Confirmatieve Factor Analyse (CFA) is een vaak gebruikte methode wanneer onderzoekers een bepaalde veronderstelling hebben over de indeling van items in één of meerdere subtests en willen onderzoeken of deze indeling ook wordt ondersteund door verzamelde onderzoeksgegevens. De meest gebruikte
Brown, Gavin T. L.; Harris, Lois R.; O'Quin, Chrissie; Lane, Kenneth E.
Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) allows researchers to determine whether a research inventory elicits similar response patterns across samples. If statistical equivalence in responding is found, then scale score comparisons become possible and samples can be said to be from the same population. This paper illustrates the use of…
Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.
Rahim, M A; Magner, N R
Confirmatory factor analyses of data (from five samples: N = 308 accountants and finance professionals, N = 578 management and non-management employees, and N = 588 employed management students in the U.S.; N = 728 management and non-management employees in S. Korea, N = 250 management and non-management bank employees in Bangladesh) on the 29 items of the Rahim Leader Power Inventory were performed with LISREL 7. The results provided support for the convergent and discriminant validities of the subscales measuring the five bases of leader power (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, and referent), and the invariance of factor pattern and factor loadings across organizational levels and the three American samples. Additional analysis indicated that leader power profiles differed across the three national cultures represented in the study.
An, M; Kusurkar, R A; Li, L; Xiao, Y; Zheng, C; Hu, J; Chen, M
The Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised (SMMS-R) questionnaire measures students' motivation for studying medicine. It includes three subscales: 'willingness to sacrifice', 'readiness to start', and 'persistence'. Measurement invariance is a prerequisite for group comparisons. The objectives of this study were to verify the factorial structure of the SMMS-R questionnaire and to investigate it's measurement invariance. A total of 989 medical students were approached, 930 cases were kept for data analysis. Factorial structure of and measurement invariance of the SMMS-R were tested using single and multiple group confirmatory factor analyses with Mplus. Trational Cronbach's α along with McDonald's ω and glb were used to measure internal consistency for each subscale. Internal consistency for subscales and the full instrument were within the acceptable range. A 3-factor structure of the Chinese version of the SMMS-R was supported. Full configural, metric and partial scalar invariance were obtained. The SMMS-R showed measurement invariance across gender and two independent samples. So it can be used for group and cross-cultural comparisons.
Heuvelman, Hein; Nazroo, James; Rai, Dheeraj
Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248). We assessed the psychometric properties of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) with a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, assessing the equivalence of factor loadings, response thresholds and residual variances in an analysis of measurement non-invariance. Compared with prevalence among British Whites (5.4%), the prevalence of self-reported psychotic symptoms was greater in the Caribbean group (12.7%, adjusted OR = 2.38 [95% CI 1.84-3.07]). Prevalence was also increased among Pakistani individuals (8.3%, adjusted OR = 1.36 [1.01-1.84]) although this difference was driven by a greater likelihood of reporting paranoid symptoms. PSQ items for thought interference, strange experience and hallucination were measured in equivalent ways across ethnic groups. However, our measurement models suggested that paranoid symptoms were measured less reliably among ethnic minorities than among British Whites and appeared to exaggerate latent differences between Pakistani and White British groups when measurement non-invariance was not accounted for. Notwithstanding evidence for measurement non-invariance, the greater risk for reporting psychotic symptoms among Caribbean individuals is unlikely to be an artefact of measurement. Greater residual variance in the recording of paranoid symptoms among ethnic minority respondents warrants caution in using this item to investigate ethnic variation in psychosis risk.
Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie
Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…
Full Text Available Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL in a non-clinical sample.The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses.Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory.Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the
Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T
Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire) particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL) in a non-clinical sample. The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory. Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the DBIQ-NL in a
Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; ten Berge, Jos M.F.
This study compares two confirmatory factor analysis methods on their ability to verify whether correct assignments of items to subtests are supported by the data. The confirmatory common factor (CCF) method is used most often and defines nonzero loadings so that they correspond to the assignment of
Gabel, Charles Philip; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Barr, Sebastian; Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn; Osborne, Jason W; Melloh, Markus
Purpose The neck disability index (NDI) as a 10-item patient reported outcome (PRO) measure is the most commonly used whiplash associated disorders (WAD) assessment tool. However, statistical rigor and factor structure are not definitive. To date, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has not examined whether the factor structure generalizes across different groups (e.g., WAD versus non-WAD). This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the NDI in these population groups. This study used CFA to analyze NDI baseline-data for WAD (n = 804; 69 % females) and non-WAD (n = 963; 67 % females), each for the full sample and separate genders. Invariance analyses examined the NDI structure across the four groups. Across both populations and gender subgroups the one-factor solutions consistently showed better model fit over two-factor solutions. The NDI was best characterized as one-dimensional and invariant across multiple sub-groups. The NDI remains a valid PRO in WAD populations that provides acceptable measurement of neck status that is appropriate for basic functional assessment across genders. However, it is recommended that both clinicians and researchers initiate the transition toward more rigorous and less ambiguous PRO measurement tools for WAD patients and research. This future graduated movement toward other PROs should consider both regional PROs and computerized decision support systems, initially measured concurrently with the NDI to establish ways to convert existing scored data prior to their singular use.
Fox, Rina S; Lillis, Teresa A; Gerhart, James; Hoerger, Michael; Duberstein, Paul
The DASS-21 is a public domain instrument that is commonly used to evaluate depression and anxiety in psychiatric and community populations; however, the factor structure of the measure has not previously been examined in oncologic settings. Given that the psychometric properties of measures of distress may be compromised in the context of symptoms related to cancer and its treatment, the present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales in cancer patients ( n = 376) as compared to noncancer control participants ( n = 207). Cancer patients ranged in age from 21 to 84 years (mean = 58.3, standard deviation = 10.4) and noncancer control participants ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (mean = 45.0, standard deviation = 11.7). Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural invariance of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales across groups; the factor variance/covariance invariance model was the best fit to the data. Cronbach's coefficient alpha values demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability across the total sample as well as within subgroups of cancer patients and noncancer control participants. Expected relationships of DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scale scores to measures of suicidal ideation, quality of life, self-rated health, and depressed mood supported construct validity. These results support the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales when measuring psychological distress in cancer patients.
Miles, Jeremy N V
This article presents a method for using Microsoft (MS) Excel for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). CFA is often seen as an impenetrable technique, and thus, when it is taught, there is frequently little explanation of the mechanisms or underlying calculations. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that this is not the case; it is relatively straightforward to produce a spreadsheet in MS Excel that can carry out simple CFA. It is possible, with few or no programming skills, to effectively program a CFA analysis and, thus, to gain insight into the workings of the procedure.
Azizoddin, D R; Olmstead, R; Cost, C; Jolly, M; Ayeroff, J; Racaza, G; Sumner, L A; Ormseth, S; Weisman, M; Nicassio, P M
Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to a range of biopsychosocial health outcomes through an unpredictable and complex disease path. The LupusPRO is a comprehensive, self-report measure developed specifically for populations with SLE, which assesses both health-related quality of life and non-health related quality of life. Given its increasingly widespread use, additional research is needed to evaluate the psychometric integrity of the LupusPRO across diverse populations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the LupusPRO in two divergent patient samples and the model fit between both samples. Methods Two diverse samples with SLE included 136 patients from an ethnically-diverse, urban region in southern California and 100 from an ethnically-homogenous, rural region in Manila, Philippines. All patients met the ACR classification criteria for SLE. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFAs) were conducted in each sample separately and combined to provide evidence of the factorial integrity of the 12 subscales in the LupusPRO. Results Demographic analyses indicated significant differences in age, disease activity and duration, education, income, insurance, and medication use between groups. Results of the separate CFAs indicated moderate fit to the data for the hypothesized 12-factor model for both the Manila and southern California groups, respectively [χ 2 (794) = 1283.32, p < 0.001, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.793; χ 2 (794) =1398.44, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.858]. When the factor structures of the LupusPRO in the southern California and Manila groups were constrained to be equal between the two groups, findings revealed that the factor structures of measured variables fit the two groups reasonably well [χ 2 (1697) = 2950.413, df = 1697, p < 0.000; CFI = 0.811]. After removing seven constraints and eight correlations suggested by the Lagrange multiplier test, the model fit improved
Habidin, Nurul Fadly; Zubir, Anis Fadzlin Mohd; Fuz, Nursyazwani Mohd; Latip, Nor Azrin Md; Azman, Mohamed Nor Azhari
Sustainable manufacturing practices (SMPs) have received enormous attention in current years as an effective solution to support the continuous growth and expansion of the automotive manufacturing industry. This reported study was conducted to examine confirmatory factor analysis for SMP such as manufacturing process, supply chain management, social responsibility, and environmental management based on automotive manufacturing industry. The results of confirmatory factor analysis show that fo...
This book provides an up-to-date review of the general principles of and techniques for confirmatory adaptive designs. Confirmatory adaptive designs are a generalization of group sequential designs. With these designs, interim analyses are performed in order to stop the trial prematurely under control of the Type I error rate. In adaptive designs, it is also permissible to perform a data-driven change of relevant aspects of the study design at interim stages. This includes, for example, a sample-size reassessment, a treatment-arm selection or a selection of a pre-specified sub-population. Essentially, this adaptive methodology was introduced in the 1990s. Since then, it has become popular and the object of intense discussion and still represents a rapidly growing field of statistical research. This book describes adaptive design methodology at an elementary level, while also considering designing and planning issues as well as methods for analyzing an adaptively planned trial. This includes estimation methods...
Thiagarajan, Palaniappan; Chakrabarty, Subhra; Taylor, Ronald D.
In 1982, Reilly developed a 13-item scale to measure role overload. This scale has been widely used, but most studies did not assess the unidimensionality of the scale. Given the significance of unidimensionality in scale development, the current study reports a confirmatory factor analysis of the 13-item scale in two samples. Based on the…
Ronald D. Yockey
Full Text Available The relative fit of one- and two-factor models of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis on an ethnically diverse sample of 345 participants. The results indicated that although the two-factor model provided better fit to the data than the one-factor model, neither model provided optimal fit. However, a two-factor model which accounted for common item theme pairs used by Solomon and Rothblum in the creation of the scale provided good fit to the data. In addition, a significant difference by ethnicity was also found on the fear of failure subscale of the PASS, with Whites having significantly lower scores than Asian Americans or Latino/as. Implications of the results are discussed and recommendations made for future work with the scale.
Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E; Milhausen, Robin R
The Female Sexual Functioning Index (Rosen et al., 2000 ) was designed to assess the key dimensions of female sexual functioning using six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. A full-scale score was proposed to represent women's overall sexual function. The fifth revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is currently underway and includes a proposal to combine desire and arousal problems. The objective of this article was to evaluate and compare four models of the Female Sexual Functioning Index: (a) single-factor model, (b) six-factor model, (c) second-order factor model, and (4) five-factor model combining the desire and arousal subscales. Cross-sectional and observational data from 85 women were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis on the Female Sexual Functioning Index. Local and global goodness-of-fit measures, the chi-square test of differences, squared multiple correlations, and regression weights were used. The single-factor model fit was not acceptable. The original six-factor model was confirmed, and good model fit was found for the second-order and five-factor models. Delta chi-square tests of differences supported best fit for the six-factor model validating usage of the six domains. However, when revisions are made to the DSM-5, the Female Sexual Functioning Index can adapt to reflect these changes and remain a valid assessment tool for women's sexual functioning, as the five-factor structure was also supported.
Eaton, Philip; Willoughby, Shannon D.
In 1995, Huffman and Heller used exploratory factor analysis to draw into question the factors of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Since then several papers have been published examining the factors of the FCI on larger sets of student responses and understandable factors were extracted as a result. However, none of these proposed factor models have been verified to not be unique to their original sample through the use of independent sets of data. This paper seeks to confirm the factor models proposed by Scott et al. in 2012, and Hestenes et al. in 1992, as well as another expert model proposed within this study through the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a sample of 20 822 postinstruction student responses to the FCI. Upon application of CFA using the full sample, all three models were found to fit the data with acceptable global fit statistics. However, when CFA was performed using these models on smaller sample sizes the models proposed by Scott et al. and Eaton and Willoughby were found to be far more stable than the model proposed by Hestenes et al. The goodness of fit of these models to the data suggests that the FCI can be scored on factors that are not unique to a single class. These scores could then be used to comment on how instruction methods effect the performance of students along a single factor and more in-depth analyses of curriculum changes may be possible as a result.
Full Text Available Workplace innovation enables the development and improvement of products, processes and services leading simultaneously to improvement in organisational performance. This study has the purpose of examining the factor structure of workplace innovation. Survey data, extracted from the 2014 APS employee census, comprising 3,125 engineering professionals in the Commonwealth of Australia’s departments were analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 69.1% of the variance of the construct. CFA revealed that a two-factor structure was indicated as a validated model (GFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.08, RMR = 0.02, IFI = 0.98, NFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, and TLI = 0.96. Both factors showed good reliability of the scale (Individual creativity: α = 0.83, CR = 0.86, and AVE = 0.62; Team Innovation: α = 0.82, CR = 0.88, and AVE = 0.61. These results confirm that the two factors extracted for characterising workplace innovation included individual creativity and team innovation.
Bott, Marjorie; Karanevich, Alex G; Garrard, Lili; Price, Larry R; Mudaranthakam, Dinesh Pal; Gajewski, Byron
New software that performs Classical and Bayesian Instrument Development (CBID) is reported that seamlessly integrates expert (content validity) and participant data (construct validity) to produce entire reliability estimates with smaller sample requirements. The free CBID software can be accessed through a website and used by clinical investigators in new instrument development. Demonstrations are presented of the three approaches using the CBID software: (a) traditional confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), (b) Bayesian CFA using flat uninformative prior, and (c) Bayesian CFA using content expert data (informative prior). Outcomes of usability testing demonstrate the need to make the user-friendly, free CBID software available to interdisciplinary researchers. CBID has the potential to be a new and expeditious method for instrument development, adding to our current measurement toolbox. This allows for the development of new instruments for measuring determinants of health in smaller diverse populations or populations of rare diseases.
Gabel, Charles P.; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.; Barr, Sebastian; Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Osborne, Jason W.; Melloh, Markus
Purpose The neck disability index (NDI) as a 10-item patient reported outcome (PRO) measure is the most commonly used whiplash associated disorders (WAD) assessment tool. However, statistical rigor and factor structure are not definitive. To date, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has not examined whether the factor structure generalizes across different groups (e.g., WAD versus non-WAD). This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the NDI in these population groups.
Full Text Available Recent studies on the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI support the existence of a unique factor, worry about caregiving performance (WaP, beyond role and personal strain. Our current study aims to confirm the existence of WaP within the multidimensionality of ZBI and to determine if predictors of WaP differ from the role and personal strain. We performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA on 466 caregiver-patient dyads to compare between one-factor (total score, two-factor (role/personal strain, three-factor (role/personal strain and WaP, and four-factor models (role strain split into two factors. We conducted linear regression analyses to explore the relationships between different ZBI factors with socio-demographic and disease characteristics, and investigated the stage-dependent differences between WaP with role and personal strain by dyadic relationship. The four-factor structure that incorporated WaP and split role strain into two factors yielded the best fit. Linear regression analyses reveal that different variables significantly predict WaP (adult child caregiver and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q severity from role/personal strain (adult child caregiver, instrumental activities of daily living, and NPI-Q distress. Unlike other factors, WaP was significantly endorsed in early cognitive impairment. Among spouses, WaP remained low across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR stages until a sharp rise in CDR 3; adult child and sibling caregivers experience a gradual rise throughout the stages. Our results affirm the existence of WaP as a unique factor. Future research should explore the potential of WaP as a possible intervention target to improve self-efficacy in the milder stages of burden.
Schretlen, David J; Peña, Javier; Aretouli, Eleni; Orue, Izaskun; Cascella, Nicola G; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Ojeda, Natalia
We sought to determine whether a single hypothesized latent factor structure would characterize cognitive functioning in three distinct groups. We assessed 576 adults (340 community controls, 126 adults with bipolar disorder, and 110 adults with schizophrenia) using 15 measures derived from nine cognitive tests. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the fit of a hypothesized six-factor model. The hypothesized factors included attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, visual memory, ideational fluency, and executive functioning. The six-factor model provided an excellent fit for all three groups [for community controls, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) schizophrenia, RMSEA = 0.06 and CFI = 0.98]. Alternate models that combined fluency with processing speed or verbal and visual memory reduced the goodness of fit. Multi-group CFA results supported factor invariance across the three groups. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a single six-factor structure of cognitive functioning among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and community controls. While the three groups clearly differ in level of performance, they share a common underlying architecture of information processing abilities. These cognitive factors could provide useful targets for clinical trials of treatments that aim to enhance information processing in persons with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lane, A M; Sewell, D F; Terry, P C; Bartram, D; Nesti, M S
The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) using confirmatory factor analysis. Volunteer participants (n = 1213) completed the CSAI-2 approximately 1 h before competition and the data were analysed in two samples. The hypothesized model showed poor fit indices in both samples independently (Robust Comparative Fit Index: sample A = 0.82, sample B = 0.84) and simultaneously (Comparative Fit Index = 0.83), suggesting that the factor structure proposed by Martens et al. is flawed. Our findings suggest that a limitation of the Cognitive Anxiety scale derives from phrasing items around the word 'concerned' rather than 'worried'. We suggest that being concerned about an impending performance does not necessarily mean that an athlete is experiencing negative thoughts, but that the athlete is acknowledging the importance and difficulty of the challenge and is attempting to mobilize resources to cope. The present results question the use of the CSAI-2 as a valid measure of competitive state anxiety.
Ana Maria T. Benevides-Pereira
Full Text Available AimBurnout is a dysfunctional reaction to chronic occupational stress. The present study analysis the psychometric qualities of the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (ISB through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA.MethodEmpirical study in a multi-centre and multi-occupational sample (n = 701 using the ISB. The Part I assesses antecedent factors: Positive Organizational Conditions (PC and Negative Organizational Conditions (NC. The Part II assesses the syndrome: Emotional Exhaustion (EE, Dehumanization (DE, Emotional Distancing (ED and Personal Accomplishment (PA.ResultsThe highest means occurred in the positive scales CP (M = 23.29, SD = 5.89 and PA (M = 14.84, SD = 4.71. Negative conditions showed the greatest variability (SD = 6.03. Reliability indexes were reasonable, with the lowest rate at .77 for DE and the highest rate .91 for PA. The CFA revealed RMSEA = .057 and CFI = .90 with all scales regressions showing significant values (β = .73 until β = .92.ConclusionThe ISB showed a plausible instrument to evaluate burnout. The two sectors maintained the initial model and confirmed the theoretical presupposition. This instrument makes possible a more comprehensive idea of the labour context, and one or another part may be used separately according to the needs and the aims of the assessor.
Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. "nMethod: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. "nResults: As expected, the two-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than a single factor. Moreover, multi-group analyses showed that this two-factor structure was invariant across sex. Hence, AMAS provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. "nConclusions: Brief AMAS demonstrates adequate reliability and validity. The AMAS scores can be used to compare symptoms of math anxiety between male and female students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.
Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark
This study aimed to examine the structure of self-reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The analyses were based on responses from 1116 participants who had suffered whiplash injuries and screened for full or subclinical PTSD using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria and arousal factors fitted the data very well. Correlations with criteria measures showed that these factors were associated with other trauma related variables in a theoretically predictable way and showed evidence of unique predictive utility. These results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings.
Gabel, Charles Philip; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Osborne, Jason W; Burkett, Brendan; Melloh, Markus
The Neck Disability Index frequently is used to measure outcomes of the neck. The statistical rigor of the Neck Disability Index has been assessed with conflicting outcomes. To date, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Neck Disability Index has not been reported for a suitably large population study. Because the Neck Disability Index is not a condition-specific measure of neck function, initial Confirmatory Factor Analysis should consider problematic neck patients as a homogenous group. We sought to analyze the factor structure of the Neck Disability Index through Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a symptomatic, homogeneous, neck population, with respect to pooled populations and gender subgroups. This was a secondary analysis of pooled data. A total of 1,278 symptomatic neck patients (67.5% female, median age 41 years), 803 nonspecific and 475 with whiplash-associated disorder. The Neck Disability Index was used to measure outcomes. We analyzed pooled baseline data from six independent studies of patients with neck problems who completed Neck Disability Index questionnaires at baseline. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis was considered in three scenarios: the full sample and separate sexes. Models were compared empirically for best fit. Two-factor models have good psychometric properties across both the pooled and sex subgroups. However, according to these analyses, the one-factor solution is preferable from both a statistical perspective and parsimony. The two-factor model was close to significant for the male subgroup (pfactor structure when analyzed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a pooled, homogenous sample of neck problem patients. However, a two-factor model did approach significance for male subjects where questions separated into constructs of mental and physical function. Further investigations in different conditions, subgroup and sex-specific populations are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tupa, David J.; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Fristad, Mary A.
Factor models of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) for one, two, three, and four factors were tested using confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 177 child psychiatric inpatients. The four-factor model proposed in the WISC-III manual provided the best fit to the data. (SLD)
Rowe, Ellen W.; Dandridge, Jessica; Pawlush, Alexandra; Thompson, Dawna F.; Ferrier, David E.
These 2 studies investigated the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) with exploratory factor analysis (EFA; Study 1) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; Study 2) among 2 independent samples of gifted students. The EFA sample consisted of 225 children who were referred for a…
The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was examined with a sample of 578 Black college students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the AMS was conducted. Results indicated that the hypothesized seven-factor model did not fit the data. Implications for future research with the AMS are discussed.
Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.
This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…
Niclasen, Janni; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a Structural Confirmatory Factor Analytic approach. The Danish translation of the SDQ was distributed to 71,840 parents and teachers of 5-7 and 10-12-year-old boys and girls from ...
Villares, Elizabeth; Mariani, Melissa; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly
Researchers analyzed data from elementary teachers (N = 233) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form. Supporting previous psychometric research, confirmatory factor analyses findings supported the factorial validity of the hypothesized five-factor solution. Internal reliability estimates were…
Edwards, Michael C.
Item factor analysis has a rich tradition in both the structural equation modeling and item response theory frameworks. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a novel combination of various Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation routines to estimate parameters of a wide variety of confirmatory item factor analysis models. Further, I show…
Devena, Sarah E.; Gay, Catherine E.; Watkins, Marley W.
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) scores of 297 children referred to a children's hospital in the Southwestern United States. Results support previous findings that indicate the WISC-IV is best represented by a direct hierarchical…
Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia
This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…
Can, Seda; van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Hox, Joop|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073351431
Because variables may be correlated in the social and behavioral sciences, multicollinearity might be problematic. This study investigates the effect of collinearity manipulated in within and between levels of a two-level confirmatory factor analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the
Brigman, Greg; Wells, Craig; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Carey, John C.; Harrington, Karen
This article describes the confirmatory factor analysis of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills (SESSS) instrument. The results of this study confirm that the SESSS has potential to be a useful self-report measure of elementary students' use of strategies and skills associated with enhanced academic learning and achievement.
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.
Objective: This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFAs). Method: A total of 3,649 students responded to the C-FAI in a community survey. Results: Results showed that there are five dimensions of the C-FAI (communication,…
Hatami, Gissou; Motamed, Niloofar; Ashrafzadeh, Mahshid
Validity and reliability of Persian adaptation of MSLSS in the 12-18 years, middle and high school students (430 students in grades 6-12 in Bushehr port, Iran) using confirmatory factor analysis by means of LISREL statistical package were checked. Internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's coefficient [alpha]) were all above the…
Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David
The Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) (Jones, M. V., Lane, A. M., Bray, S. R., Uphill, M., & Catlin, J. (2005). Development and validation of the SEQ. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27, 407-431) was developed and initially validated to assess sport performers' pre-competitive emotions. The purpose of this study was to test the factor structure of the SEQ in a different environment (viz. organisational) and at a different time point (viz. the past month). A further aim was to examine if the SEQ was invariant across different groups of sport performers. A diverse sample of athletes (n = 1277) completed the questionnaire. Fit indices from confirmatory factor analyses provided partial support for the hypothesised measurement model, with equal or better fit demonstrated than evident in initial validation. The comparative fit index values were above acceptable guidelines for all factors at subscale level. Evidence was also found for the invariance of the SEQ across different groups. Overall, the findings support the reliability and validity of the SEQ as a measure of the emotions experienced by sport performers in an organisational environment during the past month.
Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve
Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.
Full Text Available The Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS, a measure specifically designed to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure, was used to evaluate the presence of social anhedonia in patients as well as the general population. The first goal of this study was to validate the structure of the French version of the ACIPS. The second objective was to verify whether a one, two or three factor solution is most appropriate for the ACIPS scale. The French version of the ACIPS was tested on 263 French-speaking pre-graduate students or professional volunteers. For the confirmatory factor analysis, data were treated as categorical ordinal and all the models were estimated using a robust weighted least squares estimator with adjustments for the mean and variance. Three models were estimated. A one-factor model representing a general undifferentiated “pleasure” latent construct was first tested on the 17 ACIPS items. A two-factor model distinguishing anticipatory-pleasure and consummatory-pleasure was tested next. Finally, a three-factor model including subdomains of intimate social interactions, group social interactions, and social bonding was tested. The one and two-factor models showed a somewhat poor fit to the data. However, the goodness of fit of the three factor model was adequate. These results suggest that individuals who enjoyed interaction in one of these three subdomains were more likely to enjoy doing so in the two other domains. However, on the basis of the comparison between the one and three factor models, these three types of interactions may not be considered as indistinguishable. Rather, they represent distinct and theoretically meaningful dimensions. These results show the French version of the ACIPS is a useful and valid scale to measure the capacity of savoring different kinds of social relationships.
This research aims to analyze factors of science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools. The research instrument was a five scale rating questionnaire with reliability 0.986. The sample group included 500 science teachers from World-Class Standard Schools who had been selected by using the stratified random sampling technique. Factor analysis of science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools was conducted by using M plus for Windows. The results are as follows: The results of confirmatory factor analysis on science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools revealed that the model significantly correlated with the empirical data. The consistency index value was x2 = 105.655, df = 88, P-Value = 0.086, TLI = 0.997, CFI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.022, and SRMR = 0.019. The value of factor loading of science teacher leadership was positive, with statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The value of six factors was between 0.880-0.996. The highest factor loading was the professional learning community, followed by child-centered instruction, participation in development, the role model in teaching, transformational leaders, and self-development with factor loading at 0.996, 0.928, 0.911, 0.907, 0.901, and 0.871, respectively. The reliability of each factor was 99.1%, 86.0%, 83.0%, 82.2%, 81.0%, and 75.8%, respectively.
Farris, Samantha G; DiBello, Angelo M; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Abrantes, Ana M
The Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET; Adams et al. 2011) is a self-report measure designed to assess multiple reasons why and when smokers use cigarettes for appetite, weight, and shape management, that was initially developed and validated in young female smokers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SWEET measure among both male and female daily cigarette smokers. Participants (n = 577; M age = 44.42; SD = 13.80; 52.7% female) were daily smokers recruited through Qualtrics Online Sample for an anonymous study on smoking and health. On average, participants reported smoking for 25.7 years (SD = 14.35), smoked 17.0 cigarettes per day (SD = 8.38), and had moderate levels of tobacco dependence. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the initial factor structure found in the original SWEET measure suggesting a four-factor structure fit the data well, but not a one-factor structure. Factors included using cigarettes for appetite suppression, using cigarettes to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and using cigarettes to cope with appetite-related withdrawal symptoms. Tests of measurement invariance revealed no significant differences when evaluating SWEET scores by participant sex. The SWEET factor scores evidenced internal consistency, known groups validity, convergent validity with related constructs (compensatory eating behaviors, tobacco dependence) and cessation-relevant variables (smoking abstinence expectancies, prior withdrawal symptoms), and discriminant validity with physical activity and sedentary behavior. The present study provides evidence in support of the validity and reliability of scores on the SWEET as a multidimensional measure of smoking for appetite, weight, and body-related concerns in male and female daily cigarette smokers.
Hossein Bevrani, PhD
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Statistics Anxiety Measure (SAM, proposed by Earp.Method: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian adaptation of SAM.Results: As expected, the second order model provided a better fit to the data than the three alternative models. Conclusions: Hence, SAM provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.
Schuberth, Florian; Henseler, Jörg; Dijkstra, Theo K.
We introduce confirmatory composite analysis (CCA) as a structural equation modeling technique that aims at testing composite models. CCA entails the same steps as confirmatory factor analysis: model specification, model identification, model estimation, and model testing. Composite models are
Zubir, S. N. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Mustapha, K. N. M.; Che Muda, Z.; Ghazali, A.; Hakimie, H.
For the past few years, natural disaster has been the subject of debate in disaster management especially in flood disaster. Each year, natural disaster results in significant loss of life, destruction of homes and public infrastructure, and economic hardship. Hence, an effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life saving. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic to decision making for flood disaster management in Malaysia. The key elements of decision making in the disaster management were studied based on the literature. Questionnaire surveys were administered among lead agencies at East Coast of Malaysia in the state of Kelantan and Pahang. A total of 307 valid responses had been obtained for further analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to analyse the measurement model involved in the study. The CFA for second-order reflective and first-order reflective measurement model indicates that approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic have a significant and direct effect on decision making during disaster. The results from this study showed that decision- making during disaster is an important element for disaster management to necessitate a successful collaborative decision making. The measurement model is accepted to proceed with further analysis known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and can be assessed for the future research.
Giovanni A. Salum
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880, fear disorders (n = 108, distress disorders (n = 76, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143 and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56. Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.
Salum, Giovanni A; DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Pan, Pedro Mario; Gadelha, Ary; Brietzke, Elisa; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Mari, Jair J; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo
To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM) comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM) was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880), fear disorders (n = 108), distress disorders (n = 76), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143) and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56). A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment) encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report) exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.
Meng, Lina; Jin, Yi
Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging students' engagement with course work. Educators are finding instruments to measure students' engagement in order to develop strategies to improve it. Little is known about the factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students among Chinese nursing students. The aim of this research was to examine the factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students via confirmatory factor analysis. The study used a cross-sectional design. A sample of 480 students from a nursing school in one Chinese university completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. Factor analysis was used to analyze the resulting data. The overall results of internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence supporting the reliability and three-factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. The total internal consistency reliability coefficients were 0.91. Model comparison tests indicated that an oblique factors model that permitted correlations between pairs of error terms fitted the data better than other first-order models. In addition, due to the three strongly intercorrelated factors, a second-order model was found to fit the data well, providing support for the factorial structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. The findings of confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence supporting the reliability and three-factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students when evaluated with a Chinese nursing student sample in this study. Thus, it is appropriate to use The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students in for assessing the engagement among Chinese nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Musa, Muhd Firdaus Che; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E
Malaysia has experienced a significant expansion of dental schools over the past decade. Research into students' motivation may inform recruitment and retention of the future dental workforce. The objectives of this study were to explore students' motivation to study dentistry and whether that motivation varied by students' and school characteristics. All 530 final-year students in 11 dental schools (6 public and 5 private) in Malaysia were invited to participate at the end of 2013. The self-administered questionnaire, developed at King's College London, collected information on students' motivation to study dentistry and demographic background. Responses on students' motivation were collected using five-point ordinal scales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the underlying structure of students' motivation to study dentistry. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare factor scores for overall motivation and sub-domains by students' and school characteristics. Three hundred and fifty-six final-year students in eight schools (all public and two private) participated in the survey, representing an 83% response rate for these schools and 67% of all final-year students nationally. The majority of participants were 24 years old (47%), female (70%), Malay (56%) and from middle-income families (41%) and public schools (78%). CFA supported a model with five first-order factors (professional job, healthcare and people, academic, careers advising and family and friends) which were linked to a single second-order factor representing overall students' motivation. Academic factors and healthcare and people had the highest standardized factor loadings (0.90 and 0.71, respectively), suggesting they were the main motivation to study dentistry. MANOVA showed that students from private schools had higher scores for healthcare and people than those in public schools whereas Malay students had lower scores for family and friends than those
Palmieri, Patrick A; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) factor analytic research to date has not provided a clear consensus on the structure of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Seven hypothesized factor structures were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, a paper-and-pencil measure of posttraumatic stress symptom severity, in a sample of 1,218 women who experienced a broad range of workplace sexual harassment. The model specifying correlated re-experiencing, effortful avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal factors provided the best fit to the data. Virtually no support was obtained for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) three-factor model of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal factors. Different patterns of correlations with external variables were found for the avoidance and emotional numbing factors, providing further validation of the supported model.
Greve, Kevin W; Stickle, Timothy R; Love, Jeffrey M; Bianchini, Kevin J; Stanford, Matthew S
The present study represents the first large scale confirmatory factor analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The results generally support the three factor solutions reported in the exploratory factor analysis literature. However, only the first factor, which reflects general executive functioning, is statistically sound. The secondary factors, while likely reflecting meaningful cognitive abilities, are less stable except when all subjects complete all 128 cards. It is likely that having two discontinuation rules for the WCST has contributed to the varied factor analytic solutions reported in the literature and early discontinuation may result in some loss of useful information. Continued multivariate research will be necessary to better clarify the processes underlying WCST performance and their relationships to one another.
Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Solera Martinez, M; Rodriguez Moya, Alejandro; Perez, Y; Martinez Vizcaino, V
Purpose: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test whether a four factor might explain the clustering of the components of the physical fitness in adults with intellectual disabilities (FID). Relevance: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are significantly weaker than individuals without ID at all stages of life. These subjects might be particularly susceptible to loss of basic function because of poor physical fitness. Participants: We studied 267 adults with intellectual...
Moyo, Patience; Huang, Ting-Ying; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Harrington, Donna
This study examined the latent constructs of delirium symptoms among nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Cross-sectional NH assessment data (Minimum Data Set 2.0) from the 2009 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were used. Data from two independent, randomly selected subsamples of residents ≥65 years were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). There were 367 and 366 individuals in the EFA and CFA, respectively. Assessment of multiple model fit statistics in CFA indicated that the two-factor structure provided better fit for the data than a one-factor solution. The two factors represented cognitive and behavioral latent constructs as suggested by the related literature. A correlation of .72 between these constructs suggested moderate discriminant validity. This finding emphasizes the importance of health care providers to be attentive to both cognitive and behavioral symptoms when diagnosing, treating, and managing delirium.
Full Text Available The research aims to develop the valid and reliable measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention in vocational secondary school students. Multi stage random sampling was used as the technique to determine sample (300 respondents. The research method used research and development with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Result of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA at the second order with robust maximum likelihood method shows that valid and reliable instrument with the acquisition value of loading factor is more than 0.5 (> 0,5 and a significance value of t is more than 1,96 (> 1,96. Reliability test results shows that the value of the combined construct reliability (CR of 0.97and a variance value extract (VE to 0.52 is greater than the limit of acceptance CR ≥ 0.70 and VE ≥ 0.50. The conclusion of the measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention with three dimensions and 31 items met the standards of validity and reliability in accordance with the instrument development process.
LaNoue, Marianna; Harvey, Abby; Mautner, Dawn; Ku, Bon; Scott, Kevin
The factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale remains in question. Additionally, research on health belief differences between Black and White respondents suggests that the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale may not be invariant. We reviewed the literature regarding the latent variable structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the three-factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and analyzed between-group differences in the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control structure and means across Black and White respondents. Our results indicate differences in means and structure, indicating more research is needed to inform decisions regarding whether and how to deploy the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control appropriately.
Annear, Michael J; Toye, Chris; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; McInerney, Frances; Eccleston, Claire; Robinson, Andrew
Dementia is a life-limiting condition that is increasing in global prevalence in line with population ageing. In this context, it is necessary to accurately measure dementia knowledge across a spectrum of health professional and lay populations with the aim of informing targeted educational interventions and improving literacy, care, and support. Building on prior exploratory analysis, which informed the development of the preliminarily valid and reliable version of the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKAS), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to affirm construct validity and proposed subscales to further increase the measure's utility for academics and educators. A large, de novo sample of 3649 volunteer respondents to a dementia-related online course was recruited to evaluate the performance of the DKAS and its proposed subscales. Respondents represented diverse cohorts, including health professionals, students, and members of the general public. Analyses included CFA (using structural equation modelling), measures of internal consistency (α), and non-parametric tests of subscale correlation (Spearman Correlation) and score differences between cohorts (Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance). Findings of the CFA supported a 25-item, four-factor model for the DKAS with two items removed due to poor performance and one item moved between factors. The resultant model exhibited good reliability (α = .85; ω h = .87; overall scale), with acceptable subscale internal consistency (α ≥ .65; subscales). Subscales showed acceptable correlation without any indication of redundancy. Finally, total and DKAS subscale scores showed good discrimination between cohorts of respondents who would be anticipated to hold different levels of knowledge on the basis of education or experience related to dementia. The DKAS has been confirmed as a reliable and valid measure of dementia knowledge for diverse populations that is capable of elucidating
Simon, Daniela; Kriston, Levente; Loh, Andreas; Spies, Claudia; Scheibler, Fueloep; Wills, Celia; Härter, Martin
Validation of the German version of the Autonomy-Preference-Index (API), a measure of patients' preferences for decision making and information seeking. Stepwise confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on a sample of patients (n = 1592) treated in primary care for depression (n = 186), surgical and internal medicine inpatients (n = 811) and patients with minor trauma treated in an emergency department (n = 595). An initial test of the model was done on calculation and validation halves of the sample. Both local and global indexes-of-fit suggested modifications to the scale. The scale was modified and re-tested in the calculation sample and confirmed in the validation sample. Subgroup analyses for age, gender and type of treatment setting were also performed. The confirmatory analysis led to a modified version of the API with better local and global indexes-of-fit for samples of German-speaking patients. Two items of the sub-scale, 'preference for decision-making', and one item of the sub-scale, 'preference for information seeking', showed very low reliability scores and were deleted. Thus, several global indexes-of-fit clearly improved significantly. The modified scale was confirmed on the validation sample with acceptable to good indices of fit. Results of subgroup analyses indicated that no adaptations were necessary. This first confirmatory analysis for a German-speaking population showed that the API was improved by the removal of several items. There were theoretically plausible explanations for this improvement suggesting that the modifications might also be appropriate in English and other language versions.
Greenley, Rachel Neff; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Blount, Ronald L; Wilson, Helen W
Evaluate the factor structure of youth and maternal involvement ratings on the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Family Responsibility Questionnaire, a measure of family allocation of condition management responsibilities in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Participants included 251 youth aged 11-18 years with inflammatory bowel disease and their mothers. Item-level descriptive analyses, subscale internal consistency estimates, and confirmatory factor analyses of youth and maternal involvement were conducted using a dyadic data-analytic approach. Results supported the validity of 4 conceptually derived subscales including general health maintenance, social aspects, condition management tasks, and nutrition domains. Additionally, results indicated adequate support for the factor structure of a 21-item youth involvement measure and strong support for a 16-item maternal involvement measure. Additional empirical support for the validity of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Family Responsibility Questionnaire was provided. Future research to replicate current findings and to examine the measure's clinical utility is warranted.
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John
The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. The college students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. However, the results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire could be revised to improve its construct validity. The goal of this study was to revise the questionnaire and establish its construct validity through a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a Rasch analysis was applied to the data to better understand the psychometric properties of the inventory and to further evaluate the construct validity. Results indicated that the final, revised inventory is a valid, reliable, and efficient tool for assessing student metacognition for physics problem solving.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Results showed that the item use of sleep medicine was not suitable for use with this population, that a two-factor model provided the best fit to the data as assessed through confirmatory factor analysis, and that other indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality but not the sleep efficiency factor.
Full Text Available This study examined the psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ. The 24-item EBPQ was developed to measure health professionals’ attitudes toward, knowledge of, and use of evidence-based practice (EBP. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the EBPQ given to a random sample of National Association of Social Work members (N = 167. The coefficient alpha of the EBPQ was .93. The study supported a 23-item 3-factor model with acceptable model fit indices (χ² = 469.04; RMSEA = .081; SRMR = .068; CFI = .900. This study suggests a slightly modified EBPQ may be a useful tool to assess social workers’ attitudes toward, knowledge of, and use of EBP.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ - 12 was designed as a short questionnaire to assess psychiatric morbidity. Despite the fact that studies have suggested a number of competing multidimensional factor structures, it continues to be largely used as a unidimensional instrument. This may have an impact on the identification of psychiatric morbidity in target populations. The aim of this study was to explore the dimensionality of the GHQ-12 and to evaluate a number of alternative models for the instrument. Methods The data were drawn from a large heterogeneous sample of cancer patients. The Partial Credit Model (Rasch was applied to the 12-item GHQ. Item misfit (infit mean square ≥ 1.3 was identified, misfitting items removed and unidimensionality and differential item functioning (age, gender, and treatment aims were assessed. The factor structures of the various alternative models proposed in the literature were explored and optimum model fit evaluated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results The Rasch analysis of the 12-item GHQ identified six misfitting items. Removal of these items produced a six-item instrument which was not unidimensional. The Rasch analysis of an 8-item GHQ demonstrated two unidimensional structures corresponding to Anxiety/Depression and Social Dysfunction. No significant differential item functioning was observed by age, gender and treatment aims for the six- and eight-item GHQ. Two models competed for best fit from the confirmatory factor analysis, namely the GHQ-8 and Hankin's (2008 unidimensional model, however, the GHQ-8 produced the best overall fit statistics. Conclusions The results are consistent with the evidence that the GHQ-12 is a multi-dimensional instrument. Use of the summated scores for the GHQ-12 could potentially lead to an incorrect assessment of patients' psychiatric morbidity. Further evaluation of the GHQ-12 with different target populations is warranted.
Masuwai, Azwani; Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Saad, Noor Shah
The purpose of this study is to develop and establish the validity and reliability of an instrument to generate teaching and learning guiding principles using Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles Instrument (TLGPI). Participants consisted of 171 Malaysian teacher educators. It is an essential instrument to reflect in generating the teaching and learning guiding principles in higher education level in Malaysia. Confirmatory Factor Analysis has validated all 19 items of TLGPI whereby all items indicated high reliability and internal consistency. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis also confirmed that a single factor model was used to generate teaching and learning guiding principles.
