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Sample records for group cohesion coordination

  1. Density and group size influence shoal cohesion, but not coordination in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Delia S; Price, Brittany C; Ocasio, Karen M; Martins, Emília P

    2015-02-01

    The formations made by gregarious animals can range from loose aggregates to highly synchronized and ordered structures. For very large, coordinated groups, both physical and social environments are important for determining the physical arrangement of individuals in the group. Here we tested whether physical and social factors are also important in determining the structure of small, loosely coordinated groups of zebrafish. We found that even though our fish were not crowded and did not use most of the available space, the distance between individual fish was explained primarily by the amount of available space (i.e., density). Zebrafish in a larger space spread out more and the total dimensions of the shoal were an additive function also of group size. We, however, did not find any impact of social or physical environment on the orientation of individual fish or shoal. Thus, both physical and social factors were important for shoal spatial arrangements, but not individual orientation and shoal alignment.

  2. [Group cohesion: a concept analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ru; Chen, Yu-Jung; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2007-10-01

    Group cohesion is considered an essential condition for achieving a successful treatment team. High cohesion groups more readily reach their goals, with group members also feeling more secure about their functions and contributions. In clinical practice, nurses use group teaching and group therapy to help patient and family members gain knowledge and skills related to illness treatment and recuperation. Effective group leadership helps minimize non-productive time and manpower and enhance interpersonal interaction. A further advantage of group cohesion is that the more effective administration of nursing programs that results can raise the profession level of staffs and reduce turnover. Walker and Avant (1995) employ concept analysis to use defining attributes in order to apply the same definition and communication to the same profession. The purpose of this paper was to apply this methodology to an analysis of group cohesion. Steps used include a review of the literature on conceptual definitions of group cohesion, a determination of defining attributes, model construction, identification of borderline, contrary, and related cases, and identification of antecedents and consequences and empirical tools. It is hoped that this analysis can help nursing staff to gain a better understanding of the concept of group cohesion and to apply such to clinical practice and nursing administration.

  3. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  4. Psychological characteristics of group cohesion athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Sarhan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic components of group cohesion in sport teams. An analysis of publications on cohesion within the groups where an interconnection of individual goals of each participant group with common goals and the end result of teamwork. The concept of harmony in the team sports, where the rate of group cohesion is dependent on such integrative index as psychological climate. It is established that a number of athletes to achieve high results require high cohesion, unity, value-normative orientation, deep identification and responsibility for the results of the joint group activities.

  5. Group cohesion: Relationships with work team culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Yurrebaso, Amaia

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between group cohesion and the perceived culture and desired culture of work teams. Two separate studies were carried out with a time interval of one year. The first study had a sample of 50 work teams belonging to different organizations and the second study had a sample of 75 work teams. We used Lindell's index of agreement to estimate the culture and cohesion variables. Multiple and hierarchical regression analysis in both studies confirmed our initial hypothesis, showing that perceived and desired culture were positively related to group cohesion, and that culture gap had a negative association with cohesion. To a lesser extent, control variables such as job tenure and gender had a positive relationship with cohesion. The implications of these results are discussed along with the importance of considering the group level as analysis.

  6. Alliance and group cohesion in relationship education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Antle, Becky; Barbee, Anita

    2013-09-01

    Relationship education programs have been shown as an effective way to increase relationship functioning. There is less known about how process factors, such as alliance with the leader or group dynamics, affect outcomes in these interventions. We examined group cohesion and alliance with the leader in a relationship education program tailored for individuals. Specifically, we examined whether participants' ratings (n = 126) of the group cohesion and alliance with the leader were associated with changes in relationship adjustment, relationship confidence, and communication quality from pre- to postintervention. The results demonstrated that participants' perceptions of the cohesion among the members in their relationship education group, but not the leader-participant alliance, made a significant contribution to the changes in participants' relationship functioning. These results suggest that the group dynamics among the members in the group are important ingredients in relationship education. Implications for relationship programs are provided. © FPI, Inc.

  7. Cohesion and coordination effects on transition metal surface energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvireta, Judit; Vega, Lorena; Viñes, Francesc

    2017-10-01

    Here we explore the accuracy of Stefan equation and broken-bond model semiempirical approaches to obtain surface energies on transition metals. Cohesive factors are accounted for either via the vaporization enthalpies, as proposed in Stefan equation, or via cohesive energies, as employed in the broken-bond model. Coordination effects are considered including the saturation degree, as suggested in Stefan equation, employing Coordination Numbers (CN), or as the ratio of broken bonds, according to the bond-cutting model, considering as well the square root dependency of the bond strength on CN. Further, generalized coordination numbers CN bar are contemplated as well, exploring a total number of 12 semiempirical formulations on the three most densely packed surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d Transition Metals (TMs) displaying face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystallographic structures. Estimates are compared to available experimental surface energies obtained extrapolated to zero temperature. Results reveal that Stefan formula cohesive and coordination dependencies are only qualitative suited, but unadvised for quantitative discussion, as surface energies are highly overestimated, favoring in addition the stability of under-coordinated surfaces. Broken-bond cohesion and coordination dependencies are a suited basis for quantitative comparison, where square-root dependencies on CN to account for bond weakening are sensibly worse. An analysis using Wulff shaped averaged surface energies suggests the employment of broken-bond model using CN to gain surface energies for TMs, likely applicable to other metals.

  8. Group cohesion, task performance, and the experimenter expectancy effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied the effects of cohesion on task fulfillment and explored the influence of task fulfillment on the initial level of cohesion. Within 4-person groups of undergraduates, cohesion was manipulated successfully by a triple procedure. The level of cohesion was ascertained directly after the inducti

  9. Facilitating Group Cohesion among Adolescents through Challenge Course Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. Scott; Benshoff, James M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the effects of participation in a low-element challenge course on younger adolescents' perceptions of group cohesion. Pre- and post-tests of group cohesion were administered to 167 North Carolina adolescents aged 11-14. Participants perceived an increase in group cohesion after the daylong program, regardless of their age, race,…

  10. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their...or competitors, the size, composition and cohesion of the natal group as well as the dive activity of group members likely plays an important role in...context, by simultaeously tagging multiple individuals within the same group to study social coordination and group cohesion and how these social dynamics

  11. Leadership Status Congruency and Cohesion in Outdoor Expedition Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Ritchie, Stephen; Little, Jim; Slade, Heather; Oddson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between status congruency and group cohesion in outdoor expedition groups in an educational setting. Specifically, three aspects of status congruency were assessed in relation to group cohesion in four adventure canoe groups. The groups participated in 2-week expeditions in the…

  12. Determinants of group cohesion on the football team.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Sarhan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown analysis of the determinants of cohesion and their manifestation in athletes - football players. We consider personal factors and their relationship to credible group cohesion among players. Established that the determinants of group cohesion are a factor with "emotional instability - emotional stability," the experience of the team, normative behavior (factor G, the factor Q2: «conformism - non-conformism," resistance to conflict, factor A "closed - sociability" and the factor F: «restraint - expressiveness."

  13. Introducing Semantic Cohesion Analysis: A Study of Group Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cohesive talk was observed over time and across psychotherapy groups led by self-disclosing or nondisclosing therapists. Despite individual therapist differences, the nondisclosing groups showed more cohesive interactions throughout therapy. No differences were observed in clients' perceptions of therapists or their attraction to the group.…

  14. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  15. An Assessment of Work Group Cohesion and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Perspective. MS thesis. Administrative Science Department, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey CA, June 1983 (AD-A128047). Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin...work group. The size of a group may have a moderating influence on those variables that affect cohesion ( Cartwright and Zander, 1968). If group size has...industrial work groups (Seashore, 1954). Cartwright and Zander, in their review of studies relating similarities and group cohesion, stated that dis

  16. Relationship between group cohesion and anxiety in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Carla Chicau; Cid, Luis; Silva, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Group cohesion in sport is a widely spread theme today. Research has found cohesion to be influenced by several individual and group components. Among the cognitive variables that relate to cohesion we found competitive anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between task cohesion (ATG-T, and GI-T) and competitive state anxiety (A-state), and also if there would be a relation between cohesion and self-confidence. Participants were 366 football players of both genders male and female, aged between 15 to 23 years old, from Portugal's championships. Cohesion was measured using the Portuguese version of the Group Environment Questionnaire, and to assess competitive anxiety, we used the Portuguese version of the Competition State Anxiety Inventory 2. Our results show that female athletes report experiencing more cognitive anxiety and less self-confidence than male athletes. Only cognitive anxiety relates in a significantly negative way with the perception of cohesion (GI-T e ATG-T) in the total number of participants and in male athletes. Relatively to the somatic anxiety, it only relates negatively with the perception of the integration of the group in the total number of participants and in the male gender.

  17. Coordinating Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup.

  18. The Relation between Sociometric Choices and Group Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    criteria covering performance, attitudinal, and behavioral outcomes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS cohesion, sociometry , peer bonding, leader bonding, unit performance...CHOICES AND GROUP COHESION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Research Requirement: Because of the difficulties and limitations of using sociometry , previous research has...and Dissemination of Findings: Sociometry can be used as a method for estimating the quality of group dynamics in a squad or a platoon. Generally, the

  19. Characteristics of work groups and their relationship with social and task cohesion in student teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

    2004-08-01

    Results of an exploratory study of relationships between work-group characteristics and the social and task cohesion of 18 business students engaged in team class projects. Regression analysis of scores on workload sharing, team spirit, task flexibility, and team cohesiveness for scales of the Work Group Characteristics Inventory indicated sharing of the workload was significantly associated with both task and social cohesion; team spirit with task cohesion but not social cohesion; and task flexibility with social cohesion but not task cohesion.

  20. ALTRUISM, EGOISM AND GROUP COHESION IN A LOCAL INTERACTION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    José A. García Martínez

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we have introduced and parameterized the concept of ?group cohesion? in a model of local interaction with a population divided into groups. This allows us to control the level of ?isolation? of these groups: We thus analyze if the degree of group cohesion is relevant to achieve an efficient behaviour and which level would be the best one for this purpose. We are interested in situations where there is a trade off between efficiency and individual incentives. This trade off is st...

  1. Some Measures of Interpersonal Attraction and Group Cohesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Lewis R.

    1992-01-01

    The computation and determination of the statistical significance of three coefficients of interpersonal attractiveness or cohesiveness in task-oriented or social groups are described. The approach is based on ratings made by each member of a group of all other group members. Experience using the technique is reviewed. (SLD)

  2. GROUP COHESION IN VOLLEYBALL CONTEXT OF THE STATE OF PARANÁ

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Junior, José Roberto Andrade do; Balbim,Guilherme Moraes; Vieira,Lenamar Fiorese

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This descriptive correlational study aimed to analyze the perception of group cohesion of volleyball’s adult teams of state of Paraná. The subjects were 155 athletes male and female. The instruments used were the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). For data analysis we applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman’s correlation, Mann-Whitney and Multiple Regression (p < 0.05). The results showed that teams had good levels of group cohesion and social to the task...

  3. GROUP COHESION IN VOLLEYBALL CONTEXT OF THE STATE OF PARANÁ

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Junior,José Roberto Andrade do; BALBIM,Guilherme Moraes; Vieira,Lenamar Fiorese

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This descriptive correlational study aimed to analyze the perception of group cohesion of volleyball’s adult teams of state of Paraná. The subjects were 155 athletes male and female. The instruments used were the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). For data analysis we applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman’s correlation, Mann-Whitney and Multiple Regression (p < 0.05). The results showed that teams had good levels of group cohesion and social to the task...

  4. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Broly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated.

  5. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broly, Pierre; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-01

    In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus) in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated.

  6. Groupthink: One Peril of Group Cohesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Estelle H.

    1982-01-01

    This article briefly discusses some important elements of group effectiveness, then outlines characteristics of groupthink, provides examples of situations in which it occurs, and recommends actions in each case for preventing or lessening it. (Author/CT)

  7. Examining the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Group Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amanda; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative learning experiences increase student learning, but what happens when students fail to collaborate? The authors investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and group cohesion by studying 44 undergraduate teams who were completing semester-long projects in their business classes at a small private university in the…

  8. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually

  9. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually cue

  10. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually cue

  11. Dynamic Task Performance, Cohesion, and Communications in Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Luis Felipe; Passino, Kevin M

    2016-10-01

    In the study of the behavior of human groups, it has been observed that there is a strong interaction between the cohesiveness of the group, its performance when the group has to solve a task, and the patterns of communication between the members of the group. Developing mathematical and computational tools for the analysis and design of task-solving groups that are not only cohesive but also perform well is of importance in social sciences, organizational management, and engineering. In this paper, we model a human group as a dynamical system whose behavior is driven by a task optimization process and the interaction between subsystems that represent the members of the group interconnected according to a given communication network. These interactions are described as attractions and repulsions among members. We show that the dynamics characterized by the proposed mathematical model are qualitatively consistent with those observed in real-human groups, where the key aspect is that the attraction patterns in the group and the commitment to solve the task are not static but change over time. Through a theoretical analysis of the system we provide conditions on the parameters that allow the group to have cohesive behaviors, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to study group dynamics for different sets of parameters, communication topologies, and tasks to solve.

  12. Interactivity in Second Language via Social Identity and Group Cohesiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rojas Alfaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y analizan la influencia de la identidad y la unión de grupo como factores que facilitan o dificultan los procesos interactivos en el aprendizaje del inglés como segunda lengua. Se señala la conexión entre el aprendizaje interactivo de un idioma y factores como identidad social, personal, y unión de grupo. El efecto de la integración del grupo y la identidad en el aprendizaje de un segundo idioma son esenciales dado que pocos estudios se han referido al efecto de tales variables en la interacción de grupo. Con el estudio de un caso realizado en dos grupos de estudiantes adultos se diagnosticó el estado de cohesión del grupo y su impacto en el aprendizaje interactivo. This research explores the influence of identity and group cohesion as factors that facilitate or hinder interactive processes in ESL classrooms. In particular, this paper addresses the connection between interactive language learning, social and personal identity, and group cohesiveness. The effect of group cohesion and identity in second language learning has been addressed in relatively few studies on the impact of those membership variables in determining interactivity in communicative language teaching. A case study carried out in two college level classes diagnosed the status of group membership and its impact on interactivity.

  13. Groupthink: Effects of Cohesiveness and Problem-Solving Procedures on Group Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Michael R.; Esser, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Tested Janis' groupthink formulation with 126 students by manipulating group cohesiveness and adequacy of decision procedures in a factorial design. Results showed highest quality decisions were produced by groups of intermediate cohesiveness. Highly cohesive groups without adequate decision procedures (the groupthink condition) tended to make the…

  14. Estimating cohesion in small groups using audio-visual nonverbal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Gatica-Perez, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cohesiveness in teams is an essential part of ensuring the smooth running of task-oriented groups. Research in social psychology and management has shown that good cohesion in groups can be correlated with team effectiveness or productivity, so automatically estimating group cohesion for team traini

  15. The governance of social cohesion: innovative coordination practices in public management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Laegreid (Per); T. Randma-Liiv (Tiina); L.H. Rykkja (Lise Hellebø); K. Sarapuu (Külli)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction This report presents the main findings and policy implications of the COCOPS Work Package 5 (WP5) “The Governance of Social Cohesion: Innovative Coordination Practices in Public Management” (April 2012-May 2013). WP5 focused on searching and identifying innovative coordinati

  16. Internal character dictates transition dynamics between isolation and cohesive grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2015-12-01

    We show that accounting for internal character among interacting heterogeneous entities generates rich transition behavior between isolation and cohesive dynamical grouping. Our analytical and numerical calculations reveal different critical points arising for different character-dependent grouping mechanisms. These critical points move in opposite directions as the population's diversity decreases. Our analytical theory may help explain why a particular class of universality is so common in the real world, despite the fundamental differences in the underlying entities. It also correctly predicts the nonmonotonic temporal variation in connectivity observed recently in one such system.

  17. Developing cohesion in court-mandated group treatment of male spouse abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N

    2003-07-01

    Cohesion in group treatment of spouse abusers plays an important and often overlooked role. Involuntary abuser groups can benefit from cohesion, but due to their unique structure, cohesion may develop differently than in voluntary psychotherapy groups. Initially, abuser groups may develop premature levels of cohesion that can make group members unwilling to express conflict, develop intimacy, and take responsibility for their actions. Understanding the abuser personality and the unique characteristics of involuntary abuser groups can shed light on why cohesion develops the way it does and the importance it plays in abuser groups. Developing effective interventions that target premature cohesion can help the group members express conflict, develop intimacy, and take responsibility for their actions, thus bringing about therapeutic levels of cohesion.

  18. Group cohesion in cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Suvak, Michael K; Antony, Martin M; Bieling, Peter J; McCabe, Randi E

    2007-04-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for Social Phobia is effective in both group and individual formats. However, the impact of group processes on treatment efficacy remains relatively unexplored. In this study we examined group cohesion ratings made by individuals at the midpoint and endpoint of CBT groups for social phobia. Symptom measures were also completed at the beginning and end of treatment. We found that cohesion ratings significantly increased over the course of the group and were associated with improvement over time in social anxiety symptoms, as well as improvement on measures of general anxiety, depression, and functional impairment. In conclusion, findings are consistent with the idea that changes in group cohesion are related to social anxiety symptom reduction and, therefore, speak to the importance of nonspecific therapeutic factors in treatment outcome.

  19. Predicting Group Performance Using Cohesion and Social Network Density: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    group performance. Researchers since the 1950’s (Bavelas, 1950; Festinger , 1950) have examined the relationship between small groups and performance by...was first defined by Festinger (1950) who referred to group cohesiveness as “the result of all forces acting on members to remain in the group” (p...1950, Leon Festinger published a pivotal piece of literature that added greatly to the group cohesion construct. In this work he defined cohesion as

  20. Effects of an Explicit Group Contract on SelfDisclosure and Group Cohesiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribner, Neil G.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of a group eontract specifically calling for self-disclosure was investigated. Frequency and depth of self disclosure were increased but level of intimacy of topics discussed was not. Group cohesiveness was enhanced by the contract but it decreased members' mutual liking. (Author/EAK)

  1. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  2. Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Jamie M.; Smith, Thomas E.; Richards, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse researchers identify self-efficacy and group cohesion as important components in alcohol and other drug-dependency treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this single-group, pretest-posttest study is to explore the therapeutic value of a challenge course intervention on the self-efficacy and group cohesion of nine chemically…

  3. Cohesion and outcome in short-term psychodynamic groups for complicated grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnes, Dianne R; Piper, William E; Joyce, Anthony S

    2002-10-01

    This study used two measures of cohesion for the process analysis of 12 short-term, time-limited groups for complicated grief. The measures had similar theoretical definitions but differed in terms of rater source (member vs. observer), measurement score (mean of items vs. global rating), and rating unit (individual vs. group). We examined the relationship between the measures, assessed the development of cohesion over the life of the group, and evaluated each measure's relationship to outcome. A principal components analysis with each measure yielded one cohesion component, which supported a unidimensional model; however, the two cohesion components were independent of each other, which supported a multidimensional model. Repeated measures analyses indicated that observer-rated cohesion developed in a quadratic manner (v pattern) across sessions, while member-rated cohesion developed in a linear manner. The object focus (the group, other members, the therapist) of the members' ratings determined whether cohesion increased or decreased across sessions. No significant relationships between cohesion and outcome were identified. Implications of the findings for the understanding of group cohesion are considered.

  4. Influence of Sport Education on Group Cohesion in University Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jayne M.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2011-01-01

    The Sport Education ("SE") curricular model incorporated within university physical education Basic Instruction Program (BIP) may increase group cohesion. This study's purpose was to identify student perceptions of a BIP course taught within "SE," and investigate group cohesion in differing activity content. Participants…

  5. Influence of Sport Education on Group Cohesion in University Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jayne M.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2011-01-01

    The Sport Education ("SE") curricular model incorporated within university physical education Basic Instruction Program (BIP) may increase group cohesion. This study's purpose was to identify student perceptions of a BIP course taught within "SE," and investigate group cohesion in differing activity content. Participants…

  6. Family Cohesion and its Relationship to Psychological Distress among Latino Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Fernando I.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Lin, Julia Y.; Torres, Maria; Alegria, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of a representative sample of US Latinos (N=2540) to investigate whether family cohesion moderates the effects of cultural conflict on psychological distress. The results for the aggregated Latino group suggests a significant association between family cohesion and lower psychological distress and the combination of strong family cohesion with presence of family cultural conflict was associated with higher psychological distress. However, this association differed...

  7. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  8. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes. 

  9. Group Settling Velocity of Non-Cohesive Sediment Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hualin; SHEN Huanting; ZHU Jianrong; ZHANG Xiaofeng

    2000-01-01

    Settling velocity is a fundamental parameter in sediment transport dynamics. For uniform par-ticles, there are abundant formulas for calculation of their settling velocities. But in natural fields, sediment consists of non-uniform particles. The interaction among particles is complex and should not be neglected. In this paper, based on the analysis of settling mechanism of non-cohesive and non-uniform particles, a theoretical model to describe settling mechanism is proposed. Besides suspension concentration andupward turbulent flow caused by other particles, collision among particles is another main factor influencing settling velocity. By introducing the collision theory, equations of fall velocity before collision, collision probability, and fall velocity after collision are established. Finally, a formula used to calculate the settling velocity of non-cohesive particles with wide grain gradation is presented, which agrees well with the experimental data.

  10. Cohesion and performance in groups: a meta-analytic clarification of construct relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Daniel J; Cohen, Robin R; Burke, Michael J; McLendon, Christy L

    2003-12-01

    Previous meta-analytic examinations of group cohesion and performance have focused primarily on contextual factors. This study examined issues relevant to applied researchers by providing a more detailed analysis of the criterion domain. In addition, the authors reinvestigated the role of components of cohesion using more modern meta-analytic methods and in light of different types of performance criteria. The results of the authors' meta-analyses revealed stronger correlations between cohesion and performance when performance was defined as behavior (as opposed to outcome), when it was assessed with efficiency measures (as opposed to effectiveness measures), and as patterns of team workflow became more intensive. In addition, and in contrast to B. Mullen and C. Copper's (1994) meta-analysis, the 3 main components of cohesion were independently related to the various performance domains. Implications for organizations and future research on cohesion and performance are discussed.

  11. The weakness of strong ties : Collective action failure in a highly cohesive group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Macy, MW

    1996-01-01

    Following Homans, exchange theorists have modeled informal social control as an exchange of peer approval for compliance with group obligations. The exchange model predicts higher compliance in cohesive networks with strong social ties. However, previous specifications failed to incorporate bilatera

  12. Family Cohesion and its Relationship to Psychological Distress among Latino Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando I; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Lin, Julia Y; Torres, Maria; Alegria, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of a representative sample of US Latinos (N=2540) to investigate whether family cohesion moderates the effects of cultural conflict on psychological distress. The results for the aggregated Latino group suggests a significant association between family cohesion and lower psychological distress and the combination of strong family cohesion with presence of family cultural conflict was associated with higher psychological distress. However, this association differed by Latino groups. We found no association for Puerto Ricans, Cuban results were similar to the aggregate group, family cultural conflict in Mexicans was associated with higher psychological distress, while family cohesion in Other Latinos was associated with higher psychological distress. Implications of these findings are discussed to unravel the differences in family dynamics across Latino subethnic groups.

