicolas; Perrin, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo-words, and complex non-phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub-threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2) that was followed by a two alternative forced-choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo-words) were better detected than non-phonological stimuli (complex sounds), presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo-words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non-speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  1. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  2. Facilitating nurturant fathering behavior in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J C

    1990-09-01

    Many of the roles required of the father of a NICU infant are new and unfamiliar, difficult to carry out, unrehearsed, and yet called for in an unexpected crisis. At a time when they too need nurturing, fathers of high-risk infants are expected to adapt readily and be models of self-control. It is apparent from this investigation that the primary nurse is in a strategic position to assist the new father in his acquaintance with and early adjustment to his infant. Although some of the fathers will become actively involved with their children, others prefer less involvement in infant care taking and display minimal nurturant behaviors. A nurse must be able to recognize these differences and support a father's (and mother's) choice. A couple's sociocultural ideology and perceptions of the father's role, as well as the family dynamics and values, need to be given primary consideration in planning nursing care. In order for the nurse to fulfill an important teaching role for the fathers (parents) of NICU infants, the nurse must meet the needs of each individual father in relation to the family system. This requires systematic and nonjudgmental assessment and caring facilitation of paternal role development and early father-infant and father-mother-infant interactions.

  3. An enhanced archive facilitating climate impacts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E.P.; Brekke, L.; Pruitt, T.; Thrasher, B.; Long, J.; Duffy, P.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D.; Arnold, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the expansion of a publicly available archive of downscaled climate and hydrology projections for the United States. Those studying or planning to adapt to future climate impacts demand downscaled climate model output for local or regional use. The archive we describe attempts to fulfill this need by providing data in several formats, selectable to meet user needs. Our archive has served as a resource for climate impacts modelers, water managers, educators, and others. Over 1,400 individuals have transferred more than 50 TB of data from the archive. In response to user demands, the archive has expanded from monthly downscaled data to include daily data to facilitate investigations of phenomena sensitive to daily to monthly temperature and precipitation, including extremes in these quantities. New developments include downscaled output from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model simulations at both the monthly and daily time scales, as well as simulations of surface hydrologi- cal variables. The web interface allows the extraction of individual projections or ensemble statistics for user-defined regions, promoting the rapid assessment of model consensus and uncertainty for future projections of precipitation, temperature, and hydrology. The archive is accessible online (http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled_ cmip_projections).

  4. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  5. Facilitating Service Discovery with Semantic Overlay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jin; Hao Wu; Xiao-Min Ning

    2006-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing share many common characteristics.It is believed that the combination of the two emerging techniques is a very promising method in promoting the web services (WS). Because the service discovery plays a key role in the integration, here a P2P-based framework to manage the knowledge of service and locating services is proposed. In this paper, the details of the principle, constructing and maintaining of service semantic overlay architecture have been described, and the way how the semantic overlay facilitates discovery of service resources is illustrated. To enable the semantic web service superiority, Service Ontology, which is considered as the service semantic model, is employed to depict service. The service discovery includes two phases: searching on the service semantic overlay; and local discovery in peer's service repository. Various solutions have been proposed to realize those two phases.Furthermore, tests are carried out to evaluate service discovery on the architecture.

  6. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration.

  7. Facilitation of fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation with magnesium sulfate: A double-blind randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgebaly, Ahmed Said; Eldabaa, Ahmed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: A double-blinded, prospective, and randomized study was designed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous (IV) magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) to facilitate fiberoptic bronchoscopic (FOB) nasotracheal intubations. Patients and Methods: A total of 120 patients scheduled to undergo elective awake fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation, while they were anesthetized for elective surgery were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The control Group S (n = 40) received 100 ml (50 ml 0.9% saline + 50 ml paracetamol) was infused in 10 min and direct IV 5 ml 0.9% normal saline, Group MD (n = 40): Received midazolam IV in a dose of 0.07 mg/kg in 5 ml 0.9% normal saline and 100 ml 0.9% was infused in 10 min and Group MS (n = 40): IV 45 mg/kg MgSO4 10 min in 100 ml of 0.9% normal saline through 10 min and direct IV 5 ml 0.9% normal saline. Results: Time required for nasotracheal intubation was significantly less in group Groups MD and MS, as compared with the control group, but not significant between the two groups. (Group MD: 9.05 + 1.95 min, Group MS 3.75 + 0.75 min and Group S 16.85 + 1.7 min). However, the number of fiberoptic intubation was significantly more in the MD and MS groups, as compared with the control group. Easy intubation (control group: 0, Group MD: 25 and Group MS: 35), moderate difficulty (control group: 5, Group MD: 12 and Group MS: 4) and difficult (control group: 35, Group MD: 3 and Group MS: 1). Procedure adverse events were significantly lower in Group MS. None of the patients in Group MS had procedure hypoxia, but it occurred in 10 patients of Group MD and 20 patients in Group S. Six patients in Group S and two in Group MD had procedure apnea whereas, none of the patients in the MS group experienced this. After medication and just before intubation heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly less in Groups MD and MS, as compared to the control group (Group MD: 77 + 7.7 beat/min, Group MS: 70 + 5.6 beat/min and