Helfrich, Christian D; Li, Yu-Fang; Mohr, David C; Meterko, Mark; Sales, Anne E
Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51%) from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85). However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems applying conventional
Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.; Kerkmeer, M.C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
The latent factor structure of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) was examined with a series of confirmatory factor analyses. As part of the Dutch standardization, 1,188 healthy participants completed the WMS-IV-NL. Four models were tested for the Adult Battery
Smyth, Caroline L.; MacLachlan, Malcolm
Numerous existing measures assess attitudes toward suicide yet fail to account for contextual factors. The Trinity Inventory of Precursors to Suicide (TIPS) is presented as an alternative, with implications for the development of prevention programs. Having previously reported exploratory analysis of the TIPS; confirmatory factor analysis and…
Full Text Available Underlining the importance of teachers for the constructivist approach, the present study attempts to develop “Attitude Scale of Construc¬tivist Approach for Science Teachers (ASCAST”. The pre-applications of the scale were administered to a total of 210 science teachers; however, the data obtained from 5 teachers were excluded from the analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the pre-applications, it was found that the scale could have a single factor structure, which was tested using the confir¬matory factor analysis. As a result of the initial confirmatory factor analysis, the values of fit were examined and found to be low. Subsequently, by exam¬ining the modification indices, error covariance was added between items 23 and 24 and the model was tested once again. The added error covariance led to a significant improvement in the model, producing values of fit suitable for limit values. Thus, it was concluded that the scale could be employed with a single factor. The explained variance value for the scale developed with a sin¬gle factor structure was calculated to be 50.43% and its reliability was found to be .93. The results obtained suggest that the scale possesses reliable-valid characteristics and could be used in further studies.
Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the psychometric properties of Quinn’s leadership questionnaire (CFV questionnaire; 1988 in Portuguese health services. Design: Cross-sectional study, using Quinn’s leadership questionnaire, administered to registered nurses and physicians in Portuguese health services (N = 687. Method: Self-administered survey applied to two samples. In the first sample (convenience; N = 249 Portuguese health professionals, exploratory factor and reliability analyses were performed to the CFV questionnaire. In the second sample (stratified; N = 50 surgical units of 33 Portuguese hospitals, confirmatory factor analyses were performed using LISREL 8.80. Findings: In the first sample, an eight-factor solution emerged accounting for 65.46% of the total variance, in an interpretable factor structure (loadings> .50, with Cronbach’s α greater than .79. This factor structure, replicated in the second sample, showed reasonable goodness-of-fit of the model to each of the leadership roles, that is, to the eight quadrants and global model. Overall, the models showed nomological validity, with scores between good and acceptable (.235 < x2/df < 2.055 and .00 < RMSEA < .077. Conclusions: Quinn’s leadership questionnaire showed good reliability and validity for the eight leadership roles, proving to be suitable for use in health care/hospital settings.
Gurka Matthew J
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis of MetS is typically based on cut-off points for various components, e.g. waist circumference and blood pressure. Because current MetS criteria result in racial/ethnic discrepancies, our goal was to use confirmatory factor analysis to delineate differential contributions to MetS by sub-group. Research Design and Methods Using 1999–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a single MetS factor that allowed differential loadings across sex and race/ethnicity, resulting in a continuous MetS risk score that is sex and race/ethnicity-specific. Results Loadings to the MetS score differed by racial/ethnic and gender subgroup with respect to triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. ROC-curve analysis revealed high area-under-the-curve concordance with MetS by traditional criteria (0.96, and with elevations in MetS-associated risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.71, uric acid (0.75 and fasting insulin (0.82. Using a cut off for this score derived from ROC-curve analysis, the MetS risk score exhibited increased sensitivity for predicting elevations in ≥2 of these risk markers as compared with traditional pediatric MetS criteria. Conclusions The equations from this sex- and race/ethnicity-specific analysis provide a clinically-accessible and interpretable continuous measure of MetS that can be used to identify children at higher risk for developing adult diseases related to MetS, who could then be targeted for intervention. These equations also provide a powerful new outcome for use in childhood obesity and MetS research.
Full Text Available Orientation: Self-leadership is considered to be essential for effective individual functioning in occupational and academic contexts. The revised self-leadership questionnaire (RSLQ is widely utilised for measuring self-leadership, but its psychometric properties have not been established on a South African sample. By implication, important questions also exist about the theoretical structure of self-leadership in the South African context. Research purpose: The research aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and factorial validity of the revised self-leadership questionnaire on a South African sample. In doing so, the results of the research would also provide valuable insights into the latent factor structure of the self-leadership construct. Motivation for the study: On a practical level, the research sought internal validity evidence for the use of the RSLQ in the South African context. On a theoretical level, questions remain about the best conceptual representation of self-leadership as a construct. Research design, approach and method: The revised self-leadership questionnaire was administered to a non-probability sample of 375 South African young adults. The first and second-order factor structure underlying contemporary models of self-leadership using confirmatory factor analytic techniques was tested. Main findings: Results showed that the RSLQ measured self-leadership with suitable reliability and internal validity. All eight subscales had high internal consistency coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA of the first and second-order models conclusively demonstrated good factorial validity. Practical/managerial implications: The study found that the RSLQ has good measurement properties for a South African context. Academics, practitioners and managers are urged to use the measure in its present form for applications such as leadership development and promoting self-management. Contribution/value-addition: The
Full Text Available This research aims to develop and examine the Goodness-of-Fit Index of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA in servant leader of school director under the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC. The result is based on the empirical data. The sample group consisted of 247 school directors under the OVEC. The samples were taken using Multi - Stage Sampling randomized technique. Research instrument was questionnaire which had 0.80 - 1.00 for item objective congruence, discriminative power with 0.46 - .80 , and reliability of .95. The data analysed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. The study shows the servant leader of school director under the OVEC consists of six factors: Appreciating of Others, Developing Others, Developing Community, moral Expressions, Supporting Leadership, and Using Leadership Together. The results of examination of the Goodness-of-Fit Index of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA found the model fit indexes based on the empirical data were =280.89; df=252; P-value=0.10204; Relative =1.11; RMSEA=0.022; NFI=0.98; RMR=0.016; SRMR=0.041; GFI=0.92; AGFI=0.89; NIF=0.98; IFI=1.00; CFI=1.00; CN=252.56. The factor loadings of six factors were from 0.73 – 0.94 and factor loadings of indicators were from -0.39 – 0.57.
Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L
The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences. Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter statistically significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards technology, the validity is questionable and few studies have been developed to test the attitudes of nursing students, in particular. A cross-sectional survey design was performed. The Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health was used to collect data from October 2012-December 2012. A panel of experts reviewed the content of the instrument and a pilot study was conducted. Following this, a total of 508 nursing students, who were engaged in clinical placements, were recruited from six universities in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed and reliability and construct validity were assessed. The resulting instrument consisted of 19 items across four factors. Reliability of the four factors was acceptable and the validity was supported. The instrument was shown to be both valid and reliable for measuring nursing students' attitudes towards technology, thus aiding in the current understandings of this aspect. Through these measurements and understandings, nursing educators and students are able to be more reflexive of their attitudes and can thus seek to develop them positively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Şerife Tutar Güven
Full Text Available Aim: In the past few years, the concept of self-efficacy in children with epilepsy has become increasingly important. This study aimed to analyze the psychometric aspects of the Turkish version of the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey. The study data were collected using the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Child Introduction Form. The study sample included 166 children who were between 9 and 17 years of age. The authors assessed the reliability and construct validity of the study data using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. Results: The original model was not confirmed by the CFA. The analysis tool included 15 items in two factors. Reliability analysis showed that the two factors were acceptable and valid. The tool was valid and reliable for measuring the self-efficacy of epileptic children. The factor structure was derived from and confirmed by the original tool. It was found that the Turkish version of the modified Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children had excellent satisfactory psychometric aspects for a Turkish population. Conclusion: Health professionals can present a more effective drug process and nursing care by identifying and assessing seizure self-efficacy levels in children with epilepsy, and they can make a positive contribution to disease management and the way the child deals with the disease.
Sagherian, Knar; Steege, Linsey M; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Harrington, Donna
The optimal performance of nurses in healthcare settings plays a critical role in care quality and patient safety. Despite this importance, few measures are provided in the literature that evaluate nursing performance as an independent construct from competencies. The nine-item Nursing Performance Instrument (NPI) was developed to fill this gap. The aim of this study was to examine and confirm the underlying factor structure of the NPI in registered nurses. The design was cross-sectional, using secondary data collected between February 2008 and April 2009 for the "Fatigue in Nursing Survey" (N = 797). The sample was predominantly dayshift female nurses working in acute care settings. Using Mplus software, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the NPI data, which were divided into two equal subsamples. Multiple fit indices were used to evaluate the fit of the alternative models. The three-factor model was determined to fit the data adequately. The factors that were labeled as "physical/mental decrements," "consistent practice," and "behavioral change" were moderately to strongly intercorrelated, indicating good convergent validity. The reliability coefficients for the subscales were acceptable. The NPI consists of three latent constructs. This instrument has the potentialto be used as a self-monitoring instrument that addressesnurses' perceptions of performance while providing patient care.
Martin, Angela J; Giallo, Rebecca
Managers' attitudes play a key role in how organizations respond to employees with depression. We examine the measurement properties of a questionnaire designed to assess managerial stigma towards employees with depression. Using data from a sample of 469 Australian managers representing a wide range of industries and work settings, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to assess three proposed subscales representing affective, cognitive and behavioural forms of stigma. Results were equivocal indicating acceptable fit for two-factor (affective and cognitive + behavioural), three-factor (affective, cognitive and behavioural) and higher order models. Failure to demonstrate the discriminant validity of the cognitive and behavioural dimensions, even though they are theoretically distinct, suggests that further work on the scale is warranted. These results provide an extension to the psychometric profile of this measure (exploratory factor analysis; Martin, ). Development of strategies to operationalize this construct will benefit occupational health research and practice, particularly in interventions that aim to reduce the stigma of mental health issues in the workplace or where managers' attitudes are a key mechanism in intervention efficacy. We encourage future research on this measure pertaining in particular to further enhancing all aspects of its construct validity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo
To examine the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, using a sample of 2061 Japanese university students majoring in the medical and natural sciences (67.9% male, 31.8% female; Mage = 19.6 years, standard deviation = 1.5). The back-translated scale used unreversed items to assess inefficacy. The inventory's descriptive properties and Cronbach's alphas were calculated using SPSS software. The present authors compared fit indices of the null, one factor, and default three factor models via confirmatory factor analysis with maximum-likelihood estimation using AMOS software, version 21.0. Intercorrelations between exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy were relatively higher than in prior studies. Cronbach's alphas were 0.76, 0.85, and 0.78, respectively. Although fit indices of the hypothesized three factor model did not meet the respective criteria, the model demonstrated better fit than did the null and one factor models. The present authors added four paths between error variables within items, but the modified model did not show satisfactory fit. Subsequent analysis revealed that a bi-factor model fit the data better than did the hypothesized or modified three factor models. The Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey needs minor changes to improve the fit of its three factor model, but the scale as a whole can be used to adequately assess overall academic burnout in Japanese university students. Although the scale was back-translated, two items measuring exhaustion whose expressions overlapped should be modified, and all items measuring inefficacy should be reversed in order to statistically clarify the factorial difference between the scale's three factors. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Sharif Nia, Hamid; Shafipour, Vida; Allen, Kelly-Ann; Heidari, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani-Charati, Jamshid; Zareiyan, Armin
Moral distress is a growing problem for healthcare professionals that may lead to dissatisfaction, resignation, or occupational burnout if left unattended, and nurses experience different levels of this phenomenon. This study aims to investigate the factor structure of the Persian version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised in intensive care and general nurses. This methodological research was conducted with 771 nurses from eight hospitals in the Mazandaran Province of Iran in 2017. Participants completed the Moral Distress Scale-Revised, data collected, and factor structure assessed using the construct, convergent, and divergent validity methods. The reliability of the scale was assessed using internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, Theta, and McDonald's omega coefficients) and construct reliability. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The exploratory factor analysis ( N = 380) showed that the Moral Distress Scale-Revised has five factors: lack of professional competence at work, ignoring ethical issues and patient conditions, futile care, carrying out the physician's orders without question and unsafe care, and providing care under personal and organizational pressures, which explained 56.62% of the overall variance. The confirmatory factor analysis ( N = 391) supported the five-factor solution and the second-order latent factor model. The first-order model did not show a favorable convergent and divergent validity. Ultimately, the Moral Distress Scale-Revised was found to have a favorable internal consistency and construct reliability. The Moral Distress Scale-Revised was found to be a multidimensional construct. The data obtained confirmed the hypothesis of the factor structure model with a latent second-order variable. Since the convergent and divergent validity of the scale were not confirmed in this study, further assessment is necessary in future studies.
Lim, Bee Chiu; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Arifin, Wan Nor; Ng, Kok Huan
Heart disease knowledge is an important concept for health education, yet there is lack of evidence on proper validated instruments used to measure levels of heart disease knowledge in the Malaysian context. A cross-sectional, survey design was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the adapted English version of the Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (HDKQ). Using proportionate cluster sampling, 788 undergraduate students at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, were recruited and completed the HDKQ. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for the psychometric evaluation. Construct validity of the measurement model was included. Most of the students were Malay (48%), female (71%), and from the field of science (51%). An acceptable range was obtained with respect to both the difficulty and discrimination indices in the item analysis results. The difficulty index ranged from 0.12-0.91 and a discrimination index of ≥ 0.20 were reported for the final retained 23 items. The final CFA model showed an adequate fit to the data, yielding a 23-item, one-factor model [weighted least squares mean and variance adjusted scaled chi-square difference = 1.22, degrees of freedom = 2, P-value = 0.544, the root mean square error of approximation = 0.03 (90% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.04); close-fit P-value = > 0.950]. Adequate psychometric values were obtained for Malaysian undergraduate university students using the 23-item, one-factor model of the adapted HDKQ.
Wan Nor Arifin
Full Text Available The Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i is a Malay-language emotional intelligence (EI inventory that was based on a mixed-model approach of EI. It was specifically developed and validated for use among medical course applicants. However, evidence to support its use among medical students is inadequate. This study aims to provide further construct validity evidence for the USMEQ-i among medical students through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 479 medical students in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. After a preliminary analysis, data from only 317 respondents were found suitable for inclusion in CFA. CFA was performed using the maximum likelihood estimation method with bootstrapping due to the nonnormality of items at the multivariate level. The results of the analysis support the two-factor model of the EI component and the one-factor model of the faking component. However, the USMEQ-i should be administered with caution until further cross-validation studies are conducted among students in other medical schools in Malaysia.
Wood, Charles T; Perreira, Krista M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan M; Bentley, Margaret E; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Thompson, Amanda L
Parent feeding practices affect risk of obesity in children. Latino children are at higher risk of obesity than the general population, yet valid measure of feeding practices, one of which is the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire (IFSQ), have not been formally validated in Spanish. To validate the IFSQ among Latino families, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis of pressuring, restrictive, and responsive feeding constructs from the IFSQ. The IFSQ was administered at the 12-month visit in the Greenlight study, a multi-center cluster randomized trial to prevent obesity. Parents were included if they were of Latino origin (n = 303) and completed an English or Spanish language modified IFSQ (without the indulgence construct). Scores from nine sub-constructs of the IFSQ were compared between English and Spanish language versions. We tested reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients and performed confirmatory factor analysis to examine factor loadings and goodness of fit characteristics, modifying constructs to achieve best fit. Of 303 parents completing the IFSQ, 84% were born outside the US, and 74% completed the IFSQ in Spanish. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.28 to 0.61 for the laissez-faire sub-constructs and from 0.58 to 0.83 for the pressuring, restrictive, and responsive sub-constructs. Results for all coefficients were similar between participants responding to an English and Spanish version of the IFSQ. Goodness of fit indices ranged from CFI 0.82-1 and RMSEA 0.00-0.31, and the model performed best in pressuring-soothing (CFI 1.0, RMSEA 0.00) and restrictive-amount (CFI 0.98, RMSEA 0.1) sub-constructs. In a sample of Latino families, pressuring, restrictive, and responsive constructs performed well. The modified IFSQ in both English and Spanish-speaking Latino families may be used to assess parenting behaviors related to early obesity risk in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wellman, Robert J; DiFranza, Joseph R; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
The Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS), a 12-item self-administered questionnaire, was designed to measure autonomy in three correlated lower-order symptom domains: withdrawal, psychological dependence, and cue-induced craving. The factor structure of the AUTOS remains an open question; confirmatory analyses in adolescents supported the hierarchical structure, while exploratory analyses in adolescents and adults yield single-factor solutions. Here we seek to determine whether the hypothesized hierarchical structure is valid in adult smokers. The AUTOS was administered to two independent convenience samples of adult current smokers: a calibration sample recruited in the US for online studies, and a confirmation sample drawn from the prospective Nicotine Dependence in Teens study in Montreal. We tested competing hierarchical and single-factor models using the robust weighted least-squares (WLSMV) estimation method. A single-factor model that allowed correlated error variances between theoretically related items fit well in the calibration sample (n = 434), χ(2)SB(52) = 165.71; χ(2)/df = 3.19; SRMR = 0.03; CFI = 0.96; NNFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.08). Reliability of the single factor was high (ωB = 0.92) and construct validity was adequate. In the confirmation sample (n = 335), a similar model fit well:χ(2)SB(53) = 126.94; χ(2)/df = 2.44; SRMR = 0.04; CFI = 0.95; NNFI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.08). Reliability of the single factor was again high (ωB = 0.92) and construct validity was adequate. The AUTOS is unidimensional in adult smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cockshott, Felicity C.; Marsh, Nigel V.; Hine, Donald W.
A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; D. Wechsler, 1991) with a sample of 579 Australian children referred for assessment because of academic difficulties in the classroom. The children were administered the WISC-III as part of the initial eligibility determination…
Full Text Available Given the strategic relevance of Human Resources Management (HRM in organizations and the lack of scientific instruments to measure employees’ perceptions about policies and practices of HRM, this study aimed to validate the Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using the maximum likelihood method. The study has a quantitative design, but also included qualitative analysis required for the development of a scale. Employees from various organizations composed a sample of 632 people. Scale reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Jöreskog’s rho. A sixfactor model was generated showing high-reliability and good fit. Construct validity was provided through convergent and discriminant analyses. The factors were consistent with the literature review and explained about 58% of the construct’s total variance. This study contributes to the scientific production in the area of Human Resources Management since HRMPPS can be used not only in relational studies but also as an evaluation instrument by managers who wish to improve their employees’ well-being as well as organizational outcomes.
Full Text Available Dominant indicator of the use of multimedia in learning needs to be studied using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis. This study aims to determine the most dominant factor affecting the use of multimedia in learning, this study uses the Technology Acceptance Modelling theory. This study uses the technique of Judgment Sampling Area or a sampling technique that is based on the determination of the research area. Determination of the study area are four private universities in Semarang, namely USM, Udinus, STMIK Provisi and Unisbank, so the overall number of respondents as many as 200 students. This study shows that: 1-the greatest contribution value of the Perceived Usefulness latent variable that is multimedia learning increase the effectiveness of learning in the classroom, 2-the greatest contribution value of the Confirmation latent variable, that is Lecturer Services using multimedia learning is preferred, 3-the greatest contribution value of the Perceived Ease of Use latent variable that is teaching materials using multimedia learning is something that is easy for students to understand. This study also shows that : 4-the greatest contribution value of the Satisfaction latent variable that is multimedia learning used by Lecturer in teaching and learning in the classroom is able to provide information in accordance with the information that students need, and 5-the greatest contribution value of the Continued IT Usage Intention latent variable that is students interested in understanding the material, which is taught by Lecturer, if Lecturer teaching using multimedia based than conventional models
Full Text Available Mathematics beliefs play an important role in enhancing the quality and the effectiveness of teaching and learning. This study analyzes the mathematics beliefs of 317 pre-service teachers from six Higher Education Institutions (HEIs (Government Public Universities who were randomly selected to participate in this study. Questionnaires consisting of twenty three items were given to the respondents during the data collection process. The validation of the items was done by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. In order to obtain a model fit for the measurement model of mathematics beliefs, several fit index tests such as CMINDF, GFI, AGFI, IFI, NFI, CFI, TLI and RMSEA were used. Constructivist beliefs and traditional beliefs were identified as the contributing factors in the model. The analysis also revealed that mathematics beliefs consist of structures of two hidden variables. The correlation between the two variables (constructivist beliefs and traditional beliefs is at a moderate level. Hence, pre-service teachers should be able to recognize their type of mathematics beliefs in order to become effective mathematics teachers.
Stacciarini, Thaís Santos Guerra; Pace, Ana Emilia
to analyze the factor structure of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R), adapted for Brazil. methodological study conducted with 150 individuals with diabetes mellitus cared for by the Family Health Strategy, most of whom are elderly with low educational levels. The test of the hypothesis concerning the confirmatory factor composition of the ASAS-R was performed using latent variables structural equations. the model's goodness-of-fit indexes were satisfactory (χ2 = 259.19; χ2/g.l = 2.97, p Estrategia Salud de la Familia. El test de hipótesis de la composición factorial confirmatoria de la escala ASAS-R fue realizado por medio del modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para variables latentes. los valores de los índices de ajuste del modelo fueron satisfactorios (χ2 de 259,19; χ2/g.l de 2,97, p < 0,001; GFI = 0,85; RMR = 0,07; RMSEA = 0,09), las cargas factoriales fueron superiores a 0,40, la mayoría de las correlaciones ítem y factor varió de moderada a fuerte magnitud (0,34 la 0,58); valores de alfa total de 0,74 y de los tres factores de 0,69, 0,38 y 0,69, respectivamente. la estructura factorial de la escala obtuvo resultados satisfactorios de validez y de confiabilidad, excepto uno de sus factores. Es deseable que esa escala sea aplicada en muestras de la población general, para fortalecer los análisis de consistencia interna y de dimensionalidad de la estructura factorial; y se espera que este estudio pueda contribuir para avanzar en nuevas investigaciones que vengan a trabajar con el constructo de capacidad de autocuidado y con el desarrollo de la escala ASAS-R.
Full Text Available Background: Poorly functioning work environments may lead to dissatisfaction for the employees and financial loss for the employers. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ was designed to measure social and psychological characteristics of work environments. Objective: To investigate the factor construct of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ when applied to professional orchestra musicians. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaire was sent by mail to 1550 orchestra musicians and students. 630 responses were received. Full data were available for 590 respondents (response rate 38%.The questionnaire also contained questions on demographics, job satisfaction, health status, health behaviors, and intensity of playing music. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 2-factor model of JCQ was conducted. Results: Of the 5 estimates, JCQ items in the “job demand” construct, the “conflicting demands” (question 5 explained most of the total variance in this construct (79% demonstrating almost perfect correlation of 0.63. In the construct of “job control,” “repetitive work” (question 10 demonstrated a perfect correlation index of 0.84 and the items “little decision freedom” (question 14 and “allows own decisions” (question 6 showed substantial correlations of 0.77 and 0.65. Conclusion: The 2-factor model of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ proposed in this study fitted well into the observed data. The “conflicting demands,” “repetitive work,” “little decision freedom,” and “allows own decisions” items demonstrated the strongest correlations with latent factors suggesting that in a population similar to the studied one, especially these items should be taken into account when observed in the response of a population.
Vastamäki, Heidi; Vastamäki, Martti; Laimi, Katri; Saltychev, Michail
Poorly functioning work environments may lead to dissatisfaction for the employees and financial loss for the employers. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was designed to measure social and psychological characteristics of work environments. To investigate the factor construct of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ when applied to professional orchestra musicians. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaire was sent by mail to 1550 orchestra musicians and students. 630 responses were received. Full data were available for 590 respondents (response rate 38%).The questionnaire also contained questions on demographics, job satisfaction, health status, health behaviors, and intensity of playing music. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 2-factor model of JCQ was conducted. Of the 5 estimates, JCQ items in the "job demand" construct, the "conflicting demands" (question 5) explained most of the total variance in this construct (79%) demonstrating almost perfect correlation of 0.63. In the construct of "job control," "opinions influential" (question 10) demonstrated a perfect correlation index of 0.84 and the items "little decision freedom" (question 14) and "allows own decisions" (question 6) showed substantial correlations of 0.77 and 0.65. The 2-factor model of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ proposed in this study fitted well into the observed data. The "conflicting demands," "opinions influential," "little decision freedom," and "allows own decisions" items demonstrated the strongest correlations with latent factors suggesting that in a population similar to the studied one, especially these items should be taken into account when observed in the response of a population.
Tam, B. K.; Wong, W. S.
Objective: This paper aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Chinese version of Somatosensory Amplification Scale (ChSAS) in a sample of Chinese adolescents across different grade levels using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods: A total of 1991 Chinese adolescents completed the ChSAS. CFA assessed the fit of the one-factor model to the entire sample. Factorial invariance of the ChSAS was also examined across grade levels using multigroup CFA. Results: Results of CFA confirmed ...
Romaniuk, Madeline; Khawaja, Nigar G
The 30-item USDI is a self-report measure that assesses depressive symptoms among university students. It consists of three correlated three factors: lethargy, cognitive-emotional and academic motivation. The current research used confirmatory factor analysis to asses construct validity and determine whether the original factor structure would be replicated in a different sample. Psychometric properties were also examined. Participants were 1148 students (mean age 22.84 years, SD=6.85) across all faculties from a large Australian metropolitan university. Students completed a questionnaire comprising of the USDI, the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) and Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). The three correlated factor model was shown to be an acceptable fit to the data, indicating sound construct validity. Internal consistency of the scale was also demonstrated to be sound, with high Cronbach alpha values. Temporal stability of the scale was also shown to be strong through test-retest analysis. Finally, concurrent and discriminant validity was examined with correlations between the USDI and DASS subscales as well as the LSS, with sound results further supporting the construct validity of the scale. Cut-off points were also developed to aid total score interpretation. Response rates are unclear. In addition, the representativeness of the sample could be improved potentially through targeted recruitment (i.e. reviewing the online sample statistics during data collection, examining the representativeness trends and addressing particular faculties within the university that were underrepresented). The USDI provides a valid and reliable method of assessing depressive symptoms found among university students. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Research purpose: The goal of the study was to validate the Servant Leadership Questionnaire(SLQ, which Barbuto and Wheeler developed, on a South African sample. Motivation for the study: The literature is replete with evidence of the role of follower focused leadership practices in improving team effectiveness, employee engagement and organisational success. We need to complement these efforts with psychometrically sound measuring instruments. Research design, approach and method: The authors drew a convenience sample of 288 school teachers from schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. They used the SLQ that Barbuto and Wheeler developed to measure servant leadership. Main findings: The authors found high levels of reliability for the sub-scales of the latent variables. They found good fit with the data for the measurement model of the five latent servant leadership dimensions (altruistic calling, persuasive mapping, emotional healing, wisdom and organisational stewardship through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. They obtained reasonable fit for the first- and second-order servant leadership CFA. The authors concluded that the SLQ shows reasonable fit. Practical/managerial implications: The SLQ showed evidence of reliability and construct validity. It can contribute to the scientific selection and development of education leaders in South African schools. Contribution/value add: Servant leadership incorporates a service ethic that fosters participatory management, teacher development and team building. The department of education should increase team effectiveness in schools by selecting and developing servant leadership.
Mi Kyoung Yim
Full Text Available Confirmatory factor analysis based on a measurement model of a structural equation model was used to test the construct validity of 13 subjects in the Korean Dental Licensing Examination (KDLE. The results of 1,086 examinees who wrote the KDLE in 2004 were analyzed. The thirteen subjects were classified into 62 major categories and 122 intermediate categories. There were 364 items. A hierarchical model was constructed, including major and intermediate categories. The impact of the variables was determined by the standardized regression coefficient that related latent and measured variables in the measurement model. The KDLE showed a high goodness-of-fit with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.030 and a non-normed fit index of 0.998. When the latent variables for the major and intermediate categories were analyzed, the standardized regression coefficients of all of the subjects, with the exception of Health and Medical Legislation, were significant. From the result, we concluded that the 13 subjects showed constructive validity. In addition, the study model and data were very compatible. The subject Health and Medical Legislation had a low explanatory impact with respect to testing the ability of dentists to perform their jobs. This study suggests that similar psychometric studies are needed before integrating or deleting subjects on the KDLE, and to improve item development.
Shohaimi, Shamarina; Wei, Wong Yoke; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd
Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances) displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.
Nor Hasnida Che Md. Ghazali
Full Text Available The school-based assessment (SBA system is a holistic assessment system that is conducted in schools by subject teachers in assessing the students cognitive (intellect, affective (emotional and spiritual and psychomotor (physical aspects. It is in line with the National Philosophy of Education and the Standards-based School Curriculum in Malaysia. In order to evaluate the implementation of SBA, a measurement scale was validated. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. 776 primary and secondary school teachers were selected as respondents using stratified random sampling. The data was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS version 18. The aim of this paper was to explore different factor structures of the SBA evaluation scale by using the second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results indicated that the SBA evaluation model was a valid and reliable scale. The input measurement model was validated with two factors (personnel qualifications and physical infrastructure, process measurement model was validated with six factors (‘attitude’, ‘understanding’, ‘skills’, ‘challenges’, ‘moderation’ and ‘monitoring’ and product measurement model was validated with two factors (‘students’ attitude’ and ‘students’ motivation’. This study provides support for using a valid instrument in evaluating the implementation of SBA in schools. Furthermore, the CFA procedures used supported the conceptual framework set out earlier. Thus, it presents clearly the importance of the evaluation process of any education system to follow all the dimensions outlined in the evaluation model proposed by Daniel Stufflebeam. Sistem Penilaian Berbasis Sekolah (SBA adalah sistem penilaian holistik yang dilakukan di sekolah-sekolah oleh guru mata pelajaran dalam menilai kognitif (kecerdasan, afektif (emosional dan spiritual dan psikomotorik (fisik siswa. Hal ini sejalan dengan Filsafat Pendidikan Nasional dan Kurikulum
Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Riley, Natasha; Sadler, Georgia Robins
Depression is a significant problem for ethnic minorities that remains understudied partly due to a lack of strong measures with established psychometric properties. One screening tool, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), which was developed for use in primary care has also gained popularity in research settings. The reliability and validity of the PHQ-9 has been well established among predominantly Caucasian samples, in addition to many minority groups. However, there is little evidence regarding its utility among Hispanic Americans, a large and growing cultural group in the United States. In this study, we investigated the reliability and structural validity of the PHQ-9 in Hispanic American women. A community sample of 479 Latina women from southern California completed the PHQ-9 in their preferred language of English or Spanish. Cronbach’s alphas suggested that there was good internal consistency for both the English- and Spanish-language versions. Structural validity was investigated using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results support a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances among English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas. These results suggest that the PHQ-9 can be used with confidence in both English and Spanish versions to screen Latinas for depression. PMID:21787063
Duane, B G; Humphris, G; Richards, D; Okeefe, E J; Gordon, K; Freeman, R
To assess the use of the WCMT in two Scottish health boards and to consider the impact of simplifying the tool to improve efficient use. A retrospective analysis of routine WCMT data (47,276 cases). Public Dental Service (PDS) within NHS Lothian and Highland. The WCMT consists of six criteria. Each criterion is measured independently on a four-point scale to assess patient complexity and the dental care for the disabled/impaired patient. Psychometric analyses on the data-set were conducted. Conventional internal consistency coefficients were calculated. Latent variable modelling was performed to assess the 'fit' of the raw data to a pre-specified measurement model. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test three potential changes to the existing WCMT that included, the removal of the oral risk factor question, the removal of original weightings for scoring the Tool, and collapsing the 4-point rating scale to three categories. The removal of the oral risk factor question had little impact on the reliability of the proposed simplified CMT to discriminate between levels of patient complexity. The removal of weighting and collapsing each item's rating scale to three categories had limited impact on reliability of the revised tool. The CFA analysis provided strong evidence that a new, proposed simplified Case Mix Tool (sCMT) would operate closely to the pre-specified measurement model (the WMCT). A modified sCMT can demonstrate, without reducing reliability, a useful measure of the complexity of patient care. The proposed sCMT may be implemented within primary care dentistry to record patient complexity as part of an oral health assessment.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present research is to evaluate the validity of an IT-based competency questionnaire in Information Science & Knowledge Studies. The Survey method has been used in the present research. A data collection tool has been a researcher-made questionnaire. Statistic samples, which are 315 people, have been chosen purposefully from among Iranian faculty members, Ph.D. students, and information center employees. The findings showed that by eliminating 17 items from the whole questionnaire and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the rest and rotating findings using the Varimax method, 8 Factors were revealed. The resulting components and also the items which had a high load factor with these components were considerably consistent with the classifications in the questionnaire and partly consistent with the findings of other researchers. 76 competency indicators (knowledge, skills, and attitudes were validated and grouped under 8 main categories: 1. “Computer Basics” 2. “Database Operating, Collection Development of Digital Resources, & Digital Library Management” 3. “Basics of Computer Networking” 4. “Basics of Programming & Database Designing” 5. “Web Designing & Web Content Analysis” 6. “Library Software & Computerized Organizing” 7. Archive of Digital Resources and 8. Attitudes.
Snowden, Austyn; Watson, Roger; Stenhouse, Rosie; Hale, Claire
To examine the construct validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Emotional intelligence involves the identification and regulation of our own emotions and the emotions of others. It is therefore a potentially useful construct in the investigation of recruitment and retention in nursing and many questionnaires have been constructed to measure it. Secondary analysis of existing dataset of responses to Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form using concurrent application of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. First year undergraduate nursing and computing students completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form in September 2013. Responses were analysed by synthesising results of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Participants (N = 938) completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Rasch analysis showed the majority of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form items made a unique contribution to the latent trait of emotional intelligence. Five items did not fit the model and differential item functioning (gender) accounted for this misfit. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure consisting of: self-confidence, empathy, uncertainty and social connection. All five misfitting items from the Rasch analysis belonged to the 'social connection' factor. The concurrent use of Rasch and factor analysis allowed for novel interpretation of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Much of the response variation in Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form can be accounted for by the social connection factor. Implications for practice are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.
For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher o...
Genoveva Amador Fierros
Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to validate and propose an instrument to measure the performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning in students involved in processes of problem-based learning. Methods. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was applied to validate the instrument composed of 60 items and six factors (self-assessment of learning gaps within the United Nations specific context: self-assessment, reflexion, critical thinking, administration of information, group skills, using a sample of 207 students from a total of 279, which comprise the student population of the Faculty of Nursing at Universidad de Colima in Mexico. (2007. Results. The CFA results demonstrated that the instrument is acceptable to measure performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning, given that all the indicators, variances, covariances, and thresholds are statistically significant. Conclusion. The instrument permits obtaining students' opinions on how much professors contribute for them to develop each of the 60 skills described in the scale. Lastly, the results could report if professors are placing more emphasis in some areas than in other areas they should address during the problem-based learning (PBL process, or if definitely their actions are removed from the premises of PBL, information that will be useful for school management in decision making on the direction of teaching as a whole.
Full Text Available Orientation: Empathy is a core competency in aiding individuals to address the challenges of social living. An indicator of emotional intelligence, it is useful in a globalising and cosmopolitan world. Moreover, managing staff, stakeholders and conflict in many social settings relies on communicative skills, of which empathy forms a large part. Empathy plays a pivotal role in negotiating, persuading and influencing behaviour. The skill of being able to empathise thus enables the possessor to attune to the needs of clients and employees and provides opportunities to become responsive to these needs. Research purpose: This study attempted to determine the construct validity of the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale within the South African context. Motivation for the study: In South Africa, a large number of psychometrical instruments have been adopted directly from abroad. Studies determining the construct validity of several of these imported instruments, however, have shown that these instruments are not suited for use in the South African context. Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a quantitative research method with a survey design. A convenience sample of 212 respondents completed the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale. The constructs explored were Suffering, Positive Sharing, Responsive Crying, Emotional Attention, a Feel for Others and Emotional Contagion. The statistical procedure used was a confirmatory factor analysis. Main findings: The study showed that, from a South African perspective, the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale lacks sufficient construct validity. Practical/managerial implications: Further refinement of the model would provide valuable information that would aid people to be more appreciative of individual contributions, to meet client needs and to understand the motivations of others. Contribution/value-add: From a South African perspective, the findings of this study are
Hou, Wai Kai
Sociocultural factors influence psychological adjustment to cancer in Asian patients in two major ways: prioritization of relationships over individual orientations and belief in the efficacy of interpersonal cooperation. We derived and validated among Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients an instrument assessing cancer perceptions to enable the study of the sociocultural processes. Qualitative interviews (n = 16) derived 15 items addressing interpersonal experience in Chinese CRC patients' adjustment. These 15 items and 18 corresponding self-referent items were administered to 166 Chinese CRC survivors and subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to establish the initial scale structure and reliability. The final 29 items, together with other psychometric measures, were administered to a second cohort of 215 CRC patients and subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA (63.35% of the total variance) extracted six factors: personal strain, socioeconomic strain, emotional strain, personal efficacy, collective efficacy, and proxy efficacy. CFA confirmed the psychometric structure [chi (2)(df) = 702.91(368); Comparative Fit Index = 0.95; Nonnormed Fit Index = 0.94; Incremental Fit Index = 0.95; standardized root mean square residual = 0.08] of the six factors by using a model with two latent factors: experience and efficacy. All subscales were reliable (alpha = 0.76-0.92). Appropriate correlations with adjustment outcomes (symptom distress, psychological morbidity, and subjective well-being), optimistic personalities, and social relational quality indicated its convergent and divergent validity. Known group comparisons (i.e., age, active treatment, and colostomy) showed its clinical utility. The cancer experience and efficacy scale is a valid multidimensional instrument for assessing intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of cancer experience in Asian patients, potentiating existing patient-reported outcome measures.
Selim, Hassan M.
E-learning, one of the tools emerged from information technology, has been integrated in many university programs. There are several factors that need to be considered while developing or implementing university curriculums that offer e-learning based courses. This paper is intended to specify e-learning critical success factors (CSFs) as…
Chan, David W.; Lin, Wen-Ying
Confirmatory analyses on the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC) provided support for composite score interpretation based on the two- and three-dimensional models across age levels. Test sample was comprised of 1,100 children, ranging in age from 5 to 15 years at all 11 age levels specified by the HK-WISC. (KW)
Siau Pheng Lee
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in problematic hoarding as an independent clinical condition has led to the development of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R to assess hoarding phenomenology. The SI-R is one of the most widely used instruments to measure hoarding symptoms; however, it lacks validation in non-Western samples. Methods The current study examined the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the SI-R among 500 outpatients at a psychiatric hospital in Singapore. The three-factor structure solution of the SI-R was fitted in a confirmatory factor analysis. Results The final model achieved mediocre fit (χ2 = 1026.02, df = 186; RMSEA = 0.095, SRMR = 0.06; CFI = 0.86; NNFI = 0.85. Two reverse-coded items (items 2 and 4 were removed due to insufficient factor loadings, resulting in the modified 21-item SI-R (SIR-21. Our findings indicate the need to further examine the construct validity of the SI-R, particularly in non-Western samples. Nonetheless, correlations with other hoarding-related constructs, such as anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the SIR-21 in our sample. Conclusions Findings in our current majority Chinese sample were consistent with previous observations from other Chinese samples. Implications were discussed from a cross-cultural perspective, such as cultural emphasis on saving for future use and overlap between the concepts of discarding and acquiring in Chinese samples. Future studies should also examine differences among other ethnic groups (e.g., Malay, Indian.
Full Text Available Wenxin He, Qiming Zheng, Yutian Ji, Chanchan Shen, Qisha Zhu, Wei Wang Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Methods: We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Results: Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. Conclusion: The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students. Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, body image, factor analysis, questionnaire development
Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Jowsey, Tanisha; Henning, Marcus
The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was developed to assess undergraduate readiness for engaging in interprofessional education (IPE). It has become an accepted and commonly used instrument. To determine utility of a modified 16-item RIPLS instrument, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Data used were collected from a pre- and post-intervention study involving 360 New Zealand undergraduate students from one university. Just over half of the participants were enrolled in medicine (51%) while the remainder were in pharmacy (27%) and nursing (22%). The intervention was a two-day simulation-based IPE course focused on managing unplanned acute medical problems in hospital wards ("ward calls"). Immediately prior to the course, 288 RIPLS were collected and immediately afterwards, 322 (response rates 80% and 89%, respectively). Exploratory factor analysis involving principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation method was conducted using pre-course data. The scree plot suggested a three-factor solution over two- and four-factor solutions. Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis performed using post-course data demonstrated partial goodness-of-fit for this suggested three-factor model. Based on these findings, further robust psychometric testing of the RIPLS or modified versions of it is recommended before embarking on its use in evaluative research in various healthcare education settings.
Zuidema, T.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Stappers, S.J.W.; Rhijn, van J.A.
Commission Decision 2002/657/EC requires confirmatory analysis of B-group compounds when detected at levels above the permitted limit. In contrast to banned substances, for B-group substances, the use of mass spectrometric techniques is not obligatory and several techniques including liquid
Vambheim, Sara M.; Lyby, Peter Solvoll; Aslaksen, Per M.
.Aims and methods: The purpose of the study was to investigate the model fit, reliability and validity of the FPQ-III and the FPQ-SF in a Norwegian nonclinical sample, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The second aim was to explore the model fit of the two scales in male and female subgroups separately...... the questionnaires, the model fit, validity and reliability were compared across sex using CFA.Results: The results revealed that both models' original factor structures had poor fit. However, the FPQ-SF had a better fit overall, compared to the FPQ-III. The model fit of the two models differed across sex...
Full Text Available Orientation: Given the interest in the importance of emotional intelligence in employees and leaders with regard to performance of their jobs, it is imperative to use reliable and validinstruments to operationalise emotional intelligence. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of three different versions of the Rahim emotional intelligence index (EQI, specifically withregard to its factor structure and reliability, using two different samples. otivation for the study: No previous study has investigated which version of the Rahim EQI is the most appropriate for conducting research within South African organisations. Inaddition, the question of whether the Rahim EQI measures a strong general factor has notbeen answered. Research approach, design, and method: A cross-sectional quantitative research design wasused. Two samples were used (n = 470 and n = 308. The first sample completed the 40-itemversion of the Rahim EQI, whilst the second sample completed the 30-item version of the Rahim EQI. The measurement model, representing the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI, was also fitted to both these samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare thedifferent versions, as well as conceptualisations, of the Rahim EQI. Main findings: The 22-item version of the Rahim EQI exhibited better model fit than the 40-item and 30-item versions. In addition, the bifactor model suggested that the Rahim EQIseems to measure a strong general factor (emotional intelligence with very little evidence ofthe presence of unique group factors (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. Practical/managerial implications: Both the reliability and factor structure of the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI have been confirmed. The bifactor structure should inform researchers and practitioners that, in order to understand emotional intelligence, it is better to conceptualise it as a unidimensional
Full Text Available Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397 in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P<0.05; CFI = 0.900; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.0058. The instrument with some modifications was confirmed among mothers of school children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.
Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.
For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed. PMID:28210232
Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D
For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants ( N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed.
Beccaria, Lisa; Beccaria, Gavin; McCosker, Catherine
It is crucial that nursing students develop skills and confidence in using Evidence-Based Practice principles early in their education. This should be assessed with valid tools however, to date, few measures have been developed and applied to the student population. To examine the structural validity of the Student Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (S-EBPQ), with an Australian online nursing student cohort. A cross-sectional study for constructing validity. Three hundred and forty-five undergraduate nursing students from an Australian regional university were recruited across two semesters. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to examine the structural validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was applied which resulted in a good fitting model, based on a revised 20-item tool. The S-EBPQ tool remains a psychometrically robust measure of evidence-based practice use, attitudes, and knowledge and skills and can be applied in an online Australian student context. The findings of this study provided further evidence of the reliability and four factor structure of the S-EBPQ. Opportunities for further refinement of the tool may result in improvements in structural validity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Rankin, Thomas J
The current study reports the development from the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R; Levant, Rankin, Williams, Hasan, & Smalley, 2010) of the 21-item MRNI-Short Form (MRNI-SF). Confirmatory factor analysis of MRNI-SF responses from a sample of 1,017 undergraduate participants (549 men, 468 women) indicated that the best fitting "bifactor" model incorporated the hypothesized 7-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general traditional masculinity ideology factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 7 hypothesized traditional masculinity ideology norms. The bifactor model was assessed for measurement invariance across gender groups, with findings of full configural invariance and partial metric invariance, such that factor loadings were equivalent across the gender groups for the 7 specific factors but not for the general traditional masculinity ideology factor. Theoretical explanations for this latter result include the potential that men's sense of self or identity may be engaged when responding to questions asking to what extent they agree or disagree with normative statements about their behavior, a possibility that could be investigated in future research by examining the associations of the general and specific factors with measures of masculine identity. Additional exploratory invariance analyses demonstrated latent mean differences between men and women on 4 of the 8 factors, and equivocal results for invariance of item intercepts, item uniquenesses, and factor variances-covariances.
We conducted a Monte Carlo study to investigate the performance of the polychoric instrumental variable estimator (PIV) in comparison to unweighted least squares (ULS) and diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) in the estimation of a confirmatory factor analysis model with dichotomous indicators. The simulation involved 144 conditions (1,000 replications per condition) that were defined by a combination of (a) two types of latent factor models, (b) four sample sizes (100, 250, 500, 1,000), (c) three factor loadings (low, moderate, strong), (d) three levels of non-normality (normal, moderately, and extremely non-normal), and (e) whether the factor model was correctly specified or misspecified. The results showed that when the model was correctly specified, PIV produced estimates that were as accurate as ULS and DWLS. Furthermore, the simulation showed that PIV was more robust to structural misspecifications than ULS and DWLS. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Gabel, Charles Philip; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Qian, Meihua; Vengust, Rok; Berlemann, Ulrich; Aghayev, Emin; Melloh, Markus
To analyze the factor structure of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large symptomatic low back pain (LBP) population using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Analysis of pooled baseline ODI LBP patient data from the international Spine Tango registry of EUROSPINE, the Spine Society of Europe. The sample, with n = 35,263 (55.2% female; age 15-99, median 59 years), included 76.1% of patients with a degenerative disease, and 23.9% of the patients with various other spinal conditions. The initial EFA provided a hypothetical construct for consideration. Subsequent CFA was considered in three scenarios: the full sample and separate genders. Models were compared empirically for best fit. The EFA indicated a one-factor solution accounting for 54% of the total variance. The CFA analysis based on the full sample confirmed this one-factor structure. Sub-group analyses by gender achieved good model fit for configural and partial metric invariance, but not scalar invariance. A possible two-construct model solution as outlined by previous researchers: dynamic-activities (personal care, lifting, walking, sex and social) and static-activities (pain, sleep, standing, travelling and sitting) was not preferred. The ODI demonstrated a one-factor structure in a large LBP sample. A potential two-factor model was considered, but not found appropriate for constructs of dynamic and static activity. The use of the single summary score for the ODI is psychometrically supported. However, practicality limitations were reported for use in the clinical and research settings. Researchers are encouraged to consider a shift towards newer, more sensitive and robustly developed instruments.
Full Text Available This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity, construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of strategic design requirements. The design requirements includes use of information technology, sourcing procedures, new product development, flexible manufacturing functions and demand management supply chain net work design, management, commitment and inventory management policies among manufacturers of volatile and unforeseeable products in Andhraadesh, India. This study suggested that the seven factor model with 20 items of the leagile supply chain design requirements had a good fit. Further, the study showed a val id and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the design requirements of leagile supply chains.
Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Aniza, Abd Aziz; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Azman, Mohd Yacob
Social support is an essential component for the physical and emotional well-being of postpartum mothers. The objective of this study is to determine the psychometric properties of the revised Malay version Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey using a confirmatory validity approach. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 144 postpartum mothers attending Obstetric and Gynecology Clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital. Construct validity and internal consistency assessment was performed after the translation, content validity and face validity process. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and AMOS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The original questionnaire consists of four domains (emotional/informational support, tangible support, affectionate support and positive social interaction) and 19 items. Affectionate support domain with three items only was treated as a separate construct and was not included in the factor analysis. The final confirmatory model with three constructs and 13 items demonstrated acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation and best fit; (χ2[df]=1.665 ; P-value=0.001; Tucker-Lewis Index=0.944; comparative fit index=0.956; root mean square error of approximation=0.068). Composite reliability, average variance extracted and Cronbach's α of the domains ranged from 0.649 to 0.903; 0.390 to 0.699; 0.616 to 0.902, respectively. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 16 items (including one separate factor of affectionate) of the revised Malay version MOS Social Support Survey was acceptable to be used to measure social support after childbirth because it is valid, reliable and simple. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Preti, Antonio; Corrias, Irene; Gabbrielli, Mersia; Lai, Veronica; Muratore, Tamara; Pintus, Elisa; Pintus, Mirra; Sanna, Sara; Scanu, Rosanna; Tronci, Debora; Vellante, Marcello; Siddi, Sara; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Carta, Mauro Giovanni
Sparse evidence of a co-aggregation of the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder provides support for a shared but nonspecific genetic etiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Temperaments are conceptualized as trait sub-syndromic conditions of major pathologies. This study set out to test the hypothesis of a continuum between schizotypy and affective temperaments versus the alternative hypothesis of their independence based on a cross-sectional, survey design involving 649 (males: 47%) college students. The short 39-item TEMPS-A and the SPQ were used as measures of the affective temperaments and of schizotypy, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses were applied to a unidimensional model, to a standard correlate traits model, to second-order representations of a common latent structure, and to a bifactor model. Confirmatory bifactor modeling provided evidence against a complete independence of the dimensions subsumed by the affective and the schizotypal traits. The best solution distinguished between two sub-domains grouping positive symptoms and negative symptoms as measured by the SPQ subscales, and a sub-domain related to the affective temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A. Limitations due to the use of subscales from two different tools should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study develops and makes composite observed variables from individual Investment Opportunity Set (IOS proxies into one latent variable using structural equation models with a confirmatory factor analysis approach. Six composite investment opportunity set proxies are then created based on some individual proxies, namely price related IOS and investment related IOS. These composite IOS proxies are correlated with the real growth to prove that the model has consistency and ability to predict the real growth. A confirmatory factor analysis results in all observed variables that make latent variables for each model show different result in every model. At model 1, the CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 2, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 2 have significant measurement model fit, except for one proxies named Rasio Capital Expenditure to Total Book Asset (RACTE. At model 3, the CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 2 have significant measurement model fit, except for one proxies named Book Value of Property, Plant and Equipment to Book Value of Asset(BVPPEBVA. At model 4, the CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 5, the CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 6, the CFA result show that there is no significant measurement model fit for every investment related IOS proxies. Correlation test for all models show almost different result in every models. At model 1, the correlation test show that there is a weak, not significant-positive correlation between price related IOS proxies as latent variable, and real growth proxies. At model 2, the correlation test shows that there is a weak, significant negative correlation between price
Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Alzheimer's dementia (AD, letter fluency is less impaired than category fluency. To check whether category fluency and letter fluency depend differently on semantics and attention, 53 mild AD patients were given animal and letter fluency tasks, two semantic tests (the Verbal Semantic Questionnaire and the BORB Association Match test, and two attentional tests (the Stroop Colour-Word Interference test and the Digit Cancellation test. Methods: We conducted a LISREL confirmatory factor analysis to check the extent to which category fluency and letter fluency tasks were related to semantics and attention, viewed as latent variables. Results: Both types of fluency tasks were related to the latent variable Semantics but not to the latent variable Attention. Conclusions: Our findings warn against interpreting the disproportionate impairment of AD patients on category and letter fluency as a contrast between semantics and attention.
Goossens, Luc; Lasgaard, Mathias; Luyckx, Koen
completed by a sample of mid-adolescents (N = 534) from Grades 10 through 12 (aged 15-18 years) in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. As expected, the four-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than did alternative models that comprised just a single factor, or two and three factors. Use...
Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W; Dombrowski, Stefan C
The factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample (N = 2,200) was examined using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) with maximum likelihood estimation for all reported models from the WISC-V Technical and Interpretation Manual (Wechsler, 2014b). Additionally, alternative bifactor models were examined and variance estimates and model-based reliability estimates (ω coefficients) were provided. Results from analyses of the 16 primary and secondary WISC-V subtests found that all higher-order CFA models with 5 group factors (VC, VS, FR, WM, and PS) produced model specification errors where the Fluid Reasoning factor produced negative variance and were thus judged inadequate. Of the 16 models tested, the bifactor model containing 4 group factors (VC, PR, WM, and PS) produced the best fit. Results from analyses of the 10 primary WISC-V subtests also found the bifactor model with 4 group factors (VC, PR, WM, and PS) produced the best fit. Variance estimates from both 16 and 10 subtest based bifactor models found dominance of general intelligence (g) in accounting for subtest variance (except for PS subtests) and large ω-hierarchical coefficients supporting general intelligence interpretation. The small portions of variance uniquely captured by the 4 group factors and low ω-hierarchical subscale coefficients likely render the group factors of questionable interpretive value independent of g (except perhaps for PS). Present CFA results confirm the EFA results reported by Canivez, Watkins, and Dombrowski (2015); Dombrowski, Canivez, Watkins, and Beaujean (2015); and Canivez, Dombrowski, and Watkins (2015). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively
Full Text Available The issue of equality in the between-and within-level structures in Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MCFA models has been influential for obtaining unbiased parameter estimates and statistical inferences. A commonly seen condition is the inequality of factor loadings under equal level-varying structures. With mathematical investigation and Monte Carlo simulation, this study compared the robustness of five statistical models including two model-based (a true and a mis-specified models, one design-based, and two maximum models (two models where the full rank of variance-covariance matrix is estimated in between level and within level, respectively in analyzing complex survey measurement data with level-varying factor loadings. The empirical data of 120 3rd graders' (from 40 classrooms perceived Harter competence scale were modeled using MCFA and the parameter estimates were used as true parameters to perform the Monte Carlo simulation study. Results showed maximum models was robust to unequal factor loadings while the design-based and the miss-specified model-based approaches produced conflated results and spurious statistical inferences. We recommend the use of maximum models if researchers have limited information about the pattern of factor loadings and measurement structures. Measurement models are key components of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; therefore, the findings can be generalized to multilevel SEM and CFA models. Mplus codes are provided for maximum models and other analytical models.
Ibitola O. Asaolu
Full Text Available Background: Women's status and empowerment influence health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status of women and their children. Despite its benefits, however, research on women's empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is limited in scope and geography. Empowerment is variably defined and data for comparison across regions is often limited. The objective of the current study was to identify domains of empowerment from a widely available data source, Demographic and Health Surveys, across multiple regions in SSA.Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys from nineteen countries representing four African regions were used for the analysis. A total of 26 indicators across different dimensions (economic, socio-cultural, education, and health were used to characterize women's empowerment. Pooled data from all countries were randomly divided into two datasets—one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the other for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA—to verify the factor structure hypothesized during EFA.Results: Four factors including attitudes toward violence, labor force participation, education, and access to healthcare were found to define women's empowerment in Central, Southern, and West Africa. However, in East Africa, only three factors were relevant: attitudes toward violence, access to healthcare ranking, and labor force participation. There was limited evidence to support household decision-making, life course, or legal status domains as components of women's empowerment.Conclusion: This foremost study advances scholarship on women's empowerment by providing a validated measure of women's empowerment for researchers and other stakeholders in health and development.
Lecerf, Thierry; Canivez, Gary L
Interpretation of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (French WISC-V; Wechsler, 2016a) is based on a 5-factor model including Verbal Comprehension (VC), Visual Spatial (VS), Fluid Reasoning (FR), Working Memory (WM), and Processing Speed (PS). Evidence for the French WISC-V factorial structure was established exclusively through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). However, as recommended by Carroll (1995); Reise (2012), and Brown (2015), factorial structure should derive from both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and CFA. The first goal of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the French WISC-V using EFA. The 15 French WISC-V primary and secondary subtest scaled scores intercorrelation matrix was used and factor extraction criteria suggested from 1 to 4 factors. To disentangle the contribution of first- and second-order factors, the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization transformation (SLT) was applied. Overall, no EFA evidence for 5 factors was found. Results indicated that the g factor accounted for about 67% of the common variance and that the contributions of the first-order factors were weak (3.6 to 11.9%). CFA was used to test numerous alternative models. Results indicated that bifactor models produced better fit to these data than higher-order models. Consistent with previous studies, findings suggested dominance of the general intelligence factor and that users should thus emphasize the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) when interpreting the French WISC-V. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See
This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.
Objective: Confirm the factor structure of the original 18-item Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) as well as two abbreviated versions in a sample of mothers with a child in mental health treatment. Method: The factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the MOS-SSS were assessed using a convenience sample…
Full Text Available The Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI is a measure designed to assess attitudes toward savoring positive experience within three temporal orientations: the past (reminiscence, the present moment (present enjoyment, and the future (anticipation. The aim of this study was to validate the structure of the SBI—French version. The scale was tested with 335 French-speaking participants. Two models were estimated: a one-factor model representing a general construct of savoring and a three-factor model differentiating between anticipation, present enjoyment, and reminiscence. Several indicators of model fit were used: the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, the comparison fit index (CFI, the Tucker–Lewis fit index (TLI, and the standardized root mean residual (SRMR. A chi-square difference test was used to compare the two models. The model fit of the three-factor model assessed by the SRMR showed to be excellent, while it could be considered as satisfactory according to the CFI and TLI coefficients. RMSEA, however, was slightly less adequate. The model fit for the one-factor model seemed less adequate than the three-factor solution. Further, the chi-square difference test revealed that the three-factor model had significantly better fit than the one-factor model. Finally, the reliability of the four scores (anticipating pleasure, present moment pleasure, reminiscing pleasure, and total score was very good. These results show that the French version of the SBI is a valid and valuable scale to measure attitudes regarding the ability to savor positive experience, whether it be in anticipation, reminiscence, or the present moment.
Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana
The PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) is a brief self-report instrument widely used to assess Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in war Veterans, according to DSM-IV. This study sought out to explore the factor structure and reliability of the Portuguese version of the PCL-M. A sample of 660 Portuguese Colonial War Veterans completed the PCL-M. Several Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to test different structures for PCL-M PTSD symptoms. Although the respecified first-order four-factor model based on King et al.'s model showed the best fit to the data, the respecified first and second-order models based on the DSM-IV symptom clusters also presented an acceptable fit. In addition, the PCL-M showed adequate reliability. The Portuguese version of the PCL-M is thus a valid and reliable measure to assess the severity of PTSD symptoms as described in DSM-IV. Its use with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans may ease screening of possible PTSD cases, promote more suitable treatment planning, and enable monitoring of therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R
Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.
Sepulveda, Ana R; Parks, Melissa; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Blanco, Miriam
Drive for Muscularity (DM) has been shown to be a relevant construct for measuring and understanding male body image. For this reason, it is important to have reliable and valid instruments with which to measure DM, and to date no such instruments exist in Spain. This study analyzes the psychometric and structural properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) in a sample of Spanish adolescent males (N=212), with the aim of studying the structural validity of the scale by using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), as well as analyzing the internal consistency and construct (convergent and discriminant) and concurrent validity of the instrument. After testing three models, results indicated that the best structure was a two-dimensional model, with the factors of muscularity-oriented body image (MBI) and muscularity behavior (MB). The scale showed good internal consistency (α=.90) and adequate construct validity. Furthermore, significant associations were found between DM and increased difficulties in emotional regulation (rho=.37) and low self-esteem (rho=-.19). Findings suggest that the two-factor structure may be used when assessing drive for muscularity among adolescent males in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana
analysis (CFA) was used to investigate the dimensions of a structured set of neuropsychological tests administered to a multicenter, international sample of independent older adults (LADIS study). Six hundred and thirty-eight older adults completed baseline neuropsychological, clinical, functional...... and motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results...
Tam, Dora M. Y.; Twigg, Robert C.; Boey, Kam-Wing; Kwok, Siu-Ming
Objective: This article presents a validation study to examine the factor structure of an instrument designed to measure professional suitability for social work practice. Method: Data were collected from registered social workers in a provincial mailed survey. The response rate was 23.2%. After eliminating five cases with multivariate outliers,…
Appaneal, Renee N.
Current reviews outside of sport indicate that the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) items load on two separate factors (optimism and pessimism) and, therefore, should be treated as independent constructs. However, researchers in the sport sciences continue to use the single composite score reflecting a unidimensional definition of optimism.…
Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Liemburg, Edith J.; van der Meer, Lisette; Castelein, Stynke; Stewart, Roy; van Weeghel, Jaap; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard
Research suggests a two factor structure for negative symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders: social amotivation (SA) and expressive deficits (ED). Applying this two-factor structure in clinical settings may provide valuable information with regard to outcomes and to target treatments. We aimed to investigate 1) whether the factor structure is also supported in chronically ill patients with a psychotic disorder and 2) what the relationship is between these factors and functioning (overall functioning and living situation), depressive symptoms and quality of life. 1157 Patients with a psychotic disorder and a duration of illness of 5 years or more were included in the analysis (data selected from the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring Outcome Survey; PHAMOUS). A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale that were previously identified to reflect negative symptoms (N1-4, N6, G5, G7, G13, G16). Subsequently, regression analysis was performed on outcomes. The results confirmed the distinction between SA (N2, N4, G16) and ED (N1, N3, N6, G5, G7, G13) in chronically ill patients. Both factors were related to worse overall functioning as measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, ED was uniquely associated with residential living status. Higher scores for SA were associated with more depressive symptoms and worse quality of life. Thus, SA is most strongly related to level of social-emotional functioning, while ED are more related to living situation and thereby are indicative of level of everyday functioning. This subdivision may be useful for research purposes and be a valuable additional tool in clinical practice and treatment development. PMID:26895203
Annemarie P M Stiekema
Full Text Available Research suggests a two factor structure for negative symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders: social amotivation (SA and expressive deficits (ED. Applying this two-factor structure in clinical settings may provide valuable information with regard to outcomes and to target treatments. We aimed to investigate 1 whether the factor structure is also supported in chronically ill patients with a psychotic disorder and 2 what the relationship is between these factors and functioning (overall functioning and living situation, depressive symptoms and quality of life. 1157 Patients with a psychotic disorder and a duration of illness of 5 years or more were included in the analysis (data selected from the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring Outcome Survey; PHAMOUS. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale that were previously identified to reflect negative symptoms (N1-4, N6, G5, G7, G13, G16. Subsequently, regression analysis was performed on outcomes. The results confirmed the distinction between SA (N2, N4, G16 and ED (N1, N3, N6, G5, G7, G13 in chronically ill patients. Both factors were related to worse overall functioning as measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, ED was uniquely associated with residential living status. Higher scores for SA were associated with more depressive symptoms and worse quality of life. Thus, SA is most strongly related to level of social-emotional functioning, while ED are more related to living situation and thereby are indicative of level of everyday functioning. This subdivision may be useful for research purposes and be a valuable additional tool in clinical practice and treatment development.
Burton, Amy L.; Hay, Phillipa; Kleitman, Sabina; Smith, Evelyn; Raman, Jayanthi; Swinbourne, Jessica; Touyz, Stephen W.; Abbott, Maree J.
Background The Eating Beliefs Questionnaire (EBQ) is a 27-item self-report measure that assesses positive and negative beliefs about binge eating. It has been validated and its factor structure explored in a non-clinical sample. This study tested the psychometric properties of the EBQ in a clinical and a non-clinical sample. Method A sample of 769 participants (573 participants recruited from the university and general community, 76 seeking treatment for an eating disorder and 120 participati...
Miller, Susan M.; Chan, Fong; Ferrin, James M.; Lin, Chen-Ping; Chan, Jacob Y. C.
This study examined the factorial structure of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" in a community sample of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. A confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence that the instrument is a multidimensional measure of quality of life. Additionally, the questionnaire is…
Gajewski, Byron J.; Jiang, Yu; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Engelman, Kimberly; Teel, Cynthia; Choi, Won S.; Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky
Texts and software that we are currently using for teaching multivariate analysis to non-statisticians lack in the delivery of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The purpose of this paper is to provide educators with a complement to these resources that includes CFA and its computation. We focus on how to use CFA to estimate a “composite reliability” of a psychometric instrument. This paper provides guidance for introducing, via a case-study, the non-statistician to CFA. As a complement to our instruction about the more traditional SPSS, we successfully piloted the software R for estimating CFA on nine non-statisticians. This approach can be used with healthcare graduate students taking a multivariate course, as well as modified for community stakeholders of our Center for American Indian Community Health (e.g. community advisory boards, summer interns, & research team members). The placement of CFA at the end of the class is strategic and gives us an opportunity to do some innovative teaching: (1) build ideas for understanding the case study using previous course work (such as ANOVA); (2) incorporate multi-dimensional scaling (that students already learned) into the selection of a factor structure (new concept); (3) use interactive data from the students (active learning); (4) review matrix algebra and its importance to psychometric evaluation; (5) show students how to do the calculation on their own; and (6) give students access to an actual recent research project. PMID:24772373
Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Waldorf, Manuel; Legenbauer, Tanja; Bauer, Anika; Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja
The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) is a widely used questionnaire that measures body image as a multidimensional construct. The Appearance Scales (AS) of the MBSRQ (Appearance Evaluation, Appearance Orientation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Overweight Preoccupation and Self-Classified Weight) are subscales which facilitate a parsimonious assessment of appearance-related aspects of body image. The current study tested the psychometric properties and factor structure of a German translation of the MBSRQ-AS. Participants were n=230 female patients with the SCID diagnosis of an eating disorder and n=293 female healthy controls. In a confirmatory factor analysis, convincing goodness-of-fit indices emerged. The subscales of the questionnaire yielded good reliability and convergent and discriminant validity coefficients, with most items showing excellent characteristics. Like the English version, the German adaptation of the questionnaire can be recommended for a multidimensional assessment of appearance-related aspects of body image in both research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Larry J; O'Boyle, Ernest H
A persistent concern in the management and applied psychology literature is the effect of common method variance on observed relations among variables. Recent work (i.e., Richardson, Simmering, & Sturman, 2009) evaluated 3 analytical approaches to controlling for common method variance, including the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) marker technique. Their findings indicated significant problems with this technique, especially with nonideal marker variables (those with theoretical relations with substantive variables). Based on their simulation results, Richardson et al. concluded that not correcting for method variance provides more accurate estimates than using the CFA marker technique. We reexamined the effects of using marker variables in a simulation study and found the degree of error in estimates of a substantive factor correlation was relatively small in most cases, and much smaller than error associated with making no correction. Further, in instances in which the error was large, the correlations between the marker and substantive scales were higher than that found in organizational research with marker variables. We conclude that in most practical settings, the CFA marker technique yields parameter estimates close to their true values, and the criticisms made by Richardson et al. are overstated. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna
Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is a need for South African researchers to explore the potential utility of career decision-making self-efficacy in understanding the career behaviour of tertiary students. Given the lack of standardised measures for this construct, the responses of 364 South African university students to the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale : Short Form (CDMSE-SF were analysed using item statistics, Cronbachs alpha and confirmatory factor analysis to determine whether items supported the theorized subscales. Opsomming Dit is noodsaaklik vir Suid-Afrikaanse navorsers om die potensiele bruikbaarheid van loopbaanbesluitnemmgself-doeltreffendheid ("career decision-making self-efficacy" te ondersoek in n poging om die tersiere studente beter te begryp. Gegewe die gebrek aan gestandaardiseerde meetinstrumente vir hierdie konstruk, is response van 364 Suid-Afrikaanse universiteitstudente op die Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale: Short Form (CDMSE-SF met behulp van itemontleding, Cronbach se alpha en bevestigende faktorontleding ontleed, om te bepaal of die vraelys-items die teoretiese subskale ondersteun.
Seward, Kirsty; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Presseau, Justin; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Yoong, Sze Lin
While there are number of frameworks which focus on supporting the implementation of evidence based approaches, few psychometrically valid measures exist to assess constructs within these frameworks. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically assess a scale measuring each domain of the Theoretical Domains Framework for use in assessing the implementation of dietary guidelines within a non-health care setting (childcare services). A 75 item 14-domain Theoretical Domains Framework Questionnaire (TDFQ) was developed and administered via telephone interview to 202 centre based childcare service cooks who had a role in planning the service menu. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken to assess the reliability, discriminant validity and goodness of fit of the 14-domain theoretical domain framework measure. For the CFA, five iterative processes of adjustment were undertaken where 14 items were removed, resulting in a final measure consisting of 14 domains and 61 items. For the final measure: the Chi-Square goodness of fit statistic was 3447.19; the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) was 0.070; the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.072; and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had a value of 0.78. While only one of the three indices support goodness of fit of the measurement model tested, a 14-domain model with 61 items showed good discriminant validity and internally consistent items. Future research should aim to assess the psychometric properties of the developed TDFQ in other community-based settings.
Lyon, Aaron R; Cook, Clayton R; Brown, Eric C; Locke, Jill; Davis, Chayna; Ehrhart, Mark; Aarons, Gregory A
A substantial literature has established the role of the inner organizational setting on the implementation of evidence-based practices in community contexts, but very little of this research has been extended to the education sector, one of the most common settings for the delivery of mental and behavioral health services to children and adolescents. The current study examined the factor structure, psychometric properties, and interrelations of an adapted set of pragmatic organizational instruments measuring key aspects of the organizational implementation context in schools: (1) strategic implementation leadership, (2) strategic implementation climate, and (3) implementation citizenship behavior. The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS), Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), and Implementation Citizenship Behavior Scale (ICBS) were adapted by a research team that included the original scale authors and experts in the implementation of evidence-based practices in schools. These instruments were then administered to a geographically representative sample (n = 196) of school-based mental/behavioral health consultants to assess the reliability and structural validity via a series of confirmatory factor analyses. Overall, the original factor structures for the ILS, ICS, and ICBS were confirmed in the current sample. The one exception was poor functioning of the Rewards subscale of the ICS, which was removed in the final ICS model. Correlations among the revised measures, evaluated as part of an overarching model of the organizational implementation context, indicated both unique and shared variance. The current analyses suggest strong applicability of the revised instruments to implementation of evidence-based mental and behavioral practices in the education sector. The one poorly functioning subscale (Rewards on the ICS) was attributed to typical educational policies that do not allow for individual financial incentives to personnel. Potential directions for
van Dijk, Marjolein J A M; Claassen, Tom; Suwartono, Christiany; van der Veld, William M; van der Heijden, Paul T; Hendriks, Marc P H
Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-NL) by applying an alternative analysis based on causal modeling in addition to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm learns underlying network structures directly from data and assesses more complex structures than is possible with factor analysis. WAIS-IV-NL profiles of two clinical samples of 202 patients (i.e. patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a mixed psychiatric outpatient group) were analyzed and contrasted with a matched control group (N = 202) selected from the Dutch standardization sample of the WAIS-IV-NL to investigate internal structure by means of CFA and BCCD. With CFA, the four-factor structure as proposed by Wechsler demonstrates acceptable fit in all three subsamples. However, BCCD revealed three consistent clusters (verbal comprehension, visual processing, and processing speed) in all three subsamples. The combination of Arithmetic and Digit Span as a coherent working memory factor could not be verified, and Matrix Reasoning appeared to be isolated. With BCCD, some discrepancies from the proposed four-factor structure are exemplified. Furthermore, these results fit CHC theory of intelligence more clearly. Consistent clustering patterns indicate these results are robust. The structural causal discovery approach may be helpful in better interpreting existing tests, the development of new tests, and aid in diagnostic instruments.
Frankel, Leslie; Fisher, Jennifer O; Power, Thomas G; Chen, Tzu-An; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O
Assessing parent affect is important because studies examining the parent-child dyad have shown that parent affect has a profound impact on parent-child interactions and related outcomes. Although some measures that assess general affect during daily lives exist, to date there are only few tools that assess parent affect in the context of feeding. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure parent affect specific to the feeding context and determine its validity and reliability. A brief instrument consisting of 20 items was developed that specifically asks how parents feel during the feeding process. This brief instrument draws on the structure of a well-validated general affect measure. A total of 296 Hispanic and Black Head Start parents of preschoolers completed the Feeding Emotions Scale along with other parent-report measures as part of a larger study designed to better understand feeding interactions during the dinner meal. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model with independent subscales of positive affect and negative affect (Cronbach's alphas of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). Concurrent and convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the subscales of the Feeding Emotions Scale with positive emotionality and negative emotionality from the Differential Emotions Scale - a measure of general adult emotions. Concurrent and convergent criterion validity was evaluated by testing mean differences in affect across parent feeding styles using ANOVA. A significant difference was found across maternal weight status for positive feeding affect. The resulting validated measure can be used to assess parent affect in studies of feeding to better understand how interactions during feeding may impact the development of child eating behaviors and possibly weight status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willson, Victor L.; And Others
Presents results of confirmatory factor analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children which is based on the underlying theoretical model of sequential, simultaneous, and achievement factors. Found support for the two-factor, simultaneous and sequential processing model. (MCF)
Full Text Available There have been a number of studies that have examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV using the standardization sample. In this study, we investigate its factor structure on a clinical neuropsychology sample of mixed aetiology. Correlated factor, higher-order and bi-factor models are all tested. Overall, the results suggest that the WAIS-IV will be suitable for use with this population.
Utsey, Shawn O; Constantine, Madonna G
In this study, we examined the factor structure of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES; Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) across 2 separate samples of Black Americans. The CSES was administered to a sample of Black American adolescents (n = 538) and a community sample of Black American adults (n = 313). Results of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), however, did not support the original 4-factor model identified by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) as providing an adequate fit to the data for these samples. Furthermore, an exploratory CFA procedure failed to find a CSES factor structure that could be replicated across the 2 samples of Black Americans. We present and discuss implications of the findings.
Heiss, Sydney; Boswell, James F; Hormes, Julia M
The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a valid and reliable measure of eating-related pathology, but its factor structure has proven difficult to replicate. Given differences in dietary patterns in vegans compared to omnivores, proper measurement of eating disorder symptoms is especially important in studies of animal product avoiders. This study compared goodness-of-fit of five alternative models of the EDE-Q in vegans (i.e., individuals refraining from all animal products, n = 318) and omnivores (i.e., individuals not restricting intake of animal products, n = 200). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to compare fit indices of the original four-factor model of the EDE-Q, along with alternative three-, two-, full one-, and brief one-factor models. No model provided adequate fit of the data in either sample of respondents. The fit of the brief one-factor model was the closest to acceptable in omnivores, but did not perform as well in vegans. Indicators of fit were comparable in vegans and omnivores across all other models. Our data confirm difficulties in replicating the proposed factor structure of the EDE-Q, including in vegans. More research is needed to determine the suitability of the EDE-Q for quantifying eating behaviors, including in those abstaining from animal products. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abe, Koji; Itoyama, Yasuto; Sobue, Gen; Tsuji, Shoji; Aoki, Masashi; Doyu, Manabu; Hamada, Chikuma; Kondo, Kazuoki; Yoneoka, Takatomo; Akimoto, Makoto; Yoshino, Hiide
Our objective was to confirm the efficacy and safety of edaravone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We conducted a 36-week confirmatory study, consisting of 12-week pre-observation period followed by 24-week treatment period. Patients received placebo or edaravone i.v. infusion over 60 min for the first 14 days in cycle 1, and for 10 of the first 14 days during cycles 2 to 6. The efficacy primary endpoint was changed in the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) scores during the 24-week treatment. Patients were treated with placebo (n = 104) and edaravone (n = 102). Changes in ALSFRS-R during the 24-week treatment were -6.35 ± 0.84 in the placebo group (n = 99) and -5.70 ± 0.85 in the edaravone group (n = 100), with a difference of 0.65 ± 0.78 (p = 0.411). Adverse events amounted to 88.5% (92/104) in the placebo group and 89.2% (91/102) in the edaravone group. In conclusion, the reduction of ALSFRS-R was smaller in the edaravone group than in the placebo group, but efficacy of edaravone for treatment of ALS was not demonstrated. Levels and frequencies of reported adverse events were similar in the two groups.
Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.
Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129
Suzanne E Judd
Full Text Available Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups.Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study who completed the Block98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the Convenience pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the Plant-based pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the Sweets/Fats pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the Southern pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the Alcohol/Salads pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusions: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts.
Hou, Fengsu; Cerulli, Catherine; Wittink, Marsha N; Caine, Eric D; Qiu, Peiyuan
To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of rural Chinese women and to explore associated factors. Cross-sectional study. Rural areas of Guangyuan City, Sichuan, China. We recruited 1501 women, aged 16 years and older, who had been living locally for at least 2 years and reported being married or in a relationship during the past 12 months. They were among a sample of 1898 potential participants from our larger parent study on the prevalence of depressive-distress symptoms. Participants completed demographic and social economic measures, the Short Form of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and the Duke Social Support Index. We applied χ 2 test, analysis of variance and confirmatory factor analysis for analysis. The overall prevalence of IPV in the past 12 months was 29.05%; the prevalence of physical, psychological and sexual violence was 7.66%, 26.58% and 3.20%, respectively. The overall prevalence was highest among women aged 16-29 years, and was more common among those without a high school diploma and who saw their family's financial status as very poor or stagnant. Women who were not victims of IPV had higher levels of social support. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the total effects of social support on physical, psychological and sexual violence were -0.12, -0.35 and -0.12, respectively. The indirect effects of objective economic status on physical, psychological and sexual violence were -0.047, -0.014 and -0.047, respectively, but the total effect was not significant. The indirect effect of education on psychological violence was -0.056. IPV is common in rural Guangyuan. Our data are comparable with the findings from north-west of China. Social support is an important protective factor. Future work is needed to develop, test and later disseminate potential IPV interventions, with a focus on building actual and perceived supportive social networks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise
Reddy, Madhavi K; Murdoch, Maureen
Unwanted sexual stressors experienced by military men and women are associated with a host of negative physical and mental health problems. Government officials are making it a priority to put a stop to these unwanted sexual experiences. However, the measure typically used measures sexual stressors much better for women than for men. The purpose of the present study was to test the factor structure of an alternative measure, the Sexual Harassment Inventory (SHI), to examine whether sexual stressors experienced by men correspond to women's experiences. We used three preexisting datasets in which the SHI was used to assess active and former military members' sexual stressor experiences. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis to identify women's response patterns and a confirmatory factor analysis to determine whether men's response patterns corresponded to women's. Findings showed that the SHI has evidence of factorial validity in female service members and adequate, but not exceptional, factorial fit for male service members. It is imperative that more work be done to better understand how men experience and perceive potential military sexual stressors and how those perceptions and experiences compare to women's. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Full Text Available This research presents a study of the factor structure and temporal stability of the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (CA-14 using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA techniques. The paper pretends to offer a potential guide to researchers, paying special attention to data requirements, estimation methods suggested in the literature, recommended fit indices and other circumstances that need to be taken into account when estimating CFA models. Also, various methodological strategies are shown during the implementation of CFA models: correlated errors, use of parameter constraints, multigroup analysis, etc.
Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory
Levant, Ronald F; McDermott, Ryon C; Hewitt, Amber A; Alto, Kathleen M; Harris, Kyle T
Confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r) from 384 middle school students (163 boys, 221 girls) indicated that the best fit to the data was a bifactor model incorporating the hypothesized 3-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded simultaneously on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 3 hypothesized masculine norms for adolescents: Emotionally Detached Dominance, Toughness, and Avoidance of Femininity. Invariance testing across gender supported metric invariance for the general factor only. Although item loadings on the general factor were similar across boys and girls, the specific factor loadings varied substantially, with many becoming nonsignificant in the presence of the general factor for girls. A structural regression analysis predicting latent variables of the Meanings of Adolescent Masculinity Scale (MAMS), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Discipline, School Difficulties, and Positive Behavior Scale (DSDPBS) indicated that the general factor was a strong predictor of MAMS for both genders and DSDPBS for girls. Findings indicate that the MRNI-A-r general factor is a valid and reliable indicator of overall internalization of traditional masculinity ideology in adolescents; however, the specific factors may have different meanings for boys as compared with girls and lack validity in the presence of the general factor. These findings are consistent with a developmental perspective of gender ideology that views adolescence as a time when a differentiated cognitive schema of masculine norms is beginning to develop. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Harris, K K; Price, A J; Beard, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Jenkinson, C; Dawson, J
The objective of this study was to explore dimensionality of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and examine whether self-reported pain and functioning can be distinguished in the form of subscales. This was a secondary data analysis of the UK NHS hospital episode statistics/patient-reported outcome measures dataset containing pre-operative OHS scores on 97 487 patients who were undergoing hip replacement surgery. The proposed number of factors to extract depended on the method of extraction employed. Velicer's Minimum Average Partial test and the Parallel Analysis suggested one factor, the Cattell's scree test and Kaiser-over-1 rule suggested two factors. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the two-factor OHS had most of the items saliently loading either of the two factors. These factors were named 'Pain' and 'Function' and their respective subscales were created. There was some cross-loading of items: 8 (pain on standing up from a chair) and 11 (pain during work). These items were assigned to the 'Pain' subscale. The final 'Pain' subscale consisted of items 1, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. The 'Function' subscale consisted of items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, with the recommended scoring of the subscales being from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Cronbach's alpha was 0.855 for the 'Pain' subscale and 0.861 for the 'Function' subscale. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the two-factor model of the OHS had a better fit. However, none of the one-factor or two-factor models was rejected. Factor analyses demonstrated that, in addition to current usage as a single summary scale, separate information on pain and self-reported function can be extracted from the OHS in a meaningful way in the form of subscales. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:305-9. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry
According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a…
Fournet, Nathalie; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Monnier, Catherine; Atzeni, Thierry; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Le Gall, Didier; Roy, Arnaud
The parent and teacher forms of the French version of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were used to evaluate executive function in everyday life in a large sample of healthy children (N = 951) aged between 5 and 18. Several psychometric methods were applied, with a view to providing clinicians with tools for score interpretation. The parent and teacher forms of the BRIEF were acceptably reliable. Demographic variables (such as age and gender) were found to influence the BRIEF scores. Confirmatory factor analysis was then used to test five competing models of the BRIEF's latent structure. Two of these models (a three-factor model and a two-factor model, both based on a nine-scale structure) had a good fit. However, structural invariance with age was only obtained with the two-factor model. The French version of the BRIEF provides a useful measure of everyday executive function and can be recommended for use in clinical research and practice.
Jaime Eduardo Barrientos Delgado
Full Text Available This paper intends to validate the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (Herek, 1988. The starting point is the five dimensions reported in previous studies (Cárdenas & Barrientos, 2008. No research has confirmed the hypothesized ATLG factor structure with a Spanish-language sample. This study tested three factor structures, results indicating that the two- factor second-order model provides the best description of ATLG items. Additionally, psychometric properties were examined using a sample of 518 college students. ATLG proved reliable (α = 0.93 and valid for Chilean population.
Croft, Arthur C; Milam, Bryce; Meylor, Jade; Manning, Richard
Because of previously published recommendations to modify the Neck Disability Index (NDI), we evaluated the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. Subjects who had sustained whiplash injuries of grade 2 or higher completed an NDI questionnaire. There were 123 subjects (55% female, of which 36% had recovered and 64% had chronic symptoms. NDI subscales were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, considering only the subscales and, secondly, using sex as an 11th variable. The subscales were also tested with multiple linear regression modeling using the total score as a target variable. When considering only the 10 NDI subscales, only a single factor emerged, with an eigenvalue of 5.4, explaining 53.7% of the total variance. Strong correlation (> .55) (P factor model of the NDI is not justified based on our results, and in this population of whiplash subjects, the NDI was unidimensional, demonstrating high internal consistency and supporting the original validation study of Vernon and Mior.
Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Selvaraj, Kamaraj; Rashid, Abdul
The six item Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale (CHAOS-6) has been validated as a reliable tool to measure levels of household disorder. We aimed to investigate the goodness of fit and reliability of a new Malay version of the CHAOS-6. The original English version of the CHAOS-6 underwent forward-backward translation into the Malay language. The finalised Malay version was administered to 105 myocardial infarction survivors in a Malaysian cardiac health facility. We performed confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) using structural equation modelling. A path diagram and fit statistics were yielded to determine the Malay version's validity. Composite reliability was tested to determine the scale's reliability. All 105 myocardial infarction survivors participated in the study. The CFA yielded a six-item, one-factor model with excellent fit statistics. Composite reliability for the single factor CHAOS-6 was 0.65, confirming that the scale is reliable for Malay speakers. The Malay version of the CHAOS-6 was reliable and showed the best fit statistics for our study sample. We thus offer a simple, brief, validated, reliable and novel instrument to measure chaos, the Skala Kecelaruan, Keriuhan & Tertib Terubahsuai (CHAOS-6) , for the Malaysian population.
Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar M; Cyders, Melissa A
The present study was aimed at determining the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale in a sample of college students. Participants were 318 college students (36.2% men; mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 6.4 years). The psychometric properties of this Spanish version were analyzed using the Rasch model, and the factor structure was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. The verification of the global fit of the data showed adequate indexes for persons and items. The reliability estimates were high for both items and persons. Differential item functioning across gender was found for 23 items, which likely reflects known differences in impulsivity levels between men and women. The factor structure of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P replicates previous work with the original UPPS-P Scale. Overall, results suggest that test scores from the Spanish version of the UPPS-P show adequate psychometric properties to accurately assess the multidimensional model of impulsivity, which represents the most exhaustive measure of this construct. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wicherts, J.M.; Zand Scholten, A.
The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by
Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.
The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…
Baleghi-Zadeh, Sousan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Daud, Shaffe Mohd
Learning Management system is a type of Information system that many universities invest on to be integrated with their curriculum. Therefore, factors which make students accept or reject Learning Management System is crucial for educational managers of universities. The main purpose of the present study is to modify and validate a measurement…
Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre
The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.
ARRINDELL, WA; SANDERMAN, R; VANDERMOLEN, H; VANDERENDE, J; MERSCH, PP
By using confirmatory factor analysis, distress and performance factors of assertion identified previously in a sample of predomi- nantly agoraphobic club members (N = 703) employing the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SlB) - the factors being (I) Display of negative feelings; (II) Expression of
Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive distortions are related to gambling frequency and gambling severity. Having a culturally sensitive measure to assess cognitive distortions will facilitate the early detection of people who might be at risk of developing problematic gambling behaviors. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire was translated into Spanish (GBQ-S but no previous study explored the structure of the GBQ-S in a non-US sample with different levels of gambling involvement. Aim: The present study examined the factor structure of the GBQ-S in a community sample of gamblers from Argentina. It also analyzed the association between cognitive distortions and type of gambling activity and frequency of gambling behaviors and the predictive utility of the GBQ-S on gambling severity. Participants: 508 youth and adults completed the GBQ-S. Results: The CFA showed an overall acceptable fit to the data confirming the proposed two-factor model. Scores of the two GBQ sub-scales were positively and significantly correlated with scores on gambling severity. Cognitive distortions have a significant effect on gambling severity after controlling for frequency of engagement in gambling activities. Luck and perseverance, but not illusion of control, was positively related to gambling severity. Discussion: scores measured by the GBQ-S exhibit adequate psychometric properties for the accurate assessment of cognitive distortions across adults and youth from the general community of Argentina.
Neri, Luca; Conway, Paul Maurice; Basilisco, Guido
the psychometric properties of PAC-SYM in patients with chronic constipation. METHODS: We enrolled 2,203 outpatients with chronic constipation in two waves. We used wave I sample to test the psychometric properties of the PAC-SYM and wave II sample to cross-validate its factor structure, to assess criterion...... validity, responsiveness to clinical change, and its minimal clinically important difference. RESULTS: Only a minority of patients reported any rectal tearing (38 %). Deletion of such item leads to a 11-item version (M:PAC-SYM). The remaining items in the rectal domain were moderately correlated.......28-0.45), discrimination across Rome III criteria for functional constipation and abdominal pain, and responsiveness to clinical change (β = -0.49; ω (2) = 0.25). M:PAC-SYM minimal clinically important difference was 0.24. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that the rectal domain may not represent a relevant cluster...
Full Text Available Learning Management system is a type of Information system that many universities invest on to be integrated with their curriculum. Therefore, factors which make students accept or reject Learning Management System is crucial for educational managers of universities. The main purpose of the present study is to modify and validate a measurement model based on two models of Technology Acceptance Model and Fit Model. The proposed measurement model included five constructs of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, behavior intention to use, technical support and task-technology fit. The sample size of the study was 300 pre-service teachers studying at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM and Universiti of Malaya (UM. The results of the study revealed that after deleting eleven items, the proposed measurement model was validated and fit. Therefore, the modified measurement model was able to present the theoretical patterns of the actual data.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt a Malay version of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS and to evaluate its psychometric properties in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The English version KOOS was translated into a Malay version using forward and backward translation process, followed by face validity and content validity. Two hundred and twenty-six knee OA patients attending the Outpatient and Orthopaedic Clinics, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, completed the Malay version KOOS. Construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis and internal reliability assessment were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that the original five-factor model with 42 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, indicating poor model fit. A new five-factor model of 26 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit (comparative fit index= 0.929, incremental fit index= 0.930, Tucker Lewis fit index= 0.920, root mean square error of approximation= 0.073 and Chisquared/ degree of freedom= 2.183 indices to signify a model fit. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the new model ranged from 0.776 to 0.946. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.819 and 0.921, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. CONCLUSION: The five-factor model with 26 items in the Malay version of KOOS questionnaire demonstrated a good degree of goodness of fit and was found to be valid, reliable and simple as an assessment tool for symptoms, pain, activity of daily living, sports and recreational activity and quality of life for Malaysian adults suffering from knee osteoarthritis.
Chang, Eva; Cohen, Julia; Koethe, Benjamin; Smith, Kevin; Bir, Anupa
To validate the Satisfaction of Employees in Health Care (SEHC) survey with multidisciplinary, healthcare staff in the United States (U.S.). A cross-sectional psychometric study using confirmatory factor analysis. The original three-factor model was tested and modified using half-samples. Models were assessed using goodness-of-fit measures. Scale reliability and validity were tested with Cronbach's α coefficient and correlation of total SEHC score with two global satisfaction items, respectively. We administered a web-based survey from January to May 2015 to healthcare staff participating in initiatives aimed at delivering better care and reducing costs. The overall response rate was 38% (N = 1089), and respondents were from 86 healthcare projects. A total of 928 respondents completed the SEHC survey in full and were used in this study. Model fit of 18 SEHC items and total SEHC score. The mean SEHC score was 77.6 (SD: 19.0). A one-factor model of job satisfaction had high loadings on all items, and demonstrated adequate model fit (second half-sample RMSEA: 0.069). The scale demonstrated high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.942) and validity (r = 0.77 and 0.76, both P job satisfaction construct. The scale has adequate reliability and validity to recommend its use to assess satisfaction among multidisciplinary, U.S. healthcare staff. Our findings suggest that this survey is a good candidate for reduction to a short-form, and future research should validate this survey in other healthcare populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Murphy, Kelle L; Liu, Min; Herzog, Thaddeus A
Betel nut chewing is embedded within the cultures of South Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. The determinants of betel nut consumption are complex. Ongoing consumption of betel nut is affected by cultural, social, and drug-specific effects (i.e. dependence). This study's first objective was to assess the psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of the socio-cultural constructs in a survey developed for betel nut chewers. The study's second objective was to investigate the influence of socio-cultural variables on betel nut chewing behaviors among Chamorro and non-Chamorro Micronesians in Guam. The current study was a secondary analysis of a larger study (N = 600; n = 375 chewers and n = 225 former chewers) that examined socio-cultural factors that influence why chewers chew betel nut, along with assessing chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit. The socio-cultural constructs of the survey were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The socio-cultural factors were a sufficient fit with data and the instrument is reliable and valid, as indicated by various model fit indices (χ 2 (13) = 18.49 with p = .14, TLI = .99, CFI = 1.00, SRMR = .02, RMSEA = .03 with 90% CIs [.00,.07]). Cronbach's alpha, the sign and magnitude of the factor loadings, the inter-factor correlations, and the large proportion of variance extracted for each factor, all indicate that the instrument is reliable and valid. Additionally, multivariate analyses showed that socio-cultural reasons were important contributing or chewing betel nut. Participants cited chewing because their friends and family members chewed, the behavior is embedded within their culture, and it would be considered rude and disrespectful to not chew. Based on the findings, this study provides important implications pertaining to
Full Text Available The study and understanding of a student’s disciplined mind, life-skills, self-concept and teacher classroom management are crucial is helping with the assessment of student development and education quality. As such, 932 Thai students from 119 Bangkok secondary schools were surveyed by use of multi-stage random sampling. The observed variables included learning ability, self-discipline, social skills, thinking skills, stress coping skills, self-awareness, emotional adjustment, interpersonal relationships, student centered learning management, the learning environment creation, and authentic learning assessment. A five-level Likert scale questionnaire was constructed by the researchers for the student respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used for analysis. The quantitative research confirmed the elements of the variables with the results showing that all the observed variables studied are in harmony with the empirical data and have statistical significance. A disciplined mind has the ability to learn and is crucial for on-line learning success as well as professional expertise. Life skills are comprised of social skills, thinking skills, and coping with stress. Self-concept was determined to be influenced by self-awareness, emotional adjustment, and interpersonal relationships. Teacher classroom management is an element of learning that focuses on the learners, creating a learning environment, and authentic learning evaluation. This research confirmed the composition of the latent variables with the results indicating the importance in the development of a causal model of a disciplined mind student as defined by Bangkok’s Secondary Education Service Area Office for the next stage of the research project.
Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.
Cartierre, N; Coulon, N; Demerval, R
Screening depressivity among adolescents is a key public health priority. In order to measure the severity of depressive symptomatology, a four-dimensional 20 items scale called "Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale" (CES-D) was developed. A shorter 10-item version was developed and validated (Andresen et al.). For this brief version, several authors supported a two-factor structure - Negative and Positive affect - but the relationship between the two reversed-worded items of the Positive affect factor could be better accounted for by correlated errors. The aim of this study is triple: firstly to test a French version of the CES-D10 among adolescents; secondly to test the relevance of a one-dimensional structure by considering error correlation for Positive affect items; finally to examine the extent to which this structural model is invariant across gender. The sample was composed of 269 French middle school adolescents (139 girls and 130 boys, mean age: 13.8, SD=0.65). Confirmatory Factorial Analyses (CFA) using the LISREL 8.52 were conducted in order to assess the adjustment to the data of three factor models: a one-factor model, a two-factor model (Positive and Negative affect) and a one-factor model with specification of correlated errors between the two reverse-worded items. Then, multigroup analysis was conducted to test the scale invariance for girls and boys. Internal consistency of the CES-D10 was satisfying for the adolescent sample (α=0.75). The best fitting model is the one-factor model with correlated errors between the two items of the previous Positive affect factor (χ(2)/dl=2.50; GFI=0.939; CFI=0.894; RMSEA=0.076). This model presented a better statistical fit to the data than the one-factor model without error correlation: χ(2)(diff) (1)=22.14, pstatistic for the model with equality-constrained factor loadings was 121.31. The change in the overall Chi(2) is not statistically significant. This result implies that the model is
Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.
Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; de Boer, L.
In this article, we identify critical success factors for managing small and intensive purchasing groups by comparing successful and unsuccessful purchasing groups in a large-scale survey. The analysis of our data set suggests the following success factors: no enforced participation, sufficient
Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.
A common question in test evaluation is whether an a priori assignment of items to subtests is supported by empirical data. If the analysis results indicate the assignment of items to subtests under study is not supported by data, the assignment is often adjusted. In this study the authors compare
Organisational failures are now recognised as being as important as mechanical failures or individual human errors in causing major accidents such as the capsize of the Herald of Free Enterprise or the Pipa Alpha disaster. The Human Factors Study Group of the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations was set up to look at the part played by human factors in nuclear risk and its reduction. The third report of the Study Group considers the role played by organisational factors and management in promoting nuclear safety. Actions to review and promote a safety culture are suggested. Three main conclusions are drawn and several recommendations made. (UK)
Stockdale, Margaret S.; Hope, Kathryn G.
Factor analysis of data from 1,070 federal employees, 575 undergraduates and 575 graduate students, faculty, and staff uncovered some weaknesses in the Merit Systems Protection Board's sexual harassment survey instrument. This type of survey does not adequately measure sexual coercion or quid pro quo forms of harassment. (SK)
Ranzijn, R; Keeves, J; Luszcz, M; Feather, N T
This article reports on a confirmatory analytic study of the Bachman Revision (1970) of Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (1965) that was used in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA). Participants comprised 1,087 elderly people aged between 70 and 103 years (mean 77 years). Five competing factor models were tested with LISREL8. The best-fitting model was a nested one, with a General Self-Esteem second-order factor and two first-order factors, Positive Self-regard and Usefulness/Competence. This model was validated with data from a later wave of ALSA. Usefulness and competence have received little attention in the gerontological literature to date. Preliminary results indicate that usefulness/competence may be an important predictor of well-being. Further work is required on the relationships among usefulness, competence, self-esteem, and well-being in elderly people.
Tripicchio, Gina L; Borner, Kelsey B; Odar Stough, Cathleen; Poppert Cordts, Katrina; Dreyer Gillette, Meredith; Davis, Ann M
This study aims to validate an obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure, Sizing Me Up (SMU), in treatment-seeking Latino youth. Pediatric obesity has been associated with reduced HRQOL; therefore, valid measures are important for use in diverse populations that may be at increased risk for obesity and related comorbidities. Structural equation modeling tested the fit of the 5-subscale, 22-item SMU measure in Latino youth, 5-13 years of age, with obesity ( N = 204). Invariance testing was conducted to examine equivalence between Latino and non-Latino groups ( N = 250). SMU achieved acceptable fit in a Latino population [χ 2 = 428.33, df = 199, p Squared Error of Approximation = 0.072 (0.062-0.082), Comparative Fit Index = 0.915, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.901, Weighted Root Mean Square Residual = 1.2230]. Additionally, factor structure and factor loadings were invariant across Latino and non-Latino groups, but thresholds were not invariant. SMU is a valid measure of obesity-specific HRQOL in treatment-seeking Latino youth with obesity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Hinrich, Jesper Løve; Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Riis, Nicolai Andre Brogaard
Many data-driven approaches exist to extract neural representations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but most of them lack a proper probabilistic formulation. We propose a scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis (psFA) allowing spatially sparse maps, component...... pruning using automatic relevance determination (ARD) and subject specific heteroscedastic spatial noise modeling. For task-based and resting state fMRI, we show that the sparsity constraint gives rise to components similar to those obtained by group independent component analysis. The noise modeling...... shows that noise is reduced in areas typically associated with activation by the experimental design. The psFA model identifies sparse components and the probabilistic setting provides a natural way to handle parameter uncertainties. The variational Bayesian framework easily extends to more complex...
Gimperlein, Heiko; Krötz, Bernhard; Lienau, Christoph
For every moderate growth representation (p,E)(p,E) of a real Lie group G on a Fréchet space, we prove a factorization theorem of Dixmier–Malliavin type for the space of analytic vectors E¿E¿. There exists a natural algebra of superexponentially decreasing analytic functions A(G)A(G), such that E......¿=¿(A(G))E¿E¿=¿(A(G))E¿. As a corollary we obtain that E¿E¿ coincides with the space of analytic vectors for the Laplace–Beltrami operator on G....
An analysis is made of the role of shipper and receiver measurements in safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) transferred from one facility to another, with emphasis on the case where the receiver requires an analytical accounting measurement of the transferred SNM and does not need the material for process purposes at the time of receipt. Seven possible diversion periods are considered, ranging from the interval between the shipper's final accounting measurement on the material and the time it is placed in the shipper's vault, through the actual transport of the material between facilities, to the time the material is removed from the receiver's vault and placed in the process. The detection power of various combinations of six possible shipper/receiver measurements for these diversion opportunities is then evaluated; the measurements considered include the shipper's and receiver's accounting measurements, the latter at two possible times, and various nondestructive assay (NDA) confirmatory measurements. It is concluded that all safeguards measurement objectives can be met by a combination of a shipper's accounting measurement at the time the material is removed from the process, an appropriate shipper's NDA confirmatory measurement either immediately after canning or immediately before shipping, an equivalent receiver's NDA confirmatory measurement immediately after the material is received, and a receiver's accounting measurement when the material is placed in the process. Furthermore, it is found that a receiver's analytical accounting measurement immediately after receipt when the material is not yet required for process has dubious safeguards value
MacLean, Hannah Ng On-Nar
Background: Support for the four factor construct validity of the third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) has been found in clinical and non clinical populations but some studies question whether more complex models consistent with the concepts of fluid and crystallised intelligence provide a better explanation of the data. The WAIS-III is frequently used in the diagnosis of learning disability, however, previous exploratory factor analysis of data from a population ...
Compte, Emilio J; Sepúlveda, Ana R; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Blanco, Miriam
Several studies have demonstrated that men express body dissatisfaction differently than women. Although specific instruments that address body dissatisfaction in men have been developed, only a few have been validated in Latin-American male populations. The aim of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the Spanish versions of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS-S) and the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS-S) in an Argentinian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 male students to examine: the factorial structure (confirmatory factor analysis), the internal consistency reliability, and the concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity of both scales. Results replicated the two factor structures for the DMS-S and MBAS-S. Both scales showed excellent levels of internal consistency, and various measures of construct validity indicated that the DMS-S and MBAS-S were acceptable and valid instruments to assess body dissatisfaction in Argentinian males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dijk, M.J.A.M. van; Claassen, T.; Suwartono, C.; Veld, W.M. van der; Heijden, P.T. van der; Hendriks, M.P.H.
Objective: Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV
Full Text Available Normative and nonnormative collective actions are the consequence of differences in estimation of political situation. The article regards the predictors in selection of normative (participation in meetings, signing petitions, etc. vs. nonnormative (strike, violent actions, etc. forms of protest behavior (perception of unfairness, self-efficacy, social identity, ideas of out-group. The carried out analysis showed that high self-efficacy, idea of out-group members as equal participants of interaction and experiencing of emotion of anger lead to the choice of various normative protest behavior. Low self-efficacy, steady social identity (including politicized identity, experiencing the emotion of contempt to out-group members often lead to choice of nonnormative forms. In conclusion the article regards the link of various predictors with the choice of individual and group forms of protest and analyzes the possible directions for further empirical studies.
Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Bernstein, Joshua D
The Wechsler intelligence scale for children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported.
O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Shevlin, Mark
The Inventory of Complicated Grief Revised (ICG-R) assesses symptoms of complicated grief in bereaved individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of Complicated Grief (CG) and investigate the relationship between CG and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder through the asse...... The Inventory of Complicated Grief Revised (ICG-R) assesses symptoms of complicated grief in bereaved individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of Complicated Grief (CG) and investigate the relationship between CG and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder through...... and the three factors of PTSD, as defined by the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), were allowed to correlate provided the best fit. The results therefore indicate high levels of conceptual overlap among the dimensions of CG and PTSD....
Full Text Available Introduction: Transformation of patient safety culture towards developing an open culture can be the greatest challenge for achieving a safe healthcare system. This study aimed to carry out a structural analysis of the Persian translation version of a questionnaire assessing patient safety culture. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to evaluate the Persian translation of patient safety culture questionnaire, developed by the National Patient Safety Agency. The questionnaire includes seven sections and 43 items investigating 12 dimensions of patient safety culture. The reliability of this questionnaire was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha (α>0.8. The questionnaire was distributed among employees of the Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Najafabad, Iran, 2015. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and Amos 18. Results: Sufficiency of the sample size, as determined by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure, was 0.809, which was significantly associated with zero; therefore, performing factor analysis was acceptable and justifiable. The value of Bartlett's test was 696, P-value was less than 0.001, and degree of freedom was equal to 91. In the final model, the relative Chi-square was equal to 1.75 and P-value was less than 0.001. Also, parsimony normed fit index, parsimony-adjusted comparative fit index, and root mean square error of approximation were equal to 0.571, 0.621, and 0.065, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of fitting indices for the model and the questionnaire used in the present study for assessing patient safety culture, it can be stated that the Persian translation of this instrument is valid and hospitals can use it to monitor patient safety culture improvement.
Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Bankole, Regina A.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Moore, Dennis M., Jr.
Purpose: This research aims to add to the literature on Academic Optimism, a composite measure composed of teacher perceptions of trust in students, academic press, and collective efficacy by exploring a similar set of constructs from the student perceptive. The relationships between student trust in teachers, student perceptions of academic…
Confirming the structure of negative beliefs about psychosis and bipolar disorder: A confirmatory factor analysis study of the Personal Beliefs about Experience Questionnaire and Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire.
Taylor, Peter J; Pyle, Melissa; Schwannauer, Matthias; Hutton, Paul; Morrison, Anthony
Negative beliefs about psychosis and other mental health difficulties may contribute to depression and distress in individuals with these experiences. The Personal Beliefs about Experience Questionnaire (PBEQ) and Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire (PBIllQ) are two widely used measures of these beliefs. It is currently uncertain how the items on these measures map onto different underlying factors. This study therefore aimed to test the factor structure of these two measures. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test three alternative, pre-specified, factor structures for the PBIllQ and PBEQ in a sample of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 202) and a sample of individuals with experien-ces of psychosis (n = 362). Associations with depressive symptoms were also examined. A three-factor structure was supported for both measures, which included Negative Expectations/Appraisals (NEA), Internal Shame/Defectiveness (ISD) and External Shame (ES) factors. The NEA and ISD subscales also had consistent independent associations with depressive symptoms. The results suggest that the PBIllQ and PBEQ may capture three distinct sets of negative beliefs in individuals with psychosis or bipolar disorder and that these beliefs may have important consequences for subsequent difficulties in these populations such as depression. Both measures may be helpful in supporting assessment and formulation in clinical practice and in evaluating belief change in intervention trials. However, when used in these settings, the three subscales identified in this study may be the most valid way of calculating scores on these measures. Negative personal beliefs about the causes, meaning and consequences of psychosis and bipolar disorder are associated with greater distress and depression. Two related measures, the PBIllQ and PBEQ, have been developed to assess these beliefs. Our analyses suggest that scores on these questionnaires are best broken down into three
Peer van der Helm PhD; P.H. van der Laan; G.J.J.M. Stams
The present study examines the construct validity and reliability of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) in a sample of 77 adolescents placed in a Dutch youth prison and 49 adult prisoners living in a Dutch psychiatric prison with a therapeutic living group structure. Confirmatory factor
Our proposed research methodology reveals the advantages of a confirmatory factor analysis over an exploratory principal component analysis in the context of risks management in supply chains. Moreover, as Sodhi and Tang (2012 reveals, more than half of papers in existing SCRM literature are either conceptual or qualitative empirical (case studies. Our proposed quantitative methodology contributes to reducing the above mentioned gap, providing results that can be used for statistical inferences and for enhancing the efficiency of the managerial decisional process.
Arne Orvik MPolSc
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see how contextual factors are expressed, used, and analyzed in data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs. The study includes an assessment of how the methodological reporting of contextual factors might influence and improve the trustworthiness of articles. Articles reporting workplace health, stress, and coping among health professionals were identified in a systematic review and used in the analysis. By using Vicsek's framework of situational factors for analysis of focus group results as a starting point, we found that contextual factors were most frequently described in the method sections and less frequently in the results and discussion sections. Vicsek's framework for the analysis of focus group results covers six contextual and methodological dimensions: interactional factors, personal characteristics of the participants, the moderator, the environment, time factors, and the content of FGDs. We found that the framework does not include a consideration of psychological safety, ethical issues, or organizational information. To deepen the analysis of focus group results, we argue that contextual factors should be analyzed as methodological dimensions and be considered as a sensitizing concept. Credibility, confirmability, dependability, and transferability can be strengthened by using, reporting, and discussing contextual factors in detail. The study contributes to elucidating how reporting of contextual data may enrich the analysis of focus group results and strengthen the trustworthiness. Future research should focus on clear reporting of contextual factors as well as further develop Vicsek's model to enhance reporting accuracy and transferability.
A estrutura e o conteúdo universais dos valores humanos: análise fatorial confirmatória da tipologia de Schwartz The universals structure and content of human values: confirmatory factor analysis of Schwartz's typology
Valdiney V. Gouveia
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos (1 comprovar a existência dos dez tipos motivacionais de valores e (2 avaliar em que medida estes mantém relações de compatibilidades e conflitos entre si, segundo a teoria de Schwartz (1992. Participaram 477 estudantes universitários, a maioria mulher (77% e não-religiosa (78%, com uma média de idade de 21 anos (amplitude de 18 a 49 anos. Estes responderam ao Questionário de Valores de Schwartz e a um conjunto de perguntas demográficas. Uma análise fatorial confirmatória (LISREL indicou a adequação da tipologia dos dez tipos de valores (GFI = 0,87, razão chi²/gl = 3,81. Em relação a estrutura de compatibilidades e conflitos entre os valores, esta foi plenamente confirmada no primeiro caso e parcialmente no segundo. Concluiu-se que a teoria em questão é adequada; a não comprovação de alguns conflitos entre os tipos motivacionais pode se dever à complexidade da dinâmica dos valores, não apreendida através dos modelos de equações estruturais.The present study aimed (1 to check the existence of the ten motivational types of values, and (2 to evaluate in which ways these values maintain relationships of compatibilities and conflicts to each other, according to the Schwartz's theory (1992. The participants were 477 undergraduate students, most women (77% and not religious (78%, with an average age of 21 years (ranging from 18 to 49. They answered Schwartz Values Survey and a set of demographic questions. A factor confirmatory analysis (LISREL indicated the appropriateness of the typology of the ten types of values (GFI = .87, ratio chi² / gl = 3.81. In relation to the structure of compatibilities and conflicts among the values, this was confirmed fully in the first case and confirmed partially in the second one. It was concluded that Schwartz's theory presents an adequate fit to the data; the non confirmation of some conflicts among the motivational types can be due to the complexity
Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T
BACKGROUND: Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that
Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee
This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.
Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization: multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - III Personality Disorder Scales across Belgian and Danish data samples
Rossi, Gina; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik
factor models, a priori specified using structures found by Dyce, O’Connor, Parkins, and Janzen (1997), were fitted to the data. The best fitting model was a four factor structure (RMSEA = .066, GFI = .98, CFI = .93) with partially invariant factor loadings. The robustness of this four-factor model...
Arne Orvik MPolSc; Lillebeth Larun PhD; Astrid Berland MSc; Karin C. Ringsberg PhD
The aim of this study was to see how contextual factors are expressed, used, and analyzed in data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs). The study includes an assessment of how the methodological reporting of contextual factors might influence and improve the trustworthiness of articles. Articles reporting workplace health, stress, and coping among health professionals were identified in a systematic review and used in the analysis. By using Vicsek's framework of situational factors for...
Confirmatory earth science investigation in the nuclear power area began with the development of NRC siting standards. They arose from controversies stemming from nuclear power plant siting. The standards were intended to provide means for assessing the magnitude of a given hazard for earth scientists, and as a means to determine compliance for a regulator. They were developed for use in a quasi-legal format where technical disputes could be debated and resolved, and licensing actions brought to a conclusion satisfactory to industry, environmental groups, and professional scientists and engineers. Regulations (requirements mandated by law), regulatory guides (recommended procedures), and staff positions (statements of staff opinion) are the three basic types of NRC standards. As inherent quality of NRC's earth science standards is the recognition that an evaluation of the mutual relationships between descriptive observational data and the interpretive geologic assessment must take place; and that due to the nature of the earth science information base quantification and codification of data and conclusions are often impossible. Accordingly, siting assessment conclusions made in what is a rapidly evolving technology must frequently be reassessed and reconfirmed. In short, earth scientists and regulators dealing with the siting of nuclear facilities are working with living systems. Four major problem areas have existed in the nuclear power program. These areas deal with the development of an expanded sense of posterity, the need to more adequately scope the exact nature of a given problem, the adequacy of an existing design to envelop unforeseen concerns, and politics. These problem areas and those of the descriptive-interpretive aspects are directly transferable to waste disposal siting
Full Text Available The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 is a widely-used screening tool for depression in primary care settings. The purpose of the present study is to identify the factor structure of the PHQ-9 and to examine the measurement invariance of this instrument across different sociodemographic groups and over time in a sample of primary care patients in Spain. Data came from 836 primary care patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (PsicAP study and a subsample of 218 patients who participated in a follow-up assessment at 3 months. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test one- and two-factor structures identified in previous studies. Analyses of multiple-group invariance were conducted to determine the extent to which the factor structure is comparable across various demographic groups (i.e., gender, age, marital status, level of education, and employment situation and over time. Both one-factor and two-factor re-specified models met all the pre-established fit criteria. However, because the factors identified in the two-factor model were highly correlated (r = .86, the one-factor model was preferred for its parsimony. Multi-group CFA indicated measurement invariance across different demographic groups and across time. The present findings suggest that physicians in Spain can use the PHQ-9 to obtain a global score for depression severity in different demographic groups and to reliably monitor changes over time in the primary care setting.
Guzman, J. R.; Longoria, L. C.; De la Cruz, E.; Arredondo, C.
A method to design the distribution and composition of nuclear fuel for the array of fuel rods in a lattice for BWRs is presented in this work. The aim of the method is to minimize the power peaking factor until an adequate value is reached. Also, this method uses a few calculations of lattice. The method is based on the classification of the fuel rods in two groups: the group of fuel rods with the higher power level (group pow ), and the other group of fuel rods (no-group pow ). The enrichment of 235 U of each fuel rod of the group pow is multiplied by a factor called group fissile factor (f group ), and the enrichment of 235 U of each fuel rod of the no-group pow is multiplied by a factor called no-group fissile factor (f no-group ). These factors are fitted so that the power peaking factor is minimized. The importance of the method with the use of these two factors is applied to the design of a fuel lattice for BWRs as the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. The calculations of lattice are made by means of the Helios code. (Author)
Belew, W.L.; Williams, T.L.
Confirmatory measurements have been considered to be interim measures until accountability measurements could be performed. When the objectives of the measurements are defined and, measurement techniques selected to attain these objectives, confirmatory type measurements can significantly increase the effectiveness of the safeguards system and in some cases may be preferred to accountability measurements for safeguards purposes. The use of fingerprint type confirmatory measurements can provide highly reliable data to ensure no diversion of SNM has occurred. These measurements can be made quickly to provide rapid assessments of SNM in shipping or storage containers. The use of fingerprint type measurements at SRP on enriched uranium shipments was shown to provide assurance at a high confidence level that no diversion of SNM could have occurred. The objective of the 10 day DOE requirement for accountability measurements is to provide a rapid assessment of SNM quantity for safeguards purposes. In cases where confirmatory or fingerprint measurements have provided assurance that no diversion has occurred, the safeguards system is not compromised by delay of the accountability measurements. The accountability measurements can then be performed for inventory purposes without undue time constraints in a more cost effective and efficient manner. 1 fig
Prior research, from the psychodynamically oriented literature, characterizes homicidal offenders as impulsive, vulnerable to stress, with difficulties in emotional control, particularly anger. In 1995 Coram reported Rorschach data from a sample of murderers which tentatively support earlier findings. This paper argues that confirmatory data from measures which objectively assess emotional states and behaviors could elucidate this issue.
Bralić, Antonia; Jadrić, Mario; Ćukušić, Maja
Numerous researchers explore key influencers of online consumer behavior, and the willingness to transact in the online environment in particular. The proliferation of online group buying websites is changing marketing strategies and buyers’ habits without doubt. The purpose of this research is to investigate and identify critical factors that affect the intention to purchase from group buying websites among student population. A survey-based approach was employed to investigate the research ...
Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Blat, Josep
Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Hernández-Leo D., & Blat, J. (accepted). Conditioning Factors for Group Management in Blended Learning Scenarios. The 9th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. July, 14-18, 2009, Riga, Latvia.
Dr. J. de Lange; E. Deusing; I.F.M. van Asch; J. Peeters; M. Zwaanswijk; A.M. Pot; A.L. Francke
To obtain insight into facilitating factors for case management in dementia care, we conducted a qualitative study with 13 online focus groups (OFGs). Participants were professionals involved in dementia case management (N = 99). We used mind-maps and the method of constant comparison for analysis.
Full Text Available The importance of self-regulation in e-learning has been well noted in research. Relevant studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between learners’ self-regulation and their success rate in e-learning. Increasing attention has been paid to developing learners’ self-regulated abilities in e-learning. For students, what and how to learn are largely predetermined by the learning environment provided by their institutions. Environmental determinants play a key role in shaping self-regulation in the learning process. This paper reports a study on the influences of the e-learning 2.0 environment on self-regulation. The study identified the factors that influence self-regulation in such an environment and determine the relationships between the factors and self-regulation. A theoretical model to categorize the success factors for self-regulated learning was proposed for this kind of environment. Based on the model, a questionnaire was designed and administered to more than two hundred and fifty distance learning students in Beijing and Hong Kong. Through structural equation modeling (SEM technique, relationships between environmental factors and self-regulation were analyzed. Statistical results showed that several factors affect self-regulation in the e-learning 2.0 environment. They include system quality, information quality, service quality, and user satisfaction. L’importance de la maîtrise de soi en cyberapprentissage a été bien étudiée. Les études pertinentes ont démontré une corrélation positive uniforme entre la maîtrise de soi des apprenants et leurs taux de réussite en apprentissage en ligne. Une attention croissante a été portée au développement des aptitudes de maîtrise de soi des élèves en cyberapprentissage. Pour les élèves, quoi apprendre et comment sont des questions principalement prédéterminées par l’environnement d’apprentissage qu’offrent leurs établissements. Les d
Takahashi, Fumihiro; Takei, Koji; Tsuda, Kikumi; Palumbo, Joseph
In the 24-week double-blind study of edaravone in ALS (MCI186-16), edaravone did not show a statistically significant difference versus placebo for the primary efficacy endpoint. For post-hoc analyses, two subpopulations were identified in which edaravone might be expected to show efficacy: the efficacy-expected subpopulation (EESP), defined by scores of ≥2 points on all 12 items of the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and a percent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) ≥80% at baseline; and the definite/probable EESP 2 years (dpEESP2y) subpopulation which, in addition to EESP criteria, had definite or probable ALS diagnosed by El Escorial revised criteria, and disease duration of ≤2 years. In the 36-week extension study of MCI186-16, a 24-week double-blind comparison followed by 12 weeks of open-label edaravone (MCI186-17; NCT00424463), analyses of ALSFRS-R scores of the edaravone-edaravone group and edaravone-placebo group for the full analysis set (FAS) and EESP, as prospectively defined, were reported in a previous article. Here we additionally report results in patients who met dpEESP2y criteria at the baseline of MCI186-16. In the dpEESP2y, the difference in ALSFRS-R changes from 24 to 48 weeks between the edaravone-edaravone and edaravone-placebo groups was 2.79 (p = 0.0719), which was greater than the differences previously reported for the EESP and the FAS. The pattern of adverse events in the dpEESP2y did not show any additional safety findings to those from the earlier prospective study. In conclusion, this post-hoc analysis suggests a potential effect of edaravone between 24 and 48 weeks in patients meeting dpEESP2y criteria at baseline.
Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.
Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…
Özşahin, Akatlı Kürşad; Altıntaş, Ebru
Background/aim: Mental disorders may accompany obesity. This study aims to evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obesity and the risk factors for SAD in obese female patients. Materials and methods: A total of 114 obese patients and 110 healthy controls were included. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI I-II), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were administered to assess anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels. Scale scores were analyzed statistically. Results: The rate of SAD in obese female patients was found to be 8.8%. Anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels were significantly higher in the obesity group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). According to linear regression analyses, a significant association between LSAS anxiety level and age, prior surgery, social support, history of being teased, BDI, and BAI was found. Conclusion: The present study shows that many factors are related to obesity and SAD in obese female patients. The clinical implications of these findings should be considered. Interventions for these factors may help prevent SAD in obese female patients.
Han, J.T.; Bessette, D.E.; Shotkin, L.M.
The objective of the NRC Confirmatory Testing Program for SBWR is to provide integral data for code assessment, which reasonably reproduce the important phenomena and processes expected in the SBWR under various loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and transient conditions. To achieve this objective, the Program consists of four coupled elements: (1) to design and construct an integral, carefully-scaled SBWR test facility at Purdue Univ., (2) to provide pre-construction RELAP5/CONTAIN predictions of the facility design, (3) to provide confirmatory data for code assessment, and (4) to assess the RELAP5/CONTAIN code with data. A description of the open-quotes preliminary designclose quotes of the Purdue test facility and test matrix is presented. The facility is scheduled to be built by December 1994. Approximately 50 tests will be performed from April 1995 through April 1996 and documented by interim data reports. A final and complete data report is scheduled to be published by July 31, 1996
Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W
Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model as theoretical framework. Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.
Morgan, Robert D.; Garland, J. Travis; Rozycki, Alicia T.; Reich, Darcy A.; Wilson, Scott
This study was designed to identify important process and content goals from the perspective of inmates and compare these goals to the goals identified by group therapists in a previous study conducted by Winterowd, Morgan, and Ferrell (2001). Utilizing survey data from 156 incarcerated adult males, an initial confirmatory factor analysis…
... Any person adversely affected by this Confirmatory Order, other than Shaw, may request a hearing... Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) and Safety Culture: At the parent company, The Shaw Group Inc... performance evaluations; Periodic independent culture surveys. For nuclear maintenance sites: A SCWE Procedure...
Langrehr, Kimberly J; Thomas, Anita Jones; Morgan, Sydney K
The purpose of the current study is to test a recently established model of racial-ethnic socialization (Langrehr, 2014) among 2 samples of White transracially adoptive parents and to assess whether the proposed model functions similarly after accounting for adopted child race. Based on a modified version of the Racial Bias Preparation Scale (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000), confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the 3-factor model (i.e., Prejudice Awareness, Racial-Ethnic Pride, and Egalitarianism) among 172 White transracially adoptive parents with Asian children (Mage = 45.72) and 140 White transracially adoptive parents with Black children (Mage = 42.62). In addition, multigroup invariance testing was used to assess whether the proposed model functioned similarly across the 2 groups of parents. Results indicate that the proposed 3-factor model demonstrated partial measurement invariance such that the subconstruct of Egalitarianism functioned similarly across groups, whereas Racial-Ethnic Pride and Prejudice Awareness were deemed noninvariant. Findings are intended to help expand the concept of racial-ethnic socialization for transracially adoptive families and address the degree to which current research on racial-ethnic socialization can be applied to different transracially adoptive families. Results are intended to highlight ways that various social-cultural dimensions of family can culminate into different socialization experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.
Lambek, Rikke; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Tannock, Rosemary
of scores on EF and DA tests were contrasted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). LPA was carried out based on factor scores from the CFA and sub-groups were compared in terms of odor identification and behavior. A model with one DA and two EF factors best fit the data. LPA resulted in four sub...
Lin, Robert; Gerver, Rachel; Karns, Kelly; Apori, Akwasi A.; Denisin, Aleksandra K.; Herr, Amy E.
Microfluidic tools are advancing capabilities in screening diagnostics for use in near-patient settings. Here, we review three case studies to illustrate the flexibility and analytical power offered by microanalytical tools. We first overview a near-patient tool for detection of protein markers found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a means to identify the presence of cerebrospinal fluid in nasal mucous - an indication that CSF is leaking into the nasal cavity. Microfluidic design allowed integration of several up-stream preparatory steps and rapid, specific completion of the human CSF protein assay. Second, we overview a tear fluid based assay for lactoferrin, a protein produced in the lacrimal gland, then secreted into tear fluid. Tear Lf is a putative biomarker for primary SS. A critical contribution of this and related work being measurement of Lf, even in light of well-known and significant matrix interactions and losses during the tear fluid collection and preparation. Lastly, we review a microfluidic barcode platform that enables rapid measurement of multiple infectious disease biomarkers in human sera. The assay presents a new approach to multiplexed biomarker detection, yet in a simple straight microchannel - thus providing a streamlined, simplified microanalytical platform, as is relevant to robust operation in diagnostic settings. We view microfluidic design and analytical chemistry as the basis for emerging, sophisticated assays that will advance not just screening diagnostic technology, but confirmatory assays, sample preparation and handling, and thus introduction and utilization of new biomarkers and assay formats.
Stieve, A.; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.
The Confirmatory Drilling Project is the final investigation under the Pen Branch Fault Program initiated to determine the capability of the Pen Branch fault (PBF) to release seismic energy. This investigation focused on a small zone over the fault where previously collected seismic reflection data had indicated the fault deforms the subsurface at 150 msec (with reference to an 80 m reference datum). Eighteen drill holes, 2 to basement and the others to 300 ft, were arranged in a scatter pattern over the fault. To adequately define configuration of the layers deformed by the fault boreholes were spaced over a zone of 800 ft, north to south. The closely spaced data were to confirm or refute the existence of flat lying reflectors observed in seismic reflection data and to enable the authors to identify and correlate lithologic layers with seismic reflection data. Results suggest that deformation by the fault in sediments 300 ft deep ad shallower is subtle. Corroboration of the geologic interpretation with the seismic reflection profile is ongoing but preliminary results indicate that specific reflectors can be assigned to lithologic layers. A large amplitude package of reflections below a flat lying continuous reflection at 40 msec can be correlated with a lithology that corresponds to carbonate sediments in geologic cross-section. Further, data also show that a geologic layer as shallow as 30 ft can be traced on these seismic data over the same subsurface distance where geologic cross-section shows corresponding continuity. The subsurface structure is thus corroborated by both methods at this study site
DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.
Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A
The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Makovicky, E.; Rose-Hansen, J.; Karup-Møller, Sven
This report covers the synthetic research results obtained by the Danish group on: (1) The phase system Fe-Ir-S at 1100o, 1000o and 800oC, (2) Metal-rich portions of the phase system Pt-Ir-Fe-S: Pt-Fe-Ir alloys and associated sulfides at 1000oC and 1100oC, (3) The Fe (Cu)-Pt-Rh-S system: alloys...
Chiapinotto, Fabiana Amaral; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Masotti, Alexandre Severo
Studies on gingivitis in children and adolescents are scarce and the results are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and extension of gingivitis and associated factors in Brazilian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional data from 1,211 schoolchildren 8 to 12 years old from Southern Brazil in 20 public and private schools were analyzed. Socioeconomic, demographic, and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires answered by parents and children. Buccal examination assessed presence of plaque, crowding, and gingivitis. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression [prevalence ratio (PR); 95% confidence interval (CI)]. Prevalence of visible plaque was 89.7% (95% CI 88.0-91.3) and gingival bleeding on probing was 78.4% (95% CI 76.1-81.0). The mean and median numbers of sites with gingival bleeding were 3.10 and 2 (SD ± 3.22), respectively. In multivariate adjusted analysis, the presence of a greater number of sites with plaque was significantly associated with gingivitis (PR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07-1.47) and its extension (PR 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.51). Lighter-skinned black children had a lower probability of having severe gingivitis (PR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98) compared with white children. This association was observed after adjusting for other variables. Gingivitis was associated with higher number of sites with plaque and with skin color, reflecting the influence of biological and demographic factors on this oral condition. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Amit Kumar Marwah
Full Text Available This paper presents finding of a study on Indian manufacturing organizations. A conceptual model is proposed based on a rigorous literature review. The model so developed undergoes through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM approach. The paper highlights various factors responsible for supply chain performance (SCP, subsequently leading to competitiveness. The survey involves 361 manufacturing organizations across India and the data is gathered using 5-point Likert scale. The study a ttempts to integrate various factors contributing to SCP in a single study. It is proposed to further test the model using exploratory factor analysis (EFA.