  13. Relational diversity and neighbourhood cohesion. Unpacking variety, balance and in-group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Ruud; Schaeffer, Merlin

    2015-09-01

    Ethnic diversity is typically measured by the well-known Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. This paper discusses the merits of an alternative approach, which is in our view better suited to tease out why and how ethnic diversity matters. The approach consists of two elements. First, all existing diversity indices are non-relational. From the viewpoint of theoretical accounts that attribute negative diversity effects to in-group favoritism and out-group threat, it should however matter whether, given a certain level of overall diversity, an individual belongs to a minority group or to the dominant majority. We therefore decompose diversity by distinguishing the in-group share from the diversity of ethnic out-groups. Second, we show how generalized entropy measures can be used to test which of diversity's two basic dimensions matters most: the variety of groups, or the unequal distribution (balance) of the population over groups. These measures allow us to test different theoretical explanations against each other, because they imply different expectations regarding the effects of in-group size, out-group variety, and out-group balance. We apply these ideas in an analysis of various social cohesion measures across 55 German localities and show that both in-group size and out-group diversity matter. For the native majority as well as for persons of immigration background, the variety component of diversity seems to be more decisive than has formerly been acknowledged. These findings provide little support for group threat and in-group favoritism as the decisive mechanisms behind negative diversity effects, and are most in line with the predictions of theories that emphasize coordination problems, asymmetric preferences, and network closure.

  14. Symptom fluctuations, self-esteem, and cohesion during group cognitive behaviour therapy for early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Leclerc, Claude; Wykes, Til

    2017-07-14

    Group cohesion has been linked to positive changes in self-esteem and in symptoms during group psychotherapy in people with psychosis. These changes may be linked to changes in symptoms as fluctuations in self-esteem have been linked to symptom fluctuations. We aimed to determine the relationship between these three factors - group cohesion, self-esteem, and symptoms - during group cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (GCBTp). We hypothesized that group cohesion would precede changes in symptoms and self-esteem and that improvements in self-esteem would precede improvements in symptoms. This is an uncontrolled longitudinal study recruiting from a convenience sample within two early psychosis clinics. Sixty-six individuals from first episode of psychosis treatment programmes participated in this study and received 24 sessions of a validated GCBTp protocol. Participants answered a brief questionnaire at the end of each session, measuring their group cohesion, self-esteem, and perception of their symptoms as worse, same, or better than usual. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts for time effects were estimated with a mixed model for repeated measures with a random cluster effect and revealed a quartic trend regarding changes in symptoms over the 24 sessions. Self-esteem, symptoms, and group cohesion were strongly linked during a given session. Also, self-esteem changes predicted changes in symptoms up to two sessions later, and symptoms changes predicted self-esteem changes at the next session. Group cohesion preceded improvements in both self-esteem and symptoms; self-esteem also predicted improvements in group cohesion. These results suggest that self-esteem and symptoms influence each other during therapy, with improvements in one leading to improvements in the other. Group cohesion also appears to be an essential prerequisite to positive changes in self-esteem and symptoms during GCBTp. This study emphasizes the interrelation between self-esteem improvements and

  15. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.

  16. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  17. Therapeutic alliance and cohesion variables as predictors of outcome in short-term group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Anthony S; Piper, William E; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2007-07-01

    The current study explored the relative ability of aggregate therapeutic alliance and cohesion variables to predict short-term group therapy outcome. Data were collected from a comparative trial of two forms of time-limited group psychotherapy for complicated grief (Piper, McCallum, Joyce, Rosie, & Ogrodniczuk, 2001). The therapeutic alliance and elements of the cohesion construct were measured from the perspectives of each patient and the group therapist at intervals during the groups; scores were aggregated across assessments. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, adjusting for the effects of treatment approach (interpretive vs. supportive) and specific group membership, demonstrated that the patient-rated alliance was a consistent predictor of outcome. Two cohesion measures, reflecting other participants' (therapist, other members) views of the patient's "fit" with the group, also accounted for variation in outcome. Implications of the findings for research and clinical practice, and the limitations of the measurement approach taken in this study, are considered.

  18. The Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Group Cohesiveness and Workplace Deviance Behavior of Turkish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Çigdem; Sirin, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a structural model for organizational citizenship behavior, group cohesiveness and workplace deviance behavior. The study group consists of 639 Turkish teachers working in primary and secondary public schools. In the study, the "Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale" and the "Group Cohesiveness…

  19. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...

  20. Effect of a Collective Project on Group Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Robert H.

    Immediately before their second group therapy session, 10 newly formed inpatient therapy groups were randomly assigned to complete either collective or individual art projects. The members of a group in the collective-project condition completed a single art project as a group. Each member of a group assigned to the individual project condition…

  1. Dynnikov coordinates on virtual braid groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bardakov, Valerij G; Wiest, Bert

    2011-01-01

    We define Dynnikov coordinates on virtual braid groups. We prove that they are faithful invariants of virtual 2-braids, and present evidence that they are also very powerful invariants for general virtual braids.

  2. The Role of Communication and Cohesion in Reducing Social Loafing in Group Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examines previously untested variables that influence social loafing in professional and technical communication group projects by determining the influence of communication quality and task cohesion on social loafing. A set-up factors model, which included group size, peer review, project scope, and method of team formation, was also…

  3. The Role of Communication and Cohesion in Reducing Social Loafing in Group Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examines previously untested variables that influence social loafing in professional and technical communication group projects by determining the influence of communication quality and task cohesion on social loafing. A set-up factors model, which included group size, peer review, project scope, and method of team formation, was also…

  4. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…

  5. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses.…

  6. Workplace drinking climate, stress, and problem indicators: assessing the influence of teamwork (group cohesion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E

    1998-09-01

    While job-related alcohol use may be associated with problems for drinkers, less is known about the effects of employee drinking on co-workers. We hypothesized that either exposure to co-worker drinking or the presence of a drinking climate would positively correlate with reports of stress and other problems. Following previous research, we also predicted that work group cohesion (or team orientation) would buffer against such problems. Two random samples of municipal employees (Ns = 909 and 1,068) completed anonymous surveys. These assessed individual drinking, co-worker drinking, task-oriented group cohesion, the direct reports of negative consequences due to co-worker substance use, and five problem indicators: job stress, job withdrawal, health problems, and performance (work accidents and absences). In each sample, drinking climate correlated with stress and withdrawal more so than did reports of individual drinking. Drinking climate and individual job stress were negatively associated with cohesion. ANCOVA results indicated that drinking climate combined with low cohesion resulted in increased vulnerability for all five problems. Moreover, cohesion appeared to attenuate the negative impact of exposure to drinking norms. As many as 40% of employees report at least one negative consequence associated with co-worker substance use (alcohol and drugs). Because teamwork may buffer negative effects of drinking climate on co-workers, workplace prevention efforts might be enhanced through a focus on the social environment. These efforts would include team-building and discussions of the impact of co-worker drinking on employee productivity.

  7. Improving participation rates for women of color in health research: the role of group cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Estabrooks, Paul A; Lee, Rebecca E

    2012-02-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD = 9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD = 7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs-attraction to the group's task (SE = 0.096, CI: -0.599 to -0.221) and group integration around the task (SE = 0.060, CI: -0.092 to -0.328)-and social constructs-attraction to the group's social aspects (SE = 0.046, CI: -0.546 to -0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE = 0.046, CI: -0.546 to -0.366)-significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color.

  8. Adaptive group coordination and role differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Roberts

    Full Text Available Many real world situations (potluck dinners, academic departments, sports teams, corporate divisions, committees, seminar classes, etc. involve actors adjusting their contributions in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory group goal, a win-win result. However, the majority of human group research has involved situations where groups perform poorly because task constraints promote either individual maximization behavior or diffusion of responsibility, and even successful tasks generally involve the propagation of one correct solution through a group. Here we introduce a group task that requires complementary actions among participants in order to reach a shared goal. Without communication, group members submit numbers in an attempt to collectively sum to a randomly selected target number. After receiving group feedback, members adjust their submitted numbers until the target number is reached. For all groups, performance improves with task experience, and group reactivity decreases over rounds. Our empirical results provide evidence for adaptive coordination in human groups, and as the coordination costs increase with group size, large groups adapt through spontaneous role differentiation and self-consistency among members. We suggest several agent-based models with different rules for agent reactions, and we show that the empirical results are best fit by a flexible, adaptive agent strategy in which agents decrease their reactions when the group feedback changes. The task offers a simple experimental platform for studying the general problem of group coordination while maximizing group returns, and we distinguish the task from several games in behavioral game theory.

  9. Influence of group cohesion on maternal well-being among participants in a support/education group program for single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Waymouth, Marjorie; Gammon, Tara; Carter, Patricia; Secord, Margaret; Leung, Olivia; Mills, Brenda; Hicks, Frances

    2007-10-01

    Single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and physical and mental health difficulties. The authors present (1) the results of group cohesion assessments completed by mothers participating in a trial of community-based support/education groups, and (2) assessments of the association between group cohesion ratings and intervention outcomes of maternal self-evaluations of well-being (mood, self-esteem, and social support) and parenting. Mothers participating in groups completed the Group Atmosphere Scale, a measure of group cohesion, post-group. Overall, most participants provided strong ratings of group cohesion. Significant associations were found between group cohesion and specific positive outcomes. This suggests a positive association between group cohesion and mood, self-esteem, social support, and parenting, in this trial.

  10. A prospective study of group cohesiveness in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil W; Kirkevold, Marit

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in psychological distress and social participation in adults diagnosed with clinical depression during and after participating in a therapeutic horticulture programme, and to investigate if the changes covaried with levels of group cohesiveness during the intervention. An intervention with a single-group design was repeated with different samples in successive years (pooled n = 46). In each year, five groups of 3-7 participants went through the intervention. Data were collected before, twice during, and immediately after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture programme, as well as at 3-months' follow up. Mental health assessments included the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Subscale of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Positive Affect Scale from the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Therapeutic Factors Inventory-Cohesiveness Scale. The analysis of the pooled data confirmed significant beneficial change in all mental health variables during the intervention. Change from baseline in depression severity persisted at 3-months' follow up. Increased social activity after the intervention was reported for 38% of the participants. The groups quickly established strong cohesiveness, and this continued to increase during the intervention. The average level of group cohesiveness correlated positively, but not significantly, with change in all mental health outcome variables.

  11. [A measure of team cohesion in sport. Spanish adaptation of Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbide, Luis María; Elosua, Paula; Yanes, Félix

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work was to adapt the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) to Spanish. Judgmental procedures were used to assess the linguistic and cultural equivalence of the versions. Psychometric procedures were used in the operational phase of the study. The normative sample comprised 924 sportsmen/sportswomen from 75 teams. The GEQ scale showed suitable indexes of internal consistency and a bidimensional structure based on two factors of the cohesion model, the Task component and the Social component. In addition, a positive relation between team-performance and the Task component of team cohesion was observed. Overall, the results supported the Spanish version of the GEQ.

  12. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  13. Group Cohesion, Collective Efficacy, and Motivational Climate As Predictors of Conductor Support in Music Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy K.; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether collective efficacy, group cohesion (task and social), and perceived motivational climate (task-involving and ego-involving orientations) in a music ensemble predict instrumentalists' perceived conductor support. Ninety-one (N = 91) skilled high school instrumentalists participated in the study. To assess…

  14. [Social participation processes, task-oriented participation and learning as antecedents of group cohesion. A longitudinal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo Lahiguera, Carmen; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Peiró Silla, José M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of changes in social participation and task- and learning-oriented processes on the development of cohesion (social and task-focused) in new groups. Cohesion has been considered one of the most important constructs in small groups, and its influence on team performance and efficacy has been highlighted. However, there are few papers that analyze the processes and the variables that precede the construct and that affect its evolution. Results of the longitudinal study show the importance of changes in participation processes on the development of task cohesion and social cohesion.

  15. WORK GROUPS'COHESION IN THE COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Constantin Teodoru

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the instruments used by employers from counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, in order to maintain and enhance the work groups' cohesion. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007-2013 Programme. Data were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft. We found that offering training opportunities to the employees and promoting the higher skilled labour force in the company's hierarchy are the best quoted instruments used by employers from the two counties in order to maintain the group cohesion. By using the ANOVA Test, we found also, that the cohesion instruments used by employers are significant different as regard to the activity sector where the company is active. The frequency of using cohesion instruments as: training opportunities, participation at local employment policies, and support for disadvantaged employees and facilitation of women employment differs significantly across activity sectors. The variation of variables related to these instruments could be explained in a proportion between 23,1% to 26% by the variation of variable associated to activity sector.

  16. Transformational leadership and group potency in small military units: The mediating role of group identification and cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Guiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined an exploratory model to assess the relationship between transformational leadership and group potency and analyze the mediating role of group identification and cohesion. The research was conducted with squads of the Spanish Army. The sample was composed of 243 members of 51 squads of operational units. Our findings highlighted the importance of the transformational leadership style of command of non-commissioned officers (NCOs due to its positive relationship with the group potency of the squad. We also analyzed the indirect relationships between transformational leadership and group identification and group cohesion and found that the latter variables played a mediating role between transformational leadership and group potency. The conclusions of this study are relevant due to the growing importance of transformational leadership and actions implemented at lower levels of the command chain for the success of missions of security organizations and defense.

  17. Kinetochores coordinate pericentromeric cohesion and early DNA replication by Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Müller, Carolin A; Katou, Yuki; Retkute, Renata; Gierliński, Marek; Araki, Hiroyuki; Blow, J Julian; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U

    2013-06-01

    Centromeres play several important roles in ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Not only do they promote kinetochore assembly for microtubule attachment, but they also support robust sister chromatid cohesion at pericentromeres and facilitate replication of centromeric DNA early in S phase. However, it is still elusive how centromeres orchestrate all these functions at the same site. Here, we show that the budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) accumulates at kinetochores in telophase, facilitated by the Ctf19 kinetochore complex. This promptly recruits Sld3-Sld7 replication initiator proteins to pericentromeric replication origins so that they initiate replication early in S phase. Furthermore, DDK at kinetochores independently recruits the Scc2-Scc4 cohesin loader to centromeres in G1 phase. This enhances cohesin loading and facilitates robust pericentromeric cohesion in S phase. Thus, we have found the central mechanism by which kinetochores orchestrate early S phase DNA replication and robust sister chromatid cohesion at microtubule attachment sites.

  18. The benefits of pass-fail grading on stress, mood, and group cohesion in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, Daniel E; Barrier, Patricia A; Clark, Matthew M; Cook, David A; Vickers, Kristin S; Decker, Paul A

    2006-11-01

    To objectively measure the effect of a pass-fail grading system on stress, mood, group cohesion, and test anxiety in medical students. Beginning with the class of 2006, the Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minn, changed the grading system for first-year courses from a 5-interval grading system to a pass-fail grading system. Students in the previous class of 2005, who were graded using a 5-interval system during their first year of medical school, were compared with students in the class of 2006. Using a prospective study design, the 2 groups were compared at the end of both the first year and the second year of medical school on the Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Perceived Cohesion Scale, Test Anxiety Inventory, and (after year 2) the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. Data collection occurred in 2002 and 2003 with the class of 2005 and in 2003 and 2004 with the class of 2006. Students graded with the pass-fail system had less perceived stress (median, 15.0 vs 21.0; P-.01) and greater group cohesion (median, 34.5 vs 30.0; P=.02) at the end of their second year of coursework than their 5-interval graded peers. The pass-fail group had better mood (median, 46.5) than the graded group (median, 64.0), but this difference was not statistically significant (P=.07). No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in test-taking anxiety or in United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 board scores. Pass-fail grading may reduce stress and increase group cohesion in medical students compared with traditional 5-interval grading.

  19. Understanding how animal groups achieve coordinated movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert-Read, J E

    2016-10-01

    Moving animal groups display remarkable feats of coordination. This coordination is largely achieved when individuals adjust their movement in response to their neighbours' movements and positions. Recent advancements in automated tracking technologies, including computer vision and GPS, now allow researchers to gather large amounts of data on the movements and positions of individuals in groups. Furthermore, analytical techniques from fields such as statistical physics now allow us to identify the precise interaction rules used by animals on the move. These interaction rules differ not only between species, but also between individuals in the same group. These differences have wide-ranging implications, affecting how groups make collective decisions and driving the evolution of collective motion. Here, I describe how trajectory data can be used to infer how animals interact in moving groups. I give examples of the similarities and differences in the spatial and directional organisations of animal groups between species, and discuss the rules that animals use to achieve this organisation. I then explore how groups of the same species can exhibit different structures, and ask whether this results from individuals adapting their interaction rules. I then examine how the interaction rules between individuals in the same groups can also differ, and discuss how this can affect ecological and evolutionary processes. Finally, I suggest areas of future research.

  20. Composition, concentration and deprivation: exploring their association with social cohesion among different ethnic groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Stafford, Mai; Laurence, James; Nazroo, James

    2011-01-01

    Although studies in the US have shown an association between the ethnic residential composition of an area and reports of decreased social cohesion among its residents, this association is not clear in the UK, and particularly for ethnic minority groups. The current study analyses a merged dataset from the 2005 and 2007 Citizenship Survey to assess the evidence for an association between social cohesion and ethnic residential concentration, composition and area deprivation across different ethnic groups in the UK. Results of the multilevel regression models show that, after adjusting for area deprivation, increased levels of social cohesion are found in areas of greater ethnic residential heterogeneity. Although different patterns emerge across ethnic groups and the measure of social cohesion used, findings consistently show that it is area deprivation, and not ethnic residential heterogeneity, which erodes social cohesion in the UK.

  1. Grooming network cohesion and the role of individuals in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Sueur, Cédric; Riedl, Katrin; Grossmann, Johannes; Call, Josep

    2011-08-01

    Social network analysis offers new tools to study the social structure of primate groups. We used social network analysis to investigate the cohesiveness of a grooming network in a captive chimpanzee group (N = 17) and the role that individuals may play in it. Using data from a year-long observation, we constructed an unweighted social network of preferred grooming interactions by retaining only those dyads that groomed above the group mean. This choice of criterion was validated by the finding that the properties of the unweighted network correlated with the properties of a weighted network (i.e. a network representing the frequency of grooming interactions) constructed from the same data. To investigate group cohesion, we tested the resilience of the unweighted grooming network to the removal of central individuals (i.e. individuals with high betweenness centrality). The network fragmented more after the removal of individuals with high betweenness centrality than after the removal of random individuals. Central individuals played a pivotal role in maintaining the network's cohesiveness, and we suggest that this may be a typical property of affiliative networks like grooming networks. We found that the grooming network correlated with kinship and age, and that individuals with higher social status occupied more central positions in the network. Overall, the grooming network showed a heterogeneous structure, yet did not exhibit scale-free properties similar to many other primate networks. We discuss our results in light of recent findings on animal social networks and chimpanzee grooming.

  2. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade

  3. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-03-26

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals.

  4. Internal character dictates phase transition dynamics between isolation and cohesive grouping

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F

    2015-01-01

    We show that accounting for internal character among interacting, heterogeneous entities generates rich phase transition behavior between isolation and cohesive dynamical grouping. Our analytical and numerical calculations reveal different critical points arising for different character-dependent grouping mechanisms. These critical points move in opposite directions as the population's diversity decreases. Our analytical theory helps explain why a particular class of universality is so common in the real world, despite fundamental differences in the underlying entities. Furthermore, it correctly predicts the non-monotonic temporal variation in connectivity observed recently in one such system.

  5. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998...... that such cooperation can provide important information for management related to muskox harvesting and monitoring....

  6. Network cohesion, group size and neocortex size in female-bonded Old World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Julia; Dunbar, R I M

    2009-12-22

    Most primates are intensely social and spend a large amount of time servicing social relationships. In this study, we use social network analysis to examine the relationship between primate group size, total brain size, neocortex ratio and several social network metrics concerned with network cohesion. Using female grooming networks from a number of Old World monkey species, we found that neocortex size was a better predictor of network characteristics than endocranial volumes. We further found that when we controlled for group size, neocortex ratio was negatively correlated with network density, connectivity, relative clan size and proportional clan membership, while there was no effect of neocortex ratio on change in connectivity following the removal of the most central female in the network. Thus, in species with larger neocortex ratios, females generally live in more fragmented networks, belong to smaller grooming clans and are members of relatively fewer clans despite living in a closely bonded group. However, even though groups are more fragmented to begin with among species with larger neocortices, the removal of the most central individual does cause groups to fall apart, suggesting that social complexity may ultimately involve the management of highly fragmented social groups while at the same time maintaining overall social cohesion. These results emphasize a need for more detailed brain data on a wider sample of primate species.

  7. Why Do MEPs Defect? An Analysis of Party Group Cohesion in the 5 th European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Faas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses party group cohesion and patterns of defections of national party delegations from party group lines in the present European Parliament, using a total of 1,370 roll call votes. The study confirms previous findings according to which party groups in the EP show (surprisingly high levels of cohesion. In addition and notwithstanding that, it reveals the circumstances under which MEPs and their national delegations are more likely to defect. Among other factors, it was analysed how the nature of the candidate selection process, the electoral system, and the relationships between MEPs and their home parties influence these defections. Assuming that MEPs have three different goals (re-election, office, and policy and want to first of all secure re-election, one can theoretically expect that those MEPs whose chances of re-election are more dependent on national parties than others’ (due to their specific candidate selection process or their relationship to their home party are more willing to vote against the party group line, if a conflict between party group and national party emerges. Empirically, this is confirmed. In other words, MEPs in general are very well aware of their specific situation. They know who deserves their primary attention and they act accordingly.

  8. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    -C30) was assessed at baseline and after Week 6. The interviews revealed that group cohesion was an interim goal aimed to maximize peak performance potential by patients. Group cohesion was characterized by a special 'esprit de corps' and enabled the group members to feel like sport teams....... The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion...

  9. Coordinates of the Absorption Capacity of Structural and Cohesion Funds at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Simina POPESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural and cohesion funds are considered an attractive instrument for the funding of investments opportunities especially in times of crisis when the private investments are reduced. Nevertheless, they have not been factually highlighted in order to empirically document the role of European funds in supporting the short-term economic growth, at macroeconomic level. The target of absorbing as much European financial non-refundable aid requires constant efforts made by the member states and administration authorities, the involvement of regional and local public administrations in each stage of the process, as well as an appropriate capacity of institutional structures and management and control systems, they being basic premises of this objective achievement.

  10. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and Their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social ecology and group cohesion in pilot whales and their...N000141410410 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigates the social ecology and cohesion of long-finned pilot whales as part of a broad multi...rules on individual and collective foraging success, to understand the ecological importance of different collective foraging strategies. At the

  11. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998....... Muskoxen in this area had a very loose group structure, with mother-young pairs as the only apparent bond between individuals. Furthermore, the tagged muskoxen lacked strong fidelity to the site where they were tagged and roamed within an 11.000-km2 area. Hunters reported tagged muskoxen shot up to 120 km...

  12. Evidence for contact calls in fish: conspecific vocalisations and ambient soundscape influence group cohesion in a nocturnal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterom, L.; Montgomery, J. C.; Jeffs, A. G.; Radford, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes provide a new tool for the study of fish communities. Bigeyes (Pempheris adspersa) are nocturnal planktivorous reef fish, feed in loose shoals and are soniferous. These vocalisations have been suggested to be contact calls to maintain group cohesion, however direct evidence for this is absent, despite the fact that contact calls are well documented for many other vertebrates, including marine mammals. For fish, direct evidence for group cohesion signals is restricted to the use of visual and hydrodynamic cues. In support of adding vocalisation as a contributing cue, our laboratory experiments show that bigeyes significantly increased group cohesion when exposed to recordings of ambient reef sound at higher sound levels while also decreasing vocalisations. These patterns of behaviour are consistent with acoustic masking. When exposed to playback of conspecific vocalisations, the group cohesion and vocalisation rates of bigeyes both significantly increased. These results provide the first direct experimental support for the hypotheses that vocalisations are used as contact calls to maintain group cohesion in fishes, making fish the evolutionarily oldest vertebrate group in which this phenomenon has been observed, and adding a new dimension to the interpretation of nocturnal reef soundscapes.