  8. How interpersonal synchrony facilitates early prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K

    2017-08-09

    When infants and children affiliate with others, certain cues may direct their social efforts to 'better' social partners. Interpersonal synchrony, or when two or more people move together in time, can be one such cue. In adults, experiencing interpersonal synchrony encourages affiliative behaviors. Recent studies have found that these effects also influence early prosociality-for example, 14-month-olds help a synchronous partner more than an asynchronous partner. These effects on helping are specifically directed to the synchronous movement partner and members of that person's social group. In older children, the prosocial effects of interpersonal synchrony may even cross group divides. How synchrony and other cues for group membership influence early prosociality is a promising avenue for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Feature Films to Teach Group Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, J. Michael; Reynolds, Therese

    1998-01-01

    A model for incorporating feature films into a course for training group facilitators is presented. Using cognitive-learning theories, the authors describe how films may be used as an advanced organizer, as the basis for student learning assessment, or as examples of specific theory in action. Specific examples are provided. (Author/EMK)

  10. 75 FR 52355 - Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Prevention Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports... exposures. This notice announces the availability of draft National Conversation work group reports for... National Conversation Leadership Council and facilitating the work group process. DATES: Draft work...

  11. Integrated Groups and Smooth Distribution Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro J. MIANA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we prove directly that α-times integrated groups define algebra homo-morphisms. We also give a theorem of equivalence between smooth distribution groups and α-times integrated groups.

  12. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful. PMID:27512586

  13. An Interagency Collaboration to Facilitate Development of Filovirus Medical Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Nuzum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group (FANG is a US interdepartmental and interagency group established to support and facilitate the advanced development of filovirus Medical Countermeasures (MCM, both vaccines and therapeutics. It is co-led by one representative from the Department of Defense (DoD, the first author, and one from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS, the second author. The FANG membership includes operational level program staff and Subject Matter Experts (SME from performing organizations as well as scientific staff and program managers from DoD and HHS funding and regulatory agencies. Focus areas include animal models, assays, reagents, product manufacture and characterization, and other interagency product development issues that will support Food and Drug Administration (FDA licensure of safe and effective filovirus MCMs. The FANG continues to develop strategies to address broadly applicable and interagency product development challenges relevant to filovirus MCM development. This paper summarizes FANG structure and accomplishments and is meant to heighten community awareness of this government-led collaborative effort.

  14. EFFECTS OF SEGMENTATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL ANIMATION IN FACILITATING LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad Ali

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of segmented-animation, playpause- animation and continuous-animation in facilitating learning of low prior knowledge learners. A courseware prototype entitled Transmission Media was developed for the research purpose. The courseware contains nine animations on various topics in Transmission Media. Pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed on three different groups respectively. The data collected were analyzed statistically by using one-way between-groups ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons. Apparently, the result suggests that segmented-animation was significantly more effective than play-pause-animation and continuous-animation in enhancing students’ learning performance. The result indicates that segmented-animation was beneficial for students in conducting adequate cognitive processes of the information depicted in the animation. Furthermore, the result shows that allowing students to decide the segmentation in play-pause-animation condition does not necessarily promotes better learning. This was due to low prior knowledge students’ inability in deciding the appropriate stop points in animation and/or play-pause-replay button design that might causes split attention effect resulting extraneous cognitive load throughout the learning process.

  15. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  16. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  17. Facilitating interaction, communication and collaboration in online courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Sara G.; Robin, Bernard R.; Miller, Robert M.

    2000-07-01

    As the Internet evolves into a truly world wide communications medium, the roles of faculty and students at institutions of higher learning are changing. Traditional face-to-face classes are being converted to an online setting, where materials from syllabi to lectures to assignments are available at the click of a mouse. New technological options are challenging and changing the very nature of teaching as faculty migrate from being deliverers of information to facilitators and mentors. Students are also undergoing a transformation from passive recipients to participants in an active learning environment. Interactions are at the heart of this revolution as students and faculty create new methodologies for the online classroom. New types of interactions are emerging between faculty and students, between students and other students and between students and the educational resources they are exploring. As the online teaching and learning environment expands and matures, new social and instructional interactions are replacing the traditional occurrences in face-to-face classrooms. New communication options are also evolving as a critical component of the online classroom. The shift from a synchronous to an asynchronous communication structure has also had a significant impact on the way students and faculty interact. The use of e-mail, listservs and web-based conferencing has given teachers and learners new flexibility and has fostered a climate where learning takes place wherever and whenever it is convenient. HyperGroups, a communication tool that was developed at the University of Houston, allows students and faculty to seamlessly participate in course-related discussions and easily share multimedia resources. This article explores the many issues associated with facilitating interaction, communication and collaboration in online courses.