Al-Musawi, Nu'man M
Using confirmatory factor analytic techniques on data generated from 200 students enrolled at the University of Bahrain, we obtained some construct validity and reliability data for the Arabic Version of the 1961 Group Personality Projective Test by Cassel and Khan. In contrast to the 5-factor model proposed for the Group Personality Projective Test, a 6-factor solution appeared justified for the Arabic Version of this test, suggesting some variance between the cultural groups in the United States and in Bahrain.
Full Text Available In the present scenario of high unemployment; Multilevel Marketing (MLM generates employment for people who have no permanent source of earning. MLM system has emerged as one of the prime alternatives in the current marketing system. India has become a very popular destination of doing MLM business with high potential of growth. MLM system provides lucrative compensation that works as motivation for people to join this business. Motivation for executives of any firm plays a major role in its success. It also leads commitment of employees towards work and responsibilities. An attempt has been made to identify the motivational variables that have the highest level of contribution for joining the MLM system. Most of the MLM companies focus on compensation plan or reward system but apart from that a number of variables have been found which motivate the distributors to engage in MLM business. Further, the distributors play a vital role in the growth of the business. In this study, we also propose a motivational model to help MLM companies formulate better strategies in making a large network of people for growth of business.
Chen, Yi-Hsin; Thompson, Marilyn S.
One of the valued objectives of education is the enhancement of a positive self-concept, which itself is a mediating variable of other desired outcomes. To facilitate the assessment of this goal, reliable and valid scores on self-concept scales are required for the proper interpretation of related substantive issues. The main purpose of this study…
Deason, P.T.; Cadieux, J.R.; Denard, C.D.
Confirmatory measurements are performed on all category I and II plutonium shipments to the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The primary technique employed has been neutron coincidence counting using three instruments; two slab counters, and a well counter. These measurements have provided the required safeguards features to support the physical security measures already in place for inter-site shipments of special nuclear material (SNM). Similar confirmatory measurements have also been performed on a variety of scrap mixed-oxide materials stored at SRP for later processing. The data handling and results for several categories of material will be examined in addition to planned uses of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP)/SRP Confirmatory Measurements Counter (CMC). 2 refs., 4 figs
Tuliao, Antover P; Landoy, Bernice Vania N; McChargue, Dennis E
The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test's factor structure varies depending on population and culture. Because of this inconsistency, this article examined the factor structure of the test and conducted a factorial invariance test between a U.S. and a Philippines college sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a three-factor solution outperforms the one- and two-factor solution in both samples. Factorial invariance analyses further supports the confirmatory findings by showing that factor loadings were generally invariant across groups; however, item intercepts show non-invariance. Country differences between factors show that Filipino consumption factor mean scores were significantly lower than their U.S. counterparts.
Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril
Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.
Rios, Danyelle R A; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Figueiredo, Roberta C; Guimarães, Daniela A M; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Simões E Silva, Ana C; Carvalho, Maria G; Gomes, Karina B; Dusse, Luci Maria Sant' Ana
Several studies have demonstrated that non-O blood groups subjects present an increased VTE risk as compared to those carrying O blood group. The aim of this study was to investigate the ABO blood groups influence on factor VIII (FVIII) activity, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and ADAMTS13 plasma levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Patients undergoing HD (N=195) and 80 healthy subjects (control group) were eligible for this cross-sectional study. The ABO blood group phenotyping was performed by the reverse technique. FVIII activity was measured through coagulometric method, and VWF and ADAMTS13 antigens were assessed by ELISA. FVIII activity and VWF levels were significantly higher and ADAMTS13 levels was decreased in HD patients, as compared to healthy subjects (P blood groups showed a significant increase in FVIII activity (P = 0.001) and VWF levels (P blood group. However, no significant difference was observed in ADAMTS13 levels (P = 0.767). In the control group, increased in FVIII activity (P = 0.001) and VWF levels (P = 0.002) and decreased in ADAMTS13 levels (P = 0.005) were observed in subjects carrying non-O blood groups as compared to carriers of O blood group.Our data confirmed that ABO blood group is an important risk factor for increased procoagulant factors in plasma, as FVIII and VWF. Admitting the possible role of kidneys in ADAMTS13 synthesis or on its metabolism, HD patients were not able to increase ADAMTS13 levels in order to compensate the increase of VWF levels mediated by ABO blood groups. Considering that non-O blood groups constitute a risk factor for thrombosis, it is reasonable to admit that A, B and AB HD patients need a careful and continuous follow-up in order to minimize thrombotic events.
Lo Coco, Gianluca; Mannino, Giuseppe; Salerno, Laura; Oieni, Veronica; Di Fratello, Carla; Profita, Gabriele; Gullo, Salvatore
All versions of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) are broadly used to measure people's interpersonal functioning. The aims of the current study are: (a) to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Italian version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-short version (IIP-32); and (b) to evaluate its associations with core symptoms of different eating disorders. One thousand two hundred and twenty three participants ( n = 623 non-clinical and n = 600 clinical participants with eating disorders and obesity) filled out the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-short version (IIP-32) along with measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES), psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45), and eating disorders (Eating Disorder Inventory, EDI-3). The present study examined the eight-factor structure of the IIP-32 with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM). ESEM was also used to test the measurement invariance of the IIP-32 across clinical and non-clinical groups. It was found that CFA had unsatisfactory model fit, whereas the corresponding ESEM solution provided a better fit to the observed data. However, six target factor loadings tend to be modest, and ten items showed cross-loadings higher than 0.30. The configural and metric invariance as well as the scalar and partial strict invariance of the IIP-32 were supported across clinical and non-clinical groups. The internal consistency of the IIP-32 was acceptable and the construct validity was confirmed by significant correlations between IIP-32, RSES, and OQ-45. Furthermore, overall interpersonal difficulties were consistently associated with core eating disorder symptoms, whereas interpersonal styles that reflect the inability to form close relationships, social awkwardness, the inability to be assertive, and a tendency to self-sacrificing were positively associated with general psychological maladjustment
Sheard, A. G.; Kakabadse, A. P.
A loose group of individuals working on a task differs from an effective team on nine factors: clearly defined goals, priorities, roles and responsibilities, self-awareness, leadership, group dynamics, communications, content, and infrastructure. Ways to eliminate barriers and speed formation of effective teams could be based on those factors.…
Teberik, Kuddusi; Eski, Mehmet Tahir
To evaluate if ABO blood group and Rh factor have an effect on retinal and choroidal thickness. This study was designed prospectively. Retinal nerve fiber layer, retinal, and choroidal thicknesses were measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal and choroidal thickness measurements (one subfoveal, three temporal, and three nasal) were obtained at 500-μm intervals up to 1500 μm with the caliper system. In this study, 109 male and 151 female, 260 individuals in total were included. There were 125 subjects in group A, 29 in group B, 34 in group AB, and 72 in group O. Rh factor was positive in 194 subjects and negative in 66. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age (p = 0.667). The groups did not show any statistical difference in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. There was significant difference found for mean retinal thickness at temporal 1000 μm when four groups were compared (p = 0.037). No statistically significant difference was detected for the remaining retinal and choroidal sectoral regions. The groups did not statistically significantly differ concerning Rh factor (p > 0.05). Although we found a significant difference in retinal thickness in the temporal retina between group B with group A and group O, we suggest that both blood group and Rh factor have no effect on retinal and choroidal thickness.
Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J
BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated.
... cause. VI Any person adversely affected by this Confirmatory Order, other than AREVA, may request a..., appropriate notification of regulatory authorities, safety culture and safety conscious work environment...., outside the global AREVA organization), safety culture assessment in accordance with an accepted nuclear...
Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R
In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.
Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille
Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...
Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 Análisis factorial confirmatoria de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 Análise fatorial confirmatória da versão portuguesa da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21
João Luís Alves Apóstolo
Full Text Available To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The correlated 3-factor model fit the data best. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency, with alpha scores of the subscales ranging from 0.836 to 0.897. Correlation with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was positive and moderate with the negative affect scale; it was negative and limited with the positive affect. These findings support the correlated 3-factor structure. The test demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity, which supports its use for screening in primary care settings with Portuguese speakers.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar cual de los tres modelos publicados mejor caracteriza la estructura factorial de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 y evaluar su validez y confiabilidad. Se compararon los tres modelos a través de análisis factorial confirmatoria de la DASS-21, aplicada el 1.297 pacientes adultos, del servicio de atención básica (66,7% mujeres; edad Media=48,57 años. La relación entre la DASS-21 y la Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS también fue analizada. El modelo de tres factores correlacionados se ajusta mejor a los datos. La escala presentó buena consistencia interna con valores alfa observados en las subescalas, variando de 0,836 a 0,897. La correlación con la PANAS fue positiva y comedida con la escala de afecto negativa, y negativa y limitada con la escala de afecto positivo. Esos resultados corroboran la estructura de tres factores. La
Wesolowski, Laura G; Mackellar, Duncan A; Ethridge, Steven F; Zhu, Julia H; Owen, S Michele; Sullivan, Patrick S
Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6%) were reactive: of these, 2417 (93%) had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7%) had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52%) persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19%) were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81%) were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative) (ptest [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9)]. Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant results. Because of the lower sensitivity of oral fluid WBs, confirmatory testing following a reactive rapid test should be conducted using serum or plasma, when possible.
Oral health and related factors in a group of children with cystic fibrosis in Istanbul, Turkey. ... presented as a marker of wound healing and bleeding tendency of oral cavity. ... Caries experience, oral hygiene, and dental erosion were assessed.
Medindo consumo de álcool: análise fatorial confirmatória do Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT Midiendo consumo de alcohol: análisis factorial confirmatorio del Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT Measuring alcohol consumption: confirmatory factor analysis of The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT
Walberto Silva dos Santos
to AUDIT , the participants responded to two others correlated instruments - CAGE and EAFUA - and to biosocialdemographic questions. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated the adequacy of the model of three factors, with goodness of fit indexes (χ²/gl=63,29, CFI=0,98, AGFI=0,98 e RMSEA=0,05 statistically higher than the structure of one and two factors. Finally, resorting to Pearson's r correlations and the comparison of means, both convergent and criterion validity of AUDIT were confirmed, attesting its proposal of measuring alcohol consumption and demonstrating its applicability in the screening of problem drinkers.
George C. Hadjinicola; Andreas C. Soteriou
This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM) groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as ...
İslamoğlu, Zeynep Gizem Kaya; Unal, Mehmet
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by noncicatricial hair loss localized on hair, beard, mustache, eyebrow, eyelash, and sometimes on the body. Although etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, many studies show remarkable associations between various diseases and ABO blood groups. However, there is no study with AA and blood groups. Healthy people and patients with AA were included in this study. A total of 155 patients with AA and 299 healthy controls were included in the study. ABO blood group distribution in patients with AA and distribution of healthy donors were similar. However, Rhesus factor positivity in the AA group was significantly higher than in healthy donors. The relationship between stress and AA was high as known. But, ABO blood group and Rhesus factor were not in a significant connection with stress. We conclude that there was no association between ABO blood group and AA, but the observed distribution of Rhesus blood group differed slightly but significantly from that of the healthy population. The result of the study shows a small but statistically significant difference in the Rh blood group between patients with AA and the healthy population blood groups. This result is important because it suggests that genetic factors may influence the development of AA. The role of blood groups in the development of AA remains to be determined. We believe that the studies which will be carried out in other centers with wider series will be more valuable to support this hypothesis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.
van Ingen Schenau, G.J.; Bakker, F.C.; de Koning, J.J.; de Groot, G.
Sport scientists have identified many factors as prerequisites for a good athletic performance in various sports. It is not clear whether these factors also influence the best performers in the homogeneous groups of top athletes selected for national teams. In this study, this issue is addressed
Kralewski, John E.; Zink, Therese; Boyle, Raymond
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the organizational factors that influence electronic health information exchange (HIE) by medical group practices in rural areas. Methods: A purposive sample of 8 small medical group practices in 3 experimental HIE regions were interviewed to determine the extent of clinical information exchange…
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of LTC-DRG group classifications and... the LTC-DRG classifications and recalibration of the weighting factors described in paragraph (a) of... SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.517 Revision of LTC-DRG group...
Hasan, Bassam; Ali, Jafar
Although group project concepts and skills have become a major component in most information systems (IS) academic programs, very little research has attempted to examine factors that may improve or undermine effectiveness of IS group projects. Accordingly, based on relevant literatures, this study develops and empirically tests a model of factors…
Gregory, Peter L.; Gregory, Karen M.; Eddy, Erik R.
This study investigates factors contributing to student engagement in an educational Facebook group. The study is based on survey results of 138 undergraduate mathematics students at a highly diverse urban public university. Survey measures included engagement in the Facebook group, access to Facebook, comfort using technology, and interest in the…
Govindaraju, Lavanya; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, E M G
The paradigm of etiology of early childhood caries (ECC) is shifting toward genetics. Of various inherited factors, blood group of an individual is genetically determined. The aim of the study is to determine if blood group of an individual will serve as a potential risk factor in the development of ECC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chennai. Blood samples were collected from a total of 500 children age for determination of the blood group. Of which 96 children (24 per blood group) were randomly selected and were included in the study. Oral screening of the selected children was done by a pediatric dentist who was blinded to the blood group of the children. Decayed, extracted, and filling index was noted. Details on other associated factors for the development of ECC such as the socioeconomic status, oral hygiene measures, diet, and feeding practices were collected by directly interviewing the parents through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey test with significance level set at 0.05. Intergroup analysis of the associated factors showed no significant differences between the children of different blood groups. A statistically significant relation was noted between the blood groups and development of ECC (P = 0.025). Blood group is a potential risk indicator for the development of ECC.
Çengel-Kültür, S Ebru; Akdemir, Devrim; Saltık-Temizel, İnci N
The study aimed to evaluate the differences between groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation. The Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised, the COPE Questionnaire, the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Parenting Style Scale were used to evaluate, respectively, maternal psychiatric symptoms, coping abilities, attachment style, family functioning and children's perceptions of parenting behaviors. Psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the K-SADS. A higher level of maternal psychiatric symptoms, impaired role and affective involvement functioning of the family and less psychological autonomy were observed in the group of encopresis patients with constipation than in the group of encopresis patients without constipation. No significant differences were found between the groups in psychiatric comorbidities, maternal coping abilities and attachment style. The two groups had a similar pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders and maternal psychological factors, although some familial factors-related mainly to parental authority-were differentiated in the encopresis with constipation group.
Lafzi, Ardeshir; Abolfazli, Nader; Eskandari, Amir
Background and aims Gingival recession (GR), a common problem in periodontium, is associated with various etiologic factors. There is controversy over the role and importance of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologic factors of GR in a group of subjects in Northwest Iran. Materials and methods In this case-control study, patients referring to a university clinic (123 patients with GR and 123 patients without GR) were evaluated. Patients were examined by an experien...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same EBT...
Liu, Xia; Chen, Xiaogang; Yang, Jiezuan; Guo, Renyong
Coagulative and fibrinolytic disorders appear to be associated with the development of lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif 13 (ADAMTS-13), and factor VIII (FVIII) activity, in association with O and non-O blood groups in patients with lung cancer. Plasma levels of VWF and ADAMTS-13, and FVIII activity were measured in 115 patients with lung cancer and 98 healthy subjects. Phenotyping of the ABO blood groups was also performed for the two groups. Significantly increased VWF levels and FVIII activity, as well as significantly decreased ADAMTS-13 levels, were observed in patients with distant metastasis as compared with those without distant metastasis and the healthy controls. Plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity were significantly increased in subjects with non-O type blood compared with those with type O blood in the two groups. However, a significant decrease in ADAMTS-13 levels was observed only in the control group among those with non-O type blood, compared with those with type O blood. The results of the present study indicate that increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS-13 levels facilitate the invasiveness and metastasis of lung cancer. Non-O blood groups constitute a risk factor for increased VWF and FVIII in plasma. Continued monitoring of VWF and ADAMTS-13 levels, and of FVIII activity in patients with lung cancer with distinct blood groups may help to minimize the incidence of thrombotic events and improve assessment of disease progression.
Lutf-Ullah, L.; Akhtar, B.; Noor-Us-Saba; Hanif, A.; Khan, B.Z.; Bukhshi, I.M.
To study the association of ABO blood groups with major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. Setting: Department of Cardiology, Mayo hospital, Lahore over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. Study Design: Analytic comparative study. Subjects and Methods: The study group included 907 patients of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The distribution of ABO blood groups in IHD patients was compared for presence or absence of major IHD risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In this study, the following pattern of ABO blood groups was observed in IHD patients : blood group A 251 (27.67%); blood group B 329 (36.27%); blood group O 235 (25.91%); blood group AB 92 (10.14%). We found no relation-ship of ABO blood groups with age (p-value = 0.234), gender (p-value = 0.093), hypertension (p-value = 0.230), diabetes mellitus (p-value = 0.801), family history of IHD (p-value = 0.277), transverse ear lobe crease (p-value = 0.231), total cholesterol (p-value = 0.797), triglycerides (p-value = 0.351), low density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.078), high density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.114). Similarly no relationship was found of smoking, weight, height and body mass index with ABO blood groups, p-values 0.428, 0.528, 0.908 and 0.455 respectively. Conclusion: There is no association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. (author)
Duncan, A.; Mueller, A.H.
Composite-particle form factors are studied in the limit of large momentum transfer Q. It is shown that in models with spinor constituents and either scalar or gauge vector gluons, the meson electromagnetic form factor factorizes at large Q 2 and is given by independent light-cone expansions on the initial and final meson legs. The coefficient functions are shown to satisfy a Callan-Symanzik equation. When specialized to quantum chromodynamics, this equation leads to the asymptotic formula of Brodsky and Lepage for the pion electromagnetic form factor. The nucleon form factors G/sub M/(Q 2 ), G/sub E/(Q 2 ) are also considered. It is shown that momentum flows which contribute to subdominant logarithms in G/sub M/(Q 2 ) vitiate a conventional renormalization-group interpretation for this form factor. For large Q 2 , the electric form factor G/sub E/(Q 2 ) fails to factorize, so that a renormalization-group treatment seems even more unlikely in this case
Foushee, H. C.
The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.
Foushee, H. Clayton
The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.
Group-buying sites have been the biggest internet phenomena in the recent B2C ecommerce industry. This new development has led to this research’s main objective of identifying factors that influence consumers’ intention to purchase from groupbuying sites, particularly in Malaysia. Using the extended Technology Acceptance Model, the five factors measured against consumers’ behavioral intent to transact are perceived knowledge, perceived benefits of price promotion, personal innovativeness, soc...
van Ingen Schenau, G.J.; Bakker, F.C.; de Koning, J.J.; de Groot, G.
Sport scientists have identified many factors as prerequisites for a good athletic performance in various sports. It is not clear whether these factors also influence the best performers in the homogeneous groups of top athletes selected for national teams. In this study, this issue is addressed with members of the Dutch National Junior Speed Skirting Team. A total of 237 different technical, physiological, anthropometrical, and psychological parameters were collected, including many that cor...
Silva, Wégina Jordâna Nascimento da; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Macedo, Anny Elizabety Ramalho de; Costa, Denise Batista da; Almeida, Anna Alice Figueiredo de
The origin and development of dysphonia, particularly behavioral dysphonia, is associated with several risk factors. Here, we verified the effectiveness of group therapy in reducing the risk factors, and established the association between risk factors and sex, age, profession, and diagnosis of laryngeal disorders in patients with behavioral dysphonia. This is a descriptive, quantitative, field intervention study. Participants (n = 26, adult patients of both sexes), with a diagnosis of behavioral dysphonia, received group therapy intervention. Data for risk factors were collected pre- and posttherapy using the Vocal Screening Protocol. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Student t test, chi-squared test or Spearman correlation test). The majority (80.8%, n = 21) of patients were female, 65.4% (n = 17) were not in a vocal profession, and 42.3% (n = 11) presented with a lesion in the membranous portion of the vocal fold. The number of personal risk factors decreased after group therapy (P = 0.04). In addition, age was correlated with total (P = 0.001), environmental (P = 0.002), and personal (P = 0.003) vocal risk factors posttherapy. This study revealed an association between the reduction of personal risk factors and vocal group therapy, and a correlation between age and total, environmental, and personal vocal risk factors posttherapy. Thus, maintenance and origins of the behaviors that modify the behavioral aspects of the participants directly influence the production of individual vocal habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In applied studies, identification and study of vegetation, for management and protection of natural ecosystems, are very important. This study was carried out in Vezg forest with an area of 308 hectares located in southeast of Yasouj city. The purpose of this study was to classify ecological species groups and survey their relation to soil physic-chemical properties and physiographic attributes. For this purpose, the field data were obtained using 52 sample plots (15m×30m in a systematic random grid. In each sample plot, the cover percentage of tree, shrub and grass species type were recorded, by using Braun-Blanquet method. The TWINSPAN method and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA were used for the definition of ecological species groups and determintion of the relationship between ecological species groups and environmental properties. Results showed that, there were four ecological species groups in the study area. The First group included: Anchusa italic-Quercus brantii, the second group: Heteranthelium piliferum-Avena clauda, the third group: Teucrium polium and the fourth group: Salvia reautreana. The first group was in an area, where there was a higher percentage of Persian oak litter. The second group was located in site a with higher grass cover than the site of other groups in the area. The third and fourth groups, were located in the higher elevation and steep points. Results of CCA showed that soil properties were not in significant relation with ecological species groups. But, the relationships of ecological species groups with other environmental factors such as litter, altitude, grass cover and slope were significant. So, we can conclude that these properties are effective in the separation and distribution of ecological groups.
A subgroup of a group is said to be a semi C A P ∗ -subgroup of if there is a chief series 1 = G 0 < G 1 < ⋯ < G m = G of such that for every non-Frattini chief factor G i / G i − 1 , H either covers G i / G i − 1 or avoids G i / G i − 1 . In this paper, some sufficient conditions for a normal subgroup of a finite group to be ...
Stephen T Chen
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other
Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W
Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.
Guppy, J.G.; Agrawal, A.K.
Operational and safety transients that may originate anywhere in an LMFBR system must be adequately simulated to assist in safety evaluation and plant design efforts. This paper describes an advanced thermohydraulic transient code, the Super System Code (SSC), that may be used for confirmatory safety evaluations of plant wide events, such as assurance of adequate decay heat removal capability under natural circulation conditions, and presents results obtained with SSC illustrating the degree of modelling detail present in the code as well as the computing efficiency. (author)
Jennrich, Robert L.; Bentler, Peter M.
Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford (1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler (2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis that does not require one to provide an explicit bi-factor structure a priori. They use exploratory factor analysis and a bi-factor rotation criterion designed to produce a rotated loading mat...
van Dongen, Jerôme Jean Jacques; Lenzen, Stephanie Anna; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; Daniëls, Ramon; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna
The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development in primary care. A qualitative study, including four semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 4). In total, a heterogeneous group of experts (n = 16) and health care professionals (n = 15) participated. Participants discussed viewpoints, barriers, and facilitators regarding interprofessional collaboration related to care plan development. The data were analysed by means of inductive content analysis. The findings show a variety of factors influencing the interprofessional collaboration in developing a care plan. Factors can be divided into 5 key categories: (1) patient-related factors: active role, self-management, goals and wishes, membership of the team; (2) professional-related factors: individual competences, domain thinking, motivation; (3) interpersonal factors: language differences, knowing each other, trust and respect, and motivation; (4) organisational factors: structure, composition, time, shared vision, leadership and administrative support; and (5) external factors: education, culture, hierarchy, domain thinking, law and regulations, finance, technology and ICT. Improving interprofessional collaboration regarding care plan development calls for an integral approach including patient- and professional related factors, interpersonal, organisational, and external factors. Further, the leader of the team seems to play a key role in watching the patient perspective, organising and coordinating interprofessional collaborations, and guiding the team through developments. The results of this study can be used as input for developing tools and interventions targeted at executing and improving interprofessional
Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah
The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.
Gianluca Lo Coco
Full Text Available All versions of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP are broadly used to measure people's interpersonal functioning. The aims of the current study are: (a to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Italian version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems—short version (IIP-32; and (b to evaluate its associations with core symptoms of different eating disorders. One thousand two hundred and twenty three participants (n = 623 non-clinical and n = 600 clinical participants with eating disorders and obesity filled out the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems—short version (IIP-32 along with measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES, psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45, and eating disorders (Eating Disorder Inventory, EDI-3. The present study examined the eight-factor structure of the IIP-32 with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM. ESEM was also used to test the measurement invariance of the IIP-32 across clinical and non-clinical groups. It was found that CFA had unsatisfactory model fit, whereas the corresponding ESEM solution provided a better fit to the observed data. However, six target factor loadings tend to be modest, and ten items showed cross-loadings higher than 0.30. The configural and metric invariance as well as the scalar and partial strict invariance of the IIP-32 were supported across clinical and non-clinical groups. The internal consistency of the IIP-32 was acceptable and the construct validity was confirmed by significant correlations between IIP-32, RSES, and OQ-45. Furthermore, overall interpersonal difficulties were consistently associated with core eating disorder symptoms, whereas interpersonal styles that reflect the inability to form close relationships, social awkwardness, the inability to be assertive, and a tendency to self-sacrificing were positively associated with general psychological
Stoyer, Michael Ryan
This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…
Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.
Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung
The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…
Adibah Sakinah Oyub
This study was conducted to determine the concentration and to measure platinum group elements (PGE) transfer factor in environmental samples of roadside soil and vegetation. The use of vehicle catalytic converter has released platinum group elements (PGE) and other gases into the environment. Thus, roadside soil and plants were exposed to this element and has become the medium for the movement of this elements. Samples of roadside soil and vegetation were taken at various locations in UKM Bangi Toll and the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) is determined using mass spectrometry-inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Overall, the concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE), which is the element platinum (Pt) in soil was 0.016 ± 0.036 μgg -1 . While the concentration of the elements palladium (Pd) was 0.079 ± 0.019 μgg -1 and element rhodium (Rh) is at a concentration of 0.013 ± 0.020 μgg -1 . Overall, the transfer factor for the element platinum (Pt) is 1. While the transfer factor of the element palladium (Pd) is 0.96 and the element rhodium (Rh) is 1.11. In conclusion, the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in soils have increased. (author)
Luciana Cayres Schmidt
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated.METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples. Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis.RESULTS: The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1 presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43% previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected.CONCLUSION: The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks.
Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Li, En; Vitartas, Peter
Sports betting is increasing worldwide, with an associated increase in sports betting-related problems. Previous studies have examined risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors and have identified demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness factors. These studies have generally compared those in problem gambling, or a combination of moderate risk and problem gambling, groups to non-problem gamblers, often due to statistical power issues. However, recent evidence suggests that, at a population level, the bulk of gambling-related harm stems from low risk and moderate risk gamblers, rather than problem gamblers. Thus it is essential to understand the risk factors for each level of gambling-related problems (low risk, moderate risk, problem) separately. The present study used a large sample (N = 1813) to compare each gambling risk group to non-problem gamblers, first using bivariate and then multivariate statistical techniques. A range of demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness variables were included as possible risk factors. The results indicated that some variables, such as gambling expenditure, number of accounts with different operators, number of different types of promotions used and impulsiveness were significantly higher for all risk groups, while others such as some normative factors, age, gender and particular sports betting variables only applied to those with the highest level of gambling-related problems. The results generally supported findings from previous literature for problem gamblers, and extended these findings to low risk and moderate risk groups. In the future, where statistical power allows, risk factors should be assessed separately for all levels of gambling problems.
W. C. Adams
The survey activities consisted of visual inspections and radiological surveys including beta and gamma surface scans and surface beta activity measurements. The objectives of the confirmatory survey were to provide independent field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the NRC in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the licensee's procedures and FSS data. Additionally, this review provided assurance that the licensee adequately designed the FSS and fulfilled the commitments contained in the DP. ORISE has reviewed ESL's revised DP and revised FSSP for adequacy and appropriateness taking into account commitments contained in these documents that were approved by the NRC (ESL 2006a and b). These documents contain the release criteria for the site, along with the documentation on the derivation of the release criteria. The final survey data for the survey units (SU) to be evaluated were reviewed by ORISE prior to mobilization to the site and while at the site during confirmatory survey activities. ORISE reviewed and evaluated the radiological data, in accordance with the ORISE survey plan and other referenced documents, to ensure that FSS procedures and results adequately met site DP and FSSP commitments
Hartung, Danielle; Stadeler, Martina; Grieshaber, Romano; Keller, Sylvia; Jahreis, Gerhard
Although work related risk factors associated with Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) have been well researched, there is no detailed knowledge regarding disparate occupational groups each with a different risk exposition. Therefore, two occupational groups (chefs and office workers) were compared with a focus on nutritional and psychosocial factors. Two groups of subjects were tested for work and diet-related risks of CD (45 chefs and 48 office workers). The groups matched both for gender (male) and age (30 to 45 years). The study included a medical check-up, bioelectrical impedance analysis as well as an evaluation of questionnaires on health, nutritional behaviour and coping capacity. In addition, volunteers were required to compile a 7-day-dietary-record and collect their urine 24 h prior to their check-up. Blood samples drawn were analysed for glucose and lipid metabolism, homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid; C-reactive protein, uric acid, red blood cell fatty acids, plant sterols, antioxidative capacity and oxidative stress. On average, the chefs showed one risk factor more compared to the office workers. The most frequent risk factors in both groups included overweight/obesity (chef group [CG]: 62.2%; office group [OG]: 58.3%) and elevated TC (CG: 62.2%; OG: 43.8%]. Moreover, although the chefs often had higher CRP-concentrations (40.0%), more office workers suffered from hypertension (37.5%).Chefs showed significant higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and oleic acid, whereas docosahexaenoic acid, Omega-6- and trans fatty acids were found more frequently in the red blood cell membranes of office workers. While there were no significant differences in analysed plant sterols between the two occupational groups, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine was significantly increased in office workers.Concerning the work-related psychosocial factors, the chefs were characterised by a stronger subjective importance of work, a greater degree of professional
Wulanyani, N. M. S.; Vembriati, N.
Generally, Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University applied Small Group Discussion (SGD) in its learning process. If group problem solving succeeds, each individual of the group will individually succeed. However, the success is also determined by each individual’s level of psychological well-being. When the students are in the high level of wellbeing, they will feel comfortable in small group discussion, and teamwork will be effective. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a research which investigates how psychological factors, such as traits, needs, cognitive, and social intelligence, influence students’ wellbeing in performing SGD. This research is also initiated by several cases of students who prefer individual learning and take SGD merely to fulfill attendance requirement. If the students have good wellbeing, they will take the SGD process optimally. The subject of this research was 100 students of Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University. This survey research used psychological test assessment, Psychological well-being scale, and Social Intelligence scale to gain data analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that all aspects of traits together with aspects ‘need for rules and supervision’ affect social intelligence. Furthermore, social intelligence factor with cognitive factors influence wellbeing of the students in the process of SGD.
Tuesca-Molina, Rafael; Fierro Herrera, Norma; Molinares Sosa, Alexandra; Oviedo Martínez, Fernando; Polo Arjona, Yesid; Polo Cueto, José; Sierra Manrique, Ivan
The depression is a principal problem of public health. The principal aim of this study is to determine the role of the social groups as factor protective in elderly, to evaluate the agreement by American Psychiatric Association Criterions and Hamilton Depression test, and also to determine other socio-cultural risk factors associated with depressive syndrome in elderly. Cross-sectional survey. The sample consisted of 602 elderly people (eligible subjects) were men (223) and women (379) between 60 and 94 years (males and females), residents in the south-west of Barranquilla, Colombia. A previously tested, self answer questionnaire was used, therefore, we needed a report consent. Risk measures: Odds Ratio (OR-95% Confidence intervalue), Kappa test to agreement by the nine criteria of the American Psychiatric Association and Hamilton test so, screening testing. The participation in social groups was a protector factor. (Odds Ratio = 0.5; 95% CI 0.34-0.73, p = 0.001). The rate 29.9% was obtained with prevalence of depression in elderly (21.4%-39.4%) affecting principally males (32.7%). The agreement by Kappa test = 0.63 was very important or good. Sensibility = 56.1% (48.5%-63.4%) Specificity = 0.93% (97.8%-99.8%) and Predictive Positive Value = 97.1% (91.2%-99.3%). This survey was to determine risk factors related to depression in elderly in anyway can be potentially modifiable. The familiar disfunction by moderate and serious, the lack as blindness and deafness, the loneliness, the housingness and low incomes were obtained with risk factors associated to depression. The participation in a social group is a protective factor to depression syndrome in elders. The nine criteria of the American Psychiatric Association to allow the depressed patient exactly as sick even though is not necessary to screening because this test is low sensibility for used in a population elderly.
Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau
There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.
Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Lee, W; Han, K; Sung, I K
Cell population data (CPD) describe physical parameters of white blood cell subpopulations and are reported to be of some value in the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Before using the CPD for diagnosing sepsis, the baseline features of the CPD distribution in healthy neonates should be clarified. The aim of this study was to compare the CPD distributions of healthy neonates and other age groups and to identify perinatal factors that are associated with changes in the CPD distribution of healthy neonates. The CPD distribution of 69 samples from term neonates was compared with adolescents and adults. The CPD distribution of 163 samples from healthy neonates was analyzed in association with perinatal factors, including gestational age, chronologic age, birthweight, delivery mode, premature rupture of membranes, diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The CPD distribution for term neonates was significantly different from those in adolescents and adults. The mean lymphocyte volume showed a negative correlation with gestational age at birth (r = -0.305; P group than in the normal delivery group. The small for gestational age (SGA) group had smaller mean neutrophil volume and mean monocyte volume than the appropriate for gestational age group. The CPD distribution of healthy neonates differed from those of adolescents or adults, and the differences were associated with gestational age, delivery mode, and being SGA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wong, L P
In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.
Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al-harbi, Khaleel A.
The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of measurement invariance by simultaneously estimating invariance across multiple populations in the dichotomous instrument case using multi-group confirmatory factor analytic and multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) methodologies. Using the Arabic version of the General Aptitude Test…
Rodney J Scott; Robert Y Cavana; Donald Cameron
Strategy implementation has been identified as an area of system dynamics literature requiring greater attention. Most strategies fail to be implemented successfully, and processes for effectively implementing strategy are yet to be fully explained and explored. The reported interpersonal success factors for strategy implementation are reported outcomes for group model building, suggesting potential applicability. A case study using validated survey methods yielded promising results, and sugg...
Bentwich, Miriam Ethel; Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit
To examine process factors that either facilitate or inhibit learning medical ethics during case-based learning. A qualitative research approach using microanalysis of transcribed videotaped discussions of three consecutive small-group learning (SGL) sessions on medical ethics teaching (MET) for three groups, each with 10 students. This research effort revealed 12 themes of learning strategies, divided into 6 coping and 6 evasive strategies. Cognitive-based strategies were found to relate to Kamin's model of critical thinking in medical education, thereby supporting our distinction between the themes of coping and evasive strategies. The findings also showed that cognitive efforts as well as emotional strategies are involved in discussions of ethical dilemmas. Based on Kamin's model and the constructivist learning theory, an examination of the different themes within the two learning strategies-coping and evasive-revealed that these strategies may be understood as corresponding to process factors either facilitating or inhibiting MET in SGL, respectively. Our classification offers a more nuanced observation, specifically geared to pinpointing the desired and less desired process factors in the learning involved in MET in the SGL environment. Two key advantages of this observation are: (1) it brings to the forefront process factors that may inhibit and not merely facilitate MET in SGL and (2) it acknowledges the existence of emotional and not just cognitive process factors. Further enhancement of MET in SGL may thus be achieved based on these observations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.
Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S
Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.
Jafari, Elham; Mohebbi, Parvin; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh
Women's satisfaction with childbirth is an important measure of the quality of maternity care services. This study aims to address factors related to women's childbirth satisfaction in physiological and routine childbirth groups. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted among 340 women in physiological and routine childbirth groups in 2012. Women were selected through convenience sampling method in the routine group and by census in the physiological group. Data were collected using a 5-part questionnaire composed of demographic and obstetrics details, Mackey's Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale (CSRS), satisfied with birth setting, Labor Agentry Scale (LAS), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), which was completed by interview 24 hours after childbirth. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 software using Pearson correlation test, independent t -test, analysis of variance, and linear, multivariate regression model at the significant level of P toward the recent pregnancy ( P = 0.007), and perceived severity of pain ( P = 0.016). However, in the routine group, satisfaction was related only to intentional pregnancy ( P = 0.002). In neither group, satisfaction was related to demographic characteristics, maternal parity, and participation in pregnancy and childbirth classes or maternal feelings toward the onset of childbirth ( P > 0.05). Improved physical structure and setting of birth room, nonmedical pain relief, mothers' involvement in the process of labor, and sense of being in control are associated with mothers' satisfaction.
Katchevich, Dvora; Hofstein, Avi; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel
One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments—reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research focuses on the process in which students construct arguments in the chemistry laboratory while conducting various types of experiments. It was found that inquiry experiments have the potential to serve as an effective platform for formulating arguments, owing to the features of this learning environment. The discourse during inquiry-type experiments was found to be rich in arguments, whereas that during confirmatory-type experiments was found to be sparse in arguments. The arguments, which were developed during the discourse of an open inquiry experiment, focus on the hypothesis-building stage, analysis of the results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.
Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.
This report describes a confirmatory measurement technique for measuring uranium items in their shipping containers. The measurement consists of a weight verification and the detection of three gamma rays. The weight can be determined very precisely, thus it severely constrains the options of the diverter who might want to imitate the gamma signal with a bogus item. The 185.7-keV gamma ray originates from 235 U, the 1001 keV originates from a daughter of 238 U, and the 2614 keV originates from a daughter of 232 U. These three gamma rays exhibit widely different attenuation properties, they correlate with enrichment and total uranium mass, and they rigorously discriminate against a likely diversion scenario (low-enriched uranium substitution). These four measured quantities, when combined, provide a signature that is very difficult to counterfeit
Sarah N Ramsook
Full Text Available Group E members of the SOX transcription factor family include SOX8, SOX9, and SOX10. Preceding the high mobility group (HMG domain in each of these proteins is a thirty-eight amino acid region that supports the formation of dimers on promoters containing tandemly inverted sites. The purpose of this study was to obtain new structural insights into how the dimerization region functions with the HMG domain. From a mutagenic scan of the dimerization region, the most essential amino acids of the dimerization region were clustered on the hydrophobic face of a single, predicted amphipathic helix. Consistent with our hypothesis that the dimerization region directly contacts the HMG domain, a peptide corresponding to the dimerization region bound a preassembled HMG-DNA complex. Sequence conservation among Group E members served as a basis to identify two surface exposed amino acids in the HMG domain of SOX9 that were necessary for dimerization. These data were combined to make a molecular model that places the dimerization region of one SOX9 protein onto the HMG domain of another SOX9 protein situated at the opposing site of a tandem promoter. The model provides a detailed foundation for assessing the impact of mutations on SOX Group E transcription factors.
Zhao, Chen; Pyle, Anna Marie
The splicing of group II introns in vivo requires the assistance of a multifunctional intron encoded protein (IEP, or maturase). Each IEP is also a reverse-transcriptase enzyme that enables group II introns to behave as mobile genetic elements. During splicing or retro-transposition, each group II intron forms a tight, specific complex with its own encoded IEP, resulting in a highly reactive holoenzyme. This review focuses on the structural basis for IEP function, as revealed by recent crystal structures of an IEP reverse transcriptase domain and cryo-EM structures of an IEP-intron complex. These structures explain how the same IEP scaffold is utilized for intron recognition, splicing and reverse transcription, while providing a physical basis for understanding the evolutionary transformation of the IEP into the eukaryotic splicing factor Prp8. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
The present study examined the factor structure of a Malay version of the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), a recently developed scale for the assessment of positive body image that has been shown to have a unidimensional structure in Western settings. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses based on data from community sample of 591 women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, failed to support a unidimensional structure for the Malay BAS. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis suggested two stable factors, which were labelled 'General Body Appreciation' and 'Body Image Investment'. Multi-group analysis showed that the two-factor structure was invariant for both Malaysian Malay and Chinese women, and that there were no significant ethnic differences on either factor. Results also showed that General Body Appreciation was significant negatively correlated with participants' body mass index. These results are discussed in relation to possible cross-cultural differences in positive body image.
Rajsic, Jason; Pratt, Jay
Previous research has demonstrated a preference for positive over negative information in visual search; asking whether a target object is green biases search towards green objects, even when this entails more perceptual processing than searching non-green objects. The present study investigated whether this confirmatory search bias is due to the presence of one particular (e.g., green) color in memory during search. Across two experiments, we show that this is not the critical factor in generating a confirmation bias in search. Search slowed proportionally to the number of stimuli whose color matched the color held in memory only when the color was remembered as part of the search instructions. These results suggest that biased search for information is due to a particular attentional selection strategy, and not to memory-driven attentional biases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Given the lack of instruments to measure both affective and cognitive elements of well-being at work, the objective of this study is to look for evidence of validity in the US regarding the well-being at work scale, which was first validated in Brazil to measure employee well-being perceptions. Two studies using two different American samples of 809 participants in total were conducted for the exploratory and confirmatory validation of the scale. Construct validity was determined using convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity, which was assessed using a structural equation model to determine a correlation between well-being at work and human resources management practices. This research provides a comprehensive and operationally valid measure of well-being in work settings. The three-factor model can be used as a diagnostic tool for managers who wish to identify and improve the well-being of their work teams.
Full Text Available In this prospective case series study, we consider the different factors between death and survival groups of organophosphate poisoning. Patients in tertiary-care medical center who had been exposed to organophosphate were included in the study. Pralidoxime (PAM was discontinued after atropine had controlled the clinical situation. We recorded the demographic data, amount of organophosphate consumption, duration of coma, duration of ventilator use, duration of hospitalization, findings of chest X-ray, white blood cell count, acetylcholinesterase concentration, plasma cholinesterase concentration, total atropine amount, duration of atropine use, total PAM amount, duration of PAM use, urine organophosphate peak concentration, duration of urine organophosphate and mortality rate. Urine was collected every 8 hours and was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame photometric detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector for organophosphate determination. The urine organophosphate peak concentration was recorded. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the factors between death and survival groups. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the different findings of chest X-ray between the death and survival groups. Evidently, the death group had a higher amount of organophosphate consumption, duration of coma, and higher white blood cell count than those in the survival group. Also, the death group had lower duration of hospitalization, and decreased concentrations of acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase. Total PAM amount use and duration of PAM use were lower. However, the duration of ventilator use, findings of chest X-ray, total atropine amount, duration of atropine, urine organophosphate peak concentration and duration of urine organophosphate were similar in both groups. The mortality rate of our 50 cases was 20%. As stated earlier, the cases of the death group had insufficient PAM therapy. The maximum
Helder M. Fernandes
Full Text Available The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ –Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical issues were discussed.