  13. Swarming behaviour associated with group cohesion in tree-dwelling bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naďo, Ladislav; Kaňuch, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Group living of social species increases the individual survival rate and enhances optimal exploitation of resources within their environment. Groups of cryptic tree-dwelling bats perform frequent roost switching on relatively long distances, whereas groups are temporarily disintegrated during foraging that precedes moving into new roost. In this study, we attempted to elucidate a mechanism in which group members can select new roost from a large set of potential roosting sites without disintegration of the whole group. Exploring the activity at the front of the tree hollows, recorded by automatic infrared monitors, we found that the swarming activity of Leisler's bats was performed during the whole night and was concentrated before the civil twilight at occupied roosts. A generalized linear model revealed significant positive association between the group size and swarming activity while season had negative but smaller effect. As bats swarmed the whole night also at sites that were less occupied or even unoccupied, we suggest that members of a bat colony selected new roost from a potentially larger set of available roosting sites. Thus, we propose a possible signalling role of swarming as a threshold behaviour that ensures group cohesion during roost switching.

  14. The Role of Adolescent Friendship Group Integration and Cohesion in Weapon-Related Violent Crime as a Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Antonaccio, Olena P; French, Michael T; Zakletskaia, Larissa I

    2017-01-16

    Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. These findings suggest that school-based initiatives to facilitate inclusive and cohesive adolescent peer communities may be an effective strategy to curb weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood.

  15. Impressions of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Group Cohesion: A Case for a Nonspecific Factor Predicting Later AA Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Samara Lloyd; Tonigan, J Scott

    2012-01-04

    Social support for abstinence in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been reported to be a consistent factor accounting for AA benefit. However, the nonspecific or unintended effects of such support remain poorly understood and rarely investigated. This prospective study investigated how one nonspecific factor-perceived AA group cohesiveness-predicted increased practice of AA-related behaviors. Findings indicated that impressions of AA group cohesion predicted increased AA attendance, the practice of prescribed AA activities, and self-reported AA usefulness. It appears that a sense of belongingness predicts subsequent engagement in the AA social network that, in turn, is predictive of increased abstinence.

  16. Competition in human groups-Impact on group cohesion, perceived stress and outcome satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Margarete; Franiel, Xaver; Belz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study on competition in human groups was performed within the context of the competitive outcome interdependence concept: the degree to which personal outcomes among group members are affected by the consequences of task performance of others, e.g. when one group member gains a high reward for a task, this lowers the available reward for other group members. Our computer-based multi-participant game empirically assessed how competitive versus neutral conditions influenced the reward-maximising behaviour of 200 undergraduate students functioning in ten-person groups - each playing two games (1 neutral and 1 competitive), their perceived pay satisfaction as well as perceived stress levels and sense of calmness within the games' task to search for coins. Participants were represented by black dots moving on a virtual playground. Results showed that competition led to reward-maximising but fellow group member disadvantaging behaviour, and all participants experienced lower pay satisfaction, higher stress levels and less calmness. We conclude that short-term behavioural consequences of positive individual competitive behaviour were gained at the above-mentioned potential long-term negative costs for all group members. This implies group paradigms aimed at sustainability should avoid introducing competitive factors that at best result in short-lived gains and at worst cause widespread dissatisfaction, stress and a pervasive lack of calmness.

  17. Group cohesion and between session homework activities predict self-reported cognitive-behavioral skill use amongst participants of SMART Recovery groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups.

  18. The Distribution of Instructional Time and Its Effect on Group Cohesion in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Comparison of Intensive and Standard Format Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinger, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…

  19. Facilitating Group Decision-Making: Facilitator's Subjective Theories on Group Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kolbe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of group facilitation is motivating and coordinating people to perform their joint work. This paper focuses on group coordination which is a prerequisite to group effectiveness, especially in complex tasks. Decision-making in groups is a complex task that consequently needs to be coordinated by explicit rather than implicit coordination mechanisms. Based on the embedded definition that explicit coordination does not just happen but is purposely executed by individuals, we argue that individual coordination intentions and mechanisms should be taken into account. Thus far, the subjective perspective of coordination has been neglected in coordination theory, which is understandable given the difficulties in defining and measuring subjective aspects of group facilitation. We therefore conducted focused interviews with eight experts who either worked as senior managers or as experienced group facilitators and analysed their approaches to group coordination using methods of content analysis. Results show that these experts possess sophisticated mental representations of their coordination behaviour. These subjective coordination theories can be organised in terms of coordination schemes in which coordination-releasing situations are facilitated by special coordination mechanisms that, in turn, lead to the perception of specific consequences. We discuss the importance of these subjective coordination theories for effectively facilitating group decision-making and minimising process losses. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901287

  20. 22 CFR 94.8 - Interagency coordinating group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interagency coordinating group. 94.8 Section 94.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.8 Interagency coordinating group. The U.S. Central Authority shall nominate federal employees...

  1. Group cohesion and organizational commitment: protective factors for nurse residents' job satisfaction, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Early, Sean F; Mahrer, Nicole E; Klaristenfeld, Jessica L; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2014-01-01

    Stress can have detrimental effects on nurse residents' levels of job satisfaction, compassion, fatigue, and burnout. This can lead to high turnover rates and poor quality of care among novice nurses. Therefore, it is critical to identify protective factors to prevent the onset of negative nurse outcomes (compassion fatigue, burnout, and job dissatisfaction) and to promote positive nurse outcomes (job satisfaction, compassion satisfaction). This study aimed to determine whether factors such as group cohesion and organizational commitment would be protective and moderate the association between stress exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms and other negative nurse outcomes, thus facilitating positive outcomes. Findings showed that group cohesion was effective in moderating the negative effects of current stress exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms on negative nurse outcomes, specifically on increased compassion fatigue and burnout, and reduced compassion satisfaction. In addition, organizational commitment was determined to promote positive nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and compassion satisfaction. The study findings are promising, as retention of quality nurses is a significant problem for hospitals. Nurse managers and hospital administrators should be aware of the benefits of group cohesion and organizational commitment and strive to make the promotion of these factors a priority.

  2. The Role of Conformity in Relation to Cohesiveness and Intimacy in Day-Hospital Groups of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Ho; Park, Sun Young; Choi, Sulkee; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-07-01

    Conformity is defined as the act of adjusting one's behavior to match the social responses of others. Patients with schizophrenia often adjust their maladaptive behaviors by conforming in group treatment settings. This study aimed to examine whether the opinions of group members influence conformity of patients with schizophrenia who attend day-hospital programs. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia from four different day-hospital programs and 23 healthy controls from four different social clubs completed the homographic meaning choice task under conditions of prior exposure to the pseudo-opinions of their group members, strangers, and unknown information sources. Group influences on conformity were observed when the level of group cohesiveness was high and the level of intimacy was low across participant groups. Controls did not exhibit a significant effect of group influence on conformity, whereas patients were significantly influenced by their group members when making conformity-based decisions despite significantly lower intimacy and cohesiveness levels. These findings suggest that unlike controls, patients with schizophrenia tend to respond with conformity when influenced by the opinions of their affiliated group. In patients with schizophrenia group conformity may be used to select a more accurate decision and to enhance feelings of affiliation among them.

  3. Living in forest fragments reduces group cohesion in diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in eastern Madagascar by reducing food patch size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Mitchell T

    2007-04-01

    Forest fragmentation is thought to threaten primate populations, yet the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. However, fragmentation is known to cause dietary shifts in several primate species, and links between food resource distribution and within-group spatial dynamics are well documented. Thus, fragmentation has the potential to indirectly affect spatial dynamics, and these changes may present additional stresses to fragmented populations. I present the results from a 12-month study of Propithecus diadema at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar, including two groups in fragments and two in continuous forest. Instantaneous data on activity and spatial position were collected during all-day focal animal follows. Fragment groups had much lower cohesion, being more likely to have no neighbor within 5 and 10 m. For continuous forest groups, cohesion was highest in the rainy season (when food patches are large) and lowest in winter (when the animals rely on small-crowned mistletoes), and the chance of having no neighbor within 5 m was positively correlated with mistletoe consumption. Thus their decreased cohesion in fragment groups is inferred to result from their increased reliance on mistletoes and other small resources, which causes them to spread out among multiple patches. This scenario is consistent with the reduced body mass of subordinate individuals (males and immatures) in fragments, and suggests the occurrence of steeper within-group fitness gradients. Further research is necessary to determine whether these patterns apply to other primates; however, since fragmentation tends to cause the loss of the largest trees, many primates in fragments may lose their largest food resources and undergo similar behavioral shifts.

  4. Cohesion group approach for evolutionary analysis of TyrA, a protein family with wide-ranging substrate specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carol A; Disz, Terrence; Hwang, Kaitlyn; Song, Jian; Vonstein, Veronika; Overbeek, Ross; Jensen, Roy A

    2008-03-01

    Many enzymes and other proteins are difficult subjects for bioinformatic analysis because they exhibit variant catalytic, structural, regulatory, and fusion mode features within a protein family whose sequences are not highly conserved. However, such features reflect dynamic and interesting scenarios of evolutionary importance. The value of experimental data obtained from individual organisms is instantly magnified to the extent that given features of the experimental organism can be projected upon related organisms. But how can one decide how far along the similarity scale it is reasonable to go before such inferences become doubtful? How can a credible picture of evolutionary events be deduced within the vertical trace of inheritance in combination with intervening events of lateral gene transfer (LGT)? We present a comprehensive analysis of a dehydrogenase protein family (TyrA) as a prototype example of how these goals can be accomplished through the use of cohesion group analysis. With this approach, the full collection of homologs is sorted into groups by a method that eliminates bias caused by an uneven representation of sequences from organisms whose phylogenetic spacing is not optimal. Each sufficiently populated cohesion group is phylogenetically coherent and defined by an overall congruence with a distinct section of the 16S rRNA gene tree. Exceptions that occasionally are found implicate a clearly defined LGT scenario whereby the recipient lineage is apparent and the donor lineage of the gene transferred is localized to those organisms that define the cohesion group. Systematic procedures to manage and organize otherwise overwhelming amounts of data are demonstrated.

  5. Genomic proifling oflower-grade gliomas uncovers cohesive disease groups:implications fordiagnosis andtreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChangMingZhang; DanielJBrat

    2016-01-01

    Lower‑grade gliomas (including low‑ and intermediate‑grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) are diffusely inifltrative neoplasms that arise most often in the cerebral hemispheres of adults and have traditionally been classiifed based on their presumed histogenesis as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, or oligoastrocytomas. Although the histopathologic classiifcation of lower‑grade glioma has been the accepted standard for nearly a century, it suffers from high intra‑ and inter‑observer variability and does not adequately predict clinical outcomes. Based on integrated analysis of multiplatform genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, lower‑grade gliomas have been found to segregate into three cohesive, clinically relevant molecular classes. Molecular classes were closely aligned with the status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, tumor protein 53 mutations and the co‑deletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q, but were not closely aligned with histologic classes. These ifndings emphasize the potential for improved deifnition of clinically relevant disease subsets using integrated molecular approaches and highlight the importance of biomarkers for brain tumor classiifcation.

  6. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  7. Animal signals and emotion in music: Coordinating affect across groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory A. Bryant

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on nonhuman animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allo...

  8. Comparison of 12-step groups to mutual help alternatives for AUD in a large, national study: Differences in membership characteristics and group participation, cohesion, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Mericle, Amy; Hemberg, Jordana

    2017-02-01

    Many studies suggest that participation in 12-step groups contributes to better recovery outcomes, but people often object to such groups and most do not sustain regular involvement. Yet, research on alternatives to 12-step groups is very sparse. The present study aimed to extend the knowledge base on mutual help group alternatives for those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD), sampling from large, active, abstinence-focused groups including Women for Sobriety (WFS), LifeRing, and SMART Recovery (SMART). This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of this longitudinal study, using baseline data to describe the profile and participation characteristics of attendees of these groups in comparison to 12-step members. Data from participants 18 and over with a lifetime AUD (N=651) were collected using Web-based surveys. Members of alternative 12-step groups were recruited in collaboration with group directors, who helped publicize the study by emailing meeting conveners and attendees and posting announcements on social media. A comparison group of current (past-30-day) 12-step attendees was recruited from an online meeting hub for recovering persons. Interested parties were directed to a Webpage where they were screened, and eligible participants completed an online survey assessing demographic and clinical variables; in-person and online mutual help involvement; and group satisfaction and cohesion. Analyses involved comparing those identifying WFS, SMART, and LifeRing as their primary group to 12-step members on the above characteristics. Compared to 12-step members, members of the mutual help alternatives were less religious and generally higher on education and income. WFS and LifeRing members were also older, more likely to be married, and lower on lifetime drug and psychiatric severity; meanwhile, LifeRing and SMART members were less likely to endorse the most stringent abstinence goal. Finally, despite lower levels of in-person meeting attendance, members of all

  9. Cohesion group approach for evolutionary analysis of aspartokinase, an enzyme that feeds a branched network of many biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chien-Chi; Bonner, Carol A; Xie, Gary; D'Souza, Mark; Jensen, Roy A

    2009-12-01

    Aspartokinase (Ask) exists within a variable network that supports the synthesis of 9 amino acids and a number of other important metabolites. Lysine, isoleucine, aromatic amino acids, and dipicolinate may arise from the ASK network or from alternative pathways. Ask proteins were subjected to cohesion group analysis, a methodology that sorts a given protein assemblage into groups in which evolutionary continuity is assured. Two subhomology divisions, ASK(alpha) and ASK(beta), have been recognized. The ASK(alpha) subhomology division is the most ancient, being widely distributed throughout the Archaea and Eukarya and in some Bacteria. Within an indel region of about 75 amino acids near the N terminus, ASK(beta) sequences differ from ASK(alpha) sequences by the possession of a proposed ancient deletion. ASK(beta) sequences are present in most Bacteria and usually exhibit an in-frame internal translational start site that can generate a small Ask subunit that is identical to the C-terminal portion of the larger subunit of a heterodimeric unit. Particularly novel are ask genes embedded in gene contexts that imply specialization for ectoine (osmotic agent) or aromatic amino acids. The cohesion group approach is well suited for the easy recognition of relatively recent lateral gene transfer (LGT) events, and many examples of these are described. Given the current density of genome representation for Proteobacteria, it is possible to reconstruct more ancient landmark LGT events. Thus, a plausible scenario in which the three well-studied and iconic Ask homologs of Escherichia coli are not within the vertical genealogy of Gammaproteobacteria, but rather originated via LGT from a Bacteroidetes donor, is supported.

  10. The Impact of Homogeneity on Intra-Group Cohesion: A Macro-Level Comparison of Minority Communities in a Western Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffa, Oromiya-Jalata

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to earlier studies dealing with the cultural identity development of diasporic minorities, this paper assesses the impact of homogeneity on intra-group cohesion and ethnic orientation. To this end, Oromo-Americans, an ethnic group originally located within the national borders of Ethiopia, will be compared to Armenian-Americans,…

  11. In-group defense, out-group aggression, and coordination failures in intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor; Giffin, Michael; Prochazkova, Eliska; Krikeb, Jonathan; Columbus, Simon

    2016-09-20

    Intergroup conflict persists when and because individuals make costly contributions to their group's fighting capacity, but how groups organize contributions into effective collective action remains poorly understood. Here we distinguish between contributions aimed at subordinating out-groups (out-group aggression) from those aimed at defending the in-group against possible out-group aggression (in-group defense). We conducted two experiments in which three-person aggressor groups confronted three-person defender groups in a multiround contest game (n = 276; 92 aggressor-defender contests). Individuals received an endowment from which they could contribute to their group's fighting capacity. Contributions were always wasted, but when the aggressor group's fighting capacity exceeded that of the defender group, the aggressor group acquired the defender group's remaining resources (otherwise, individuals on both sides were left with the remainders of their endowment). In-group defense appeared stronger and better coordinated than out-group aggression, and defender groups survived roughly 70% of the attacks. This low success rate for aggressor groups mirrored that of group-hunting predators such as wolves and chimpanzees (n = 1,382 cases), hostile takeovers in industry (n = 1,637 cases), and interstate conflicts (n = 2,586). Furthermore, whereas peer punishment increased out-group aggression more than in-group defense without affecting success rates (Exp. 1), sequential (vs. simultaneous) decision-making increased coordination of collective action for out-group aggression, doubling the aggressor's success rate (Exp. 2). The relatively high success rate of in-group defense suggests evolutionary and cultural pressures may have favored capacities for cooperation and coordination when the group goal is to defend, rather than to expand, dominate, and exploit.

  12. Animal signals and emotion in music: Coordinating affect across groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Bryant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on nonhuman animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Here I describe recent work that reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including 1 examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise in nonhuman animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and 2 an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to nonhuman animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary byproducts of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be due to the operation of an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases—many shared across species—and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  13. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases - many shared across species - and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  14. The Discursive Construction of Group Cohesion in Problem-Based Learning Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Gillian; Wiggins, Sally; Anderson, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that educators may be reluctant to implement group work in their teaching due to concerns about students partaking in off-task behaviours. However, such off-task interactions have been shown to promote motivation, trust, and rapport-building. This paper details a study in which student groups were video recorded as they engaged…

  15. Influence of axial load on the lateral pile groups response in cohesionless and cohesive soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasim M. ABBASA[1; Zamri CHIK[2; Mohd Raihan TAHA[2

    2015-01-01

    The lateral response of single and group of piles under simultaneous vertical and lateral loads has been analyzed using a 3D finite element approach. The response in this assessment considered lateral pile displacement and lateral soil resistance and corresponding p-y curve. As a result, modified p-y curves for lateral single pile response were improved with respect to the influence of increasing axial load intensities. The improved plots can be used for lateral loaded pile design and to produce the group action design p-multiplier curves and equations. The effect of load combination on the lateral pile group response was performed on three pile group configurations (i.e., 2 × 1, 2 × 2 and 3 × 2) with four pile spacings (i.e., s = 2D, 4D, 6D and 8D). As a result, design curves were developed and applied on the actual case studies and similar expected cases for assessment of pile group behavior using improved p-multiplier. A design equation was derived from predicted design curves to be used in the evaluation of the lateral pile group action taking into account the effect of axial load intensities. It was found that the group interaction effect led to reduced lateral resistance for the pile in the group relative to that for the single pile in case of pure lateral load. While, in case of simultaneous combined loads, large axial load intensities (i.e., more than 6H, where H is lateral load values) will have an increase inp-multiplier by approximately 100% and will consequently contribute to greater group piles capacities.

  16. Effects of a music therapy program upon awareness of mood in music, group cohesion, and self-esteem among hospitalized adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S M

    1983-01-01

    Subjects for this study were 13 hospitalized patients given the diagnosis of adjustment reaction to adolescence. The subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental period consisted of 18 1-hour sessions. Subjects in the control group did not attend music therapy activities. Experimental subjects engaged in group discussions concerning moods and emotions in music, expression and identification of body language, story composition to recorded music, and drawing to music. Four types of pre and posttests were administered: agreement on mood or emotion expressed in music as measured by an adjective checklist; sociograms to measure group cohesion; the number of pronouns expressing group feelings ("we, our"); and scores of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Significant differences in favor of experimental subjects were found on the adjective checklist (p = .01) and the group versus personal pronouns (p less than .05). The group cohesion measure approached significance (p = .062).

  17. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  18. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  19. Lexical Cohesion in Students' Argumentative Essay among a Select Group of Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Josephine B.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the lexical devices used by undergraduate students in their argumentative text using Halliday and Hasan (1976) and Halliday's (2004) taxonomy. One hundred forty-eight argumentative essays were analyzed. The essays underwent interrating by three independent raters using a 20-point rubric and were grouped according to rating.…

  20. Does group cohesion matter to decision quality in information systems development teams?

    OpenAIRE

    Lohan, Garry; Acton, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Newer information systems development approaches such as agile methods, which emphasize a sense-and-respond approach, increase the number of operating decisions made regularly within the development team. These methods are being used by an increasing number of organizations as a means of improving the agility of the development process. Development teams are required to make regular group decisions and team members work closely with each other to develop software in time-boxe...

  1. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  2. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasiński Adam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA piles and screw displacement piles (SDP. The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  3. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla during rehabilitation in the Bateke Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Flohic

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for

  4. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) during rehabilitation in the Batéké Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Flohic, Guillaume; Motsch, Peggy; DeNys, Hélène; Childs, Simon; Courage, Amos; King, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla) is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour) and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions) were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for enhancing

  5. Developing Team Cohesion: A Quasi-Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    the extent of motivation to accomplishing the organization’s goals and Group Characteristics Group Processes Cohesion Social Task...Workload Sharing Cohesion Social (Bonding) Task Effectiveness Spirit Pride Environment Stressful activities Social activities Individual...n Task Cohesion Social Cohesion Affective Horizontal Bonding Figure 3. Growth of cohesion over time for seven week familiarity period and one week

  6. Music listening in families and peer groups: benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed.

  7. African therapy for a fractured world(view: The life of founder bishop Johannes Richmond and the invention of tradition and group cohesion in an African Initiated Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Wepener

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the book The invention of tradition historian Eric Hobsbawm claims that the process of the invention of tradition serves the formation of group cohesion. The different versions of the life story of the founder bishop of the Corinthian Church of South Africa (AIC, as documented during many years of conducting qualitative field work in this church, are used in this article as a case study in this regard. The article unpacks the way in which the invention of tradition as a process is in this particular AIC currently a work in progress contributing to the formation of a particular type of group cohesion that stretches over racial, religious and denominational boundaries especially by means of the unique liturgical rituals that were influenced by the life story of the founder. The group cohesion that this process fosters is in essence aimed at healing in all its multifaceted dimensions, which includes healing from physical ailments, ‘healing’ from barrenness, healing from spirit possession to healing as (re-incorporation of an individual into the larger group, the healing of a nation as well as healing from a dualistic spirit-matter worldview.

  8. Forms of cohesion in confinement institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina D. Slobodenyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the diversity of cohesion forms in confinement institutions. Methods qualitative analyses based on indepth semistructured interviews. Results the study included adaptation of Western methodologies of the cohesion phenomenon analysis to the Russian reality and operationalization of the moral bases of group cohesion. This served as the bases for designing a guide for indepth semistructured interviews 10 interviews were conducted with people recently released from general and strict regime colonies. Content analysis of the interviews revealed a number of structural sections that demonstrate the diversity of cohesion forms alongside with one that is most meaningful to the prisoners and therefore the most well perceived and articulated by respondents. Analysis of the latter allowed to identify a set of groups showing different degree and nature of cohesion. By the degree of cohesion one can identify the poorly cohesive groups quotloutsquot moderately cohesive quotredsquot quotthievesquot and highly cohesive quotfightersquot. By the nature of cohesion in the prisonersrsquo community there are both groups united on the basis of social morality quotredsquot quotthievesquot and groups demonstrating a high degree of cohesion based on the social justice morality quotfightersquot. A detailed analysis of the latter group also showed that the cohesion can have both traits of morality social justice and features of social order moral. Scientific novelty using the sociopsychological theory of the moral motives in determining the bases of cohesion. Practical significance the research results can be applied for the development of sociopsychological techniques for the penal system reform.

  9. Cohesive energy and structural parameters of binary oxides of groups IIA and IIIB from diffusion quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Juan A.; Krogel, Jaron T.; Kent, Paul R. C.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2016-05-01

    We have applied the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) method to calculate the cohesive energy and the structural parameters of the binary oxides CaO, SrO, BaO, Sc2O3, Y2O3, and La2O3. The aim of our calculations is to systematically quantify the accuracy of the DMC method to study this type of metal oxides. The DMC results were compared with local, semi-local, and hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) approximations as well as with experimental measurements. The DMC method yields cohesive energies for these oxides with a mean absolute deviation from experimental measurements of 0.18(2) eV, while with local, semi-local, and hybrid DFT approximations, the deviation is 3.06, 0.94, and 1.23 eV, respectively. For lattice constants, the mean absolute deviations in DMC, local, semi-local, and hybrid DFT approximations are 0.017(1), 0.07, 0.05, and 0.04 Å, respectively. DMC is a highly accurate method, outperforming the DFT approximations in describing the cohesive energies and structural parameters of these binary oxides.