  18. Imagery as a Facilitator of Semantic Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Keri; Ryan, Ellen Bouchard

    The relationship between processing style (either auditory or visual) and sentence and imagery strategies was investigated with a sample of 80 second-grade children. Assignment to auditory- and visual-processor groups was based on subjects' recall of 16 pictograph sequences, four of which included visual interference and four of which included…

  19. Raccoon Circles: A Handbook for Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jim

    This handbook presents a collection of over 35 experiential and adventure-based activities using only a single item of equipment--a 15-foot long section of 1-inch tubular climbing webbing, called a raccoon circle. Some of the activities are quiet, some are loud, and they range from low to high challenge levels. Different-sized groups can be…

  20. IEP Documentation for Effective Systematic Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Peng-Sim

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how the process for IEP documentation was used in a training program for a group of young inexperienced teachers and teaching aides to effectively address the educational needs of children with diverse disabilities. Teachers at Kianh Centre in Vietnam received explicit instructions for writing effective functional individual…

  1. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a "cybercycle;" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.

  2. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence.

  3. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  4. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input.

  5. Metadherin facilitates podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Ting; Peng, Fen-Fen; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Gong, Wang-Qiu; Chen, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yi-Hua; Li, Pei-Lin; Li, Shu-Ting; Xu, Zhao-Zhong; Long, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis, one of the major causes of podocyte loss, has been reported to have a vital role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis, and understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of podocyte apoptosis is crucial. Metadherin (MTDH) is an important oncogene, which is overexpressed in most cancers and responsible for apoptosis, metastasis, and poor patient survival. Here we show that the expression levels of Mtdh and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are significantly increased, whereas those of the microRNA-30 family members (miR-30s) are considerably reduced in the glomeruli of DN rat model and in high glucose (HG)-induced conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5). These levels are positively correlated with podocyte apoptosis rate. The inhibition of Mtdh expression, using small interfering RNA, but not Mtdh overexpression, was shown to inhibit HG-induced MPC5 apoptosis and p38 MAPK pathway, and Bax and cleaved caspase 3 expression. This was shown to be similar to the effects of p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, luciferase assay results demonstrated that Mtdh represents the target of miR-30s. Transient transfection experiments, using miR-30 microRNA (miRNA) inhibitors, led to the increase in Mtdh expression and induced the apoptosis of MPC5, whereas the treatment with miR-30 miRNA mimics led to the reduction in Mtdh expression and apoptosis of HG-induced MPC5 cells in comparison with their respective controls. Our results demonstrate that Mtdh is a potent modulator of podocyte apoptosis, and that it represents the target of miR-30 miRNAs, facilitating podocyte apoptosis through the activation of HG-induced p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:27882943

  6. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  7. Facilitating Analysis of Multiple Partial Data Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimone, Mark W.; Liebersbach, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic Operations Automation: Mechanisms, Imaging, Navigation report Generation (ROAMING) is a set of computer programs that facilitates and accelerates both tactical and strategic analysis of time-sampled data especially the disparate and often incomplete streams of Mars Explorer Rover (MER) telemetry data described in the immediately preceding article. As used here, tactical refers to the activities over a relatively short time (one Martian day in the original MER application) and strategic refers to a longer time (the entire multi-year MER missions in the original application). Prior to installation, ROAMING must be configured with the types of data of interest, and parsers must be modified to understand the format of the input data (many example parsers are provided, including for general CSV files). Thereafter, new data from multiple disparate sources are automatically resampled into a single common annotated spreadsheet stored in a readable space-separated format, and these data can be processed or plotted at any time scale. Such processing or plotting makes it possible to study not only the details of a particular activity spanning only a few seconds, but also longer-term trends. ROAMING makes it possible to generate mission-wide plots of multiple engineering quantities [e.g., vehicle tilt as in Figure 1(a), motor current, numbers of images] that, heretofore could be found only in thousands of separate files. ROAMING also supports automatic annotation of both images and graphs. In the MER application, labels given to terrain features by rover scientists and engineers are automatically plotted in all received images based on their associated camera models (see Figure 2), times measured in seconds are mapped to Mars local time, and command names or arbitrary time-labeled events can be used to label engineering plots, as in Figure 1(b).