Garg, Priyanka Rani; Kabita, Salam; Singh, Huidrom Suraj; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Sinha, Ekata; Kalla, Aloke Kumar; Chongtham, Dhanaraj Singh
Studies have been carried out at national and international levels to assess ethnic variations in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. However, ethnic variations in the contribution of various risk factors to complex diseases have been scarcely studied. Our study examined such variations in two ethnic groups in India, namely, Meiteis of Manipur (northeast India) and Aggarwals of Delhi (north India). Through random sampling, we selected 635 participants from the Meitei community and 181 Aggarwals from the Aggarwal Dharmarth Hospital, Delhi. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension were identified based on their recent medical diagnostic history. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist and hip circumferences along with physiological parameters (blood pressures, both systolic and diastolic) and biochemical parameter (lipid profile) were measured for all study participants. Patient parameters were available from the medical reports recorded when patients were first diagnosed. Among CAD individuals, the Aggarwals showed higher mean values of weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) but had lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the Meiteis. The same trend for weight, BMI and lipid parameters could be seen among hypertensive individuals. In step-wise regression analysis, SBP, LDL and TG were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD in the Aggarwals; whereas in the Meiteis, SBP, VLDL, HDL, TC and LDL were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD. In hypertensive Aggarwal participants, SBP, DBP and waist-to-hip ratio were significant contributors for hypertension; whereas SBP, DBP, and height contributed significantly to risk for hypertension among the Meiteis. We found marked differences in conventional risk
Lafzi, Ardeshir; Abolfazli, Nader; Eskandari, Amir
Gingival recession (GR), a common problem in periodontium, is associated with various etiologic factors. There is controversy over the role and importance of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologic factors of GR in a group of subjects in Northwest Iran. In this case-control study, patients referring to a university clinic (123 patients with GR and 123 patients without GR) were evaluated. Patients were examined by an experienced periodontist. A checklist assessing the history of systemic disease, smoking, radiotherapy, orthodontic treatment, chemical and mechanical trauma, tooth-brushing method, type of occlusion, axial inclination of tooth, width and thickness of keratinized gingiva, presence of calculus, prosthesis, faulty restorations and food impaction, and frenum pull was completed for each patient. Chi-square test was used for data analysis. Presence of calculus was significantly associated with GR in the evaluated patients (P = 0.000). Low width and thickness of keratinized gingiva, smoking and traumatic tooth brushing were other significant factors (P teeth, existence of prosthesis, high frenal attachment, radiotherapy, systemic diseases and chemical trauma were not significantly associated with GR in the evaluated patients (P > 0.05). Supra- and sub-gingival calculus, inadequate width and thickness of keratinized tissue, and incorrect tooth brushing techniques are most important etiologic factors of GR. Oral hygiene instructions including correct tooth brushing techniques as well as scaling and root planing with periodic recalls can play a significant role in prevention of GR.
Diefenbeck, Cynthia A; Klemm, Paula R; Hayes, Evelyn R
Support groups fill a critical void in the health care system, harnessing the power of shared experiences to provide support to group members. Likewise, family caregivers fill a void in the health care system, providing billions in unpaid care to the chronically ill. Caregiver support groups offer an opportunity for alleviating the psychological burden of caregiving. The power of any group, including a support group, to foster psychological well-being lies in its ability to cultivate Yalom's therapeutic factors. Gaps in the literature remain regarding the ability of non-prototypical groups to promote therapeutic mechanisms of change. The purpose of this study was to determine if and when Yalom's therapeutic group factors emerged in a peer-led support group delivered in an asynchronous, online format. Qualitative content analysis utilizing deductive category application was employed. Participants' responses were coded and frequency counts were conducted. Results revealed that 9 of 11 therapeutic factors emerged over the course of the group, with Group Cohesiveness, Catharsis, Imparting of Information, and Universality occurring most often. Several factors, including Interpersonal Learning, Corrective Recapitulation of the Primary Family Group, Imitative Behavior, and Development of Socializing Techniques were absent or virtually absent, likely due to the peer-led format of the group. Progression of therapeutic factors over the course of the group is presented. Findings demonstrate the presence of a variety of Yalom's therapeutic factors in an asynchronous, peer-led online support group.
Laura G Wesolowski
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB, immunofluorescent assay (IFA or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result, repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. METHODOLOGY: Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6% were reactive: of these, 2417 (93% had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7% had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52% persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19% were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81% were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative (p<0.001 and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum (p<0.001. Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for
A comprehensive assessment of possible strategies is the key step in a decommissioning process. It should be initiated at an early stage in a facility's lifecycle and include a number of factors. The IAEA has provided extensive guidance on decommissioning strategy selection, but there are a number of cases - particularly in countries with limited resources, but not limited to them - where the selection is forced and constrained by prevailing factors and conditions. In its role of an international expert committee assisting the IAEA, the Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE) debates and draws conclusions on topics omitted from general guidance. TEGDE members met in Vienna in 2003, 2004 and 2005 to develop the basis for this publication. The views expressed here reflect those of TEGDE and not necessarily those of the IAEA
Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a transcription factor and environmental sensor that regulates expression of genes involved in drug-metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, Ahr ablation in mice and studies with orthologous genes in invertebrates suggest that AHR may also play a significant role in embryonic development. To address this hypothesis, we studied the regulation of Ahr expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In ES cells, interactions between OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and Polycomb Group proteins at the Ahr promoter repress AHR expression, which can also be repressed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors in hepatoma cells. In ES cells, unproductive RNA polymerase II binds at the Ahr transcription start site and drives the synthesis of short abortive transcripts. Activation of Ahr expression during differentiation follows from reversal of repressive marks in Ahr promoter chromatin, release of pluripotency factors and PcG proteins, binding of Sp factors, establishment of histone marks of open chromatin, and engagement of active RNAPII to drive full-length RNA transcript elongation. Our results suggest that reversible Ahr repression in ES cells holds the gene poised for expression and allows for a quick switch to activation during embryonic development.
Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni
Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood
Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet
Lai, Daniel W L; Li, Lun; Daoust, Gabrielle D
This paper reviews recent literature on factors influencing suicide behaviours, including thoughts, plans, and attempts, in immigrant and ethno-cultural minority groups, to inform a more comprehensive understanding of suicide behaviours in increasingly culturally diverse populations. Thirty-three studies published between 2002 and 2013 were identified through digital databases searches and included in this review. Analysis of study findings focused on impacts of ethno-cultural identity and acculturation, other cultural and immigration influences, and family and community supports on suicide behaviours. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are identified, to inform relevant suicide prevention efforts and enhance mental health supports for immigrant and ethno-cultural minority populations.
Full Text Available Background: Women's satisfaction with childbirth is an important measure of the quality of maternity care services. This study aims to address factors related to women's childbirth satisfaction in physiological and routine childbirth groups. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted among 340 women in physiological and routine childbirth groups in 2012. Women were selected through convenience sampling method in the routine group and by census in the physiological group. Data were collected using a 5-part questionnaire composed of demographic and obstetrics details, Mackey's Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale (CSRS, satisfied with birth setting, Labor Agentry Scale (LAS, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, which was completed by interview 24 hours after childbirth. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 software using Pearson correlation test, independent t-test, analysis of variance, and linear, multivariate regression model at the significant level of P 0.05. Conclusions: Improved physical structure and setting of birth room, nonmedical pain relief, mothers' involvement in the process of labor, and sense of being in control are associated with mothers' satisfaction.
This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…
Full Text Available Background and aims. Gingival recession (GR, a common problem in periodontium, is associated with various etiologic factors. There is controversy over the role and importance of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologic factors of GR in a group of subjects in Northwest Iran. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, patients referring to a university clinic (123 patients with GR and 123 patients without GR were evaluated. Patients were examined by an experienced periodontist. A checklist assessing the history of systemic disease, smoking, radiotherapy, orthodontic treatment, chemical and mechanical trauma, tooth-brushing method, type of occlusion, axial inclination of tooth, width and thickness of keratinized gingiva, presence of calculus, prosthesis, faulty restorations and food impaction, and frenum pull was completed for each patient. Chi-square test was used for data analysis. Results. Presence of calculus was significantly associated with GR in the evaluated patients (P = 0.000. Low width and thickness of keratinized gingiva, smoking and traumatic tooth brushing were other significant factors (P < 0.05. The type of occlusion, axial inclination of teeth, existence of prosthesis, frenal attachment, and chemical trauma were not significantly associated with GR in the evaluated patients (P > 0.05. Conclusions. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus, inadequate width and thickness of keratinized tissue, and incorrect tooth brushing techniques are most important etiologic factors of GR. Oral hygiene instructions including correct tooth brushing techniques as well as scaling and root planing with periodic recalls can play a significant role in prevention of GR.
The purpose of this calculation is to develop additional Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for the periods 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years after the repository closure. In addition, Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for the average member of a critical group are calculated for those additional radionuclides postulated to reach the environment during the period after 10,000 years and up to 1,000,000 years. After the permanent closure of the repository, the engineered systems within the repository will eventually lose their abilities to contain radionuclide inventory, and the radionuclides will migrate through the geosphere and eventually enter the local water table moving toward inhabited areas. The primary release scenario is a groundwater well used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and this calculation takes these postulated releases and follows them through various pathways until they result in a dose to either a member of critical group or a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The pathways considered in this calculation include inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure
Cao, M Z; Yang, Y H; Chen, Z T; Zhao, P; He, L L
Objective: To investigate the current status of brucella infection in major occupational groups in Bayannur, China, and to analyze the risk factors for brucellosis. Methods: From January to March, 2015, a questionnaire survey and the serological testing were performed to investigate the current status of brucella infection in 649 workers in 13 slaughter and breeding plants in 7 counties in Bayannur, China. The items in the questionnaire survey included general information, related occupational information, living habits, medical history, and awareness of related knowledge. Results: A total of 112 workers (17.26%) had brucella infection. Brucella infection was associated with sex, age, years of exposure to hazardous substances, job, educational background, usage of protective equipment, the presence or absence of a wound at the exposure site, and whether to smoke during the work clearance ( P work ( OR =1.812) , >5 years of exposure to hazardous substances ( OR =1.363) , improper use or nonuse of protective equipment ( OR =1.957) , smoke during work ( OR =2.027) , and the presence of a woundat the exposure site ( OR = 1.231) ; the protective factors for brucellosis were high school and college education and above ( OR =0.521) and high rate of awareness of brucella-related knowledge ( OR =0.648) . Conclusion: The brucella infection rate is high in the major occupational groups in Bayannur, China. The main influencing factors for brucellosis are job, years of exposure to hazardous substances, usage of protective equipment, whether to smoke during work, and the presence or absence of a wound at the exposure site.
Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L
Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r  = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r  = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions.
Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane
This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shiogai, Toshiyuki; Takeuchi, Kazuo
The absence of cerebral circulation and electrocerebral silence have served as an accurate index of irreversible brain death. It is proposed that computed tomography (CT) findings be evaluated as confirmatory criteria of brain death. To this end, CT evaluation of 14 patients satisfying the conventional criteria of brain death was performed. A CT finding of severe compression or dissappearance of the ventricular system, or so called ''brain tamponade'', was seen in 7 (50 %) of the 14 patients. Enhanced contrast CT, especially dynamic CT, usually distinctly reveals the cerebral vessels whenever the cerebral blood flow is preserved; conversely, the lack of enhanced brain structures, even comparing attenuation values, indicates the absence of cerebral blood flow. In 7 (70 %) of 10 patients, however, there was enhanced contrast of vascular brain structures, especially the circle of Willis, major cerebral arteries, choroid plexuses, and venous sinuses. It is suggested that this result is due to the improvement of demonstrability by CT. The usefulness of CT in the confirmation of brain death lies in visualization of the pathological changes associated with a dead brain, such as ''brain tamponade'', and the lack of enhanced contrast indicating the absence of cerebral blood flow. The latter point is still problematic as angiography revealed an extremely low cerebral blood flow in a few cases of ''dead brain'' patients. It is recommended that cerebral blood flow in brain death be evaluated by dynamic CT scanning and correlated with other methods of cerebral blood flow determination (e.g., intravenous digital subtraction angiography). (Author)
Guppy, J.G.; Agrawal, A.K.
Operational and safety transients (anticipated, unlikely, or extremely unlikely) that may originate anywhere in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) system must be adequately simulated to assist in safety evaluation and plant design efforts. An advanced thermohydraulic transient code, the Super System Code (SSC), is described that may be used for confirmatory safety evaluations of plant-wide events, such as assurance of adequate decay heat removal capability under natural circulation conditions. Results obtained with SSC illustrating the degree of modeling detail present in the code as well as the computing efficiency are presented. A version of the SSC code, SSC-L, applicable to any loop-type LMFBR design, has been developed at Brookhaven. The scope of SSC-L is to enable the simulation of all plant-wide transients covered by Plant Protection System (PPS) action, including sodium pipe rupture and coastdown to natural circulation conditions. The computations are stopped when loss of core integrity (i.e., clad melting temperature exceeded) is indicated
Nurse, Jo; Woodcock, Paul; Ormsby, Jim
To increase understanding of how the prison environment influences the mental health of prisoners and prison staff. Qualitative study with focus groups. A local prison in southern England. Prisoners and prison staff. Prisoners reported that long periods of isolation with little mental stimulus contributed to poor mental health and led to intense feelings of anger, frustration, and anxiety. Prisoners said they misused drugs to relieve the long hours of tedium. Most focus groups identified negative relationships between staff and prisoners as an important issue affecting stress levels of staff and prisoners. Staff groups described a "circle of stress," whereby the prison culture, organisation, and staff shortages caused high staff stress levels, resulting in staff sickness, which in turn caused greater stress for remaining staff. Staff shortages also affected prisoners, who would be locked up for longer periods of time, the ensuing frustration would then be released on staff, aggravating the situation still further. Insufficient staff also affected control and monitoring of bullying and reduced the amount of time in which prisoners were able to maintain contact with their families. Greater consideration should be given to understanding the wider environmental and organisational factors that contribute to poor mental health in prisons. This information can be used to inform prison policy makers and managers, and the primary care trusts who are beginning to work in partnership with prisons to improve the mental health of prisoners.
Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone.
Skalsky Jarkander, M; Grindefjord, M; Carlstedt, K
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dental erosion (DE) among a group of adolescents in Stockholm County. This cross sectional cohort study was conducted at three clinics of the Public Dental Service in Stockholm County. Fifteen and 17 year old adolescents (1335) who scheduled their regular dental health examination were asked to participate. After drop-outs a sample of 1071 individuals, 547 males and 524 females were enrolled in the study. Presence of erosive wear was diagnosed (yes/no) on marker teeth by trained dentists/dental hygienists and photographs were taken. The adolescents answered a questionnaire regarding oral symptoms, dietary and behavioural factors. Two calibrated specialist dentists performed evaluation of the photographs for severity of DE using a modified version of the Simplified Erosion Partial Recording System (SEPRS). DE was clinically diagnosed in 28.3% of 15 years old and 34.3% of 17 years old. Severe erosive wear (grade 3 and 4 according to SEPRS) was found in 18.3% of the adolescents based upon the intra-oral photographs. DE was more prevalent and severe among males than females. Clinically diagnosed erosive lesions correlated significantly with soft drink consumption (p < 0.001), the use of juice or sport drinks as a thirst quencher after exercise (p = 0.006) and tooth hypersensitivity when eating and drinking (p = 0.012). Furthermore, self-assessed gastric reflux was a factor strongly associated with DE (p < 0.001). The study indicated that DE was common among adolescents in Stockholm County and associated with both internal and external risk factors.
Full Text Available Joon Young Choi,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,2 Seoung Ju Park,3 Yong Bum Park,4 Kyeong-Cheol Shin,5 Ju Ock Na,6 Kwang Ha Yoo,7 Ki-Suck Jung,8 Young Kyoon Kim,1 Chin Kook Rhee1 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, 5Regional Center for Respiratory Disease, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Republic of Korea Background: The chronic bronchitis (CB phenotype has been associated with poor quality of life and an increased risk of disease in patients with COPD. However, little information exists regarding the relationship between the CB phenotype and the COPD assessment test (CAT score. The goal of this study was to reveal the different pattern of CAT scores between CB and non-CB patients. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups.Methods: Data were obtained from the Korea COPD Subgroup Study cohort recruited from 46 centers in South
Yackobovitch-Gavan, M; Steinberg, D M; Endevelt, R; Benyamini, Y
Attrition is a major limitation of most weight management intervention programmes. The present study aimed to conduct an extensive investigation of personal, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with attrition at different stages of a 10-week group weight-loss programme. The present study is part of a longitudinal, clinical intervention study comparing three conditions in a 10-week group programme: Control, Behavioural Intentions and Implementation Intentions. The study included 587 participants with a mean (SD) age of 46 (11) years (range 18-78 years) and a mean (SD) body mass index (BMI) of 31.9 (5.5) kg m(-2), with 90% being female. To characterise dropout in each week separately, as well as overall dropout (dropout until week 9, the median time of dropout), we tested several logistic regression models, including multiple imputations to cope with missing data. The results of the different dropout models consistently showed that a smaller reduction in BMI in the first 2 weeks of the programme was the strongest predictor of dropout. Dropout in the tenth and last week differed from the earlier weeks both in the relatively high dropout rate (56% of total dropout) and in that, in contrast to earlier weeks, the week 10 model included the reduction in BMI during the last 2 weeks before dropout but did not include the reduction in BMI at the initiation of the intervention. Weight-loss in the beginning of the programme is a crucial independent determinant of dropout in each week except the last one. This finding is important because it suggests a simple assessment for a major dropout risk factor in adult weight-loss intervention programmes. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Andreoni, Federica; Zürcher, Claudia; Tarnutzer, Andrea; Schilcher, Katrin; Neff, Andrina; Keller, Nadia; Marques Maggio, Ewerton; Poyart, Claire; Schuepbach, Reto A; Zinkernagel, Annelies S
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) has acquired an arsenal of virulence factors, promoting life-threatening invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis. Current therapeutic regimens for necrotizing fasciitis include surgical debridement and treatment with cell wall-active antibiotics. Addition of clindamycin (CLI) is recommended, although clinical evidence is lacking. Reflecting the current clinical dilemma, an observational study showed that only 63% of the patients with severe invasive GAS infection received CLI. This work thus aimed to address whether CLI improves necrotizing fasciitis outcome by modulating virulence factors of CLI-susceptible and CLI-resistant GAS in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with CLI reduced extracellular DNase Sda1 and streptolysin O (SLO) activity in vivo, whereas subinhibitory CLI concentrations induced expression and activity of SLO, DNase, and Streptococcus pyogenes cell envelope protease in vitro. Our in vivo results suggest that CLI should be administered as soon as possible to patients with necrotizing fasciitis, while our in vitro studies emphasize that a high dosage of CLI is essential. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bessen, Debra E
Group A streptococci (GAS) are a common cause of pharyngitis and impetigo, and distinct throat strains and skin strains have been long recognized. This review aims to describe recent advances in molecular differences between throat and skin strains, and the pathogenic mechanisms used by virulence factors that may distinguish between these two groups. Recent findings include a new typing scheme for GAS strains based on sequence clusters of genes encoding the entire surface-exposed portion of M protein; correlations between emm-based typing schemes, clinical disease and surface adhesins; covalent bond formation mediated by GAS pili and other adhesins in binding to host ligands; a key role for superantigens in oropharyngeal infection via binding major histocompatibility complex class II antigen; and migration of GAS-specific Th17 cells from the upper respiratory tract to the brain, which may be relevant to autoimmune sequelae. The gap between molecular markers of disease (correlation) and virulence mechanisms (causation) in the establishment of tissue tropisms for GAS infection currently remains wide, but the gap also continues to narrow. Whole genome sequencing combined with mutant construction and improvements in animal models for oropharyngeal infection by GAS may help pave the way for new discoveries.
Amzat, Ismail Hussein; Don, Yahya; Fauzee, Sofian Omar; Hussin, Fauzi; Raman, Arumugam
Purpose: In a world in which successful learning is believed to rest on the methods of teaching and the performance of students is determined by teacher quality, it is clear that teachers are the backbone of student learning attainments. In such a scenario, teacher development, welfare, motivation, and satisfaction are crucial for better teaching…
The importance of self-regulation in e-learning has been well noted in research. Relevant studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between learners' self-regulation and their success rate in e-learning. Increasing attention has been paid to developing learners' self-regulated abilities in e-learning. For students, what and how to learn…
Shiogai, Toshiyuki; Takeuchi, Kazuo (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)
The absence of cerebral circulation and electrocerebral silence have served as an accurate index of irreversible brain death. It is proposed that computed tomography (CT) findings be evaluated as confirmatory criteria of brain death. To this end, CT evaluation of 14 patients satisfying the conventional criteria of brain death was performed. A CT finding of severe compression or dissappearance of the ventricular system, or so called ''brain tamponade'', was seen in 7 (50 %) of the 14 patients. Enhanced contrast CT, especially dynamic CT, usually distinctly reveals the cerebral vessels whenever the cerebral blood flow is preserved; conversely, the lack of enhanced brain structures, even comparing attenuation values, indicates the absence of cerebral blood flow. In 7 (70 %) of 10 patients, however, there was enhanced contrast of vascular brain structures, especially the circle of Willis, major cerebral arteries, choroid plexuses, and venous sinuses. It is suggested that this result is due to the improvement of demonstrability by CT. The usefulness of CT in the confirmation of brain death lies in visualization of the pathological changes associated with a dead brain, such as ''brain tamponade'', and the lack of enhanced contrast indicating the absence of cerebral blood flow. The latter point is still problematic as angiography revealed an extremely low cerebral blood flow in a few cases of ''dead brain'' patients. It is recommended that cerebral blood flow in brain death be evaluated by dynamic CT scanning and correlated with other methods of cerebral blood flow determination (e.g., intravenous digital subtraction angiography).
Das Carlo, Mandira; Swadi, Harith; Mpofu, Debbie
The popularization of problem-based learning (PBL) has drawn attention to the motivational and cognitive skills necessary for medical students in group learning. This study identifies the effect of motivational and cognitive factors on group productivity of PBL tutorial groups. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 115 students at the end of PBL tutorials for 4 themes. The questionnaire explored student perceptions about effect of motivation, cohesion, sponging, withdrawal, interaction, and elaboration on group productivity. We further analyzed (a) differences in perceptions between male and female students, (b) effect of "problems," and (c) effect of student progress over time on group productivity. There were linear relations between a tutorial group's success and the factors studied. Significant differences were noted between male and female student groups. Students and tutors need to recognize symptoms of ineffective PBL groups. Our study emphasizes the need to take into account cultural issues in setting ground rules for PBL tutorials.
Brennan, Angela K.; Cross, Paul C.; Creely, Scott
Summary Animal group size distributions are often right-skewed, whereby most groups are small, but most individuals occur in larger groups that may also disproportionately affect ecology and policy. In this case, examining covariates associated with upper quantiles of the group size distribution could facilitate better understanding and management of large animal groups.
Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David
Melbourne, Australia has the largest tram/streetcar network in the world including the largest mixed traffic tram operating environment. Therefore, Melbourne tram drivers are responsible for controlling one of the heaviest vehicles on road ranging from shared tram lanes to exclusive tram lanes. In addition to different tram lane configurations, tram drivers need to follow different traffic signal phases at intersections including tram priority signals as well as need to serve passengers at various types of closely spaced tram stops. Despite all these challenges, no research has explored tram driver perceptions of the risk factors on different tram route road design configurations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how tram drivers' safety perceptions alter along various tram route sections, signal settings and stop configurations. A tram driver focus group approach was adopted for this research involving thirty tram drivers (4 female and 26 male drivers). The tram drivers' age ranged from 29 to 63 years, with an average age of 47.6 years (standard deviation of 10.1 years), and their experience of tram driving ranged from 1.17 to 31 years, with an average experience of 12.5 years (standard deviation of 10.2 years). The participating tram drivers perceived that the raised tram tracks and tramways with raised yellow curbing beside tracks are safer lane priority features on the Melbourne tram network compared to full-time, part-time and mixed traffic tram lanes. They regarded 'hook turns' as a safe form of tram signal priority treatment at intersections and platform tram stops as the safest tram stop design for all passengers among all other tram stop designs in Melbourne. Findings of this research could enhance the understanding of crash risk factors for different tram route features and thus can offer effective planning strategies for transit agencies to improve tram road safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Shepherd, Sara; Wickman, Amanda; Carruth, Ann; Nalbone, J Torey; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W
The commercial fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world. Little published information exists regarding some populations of commercial fishermen such as along the United States Gulf Coast. Studying these unique and often vulnerable groups is important to characterize potential influences on or barriers to safety in anticipation of designing interventions that can change safety behaviors. Working closely with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), a cross-sectional convenience sample of Gulf Coast shrimp fishermen in and near the Port of Galveston, Texas, was surveyed. The survey included demographic factors and broadly covered areas such as type of work and fishing activities, general or global perceptions and beliefs related to safety and accidents, self-report of ability to use safety equipment or apply procedures aboard vessel, and training considerations. Surveys were obtained following informed consent (n = 133). Of the participants, 96.7% were male with 60.9% ≥40 years old. A majority were of Asian descent (57.1% of all fishermen, 82.1% of shrimp fishermen). Over half claimed to speak little or no English and nearly 60% considered the job to be very safe to neutral. A third to half of respondents expressed doubt about their knowledge of using essential safety equipment in the event of emergency. A large portion of the participants preferred hands-on safety training (40.6%). Important findings about this group of commercial fishermen will help with future development of effective prevention practices through the delivery of culturally appropriate safety awareness training. One element that must be addressed in training programs is to increase the awareness among fishermen about the severe occupational risks inherent in this type of work. Community trust and collaborative partnerships are essential to the success of such initiatives.
A Task Group was formed by PWG-1 in the latter part of 1999 to review the mandate of PWG1 in light of new directions and assignments from CSNI, and to prepare a report that suggests future directions of the Working Group, in harmony with directions from CSNI. This report is the response of the Task Group. Principal Working Group no.1 was organized in September 1982. The group formed its charter, which included: - reviewing periodically activities for the collection, dissemination, storage and analysis of incidents reported under the IRS; - examining annually the incidents reported during the previous year in order to select issues (either technical or human-factor-oriented) with major safety significance and report them to CSNI; - encouraging feed-back through CSNI of lessons derived from operating experience to nuclear safety research programmes, including human factors studies; - providing a forum to exchange information in the field of human factors studies; - establishing short-term task forces, when necessary to carry out information exchange, special studies or any other work within its mandate; - making recommendations to CSNI for improving and encouraging these activities. The mandate of the working group was systematically re-examined in 1994. The purpose was to determine whether changes since the formation of the original mandate would indicate some need to refocus the directions of the working group. It was concluded that the main line of work (sometimes called the core business) of PWG1, which was shown to be an efficient tool for exchanging safety-significant operating experience and lessons learned from safety-significant issues, remained as valid and necessary in 1994 as it was in 1982. Some recommendations for improvement of efficiency were made, but the core business was unchanged. Very little of the mandate needed modification. With little change over nearly 20 years, these six items have constituted the mandate of PWG1. There have been twenty
The objectives of the confirmatory surveys were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the NRC in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the licensee's procedures and survey results.
Sronsri, Chuchai; Boonchom, Banjong
A simple precipitating method was used to synthesize effectively a partially metal-doped phosphate hydrate (Mn0.9Mg0.1HPO4·3H2O), whereas the thermal decomposition process of the above hydrate precursor was used to obtain Mn1.8Mg0.2P2O7 and LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 compounds under different conditions. To separate the overlapping thermal decomposition peak, a deconvolution technique was used, and the separated peak was applied to calculate the water content. The factor group splitting analysis was used to exemplify their vibrational spectra obtained from normal vibrations of HPO42-, H2O, P2O74- and PO43- functional groups. Further, the deconvoluted bending mode of water was clearly observed. Mn0.9Mg0.1HPO4·3H2O was observed in the orthorhombic crystal system with the space group of Pbca (D2h15). The formula units per unit cell were found to be eight (Z = 8), and the site symmetric type of HPO42- was observed as Cs. For the HPO42- unit, the correlation filed splitting analysis of type C3v - Cs - D2h15 was calculated and had 96 internal modes, whereas H2O in the above hydrate was symbolized as C2v - Cs - D2h15 and had 24 modes. The symbol C2v - Cs - C2h3 was used for the correlation filed splitting analysis of P2O74- in Mn1.8Mg0.2P2O7 (monoclinic, C2/m (C2h3), Z = 2, and 42 modes). Finally, the symbol Td - Cs - D2h16 was used for the correlation filed splitting analysis of PO43- in LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 (orthorhombic, Pnma (D2h16), Z = 4, and 36 modes).
von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus
PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS......: Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles....... The primary end point was time to progression. RESULTS: We randomly assigned 78 patients to capecitabine and 78 patients to capecitabine plus trastuzumab. Sixty-five events and 38 deaths in the capecitabine group and 62 events and 33 deaths in the capecitabine-plus-trastuzumab group occurred during 15...
L.H. Visser (Leendert); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); J. Meulstee (Jan); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter)
textabstractThe risk factors for treatment related clinical fluctuations, relapses occurring after initial therapeutic induced stabilisation or improvement, were evaluated in a group of 172 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features
Satasivam, Prassannah; Poon, Bing Ying; Ehdaie, Behfar; Vickers, Andrew J; Eastham, James A
We evaluated whether initial diagnostic parameters could predict the confirmatory biopsy result in patients initiating active surveillance for prostate cancer, to determine whether some men at low risk for disease reclassification could be spared unnecessary biopsy. The cohort included 392 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer on initial biopsy undergoing confirmatory biopsy. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess if high grade cancer (Gleason 7 or greater) on confirmatory biopsy could be predicted from initial diagnostic parameters (prostate specific antigen density, magnetic resonance imaging result, percent positive cores, percent cancer in positive cores and total tumor length). Median patient age was 62 years (IQR 56-66) and 47% of patients had a dominant or focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 392 patients 44 (11%) had high grade cancer on confirmatory biopsy, of whom 39 had Gleason 3+4, 1 had 4+3, 3 had Gleason 8 and 1 had Gleason 9 disease. All predictors were significantly associated with high grade cancer at confirmatory biopsy on univariate analysis. However, in the multivariable model only prostate specific antigen density and total tumor length were significantly associated (AUC 0.85). Using this model to select patients for confirmatory biopsy would generally provide a higher net benefit than performing confirmatory biopsy in all patients, across a wide range of threshold probabilities. If externally validated, a model based on initial diagnostic criteria could be used to avoid confirmatory biopsy in many patients initiating active surveillance. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Satasivam, Prassannah; Poon, Bing Ying; Ehdaie, Behfar; Vickers, Andrew J.; Eastham, James A.
Purpose We evaluated whether initial diagnostic parameters could predict the confirmatory biopsy result in patients initiating active surveillance for prostate cancer, to determine whether some men at low risk of reclassification could be spared unnecessary biopsy. Materials and Methods The cohort included 392 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer on initial biopsy undergoing confirmatory biopsy. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess if high-grade cancer (Gleason ≥ 7) on confirmatory biopsy could be predicted from initial diagnostic parameters (prostate-specific antigen density, magnetic resonance imaging result, percent positive cores, percent cancer in positive cores, and total tumor length). Results Median age was 62 years (IQR 56–66) and 47% of patients were found to have a dominant or focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 392 patients, 44 (11%) were found to have high-grade cancer on confirmatory biopsy, among whom 39 had 3+4, 1 had 4+3, 3 had Gleason 8, and 1 patient had Gleason 9 disease. All predictors were significantly associated with high-grade cancer at confirmatory biopsy on univariate analysis. However, in the multivariable model only prostate-specific antigen density and total tumor length were significantly associated (AUC of 0.85). Using this model to select patients for confirmatory biopsy would generally provide a higher net benefit than performing confirmatory biopsy in all patients, across a wide range of threshold probabilities. Conclusion If externally validated, a model based on initial diagnostic criteria could be used to avoid confirmatory biopsy in many patients initiating active surveillance. PMID:26192258
Williams, P.L.; White, N.; Klem, R.; Wilson, S.E.; Bartholomew, P.
There are a number of group-based research techniques available to determine the views or perceptions of individuals in relation to specific topics. This paper reports on one method, the nominal group technique (NGT) which was used to collect the views of important stakeholders on the factors affecting the quality of, and capacity to provide clinical education and training in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy and oncology departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were devised to recruit learners, educators, practitioners and service managers to the nominal groups. Eight regional groups comprising a total of 92 individuals were enrolled; the numbers in each group varied between 9 and 13. A total of 131 items (factors) were generated across the groups (mean = 16.4). Each group was then asked to select the top three factors from their original list. Consensus on the important factors amongst groups found that all eight groups agreed on one item: staff attitude, motivation and commitment to learners. The 131 items were organised into themes using content analysis. Five main categories and a number of subcategories emerged. The study concluded that the NGT provided data which were congruent with the issues faced by practitioners and learners in their daily work; this was of vital importance if the findings are to be regarded with credibility. Further advantages and limitations of the method are discussed, however it is argued that the NGT is a useful technique to gather relevant opinion; to select priorities and to reach consensus on a wide range of issues
Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M
This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Nicolaou, Mary; Powell, Katie; Terragni, Laura; Maes, Lea; Stronks, Karien; Lien, Nanna; Holdsworth, Michelle
Europe has a growing population of ethnic minority groups whose dietary behaviours are potentially of public health concern. To promote healthier diets, the factors driving dietary behaviours need to be understood. This review mapped the broad range of factors influencing dietary behaviour among
Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased con-tinuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Ca-loric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.
Lupo, Philip J; Zhou, Renke; Skapek, Stephen X; Hawkins, Douglas S; Spector, Logan G; Scheurer, Michael E; Fatih Okcu, M; Melin, Beatrice; Papworth, Karin; Erhardt, Erik B; Grufferman, Seymour
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a highly malignant tumor of developing muscle that can occur anywhere in the body. Due to its rarity, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of RMS. Atopic disease is hypothesized to be protective against several malignancies; however, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of atopy and childhood RMS. Therefore, we explored this association in a case-control study of 322 childhood RMS cases and 322 pair-matched controls. Cases were enrolled in a trial run by the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. Controls were matched to cases on race, sex and age. The following atopic conditions were assessed: allergies, asthma, eczema and hives; in addition, we examined other immune-related factors: birth order, day-care attendance and breastfeeding. Conditional logistic-regression models were used to calculate an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each exposure, adjusted for age, race, sex, household income and parental education. As the two most common histologic types of RMS are embryonal (n=215) and alveolar (n=66), we evaluated effect heterogeneity of these exposures. Allergies (OR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.41-0.87), hives (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38-0.97), day-care attendance (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.32-0.71) and breastfeeding for ≥ 12 months (OR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.70) were inversely associated with childhood RMS. These exposures did not display significant effect heterogeneity between histologic types (p>0.52 for all exposures). This is the first study indicating that atopic exposures may be protective against childhood RMS, suggesting additional studies are needed to evaluate the immune system's role in the development of this tumor. © 2013 UICC.
This note describes the gut transfer factors recommended by an Expert Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency for intakes of certain important elements in food and drinking water. The evidence behind the recommendations is discussed and their implications for dose per unit intake is investigated. It is found that in many cases the dose per unit intake calculated using the gut uptake factor recommended by the Expert Group is similar to that calculated using the recommendations of ICRP Publication 30. However, in some cases there are substantial increases in dose per unit intake. The largest increases are by a factor of fifty for intakes of certain thorium isotopes by infants. (author)
Full Text Available Purpose: motivation of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises considering compatibility factor. Material: in the research 40 high qualification sportswomen of 17-23 yrs age with sport experience of 11-16 years participated. With cluster analysis 10 gymnasts with morphological indicators, meeting modern standards of group exercises were selected. Results: we found 5 generalized factors, which characterize structure of selection to teams and determines 72% of dispersion. Influence of kinds and connected with them criteria of compatibility on efficiency of gymnasts’ competition functioning were also determined. The authors substantiated methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor. Conclusions: in selection to calisthenics teams for group exercises it is purposeful to realize complex registration of compatibility kinds, considering gymnasts’ similar features by recommended indicators.
Avci, Deniz; Karagoz, Hatice; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Bulut, Kadir; Aykas, Fatma; Cetinkaya, Ali; Uslu, Emine; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Erden, Abdulsamet
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT) and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029). The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006). The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004). In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum.
Pałgan, Krzysztof; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Chrzaniecka, Elżbieta
Numerous publications indicate that the prevalence of some infectious, neoplastic and immunological diseases are associated with ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to verify whether ABO and Rh blood groups are associated with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera stings. A study was undertaken of 71,441 Caucasian subjects living in the same geographic area. The study group included 353 patients with diagnosed systemic anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom. Control group included 71,088 healthy blood donors. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. No statistically significant interactions were observed between the ABO blood group and anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera.
Full Text Available Background: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiological factors of PKU phenotypes in a neonatal screening program for Mazandaran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-retrospective study from 2007 to 2015, neonates PKU level was conducted by phenylalanine level based on a biochemical technique by ELISA and then by confirmatory methods high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Of the 407,244 screened newborns (48.7% girls and 51.3% boys, 14 girls and 13 boys were diagnosed definitely from 465 suspicious cases of PKU. The incidence of PKU was 0.66 in 10,000, which was noted in different severity (severe PKU - 1:67,874, mild PKU - 1:45,249, and HPA - 1:33,937. In addition, we did not detect any cases of nonclassic PKU. Conclusions: Although the consanguineous marriage pattern is a major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA particularly in Iranian, there was no significant difference between groups in this study. Now, screening should be executed for all of the family that they have the familial history of PKU in Iran. According to varies actual of prevalence and incidence rate of PKU reported a real patient and taking PKU with mild PKU and HPA, it is recommended, the will provide the PKU reports based on the severity of the disease.
Abbaskhanian, Ali; Zamanfar, Daniel; Afshar, Parvaneh; Asadpoor, Einollah; Rouhanizadeh, Hamed; Jafarnia, Ali; Shokzadeh, Mohammad
Background: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiological factors of PKU phenotypes in a neonatal screening program for Mazandaran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-retrospective study from 2007 to 2015, neonates PKU level was conducted by phenylalanine level based on a biochemical technique by ELISA and then by confirmatory methods high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Of the 407,244 screened newborns (48.7% girls and 51.3% boys), 14 girls and 13 boys were diagnosed definitely from 465 suspicious cases of PKU. The incidence of PKU was 0.66 in 10,000, which was noted in different severity (severe PKU - 1:67,874, mild PKU - 1:45,249, and HPA - 1:33,937). In addition, we did not detect any cases of nonclassic PKU. Conclusions: Although the consanguineous marriage pattern is a major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) particularly in Iranian, there was no significant difference between groups in this study. Now, screening should be executed for all of the family that they have the familial history of PKU in Iran. According to varies actual of prevalence and incidence rate of PKU reported a real patient and taking PKU with mild PKU and HPA, it is recommended, the will provide the PKU reports based on the severity of the disease. PMID:29184644
Nazli, Rubina; Haider, Jamila; Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Akhtar, Tasleem; Aslam, Hina
To determine the frequency of ABO blood group and Rhesus (Rh) D antigen in the females of "District" Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 429 women having pregnancy induced hypertension, admitted in the three teaching hospitals of Peshawar, over a period of one year. Blood sample was collected from each subject after taking informed consent. The antigen antibody agglutination slide test for "blood grouping (ABO)" and RhD factors was done by using IgM and IgG monoclonal reagents. The antisera used were from Biolaboratory, USA. Data was analyzed for percentage calculation. The blood group distribution was 134 (31.2%), 43 (10.1%), 116 (27%), 136 (31.7%) for blood groups A, AB, O and B, respectively. Subjects having blood group B was slightly more dominant, followed by A and O, while blood group AB was rare in these females. Blood group A Rh negative is more in female 12 (37.5%) followed by group O 10 (31.3%), group B 09 (28.1%) and group AB 01 (3.1%). Frequency of "Rh-positive blood group" is B, A, O and AB, whereas the frequency of the most common Rh-negative blood group are A, O, B and AB respectively. The determination of the frequency of blood groups in the region would not only help in blood transfusion services, but also reduce the risk of erythroblastosis foetalis in the neonates.
Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.
Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…
Ando, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Yasumichi; Thom, Andreas
Let Γ be a countable discrete group, and let π:Γ→GL(H) be a representation of Γ by invertible operators on a separable Hilbert space H. We show that the semidirect product group G=H⋊πΓ is SIN (G admits a two-sided invariant metric compatible with its topology) and unitarily representable (G embed...
Taha, Consuelo Byrd
This study is considered to represent an attempt to examine conditions which inhibit the education of many minority group college students, by pursuing three specific objectives. They are: (1) to identify common indicators of the lack of self-discipline among minority group college students and analyze them in terms of their nature and magnitude;…
Savikko, Niina; Routasalo, Pirkko; Tilvis, Reijo; Pitkälä, Kaisu
Loneliness among community-dwelling older people is a common problem, with serious health consequences. The favourable processes and mediating factors of a psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention in alleviating older people's loneliness were evaluated. Altogether, 117 lonely, home-dwelling individuals (aged ≥75 years) participated in a psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention. The content comprised (i) art and inspiring activities, (ii) group exercise and discussions or (iii) therapeutic writing and group therapy. The psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention was evaluated from the group leaders' diaries and by observing the groups. Experiences of loneliness and social participation were collected by postintervention questionnaires from the participants. Data were analysed using methodological triangulation. Doing things together and sharing experiences with their peers inspired lively discussions, created a feeling of togetherness and led to participants' empowerment and increased self-esteem. The intervention socially activated the participants, and their feelings of loneliness had been alleviated during the intervention. Several common favourable processes and mediating factors were identified in the psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention that led to alleviation of loneliness among older people. Relevance to clinical practice. The psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention gives nurses an effective tool to support older people's psychosocial resources by activating them and alleviating their loneliness. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a major zoonosis worldwide. Many people for their professions are at higher risk of contracting the disease. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in a group of high risk professions. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all personnel or students of veterinary schools, slaughters and butchers working in the city were invited to participate (n=141. A comparison group (n=44 randomly selected from patients who were selected at random from people attended our healthcare center for reasons other than the infectious diseases. Results: 4 veterinarians, 15 veterinary assistants, 42 veterinarian students, 52 butchers, 17 slaughters, 8 slaughterhouse workers and 3 chefs made the first group and 14 storekeepers, 5 students of engineering, 11 clerks, 13 freelance workers, and 1 high school student made the comparison group. While the rate of consumption of most of the studied dairy products was almost similar in both groups, comparison group patients consumed more often milk (p<0.001 and cream (p<0.001 than the high risk group. 11 (7.8%; 95% CI: 3.4%–12.2% cases from high risk group and none of the comparison group were found seropositive for Brucella. Conclusion: Profession is the main factor in seropositivity. Consumption of dairy products and raw milk is not associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.
Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.
Ozyurt, Kemal; Oztürk, Perihan; Gül, Mustafa; Benderli, Yasemin Cihan; Cölgeçen, Emine; Inci, Rahime
Recently, numerous studies have been carried out to explain the genetics and immunopathogenesis of Behçet's disease (BD). There is still insufficient understanding of its etiopathogenesis, but substantial genetic and immune system abnormalities have been suggested. Several studies have shown remarkable associations of ABO blood groups with various diseases. This study investigated the relationship between ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups and Behçet's disease in Turkish patients. Clinical data on gender, ABO, and Rhesus blood type of patients with BD were collected at the Kayseri Education and Research Hospital from 2005 to 2012. A total of 115 patients with BD were assessed for their association with ABO or Rhesus (D) blood groups and compared with the distribution of the blood groups of 25,701 healthy donors admitted to the Kayseri Education and Research Hospital Blood Center in 2010 and 2011. The distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in patients with BD was similar to the healthy donors. No relationship was found between ABO or Rhesus blood groups and BD at our hospital. Further studies with a larger series and in different centers may be valuable for identifying the association between ABO or Rhesus (D) blood groups and BD.
Stephanie Anna Lenzen; Trudy van der Weijden; Anna Beurskens; Marloes Amantia van Bokhoven; Ramon Daniëls; Jerôme Jean Jacques van Dongen
Background: The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding
Dongen, J.J. van; Lenzen, S.A.; Bokhoven, M.A. van; Daniels, R.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Beurskens, A.
BACKGROUND: The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding
Buusman, Allan; Andersen, Morten; Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann
(GPs) were selected with reference to variation in organizational structure, age, and gender. Main outcome measures. GPs' description of drug choice in relation to specific patient encounters involving a prescription. Results. All informants appeared to consider drug price important...... as it was a recurring theme during all interviews. External factors outside the GP's control such as governmental regulation on prescribing and the pharmaceutical industry influenced most GPs. Internal factors related to the actual consultation included characteristics of the GP and the patient, drug characteristics......, and repeat prescriptions. These factors interact in a non-linear and unpredictable way similar to complex adaptive systems. Conclusion. GPs balance both internal and external factors when choosing between analogues. Drug choice is a regulated process in the realm of complex prescribing behaviour with drug...
Shen, Yue-Long; Wei, Yan-Bing; Lü, Cai-Dian
Within the framework of the B -meson light-cone sum rules, we review the calculation of radiative corrections to the three B →π transition form factors at leading power in Λ /mb. To resum large logarithmic terms, we perform the complete renormalization group evolution of the correlation function. We employ the integral transformation which diagonalizes evolution equations of the jet function and the B -meson light-cone distribution amplitude to solve these evolution equations and obtain renormalization group improved sum rules for the B →π form factors. Results of the form factors are extrapolated to the whole physical q2 region and are compared with that of other approaches. The effect of B -meson three-particle light-cone distribution amplitudes, which will contribute to the form factors at next-to-leading power in Λ /mb at tree level, is not considered in this paper.
Pile group foundations are used in most foundation solutions for transportation structures. Rigorous and reliable pile design methods are : required to produce designs whose level of safety (probability of failure) is known. By utilizing recently dev...
J. Torabizade maatoghi
Aug 20, 2015 ... Aim of the study: Due to the presence of various ethnic groups in Khuzestan province, several ... In the studies conducted in USA, southwest Saudi Arabia, .... The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regard-.
Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla
This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.
Oksana G. Cherniukh
Our works consider the investigation of possible manifestation of hyperbilirubinemia in infants against the ground of genetic incompatibilities of the fetus according to АВ0 system and Rh-factor (D) concerning the maternal organism. From this point of view we deal with jaundice of mixed genesis against erythroblastosis domination as a primary antenatal factor of pathological process formation. The present study presents the results of distribution of the group and rhesus determinants (Rh D...
Cliver Edward W.
Full Text Available We analyze the normalization factors (k′-factors used to scale secondary observers to the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO reference series of the Hoyt & Schatten (1998a, 1998b group sunspot number (GSN. A time series of these k′-factors exhibits an anomaly from 1841 to 1920, viz., the average k′-factor for all observers who began reporting groups from 1841 to 1883 is 1.075 vs. 1.431 for those who began from 1884 to 1920, with a progressive rise, on average, during the latter period. The 1883–1884 break between the two subintervals occurs precisely at the point where Hoyt and Schatten began to use a complex daisy-chaining method to scale observers to RGO. The 1841–1920 anomaly implies, implausibly, that the average sunspot observer who began from 1841 to 1883 was nearly as proficient at counting groups as mid-20th century RGO (for which k′ = 1.0 by definition while observers beginning during the 1884–1920 period regressed in group counting capability relative to those from the earlier interval. Instead, as shown elsewhere and substantiated here, RGO group counts increased relative to those of other long-term observers from 1874 to ~1915. This apparent inhomogeneity in the RGO group count series is primarily responsible for the increase in k′-factors from 1884 to 1920 and the suppression, by 44% on average, of the Hoyt and Schatten GSN relative to the original Wolf sunspot number (WSN before ~1885. Correcting for the early “learning curve” in the RGO reference series and minimizing the use of daisy-chaining rectifies the anomalous behavior of the k′-factor series. The resultant GSN time series (designated GSN* is in reasonable agreement with the revised WSN (SN*; Clette & Lefèvre 2016 and the backbone-based group sunspot number (RGS; Svalgaard & Schatten 2016 but significantly higher than other recent reconstructions (Friedli, personal communication, 2016; Lockwood et al. 2014a, 2014b; Usoskin et al. 2016a. This result
Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R
Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.
Gunn, Sarah; Burgess, Gerald H; Maltby, John
To explore the factor structure of the UK Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure (FIM+FAM) among focal and diffuse acquired brain injury patients. Criterion standard. An NHS acute acquired brain injury inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Referred sample of 447 adults (835 cases after exclusions) admitted for inpatient treatment following an acquired brain injury significant enough to justify intensive inpatient neurorehabilitation. Not applicable. Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure. Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested a two-factor structure to FIM+FAM scores, among both focal-proximate and diffuse-proximate acquired brain injury aetiologies. Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested a three-factor bi-factor structure presented the best fit of the FIM+FAM score data across both aetiologies. However, across both analyses, a convergence was found towards a general factor, demonstrated by high correlations between factors in the Exploratory Factor Analysis, and by a general factor explaining the majority of the variance in scores on Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Our findings suggested that although factors describing specific functional domains can be derived from FIM+FAM item scores, there is a convergence towards a single factor describing overall functioning. This single factor informs the specific group factors (e.g. motor, psychosocial and communication function) following brain injury. Further research into the comparative value of the general and group factors as evaluative/prognostic measures is indicated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Fischer, Peter; Fischer, Julia; Weisweiler, Silke; Frey, Dieter
We investigated whether different modes of decision making (deliberate, intuitive, distracted) affect subsequent confirmatory processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information. Participants showed higher levels of confirmatory information processing when they made a deliberate or an intuitive decision versus a decision under distraction (Studies 1 and 2). As soon as participants have a cognitive (i.e., deliberate cognitive analysis) or affective (i.e., intuitive and gut feeling) reason for their decision, the subjective confidence in the validity of their decision increases, which results in increased levels of confirmatory information processing (Study 2). In contrast, when participants are distracted during decision making, they are less certain about the validity of their decision and thus are subsequently more balanced in the processing of decision-relevant information.
Zhong, Lei; Wang, Dengqiang; Gan, Xiaoni; Yang, Tong; He, Shunping
Group B of the Sox transcription factor family is crucial in embryo development in the insects and vertebrates. Sox group B, unlike the other Sox groups, has an unusually enlarged functional repertoire in insects, but the timing and mechanism of the expansion of this group were unclear. We collected and analyzed data for Sox group B from 36 species of 12 phyla representing the major metazoan clades, with an emphasis on arthropods, to reconstruct the evolutionary history of SoxB in bilaterians and to date the expansion of Sox group B in insects. We found that the genome of the bilaterian last common ancestor probably contained one SoxB1 and one SoxB2 gene only and that tandem duplications of SoxB2 occurred before the arthropod diversification but after the arthropod-nematode divergence, resulting in the basal repertoire of Sox group B in diverse arthropod lineages. The arthropod Sox group B repertoire expanded differently from the vertebrate repertoire, which resulted from genome duplications. The parallel increases in the Sox group B repertoires of the arthropods and vertebrates are consistent with the parallel increases in the complexity and diversification of these two important organismal groups. PMID:21305035
Sherf, Matan; Wiser, Itay; Klein, Dov; Heller, Lior
Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most common esthetic procedures worldwide. A wide range of motivations leads women to undergo this procedure, among them socioeconomic status and age group. The aim of this study was to identify the motivation spectrum for augmentation mammoplasty through different age groups. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey given to Israeli women seeking augmentation mammoplasty consults in a hospital and private clinic settings, using a 17-item Motivation for Augmentation questionnaire. Three motivation domains were examined: appearance, sexuality and social. Study participants were divided into three age groups: 18-29, 30-39 and over 40 years. A total of 101 women participated in the study. Motivations were rated similar among all age groups. Appearance and sexuality domains were rated significantly higher compared with the social domain throughout all age groups (3.28 ± 0.91 and 3.15 ± 1.03 vs. 1.88 ± 1.16, p age. The desire to improve one's appearance and sexuality is more prominent than improving social and work status. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Full Text Available The primary objective of this research is to learn the effect among ROA, Leverage, Company Size, and Outsider Ownership with time lines, either partially or simultaneously. Secondary data were collected by purposive sampling of manufacturing company groups listed on IDX and the preceding scientific research journals, using logistic regression to test the hypothesis simultaneously. The results of this research describe that ROA and Leverage do not significant effect to time lines, but company size and outsider ownership have significant effect to time lines. It is recommended that the topic of this research can be continued with merchandising company groups, or service company groups either general or special, like: hotels, insurances, bankings; or, with new independence variables added.
Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Huang, Ying; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng
WRKY transcription factors belong to one of the largest transcription factor families. These factors possess functions in plant growth and development, signal transduction, and stress response. Here, we identified 95 DcWRKY genes in carrot based on the carrot genomic and transcriptomic data, and divided them into three groups. Phylogenetic analysis of WRKY proteins from carrot and Arabidopsis divided these proteins into seven subgroups. To elucidate the evolution and distribution of WRKY transcription factors in different species, we constructed a schematic of the phylogenetic tree and compared the WRKY family factors among 22 species, which including plants, slime mold and protozoan. An in-depth study was performed to clarify the homologous factor groups of nine divergent taxa in lower and higher plants. Based on the orthologous factors between carrot and Arabidopsis, 38 DcWRKY proteins were calculated to interact with other proteins in the carrot genome. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that DcWRKY20 can interact with DcMAPK1 and DcMAPK4. The expression patterns of the selected DcWRKY genes based on transcriptome data and qRT-PCR suggested that those selected DcWRKY genes are involved in root development, biotic and abiotic stress response. This comprehensive analysis provides a basis for investigating the evolution and function of WRKY genes.
Hiltunen, Leena M; Laivuori, Hannele; Rautanen, Anna; Kaaja, Risto; Kere, Juha; Krusius, Tom; Paunio, Mikko; Rasi, Vesa
Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is still unknown. Clinical symptoms correlate with activation of coagulation and inherited thrombophilia has been associated with pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group has been associated with thrombotic disorders and pre-eclampsia. We assessed ABO blood group, seven thrombophilia associated polymorphisms, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies as risk factors for pre-eclampsia. We performed a population-based nested case-control study of 100,000 consecutive pregnancies in Finland. Cases and controls were identified by combining national registers and medical records were reviewed. We studied 248 cases fulfilling strict criteria for pre-eclampsia and 679 controls. Severe pre-eclampsia, early pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) were analyzed separately. Blood group AB increased the risk for pre-eclampsia as a whole (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), and in the three subgroups (OR 2.3, 3.8, 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-3.9, 2.0-7.1, 1.6-7.1). FV Leiden increased the risk as a whole (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.9), and in the three subgroups, although not statistically significantly. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies were not associated with pre-eclampsia. High body mass index, diabetes, first pregnancy, and twin pregnancy increased the risk from 1.5-fold to 8.2-fold. Our results confirm and extend the prior observation of blood group AB being a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group is known from all pregnant women. The value of blood group as risk factor for pre-eclampsia should be further assessed in prospective studies. In this study, FV Leiden was not statistically significant risk factor.
Doi, Hideyuki; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Nishibe, Yuichiro; Imai, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi
The importance of analyzing the determinants of biodiversity and community composition by using multiple trophic levels is well recognized; however, relevant data are lacking. In the present study, we investigated variations in species diversity indices and community structures of the plankton taxonomic groups-zooplankton, rotifers, ciliates, and phytoplankton-under a range of local environmental factors in pond ecosystems. For each planktonic group, we estimated the species diversity index by using linear models and analyzed the community structure by using canonical correspondence analysis. We showed that the species diversity indices and community structures varied among the planktonic groups and according to local environmental factors. The observed lack of congruence among the planktonic groups may have been caused by niche competition between groups with similar trophic guilds or by weak trophic interactions. Our findings highlight the difficulty of predicting total biodiversity within a system, based upon a single taxonomic group. Thus, to conserve the biodiversity of an ecosystem, it is crucial to consider variations in species diversity indices and community structures of different taxonomic groups, under a range of local conditions.
Lyons, Michael D.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.
Consistent with a positive psychology framework, this study examined the contributions of personality, environmental, and perceived social support variables in classifying adolescents using Greenspoon and Saklofske's Dual-Factor model of mental health. This model incorporates information about positive subjective well-being (SWB), along with…
Kim, Sunha; Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Allen, Katherine R.
This study examined the dropout trajectories of racial and linguistic minority students and explored the effects of students' contextual factors on their high school dropout risks. Our motivation was to identify the dropout patterns of Black, Hispanic, and Hispanic English language learner (ELL) students, who have comparatively high dropout rates,…
The concept of "confirmatory" studies is a standard and important component of the overall clinical trials strategy in oncology. However, it is critical that such studies are similar enough in basic design and how they are conducted that they actually have the realistic potential to confirm, or refute, objectively the findings of the original study. In this commentary, two examples of clinical studies in the gynecologic oncology arena suggested by some to serve as "confirmatory" trials for the original reports demonstrate both the dangers and potential inappropriateness of such conclusions.
Liem, M S; van der Graaf, Y; Zwart, R C; Geurts, I; van Vroonhoven, T J
Potential risk factors for inguinal hernia in women were investigated and the relative importance of these factors was quantified. In women, symptomatic but nonpalpable hernias often remain undiagnosed. However, knowledge on this subject only concerns hernia and operation characteristics, which have been obtained by review of case series. Virtually nothing is known about risk factors for inguinal hernia. The authors performed a hospital-based case-control study of 89 female patients with an incident inguinal hernia and 176 age-matched female controls. Activity since birth with two validated questionnaires was measured and smoking habits, medical and operation history, Quetelet index (kg/m2), and history of pregnancies and deliveries were recorded. Response for cases was 81% and for controls 73%. Total physical activity was not associated with inguinal hernia (univariate odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-1.1), but high present sports activities was associated with less inguinal hernia (multivariate OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Obesity (Quetelet index > 30) was also protective for inguinal hernia (OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.04-1.0). Independent risk factors were positive family history (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.9-9.7) and obstipation (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.7). In particular, smoking, appendectomy, other abdominal operations, and multiple deliveries were not associated with inguinal hernia in females. The protective effect of present sports activity may be explained by optimizing the resistance of the abdominal musculature protecting the relatively small inguinal weak spot in the female. The individual predisposition for inguinal hernia may be quantified by these risk factors, and, with this in mind, the authors advise that further evaluation might be needed for the patient with unexplained inguinal pain.
Background: The demand for blood and blood products has increased due to advances in medical science, population growth and increased life expectancy. This has increased the need for various blood groups in Khuzestan province because of the higher incidence of thalassemia and other blood transfusion dependent ...
Earls, Melissa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…
This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…
Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H
A series of 24-h video studies on four commercial Danish pig herds investigated the behaviour of pregnant sows kept in dynamic groups (72 to 200 sows) with electronic sow feeding (ESF). The herds mainly differed with respect to provision of a layer of unchopped straw as bedding material, the freq...
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.
The Arabic Scale of Death anxiety (ASDA), the Death Depression Scale (DDS), and the Death Obsession Scale (DOS) were administered, individually, to 7 groups (n = 765) of Egyptian normal participants (non-clinical), anxiety disorder patients, patients suffering from schizophrenia (males and females), and addicts (males only). They were generally…
Brouzos, Andreas; Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Baourda, Vasiliki C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate therapeutic factors and perception of co-leaders' attitudes in elementary children. The Critical Incident Questionnaire was collected from participants during 8 sessions of 3 psychoeducational groups for social anxiety, whereas the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory was administered twice. It was…
Karen Robinson; Steven Selin; Chad Pierskalla
This paper reports the results and management implications of a longitudinal research study examining the social factors affecting the formation of a trails network advisory group for the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) in West Virginia. A collaborative process of creating an MNF trails network with input from local users and stakeholders has been largely...
van Beest, M; Dooijes, D; van De Wetering, M
Sequence-specific high mobility group (HMG) box factors bind and bend DNA via interactions in the minor groove. Three-dimensional NMR analyses have provided the structural basis for this interaction. The cognate HMG domain DNA motif is generally believed to span 6-8 bases. However, alignment...
Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob
Burgos, D., Koper, R. (2005) Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges. In E-Journal of Educational Research, Assessment and Evaluation, vol. 11, issue 2 [www.uv.es/RELIEVE]. Available at
Waldman, David A; Atwater, Leanne E; Davidson, Ronald A
Personality has seen a resurgence in the work performance literature. The Five-Factor Model (FFM) represents a set of personality factors that has received the most attention in recent years. Despite its popularity, the FFM may not be sufficiently comprehensive to account for relevant variation across performance dimensions or tasks. Accordingly, the present study also considers how individualism may predict additional variance in performance beyond the FFM. The study involved 152 undergraduate students who experienced a leaderless group discussion (LGD) exercise. Results showed that while the FFM accounted for variance in students' LGD performance, individualism (independence) accounted for additional, unique variance. Furthermore, analyses of the group compositions revealed curvilinear relationships between the relative amount of extraversion, conscientiousness, and individualism in relation to group-level performance.
Bruce H Noden
Full Text Available The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown.The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS. Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8% had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16, and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100 for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P0.012, especially cattle (P>0.006, were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013 and typhus (P<0.011 group rickettsiae. Three (2.9% samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia.These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms.
Objectives: To estimate Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district and to elucidate risk factors associated with sero positivity to Brucella. Method: During the year 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four slaughterhouses of Lahore district. A sample of 360 workers was selected from these slaughterhouses through stratified random sampling on proportional basis. Workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain risk factor information and their blood samples were collected to be screened for the presence of anti-Brucella IgG using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 16. Risk factors associated with sero positivity to anti-Brucella IgG were identified by constructing a logistic regression model. Results: Of the 360 serum samples tested, 21.7% (95% CI 17.44% - 25.96%) were positive by ELISA test. The logistic regression model identified age (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), assistance in parturition of animal (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.96), consuming raw milk (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.04-4.87) and handling sheep (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09- 0.92) as risk factors for Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district. Conclusion: To reduce the burden of brucellosis, a national brucellosis control programme should be initiated with special emphasis on the high risk population of slaughterhouse workers. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Cancer has a high mortality rate in both developing and developed countries. 11%–15% of cancers are attributable to occupational risk factors. Objective: To determine if specific occupational classes, based on the International Standard for Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08, are risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI cancer. Methods: In this case-control study, 834 cancer patients were interviewed by a single physician. Cases included patients with GI cancer. Age-matched controls were selected from non- GI cancer patients. Each year of working, up until 5 years before the diagnosis, was questioned and categorized by the ISCO classification. Results: 243 GI cancer cases and 243 non-GI cancer patients (486 in total were studied. Working in ISCO class 8 (plant and machine operators, and assemblers was significantly associated with higher risk of GI cancer (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.52. Working in ISCO class 6 (skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and 9 (elementary occupations were also associated with higher incidence of GI cancers. Conclusion: Working in ISCO classes of 8, 6, and 9, which are usually associated with low socio-economic status, can be considered a risk factor for GI cancers.
Wang, Zongkui; Dou, Miaomiao; Du, Xi; Ma, Li; Sun, Pan; Cao, Haijun; Ye, Shengliang; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fengjuan; Lin, Fangzhao; Zhang, Rong; Li, Changqing
ABO blood group is a hereditary factor of plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Age and gender have been shown to influence FVIII, VWF, fibrinogen (Fbg), and ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We investigated the effects of ABO type, age, and gender on plasma levels of FVIII, Fbg, VWF, and ADAMTS13 in a Chinese population. A total of 290 healthy volunteers were eligible for this study. ABO blood group was determined by indirect technique. FVIII:C and Fbg were measured by clotting assays. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), collagen-binding activity (VWF:CBA), and ADAMTS13 antigen were assessed by ELISA, whereas VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof) was performed by agglutination of platelets with ristocetin. Mean FVIII:C and VWF levels (VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof) were significantly higher in non-O than in O type subjects ( p blood group, age, and gender showed different effects on plasma levels of FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, VWF:Rcof, and ADAMTS13 antigen. These new data on a Chinese population are quite helpful to compare with other ethnic groups.
Iin Tri Marlinawati; Harsono Salimo; Bhisma Murti
Background: The development of children's independence is important for their future competitiveness in the rapidly increasing social changes. Disturbance in the development of children's independence may have a negative future impact in adult life and children become dependent individuals. Efforts are needed to help children develop optimally. Some play groups have been introduced to meet this need in Surakarta, but no studies have been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness. This study a...
Schmidt, L H; Kuemmel, A; Schliemann, C; Schulze, A; Humberg, J; Mohr, M; Görlich, D; Hartmann, W; Bröckling, S; Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Goletz, S; Karsten, U; Berdel, W E; Spieker, T; Wiewrodt, R
Several blood group-related carbohydrate antigens are prognosis-relevant markers of tumor tissues. A type 3 (repetitive A) is a blood group antigen specific for A1 erythrocytes. Its potential expression in tumor tissues has so far not been examined. We have evaluated its expression in normal lung and in lung cancer using a novel antibody (A69-A/E8). For comparison an anti-A antibody specific to A types 1 and 2 was used, because its expression on lung cancer tissue has been previously reported to be of prognostic relevance. Resected tissue samples of 398 NSCLC patients were analyzed in immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Expression of A type 3 was not observed in non-malignant lung tissues. A type 3 was expressed on tumor cells of around half of NSCLC patients of blood group A1 (ptype 1/2 antigen was observed (p=0.562), the expression of A type 3 by tumor cells indicated a highly significant favorable prognosis among advanced NSCLC patients (p=0.011) and in NSCLC patients with lymphatic spread (p=0.014). Univariate prognostic results were confirmed in a Cox proportional hazards model. In this study we present for the first time prognostic data for A type 3 antigen expression in lung cancer patients. Prospective studies should be performed to confirm the prognostic value of A type 3 expression for an improved risk stratification in NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Greenberg, Neil
The psychological impact of disasters has been well-documented; less attention has been paid to factors affecting the wellbeing of those exposed to disasters as occupational groups. To conduct a systematic literature review identifying social and occupational factors affecting the wellbeing of disaster-exposed employees; to use these factors to identify recommendations for potential interventions. Four electronic literature databases were searched; reference lists of relevant papers were hand-searched. A total of 18 005 papers were found, 571 full texts were read and 36 included in the review. The psychological impact of disasters on employees was associated with pre-disaster factors (experience/training; income; life events/health; job satisfaction), peri-disaster factors (exposure; peri-traumatic experiences; perceptions of safety; injury), social factors (organisational support; social support generally) and post-disaster factors (impact on life). It is important to build a resilient workforce outside of a crisis. Pre-disaster training in recognising signs of distress, understanding vulnerability factors such as those described above, which may put certain employees at greater risk of distress and how to support colleagues may be useful. Further research into the effectiveness of post-disaster interventions is needed.
Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Yang, Su-Jau; Berenson, Gerald S
To examine if food group consumption varies by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting in Louisiana. Cross-sectional. Young adults (n=1,266, 74% European American, 26% African American; 39% men, 61% women) aged 20 to 38 years, enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Food group consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic (eg, income and education), demographic (eg, age, sex, and ethnicity), and lifestyle (eg, marital status and physical activity) information was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and the subjects were stratified according to these groups. Analysis of covariance (adjusted for covariates) was used to detect differences in the mean servings of food groups consumed per day between the various socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle groups. Compared to income$45,000 had lower consumption of burgers/sandwiches (Pconsumption of mixed dishes (P12 years of education. European-American men consumed more servings of dairy products (Pfood group consumption varies by socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting. Food and nutrition professionals who encounter diverse populations need to consider the influence of income, education, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and physical activity on food consumption patterns when planning diets, nutrition education programs, and interventions for young adults.
Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Baykan, Halit; Kavuncuoglu, Erhan; Mutlu, Hasan; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Burhan; Ozyurt, Kemal; Oguz, Arzu
This investigation focused on possible relationships between skin cancers and ABO/Rh blood groups. Between January 2005 and December 2012, medical data of 255 patients with skin cancers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Radiation Oncology and Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinics were retrospectively analyzed. Blood groups of these patients were recorded. The control group consisted of 25701 healthy volunteers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Blood Donation Center between January 2010 and December 2011. The distribution of the blood groups of the patients with skin cancers was compared to the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups of healthy controls. The association of the histopathological subtypes of skin cancer with the blood groups was also investigated. Of the patients, 50.2% had A type, 26.3% had O type, 16.1% had B type, and 7.5% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 77.3%. Of the controls, 44.3% had A type, 31.5% had 0 type, 16.1% had B type, and 8.1% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 87.8%. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of blood groups and Rh factors (A Rh (-) and 0 Rh positive) between the patients and controls. A total of 36.8% and 20.4% of the patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively, while 39.2% and 27.6% of the controls had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between the patients with BCC and controls in terms of A Rh (-) (p=0.001). Our study results demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between non-melanoma skin cancer and ABO/Rh factors.
Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen
The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces.
Baishya, Kuldeep; Samalia, Harsh Vardhan; Joshi, Rohit
The purpose of this confirmatory study is to explore the factors influencing the acceptance of e-district services by the citizens inAssam, a North-East state of India. Taking unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), technology acceptance model (TAM) and TAM 3 as the basis, a conceptual framework is developed. The study uses semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and a questionnaire based survey through 166 valid data points to validate the conceptual framework. Moreover...
Zonana-Nacach, A; Roseman, J M; McGwin, G; Friedman, A W; Baethge, B A; Reveille, J D; Alarcón, G S
To determine the frequency, degree and associated features of fatigue among Hispanic (H), African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) patients with recent onset (NAture vs Nurture) cohort were studied. Fatigue [Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)] was defined as present if FSS score > or = 3.0. Variables from functional, clinical, sociodemographic, health behaviors, behavioral and psychological and immunogenetics domains were ascertained at study entry. Associations were examined using regression models. Eighty-six percent (85.7%) of patients reported having fatigue (82.6% H; 85.5% AA; 88.7% C); median FSS score, 5.3. Factors from the psychological and clinical domains were primarily associated with FSS; immunogenetic (HLA Class II phenotypes) features were not. Increased fatigue was strongly associated with decreasing function, both physical and mental. Variables associated with significantly greater degree of fatigue at baseline in the multivariable stepwise model in order of decreasing additional partial R2 explained included: abnormal illness-related behaviors, older age, higher self-reported pain, greater degree of helplessness, greater disease activity, Caucasian race, and lacking health insurance (model R2 = 37%). Fatigue is one of the most prevalent clinical manifestations of SLE across all ethnic groups. The perception of fatigue severity in SLE may be multifactorial in origin, including psychosocial factors and disease activity. If these prove causal, knowledge of their contribution may suggest therapeutic and/or behavioral interventions, which could ameliorate this pervasive and often incapacitating symptom of SLE.
Moye, Jennifer; June, Andrea; Martin, Lindsey Ann; Gosian, Jeffrey; Herman, Levi I; Naik, Aanand D
The Institute of Medicine documents a significant gap in care for long term side effects of cancer treatment, including pain. This paper characterizes age differences in the prevalence and predictive characteristics of pain to guide clinicians in identification and treatment. A sample of 170 adults with head and neck, esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancers were recruited from two regional Veterans Administration Medical Centers. Face to face interviews were conducted 6, 12, and 18 months after diagnosis with the PROMIS scale to assess pain and PHQ-9 scale to assess depression. Descriptive statistics characterized incidence and prevalence of pain impact and intensity ratings. Multivariate linear hierarchical regression identified clinical characteristics associated with pain in older versus younger age groups. Clinically significant pain was endorsed in one third (32%) of the sample, with younger adults reporting higher levels of the impact of pain on daily activities and work, and also higher pain intensity ratings than older adults. In younger adults, pain ratings were most associated with lower social support and higher depression, as well as advanced cancer stage. In older adults, pain was multifactorial, associated with baseline comorbidities, adjuvant treatment, and both combat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Pain is a significant persisting problem for one in three cancer survivors, requiring ongoing assessment, even months later. Important differences in pain's determinants and impact are present by age group. Identification and treatment of pain, as well as associated conditions such as depression, may improve the quality of life in cancer survivors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tanniou, J.; Tweel, I. van der; Teerenstra, S.; Roes, K.C.
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that treatment effects may not be homogeneous across the study population. Subgroup analyses constitute a fundamental step in the assessment of evidence from confirmatory (Phase III) clinical trials, where conclusions for the overall study population might not hold.
...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.931 How may Confirmatory Direct Assessment (CDA) be used? An...
The authors have compared four assay techniques for the confirmatory identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. On of these is a radiometric assay, based on the measurement of liberated radiolabelled CO 2 from metabolized carbohydrates which have been tagged with 14 C. The assay uses glucose, maltose and fructose as its differentiating sugars, plus the ONPG reaction, and can be read in three hours. (Auth.)
The extent of the consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is strongly dependent upon a wide number of parameters. In particular, the characteristics of the source term, and seasonal, climatic and meteorological conditions have a substantial influence on the physical factors involved in transport and deposition of airborne contaminants, and on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These environmental conditions also have a significant influence on living habits and practices, and thus on potential radiological and economic impacts. Moreover, these conditions may affect the features and the impact of countermeasures which are adopted for the protection of the public in the event of an accidental release. The NEA organized a workshop to discuss such matters. The workshop provided a review of the influence of such environmental conditions as season, climate and weather on the radiological consequences of an accident, and on the implication of these conditions for the implementation of mitigative measures
Schlehofer, B; Schlaefer, K; Blettner, M
The only known risk factor for sporadic acoustic neuroma is high-dose ionising radiation. Environmental exposures, such as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and noise are under discussion, as well as an association with allergic diseases. We performed a population-based case-control study.......31; 95% CI 1.15-4.66), and for hay fever (OR=2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.45), but not for ionising radiation (OR=0.91; 95 % CI 0.51-1.61) or regular mobile phone use (OR=0.67; 95% CI 0.38-1.19). The study confirms results of recently published studies, although the pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown....
Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.
groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf....../calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively...
Montavon Sartorius, Céline; Schoetzau, Andreas; Kettelhack, Henriette; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville F; Fedier, André; Jacob, Francis; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola
The relationship between ABO blood groups (BG) and risk of incidence in cancers including gynecological cancers has been widely studied, showing increased incidence risk for BG A patients. As available data are inconsistent we investigated whether BG and their anti-glycan antibodies (anti-A and anti-B) have prognostic values in gynecological cancers. We retrospectively evaluated 974 patients with gynecological cancers in three cancer centers (Switzerland and Australia) between 1974 and 2014 regarding the relationships between clinico-pathological findings and the BG. Time to disease recurrence was significantly influenced by BG in patients with ovarian (n = 282) and vulvar (n = 67) cancer. BG O or B patients showed a significantly increased risk for ovarian cancer relapse compared to A, 59% and 82%, respectively (p = 0.045; HR O vs A = 1.59 (CI 1.01-2.51) and (p = 0.036; HR A vs B = 0.55 (CI 0.32-0.96). Median time to relapse for advanced stage (n = 126) ovarian cancer patients was 18.2 months for BG O and 32.2 for A (p = 0.031; HR O vs A = 2.07 (CI 1.07-4.02)). BG also significantly influenced relapse-free survival in patients with vulvar cancer (p = 0.002), with BG O tending to have increased relapse risk compared to A (p = 0.089). Blood groups hence associate with recurrence in ovarian and vulvar cancer: women with BG O seem to have a lower ovarian cancer incidence, however are more likely to relapse earlier. The significance of the BG status as a prognostic value is evident and may be helpful to oncologists in prognosticating disease outcome and selecting the appropriate therapy.
Baker, Janet; Ben-Tovim, David; Butcher, Andrew; Esterman, Adrian; McLaughlin, Kristin
This study aimed to explore psychosocial factors contributing to the development of functional voice disorders (FVD) and those differentiating between organic voice disorders (OVD) and a non-voice-disordered control group. A case-control study was undertaken of 194 women aged 18-80 years diagnosed with FVD (n = 73), OVD (n = 55), and controls (n = 66). FVD women were allocated into psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) (n = 37) and muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) (n = 36) for sub-group analysis. Dependent variables included biographical and voice assessment data, the number and severity of life events and difficulties and conflict over speaking out (COSO) situations derived from the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), and psychological traits including emotional expressiveness scales. Four psychosocial components differentiated between the FVD and control group accounting for 84.9% of the variance: severe events, moderate events, severe COSO, and mild COSO difficulties. Severe events, severe and mild COSO difficulties differentiated between FVD and OVD groups, accounting for 80.5% of the variance. Moderate events differentiated between PVD and MTVD sub-groups, accounting for 58.9% of the variance. Psychological traits did not differentiate between groups. Stressful life events and COSO situations best differentiated FVD from OVD and control groups. More refined aetiological studies are needed to differentiate between PVD and MTVD.
Christensen, D.; Friis, H.; Mwaniki, D.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of glucose intolerance in rural and urban Kenyan populations and in different ethnic groups. Further, to identify associations between lifestyle risk factors and glucose intolerance. Research design and methods: A cross-sectional study included an opportunity...... intolerance among the rural ethnic groups. High BMI, WC, AFA, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, low fitness and physical activity, frequent alcohol consumption, and urban residence were associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT among different Kenyan...
Nieuwboer, Minke S; Perry, Marieke; van der Sande, Rob; Maassen, Irma T H M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; van der Marck, Marjolein A
As the number of patients with complex healthcare needs grows, inter-professional collaboration between primary care professionals must be constantly optimized. General practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) are key professions in primary care; however, poor GP-CN communication is common, and research into the factors influencing its quality is limited. To explore patient-related GP-CN communication and facilitating and hindering factors, and to identify strategies to enhance this communication. A qualitative focus group design was used to identify the facilitating and hindering factors and strategies for improvement. In a Dutch primary care setting, 6 mono-professional focus group interviews (3 meetings of 13 GPs; 3 meetings of 18 CNs) were organized between June 2015 and April 2016, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two independent researchers performed the coding of these interviews, identifying their categories and themes. Results show that, despite the regular contact between GPs and CNs, communication was generally perceived as poor in effectiveness and efficiency by both professions. Mutual trust was considered the most important facilitating factor for effective communication. Profession-specific factors (e.g. differences in responsibility and profession-specific language) and organizational factors (e.g. lack of shared care plans, no in-person communication, lack of time) may be of influence on communication. Participants' suggestions for improvement included organizing well-structured and reimbursed team meetings and facilitating face-to-face contact. GP-CN patient-related communication benefits most from trusting inter-personal relationships. Inter-professional training programmes should address both professional and organizational factors and should be evaluated for their effect on quality of care.
Fischer, Peter; Kastenmuller, Andreas; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Fischer, Julia; Frey, Dieter; Crelley, David
Previous studies on the impact of perceived threat on confirmatory information search (selective exposure) in the context of decision making have yielded mixed results. Some studies have suggested that confirmatory information search is reduced, yet others have found contradictory effects. The present series of 5 studies consistently found that…
Kohrt, Brandon A; Yang, Minyoung; Rai, Sauharda; Bhardwaj, Anvita; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D
Preventing involuntary conscription and voluntary recruitment of youth into armed groups are global human rights priorities. Pathways for self-reported voluntary recruitment and the impact of voluntary recruitment on mental health have received limited attention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for voluntarily joining armed groups, as well as the association of conscription status and mental health. In Nepal, interviews were conducted with 258 former child soldiers who participated in a communist (Maoist) revolution. Eighty percent of child soldiers joined 'voluntarily'. Girls were 2.07 times as likely to join voluntarily (95% CI, 1.03-4.16, p =0.04). Among girls, 51% reported joining voluntarily because of personal connections to people who were members of the armed group, compared to 22% of boys. Other reasons included escaping difficult life situations (36%), inability to achieve other goals in life (28%), and an appealing philosophy of the armed group (32%). Poor economic conditions were more frequently endorsed among boys (22%) than girls (10%). Voluntary conscription was associated with decreased risk for PTSD among boys but not for girls. Interventions to prevent voluntary association with armed groups could benefit from attending to difficulties in daily life, identifying non-violent paths to achieve life goals, and challenging the political philosophy of armed groups. Among boys, addressing economic risk factors may prevent recruitment, and prevention efforts for girls will need to address personal connections to armed groups, as it has important implications for preventing recruitment through new methods, such as social media.
Zhao, N-N; Zeng, K-X; Wang, Y-L; Sheng, P-J; Tang, C-Z; Xiao, P; Liu, X-W
To investigate the prevalence rate of nutritional risk in high-risk stroke groups in community, analyze its influencing factors, and analyze and compare the relationship between nutritional risk or malnutrition assessed by different nutritional evaluation methods and cognitive function, so as to provide the basis and guidance for clinical nutritional assessment and support. A cross-sectional survey was performed for 1196 cases in high-risk stroke groups in community from December 2015 to January 2017. At the same time, the nutritional status of patients was evaluated using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and MNA-short form (MNA-SF), and the cognitive status of patients was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Moreover, the relevant influencing factors of nutritional risk and MMSE score were analyzed and compared. High-risk stroke groups in community suffered from a high risk of malnutrition. MNA-SF had a higher specificity and lower false positive rate than MNA. Nutritional risk occurred more easily in high-risk stroke groups in community with a history of diabetes mellitus, less physical exercise or light manual labor, daily use of multiple drugs, and higher age. Those with a higher nutritional risk were more prone to cognitive impairment. High-risk stroke groups in community, complicated with hyperhomocysteinemia, daily use of three or more kinds of prescription drugs, and a previous history of stroke, were accompanied by cognitive impairment easily. MNA-SF can be used for the nutritional screening of high-risk stroke groups in community. For the high-risk stroke groups in community, the rational nutritional diet should be publicized, blood sugar should be controlled in a scientific manner and physical exercise should be moderately increased.
Stum, Marlene S
This study proposes and tests a systemic family decision-making framework to understand group long-term care insurance (LTCI) enrollment decisions. A random sample of public employees who were offered group LTCI as a workplace benefit were examined. Findings reveal very good predictive efficacy for the overall conceptual framework with a pseudo R2 value of .687, and reinforced the contributions of factors within the family system. Enrollees were more likely to have discussed the decision with others, used information sources, and had prior experience when compared to non-enrollees. Perceived health status, financial knowledge, attitudes regarding the role of private insurance, risk taking, and coverage features were additional factors related to enrollment decisions. The findings help to inform policymakers about the potential of LTCI as one strategy for financing long-term care.
Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis V.
. To be a student was associated with the highest risk of migraine (OR 6.6; 95% CI 4.2-10.4) and TTH (OR 3.6; 95% Cyrillic capital letter esI 2.7-4.8). Low physical activity (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.4) and family history of headache (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5-2.9) were associated only with migraine. Current smoking and BMI...... alcoholic beverages was associated with TTH (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.0) and in females consumption of light alcoholic beverages was associated with migraine (OR 3.49; 2.03-6.02) and TTH (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.93-4.66). Low physical activity was associated with migraine in females (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2). (3...... were specific to a social group: consumption of strong alcoholic beverages was associated with TTH in blood donors (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1), low physical activity was associated with migraine in students (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.04-3.74) and with TTH in workers (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.7). Conclusion Most...
Bellamy, R.R.; Dietz, V.R.
The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO 2 , NO 2 , CO 2 , methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals
Machado, Fábio A.; Zaher, Hussam
The present contribution explores the impact of the QUALIS metric system for academic evaluation implemented by CAPES (Coordination for the Development of Personnel in Higher Education) upon Brazilian Zoological research. The QUALIS system is based on the grouping and ranking of scientific journals according to their Impact Factor (IF). We examined two main points implied by this system, namely: 1) its reliability as a guideline for authors; 2) if Zoology possesses the same publication profil...
Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-Yao; Wu, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Que, Feng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng
Transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV) has posed serious threats to plant growth and development. Plant innate immune systems against various threats involve WRKY Group III transcription factors (TFs). This group participates as a major component of biological processes in plants. In this study, 6 WRKY Group III TFs (SolyWRKY41, SolyWRKY42, SolyWRKY53, SolyWRKY54, SolyWRKY80, and SolyWRKY81) were identified, and these TFs responded to TYLCV infection. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that SolyWRKY41 and SolyWRKY54 were nuclear proteins in vivo. Many elements, including W-box, were found in the promoter region of Group III TFs. Interaction network analysis revealed that Group III TFs could interact with other proteins, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MAPK) and isochorismate synthase (ICS), to respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. Positive and negative expression patterns showed that WRKY Group III genes could also respond to TYLCV infection in tomato. The DNA content of TYLCV resistant lines after SolyWRKY41 and SolyWRKY54 were subjected to virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was lower than that of the control lines. In the present study, 6 WRKY Group III TFs in tomato were identified to respond to TYLCV infection. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and VIGS analyses demonstrated that Group III genes served as positive and negative regulators in tomato-TYLCV interaction. WRKY Group III TFs could interact with other proteins by binding to cis elements existing in the promoter regions of other genes to regulate pathogen-related gene expression.
Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto
Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidence-based guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. HYPERCALCIURIA: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary
Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of
Full Text Available Introduction. Approaching of patients with general and, mainly, auditive disabilities requires specific methods of behavioural and therapeutical management, on short-, medium- and long-term period. Scope. Quantification of the psycho-emotional reactions of childern suffering from auditive disabilities in the stomatological office, compara‑ tively with those with normal keenness of hearing. Mate‑ rials and method. The experiments were performed on a group of 207 children, with the limit of chronological age between 6 - 11 years, 120 of them registered with auditive disabilities and 87 – with normal keeness of hearing. The Raven Test of Progressive Matrices and the questionnaire were employed as investigation methods. Results. The mean age of the subjects considered in the study was of 9 years, with a standard deviation of 1.4. A statistically sig‑ nificant association was established between the moment of their addressing the stomatologist and the presence of the auditive-type disability (r=0.87, p=0.00321, 95%CI. Most of the children (69% with normal keenness of hea‑ ring come to the stomatological office alone, only rarely being accompanied by friends or parents, whereas those with sensorial auditive disabilities are usually accompa‑ nied by parents, professors or educators (67.5%. Discus‑ sion. Explanations on the stomatological treatment to be applied, details on its stages may prepare an adequate reaction from the part of the child-patient. The statistically significant differences observed, as a function of their audi‑ tive disabilities, among the accompanied children may be explained exactly by this situation, causing in itself a higher dependence and need of support from the part of the others, especially for exceeding the barriers that may prevent a normal communication. Conclusions. An adequate approaching of the child – affected or not with auditive disabilities – may model his attitudes and beha‑ viour during the
Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women partici-pating in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women 3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m² and 21% had central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The asso-ciation between energy consumption and overweight was significant and calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors (OR :4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33.Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.
Anais Marta Valladares González
Full Text Available La violencia es la acción ejercida por una o varias personas, en la que se somete de manera intencional al maltrato, presión, sufrimiento, manipulación u otra acción que atente contra la integridad física, psicológica y moral de cualquier persona o grupo de personas. Los factores de riesgo de la conducta violenta se pueden agrupar en macrosociales, microsociales e individuales. El enfoque integral de intervención hacia la conducta violenta, debe tener en cuenta, no solo los componentes biológicos, psicológicos y sociales, sino también las peculiaridades sociales, grupales e individuales de su determinación.Violence is the action exerted by one or a certain number of persons practicing in an intentional way the ill-treatment, the pressure, suffering, manipulation or another action attempting on physical, psychological or moral integrity of any person of group of persons. The risk factors of violent behavior may be grouped into macrosocial, microsocial and individual. The integral approach of the intervention to violent behavior must to be into account not only the biological, psychological and social components but also the social, group and individual particular features of its determination.
Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.
The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…
Yeung, Alexander S.; Taylor, Peter G.; McWilliam, Erica L.
Student perceptions of teaching have often been used in tertiary education for evaluation purposes. However, there is a paucity of research on the validity, reliability, and applicability of instruments that cover a wide range of student perceptions of pedagogies and practices in high school settings for descriptive purposes. The study attempts to…
Sanda, Aminu; Kuada, John
In the light of the importance of banks to the economic growth process in Ghana, this study sought to identify the determinants of effective leadership style that is appreciated by employees in retail banking firms in Ghana, towards providing practitioners with crucial information that could enable...... them make informed decisions towards improving the workplace. Using data collected from employees in eleven firms which were analyzed using the AMOS programme, minimum was achieved for the leadership measurement model and the goodness of fit statistics showed that the overall model fit quite well...... and taking care of their complaints as well as putting in place systems for enhancing employees’ career advancement into specialist departments or management positions are also perceived as good determinant of leadership. It is therefore hypothesized that managers of retail banks in Ghana could be perceived...
Yaman, R.; Thadaniti, S.; Abdullah, J.; Ahmad, N.; Ishak, N. M.
The sustainable urban development growth in the ASEAN region has accelerated tremendously. More demand on the sustainable development has led to bigger market driven certified green neighborhood and buildings. However, there is a lack of post-occupancy evaluation study conducted in assessing the end-users perspective on the certified sustainable neighborhood development. This paper aims to investigate the end-users point of view on sustainable dimension pillar (SDP) adaptation based on environment dimension, social dimension and economic dimension using Post-Occupancy Evaluation Model (POEM) framework. The research methodology employed stakeholders-Inclusion Approach survey questionnaires in order to obtained the sustainable dimensional adaptation score. The results show that there is sustainable dimension gap in POEM evaluation, hence, suggested the pre- occupancy criteria did not fulfill the SDP adaptation and pre-occupancy criteria and variables if differ from post-occupancy criteria and variables.
Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sokolowski, Ineta; Vedsted, Peter
Internationalt bruges PACIC-spørgeskemaet til at måle patienter med kronisk sygdom til evaluering af sundhedsvæsenets indsats. Vi lavede en videnskabelig og standardiseret oversættelse af den engelske version. Vi genfandt de fem skalaer, som endvidere viste gode egenskaber for et spørgeskema. Der...
Watt, Torquil; Grønvold, Mogens; Deng, Nina
Background and aimThyroid diseases are prevalent and chronic. With treatment, quality of life is restored in most, but not all patients. Construct validity of the thyroid-related quality of life questionnaire, ThyPRO, has been established by multi-trait scaling, but not evaluated with more.......ResultsEach ThyPRO scale was adequately represented by a unidimensional model after minor revisions. Eleven items were identified in the unidimensional models as potentially misfitting and were investigated further by multidimensional modeling.ConclusionElaborate psychometric modeling supported the construct...
Bright Mahembe; Amos S. Engelbrecht
Orientation: Servant leadership is a value-based leadership practice that plays a critical role in team effectiveness and organisational success. Research purpose: The goal of the study was to validate the Servant Leadership Questionnaire(SLQ), which Barbuto and Wheeler developed, on a South African sample. Motivation for the study: The literature is replete with evidence of the role of follower focused leadership practices in improving team effectiveness, employee engagement and organ...
Wong, Ngai-Ying; Lin, Wen-Ying; Watkins, David
Analyzes responses to a questionnaire from 10 samples of primary and secondary school students from Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Malaysia, Beijing, Hong Kong, and Canada. The questionnaire covered learning strategies, approaches, and motivation. These data were then analyzed using six different structural equation models. Includes discussion of the models…
Suran Guo; chang liu; wenmei sun; siwei wu
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived ...
Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce
Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…
Ng, Betsy; Wang, C. K. John; Liu, W. C.
The motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) is widely used as a self-report instrument to assess students' motivation and self-regulation. This study utilized the MSLQ Junior High to examine the motivational beliefs and self-regulation of secondary school students (Grades 8 and 9) from Singapore. The instrument was slightly modified…
Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua
Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the independent psychosis risk factors assessment in a group of subjects fulfilling the criteria of at risk mental state, under specialist outpatient psychiatric care. Participants: Seventy-one patients – 33 women and 38 men, were involved into this study, aged on average 17.34, all under psychiatric care. The patients were recruited into the study in the sequence of their outpatient clinic admission. The criterion to be included into the study was the diagnosis of ultra-high risk state (UHRS – defined according to the Australian research group principles. Subsequently, the patients were divided into subgroups according to the clinical features of their mental state. Method: The author’s demographic questionnaire was applied in the study. Information regarding the family history of psychosis was obtained from patients and/or their relatives or carers. The patients’ mental state was assessed monthly – according to the presence of psychotic symptoms, change of their incidence and duration, presence of depressive symptoms or aggressive behaviour (measured by a three-level scale. On the basis of the obtained information, we evaluated: 1 conversion into psychosis time – measured from diagnosing of UHRS to the development of full-symptom psychosis, 2 therapeutic methods used (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or both, 3 use of psychoactive substances after being diagnosed with UHRS, 4 presence of serious life stressors (the patients’ subjective estimation – during the six-month period preceding the conversion into psychosis. Results: 1 In the UHRS group of patients, staying under professional outpatient psychiatric care, the use of marijuana was an independent risk factor of conversion into psychosis. 2 In the investigated group of patients with at risk mental state we did not find any correlation between modulating factors (including: therapeutic methods used, depressive symptoms, aggression or
Shane Y. Williamson
Full Text Available The present study examined how familial and institutional factors interact with the academic experiences of a diverse group of Black males enrolled as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors at one university. Ogbu’s (1998 Cultural-Ecological Theory of Minority School Performance, a theoretical framework, posits that the manner by which a group achieves minority status, coupled with community and family educational values, impacts academic achievement. Immigrants, voluntary minorities, perform better academically than involuntary minorities (nonimmigrants because they are more accepting of and more likely to adapt to the White middle-class norms upon which schools in the United States are based (Ogbu, 1994, 2004. While the data overall are positive for the sample, when viewed by ethnic group, it was evident the African and Caribbean students are more academically integrated to campus than African American students. The African students, more so than any other ethnic group, are connecting, interacting, and forming relationships with faculty outside of the classroom; conversely, African American students in this study reported having the least amount of effective connections with faculty. This research study found that for the Black male STEM students in this project (a their families are a pivotal force, (b academic experiences vary across ethnicities, (c faculty mediate student success, and (d there is a lack of interactions between ethnic groups (Black Distance on campus.
Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D
Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.
Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jiazhong; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Suxing; Wang, Xiuyang; Dong, Renwei; Ma, Yixuan; Shi, Yu; Shi, Zhiyang; Li, Hongquan; Li, Chen; Ma, Yige; Wang, Liancheng; Niu, Kaijun
Sarcopenia is a common condition in older people. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in an elderly Chinese suburb-dwelling population. This study was conducted on 1,069 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years to evaluate sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, as well as medical conditions, were considered independent variables to determine factors associated with sarcopenia using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.4% in men and 11.5% in women. Age was a significant factor in both sexes. In addition, presence of sarcopenia was inversely associated with BMI for both sexes. The odds ration and 95% confidence interval for factors statistically significantly associated with sarcopenia were 5.04 (1.70-14.89) and 2.36 (1.06-5.25) for diabetes in males and females, respectively; 10.60 (1.75-64.24) for daily consumption of alcohol (daily drinkers), 5.58 (2.13-14.59) for peptic ulcer in female (not statistically significant in males). The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criterion is useful for defining sarcopenia, and our data suggest that the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general elderly suburb-dwelling Chinese population is high. Moreover, we find that high body mass index is inversely associated with the likelihood of being sarcopenic and that several others factors such as diabetes, peptic ulcer, and drinking habits increase the prevalence of sarcopenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Background: Asthma is one of the leading causes of emergency department visits and school absenteeism among school-aged children in the United States, but there is significant local-area variation in emergency department visit rates, as well as significant differences across racial-ethnic groups. Analysis: We first calculated emergency department (ED visit rates among Medicaid-enrolled children age 5–12 with asthma using a multi-state dataset. We then performed exploratory factor analysis using over 226 variables to assess whether they clustered around three county-level conceptual factors (socioeconomic status, healthcare capacity, and air quality thought to be associated with variation in asthma ED visit rates. Measured variables (including ED visit rate as the outcome of interest were then standardized and tested in a simple conceptual model through confirmatory factor analysis. Results: County-level (contextual variables did cluster around factors declared a priori in the conceptual model. Structural equation models connecting the ED visit rates to socioeconomic status, air quality, and healthcare system professional capacity factors (consistent with our conceptual framework converged on a solution and achieved a reasonable goodness of fit on confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusion: Confirmatory factor analysis offers an approach for quantitatively testing conceptual models of local-area variation and racial disparities in asthma-related emergency department use.
Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Yi; Wang, Leishen; Sun, Shurong; Liu, Gongshu; Leng, Junhong; Guo, Jia; Lv, Li; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin
The ABO blood types are associated with cancers, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they are also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. We examined the relationship between the ABO blood types and the risk of GDM in a prospective population-based Chinese cohort. From 2010 to 2012, we recruited 14,198 pregnant women within the first 12 weeks of gestation in Tianjin, China. All women had a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks, followed by a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test if the results from GCT were ≥7.8 mmol/L. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for traditional risk factors. Stratified analysis was performed by family history of diabetes (yes versus no). Sensitivity analyses were also performed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for GDM. Women with blood groups A, B or O (i.e. non-AB) were associated with increased risk of GDM as compared with those with blood group AB (adjusted OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.13-1.83). Sensitivity analyses showed that the result was consistent using WHO criteria. The adjusted OR of blood group non-AB versus AB for GDM was enhanced among women with a family history of diabetes (2.69, 1.21-5.96) and attenuated among those without (1.33, 1.03-1.71). Blood group AB was a protective factor against GDM in pregnant Chinese women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hurst, H C; Masson, N; Jones, N C; Lee, K A
Promoter elements containing the sequence motif CGTCA are important for a variety of inducible responses at the transcriptional level. Multiple cellular factors specifically bind to these elements and are encoded by a multigene family. Among these factors, polypeptides termed activating transcription factor 43 (ATF-43) and ATF-47 have been purified from HeLa cells and a factor referred to as cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been isolated from PC12 cells and rat brain. We demonstrated that CREB and ATF-47 are identical and that CREB and ATF-43 form protein-protein complexes. We also found that the cis requirements for stable DNA binding by ATF-43 and CREB are different. Using antibodies to ATF-43 we have identified a group of polypeptides (ATF-43) in the size range from 40 to 43 kDa. ATF-43 polypeptides are related by their reactivity with anti-ATF-43, DNA-binding specificity, complex formation with CREB, heat stability, and phosphorylation by protein kinase A. Certain cell types vary in their ATF-43 complement, suggesting that CREB activity is modulated in a cell-type-specific manner through interaction with ATF-43. ATF-43 polypeptides do not appear simply to correspond to the gene products of the ATF multigene family, suggesting that the size of the ATF family at the protein level is even larger than predicted from cDNA-cloning studies.
Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu
Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.
Chin, Yuee Teng; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong, Chun Wie; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Tee, Mian Zi; Siow, Vinnie Wei Yin; Chua, Kek Heng
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among indigenous people have been widely documented in Malaysia, however, the prevalence of these infections remains high. In the past, most studies have focused on specific species of parasites but polyparasitism has received limited attention. In addition, epidemiology studies on indigenous people tend to consider them as a homogenous group, whereas in reality different sub-ethnic groups have different cultural and living practices. Variations in living habits such as personal hygiene practices may predispose different groups to different parasitic infections. To better understand prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among different sub-ethnic groups, the present study was conducted among two sub-ethnic groups of indigenous people (Temuan and Mah Meri) residing in Selangor state, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study that focused on two distinct sub-ethnic groups was carried out from February to September 2014. Faecal samples were collected from 186 participants and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. A molecular approach was adopted to conduct a genetic characterisation of the parasites. Additionally, questionnaires were administered to obtain information on the demographics, socio-economic backgrounds and behavioural risks relating to the participants, as well as information about their environments. Statistical analyses (i.e. binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses) were performed to measure risk factors. For Temuan communities, trichuriasis (64.2 %) was the most common infection found, preceding hookworm infection (34 %), ascariasis (7.5 %), giardiasis (14.2 %) and amoebiasis (7.5 %). As for the Mah Meri communities, trichuriasis (77.5 %) prevailed over ascariasis (21.3 %), hookworm (15 %), giardiasis (7.5 %) and amoebiasis (3.8 %). Significant differences in proportions of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were observed between the Temuan and Mah
Helder M. Fernandes
Full Text Available O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade, a validade factorial e a invariância (por sexo da versão portuguesa do TEOSQ (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Integraram a amostra 1010 estudantes com uma média de idade de 15,42 anos. A análise factorial e da invariância foi avaliada através da análise factorial confirmatória. Os resultados corroboram a proposta de uma estrutura de duas subescalas (tarefa e ego. Com base nos índices de modificação e justificação teórica, o TEOSQ p foi reduzido a 12-itens, com melhores índices de adequação para o modelo oblíquo. Os resultados relativos à invariância por sexo não apresentaram apoio empírico total para a assumpção de equivalência multi-grupo, sugerindo que o TEOSQ p não parece avaliar as orientações cognitivas do mesmo modo, para os indivíduos do sexo masculino (modelo ortogonal e feminino (modelo oblíquo. Face aos resultados obtidos, foram discutidas as implicações conceptuais, empíricas, assim como os aspectos de carácter aplicado.The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ -Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical
Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao
In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.
Suwała, Małgorzata; Gerstenkorn, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Anna
Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the world. In 2010 17.6% of polish adult population (age 15-64) and 37.3% of youth (age 17-18) declared use of marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Recent years in Poland brought back public discussion regarding decriminalization and legalization of marijuana. The main goal of the study was to reveal the opinion about legalization of marijuana in Poland among students of medical and technical faculty in correlation with chosen socio-demographic factors, college major, attitude to tobacco smoking, use of drugs and religious practice. Study included 230 students (110 from Medical University of Lodz and 120 from Technical University of Lodz). Women consisted on 56.1% of surveyed and men on 43.9%. Study used audit survey as a research method. Results. 40.4% of students considered marijuana as "soft" drug and in majority (65.7%) are convinced that it is not addictive. The main part of studied group (83%) claimed that marijuana is easily accessible in Poland. The majority of the group (38.75%) was against marijuana legalization, a little bit less (35.2%) approved its legalization in Poland and 26.1% had no opinion. Type of college faculty had not been detected as a factor influencing support for legalization. Important factors influencing positive opinion on legalization was: living in the city, tobacco smoking, socializing with legalization supporters, lack of regular religious practice, drug use. CONCLUSION. Young people's diversified opinion regarding legalization of marijuana in Poland should encourage further discussion. Educational and preventive activities within different social groups are necessary to form a conscious opinion on legalization of marijuana in Poland based on the knowledge of actual scientific facts.
Lother, Sylvain A; Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene; Mulvey, Michael; Dufault, Brenden; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe; Keynan, Yoav
The incidence of group C and G Streptococcus (GCGS) bacteremia, which is associated with severe disease and death, is increasing. We characterized clinical features, outcomes, and genetic determinants of GCGS bacteremia for 89 patients in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, who had GCGS bacteremia during 2012-2014. Of the 89 patients, 51% had bacteremia from skin and soft tissue, 70% had severe disease features, and 20% died. Whole-genome sequencing analysis was performed on isolates derived from 89 blood samples and 33 respiratory sample controls: 5 closely related genetic lineages were identified as being more likely to cause invasive disease than non-clade isolates (83% vs. 57%, p = 0.002). Virulence factors cbp, fbp, speG, sicG, gfbA, and bca clustered clonally into these clades. A clonal distribution of virulence factors may account for severe and fatal cases of bacteremia caused by invasive GCGS.
Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen
Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.
Samsudin, Shamzaeffa; Abdullah, Norehan
Determining factors that affect healthcare utilization by the elderly is vital for the health system to be more responsive in providing care to this vulnerable group. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effect of the predisposing, enabling, and need factors on doctor visits and in-patient care for the elderly residing in the northern region of Malaysia. A multistage cluster sampling was used in selecting the sample for the study. A total of 1414 respondents aged 60 and over were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. A probit model was used in estimating the utilization equations. At a significance level of 0.05, except for age, all predisposing and enabling factors were not statistically significant in affecting the doctor visits. On the other hand, being a male, smoker, medical insurance holder or had not actively involved in social interaction within the reference period increases the likelihood of being in-patient. Health-related variables remain the most significant factors that determine healthcare utilization, including both doctor visits and in-patient stays, in the area of study, which suggests that government policies to improve population health may influence the level of healthcare use in the future.
Full Text Available Introduction: In the European Union the use of steroid growth promoters is prohibited under Council Directive 96/22/EC. For effective control of illegal use of natural steroids, highly sensitive analytical methods are required, because sex hormones can be present in very low concentrations in biological samples. The aim of the study was to develop a confirmatory method for the detection of testosterone in bovine serum at ppt level.
Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations.
Nerstad, Christina G L; Richardsen, Astrid M; Martinussen, Monica
The present study investigated the factorial validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) among 1266 participants from ten different occupational groups. Confirmatory factor analyses of the total sample, as well as multi-group analyses and analyses of each of the ten occupational groups separately, indicated that a three-dimensional model of both the UWES-17 and the short version, UWES-9, provided a better fit to the data than a one- and two-dimensional model. The results of multi-group analyses and analyses of each of the groups separately, indicated that with a few exceptions, the three-factor model of work engagement provided the best fit. Results indicated factorial invariance and the internal consistencies were acceptable. The fit of the UWES-9 was slightly better than the UWES-17. It is concluded that the Norwegian short version may be recommended over the UWES-17.
Vaccaro, J A; Huffman, F G
To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups. All participants read, understood, and signed informed consent forms under data collection procedures by trained individuals. Sociodemographics were collected by trained interviewers using a general questionnaire. Food groups were determined by 24-hour recall using the validated USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Data were presented by cross-tabulation and logistic regression to investigate relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, and age groups. Over 70% of older adults failed to consume 2.75 cups of combined fruits and vegetables. Other Hispanics (Hispanics excluding Mexican Americans) had higher Odds of sugar-containing food consumption compared to non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted model). Being older and female were protective factors for over-consumption of sugar. Older Americans are not meeting dietary guidelines and there are differences by gender and ethnicity. Since diet has been associated with quality of life and medical costs, public health interventions can benefit by knowing age-, gender- and racial/ethnic- specific dietary behaviors.
Full Text Available Orthogonal variable spreading factor codes are used in the downlink to maintain the orthogonality between different channels and are used to handle new calls arriving in the system. A period of operation leads to fragmentation of vacant codes. This leads to code blocking problem. The assignment scheme proposed in this paper is not affected by fragmentation, as the fragmentation is generated by the scheme itself. In this scheme, the code tree is divided into groups whose capacity is fixed and numbers of members (codes are variable. A group with maximum number of busy members is used for assignment, this leads to fragmentation of busy groups around code tree and compactness within group. The proposed scheme is well evaluated and compared with other schemes using parameters like code blocking probability and call establishment delay. Through simulations it has been demonstrated that the proposed scheme not only adequately reduces code blocking probability, but also requires significantly less time before assignment to locate a vacant code for assignment, which makes it suitable for the real-time calls.
Tengku Shahrul Anuar
Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia.Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150 of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139 of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211 of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi.Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific
Movsas, Benjamin; Scott, Charles; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah
Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients ≤50 years vs. ≥65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed
Cardoso, Fernanda Ayres de Morais E Silva; Mesquita, Gerardo Vasconcelos; Campelo, Viriato; Martins, Maria do Carmo de Carvalho E; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Rabelo, Regina Silva; Rocha, Amanda Eugênia Almeida; Santos, Jadson Lener Oliveira Dos
The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, particularly melanoma rates, which had a mean development of 2.6 % a year in the last 10 years. The agreement on the relation between long-term or chronic exposure to the sun and the emergence of these neoplasias has made several workers who perform activities exposed to solar radiation to form a risk group for the development of skin cancer, community health agents included. To analyze the prevalence of sunscreen-use-related factors to skin cancer in a labor risk group. Cross-sectional study with community health agents selected through simple random sampling. After collecting data using semi-structured interviews, a descriptive analysis was performed for the qualitative variables, bivariate analysis was employed for checking the association between sunscreen use and sociodemographic, occupational and knowledge about skin variables, and multivariate analysis was conducted to check independent variables associated to sunscreen use. A 5% significance level was used. Of 261 health gents selected, 243 were able to participate in the study. The prevalence rate of sunscreen use was 34.2% (95% CI: 28.2-40.2). Factors associated with sunscreen use were female sex, advanced age, use of sunscreen in situations when the skin got burnt, knowledge of the negative effects of the sun on the skin and skin cancer history. The prevalence found reveals that there is a need for implementing educational strategies in health services regarding photoprotection.
Cardoso, Fernanda Ayres de Morais e Silva; Mesquita, Gerardo Vasconcelos; Campelo, Viriato; Martins, Maria do Carmo de Carvalho e; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Rabelo, Regina Silva; Rocha, Amanda Eugênia Almeida; dos Santos, Jadson Lener Oliveira
Background The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, particularly melanoma rates, which had a mean development of 2.6 % a year in the last 10 years. The agreement on the relation between long-term or chronic exposure to the sun and the emergence of these neoplasias has made several workers who perform activities exposed to solar radiation to form a risk group for the development of skin cancer, community health agents included. OBJECTIVES To analyze the prevalence of sunscreen-use-related factors to skin cancer in a labor risk group. METHODOLOGY Cross-sectional study with community health agents selected through simple random sampling. After collecting data using semi-structured interviews, a descriptive analysis was performed for the qualitative variables, bivariate analysis was employed for checking the association between sunscreen use and sociodemographic, occupational and knowledge about skin variables, and multivariate analysis was conducted to check independent variables associated to sunscreen use. A 5% significance level was used. Results Of 261 health gents selected, 243 were able to participate in the study. The prevalence rate of sunscreen use was 34.2% (95% CI: 28.2-40.2). Factors associated with sunscreen use were female sex, advanced age, use of sunscreen in situations when the skin got burnt, knowledge of the negative effects of the sun on the skin and skin cancer history. Conclusions The prevalence found reveals that there is a need for implementing educational strategies in health services regarding photoprotection. PMID:28538880
Jogdand, Sandip S; Naik, Jd
The 'behaviour problems' are having major impact on child's bodily and social development. The family provides emotional support to an individual as well as plays a major role in the formation of one's personality. The quality and nature of the parental nurturance that the child receives will profoundly influence his future development. The knowledge of these family factors associated with behaviour problems may be helpful to identify at risk children. To study the family factors associated with behaviour problems amongst children of 6-18 Yrs age group. an adopted urban slum area of Govt. Medical College, Miraj Dist-Sangli. Cross sectional study. the sample size was calculated based upon 40% prevalence obtained in pilot study. Total 600 Children in the age group of 6-18 years residing in the urban slum area and their parents were interviewed with the help of predesigned, pretested proforma. chi-square test and risk estimate with Odd's ratio. Our study result reveals significant association between prevalence of behaviour problems with absence of either or both real parents and alcoholism in the parent or care taker. The behaviour problems have good prognosis if they are recognized earlier. Family has great role in prevention of behaviour problems in children, so parental counseling may be helpful.
Bhattarai, Manjula; Baniya, Jagat Bahadur; Aryal, Nirmal; Shrestha, Bimal; Rauniyar, Ramanuj; Adhikari, Anurag; Koirala, Pratik; Oli, Pardip Kumar; Pandit, Ram Deo; Stein, David A; Gupta, Birendra Prasad
HBV and HCV infections are widespread among the HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. The goals of this study were to investigate the epidemiological profile and risk factors for acquiring HBV and/or HCV coinfection in disadvantaged HIV-positive population groups in Nepal. We conducted a retrospective study on blood samples from HIV-positive patients from the National Public Health Laboratory at Kathmandu to assay for HBsAg, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies, HIV viral load, and CD4+ T cell count. Among 579 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV coinfections was 3.62%, 2.93%, and 0.34%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that spouses of HIV-positive migrant labourers were at significant risk for coinfection with HBV infection, and an age of >40 years in HIV-infected individuals was identified as a significant risk factor for HCV coinfection. Overall our study indicates that disadvantaged population groups such as intravenous drug users, migrant workers and their spouses, female sex workers, and men who have sex with HIV-infected men are at a high and persistent risk of acquiring viral hepatitis. We conclude that Nepalese HIV patients should receive HBV and HCV diagnostic screening on a regular basis.
Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Samira S Bamuhair,2 Sameera M Al Johani,3 Namsha A Al-Buriki,1 Hani M Tamim4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, 3Microbiology Division, 4Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: To identify the prominent maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS disease in neonates and to determine their importance by comparing them with a control group. Setting: Neonatal unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Cases were infants <7 days of age with invasive group B streptococcus (GBS disease diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Controls were healthy infants born in the same hospital during the same period having the same birth weight and gestational age category. Main outcome measures: Maternal risk factors for developing EOGBS disease, feto–maternal and neonatal clinical data, their morbidities, mortalities, and length of hospital stay. Results: A total of 99 cases and 200 controls were included. The majority of cases presented in the first 72 hours of life (62/99 [63.9%], of which 87/99 (89.7% had at least one clinical risk factor for the development of EOGBS disease. Mothers of neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have GBS bacteriuria (odds ratio [OR] 10.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–93.42, infection in the peripartum period (OR 8.92, CI 2.87–27.68, and temperature ≥38°C (OR 7.10, CI 2.50–20.17. GBS disease was associated with premature rupture of membranes and fetal tachycardia (P<0.01 for both. Neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have respiratory distress disease and convulsions, require tube feeding, and have longer hospital stays compared with the controls (P<0.01 for all. Stepwise multiple logistic
Full Text Available Background: Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies. The etiology of non syndromic orofacial clefts is multifactorial. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the related risk factors of cleft lip and palate in a group of infants born in Tehran during the years between 2012-2015. Methods: In this case-control study the files of 105 newborns with oral clefts, and 218 normal newborns as control group with their mothers were evaluated in Mofid Hospital in Tehran. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Findings: Among 105 cases, 40 cases (38% were females and 65 cases (62% were males. The frequency of cleft lip and palate, cleft palate and cleft lip were 58%, 27.6% and 14.2% respectively. A significant relationship was found between parents with familial marriage (P=0.001. The highest number of clefts belonged to 25-35 year-old mothers (51.4%, 41% of mothers reported smoking during pregnancy thus maternal smoking would be an effective predisposing factor to have a child with oral clefts (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that history of familial matrimony, mother’s age above 35 years and maternal smoking during pregnancy can enhance the risk of orofacial clefts 18, 17 and 14 times respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of preconception counseling of mothers-to-be on amendable lifestyle factors in order to reduce the birth prevalence of cleft lip/palate in future generations.
Fábio A. Machado
Full Text Available The present contribution explores the impact of the QUALIS metric system for academic evaluation implemented by CAPES (Coordination for the Development of Personnel in Higher Education upon Brazilian Zoological research. The QUALIS system is based on the grouping and ranking of scientific journals according to their Impact Factor (IF. We examined two main points implied by this system, namely: 1 its reliability as a guideline for authors; 2 if Zoology possesses the same publication profile as Botany and Oceanography, three fields of knowledge grouped by CAPES under the subarea "BOZ" for purposes of evaluation. Additionally, we tested CAPES' recent suggestion that the area of Ecology would represent a fourth field of research compatible with the former three. Our results indicate that this system of classification is inappropriate as a guideline for publication improvement, with approximately one third of the journals changing their strata between years. We also demonstrate that the citation profile of Zoology is distinct from those of Botany and Oceanography. Finally, we show that Ecology shows an IF that is significantly different from those of Botany, Oceanography, and Zoology, and that grouping these fields together would be particularly detrimental to Zoology. We conclude that the use of only one parameter of analysis for the stratification of journals, i.e., the Impact Factor calculated for a comparatively small number of journals, fails to evaluate with accuracy the pattern of publication present in Zoology, Botany, and Oceanography. While such simplified procedure might appeals to our sense of objectivity, it dismisses any real attempt to evaluate with clarity the merit embedded in at least three very distinct aspects of scientific practice, namely: productivity, quality, and specificity.
Gillett, Karen; O'Neill, Bernadette; Bloomfield, Jacqueline G
Poor communication between health care professionals and dying patients and their families results in complaints about end-of-life care. End-of-life communication skills should be a core part of nursing and medical education but research suggests that qualified doctors and nurses find this a challenging area of practice. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the development of end-of-life communication skills by nursing and medical students. A qualitative study comprising five focus groups. Second year undergraduate nursing (n=9 across 2 focus groups) and fourth year undergraduate medical students (n=10 across 3 focus groups) from a London University. Barriers and facilitators influenced nursing and medical students' experience of communication with dying patients and their families in clinical practice. Extrinsic barriers included gatekeeping by qualified staff and lack of opportunity to make sense of experiences through discussion. Intrinsic barriers included not knowing what to say, dealing with emotional responses, wasting patients' time, and concerns about their own ability to cope with distressing experiences. Facilitating factors included good role models, previous experience, and classroom input. In addition to clinical placements, formal opportunities for reflective discussion are necessary to facilitate the development of students' confidence and skills in end-of-life communication. For students and mentors to view end-of-life communication as a legitimate part of their learning it needs to be specified written practice-learning outcome. Mentors and supervisors may require training to enable them to facilitate students to develop end-of-life communication skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayward, Erin; Ibe, Chidinma; Young, Jeffery Hunter; Potti, Karthya; Jones, Paul; Pollack, Craig Evan; Gudzune, Kimberly A
Public housing residents have a high risk of chronic disease, which may be related to neighborhood environmental factors. Our objective was to understand how public housing residents perceive that the social and built environments might influence their health and wellbeing. We conducted focus groups of residents from a low-income public housing community in Baltimore, MD to assess their perceptions of health and neighborhood attributes, resources, and social structure. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two investigators independently coded transcripts for thematic content using editing style analysis technique. Twenty-eight residents participated in six focus groups. All were African American and the majority were women. Most had lived in public housing for more than 5 years. We identified four themes: public housing's unhealthy physical environment limits health and wellbeing, the city environment limits opportunities for healthy lifestyle choices, lack of trust in relationships contributes to social isolation, and increased neighborhood social capital could improve wellbeing. Changes in housing and city policies might lead to improved environmental health conditions for public housing residents. Policymakers and researchers may consider promoting community cohesiveness to attempt to empower residents in facilitating neighborhood change.
Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Einarsen, Ståle; Jørstad, Kari; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S
The present study assessed the psychometric properties and the validity of the Norwegian translation of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI). The TCI is a measure of climate for innovation within groups at work and is based on the four-factor theory of climate for innovation (West, 1990). Cronbach's alpha revealed satisfactory reliabilities and exploratory factor analysis successfully extracted the four original factors as well as a fifth factor that has also been reported in other studies (N = 195 teams from a wide range of professions). Results from confirmatory factor analysis, using a different sample (N = 106 teams from the Norwegian public postal service), suggested that the five-factor solution had the most parsimonious fit. Criterion validity was explored by correlating TCI scores from 92 post offices and 395 postal distribution teams with customer satisfaction scores. Significant positive relationships were found between three of four TCI scales and customer satisfaction.
This document provides the preliminary hazard classification for the sampling and characterization activities to be conducted at the 100-B/C confirmatory sampling effort sites in support of remedial design and eventual remediation of these sites
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter
In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.
Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert
To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.......To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes....
Li, Mingxu; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Meng; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Kerou; Li, Peng; Yang, Yan; Ni, Jian; Zhu, Qiuan
The leaf carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) is a useful parameter for predicting a plant's water use efficiency, as an indicator for plant classification, and even in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic environments. In this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of leaf δ13C values and its relationship with plant functional groups and environmental factors throughout China. The high leaf δ13C in the database appeared in central and western China, and the averaged leaf δ13C was -27.15‰, with a range from -21.05‰ to -31.5‰. The order of the averaged δ13C for plant life forms from most positive to most negative was subshrubs > herbs = shrubs > trees > subtrees. Leaf δ13C is also influenced by some environmental factors, such as mean annual precipitation, relative humidity, mean annual temperature, solar hours, and altitude, although the overall influences are still relatively weak, in particular the influence of MAT and altitude. And we further found that plant functional types are dominant factors that regulate the magnitude of leaf δ13C for an individual site, whereas environmental conditions are key to understanding spatial patterns of leaf δ13C when we consider China as a whole. Ultimately, we conducted a multiple regression model of leaf δ13C with environmental factors and mapped the spatial distribution of leaf δ13C in China by using this model. However, this partial least squares model overestimated leaf δ13C for most life forms, especially for deciduous trees, evergreen shrubs, and subtrees, and thus need more improvement in the future.
Full Text Available Background: Unmet need for family planning signifies the gap between the reproductive intentions of couples and their actual contraceptive behaviour. The National Family Health Surveys carried out in India in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2004-2005 have revealed that for a sizable proportion of the population in the reproductive age group, the need for contraceptive services are not met with despite the existence of a National Policy on family planning since 1983. This study was carried out to assess the extent of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow and identify the various factors affecting it. Study design: Cross sectional Setting: four urban slums of Lucknow Participants: 414 married women in the age group of 15- 44 years Study variables: age, education, occupation, religion, parity Statistical analysis: chi- square test, logistic regression analysis, fisher’s exact test Results: the extent of unmet need among married women of reproductive age group was 53.1%. The unmet need was found to be significantly associated with age, number of living sons, discussion of family planning with husband, perception of husband’s view on family planning and husbands’ behaviour towards use of family planning method. Logistic regression analysis of unmet need showed that the lower age of the woman, lesser number of living sons and husband’s discouragement towards the use of FP method were correlated with the unmet need for Family Planning.
Wade C. Adams
Results from a confirmatory survey of the upper structural surfaces of the Reactor Building Dome at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station (RSNGS) performed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the NRC. Also includes results of interlaboratory comparison analyses on several archived soil samples that would be provided by RSNGS personnel. The confirmatory surveys were performed on June 7 and 8, 2006
Breathett, Khadijah; Leng, Iris; Foraker, Randi E; Abraham, William T; Coker, Laura; Whitfield, Keith E; Shumaker, Sally; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B; Howard, Barbara V; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Cené, Crystal W; Martin, Lisa W; Johnson, Karen C; Klein, Liviu
The higher risk of heart failure (HF) in African-American and Hispanic women compared with white women is related to the higher burden of risk factors (RFs) in minorities. However, it is unclear if there are differences in the association between the number of RFs for HF and the risk of development of HF and death within racial/ethnic groups. In the WHI (Women's Health Initiative; 1993-2010), African-American (n=11 996), white (n=18 479), and Hispanic (n=5096) women with 1, 2, or 3+ baseline RFs were compared with women with 0 RF within their respective racial/ethnic groups to assess risk of developing HF or all-cause mortality before and after HF, using survival analyses. After adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, and hormone therapy, the subdistribution hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing HF increased as number of RFs increased ( P ethnicity and RF number P =0.18)-African-Americans 1 RF: 1.80 (1.01-3.20), 2 RFs: 3.19 (1.84-5.54), 3+ RFs: 7.31 (4.26-12.56); Whites 1 RF: 1.27 (1.04-1.54), 2 RFs: 1.95 (1.60-2.36), 3+ RFs: 4.07 (3.36-4.93); Hispanics 1 RF: 1.72 (0.68-4.34), 2 RFs: 3.87 (1.60-9.37), 3+ RFs: 8.80 (3.62-21.42). Risk of death before developing HF increased with subsequent RFs ( P ethnic group (interaction P =0.001). The number of RFs was not associated with the risk of death after developing HF in any group ( P =0.25; interaction P =0.48). Among diverse racial/ethnic groups, an increase in the number of baseline RFs was associated with higher risk of HF and death before HF but was not associated with death after HF. Early RF prevention may reduce the burden of HF across multiple racial/ethnic groups. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Chen, Shyi-Ming; Manalu, Gandhi Maruli Tua; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liu, Hsiang-Chuan
In this paper, we present a new method for fuzzy forecasting based on two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups and particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques. First, we fuzzify the historical training data of the main factor and the secondary factor, respectively, to form two-factors second-order fuzzy logical relationships. Then, we group the two-factors second-order fuzzy logical relationships into two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups. Then, we obtain the optimal weighting vector for each fuzzy-trend logical relationship group by using PSO techniques to perform the forecasting. We also apply the proposed method to forecast the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index and the NTD/USD exchange rates. The experimental results show that the proposed method gets better forecasting performance than the existing methods.
Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Watson, Shaun D
This study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factor structure for the 10 core WISC-IV subtests in a group of children (N = 812) with ADHD. The study examined oblique four- and five-factor models, higher order models with one general secondary factor and four and five primary factors, and a bifactor model with a general factor and four specific factors. The findings supported all models tested, with the bifactor model being the optimum model. For this model, only the general factor had high explained common variance and omega hierarchical value, and it predicted reading and arithmetic abilities. The findings favor the use of the FSIQ scores of the WISC-IV, but not the subscale index scores.
Sjoestroem, A.; Carlsson, J.; Lundqvist, H.; Koziorowski, J.
A method for direct astatine labeling of proteins has been investigated. Binding sites for astatine were created by coupling of a nido-carborane derivative to a protein, the human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), using two different conjugation methods - by glutaraldehyde cross-linking or by introduction of sulfohydryl groups by Traut's reagent with subsequent linking of ANC-1 with m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide ester. The conjugates were astatinated using the Chloramine-T method in high yield. The best labeling was obtained by the glutaraldehyde conjugate with an average yield of 68 ± 9%. In vitro stability tests indicated that the glutaraldehyde conjugated label was as stable as hEGF labeled with astatobenzoate. (author)
Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L
Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roesch, Scott C; Rowley, Anthony A; Vaughn, Allison A
We examined the factorial validity and dimensionality of the Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS; Park, Cohen, & Murch, 1996) using a large multiethnic sample (n = 1,070). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a multidimensional representation of the SRGS fit better than a unidimensional representation. Specifically, we cross-validated both a 3-factor model and a 7-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis and were shown to be invariant across gender and ethnic groups. The 3-factor model was represented by global dimensions of growth that included rational/mature thinking, affective/emotional growth, and religious/spiritual growth. We replicated the 7-factor model of Armeli, Gunthert, and Cohen (2001) and it represented more specific components of growth such as Self-Understanding and Treatment of Others. However, some factors of the 7-factor model had questionable internal consistency and were strongly intercorrelated, suggesting redundancy. The findings support the notion that the factor structure of both the original 1-factor and revised 7-factor models are unstable and that the 3-factor model developed in this research has more reliable psychometric properties and structure.
This document addresses certain issues arising under the group market portability provisions added by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) with respect to employees (or their dependents) who, until the effective date of the HIPAA nondiscrimination provisions, were denied coverage under a group health plan, including group health insurance coverage, because of a health status-related factor.