  10. An Analysis of the Cohesion of the Online Teaching Research Group%跨校网络教研小组的凝聚力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴筱萌

    2016-01-01

    随着教育信息化的不断深入,教师网络教研越来越成为与传统面对面教研并重的教师专业发展途径,特别是小规模的网络教研在未来可能成为常态化的教研形式。但是教师间的时空分离也使得教研活动面临挑战。群体凝聚力是群体动力的重要组成部分,发现具有良好凝聚力的网络教研小组的特征,有利于帮助网络教研小组的建立与发展,促进网络教研活动持续有效地进行。该研究运用质性研究方法,以某案例区跨学校间的网络教研小组为研究对象,以教师的总结作为研究资料,将教师个体对网络教研小组凝聚力的感知,以及干扰小组凝聚力形成的相关因素进行了归纳与分析。在此基础上,该研究提炼出具有良好凝聚力的网络教研小组的主要特征,即小组要使得教师个体在其中得到发展,小组内人际依赖十分重要,需要明确的任务来驱动小组行动,具有平等的组织结构、以及适度的小组规模。%Along with the improvement of the network infrastructure in schools, doing teaching research collaboratively online by different school teachers has been becoming an important approach of teachers’ professional development. Although the online teaching research groups of teachers are expected to be more and more popular in the future, these kind of online groups have to face the challenge of the physical distance among teachers which may course communication problems or even disintegration of the groups. Group cohesion can lay claim to being group dynamics’ most theoretically important concept. The cohesion is considered to improve the collective effcacy of the online teaching research group. This study explored the cohesion of online teaching research groups which were composed of teachers in difference schools. Using the journals written by the teachers, the study explored the group’s cohesiveness perceived by the

  11. Music listening in families and peer groups: Benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eBoer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood. Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture. Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed.

  12. Coesão textual na escrita de um grupo de adultos surdos usuários da língua de sinais Brasileira Text cohesion in writing of a group of deaf adults users of Brazilian sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Oliveira Crepaldi de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar a coesão textual em produções escritas por quatro adultos surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais Brasileira alfabetizados, integrantes de um grupo de discussão nessa língua, sobre o tema violência, coordenado por uma intérprete fluente. Verificar a possível interferência da Libras na escrita em português. MÉTODOS: após terem participado de sessões de discussão sobre o tema violência, cada participante produziu um texto relacionado a algum tipo de violência. Seus textos foram analisados qualitativamente em termos de sua coesão. RESULTADOS: os textos produzidos faziam referência a situações de violência simbólica. O estudo dos textos evidenciou presença de coesão textual sequencial e referencial em todos os textos, embora comprometida. Houve interferência da Libras nas redações. Observou-se que os textos, por si sós, são difíceis de serem compreendidos sem a interação direta com o participante. Apesar da dificuldade na compreensão da língua escrita, que é diferente da estrutura da língua de sinais, o estudo evidenciou que esses surdos podem construir textos com sentido e coesão. CONCLUSÃO: a produção escrita dos surdos pesquisados apresenta coesão, porém com interferência da Libras, o que prejudica, em alguns casos, a compreensão por parte do leitor. Quanto menor a coesão textual, maior a necessidade de explicações do autor sobre o que quis dizer com seu texto.PURPOSE: to investigate text cohesion in written productions of four deaf male adults using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras and write in Portuguese. Participants integrate a discussion group on violence using that language coordinated by a fluent interpreter. The study also verifies possible interference of Libras on writing in Portuguese. METHODS: after a few sessions, a discussing the theme violence, each deaf participant wrote a text on a violence situation. These texts were analyzed qualitatively as for their cohesion

  13. 76 FR 41987 - Interagency Working Group on Coordination of Domestic Energy Development and Permitting in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... an Interagency Working Group on Coordination of Domestic Energy Development and Permitting in Alaska... July 15, 2011 Part V The President Executive Order 13580--Interagency Working Group on Coordination of Domestic Energy Development and Permitting in Alaska #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0;...

  14. Understanding Cohesion in English

    OpenAIRE

    Shibayama, Morijiro

    1981-01-01

    Cohesion is Hasan's term. The concept of cohesion, however, is not well-formed and its mechanism is still to be studied. In this paper, the author says: 1. Both cohesion and a tie are semantic concepts. 2. Cohesion in a text is a set of ties between sentences. Based on the definitions, the author discusses the formal and lexicogrammatical factors which generate cohesion.

  15. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate and

  16. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus: Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Seltmann

    Full Text Available Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism. Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in

  17. Optimal Coordinated Strategy Analysis for the Procurement Logistics of a Steel Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of an internal coordinated procurement logistics system in a steel group and the decision on the coordinated procurement strategy by minimizing the logistics costs. Considering the coordinated procurement strategy and the procurement logistics costs, the aim of the optimization model was to maximize the degree of quality satisfaction and to minimize the procurement logistics costs. The model was transformed into a single-objective model and solved using a simulated annealing algorithm. In the algorithm, the supplier of each subsidiary was selected according to the evaluation result for independent procurement. Finally, the effect of different parameters on the coordinated procurement strategy was analysed. The results showed that the coordinated strategy can clearly save procurement costs; that the strategy appears to be more cooperative when the quality requirement is not stricter; and that the coordinated costs have a strong effect on the coordinated procurement strategy.

  18. CURRENT COORDINATES OF ROMANIAN VULNERABLE GROUPS IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Often, in European Union and Romanian legal documents or in research reports, the term ‘vulnerable group’ is used similarly to disadvantaged, marginalized, excluded or risk group; all these concepts are related to the broader phenomenon of poverty. The common sense for vulnerability is ‘weakness’, ‘lack of defense’, ‘lack of means’. Vulnerable groups are groups without support, which are often in a chronic state of poverty, being unable to take advantage of opportunities or to defend themselves against problems that may arise. This paper presents a brief analysis of the structure and size of vulnerable groups in the European Union and an analysis of their particularities for Romania. The paper also proposes a systematic treatment, but not of all the consequences of the global crisis on Romanian vulnerable groups. The main features of the Roma minority and vulnerable women from Romania, their demographic profile and spatial distribution, the employment policies for these vulnerable groups are highlighted.

  19. Differential associations between Social Anxiety Disorder, family cohesion, and suicidality across racial/ethnic groups: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent (NCS-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Amy M; Lau, Anna; Chavira, Denise A

    2016-09-20

    The proposed research seeks to introduce a novel model relating Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and suicide outcomes (i.e., passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) in diverse adolescents. This model posits that family cohesion is one pathway by which suicide risk is increased for socially anxious youth, and predicts that the relationships between these variables may be of different strength in Latino and White subgroups and across gender. Data from a sample of Latino (n=1922) and non-Hispanic White (hereafter referred to as White throughout) (n=5648) male and female adolescents who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent were used for this study. Analyses were conducted using generalized structural equation modeling. Results showed that the mediation model held for White females. Further examination of direct pathways highlighted SAD as a risk factor unique to Latinos for active suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, over and above comorbid depression and other relevant contextual factors. Additionally, family cohesion showed a strong association with suicide outcomes across groups, with some inconsistent findings for White males. Overall, it appears that the mechanism by which SAD increases risk for suicidality is different across groups, indicating further need to identify relevant mediators, especially for racial/ethnic minority youth.

  20. How is perceived community cohesion and membership in community groups associated with children’s dietary adequacy in disadvantaged communities? A case of the Indian Sundarbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Barman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membership in community groups and a sense of community cohesion may facilitate collective action in mobilizing resources towards better health outcomes. This paper explores the relationship of these factors, along with individual level socio-economic variables, to dietary adequacy among children below 6 years of age, a proximate determinant of child malnutrition. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Patharpratima block of the Sundarbans in West Bengal, India, using a two-stage, 30 cluster random sampling design. In 1200 sampled households, we used a structured questionnaire to interview mothers of children below 6 years of age on their child’s nutritional intake. We also interviewed household heads to assess perceived community cohesion using a nine item scale, membership in any community self-help organization, and other socio-economic determinants. We used a logistic regression model to assess their association with a minimum acceptable diet among children between 6 months to 6 years. Results Only 9.33 % children between 6 and 71 months of age received a minimum acceptable diet. With each increase in the perceived community cohesion score (scale 0-9, a child is 1.31 times more likely to have minimum acceptable diet (95 % CI 1.14, 1.50. The odds of minimum acceptable diet were also higher among children whose mothers had primary education (2.09, 95 % CI 1.03, 2.94 as compared to illiterate mothers and in households with surplus food resources (2.72, 95 % CI 1.32, 5.58 as compared to those without surplus or deficit. In contrast, registering at an Anganwadi (government early child development centre (odds ratio 1.34 95 % CI 0.69, 2.60 and community membership (odds ratio 0.93, 95 % CI 0.59, 1.46 were not associated with minimum acceptable diet. Conclusion The results are consistent with what is known about the importance of maternal education and access to food resources in ensuring that children

  1. Stabilization of hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles by axial silyloxy groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tamal; Lee, Way-Zen; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2016-05-04

    We report the stabilization of the hexa-coordination environment for P(v) corroles by using alkyl/aryl substituted silyloxy groups as axial ligands. The P(v) corroles are highly fluorescent in a hexa-coordination environment compared to in a penta-coordination environment. However, P(v) corroles generally undergo axial ligand dissociation to form a mixture of penta- and hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles in non-coordinating solvents such as toluene, CH2Cl2, CHCl3. The usage of moderately bulkier and electron-donating silyloxy groups helps to restrict the axial ligand dissociation of silyloxy substituted hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles in non-coordinating solvents. The crystal structure confirmed the hexa-coordination geometry for the P(v) corroles. The P(v) corroles strongly absorb and emit in the visible region, with decent quantum yields and singlet state lifetimes. The hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles are highly stable under electrochemical conditions.

  2. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  3. Unit Cohesion and the Surface Navy: Does Cohesion Affect Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Relationship of Group Cohe- sion to Group Performance: A Research Integration Attempt, by L. W. Oliver, A199069, July 1988. Cartwright , D., "The Nature of...Group Cohesiveness," in Darwin Cart- wright and Alvin Zander, eds., Group Dynamics: Research and Theory, New York: Harper and Row, 1968. Gujarati, D. N

  4. [Communication in the coordination practices of socioeducational groups in family health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Líliam Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the forms of communication used by coordinators in socioeducational groups in family health programmes. This qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study was conducted with 25 coordinators of groups in eight basic health units from Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data collection comprised non-participant observation and semistructured interviews with the coordinators. The theoretical basis for research was Bakhtin's formulations and references on communication and health. The gathered information showed that the body, health and disease triad was communicated in groups through different channels and at different levels of discourse. Our conclusion is that coordinators must adopt an approach that values the expression of participants, not just regarding the physical dimensions of health, but also the life of each participant, and should use various forms of communication to foster dialogical educational actions and means for interaction in groups.

  5. Analysis of group cohesion levels and pre-competitive psychological stress in volleyball athletes.. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Moraes Balbim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study was designed to analyze the level of group cohesion and pre-competitive psychological stress of adult volleyball athletes. The subjects consisted of 155 male and female athletes from the state of Parana who played in the JAPS/ 1st division (A, and 2nd division (B. The assessment instruments used were the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ and the Volleyball Psychic Stress Test (V-PST. For data analysis, the following tools were used: Cronbach’s alpha, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, one-way Anova, and Tukey’s post hoc (p<0.05. The results revealed that athletes of division A were more negatively influenced by stress factors than the athletes of division B; in terms of individual attraction to the social group (p=0.014 and tasks (p=0016 athletes of division B had higher levels of group cohesion than athletes from division A; athletes with low social cohesion were negatively impacted by factors of "inappropriate physical conditioning" and "excessive nervousness;" athletes with low levels of cohesion for the task were negatively influenced by the factors of "Pressure from other people to win" and positively by the factor "Behavior of the fans in the game outside." It was concluded that group cohesion is demonstrated to be an intervening factor in pre-competitive stress thereby demonstrating that the higher the dispute level, the higher the negative influence of stress.

  6. Leadership, cohesion and groupthink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchevici Iulia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Groupthink Phenomenon refers to the tendency of the members of a group to reach solidarity and cohesion, the trend that makes to bypass any questions which would lead to disputes. In such cases, if the members expect counter-arguments regarding a certain issue, they avoid to raise the matter. If it is believed that a question cannot be answered – it isn’t asked. Originally, Janis the author of the term, explains this process through the environment that has been established within groups that are in the leading position, but later, puts a strong emphasis towards the tendency to maintain the unanimity of the decision of the group. As preceding conditions of this decision-making process are listed the following: the high cohesion of the group, its isolation from other external sources of information, the lack of an impartial leadership, lack of appropriate legal framework and procedures in the decision - making process, and also “homogeneity of members, background and their ideology”. The Groupthink is manifested by: Illusion of Invulnerability, Collective Rationalization, Illusion of morality, Out – Group Stereotypes, Strong pressures towards conformism, Self – Censorship, Illusions of unanimity, and the presence of “Mind Guards”. In order to understand the decisions of a group, it is important that some analysis of Groupthink to be done, because in this way, can be controlled or eliminated the communicational distortion that occurs at a time among members forming these groups.

  7. 高职院校篮球训练队团体凝聚力培养对策研究%Research on the Cultivation of Group Cohesion in Bas-ketball Teams of Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, from the characteristics of higher voca-tional colleges and training of basketball players, based on analy-sis of influencing factors on group cohesion, and discusses how to enhance the ways and methods of group cohesion. The way to de-velop community cohesion, thereby enhancing the overall strength of the school basketball team.%  本文从高职院校篮球训练队及运动员的特点出发,在深入分析影响团体凝聚力的因素的基础上,探讨如何增强群体凝聚力的途径与方法。提出培养团体凝聚力的途径,从而增强学校篮球训练队的整体实力。

  8. From exponential coordinates to bicovariant differential calculi on matrix quantum groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijligenberg, N.W. van den; Martini, R.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure to obtain bicovariant differential calculi on matrix quantum groups is presented. The construction is based on the description of the matrix quantum group as a quantized universal enveloping algebra by the use of exponential coordinates. The procedure is illustrated by applying it to the

  9. A Qualitative Exploration of Factors Affecting Group Cohesion and Team Play in Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas (MOBAs)

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    Previous research examining the social psychology of video-gaming has tended to focus on Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) environments, such as World of Warcraft. Although many online group processes have been examined using this game, this genre does not enforce cooperative play and studies tend to be based on very large groups. Newer genres are being developed and played which have so far not been studied. The genre known as Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas (MOBAs) ar...

  10. The differences between Groupon and other group-buying intermediaries: : from transactional and relational coordination perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yijing; Wu, Qiongshen

    2011-01-01

    Groupon is a popular group-buying website offering daily deals and has experiencedfast growth. It has attracted amounts of imitators and they sprang up all over the world.We treat this phenomenon by taking Groupon as an intermediary executing coordinationbetween merchants and customers in the group-buying activities. To see the particularpractices of Groupon in operating transactional and relational coordination mechanisms,we collect diverse group-buying forms from the earliest buying club si...

  11. GroupFinder: A Hyper-Local Group Study Coordination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Ryan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available GroupFinder is a system designed to help users working in groups let each other know where they are, what they are working on, and when they started. Students can use the GroupFinder system to arrange meetings within the library. GroupFinder also works with the phpScheduleIt room reservation system used to reserve group study rooms at the D.H. Hill Library at NCSU. Information from GroupFinder is presented on the GroupFinder web site, the mobile web site and on electronic bulletin boards within the library. How GroupFinder was developed from the initial concept through the implementation is covered in the article.

  12. The Importance of Transformational Leadership in the Quest for Group Cohesion: The Case of a University Level Varsity Football Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Tovell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze and describe the behaviors (coach athlete interactions of university level football coaches, to compare these findings to other studies and to analyze these results in light of transformational leadership. The Arizona State University Observation Instrument (ASUOI, a systematic observation instrument consisting of 14 behavior categories, was used to compile data on the interactions of seven members of the coaching staff. Event recording was used to collect the data of each coach being observed during practice sessions, these sessions were videotaped to determine the interactions between the athletes and the coaches. Segments of the practices were classified as warm-up, group and team. Analysis of the data revealed that the warm-up segment differed significantly from the group and team segments. Instruction was the behavior with the highest percentage in both the group and team segments of practice. Looking at the entire practice, instruction was also the highest occurring behavior - it had the greatest percentage and rpm than any other behavior category. Praise and hustle were also two of the highest occurring behaviors. There was a strong correlation between this study and other studies using the ASUOI and the Coaching Behavior Recording Form (CBRF in regards to instruction being the highest occurring behavior category. It was concluded that a systematic effort was made by members of the coaching staff to adhere to transformational leadership strategies.

  13. Cohesiveness and Performance on an Additive Task: Evidence for Multidimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaro, Stephen J.; Lowe, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study designed to contrast the effects of task-based and interpersonal cohesiveness on group performance of students. Concludes that high task cohesion helped group performance, while interpersonal attraction had no apparent effect. Finding that increased interpersonal cohesion improved task commitment, the authors suggest that…

  14. Social dilemmas and individual/group coordination strategies in a complex rural land-use game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García-Barrios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening ongoing bottom-up capacity building processes for local and sustainable landscape-level governance is a multi-dimensional social endeavor. One of the tasks involved – participatory rural land use planning – requires more understanding and more awareness among all stakeholders regarding the social dilemmas local people confront when responding to each other’s land-use decisions. In this paper we will analyze and discuss a version of our game SIERRA SPRINGS that is simple to play for any stakeholder that can count to 24, yet entails a complex-coordination land use game – with an extensive and yet finite set of solutions – which can mimic in a stylized form some of the dilemmas landowners could confront in a landscape planning process where there livelihoods are at stake. The game has helped researchers and players observe and reflect on the individual coordination strategies that emerge within a group in response to these stylized dilemmas. This paper (1 develops a game-theoretical approach to cooperation, competition and coordination of land uses in small rural watersheds, (2 describe the goal, rules and mechanics of the game, (3 analyzes the structure of each farms’ solution set vs. the whole watershed’s solution set, (4 derives from them the coordination dilemmas and the risk of coordination failure, (5 describes four individual coordination strategies consistently displayed by players; mapping them in a plane we have called Group-Level Coordination Space, and (6 discusses the strengths, limitations and actual and potential uses of the game both for research and as an introductory tool for stakeholders involved in participatory land use planning.

  15. Investigate and Analyze on Class Group Cohesion of Institute of Physical Education%体育学院班级团队凝聚力现状调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小卫

    2012-01-01

    采用自编《体育学院班集体的团队凝聚力》问卷,从学习和生活角度对体育学院班集体团队凝聚力现状进行了调查分析。结果表明:体育学院班集体团队凝聚力整体水平不高,在四个因子方面,班级活动团队凝聚力最高,宿舍和文化课的团队凝聚力中等,其他课余生活团队凝聚力最低;不同年级、不同专业之间,其班集体团队凝聚力水平在部分因子中存在显著差异性。%From the perspective of learning and living,the article investigates the class group cohesion of students from the Institute of Physical Education by using questionnaire of class group cohesion of students from the Institute of Physical Education.The result shows that whole level of class group cohesion of students from the Institute of Physical Education is low.And the four factors situate in different levels.The class activities situate in the highest level for the class group cohesion,while the extracurricular life situates in the lowest level.There is significant difference in part of the levels between different faculties and different grades.The analysis result provides evidence for improving class group cohesion,class management and class building of students from the Institute of Physical Education.

  16. Coordination of baseload power plant group control with static reactive power compensator control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szczerba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power sources in power system nodes: generators and static reactive power compensators, are controlled by control systems. Generators – by generator node group controllers, compensators – by voltage controllers. The paper presents issues of these control systems’ coordination and proposals for its implementation.

  17. Why are Rich Countries more Politically Cohesive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    of other groups in society. If the gains from specialization become sufficiently large, however, a market economy will emerge. From being essentially non-cohesive under self-sufficiency, the political decision making process becomes cohesive in the market economy, as the welfare of individuals...

  18. Conversation, co-ordination and convention: an empirical investigation of how groups establish linguistic conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, S; Doherty, G

    1994-12-01

    Two experiments are reported which demonstrate the development of co-ordinated description languages in two groups of communicators playing Garrod and Anderson's (1987) maze game. The experiments contrast language co-ordination between speakers who always interact with the same partner (isolated pairs) as compared with speakers who interact with different partners drawn from the same community. Whereas the isolated pairs show higher degrees of inter-speaker convergence than the community pairs at the start of the experiment, the situation reverses by the time they have all played six or more games. The results are discussed at two levels: (1) in terms of Lewis's formal theory of conventions, and (2) in relation to a language processing model which abides by the "output/input co-ordination" principle proposed in Garrod and Anderson (1987).

  19. Generation of symmetry coordinates for crystals using multiplier representations of the space groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1978-01-01

    Symmetry coordinates play an important role in the normal-mode calculations of crystals. It is therefore of great importance to have a general method, which may be applied for any crystal at any wave vector, to generate these. The multiplier representations of the space groups as given by Kovalev...... and the projection-operator technique provide a basis for such a method. The method is illustrated for the nonsymmorphic D36 space group, and the theoretical background for the representations of space groups in general is reviewed and illustrated on the example above. It is desirable to perform the projection...... of symmetry coordinates in such a way that they may be used for as many wave vectors as possible. We discuss how to achieve this goal. The detailed illustrations should make it simple to apply the theory in any other case....

  20. Improving group cohesion to promote journal popularity%增强团队凝聚力提高期刊知名度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤芹

    2011-01-01

    The aims of an academic journal are to propagate the knowledge and information in science and technology, and to assess the researches during the publication. Based on the working experience for many years and lots of reference reading, the author summarized the benefit conditions, the reasonable ways or methods, and the major measures for improving the academic journal popularity. The aspects such as improvements of equipment and working manners, following up the research frontiers, regeneration on the editing knowledge, strength on group cooperation, guarantee on the journal quality are the benefit conditions for promoting the academic journal popularity. The reasonable ways for promoting the academic journal popularity may include improving the group cohesion, communicating with authors and referees positively, and making the editors in the position of service to authors and audience. At last, the major measures for improving the academic journal popularity are as follows: constructing the editor group effectively, optimizing the journal and editor resources and strengthening the market consciousness In summary, the knowledge and information in science and technology can be effectively propagated by promoting the academic journal popularity through improving the group cohesion.%科技期刊是科技知识、成果、信息的重要载体和媒介,其主要目标是实现科学技术与科学知识的传播,并在传播过程中,发挥科研评价等重要作用.笔者在多年工作实践基础上,通过查阅大量文献资料,总结归纳出提高期刊知名度的有利条件、方法途径及主要措施.改善基础设施,改革工作方式,跟踪学科前沿,更新编辑知识,加强团队协作,保证期刊质量是科技期刊在竞争中提高期刊知名度的有利条件;增强编辑团队的凝聚力,调动作者投稿积极性,编辑积极主动与审者沟通,提高服务读者意识是提高期刊知名度的方法和途径;加强编辑队伍

  1. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    the nature of the cohesive sediment with respect to the transport processes is presented. In addition, the flocculation process and the rheological behaviour of cohesive sediments is outlined. The second part contains the laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments were conducted with respect......The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  2. Deep Analysis on the Relationship of Group Cohesiveness and Organizational Productivity%群体凝聚力与组织生产率关系深层分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段万春; 王云; 李宏茜

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between group cohesiveness and organizational productivity is influenced by objective uniformity of group and organization. Group cohesiveness and objective uniformity, these two variable factors influence commonly on organizational productivity. The factor which is objective uniformity also influences on group cohesiveness. Then analyzes deep significance of the relationship through decision-making tree. This influence is able to create high productivity expected value. Then shows the influencing factors and their degree which leads to this influence.%群体凝聚力与组织生产率关系受群体目标与组织目标一致性的影响,即群体凝聚力、目标一致性这两个变量因素共同对组织生产率产生影响.目标一致性高低这一因素同时也对群体凝聚力大小产生影响,运用决策树分析二者与生产率关系的深层意义,即这种影响的产生会得到高生产率期望值.阐述了使群体目标与组织目标一致性对群体凝聚力产生影响的因素和因素的影响程度.