  8. Facilitator and Participant Use of Facebook in a Community-Based Intervention for Parents: The InFANT Extend Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Campbell, Karen J; van der Pligt, Paige; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-07-24

    Social networking sites such as Facebook afford new opportunities for behavior-change interventions. Although often used as a recruitment tool, few studies have reported the use of Facebook as an intervention component to facilitate communication between researchers and participants. The aim of this study was to examine facilitator and participant use of a Facebook component of a community-based intervention for parents. First-time parent groups participating in the intervention arm of the extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend) Program were invited to join their own private Facebook group. Facilitators mediated the Facebook groups, using them to share resources with parents, arrange group sessions, and respond to parent queries. Parents completed process evaluation questionnaires reporting on the usefulness of the Facebook groups. A total of 150 parents (from 27 first-time parent groups) joined their private Facebook group. There were a mean of 36.9 (standard deviation 11.1) posts/group, with the majority being facilitator posts. Facilitator administration posts (e.g., arranging upcoming group sessions) had the highest average comments (4.0), followed by participant health/behavior questions (3.5). The majority of participants reported that they enjoyed being a part of their Facebook group; however, the frequency of logging on to their groups' page declined over the 36 months of the trial, as did their perceived usefulness of the group. Facebook appears to be a useful administrative tool in this context. Parents enjoyed being part of their Facebook group, but their reported use of and engagement with Facebook declined over time.

  9. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of bone grafting in corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoreibah, Eatemad A; Ibrahim, Samir A; Attia, Mai S; Diab, May M Nabil

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of bone grafting in corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics in adults, using a further modified conventional corticotomy technique. Twenty adult orthodontic patients with moderate crowding of the lower anterior teeth were equally divided into two groups and treated with either a modified corticotomy-faciIitated orthodontic tooth movement alone (Group I) or modified corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement combined with bone grafting (Group II). Total treatment time was calculated in weeks from the time of activation of the orthodontic appliance immediately following the corticotomy procedure to the time of debracketing. Clinical periodontal parameters and standardized periapical radiographs were recorded at baseline, post-orthodontic treatment (debracketing time) and six months post-operatively. The primary radiographic variables were root length and bone density. Treatment duration for patients in both groups ranged from 14-20 weeks. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in clinical parameters at each time interval. The net percentage of change that occurred to bone density from baseline to six months post-orthodontic treatment was statistically significantly different between the two groups. Group I demonstrated a net decrease in bone density of -17.59%, while Group II demonstrated a net increase in bone density of 25.85%. Group I demonstrated an average net decrease in root length of -0.056 mm +/- 0.025, while Group II demonstrated an average net decrease in root length of -0.050 mm +/- 0.026, which was not statistically significantly different. The results of the current study suggest that corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement significantly reduces the total time of treatment. In addition, the incidence of apical root resorption and periodontal problems associated with orthodontic tooth movement were reduced. The incorporation of bone graft material significantly increased the

  10. Plasticity facilitates sustainable growth in the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Matteo; Poyatos, Juan F

    2013-04-06

    In the commons, communities whose growth depends on public good, individuals often rely on surprisingly simple strategies, or heuristics, to decide whether to contribute to the shared resource (at risk of exploitation by free-riders). Although this appears a limitation, we show here how four heuristics lead to sustainable growth when coupled to specific ecological constraints. The two simplest ones-contribute permanently or switch stochastically between contributing or not-are first shown to bring sustainability when the public good efficiently promotes growth. If efficiency declines and the commons is structured in small groups, the most effective strategy resides in contributing only when a majority of individuals are also contributors. In contrast, when group size becomes large, the most effective behaviour follows a minimal-effort rule: contribute only when it is strictly necessary. Both plastic strategies are observed in natural scenarios across scales that present them as relevant social motifs for the sustainable management of public goods.

  11. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  12. [Facilitating team development for nursing staff--prospects, effects and benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittich, Andrea; Dieterle, Wilfried E; Schüpbach, Heinz; Wirsching, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Facilitating team development is a frequent intervention in hospitals and seen as a probate mean to support the staff. As the method spreads, a need for scientific evidence is articulated. At Freiburg University Hospital, facilitating team development for nursing teams has been empirically evaluated on a broad data basis. The studies focussed on how nurses in a university centre of high tech medicine experience their work situation, what (psychological) stress they feel exposed to and how they appraise the contribution of facilitating team development to prevent and come to terms with that stress. Results prove the effects and benefits of the intervention, particularly with regard to communicational difficulties within the nursing staff and to problems of interdisciplinary cooperation. The sine qua non of successful intervention, as notifying future participants about this particular method or the adequate formation of the group is highlighted.