  3. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  4. Traversing the Lexical Cohesion Minefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Iain

    2009-01-01

    When teachers hear the word "cohesion", they usually think of grammatical cohesion--an aspect of cohesion reasonably well covered in student books and teacher materials. However, occupying an area that straddles both lexis "proper" and cohesion lies "lexical cohesion". In what follows, it is argued that the teaching and learning of certain aspects…

  5. The Collaborative Coordination of Special Interest Groups on the Telemedicine University Network (RUTE) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Verde Brito, Thiago Delevidove; Baptista, Roberto Silva; de Lima Lopes, Paulo Roberto; Haddad, Ana Estela; Messina, Luiz Ary; Torres Pisa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil the Telemedicine University Network (Rede Universitária de Telemedicina RUTE) is an initiative that among others promotes collaboration between university hospitals, universities, and health professionals through information technology infrastructure and special interest groups (SIGs) support. This paper presents results of analyses on collaboration during implementation and coordination activities of RUTE SIGs. This study is based on descriptive statistics and data visualization previously collected by RUTE national coordination relative to the status in July 2014. The analysis through collaboration graph identified the strongest collaboration RUTE units. The graph also highlights the collaborative relationship of RUTE units in form of communities, the most collaborative with each other in a communion in the same SIGs, and the less the collaborative units in the network. It should be stated that the most active units are also the oldest in the community.

  6. A group cohesive enabled trust model in Web-based social networks%Web社会网络中引入群体凝聚度的信任模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云璐; 翟玉庆

    2015-01-01

    根据社会网络中人们的行动决策会受到周围人群影响的特征,在Web社会网络环境中提出了一个引入群体凝聚度的信任模型GC-Trust.模型首先对节点进行凝聚群的划分,其次从两个层面研究信任度,一是凝聚群之间的信任度,二是凝聚群与单个节点之间的信任度,再利用节点所在凝聚群内的群凝聚度以及节点在自身凝聚群中的影响力作为不同信任度之间的权重将他们进行综合,从而综合形成节点的凝聚信任度,以便选择合适的对象.实验表明GC-Trust模型与Tidal Trust模型以及基于同质度的信任模型相比,在凝聚群规模相对平衡且凝聚度高的环境中具有更高信任预测准确度.%Learning from the social networks,in which people influenced by the crowd around before acting and decision-making,a trust model of making use of group cohesion degree called group cohesive(GC) trust is proposed in the Web-based social networks.The first step of GC-trust is to divide the nodes into cohesive groups; secondly,to analyze trust from two levels,one is trust between groups and the other is trust between a group and a node; then to combine different trust to form the final cohesive trust by use of the cohesion of the groups and the node's influence as weights.The experimental results show that the model has high accuracy on trust reasoning comparing with tidal trust and affinity based group trust model.

  7. Diversity and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity, in its broadest sense, is discussed here in its relation to social cohesion, cross-cultural relations, ingroup-outgroup relations and educational interventions. The main thesis of the paper is that real social cohesion in an ingroup rests on the acknowledgment of and the dialog with the diversities of the members of the…

  8. Social cohesion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reverda, Nol

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the current discussions and policies towards social exclusion and cohesion in Europe. In a first section will briefly be identified how the wording in the social work discourse changed from originally the thinking in terms of poverty to the ideas of social cohesion nowadays. Th

  9. Report of the IAU Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archinal, B.A.; A'Hearn, M.F.; Bowell, E.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G.J.; Courtin, R.; Fukushima, T.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J.L.; Krasinsky, G.A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Seidelmann, P.K.; Stooke, P.; Tholen, D.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Williams, I.P.

    2010-01-01

    Every three years the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report takes into account the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) and the IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature (CSBN) definition of dwarf planets, introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Mercury, returns the rotation rate of Jupiter to a previous value, introduces improved values for the rotation of five satellites of Saturn, and adds the equatorial radius of the Sun for comparison. It also adds or updates size and shape information for the Earth, Mars’ satellites Deimos and Phobos, the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 22 satellites of Saturn. Pole, rotation, and size information has been added for the asteroids (21) Lutetia, (511) Davida, and (2867) Šteins. Pole and rotation information has been added for (2) Pallas and (21) Lutetia. Pole and rotation and mean radius information has been added for (1) Ceres. Pole information has been updated for (4) Vesta. The high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is updated. Alternative orientation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are noted. The Working Group also reaffirms that once an observable feature at a defined longitude is chosen, a longitude definition origin should not change except under unusual circumstances. It is also noted that alternative coordinate systems may exist for various (e.g. dynamical) purposes, but specific cartographic coordinate system information continues to be recommended for each body. The Working Group elaborates on its purpose, and also announces its plans to occasionally provide limited updates to its recommendations via its website, in order to address community needs for some updates more often than every 3 years. Brief recommendations are also made to the general

  10. Quadratic independence of coordinate functions of certain homogeneous spaces and action of compact quantum groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debashish Goswami

    2015-02-01

    Let be one of the classical compact, simple, centre-less, connected Lie groups of rank with a maximal torus , the Lie algebra $\\mathcal{G}$ and let $\\{E_{i},F_{i},H_{i},i=1,\\ldots,n\\}$ be tha standard set of generators corresponding to a basis of the root system. Consider the adjoint-orbit space $M=\\{\\text{Ad}_{g}(H_{1}), g\\in G\\}$, identified with the homogeneous space / where $L=\\{g\\in G : \\text{Ad}_{g}(H_{1})=H_{1}\\}$. We prove that the coordinate functions $f_{i}(g):=_{i}(\\text{Ad}_{g}(H_{1}))$, $i=1,\\ldots,n$, where $\\{_{1},\\ldots,_{n}\\}$ is basis of $\\mathcal{G}'$ are `quadratically independent' in the sense that they do not satisfy any nontrivial homogeneous quadratic relations among them. Using this, it is proved that there is no genuine compact quantum group which can act faithfully on $C(M)$ such that the action leaves invariant the linear span of the above coordinate functions. As a corollary, it is also shown that any compact quantum group having a faithful action on the noncommutative manifold obtained by Rieffel deformation of satisfying a similar `linearity' condition must be a Rieffel-Wang type deformation of some compact group.

  11. INDICATORS OF TERRITORIAL COHESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU (DUMITRASCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a world of globalization generating geographical concentration, relocation of activities, thus inducing territorial disparities, territorial cohesion has become a prerequisite for achieving sustainable economic growth and implementing social and economic cohesion. The ratification of Lisbon Treaty represents the moment when “Territorial Cohesion” has been added as an official policy aim of the EU to its previous aims of economic and social cohesion. Thus, the process of defining this concept of “Territorial Cohesion” has become the task of the Commission and EU Member States. Based on a literature review, the paper describes, in the first section, the polysemantic nature of territorial cohesion. The main objective of the next section is to address the main indicators, directly related to territorial objectives, that could be used to support policy makers in measuring and monitoring territorial cohesion related to European territorial development.

  12. A one-dimensional barium(II) coordination polymer with a coordinated nitro group of 2-nitrobenzoate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan; Santosh Y Shetgaonkar; Pallepogu Raghavaiah

    2008-03-01

    The aqueous reaction of barium carbonate with 2-nitrobenzoic acid (2-nbaH) results in the formation of a one-dimensional coordination polymer, catena-poly[[hexa(aqua)dibarium(II)]bis[(2-2-nitrobenzoate-O,O,O-NO2)(2-2-nitrobenzoate-O,O,O')

  13. O papel de coordenador de grupos The role of group coordinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia de Arruda Andaló

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os trabalhos com grupos, instrumental valioso nos espaços institucionais, vêm sofrendo um processo de banalização de cunho tecnicista. Este artigo pretende ser uma contribuição à reflexão sobre a coordenação de grupos. Afasta-se dos estudos sobre a personalidade dos coordenadores, propondo seu entendimento como o de mediadores entre o nível vivencial e a compreensão crítica. Isso aponta seu caráter constitutivo nos processos grupais.The work with groups, a valuable tool in institutional spaces, is becoming more and more vulgarized because of a tendency toward a mere technical approach. This article is intended to be a contribution to group coordination. It keeps away from the study of the coordinators personality, suggesting that they be understood as mediators between experiencing and critical understanding. Thus pointing out their constructive role in group processes.

  14. Syntheses, Structures and Coordination Behavior of Central Hydroxyl Group Containing Polydentate Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun JIA; Xing Wang WANG; Yi Li ZHAO; Yu ZHU; Jing Chao TAO

    2004-01-01

    Two central hydroxyl group containing Schiff base type ligands L1 and L2 as well as their metal complexes L1·2CuCl2·3H2O and L2·Zn2Cl2·C2H5OH were synthesized and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of L2 and its zinc complex indicated well the means of coordination behavior. Both the two ligands showed good ion transport ability for alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions.

  15. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE TEAM COHESION IMPACT ON HANDBALL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONIŢA FLORENTINA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction. From the perspective of our paper, we consider that creating an optimum cohesion in the handball team can have favorable influences on performances.Purpose. The present study describes the theoretical premises related to the concept of “cohesion” within the handball team.Content. The cohesion influence on the group productivity has been intensely studied. High cohesion groups can easily establish performance standards and offer a wider range of awards to its members. M.E. Shaw (1981 discovered that highly cohesive groups are cooperative, friendly and they use a democratic form for the behavior control. In low cohesion groups, members are hostile and aggressive, they are pleased when their colleagues make mistakes and they adopt a decision-making autocratic style.Conclusions. Relationships among teammates are decisive to ensure the group cohesion and the efficiency of a team activity depends on the quality of these relationships.

  16. Acetyl group coordinated progression through the catalytic cycle of an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboalroub, Adam A; Bachman, Ashleigh B; Zhang, Ziming; Keramisanou, Dimitra; Merkler, David J; Gelis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to an acceptor amine is a ubiquitous biochemical transformation catalyzed by Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferases (GNATs). Although it is established that the reaction proceeds through a sequential ordered mechanism, the role of the acetyl group in driving the ordered formation of binary and ternary complexes remains elusive. Herein, we show that CoA and acetyl-CoA alter the conformation of the substrate binding site of an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) to facilitate interaction with acceptor substrates. However, it is the presence of the acetyl group within the catalytic funnel that triggers high affinity binding. Acetyl group occupancy is relayed through a conserved salt bridge between the P-loop and the acceptor binding site, and is manifested as differential dynamics in the CoA and acetyl-CoA-bound states. The capacity of the acetyl group carried by an acceptor to promote its tight binding even in the absence of CoA, but also its mutually exclusive position to the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA underscore its importance in coordinating the progression of the catalytic cycle.

  17. Synthesis of water-soluble silicon-porphyrin: protolytic behaviour of axially coordinated hydroxy groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remello, Sebastian Nybin; Kuttassery, Fazalurahman; Hirano, Takehiro; Nabetani, Yu; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Onuki, Satomi; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Inoue, Haruo

    2015-12-14

    A new water-soluble silicon(IV)-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (SiTCPP) with silicon(iv), the second most abundant element on Earth, in the center of porphyrin was synthesized. Fundamental properties including protolytic behaviour of axially coordinating hydroxy groups, and electrochemical behaviour were characterized. The properties were compared with those of silicon(IV)-tetra(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)porphyrin (SiTMP) and silicon(IV)-tetra(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)porphyrin (SiTFMPP) and discussed in respect to the electron donating/withdrawing effect of the substituents. Two axially coordinating hydroxy groups of SiTCPP exhibit a four-step protolytic behaviour under the acidic conditions along with a single step protolysis of peripheral carboxyl groups. Though SiTCPP and SiTFMPP did not show any reactivity in the photochemical oxygenation of a substrate with K2PtCl6 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, the first oxidation wave in the electrochemical process of SiTCPP and SiTFMPP showed catalytic behaviour in aqueous acetonitrile solution at any pH condition, in contrast to SiTMP which has only a reversible oxidation wave under neutral and weakly acidic conditions. The criteria for the electrochemical oxidative activation of water and the photooxygenation of the substrate were obtained. The higher oxidation wave of Si-porphyrins than ∼0.86 volt vs. SHE is required for the electrochemical oxidation of water, while suitable protecting groups such as a methyl substituent is a requisite for the photochemical oxygenation with K2PtCl6 as a sacrificial electron acceptor.

  18. Report of the IAU Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archinal, Brent A.; A’Hearn, Michael F.; Bowell, Edward; Conrad, Al; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Courtin, Regis; Fukushima, Toshio; Hestroffer, Daniel; Hilton, James L.; Krasinsky, Georgij A.; Neumann, Gregory; Oberst, Jurgen; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Stooke, Philip; Tholen, David J.; Thomas, Peter C.; Williams, Iwan P.

    2010-01-01

    Every three years the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report takes into account the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) and the IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature (CSBN) definition of dwarf planets, introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Mercury, returns the rotation rate of Jupiter to a previous value, introduces improved values for the rotation of five satellites of Saturn, and adds the equatorial radius of the Sun for comparison. It also adds or updates size and shape information for the Earth, Mars’ satellites Deimos and Phobos, the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 22 satellites of Saturn. Pole, rotation, and size information has been added for the asteroids (21) Lutetia, (511) Davida, and (2867) Šteins. Pole and rotation information has been added for (2) Pallas and (21) Lutetia. Pole and rotation and mean radius information has been added for (1) Ceres. Pole information has been updated for (4) Vesta. The high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is updated. Alternative orientation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are noted. The Working Group also reaffirms that once an observable feature at a defined longitude is chosen, a longitude definition origin should not change except under unusual circumstances. It is also noted that alternative coordinate systems may exist for various (e.g. dynamical) purposes, but specific cartographic coordinate system information continues to be recommended for each body. The Working Group elaborates on its purpose, and also announces its plans to occasionally provide limited updates to its recommendations via its website, in order to address community needs for some updates more often than every 3 years. Brief recommendations are also made to the

  19. Mobile drama in an instrumented museum: inducing group conversation via coordinated narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Charles; Stock, Oliviero; Dekoven, Elyon; Noy, Kinneret; Citron, Yael; Dobrin, Yael

    2012-03-01

    Museum visits can be more enjoyable to small groups if they can be both social and educational experiences. One very rewarding aspect of a visit, especially those involving small groups such as families, is the unmediated group discussion that can ensue during a shared cultural experience. We present a situated, mobile museum system that delivers an hour-long drama to museum visitors. It perceives and analyzes group behavior, uses the result to dynamically deliver coordinated dramatic narrative presentations about the nearby museum exhibit, with the expected result of stimulating group discussion. To accomplish this, our drama-based presentations contain small, complementary differences in the content delivered to each participant, leveraging the narrative tension/release cycle of drama to naturally lead visitors to fill in missing pieces by interacting with friends, thus initiating a conversation. We present two evaluations for these story variations, one in a closed, non-mobile environment, and the other a formative evaluation to gauge how well the methodology used in the non-mobile evaluation performs in evaluating the fully implemented system in a real museum environment.

  20. Spontaneous Double Hydrometallation Induced by N→M Coordination in Organometallic Hydrides of Group 14 Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Miroslav; Dostál, Libor; Turek, Jan; Alonso, Mercedes; De Proft, Frank; Růžička, Aleš; Jambor, Roman

    2016-04-11

    Our attempts to synthesise N→M intramolecularly coordinated diorganometallic hydrides L2MH2 [M=Si (4), Ge (5), Sn (6)] containing the CH=N imine group (in which L is C,N-chelating ligand {2-[(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=CH]C6 H4}(-)) yielded 1,1'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2,2'-spriobi[benzo[c][1,2]azasilole] (7), 1,1'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2,2'-spriobi[benzo[c][1,2]azagermole] (8) and C,N-chelated homoleptic stannylene L2Sn (10), respectively. Compounds 7 and 8 are an outcome of a spontaneous double hydrometallation of the two CH=N imine moieties induced by N→M intramolecular coordination (M=Si, Ge) in the absence of any catalyst. In contrast, the diorganotin hydride L2SnH2 (6) is redox-unstable and the reduction of the tin centre with the elimination of H2 provided the C,N-chelated homoleptic stannylene L2Sn (10). Compounds 7 and 8 were characterised by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Because the proposed N→M intramolecularly coordinated diorganometallic hydrides L2MH2 [M=Si (4), Ge (5), Sn (6)] revealed two different types of reduction reactions, DFT calculations were performed to gain an insight into the structures and bonding of the non-isolable diorganometallic hydrides as well as the products of their subsequent reactions. Furthermore, the thermodynamic profiles of the different reaction pathways with respect to the central metal atom were also investigated.

  1. Sustainability of National Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mihai Cristea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, cohesion policy is the third country after the domestic and social policy, as this policy is a tool for economic growth and also a balancing factor. Through its solidarity funds contribute to the other sectorial policies: the Common Agricultural Policy, social policy, environmental policy. This article aims to demonstrate the importance of cohesion policy in the national economy and how to improve its implementation by ensuring sustainable development and sustainable economic growth

  2. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE TEAM COHESION IMPACT ON HANDBALL PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    TONIŢA FLORENTINA; POPESCU LAVINIA; ALEXANDRESCU NICOLETA; MACOVEI SABINA

    2012-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction. From the perspective of our paper, we consider that creating an optimum cohesion in the handball team can have favorable influences on performances.Purpose. The present study describes the theoretical premises related to the concept of “cohesion” within the handball team.Content. The cohesion influence on the group productivity has been intensely studied. High cohesion groups can easily establish performance standards and offer a wider range of awards to its members. M.E...

  3. 高水平运动员自我效能感、群体凝聚力与组织效能关系研究%Relationship Between Professional Athletes’Self-efficacy, Group Cohesion and Organizational Effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红; 牛福安; 王卫宁; 孔祥宁; 熊焰

    2016-01-01

    Based on self-efficacy,group cohesion,and organizational effectiveness as variables and taking interviews with professional athletes and experts at national and provincial levels,statistical analysis was made and it showed that self-effi-cacy and group cohesion of the athletes were at a high level.Self-efficacy,group cohesion,and organizational effectiveness was positively correlated.Comparatively,self-efficacy and organizational effectiveness was not highly correlated.Cohe-sion group was more related to organizational effectiveness than self-efficacy,and the coefficient was 0.8,which indicated that they were strongly correlated.Self-efficacy and group cohesion could be used to predict organizational effectiveness and relative model could be established.%该文以自我效能感、群体凝聚力、组织效能为研究内容变量,运用专家访谈和问卷调查等方法对各项目专家和国家队以及省队部分专业队运动员进行测试,对测试结果进行数理统计分析研究。研究认为:①专业运动员自我效能感和群体凝聚力均处于较高的水平。②自我效能感与群体凝聚力、组织效能均呈正相关,且相关性显著。自我效能感与组织效能的相关系数较低,表明它与组织效能的相关程度较弱。群体凝聚力与组织效能的相关程度要高于自我效能感,且群体凝聚力与组织效能的相关系数大多数都达到了0.8以上,属于强相关。③自我效能感、群体凝聚力各维度对组织效能各维度均有不同程度的预测作用,并可建立预测模型。

  4. Carboxyl group (-CO2 H) functionalized coordination polymer nanoparticles as efficient platforms for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novio, Fernando; Lorenzo, Julia; Nador, Fabiana; Wnuk, Karolina; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

    2014-11-17

    Functionalization of nanoparticles can significantly influence their properties and potential applications. Although researchers can now functionalize metal, metal oxide, and organic polymer nanoparticles with a high degree of precision, controlled surface functionalization of nanoscale coordination polymer particles (CPPs) has remained a significant challenge. The lack of methodology is perhaps one of the greatest roadblocks to the advancement of CPPs into high added-value drug delivery applications. Here, we report having achieved this goal through a stepwise formation and functionalization protocol. We fabricated robust nanoparticles with enhanced thermal and colloidal stabilities by incorporation of carboxyl groups and these surface carboxyl groups could be subsequently functionalized through well-known peptide coupling reactions. The set of chemistries that we employed as proof-of-concept enabled a plethora of new functional improvements for the application of CPPs as drug delivery carriers, including enhanced colloidal stabilities and the incorporation of additional functional groups such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) or fluorescent dyes that enabled tracking of their cellular uptake. Finally, we ascertained the cytotoxicity of the new CPP nanoparticles loaded with camptothecin to human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Efflux measurements show that the encapsulation of camptothecin enhances the potency of the drug 6.5-fold and increases the drug retention within the cell.

  5. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots.

  6. 我省体育教育专业大学生群体凝聚力现状分析%Sports Education in Our Province Professional Students Group Cohesion Present Condition Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晗

    2011-01-01

    The study of education in our province by university students' psychological testing professional sports, by using the method of documentation, expert interview, questionnaire and olgic analysis, analysis the current sports education college students group cohesion present situation, and proposed strengthen individual goals and the overall goal unifies, increase teamwork program to open education in our province, improve university student group cohesion professional sports exponentially.%本研究通过对我省体育教育专业大学生心理测试的研究,采用文献资料法、访谈法、问卷调查法、逻辑分析等方法,分析当前体育教育专业大学生群体凝聚力的现状,并提出加强个体目标与整体目标相结合,增加团队协作项目课程的开设,提高我省体育教育专业大学生群体凝聚力指数。

  7. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-01-01

    When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) which the White Paper on European Governanc...

  8. Social cohesion – a post-crisis analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Magdalena MANOLE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Social cohesion is a complex notion, subject to various different approaches that we set out to analyse. Thus, the article presents the scientific views regarding social cohesion, both at an individual or group level and at a macro-social level. The concluding section presents the consequences for public policy of a pluralist approach to defining social cohesion, while underlining the importance of a bi-dimensional view – disparities/inequality/social exclusion and social relations/social bonds/social capital – in order to achieve a comprehensive vision of a society’s social cohesion.

  9. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  10. Cohesion in Online Student Teams versus Traditional Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have found that the electronic methods in use for online team communication today increase communication quality in project-based work situations. Because communication quality is known to influence group cohesion, the present research examined whether online student project teams are more cohesive than traditional teams. We tested…

  11. Cohesion Analysis of University Students Based on Differentiated Behaviors of Target Customer Groups%面向高校学生凝聚力的目标顾客群体差异化行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁朗

    2014-01-01

    Based on the target customer management theory,this paper takes the activities numbers,the extent university students participate in activities,the role the students play,and the expectation to the ac-tivities as four key criteria to divide the whole students into three independent groups as core members,ordi-nary members and peripheral members.Secondly,based on “selective specialization”method,all three seg-ments are selected as target customer groups to ensure the integrity of cohesion construction.Then,the study on differentiated behaviors of three target customer groups provides insights for the divisions of university students’ cohesion and the methods building of cohesion construction.%以目标顾客管理为理论基础,选取高校学生参与学生活动数量、参与活动程度、在活动中扮演角色、对活动期望值四个变量,将全体学生细分为核心成员、普通成员和边缘成员三个相互独立的群体。其次,采用“选择性专业化”方法,选取全部三个细分群体作为高校学生凝聚力的目标顾客群体,保证了目标顾客群体选择的全面性,以及学生凝聚力建设的完整性。然后,对不同目标顾客群体的差异化行为进行研究,为进一步划分高校学生凝聚力领域,分别构建凝聚力实现途径提供分析基础。

  12. Aligning Coordination Class Theory with a New Context: Applying a Theory of Individual Learning to Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…

  13. Aligning Coordination Class Theory with a New Context: Applying a Theory of Individual Learning to Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…

  14. Adhesion and cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fraunhofer, J Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed.

  15. Adhesion and Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anthony von Fraunhofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed.

  16. International Space Exploration Coordination Group Assessment of Technology Gaps for LOx/Methane Propulsion Systems for the Global Exploration Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Manfletti, Chiara; Sippel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) formed two technology gap assessment teams to evaluate topic discipline areas that had not been worked at an international level to date. The participating agencies were ASI, CNES, DLR, ESA, JAXA, and NASA. Accordingly, the ISECG Technology Working Group (TWG) recommended two discipline areas based on Critical Technology Needs reflected within the GER Technology Development Map (GTD...

  17. Engineering molecular crystals with abnormally weak cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Kenneth E; Gagnon, Eric; Wuest, James D

    2011-05-14

    Adding astutely placed methyl groups to hexaphenylbenzene increases molecular weight but simultaneously weakens key C-H···π interactions, thereby leading to decreased enthalpies of sublimation and showing that materials with abnormally weak cohesion can be made by identifying and then obstructing interactions that help control association.

  18. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  19. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  20. Report of the IAU working group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements of the planets and satellites - 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M. E.; Abalakin, V. K.; Lieske, J. H.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Sinclair, A. T.; Sinzi, A. M.; Smith, B. A.; Tjuflin, Y. S.

    1983-04-01

    This paper contains the report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites as presented at the XVIII General Assembly held at Patras, Greece, 1982. Tables give the recommended values for the direction of the north poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets and satellites referred to both the B1950 and J2000 standard coordinate systems. Reference surfaces for mapping these bodies are described. An appendix discusses the principal changes to the tables since 1979.

  1. New Principles of Coordination in Large-scale Micro- and Molecular-Robotic Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kornienko, S

    2011-01-01

    Micro- and molecular-robotic systems act as large-scale swarms. Capabilities of sensing, communication and information processing are very limited on these scales. This short position paper describes a swarm-based minimalistic approach, which can be applied for coordinating collective behavior in such systems.

  2. Grades Degrade Group Coordination: Deteriorated Interactions and Performance in a Cooperative Motor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Anne-Sophie; Toma, Claudia; Guidotti, Sofia; Oberlé, Dominique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    At school, pupils often cooperate on common projects and must coordinate their different individual actions. However, grades are pervasively used even in cooperative situations, which make the pupils' differences in achievement and their relative rank salient and may reduce their inclination to work constructively with others. Thus, we…

  3. Expanding the coordination chemistry of donor-stabilized group-14 metalenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Polo, Diego

    2013-02-07

    The transformation of an amidinate germylene, equipped with just one accessible lone pair of electrons on the Ge atom, into a bidentate 4-electron donor κ(2)Ge,N-ligand, has been achieved for the first time, opening new doors to the non-carbene-like coordination chemistry of heavier carbene analogues.

  4. Analyzing Group Coordination when Solving Geometry Problems with Dynamic Geometry Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Diler

    2013-01-01

    In CSCL research, collaborative activity is conceptualized along various yet intertwined dimensions. When functioning within these multiple dimensions, participants make use of several resources, which can be social or content-related (and sometimes temporal) in nature. It is the effective coordination of these resources that appears to…

  5. Grades Degrade Group Coordination: Deteriorated Interactions and Performance in a Cooperative Motor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Anne-Sophie; Toma, Claudia; Guidotti, Sofia; Oberlé, Dominique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    At school, pupils often cooperate on common projects and must coordinate their different individual actions. However, grades are pervasively used even in cooperative situations, which make the pupils' differences in achievement and their relative rank salient and may reduce their inclination to work constructively with others. Thus, we…

  6. Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

  7. You can't put old wine in new bottles: the effect of newcomers on coordination in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Matthew W; Sheremeta, Roman M

    2013-01-01

    A common finding in social sciences is that member change hinders group functioning and performance. However, questions remain as to why member change negatively affects group performance and what are some ways to alleviate the negative effects of member change on performance? To answer these questions we conduct an experiment in which we investigate the effect of newcomers on a group's ability to coordinate efficiently. Participants play a coordination game in a four-person group for the first part of the experiment, and then two members of the group are replaced with new participants, and the newly formed group plays the game for the second part of the experiment. Our results show that the arrival of newcomers decreases trust among group members and this decrease in trust negatively affects group performance. Knowing the performance history of the arriving newcomers mitigates the negative effect of their arrival, but only when newcomers also know the oldtimers performance history. Surprisingly, in groups that performed poorly prior to the newcomers' arrival, the distrust generated by newcomers is mainly between oldtimers about each other rather than about the newcomers.

  8. 高校排球比赛集体效能、团队凝聚力和比赛成绩的关系探究%The Relations among Collective Efficiency, Group Cohesion and Competition Results in Colleges Teams of Volleyball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆凤; 程广振

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the article was to explore the relations among collective efficiency, task cohesion and competition results through questionnaires and mathematical statistics methods. It showed that collective efficiency and task cohesion have close relations, but not with social cohesion.The positive relation among collective efficiency, group cohesion and competition results was also found in the atrticle. Overall, in the team sports, collective efficacy and group cohesion depend on each other, which could have positive effections on competition results.%采用问卷调查法、数理统计法等方法,探究高校排球比赛中集体效能、团队凝聚力和比赛成绩的关系。结果表明:集体效能和任务凝聚力具有较强的相关性,而和社会凝聚力的关系不大,并证明了集体效能、团队凝聚力和比赛成绩的积极关系;对于团队比赛来说,集体效能和团队凝聚力是互相依存的,两者将对比赛成绩产生积极的影响。

  9. Longitudinal analysis of virtual community perceptions of cohesion: The role of cooperation, communication, and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Annmarie A; Loomis, Colleen; Mama, Scherezade K; Siddiqi, Sameer; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-09-14

    Online, virtual group interactions may help adherence to health promotion programs. The purpose of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships among dimensions of group cohesion and group-interaction variables to inform and improve group-based strategies within programs aimed at promoting physical activity in virtual communities. In all, 56 online virtual users completed a group dynamics-based physical activity promotion intervention and assessments of group cohesion and group interaction at baseline and 4 weeks. Friendly competition and cooperation were consistently strong predictors of cohesion. Facilitating a sense of friendly competition and cooperation may increase engagement in physical activity programs by bolstering group cohesion.

  10. Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS). Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Repair (EBDR) Study 74 Final Report Volume HI Engine Battle Damage Repair (EBDR) Study 75 Final Report VOLUME II Ablative and Thermal Barriers for... Thermal Barriers for Aircraft Dry Bays Issued: September 1995 Progress - Oct 1992 - June 1995 Report Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Sponsor: JTCG...Shipman, Mr. David O’Brian. Mr. Chris Parmley, P&W; Mr. Les Throndson, NAWCWPNS China Lake (Govt Coordinator) Ablative and Thermal Barriers for Aircraft

  11. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  12. Review of Cohesion in Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi Rizi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Indexers often disagree on judging terms that best reflect the content of a document. Difference of opinion highlights one of the characteristics of indexing which is indexing cohesion. Also known as consistency, little study of the subject matter has been undertaken in the past few years. However, its importance has been recently acknowledged in effective information retrieval and expansion of access points to the document content. The present paper investigates cohesion in indexing. In addition of presenting the definitions offered by experts, it takes note of the factors influencing indexing cohesion. Methods for measuring cohesion are offered.

  13. Index of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and associated publications available in the Coordination and Information Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, B.G.

    1991-02-01

    This publication was created by the Coordination and Information Center (CIC) to provide a readily available research tool for use by researchers interested in a specific area covered in the holdings of the CIC Archives. The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) was formed and functioned in agreement with Planning Directive NVO-76 (July 29, 1970 and revised January 1, 1974, (CIC-165845 and CIC-16439) respectively) to coordinate the ecological and other environmental programs necessary to support the continued nuclear testing activities; and to provide a mechanism to effectively comply with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Executive Order 11514, and AEC Manual Chapter 0510.'' The publication contains only citations to documents currently available at the CIC. It represents a significant portion of the principal research findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group.

  14. An examination of the relationship between athlete leadership and cohesion using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughead, Todd M; Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Hoffmann, Matt D; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Two studies investigated the structure of different athlete leadership networks and its relationship to cohesion using social network analysis. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between a general leadership quality network and task and social cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). In Study 2, we investigated the leadership networks for four different athlete leadership roles (task, motivational, social and external) and their association with task and social cohesion networks. In Study 1, the results demonstrated that the general leadership quality network was positively related to task and social cohesion. The results from Study 2 indicated positive correlations between the four leadership networks and task and social cohesion networks. Further, the motivational leadership network emerged as the strongest predictor of the task cohesion network, while the social leadership network was the strongest predictor of the social cohesion network. The results complement a growing body of research indicating that athlete leadership has a positive association with cohesion.

  15. Group Variables and Gaming Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dwight R.; Niebuhr, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study designed to determine the effects of group cohesiveness on group performance in a management game and, to examine the effects voluntary v assigned group membership has on the cohesiveness of the group. (Author/LLS)

  16. Document Cohesion Flow: Striving towards Coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Scott; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Allen, Laura; McNamara, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Text cohesion is an important element of discourse processing. This paper presents a new approach to modeling, quantifying, and visualizing text cohesion using automated cohesion flow indices that capture semantic links among paragraphs. Cohesion flow is calculated by applying Cohesion Network

  17. Document Cohesion Flow: Striving towards Coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Scott; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Allen, Laura; McNamara, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Text cohesion is an important element of discourse processing. This paper presents a new approach to modeling, quantifying, and visualizing text cohesion using automated cohesion flow indices that capture semantic links among paragraphs. Cohesion flow is calculated by applying Cohesion Network Analy

  18. 群体凝聚力的研究现状及其对我国高校思想政治教育的借鉴%The research status of group cohesiveness and enlightenment for ideological and political education of college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘索华; 李修习; 赵灯峰

    2013-01-01

      受经济全球化等因素影响,我国高校思想政治教育的凝聚力受到挑战,增强高校思想政治教育的凝聚力既具有理论意义又具有重要的现实意义。高校思想政治教育凝聚力研究的主要对象是大学生群体,凝聚力的研究对于增强大学生思想政治教育的凝聚力具有重要借鉴意义。%Inflenced by the economic globalization and other factors, the cohesion of ideological and political education of our college is challenged, strengthen ideological and political education of university cohesion has both theoretical significance also important practical significance. The main target of the research on the cohesion of college ideological and political education is groups of university students, cohesive study has important reference significance for enhancing the cohesion of college students' ideological and political education.

  19. Collectivism, Individualism, and Cohesion in a Team-based Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Ethnographic interviews with 3 teams of 26 computer programmers revealed how levels of collectivism or individualism differed as groups solved problems. Cultural cohesion was identified as a separate construct from collectivism. (Contains 53 references.) (SK)

  20. Student leadership and advocacy for social cohesion: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in higher education in South Africa to act as advocates for social cohesion, ... confirms two issues, namely, group solidarity and the on-going nature of ..... now goes beyond race and ethnicity and covers gender, sexuality, physical challenges ...

  1. Cohesion to the Group and Its Association with Attendance and Early Treatment Response in an Adult Day-Hospital Program for Eating Disorders: A Preliminary Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Natalie; Djokvucic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that day-hospital programs are effective in the treatment of eating disorders. Few descriptions are available on the specifics of treatment, particularly the process of therapy. The group therapy modality is thought to provide important therapeutic benefits. The present study aimed to examine the association…

  2. Social Cohesion and Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary organizations exert great influence over how social norms and ethical codes are guided into action. As such, they have a significant impact on societal levels of social cohesion. Although social capital involves generalized trust becoming manifest as spontaneous sociability, social cohesion is determined by how that sociability is…

  3. Metal–organic coordination architectures of tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bo-Wen, E-mail: bowenhu@hit.edu.cn; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ding, Cheng

    2015-12-15

    Two new coordination complexes with tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups, [Co(L){sub 2}]{sub n} (1) and [Co{sub 3}(L){sub 4}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}·2MeOH]{sub n} (2) (L=tetrazole-1-acetate) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single crystal structure analysis shows that the cobalt-complex 1 has the 3D 3,6-connected (4{sup 2}.6){sub 2}(4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 8}.10)-ant topology. By introducing azide in this system, complex 2 forms the 2D network containing the [Co{sub 3}] units. And the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the new coordination complexes with tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups are reported. - Highlights: • Two novel Cobalt(II) complexes with tetrazole acetate ligands were synthesized. • The magnetic properties of two complexes were studied. • Azide as co-ligand resulted in different structures and magnetic properties. • The new coordination mode of tetrazole acetate ligand was obtained.

  4. RadioNet3 Study Group White Paper on: The Future Organisation and Coordination of Radio Astronomy in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, M A; Garrington, S T; Klöckner, H-R; van Langevelde, H; Mantovani, F; Russel, A; Schuster, K; Vermeulen, R C; Zensus, A

    2016-01-01

    The QueSERA Study Group (QSG) have been tasked by the RadioNet Board to produce a White Paper on the future organisation and coordination of radio astronomy in Europe. This White Paper describes the options discussed by the QSG, and our conclusions on how to move forward. We propose, that as a first step, RadioNet-work, be established as an entity that persists between EC contracts, and that takes responsibility for preparing or coordinating responses to EC opportunities specific to the field of radio astronomy research infrastructures. RadioNet-work should provide a safety net that ensures that cooperation and collaboration between the various radio astronomy partners in Europe is maintained with or without EC funding.

  5. Structurally defined allyl compounds of main group metals: coordination and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Crispin; Okuda, Jun

    2013-05-10

    Organometallic allyl compounds are important as allylation reagents in organic synthesis, as polymerization catalysts, and as volatile metal precursors in material science. Whereas the allyl chemistry of synthetically relevant transition metals such as palladium and of the lanthanoids is well-established, that of main group metals has been lagging behind. Recent progress on allyl complexes of Groups 1, 2, and 12-16 now provides a more complete picture. This is based on a fundamental understanding of metal-allyl bonding interactions in solution and in the solid state. Furthermore, reactivity trends have been rationalized and new types of allyl-specific reactivity patterns have been uncovered. Key features include 1) the exploitation of the different types of metal-allyl bonding (highly ionic to predominantly covalent), 2) the use of synergistic effects in heterobimetallic compounds, and 3) the adjustment of Lewis acidity by variation of the charge of allyl compounds.

  6. Cohesion Based Personalized Community Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mamunur Rashid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our life is totally engaged by the progressive growth of online social networking. Because, millions of users are interconnecting with each other using different social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, Pinterest, Instagram etc. Most of the social sites like Facebook, Google+ allow users to join different groups or communities where people can share their common interests and express opinions around a common cause, problem or activity. However, an information overloading issue has disturbed users as thousands of communities or groups are creating each day. To resolve this problem, we have presented a community or group recommendation system centered on cohesion where cohesion represents high degree of connectedness among users in social network. In this paper, we emphasis on suggesting useful communities (or groups in term of Facebook that users personally attracted in to join; reducing the effort to find useful information based on cohesion. Our projected framework contains of the steps like: extracting sub-network from a social networking site (SNS, computing the impact of amity(both real-life or social and SNS connected, measuring user proclivity factor, calculating threshold from existing communities or groups of a user and lastly recommending community or group based on derived threshold. In result analysis part, we consider the precision-recall values by discarding community or group one at a time from the list of communities or groups of a certain user and checking whether the removed community or group is recommended by our proposed system. We have evaluated our system with 20 users and found 76% F1 accuracy measure.

  7. Immigration, social cohesion, and naturalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    social trust do not connect with issues of naturalization at all. Other conceptions of social cohesion are either politically controversial, problematic as part of the justification of stricter naturalization requirements, or in fact justify less demanding naturalization requirements.......The standard appeal to social cohesion in relation to immigration concerns admittance and residence. But social cohesion is sometimes also invoked as a relevant concern in relation to the attainment of citizenship in the state through naturalization. Many western states have recently tightened...... conditions for naturalization and introduced tougher language requirements and knowledge of society tests. The article discusses how concerns for social cohesion might function as a part of justifications of such restrictive naturalization requirements. It argues that standard concerns with generalized...

  8. Literature Review of Lexical Cohesion Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Lexical cohesion theory contributes to its patterns and cohesive functions in English texts. Different linguists have different views on lexical cohesion are introduced and its patterns are guided in detail as well. A full understanding of lexical cohesion can help better comprehend English texts.

  9. Group Cohesiveness, Deviation, Stress, and Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-11

    Yuke1son, Weinberg & Jackson , 1984; Carron & Chelladurai, 1981). The classical studies of jury dynamics began to appear within the field of...1987), individuation was negatively correlated with conformity (Santee & Maslach , 1982). Conformity Paradi&ms Host studies of conformity have...appear to affect conformity rates independently of attraction . However, later ~tudies by Dittes and Kelley (1956) and Jackson and Saltzstein (1958

  10. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  11. Object Discovery via Cohesion Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guanjun; Wang, Hanzi; Zhao, Wan-Lei; Yan, Yan; Li, Xuelong

    2017-02-16

    Color and intensity are two important components in an image. Usually, groups of image pixels, which are similar in color or intensity, are an informative representation for an object. They are therefore particularly suitable for computer vision tasks, such as saliency detection and object proposal generation. However, image pixels, which share a similar real-world color, may be quite different since colors are often distorted by intensity. In this paper, we reinvestigate the affinity matrices originally used in image segmentation methods based on spectral clustering. A new affinity matrix, which is robust to color distortions, is formulated for object discovery. Moreover, a cohesion measurement (CM) for object regions is also derived based on the formulated affinity matrix. Based on the new CM, a novel object discovery method is proposed to discover objects latent in an image by utilizing the eigenvectors of the affinity matrix. Then we apply the proposed method to both saliency detection and object proposal generation. Experimental results on several evaluation benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed CM-based method has achieved promising performance for these two tasks.

  12. Barossa Night: cohesion in the British Army officer corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period. No attempt has been made to explain cohesion in the officer corps. Using a similar method to recent cohesion scholars, this paper seeks to address this imbalance by undertaking a micro-sociology of one ritual in particular: 'Barossa Night' in the Royal Irish Regiment. Firstly, it draws on the work of Durkheim to examine how cohesion amongst the officer corps is created and sustained through a dense array of practises during formal social rituals. It provides evidence that the use of rituals highlights that social solidarity is central to understanding officer cohesion. Secondly, following Hockey's work on how private soldiers negotiate order, the paper shows how this solidarity in the officer corps is based on a degree of negotiated order and the need to release organizational tensions inherent in a strictly hierarchical rank structure. It highlights how the awarding of gallantry medals can threaten this negotiated order and fuel deviancy. In examining this behaviour, the paper shows that even amongst an officer class traditionally viewed as the elite upholders of organizational discipline, the negotiation of rank and hierarchy can be fluid. How deviant behaviour is later accepted and normalized by senior officers indicates that negotiated order is as important to understanding cohesion in the British Army's officer corps as it is

  13. Control technology and coordination deformation mechanism of rise entry group with high ground stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qingfeng; Zhu Quanqu

    2012-01-01

    Based on engineering practices of Wuyang Coal Mine,we carried out X-ray diffract researches on No.3 coal; and the rocks of its roof and floor by XRD meter,and simulated the interactive effect of the surrounding rock deformation by FLAC2D5.0 numerical simulation software under the condition of different tunneling method of multimine roadway in parallel.The internal structures of the surrounding rocks of 76 belt roadway were monitored by borehole observation instruments; and then,we analyzed the reason of failure and deformation of surrounding rocks of several rise entry,and proposed the technical measures for controlling interactive effect of several rise entry surrounding rock deformation at last.For the thickness seam rise roadway,two conclusions were drawn:one is that the co-deformation among roadway groups mainly reflecton that both shear failure and deformation in coal pillar among roadways have decreased the width of pillar core region and clamping action of coal pillar to roof strata,increased the actual span of roof strata,intensified the flexural failure of roof strata and prized the bed separation of roof deep rock strata.The other conclusion is that the factors controlling the interactive deformation among roadways is obvious when appropriate re-adjustment in construction sequence of the tunneling of multimine parallel roadways because the construction sequence among roadways also has great effects on deformation of the surrounding rock in roadway.

  14. Group VII Ethylene Response Factors Coordinate Oxygen and Nitric Oxide Signal Transduction and Stress Responses in Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel J.; Conde, Jorge Vicente; Berckhan, Sophie; Prasad, Geeta; Mendiondo, Guillermina M.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have emerged as important regulators of abiotic and biotic stress responses, in particular, low-oxygen stress. A defining feature of ERFVIIs is their conserved N-terminal domain, which renders them oxygen- and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent substrates of the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis. In the presence of these gases, ERFVIIs are destabilized, whereas an absence of either permits their accumulation; ERFVIIs therefore coordinate plant homeostatic responses to oxygen availability and control a wide range of NO-mediated processes. ERFVIIs have a variety of context-specific protein and gene interaction partners, and also modulate gibberellin and abscisic acid signaling to regulate diverse developmental processes and stress responses. This update discusses recent advances in our understanding of ERFVII regulation and function, highlighting their role as central regulators of gaseous signal transduction at the interface of ethylene, oxygen, and NO signaling. PMID:25944828

  15. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells utilize the IRF4-IL-9 module to coordinate epithelial cell maintenance of lung homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, A; Van Dyken, S J; Schneider, C; Nussbaum, J C; Liang, H-E; Locksley, R M

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have an important role in acute allergic lung inflammation. Given their distribution and function, lung ILC2s are hypothesized to coordinate epithelial responses to the external environment; however, how barrier surveillance is linked to ILC2 activation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that alveolar type II cells are the main source of interleukin (IL)-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) generated in response to chitin or migratory helminths. IL-33 and TSLP synergistically induce an interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4)-IL-9 program in ILC2s, and autocrine IL-9 promotes rapid IL-5 and IL-13 production required for optimal epithelial responses in the conducting airways. Thus, ILC2s link alveolar function to regulation of airway flow, revealing a key interaction between resident lymphoid and structural cells that might underlie similar organizational hierarchies in other organs.

  16. Analysis of Cohesive Microsized Particle Packing Structure Using History-Dependent Contact Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tayeb, Raihan; Mao, Yijin; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    Granular packing structures of cohesive micro-sized particles with different sizes and size distributions, including mono-sized, uniform and Gaussian distribution, are investigated by using two different history dependent contact models with Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation is carried out in the framework of LIGGGHTS which is a DEM simulation package extended based on branch of granular package of widely used open-source code LAMMPS. Contact force caused by translation and rotation, frictional and damping forces due to collision with other particles or container boundaries, cohesive force, van der Waals force, and gravity are considered. The radial distribution functions (RDFs), force distributions, porosities, and coordination numbers under cohesive and non-cohesive conditions are reported. The results indicate that particle size and size distributions have great influences on the packing density for particle packing under cohesive effect: particles with Gaussian distribution have the lowest pac...

  17. Our School Athletics Team Group Cohesion Features——Based on Investigation and Analysis of Social Networks%我校田径运动队群体凝聚力的特征——基于社会网络的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秋霞

    2015-01-01

    采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等,从建立在"距离"基础上凝聚力指数和群体人际吸引的密度等特征的角度,对我校田径运动队的群体凝聚力进行研究,结果显示:我校田径运动队群体建立在"距离"基础上的凝聚力指数为0.663,运动队群体成员之间人际吸引的网络密度是0.3636,人际吸引网络存在两个对凝聚力指数贡献最大的核心人物.认为:体育教师在平常的运动队训练中,对骨干的培养较为成功,运动队的群体凝聚力较大,群体成员之间的相互认同较多,群体较为团结.%Using literature data, questionnaire, mathematical statistics, etc., from the establishment of the"distance"based on the cohesion of the index and group interpersonal attraction density and other characteristics of the angle of group cohesion I school track and field sports teams were studied, the results show:Our school track and field sports team groups set up in the"distance"based on the cohesion of the index was 0.663, between sports teams group members interpersonal attraction of network density is 0.3636, interpersonal attract the greatest contribution to the network, there are two central figures of cohesion index. We think:PE teachers in ordinary sports team training, the training of the backbone of the more successful sports teams in the larger group cohesion, mutual recognition among the many members of the group, the group is more united.