  13. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  14. A grid to facilitate physics staffing justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric E

    2009-12-03

    Justification of clinical physics staffing levels is difficult due to the lack of direction as how to equate clinical needs with the staffing levels and competency required. When a physicist negotiates staffing requests to administration, she/he often refers to American College of Radiology staffing level suggestions, and resources such as the Abt studies. This approach is often met with questions as to how to fairly derive the time it takes to perform tasks. The result is often insufficient and/or inexperienced staff handling complex and cumbersome tasks. We undertook development of a staffing justification grid to equate the clinical needs to the quantity and quality of staffing required. The first step is using the Abt study, customized to the clinical setting, to derive time per task multiplied by the anticipated number of such tasks. Inclusion of vacation, meeting, and developmental time may be incorporated along with allocated time for education and administration. This is followed by mapping the tasks to the level of competency/experience needed. For example, in an academic setting the faculty appointment levels correlate with experience. Non-staff personnel, such as IMRT QA technicians or clerical staff, should also be part of the equation. By using the staffing justification grid, we derived strong documentation to justify a substantial budget increase. The grid also proved useful when our clinical demands changed. Justification for physics staffing can be significantly strengthened with a properly developed data-based time and work analysis. A staffing grid is presented, along with a development methodology that facilitated our justification. Though our grid is for a large academic facility, the methodology can be extended to a non-academic setting, and to a smaller scale. This grid method not only equates the clinical needs with the quantity of staffing, but can also help generate the personnel budget, based on the type of staff and personnel required

  15. Strategies to Improve Student Reaction to Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriflik, Lynda; Mullan, Judy

    2007-01-01

    After receiving negative feedback from students and tutors about their group work experiences in a health subject, strategies to resolve these collaborative learning issues were considered. The objectives were to facilitate student ability to resolve group work issues, highlight group work as an important graduate attribute and to improve…

  16. Focus Groups among Latino Farmworker Populations: Recommendations for Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon, Helda L.; Luquis, Raffy R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents suggestions for the implementation of focus groups among Latino farmworkers in the United States. Recommendations are based on a study of risk factors for HIV and AIDS among Latino farmworkers. They center on group membership, facilitation, and the focus group process. (SLD)

  17. Students' Use of the Interactive Whiteboard during Physics Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellingsaeter, Magnus Strøm; Bungum, Berit

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of how the interactive whiteboard (IWB) may facilitate collective meaning-making processes in group work in engineering education. In the case, first-year students attended group-work sessions as an organised part of a basic physics course at a Norwegian university college. Each student group was equipped with an…

  18. Employing external facilitation to implement cognitive behavioral therapy in VA clinics: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blevins Dean

    2010-10-01

    control over their clinic schedule and poor communication with clinical leaders. Conclusions These findings suggest that facilitation may help clinicians make complex practice changes such as implementing an evidence-based psychotherapy. Furthermore, the substantial increase in CBT usage among the facilitation group was achieved at a modest cost.

  19. Facilitation and Dominance in a Schooling Predator: Foraging Behavior of Florida Pompano, Trachinotus carolinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan N Schrandt

    Full Text Available Presumably an individual's risk of predation is reduced by group membership and this 'safety in numbers' concept has been readily applied to investigations of schooling prey; however, foraging in groups may also be beneficial. We tested the hypothesis that, when feeding in groups, foraging of a coastal fish (Florida Pompano, Trachinotus carolinus on a benthic prey source would be facilitated (i.e. fish feeding in groups will consume more prey items. Although this question has been addressed for other fish species, it has not been previously addressed for Florida Pompano, a fish known to exhibit schooling behavior and that is used for aquaculture, where understanding the feeding ecology is important for healthy and efficient grow-out. In this experiment, juvenile Florida Pompano were offered a fixed number of coquina clams (Donax spp. for one hour either in a group or as individuals. The following day they were tested in the opposite configuration. Fish in groups achieved greater consumption (average of 26 clams consumed by the entire group than the individuals comprising the group (average of 14 clams consumed [sum of clams consumed by all individuals of the group]. Fish in groups also had fewer unsuccessful foraging attempts (2.75 compared to 4.75 hr(-1 and tended to have a shorter latency until the first feeding activity. Our results suggest fish in groups were more comfortable feeding and more successful in their feeding attempts. Interestingly, the consumption benefit of group foraging was not shared by all--not all fish within a group consumed equal numbers of clams. Taken together, the results support our hypothesis that foraging in a group provides facilitation, but the short-term benefits are not equally shared by all individuals.

  20. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  1. Facilitators for travelling with local public transport among people with mild cognitive limitations after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Agneta; Månsson Lexell, Eva

    2017-01-24

    Previous research of how people with stroke manage public transport has mainly focused on barriers due to physical limitations whereas the influence of cognitive limitations is scarce. There is also a lack of knowledge of facilitators that can help to overcome these barriers. The aim of this study was to describe facilitators for travelling with public transport, e.g. local buses, among people with mild cognitive limitations after stroke. A multiple case study research design was used, where quantitative and qualitative data were utilized, and analysed according to a mixed methods design. The case descriptions reveal how people with mild cognitive limitations after stroke manage their trips but constantly have to be prepared to solve problems to unexpected events. Personal characteristics and other individual strategies together with support and solutions from society were important facilitators for travelling with bus. This study takes a new approach by specifically describing facilitators for travelling with public transport among people with mild cognitive limitations after stroke. To facilitate participation in society for this particular traveller group, occupational therapists have an important role when new technology and interventions that target bus travels, and other modes of transport are developed.