  18. Encapsulation of hydride by molecular main group metal clusters: manipulating the source and coordination sphere of the interstitial ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Sally R; Coles, Martyn P; Eyre-Brook, Vicki; García, Felipe; Haigh, Robert; Hitchcock, Peter B; McPartlin, Mary; Morey, James V; Naka, Hiroshi; Raithby, Paul R; Sparkes, Hazel A; Tate, Christopher W; Wheatley, Andrew E H

    2006-12-21

    The sequential treatment of Lewis acids with N,N'-bidentate ligands and thereafter with ButLi has afforded a series of hydride-encapsulating alkali metal polyhedra. While the use of Me3Al in conjunction with Ph(2-C5H4N)NH gives Ph(2-C5H4N)NAlMe2 and this reacts with MeLi in thf to yield the simple 'ate complex Ph(2-C5H4N)NAlMe3Li.thf, the employment of an organolithium substrate capable of beta-hydride elimination redirects the reaction significantly. Whereas the use of ButLi has previously yielded a main group interstitial hydride in which H- exhibits micro6-coordination, it is shown here that variability in the coordination sphere of the encapsulated hydride may be induced by manipulation of the organic ligand. Reaction of (c-C6H11)(2-C5H4N)NH with Me3Al/ButLi yields [{(c-C6H11)(2-C5H4N)N}6HLi8]+[(But2AlMe2)2Li]-, which is best viewed as incorporating only linear di-coordination of the hydride ion. The guanidine 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine (hppH) in conjunction with Me2Zn/ButLi yields the micro8-hydride [(hpp)6HLi8]+[But3Zn]-.0.5PhMe. Formation of the micro8-hydride [(hpp)6HLi8]+[ButBEt3]- is revealed by employment of the system Et3B/ButLi. A new and potentially versatile route to interstitial hydrides of this class is revealed by synthesis of the mixed borohydride-lithium hydride species [(hpp)6HLi8]+[Et3BH]- and [(hpp)6HLi8]+[(Et3B)2H]- through the direct combination of hppLi with Et3BHLi.

  19. FLOW PROPERTIES OF COHESIVE NANOPOWDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jürgen Tomas

    2003-01-01

    The fundamentals of cohesive powder consolidation and flow behaviour using a reasonable combination of particle and continuum mechanics are explained. By means of the model "stiff particles with soft contacts", the influence of elastic-plastic repulsion in particle contacts is demonstrated. With this as the physical basis, the stationary yield locus, instantaneous yield loci and consolidation loci, flow function and compression function are presented. The flow properties of a very cohesive titania nanopowder (ds=200 nm) are shown. These models ara used to evaluate shear cell test results as constitutive functions for computer aided apparatus design for reliable powder flow.

  20. The cohesiveness of sourcing teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina

    2015-01-01

    , the practical implementation is often unsuccessful leading to poor performance. Originating in PSM literature, factors influencing sourcing team performance are categorised into three: top management support, organisational structures, and those related to team members. In this paper, the concept...... of cohesiveness is introduced as an explanatory factor and, consequently, linkages between team cohesiveness and team performance are proposed.......Sourcing teams are introduced as an approach to achieving the interdepartmental integration necessary for companies to address the complexity of strategic sourcing. Companies aim at facilitating teams capable of balancing the goals and tasks of the team with departmental expectations; however...

  1. Coordination of opposing sex-specific and core muscle groups regulates male tail posture during Caenorhabditis elegans male mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternberg Paul W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To survive and reproduce, animals must be able to modify their motor behavior in response to changes in the environment. We studied a complex behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans, male mating behavior, which provided a model for understanding motor behaviors at the genetic, molecular as well as circuit level. C. elegans male mating behavior consists of a series of six sub-steps: response to contact, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion, and sperm transfer. The male tail contains most of the sensory structures required for mating, in addition to the copulatory structures, and thus to carry out the steps of mating behavior, the male must keep his tail in contact with the hermaphrodite. However, because the hermaphrodite does not play an active role in mating and continues moving, the male must modify his tail posture to maintain contact. We provide a better understanding of the molecular and neuro-muscular pathways that regulate male tail posture during mating. Results Genetic and laser ablation analysis, in conjunction with behavioral assays were used to determine neurotransmitters, receptors, neurons and muscles required for the regulation of male tail posture. We showed that proper male tail posture is maintained by the coordinated activity of opposing muscle groups that curl the tail ventrally and dorsally. Specifically, acetylcholine regulates both ventral and dorsal curling of the male tail, partially through anthelmintic levamisole-sensitive, nicotinic receptor subunits. Male-specific muscles are required for acetylcholine-driven ventral curling of the male tail but dorsal curling requires the dorsal body wall muscles shared by males and hermaphrodites. Gamma-aminobutyric acid activity is required for both dorsal and ventral acetylcholine-induced curling of the male tail and an inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, UNC-49, prevents over-curling of the male tail during mating, suggesting that cross

  2. International Space Exploration Coordination Group Assessment of Technology Gaps for LOx/Methane Propulsion Systems for the Global Exploration Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Whitley, Ryan; Klem, Mark D.; Johnson, Wesley; Alexander, Leslie; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Manfletti, Chiara; Caruana, Jean-Noel; Ueno, Hiroshi; hide

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) formed two technology gap assessment teams to evaluate topic discipline areas that had not been worked at an international level to date. The participating agencies were ASI, CNES, DLR, ESA, JAXA, and NASA. Accordingly, the ISECG Technology Working Group (TWG) recommended two discipline areas based on Critical Technology Needs reflected within the GER Technology Development Map (GTDM): Dust Mitigation and LOX/Methane Propulsion. LOx/Methane propulsion systems are enabling for future human missions Mars by significantly reducing the landed mass of the Mars ascent stage through the use of in-situ propellant production, for improving common fluids for life support, power and propulion thus allowing for diverse redundancy, for eliminating the corrosive and toxic propellants thereby improving surface operations and resusabilty, and for inceasing the performance of propulsion systems. The goals and objectives of the international team are to determine the gaps in technology that must be closed for LOx/Methane to be used in human exploration missions in cis-lunar, lunar, and Mars mission applications. An emphasis is placed on near term lunar lander applications with extensibility to Mars. Each agency provided a status of the substantial amount of Lox/Methane propulsion system development to date and their inputs on the gaps in the technology that are remaining. The gaps, which are now opportunities for collaboration, are then discussed.

  3. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  4. Writing Quality, Coherence, and Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a random sample of 493 persuasive papers written by 17-year-olds during the 1978-79 National Assessment of Educational Progress writing evaluation, a study investigated the relationships among features of textual cohesion and primary trait assessments of writing quality and coherence, with manuscript length held statistically constant. (HOD)

  5. The Ethics of Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    With trust as its antecedent, social capital comprises the potential capacities of a people to prosper. Building on the presence of social capital, social cohesion involves the internalization of social ethics and constitutes the level of realized propensity among citizens to engage in virtuous behavior for the common good. This theory elaboration…

  6. Developing Indicators of Territorial Cohesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea; Farrugia, Nadia

    Territorial cohesion, broadly defined as the possibility for the population living in a territory to access services of general economic interest, is a relatively new concept, but which is increasingly gaining importance in the academic and policy-making spheres, especially in the European Union...

  7. Flocculation Dynamics of cohesive sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cohesive sediment suspended in natural waters is subject not only to transport and deposition processes but also to reactions of flocculation, \\textit{i.e.} aggregation of fine particles, and breakup of aggregates. Although aggregation and breakup occur at small and very small length scales compared

  8. Evaluation of the Parameters Affecting the Cohesion of Fine Grained Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Kmec, Ján; Čejka, Jiří; Bartuška, Ladislav; Stopka, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Cohesion of the soils is one of the most important parameters which soil is evaluated in terms of its suitability for building foundations. Safety of construction is in fact dependent on the strength of soil, respectively shear strength. Fine-grained soil represents very specific group, in which is distinguished an effective and total cohesion of soils. The water in the soil thus drastically affects its cohesion contrary to gravel and sandy soils. The publication compares the tabular values of the effective and total cohesion and define the influence of water, grain size and consistency of her behaviour.

  9. On Cohesion of I have a Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬丽霞; 郑斌

    2009-01-01

    Cohesion theory was proposed by Halliday and Hasan in 1976, and then developed by them in 1985. Through the analysis of cohesive devices of the famous speech I have a Dream from the aspects of grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion and parallelism, this paper proves that it not only functions as a device to make the text more compact, but could make the text more expressive and persuasive.

  10. Social Cohesion as the Goal: Can Social Cohesion Be Directly Pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    This article establishes an understanding of social cohesion in general and discusses organizations and activities that are known to promote social cohesion before introducing organizations that claim to work toward social cohesion as one of their main priorities. The Council of Europe's Directorate General of Social Cohesion represents a…

  11. Group VII Ethylene Response Factors Coordinate Oxygen and Nitric Oxide Signal Transduction and Stress Responses in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Conde, Jorge Vicente; Berckhan, Sophie; Prasad, Geeta; Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have emerged as important regulators of abiotic and biotic stress responses, in particular, low-oxygen stress. A defining feature of ERFVIIs is their conserved N-terminal domain, which renders them oxygen- and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent substrates of the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis. In the presence of these gases, ERFVIIs are destabilized, whereas an absence of either permits their accumulation; ERFVIIs therefore coordinate plant homeostatic responses to oxygen availability and control a wide range of NO-mediated processes. ERFVIIs have a variety of context-specific protein and gene interaction partners, and also modulate gibberellin and abscisic acid signaling to regulate diverse developmental processes and stress responses. This update discusses recent advances in our understanding of ERFVII regulation and function, highlighting their role as central regulators of gaseous signal transduction at the interface of ethylene, oxygen, and NO signaling. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Cohesion in Written Business Discourse: Some Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Ann M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes study to determine whether "constellations" of cohesive items occur in letters, reports, and textbooks. Concludes cohesive elements can be identified in each type of discourse but generalizations cannot be made about cohesive features in broad classes of applied and academic English for Business and Economics (EBE) discourse. (Author/BK)

  13. Analysis of textual Cohesion in News Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盛兰

    2014-01-01

    Cohesion embodies the non-structural resources in English discourse and indicates the latent continuity existing in the text.On the basis of cohesion theory,this paper analyzes textual cohesion of the selected news reports form BBC website,in order to explore the way of structuring the text and realizing the meaning of the text.

  14. Social Cohesion, Social Capital and the Neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Ray; Kearns, Ade

    2001-01-01

    Outlines key dimensions of social cohesion, exploring whether societies are facing a new crisis in this area. Examines where contemporary residential neighborhoods fit into social cohesion debates, particularly regarding the interaction between social cohesion and social capital. Outlines key debates over social capital, showing how it can be…

  15. Calculation of cohesive energy of actinide metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱存富; 陈秀芳; 余瑞璜; 耿平; 段占强

    1997-01-01

    According to empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), an equation for calculating the cohesive energy of actinide metals is given, the cohesive energy of 9 actinide metals with known crystal structure is calculated, which is identical with the experimental values on the whole, and the cohesive energy of 6 actinide metals with unknown crystal structure is forecast.

  16. Analysis of Cohesion inOliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文文

    2016-01-01

    Cohesion is an important concept in the study of stylistics. This thesis aims to study the applications of cohesion in the Charles Dicken’ world-famous novelOliver Twist, including both the grammatical and lexical cohesive devices in the work.

  17. Cohesive and coherent connected speech deficits in mild stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Megan S; Young, Breanne; Robinson, Gail A

    2017-05-01

    Spoken language production theories and lesion studies highlight several important prelinguistic conceptual preparation processes involved in the production of cohesive and coherent connected speech. Cohesion and coherence broadly connect sentences with preceding ideas and the overall topic. Broader cognitive mechanisms may mediate these processes. This study aims to investigate (1) whether stroke patients without aphasia exhibit impairments in cohesion and coherence in connected speech, and (2) the role of attention and executive functions in the production of connected speech. Eighteen stroke patients (8 right hemisphere stroke [RHS]; 6 left [LHS]) and 21 healthy controls completed two self-generated narrative tasks to elicit connected speech. A multi-level analysis of within and between-sentence processing ability was conducted. Cohesion and coherence impairments were found in the stroke group, particularly RHS patients, relative to controls. In the whole stroke group, better performance on the Hayling Test of executive function, which taps verbal initiation/suppression, was related to fewer propositional repetitions and global coherence errors. Better performance on attention tasks was related to fewer propositional repetitions, and decreased global coherence errors. In the RHS group, aspects of cohesive and coherent speech were associated with better performance on attention tasks. Better Hayling Test scores were related to more cohesive and coherent speech in RHS patients, and more coherent speech in LHS patients. Thus, we documented connected speech deficits in a heterogeneous stroke group without prominent aphasia. Our results suggest that broader cognitive processes may play a role in producing connected speech at the early conceptual preparation stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatores terapêuticos em grupo de suporte na perspectiva da coordenação e dos membros do grupo Factores terapéuticos en un grupo de soporte en la perspectiva de la coordinación y de los miembros del grupo Therapeutic factors in group support from the perspective of the coordinators and group members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiene Ferreira Santos

    2012-01-01

    importante que puede ser usada para evaluar si los miembros se están beneficiando participando en el grupo.OBJECTIVES: To identify the therapeutic factors present in the sessions of a Parent and Family Support Group for those with hospitalized children, from the perspective of the participants and the group coordinators. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory study. The data were obtained by means of a checklist of the families and through identification of therapeutic factors by the coordinators of the group. RESULTS: The families indicated the presence of the following therapeutic factors in the group: cohesion, sharing of information, universality, existential factors, developing social skills, instillation of hope, altruism, interpersonal learning and imitative behavior; the coordinators identified cohesion, sharing of information, universality and existential factors. CONCLUSION: Identification of therapeutic factors is an important therapeutic tool for evaluating whether members are benefitting from their participation in the group.

  19. The Processing of Cohesion in Fiction and Non-fiction by Good and Poor Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Margaret; Chapman, L. John

    1989-01-01

    Investigates how readers use textual cohesion during reading by using a selective deletion procedure. Finds that good readers are able to maintain the global unity of text better than poor readers and that both groups find it easier to perceive cohesion in fiction than in non-fiction. (RS)

  20. Economic Strain and Perceptions of Social Cohesion in Europe: Does Institutional Trust Matter? (forthcoming)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Andrews (Rhys); S.R. Jilke (Sebastian); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The degree to which different social groups get along is a key indicator of the cohesiveness of a society. This study examines perceptions of social cohesion amongst Europeans and explains variations in those perceptions by considering the separate and combined effects

  1. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  2. A comparison of cohesive features in IELTS writing of Chinese candidates and IELTS examiners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘可

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating cohesive ties applied in IELTS written texts produced by Chinese candidates and IELTS examiners,uncovering the differences in the use of cohesive features between the two groups,and analyzing whether the employment of cohesive ties is a possible problem in the Chinese candidates’ writing.Six written texts are analyzed in the study,with three Chinese candidates’ and three IELTS examiners’ IELTS writing respectively.The findings show that there exist differences in the use of cohesive devices between the two groups.Compared to the IETLS’ examiners’ writing,the group of Chinese candidates employed excessive conjunctions,with relatively less comparative and demonstrative reference ties used in their texts.Additionally,it appears that overusing repetition ties constitutes a potential problem in the candidates’ writing.Implications and suggestions about raising learners’ awareness and helping them to use cohesive devices effectively are discussed.

  3. 中高职衔接理念下中职生群体社会适应性探究%To Explore the Group of the Secondary Vocational Students’Social Adaptability in the Concept of Group Cohesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金泽龙

    2013-01-01

      This paper mainly discusses the concept of higher vocational secondary vocational students to group so-cial adaptability of the relevant circumstances; the study USES the questionnaire method and literature method, using the social adaptability scale, higher vocational secondary education in Guangdong province secondary voca-tional students group as the research object. The results found that:individual social adaptability on the gender, professional, grade, there is a significant difference;there is no difference in students. In improving the higher vo-cational college students' social adaptability should pay attention to several problems:one is to strengthen psycho-logical health education, improve the psychological quality, and correct understanding of self. 2 it is to create a good campus environment. Three is to develop secondary vocational good behavior habits. Four is to improve social adaptation ability of higher vocational students.%  本研究采用问卷调查法与文献法,运用社会适应性量表,以广东省升读高职的中职生群体为研究对象,探讨中高职衔接理念下升入高职的中职生群体社会适应性的相关情况,研究结果发现:个体社会适应性在性别、专业、年级上存在着显著性差异;在生源上不存在差异性。在提高该类高职大学生社会适应性方面要注意几个问题:加强心理健康教育,提高心理素质,正确认识自我;创设良好校园环境;培养中职生良好行为习惯;提升高职生社会适应能力。

  4. Exchange and cohesion in dyads and triads: A test of Simmel's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeongkoo; Thye, Shane R; Lawler, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses social exchange theory to address a classic question posed by Simmel (1964) regarding dyads and triads. The question is whether exchanges in a triad will generate more cohesion at the group level than exchanges in an isolated dyad. The main hypotheses, integrating several ideas from Simmel and social exchange theories, are as follows. First, triads generate less variability of behavior than dyads; that is, there is more uniformity or convergence in triads. Second, in the context of repeated exchange, we predict higher levels of cohesion in triads than in dyads. Third, positive emotion or affect has a stronger impact on cohesion in dyads than in triads, whereas uncertainty reduction has a stronger impact on cohesion in triads. To test these hypotheses, an experiment compared isolated dyads to dyads nested in a triadic exchange network. Subjects engaged in exchanges across a series of distinct episodes, using standard experimental procedures from research on relational cohesion (Lawler and Yoon, 1996) and exchange networks (Molm and Cook, 1995; Willer, 1999). Consistent with the hypotheses, the results reveal more convergence of behavior and higher cohesion in triads than in dyads; moreover, uncertainty reduction is the primary basis for cohesion in the triad, whereas positive affect was the primary basis for cohesion in the dyad. These results are discussed in relation to Simmelian dyad-triad dynamics and the theory of relational cohesion.

  5. Persistent telomere cohesion triggers a prolonged anaphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Smith, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres use distinct mechanisms (not used by arms or centromeres) to mediate cohesion between sister chromatids. However, the motivation for a specialized mechanism at telomeres is not well understood. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging, that persistent sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres triggers a prolonged anaphase in normal human cells and cancer cells. Excess cohesion at telomeres can be induced by inhibition of tankyrase 1, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase that is required for resolution of telomere cohesion, or by overexpression of proteins required to establish telomere cohesion, the shelterin subunit TIN2 and the cohesin subunit SA1. Regardless of the method of induction, excess cohesion at telomeres in mitosis prevents a robust and efficient anaphase. SA1- or TIN2-induced excess cohesion and anaphase delay can be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Moreover, we show that primary fibroblasts, which accumulate excess telomere cohesion at mitosis naturally during replicative aging, undergo a similar delay in anaphase progression that can also be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Our study demonstrates that there are opposing forces that regulate telomere cohesion. The observation that cells respond to unresolved telomere cohesion by delaying (but not completely disrupting) anaphase progression suggests a mechanism for tolerating excess cohesion and maintaining telomere integrity. This attempt to deal with telomere damage may be ultimately futile for aging fibroblasts but useful for cancer cells.

  6. An aqueous non-heme Fe(iv)oxo complex with a basic group in the second coordination sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Mads Sørensen; Lennartson, Anders; Nielsen, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    The Fe(iv)oxo complex of a coordinatively flexible multidentate mono-carboxylato ligand is obtained by the one electron oxidation of a low spin Fe(iii) precursor in water.......The Fe(iv)oxo complex of a coordinatively flexible multidentate mono-carboxylato ligand is obtained by the one electron oxidation of a low spin Fe(iii) precursor in water....

  7. Distributed Learning, Extremum Seeking, and Model-Free Optimization for the Resilient Coordination of Multi-Agent Adversarial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0314 Distributed learning , extremum seeking, and model-free optimization for the resilient coordination of multi-agent...Jun-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Distributed learning , extremum seeking, and model-free optimization for the resilient coordination of multi-agent...and 2) the use of extremum seeking (ES) techniques to learn Nash equilibria in finitely- and infinitely-many player noncooperative games and to solve

  8. A Formula for Building Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in World.War II to feel the tremendous outpouring of warmth , friendebip, banding and esprit that exist among its members. They"had cohesion. "In the... interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, if the company comniader elects to provide compensatorzy time for the company but cannot allow the entire unit...that a unit commander can devise to provide settings for interpersonal relationships to flourish. Having provided for face-to-face relationships to

  9. The effect of functional roles on group efficiency: Using multilevel modeling and content analysis to investigate computer-supported collaboration in small groups

    OpenAIRE

    Strijbos, Jan Willem; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim; Broers, Nick

    2004-01-01

    The usefulness of ‘roles’ as a pedagogical approach to support small group performance can be often read, however, their effect is rarely empirically assessed. Roles promote cohesion and responsibility and decrease so-called ‘process losses’ caused by coordination demands. In addition, roles can increase awareness of intra-group interaction. In this article, the effect of functional roles on group performance, efficiency and collaboration during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL...

  10. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British" (read…

  11. A sign of the times: To have or to be? Social capital or social cohesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria A; Bilal, Usama

    2016-06-01

    Among various social factors associated with health behavior and disease, social cohesion has not captured the imagination of public health researchers as much as social capital as evidenced by the subsuming of social cohesion into social capital and the numerous studies analyzing social capital and the comparatively fewer articles analyzing social cohesion and health. In this paper we provide a brief overview of the evolution of the conceptualization of social capital and social cohesion and we use philosopher Erich Fromm's distinction between "having" and "being" to understand the current research focus on capital over cohesion. We argue that social capital is related to having while social cohesion is related to being and that an emphasis on social capital leads to individualizing tendencies that are antithetical to cohesion. We provide examples drawn from the literature where this conflation of social capital and cohesion results in non-concordant definitions and subsequent operationalization of these constructs. Beyond semantics, the practical implication of focusing on "having" vs. "being" include an emphasis on understanding how to normalize groups and populations rather than providing those groups space for empowerment and agency leading to health.

  12. Shape-, size-, and functional group-selective binding of small organic guests in a paramagnetic coordination cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turega, Simon; Whitehead, Martina; Hall, Benjamin R; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Hunter, Christopher A; Ward, Michael D

    2013-01-18

    The host-guest chemistry of the octanuclear cubic coordination cage [Co(8)L(12)](16+) (where L is a bridging ligand containing two chelating pyrazolyl-pyridine units connected to a central naphthalene-1,5-diyl spacer via methylene "hinges") has been investigated in detail by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cage encloses a cavity of volume of ca. 400 Å(3), which is accessible through 4 Å diameter portals in the centers of the cube faces. The paramagnetism of the cage eliminates overlap of NMR signals by dispersing them over a range of ca. 200 ppm, making changes of specific signals easy to observe, and also results in large complexation-induced shifts of bound guests. The cage, in CD(3)CN solution, acts as a remarkably size- and shape-selective host for small organic guests such as coumarin (K = 78 M(-1)) and other bicyclic molecules of comparable size and shape such as isoquinoline-N-oxide (K = 2100 M(-1)). Binding arises from two independent recognition elements, which have been separately quantified. These are (i) a polar component arising from interaction of the H-bond accepting O atom of the guest with a convergent group of CH protons inside the cavity that lie close to a fac tris-chelate metal center and are therefore in a region of high electrostatic potential; and (ii) an additional component arising from the second aromatic ring (aromatic/van der Waals interactions with the interior surface of the cage and/or solvophobic interactions). The strength of the first component varies linearly with the H-bond-accepting ability of the guest; the second component is fixed at approximately 10 kJ mol(-1). We have also used (1)H-(1)H exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) experiments to analyze semiquantitatively two distinct dynamic processes, viz. movement of the guest into and out of the cavity and tumbling of the guest inside the host cavity. Depending on the size of the guest and the position of substituents, the rates of these processes can vary substantially, and the rates

  13. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H., E-mail: victor.h.rolongarrido@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. [Chair of Polymer Engineering/Polymer Physics, Berlin Institute of Technology (TU Berlin), Fasanenstrasse 90, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks.