  2. Facilitating learning in large lecture classes: testing the "teaching team" approach to peer learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Lang, Sarah; Maas, Martha

    2010-01-01

    We tested the effect of voluntary peer-facilitated study groups on student learning in large introductory biology lecture classes. The peer facilitators (preceptors) were trained as part of a Teaching Team (faculty, graduate assistants, and preceptors) by faculty and Learning Center staff. Each preceptor offered one weekly study group to all students in the class. All individual study groups were similar in that they applied active-learning strategies to the class material, but they differed in the actual topics or questions discussed, which were chosen by the individual study groups. Study group participation was correlated with reduced failing grades and course dropout rates in both semesters, and participants scored better on the final exam and earned higher course grades than nonparticipants. In the spring semester the higher scores were clearly due to a significant study group effect beyond ability (grade point average). In contrast, the fall study groups had a small but nonsignificant effect after accounting for student ability. We discuss the differences between the two semesters and offer suggestions on how to implement teaching teams to optimize learning outcomes, including student feedback on study groups.

  3. Facilitating Learning in Large Lecture Classes: Testing the “Teaching Team” Approach to Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah; Maas, Martha

    2010-01-01

    We tested the effect of voluntary peer-facilitated study groups on student learning in large introductory biology lecture classes. The peer facilitators (preceptors) were trained as part of a Teaching Team (faculty, graduate assistants, and preceptors) by faculty and Learning Center staff. Each preceptor offered one weekly study group to all students in the class. All individual study groups were similar in that they applied active-learning strategies to the class material, but they differed in the actual topics or questions discussed, which were chosen by the individual study groups. Study group participation was correlated with reduced failing grades and course dropout rates in both semesters, and participants scored better on the final exam and earned higher course grades than nonparticipants. In the spring semester the higher scores were clearly due to a significant study group effect beyond ability (grade point average). In contrast, the fall study groups had a small but nonsignificant effect after accounting for student ability. We discuss the differences between the two semesters and offer suggestions on how to implement teaching teams to optimize learning outcomes, including student feedback on study groups. PMID:21123696

  4. Facilitation as a management discipline to support organizational development processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2015-01-01

    Private and public organisations conduct an ever increasing number of Development workshops, and the focus on effective meetings and structured development processes is significant. On the basis of a literature review, this article elucidates the concept of facilitation and demonstrates how...... for facilitation and ensuring backing for the work required. Preparation of the processes is a main focus of the literature in the field, and several studies stress the advantages of using a model to structure the preparation and execution of the process. Facilitation per se and serving as a facilitator both...

  5. Facilitation as a management discipline to support organizational development processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2015-01-01

    Private and public organisations conduct an ever increasing number of Development workshops, and the focus on effective meetings and structured development processes is significant. On the basis of a literature review, this article elucidates the concept of facilitation and demonstrates how...... for facilitation and ensuring backing for the work required. Preparation of the processes is a main focus of the literature in the field, and several studies stress the advantages of using a model to structure the preparation and execution of the process. Facilitation per se and serving as a facilitator both...

  6. An exploration of teaching presence in online interprofessional education facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sherryn Maree; Ward, Catherine; Reeves, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Although the prevalence of online asynchronous interprofessional education (IPE) has increased in the last decade, little is known about the processes of facilitation in this environment. The teaching presence element of the Community of Inquiry Framework offers an approach to analyze the contributions of online facilitators, however, to date it has only been used on a limited basis in health professions education literature. Using an exploratory case study design, we explored the types of contributions made by IPE facilitators to asynchronous interprofessional team discussions by applying the notion of teaching presence. Using a purposeful sampling approach, we analyzed 14 facilitators' contributions to asynchronous team discussion boards in an online IPE course. We analyzed data using directed content analysis based on the key indicators of teaching presence. The online IPE facilitators undertook the three critical pedagogical functions identified in teaching presence: facilitating discourse, direct instruction, and instructional design and organization. While our data fitted well with a number of key activities embedded in these three functions, further modification of the teaching presence concept was needed to describe our facilitators' teaching presence. This study provides an initial insight into the key elements of online asynchronous IPE facilitation. Further research is required to continue to illuminate the complexity of online asynchronous IPE facilitation.

  7. Restoring Tropical Grassland Productivity with Facilitated Biofertilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    Grazing is the major economic activity in northern Australia's subtropical grasslands, savannah and shrublands that cover >1.9 million km2 however; there has been significant decline in soil fertility that has led to the need to consider ways to improve management. Terrestrial cyanobacteria primarily inhabit complex soil microbial communities that drive physical and biological processes in the topsoil. These microbes facilitate resilience to drought and maintain soil function. They transform their environment through the secretion of mucilaginous organic compounds that improve aggregate stability, porosity, rainfall infiltration rates and water storage, reduce evaporation and soil erosion and, improve seedling emergence. In the northern Australian savannah cyanobacterial communities dominate soil surfaces of the perennial tussock grasslands. The core focus of this research has been to better understand the function of cyanobacteria within the climate-soil-plant ecosystem. The recent discovery that cyanobacteria are programmed to detect and respond only to wet season rains, and remain inactive and unproductive during the dry season even if it rains, has rewritten our understanding of soil nutrient cycles in the northern Australian savannah. In this project we have established: 1. For the wet season trials (Dec 2009-May 2010) the mean values of cyanobacterial crust (0-1 cm depth; n=100) plant-available N fluctuated, yet significantly increased incrementally from Dec to Feb (2.74 ± 0.37SE-5.62 ± 0.82 mg NH4+ kg-1 soil; p = 0.003) and peaked from Mar-May (9.59 ± 1.5SE-16.04 ± 3.2SE mg NH4+ kg-1 soil; p = 0.127) that represented the concluding stages of the wet season. 2. Cyanobacterial rates of N-fixation (determined by Acetylene Reduction assays, n=6 per month), increased significantly from the commencement to the height of the wet season (13.2 ± 2.9SE-30.2 ± 1.9SE kg N ha-1; p = 0.001) and decreased towards the end of the wet season (10.4 ± 1.8SE kg N ha-1; p

  8. Perceived barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with disability: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Synnot, Anneliese

    2016-01-19

    Children with disability engage in less physical activity compared to their typically developing peers. Our aim was to explore the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for this group. Ten focus groups, involving 63 participants (23 children with disability, 20 parents of children with disability and 20 sport and recreation staff), were held to explore factors perceived as barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity by children with disability. Data were analysed thematically by two researchers. Four themes were identified: (1) similarities and differences, (2) people make the difference, (3) one size does not fit all, and (4) communication and connections. Key facilitators identified were the need for inclusive pathways that encourage ongoing participation as children grow or as their skills develop, and for better partnerships between key stakeholders from the disability, sport, education and government sectors. Children with disabilities' need for the early attainment of motor and social skills and the integral role of their families in supporting them were considered to influence their participation in physical activity. Children with disability were thought to face additional barriers to participation compared to children with typical development including a lack of instructor skills and unwillingness to be inclusive, negative societal attitudes towards disability, and a lack of local opportunities. The perspectives gathered in this study are relevant to the many stakeholders involved in the design and implementation of effective interventions, strategies and policies to promote participation in physical activity for children with disability. We outline ten strategies for facilitating participation.

  9. Facilitating participatory steps for planning and implementing low-cost improvements in small workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, practical means of facilitating participatory steps taken in workplace improvement programs in small workplaces were reviewed. The reviewed programs included those organized by partners of our Asian inter-country network for small enterprises, construction sites, home workplaces and agricultural farms. Trainers who commonly acted as facilitators were found to play multiple roles in helping managers, workers and farmers take initiative and achieve immediate improvements. The participatory steps were more successfully facilitated when the trainers supported (a) building on local good practice, (b) focusing on a range of basic ergonomics principles, and (c) stepwise progress through feedback of achievements. The use of action-oriented toolkits comprising low-cost action checklists and group work guides was commonly helpful. The locally adjusted nature of the toolkits seemed essential. Trainers could thus help people build local initiative, plan and implement low-cost ideas through serial group work steps and confirm benefits in a stepwise manner. The review of the results suggested that a local network of trainers trained in the use of locally adjusted toolkits was vital for facilitating effective improvements in different small workplaces.

  10. Magnetic translation groups as group extension

    OpenAIRE

    Florek, Wojciech

    1998-01-01

    Extensions of a direct product T of two cyclic groups Z_n1 and Z_n2 by an Abelian (gauge) group G with the trivial action of T on G are considered. All possible (nonequivalent) factor systems are determined using the Mac Lane method. Some of resulting groups describe magnetic translation groups. As examples extensions with G=U(1) and G=Z_n are considered and discussed.

  11. Using value engineering to facilitate PWAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, R.B.

    1993-03-19

    Value Engineering (VE) is a problem solving methodology that has been used in manufacturing and construction industries for fifty years to improve products, systems and projects while reducing unnecessary cost. A Process Waste Assessment (PWA) is a newly developed methodology designed to characterize waste streams and identify opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste generation. The VE and PWA methodologies are compared to show their general similarities and specific differences, and to suggest how VE can be woven into the PWA methodology. Further, the roles of the VE and PWA team leaders and their training are compared; suggestions are made to help enable the PWA team leader to more effectively lead a group-centered creative process. Examples of how VE has been used in hazardous and radioactive waste minimization and pollution prevention projects are presented, also.

  12. Using hypertext to facilitate nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, D

    1998-01-01

    The increased use of both multimedia and the World Wide Web for nurse education necessitates critical examination of the use of hypertext in nursing education. The use of hypertext and multimedia have the potential to revolutionize teaching and learning generally, and have a significant impact on nursing specifically. This article discusses hypertext use in nurse education and incorporates an examination of cognitive theories to identify specific hypertext design strategies customized for nursing user groups. Particular attention is directed to the application of cognitive flexibility theory to hypertext design for nurse education, highlighting the representation of both complex clinical situations and human physiology. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential uses of hypertext as a means of accessing information by nurses in clinical practice.

  13. Primary care quality improvement from a practice facilitator's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare E; Blazhko, Valeriya; Dingwall, Molly; Singh, Jatinderpreet; Hogg, William E

    2014-02-03

    Practice facilitation has proven to be effective at improving care delivery. Practice facilitators are healthcare professionals who work with and support other healthcare providers. To the best of our knowledge, very few studies have explored the perspective of facilitators. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the barriers that facilitators face during the facilitation process and to identify approaches used to overcome these barriers to help practices move towards positive change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with four practice facilitators who worked with 84 primary care practices in Eastern Ontario, Canada over a period of five years (2007-2012). The transcripts were analyzed independently by three members of the research team using an open coding technique. A qualitative data analysis using immersion/crystallization technique was applied to interpret the interview transcripts. Common barriers identified by the facilitators included accessibility to the practice (e.g., difficulty scheduling meetings, short meetings), organizational behaviour (team organization, team conflicts, etc.), challenges with practice engagement (e.g., lack of interest, lack of trust), resistance to change, and competing priorities. To help practices move towards positive change the facilitators had to tailor their approach, integrate themselves, be persistent with practices, and exhibit flexibility. The consensus on redesigning and transforming primary care in North America and around the world is rapidly growing. Practice facilitation has been pivotal in materializing the transformation in the way primary care practices deliver care. This study provides an exclusive insight into facilitator approaches which will assist the design and implementation of small- and large-scale facilitation interventions.

  14. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  15. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  16. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  17. Langerhans Cells Facilitate UVB-induced Epidermal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Julia M.; Bürgler, Christina D.; Freudzon, Marianna; Golubets, Kseniya; Gibson, Juliet F.; Filler, Renata B.; Girardi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is considered the major environmental inducer of human keratinocyte DNA mutations, including within the tumor-suppressor gene p53, and chronic exposure is associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation. Langerhans cells (LC) comprise a dendritic network within the suprabasilar epidermis, yet the role of LC in UVB-induced carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Herein, we show that LC-intact epidermis develops UVB-induced tumors more readily than LC-deficient epidermis. While levels of epidermal cyclopyrimidine dimers (CPD) following acute UVB exposure are equivalent in the presence or absence of LC, chronic UVB-induced p53 mutant clonal islands expand more readily in association with LC which remain largely intact and are preferentially found in proximity to the expanding mutant keratinocyte populations. The observed LC facilitation of mutant p53 clonal expansion is completely αβ and γδ T-cell independent, and is associated with increased intraepidermal expression of interleukin (IL)-22 and the presence of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3). These data demonstrate that LC play a key role in UVB-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis, and suggest that LC locally stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and innate immune cells that provoke tumor outgrowth. PMID:26053049

  18. Moving stimuli facilitate synchronization but not temporal perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that a moving visual stimulus (e.g., a bouncing ball facilitates synchronization compared to a static stimulus (e.g., a flashing light, and that it can even be as effective as an auditory beep. We asked a group of participants to perform different tasks with four stimulus types: beeps, siren-like sounds, visual flashes (static and bouncing balls. First, participants performed synchronization with isochronous sequences (stimulus-guided synchronization, followed by a continuation phase in which the stimulus was internally generated (imagery-guided synchronization. Then they performed a perception task, in which they judged whether the final part of a temporal sequence was compatible with the previous beat structure (stimulus-guided perception. Similar to synchronization, an imagery-guided variant was added, in which sequences contained a gap in between (imagery-guided perception. Balls outperformed flashes and matched beeps (powerful ball effect in stimulus-guided synchronization but not in perception (stimulus- or imagery-guided. In imagery-guided synchronization, performance accuracy decreased for beeps and balls, but not for flashes and sirens. Our findings suggest that the advantages of moving visual stimuli over static ones are grounded in action rather than perception, and they support the hypothesis that the sensorimotor coupling mechanisms for auditory (beeps and moving visual stimuli (bouncing balls overlap.

  19. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  20. About group digital signatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adriana Cristina Enache

    2012-01-01

    ...).A group digital signature is a digital signature with enhanced privacy features that allows members of a given group to anonymously sign messages on behalf of the group, producing a group signature...