  14. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Knowledge Enhancement Working Group: Multi-Agency Coordination After Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    Kaski Charles Denver Office of Emergency Management Kellar Scott Arapahoe County/NCR Coordinator Krebs Kathleen Clear Creek County Krugman Jim USDA...Boand FEMA Region VIII: Tim Deal FEMA Region VIII: Judy McWilliams Jefferson County OEM/IMT: Tim McSherry US Forest Service: Jim Krugman

  15. On the Role of Social Identity and Cohesion in Characterizing Online Social Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Hemant; Ruan, Yiye; Fuhry, David; Parthasarathy, Srinivasan; Sheth, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Two prevailing theories for explaining social group or community structure are cohesion and identity. The social cohesion approach posits that social groups arise out of an aggregation of individuals that have mutual interpersonal attraction as they share common characteristics. These characteristics can range from common interests to kinship ties and from social values to ethnic backgrounds. In contrast, the social identity approach posits that an individual is likely to join a group based o...

  16. Cohesion in Computer Text Generation: Lexical Substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    substitutions. Paul is able to generate a cohesive text which exhibits the binding of sentences through presupposition dependencies, the marking of old...lexical substitutions, Paul is able to generate a cohesive text - • which exhibits the binding of sentences through presupposition dependencies, the...problem in using these cohesive devices is that it is necessary to guarantee that they are understandable. That is, since these items refer anaphorically

  17. Physical activity promotion among churchgoing Latinas in San Diego, California: does neighborhood cohesion matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Arredondo, Elva M; Roesch, Scott

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the reciprocal relationship between Latinas' leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion following the implementation of a 6-month promotora-delivered pilot intervention. A one-group study design was used to promote leisure-time physical activity and build neighborhood cohesion among 143 churchgoing Latinas in San Diego, California. Using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged panel model, leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion (assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months) were analyzed. Leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion increased across time. Neighborhood cohesion at 3 months predicted leisure-time physical activity at 6 months. A promotora model in the context of a faith-based setting may be appropriate to promote Latinas' leisure-time physical activity and make socioenvironmental improvements.

  18. Influence of dry cohesion on the micro- and macro-mechanical properties of dense polydisperse powders & grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievitsbosch, Robert; Smit, Hendrik; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan; Taghizadeh, Kianoosh

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how cohesive granular materials behave is of interest for many industrial applications, such as pharmaceutical or food and civil engineering. Models of the behaviour of granular materials on the microscopic scale can be used to obtain macroscopic continuum relations by a micro-macro transition approach. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to inspect the influence of cohesion on the micro and macro behaviour of granular assemblies by using an elasto-plastic cohesive contact model. Interestingly, we observe that frictional samples prepared with different cohesion values show a significant difference in pressure and coordination number in the jammed regime; the differences become more pronounced when packings are closer to the jamming density, i.e. the lowest density where the system is mechanically stable. Furthermore, we observe that cohesion has an influence on the jamming density for frictional samples, but there is no influence on the jamming density for frictionless samples.

  19. Party cohesion in the Icelandic Althingi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutional theories of party cohesion may be divided into "nomination theories" and "structure of the executive theories". The former seek explanations of cohesion in the way nominations are conducted, predicting that de-centralized and inclusive nominations will reduce party cohesion. The latter attempt to explain cohesion by reference to the structure of the executive, and predict that parliamentary government will increase cohesion. Party cohesion in the Icelandic Althingi has, hitherto, not been extensively studied. In this article, large amounts of data are explored to test hypotheses derived from the two theoretical approaches. The analysis is based on roll-call data dating back to 1961 and electronic voting records from 1991 onwards. The main conclusion is that party cohesion is at a high level in Iceland, despite decentralized and inclusive nominations, and hypotheses derived from nomination theories therefore find no support in our data. Hypotheses derived from "structure of the executive theories" fare much better and the main reason for high party cohesion in Iceland seems to be parliamentary government. Various features of our data, however, encourage us not to ignore other contextual features affecting party cohesion, which neither of the two institutional theories can account for satisfactorily.

  20. Assessing Software Quality Through Visualised Cohesion Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Shih

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion is one of the most important factors for software quality as well as maintainability, reliability and reusability. Module cohesion is defined as a quality attribute that seeks for measuring the singleness of the purpose of a module. The module of poor quality can be a serious obstacle to the system quality. In order to design a good software quality, software managers and engineers need to introduce cohesion metrics to measure and produce desirable software. A highly cohesion software is thought to be a desirable constructing. In this paper, we propose a function-oriented cohesion metrics based on the analysis of live variables, live span and the visualization of processing element dependency graph. We give six typical cohesion examples to be measured as our experiments and justification. Therefore, a well-defined, well-normalized, well-visualized and well-experimented cohesion metrics is proposed to indicate and thus enhance software cohesion strength. Furthermore, this cohesion metrics can be easily incorporated with software CASE tool to help software engineers to improve software quality.

  1. Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important consideration of long duration space flight operations is interpersonal dynamics that effect crew cohesion and performance. Flight surgeons have stated...

  2. Happier together. Social cohesion and subjective well-being in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Jan; Dragolov, Georgi

    2016-06-01

    Despite mushrooming research on "social" determinants of subjective well-being (SWB), little is known as to whether social cohesion as a collective property is among the key societal conditions for human happiness. This article fills this gap in investigating the importance of living in a cohesive society for citizens' SWB. For 27 European Union countries, it combines the newly developed Bertelsmann Foundation's Cohesion Index with individual well-being data on life evaluation and psychological functioning as surveyed in the recent European Quality of Life Survey. The main results from multi-level analyses are as follows. First, Europeans are indeed happier and psychologically healthier in more cohesive societies. Second, all three core domains of cohesion increase individuals' SWB. Third, citizens in the more affluent part of Europe feel the positivity of social cohesion more consistently than those in the less affluent part. Finally, within countries, cohesion is good for the SWB of resource-rich and resource-poor groups alike. Our findings also shed new light on the ongoing debate on economic progress and quality of life: what makes citizenries of affluent societies happier is, in the first place, their capacity to create togetherness and solidarity among their members-in other words, cohesion. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. [Food education: health and social cohesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, Eva Zafra

    2017-01-01

    Using a theoretical-reflexive approach, this article connects the results of various qualitative studies in social conflict and medical anthropology, in order to investigate how food can be a tool for social transformation in terms of health but also in terms of the dialogue, respect and coexistence among people, groups and communities. In this sense the article presents a first approximation to a new theoretical and methodological approach to food education. In this approach, food adopts a political, sociocultural and participatory perspective that brings us closer to an innovative understanding of the phenomenon of food: not only as an analytic and diagnostic tool, but also as an instrument for health education interventions toward conflict resolution and the promotion of healthier societies overall - nutritionally, but also in terms of equality and social cohesion.

  4. Food education: health and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zafra Aparici

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a theoretical-reflexive approach, this article connects the results of various qualitative studies in social conflict and medical anthropology, in order to investigate how food can be a tool for social transformation in terms of health but also in terms of the dialogue, respect and coexistence among people, groups and communities. In this sense the article presents a first approximation to a new theoretical and methodological approach to food education. In this approach, food adopts a political, sociocultural and participatory perspective that brings us closer to an innovative understanding of the phenomenon of food: not only as an analytic and diagnostic tool, but also as an instrument for health education interventions toward conflict resolution and the promotion of healthier societies overall – nutritionally, but also in terms of equality and social cohesion.

  5. Increases in New Social Network Ties are Associated with Increased Cohesion among Intervention Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Sommer, Evan C.; Thompson, Jessica R.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many behavior change programs are delivered in group settings to manage implementation costs and to foster support and interactions among group members to facilitate behavior change. Understanding the group dynamics that evolve in group settings (e.g., weight management, Alcoholics Anonymous) is important, yet rarely measured. This paper examined the relationship between social network ties and group cohesion in a group-based intervention to prevent obesity in children. Method The data reported are process measures from an ongoing community-based randomized controlled trial. 305 parents with a child (3-6 years) at risk of developing obesity were assigned to an intervention that taught parents healthy lifestyles. Parents met weekly for 12 weeks in small consistent groups. Two measures were collected at weeks 3 and 6: a social network survey (people in the group with whom one discusses healthy lifestyles); and the validated Perceived Cohesion Scale (Bollen & Hoyle, 1990). We used lagged random and fixed effects regression models to analyze the data. Results Cohesion increased from 6.51 to 6.71 (t=4.4, p<0.01). Network nominations tended to increase over the 3-week period in each network. In the combined discussion and advice network, the number of nominations increased from 1.76 to 1.95 (z=2.59, p<0.01). Cohesion at week 3 was the strongest predictor of cohesion at week 6 (b=0.55, p<0.01). Number of new network nominations at week 6 was positively related to cohesion at week 6 (b=0.06, p<.01). In sum, being able to name new network contacts was associated with feelings of cohesion. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate how network changes affect perceived group cohesion within a behavioral intervention. Given that many behavioral interventions occur in group settings, intentionally building new social networks could be promising to augment desired outcomes. PMID:26286298

  6. Application of Cohesion Theory in Listening Text Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董天; 牛敬敏

    2014-01-01

    Based on discourse cohesion,this thesis adopts phonological cohesion,lexical cohesion,structure cohesion and logical con-junction as the theoretical guidance and analyzes the listening texts and proves that multidimensional cohesion plays an important role in listen-ing comprehension.

  7. Cohesive Harmony and Textual Quality: An Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui; Cox, Beverly E.

    1998-01-01

    Finds developmental changes in both cohesive harmony and holistic writing quality in the writing of first graders, suggesting that cohesive harmony may be a sensitive measure of textual quality. Finds no consistent relationship between measures of cohesive ties and cohesive harmony. Suggests that cohesive harmony is a viable tool for discourse…

  8. Regions and the Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is an important target of European Union, constantly promoted by its institutions and their representatives. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, one of the most important support documents, the region represents a very important issue, being considered to be the key to its successfulness. The region is seen as a support for the smart growth and all the operational policy concepts try to make use of the spatial potential, by taking better account of the territorial specificities. Two main questions play attention: the need to transform the present-day developmental regions into administrative ones is a priority? What kind of regionalization it must to be promoted? Correlating these issues with already defined territorial cohesion, the administrative region is a real tool for the future territorial development. The experience of the last 14 years asks urgently the building of a new territorial administrative reform, giving competences to regions. For instant, each development region is a construction resulted from a free association of the counties. Their role in the regional development is much reduced one, because their regional councils are not elected; decisions taken at this level are consultative for the social, economical, cultural or political actors.

  9. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  10. Insertion of functional groups into a Nd3+ metal-organic framework via single-crystal-to-single-crystal coordinating solvent exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Manolis J; Kyprianidou, Eleni J; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S; Tasiopoulos, Anastasios J

    2012-06-04

    Single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations represent some of the most fascinating phenomena in chemistry. They are not only intriguing from a basic science point of view but also provide a means to modify or tune the properties of the materials via the postsynthetic introduction of suitable guest molecules or organic functional groups into their structures. Here, we describe UCY-2, a new flexible Nd(3+) metal-organic framework (MOF), which exhibits a unique capability to undergo a plethora of SCSC transformations with some of them being very uncommon. These structural alterations involve the replacement of coordinating solvent molecules of UCY-2 by terminally ligating solvents and organic ligands with multiple functional groups including -OH, -SH, -NH-, and -NH(2) or their combinations, chelating ligands, anions, and two different organic compounds. The SCSC coordinating solvent exchange is thus demonstrated as a powerful method for the functionalization of MOFs.

  11. Textual Cohesion and Coherence in Children's Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Spiegel, Dixie Lee

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between cohesion and coherence in children's writing and investigated the degree to which this relationship would vary with quality of writing and grade level. Concludes that the relationship between cohesion and coherence did not vary according to quality of writing or grade level. (SRT)

  12. Academic Social Cohesion within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical foundations of "social cohesion" as it relates to higher education institutions. In so doing it seeks (a) to understand the core elements of social cohesion--social capital, human capital and ethical behavioral norms that serve a common good--and (b) to establish a flexible framework for understanding the…

  13. Education and Social Cohesion: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyenko, Olena

    2005-01-01

    Social cohesion is understood as the social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from connections among individuals. When students attend higher education institutions, they go through a process of socialization, and it is vital to ensure that they acquire the core values that underpin the social cohesion. This…

  14. Networks, space, and residents' perception of cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Adam; Hipp, John R; Smith, Emily J; Butts, Carter T; Nagle, Nicholas N; Almquist, Zack

    2014-06-01

    Community scholars increasingly focus on the linkage between residents' sense of cohesion with the neighborhood and their own social networks in the neighborhood. A challenge is that whereas some research only focuses on residents' social ties with fellow neighbors, such an approach misses out on the larger constellation of individuals' relationships and the spatial distribution of those relationships. Using data from the Twin Communities Network Study, the current project is one of the first studies to examine the actual spatial distribution of respondents' networks for a variety of relationships and the consequences of these for neighborhood and city cohesion. We also examine how a perceived structural measure of cohesion-triangle degree-impacts their perceptions of neighborhood and city cohesion. Our findings suggest that perceptions of cohesion within the neighborhood and the city depend on the number of neighborhood safety contacts as well as on the types of people with which they discuss important matters. On the other hand, kin and social friendship ties do not impact cohesion. A key finding is that residents who report more spatially dispersed networks for certain types of ties report lower levels of neighborhood and city cohesion. Residents with higher triangle degree within their neighborhood safety networks perceived more neighborhood cohesion.

  15. Sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.; Heyting, C.

    2000-01-01

    Sister chromatids are associated from their formation until their disjunction. Cohesion between sister chromatids is provided by protein complexes, of which some components are conserved across the kingdoms and between the mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. Sister chromatid cohesion is intimately link

  16. Mixed Mode cohesive law with interface dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    shear stresses opposing the crack face displacements. A phenomenological Mixed Mode cohesive zone law, derived from a potential function, is developed to describe the above mentioned fracture behaviour under monotonic opening. The interface dilatation introduces two new lengths. The cohesive law...

  17. Unit Cohesion and the Impact of DADT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Janowitz, “Cohesion and Disintegra- tion in the Wehrmacht in World War II,” Public Opinion Quarterly 12, no. 2 (Summer 1948). 12. Leon Festinger ...Leon Festinger , “Informal Social Com- munication,” Psychological Review 57, no. 5 (September 1950). Unit Cohesion and the Impact of DADT Strategic

  18. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  19. Transfer and Cohesion in Interdisciplinary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Harnow Klausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges of interdisciplinary education is to create sufficient cohesion between disciplines. It is suggested that cohesion depends on the transfer of knowledge (in a broad sense, which includes skill and competences among the disciplines involved. Some of the most characteristic types of such transfer are identified and analyzed: Transfer of factual knowledge, theories, methods, models, skills, modes of collaboration and organization, meta-competences, disciplinary self-consciousness, problem selection, framework construction and motivation. Though some of these types of transfer may have a greater or smaller potential for creating cohesion, different kinds of cohesion may serve different interests, and there is no reason to assume that e.g. joint problem solving or theoretical integration should be more conducive to cohesion than e.g. contributions to motivation or disciplinary self-consciousness.

  20. Pension Insurance Cohesive Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askarbek Arzybaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many public pension systems worldwide are experiencing difficult economic period as its economy is in the period of financial crisis which affected to the social budget sustainability.Population aging and last decade economic circumstances are the factors the pension systems should overcome for maintaining either appropriate level of benefit amount for decent life in the developed countries or minimum subsistence allowances in developing and poor countries. The only prescription how to keep the pension system resistible is its periodical renovation by testing the system on (i soundness and effectiveness within national financial and economic system, (ii appropriateness of its organization and administration, (iii compliance of parameters with international standards. The article presents Cohesive Testing System – new method of national pension systems testing and indexing based on international standards of pension security and new CTS indices of the researched set of pension systems.

  1. Analysis of lexical cohesion in Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉红

    2014-01-01

    Lexical cohesion is one of the most important cohesions in English discourse. Lexical cohesion can explicitly express coherence in English discourse and enhance discourse coherent competence with the help of using lexical items. Based on the cohesion theory of Halliday and other linguists, this paper analyzes the classification and effect of the lexical cohesion in Lincoln's Gettysburg Address and points out that various lexical cohesive devices can play particular roles in the coherence of the discourse.

  2. One-pot synthesis of four-coordinate boron(III) complexes by the ligand-promoted organic group migration between boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadu, Venkata S; Bin, Hye-Rin; Lee, Do-Min; Lee, Kee-In

    2017-03-21

    Multidisciplinary applications of four-coordinate boron(III) complexes make them very attractive and challenging research field in chemistry, biology and material sciences. The dual role played by boron atom in stabilising the chelate ligand and enhancing the π-conjugation makes them very useful as luminescent materials for organic electronics and photonics, and sensing and imaging probes for biomedical purposes. The conventional methods involve the use of diarylborinic acids or anhydrides and triaryl boranes, which are made from organometallic reagents. The strong nucleophilicity of these reagents limits the peripheral modifications onto the boron cores. Here, we report a metal-free one-pot synthesis of four-coordinate organoborons using boronic acids, which represents the first instance of ligand assisted organic group migration between boronic acids. A tetrahedral boron 'ate' complex capable of transferring an organic group to the adjacent sp(2) boron within a boronic anhydride intermediate is proposed and preliminary mechanistic studies by MALDI-TOF and (11)B NMR support this proposal. The products are available from a series of N,O-, N,N- and O,O-bidentate ligands upon a wide array of boronic acids. We anticipate that this reaction will impact the way of producing the four-coordinate organoborons, and propel a new discovery of such materials for optoelectronic and biomedical applications.

  3. Children's enduring PTSD symptoms are related to their family's adaptability and cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmes, Philippe; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe; Daubisse, Laetitia; Brunet, Alain; Arbus, Christophe; Klein, Rémy; Cailhol, Lionel; Allenou, Charlotte; Hazane, Franck; Grandjean, Hélène; Schmitt, Laurent

    2009-08-01

    This study compared, 18-24 months after an industrial disaster, in two groups of children (those with clinically relevant PTSD symptoms versus those with low PTSD symptoms), the child's perception of family cohesion and adaptability, the child's experience of the explosion, and parental characteristics. Enmeshed family cohesion or rigid family adaptability were more frequently found in children with low PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptoms in the mother, living in a family of 3 or more children, and being female were significantly associated with PTSD symptoms in the children. The assessment of traumatized children should include assessment of family's adaptability and cohesion.

  4. Care coordination between specialty care and primary care: a focus group study of provider perspectives on strong practices and improvement opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bo Kim,1,2 Michelle A Lucatorto,3 Kara Hawthorne,4 Janis Hersh,5 Raquel Myers,6 A Rani Elwy,1,7 Glenn D Graham81Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial VA Hospital, Bedford, 2Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Office of Nursing Services, Department of Veterans Affairs, 4Chief Business Office, Purchased Care, Washington, DC, 5New England Veterans Engineering Resource Center, Boston, MA, 6SJ Quinney College of Law, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 7Department of Health Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 8Specialty Care Services (10P4E, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Care coordination between the specialty care provider (SCP and the primary care provider (PCP is a critical component of safe, efficient, and patient-centered care. Veterans Health Administration conducted a series of focus groups of providers, from specialty care and primary care clinics at VA Medical Centers nationally, to assess 1 what SCPs and PCPs perceive to be current practices that enable or hinder effective care coordination with one another and 2 how these perceptions differ between the two groups of providers. A qualitative thematic analysis of the gathered data validates previous studies that identify communication as being an important enabler of coordination, and uncovers relationship building between specialty care and primary care (particularly through both formal and informal relationship-building opportunities such as collaborative seminars and shared lunch space, respectively to be the most notable facilitator of effective communication between the two sides. Results from this study suggest concrete next steps that medical facilities can take to improve care coordination, using as their basis the mutual understanding and respect developed between SCPs and PCPs through relationship-building efforts

  5. Mixing behaviour of cohesive and non-cohesive particle mixtures in a ribbon mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musha, H.; Dong, K.; Chandratilleke, G. R.; Bridgwater, J.; Yu, A. B.

    2013-06-01

    Ribbon mixers are used in a wide range of applications involving pharmaceuticals, ceramics and cosmetics, to name a few. Here, the discrete element method is used to investigate the effect of impeller speed on the mixing behaviours of cohesive as well as non-cohesive particle mixtures in a ribbon mixer, which has a horizontal cylindrical vessel. The mixing behaviours are characterized by particle-scale and macroscopic mixing indexes. Simulations show that the mixing rate increases with the impeller speed for both the cohesive and non-cohesive mixtures up to a certain speed, beyond which it showed a reduction. There is a possibility that the mixture quality becomes poorer at higher impeller speeds for the non-cohesive particles, but it was not the case with the cohesive particles. Inspection of velocity fields shows that many local recirculation regions exist in the case of non-cohesive particle mixing, preventing the overall mixing. By contrast, in the case of the cohesive mixture, there exists a circumferential motion about the shaft and a convective motion in the horizontal axial direction, improving the particle mixing. Force analyses are also carried out, which show that the particle contact forces increase with the impeller speed for non-cohesive particles, but in the case of cohesive particles, they increase initially with the impeller speed, and then show a reduction after a certain speed. The results will be useful in selecting operation conditions of a ribbon mixer.

  6. Do neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and low social cohesion predict coronary calcification?: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Diez Roux, Ana V; Kiefe, Catarina I; Kawachi, Ichiro; Liu, Kiang

    2010-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that neighborhood characteristics may influence the risk of coronary heart disease. No studies have yet explored associations of neighborhood attributes with subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adult populations. Using data on 2,974 adults (1,699 women, 1,275 men) aged 32-50 years in 2000 from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study and 2000 US Census block-group-level data, the authors estimated multivariable-adjusted associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and perceived neighborhood cohesion with odds of coronary artery calcification (CAC) 5 years later. Among women, the quartiles of highest neighborhood deprivation and lowest cohesion were associated with higher odds of CAC after adjustment for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic factors (for deprivation, odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 5.08 (P for trend = 0.03); for cohesion, odds ratio = 1.87, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 3.16 (P for trend = 0.02)). Associations changed only slightly after adjustment for behavioral, psychosocial, and biologic factors. Among men, neither neighborhood deprivation nor cohesion was related to CAC. However, among men in deprived neighborhoods, low cohesion predicted higher CAC odds (for interaction between neighborhood deprivation and cohesion, P = 0.03). This study provides evidence on associations of neighborhood deprivation and cohesion with CAC in younger, asymptomatic adults. Neighborhood attributes may contribute to subclinical atherosclerosis.

  7. Natural disasters and indicators of social cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo-Blanco, Aitor; Kovářík, Jaromír; Mengel, Friederike; Romero, José Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Do adversarial environmental conditions create social cohesion? We provide new answers to this question by exploiting spatial and temporal variation in exposure to earthquakes across Chile. Using a variety of methods and controlling for a number of socio-economic variables, we find that exposure to earthquakes has a positive effect on several indicators of social cohesion. Social cohesion increases after a big earthquake and slowly erodes in periods where environmental conditions are less adverse. Our results contribute to the current debate on whether and how environmental conditions shape formal and informal institutions.

  8. A FRAMEWORK TO MEASURE CLASS COHESION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuBaowen; ChenZhenqiang; 等

    2003-01-01

    Chasses are the basic modules in Object-Oriented(OO)softvare,which consist of attributed and methods.Thus,in OO environment,the cohesion is mainly about how tightly the attributed and methods of classes cohere with each other.This letter discusses the relationships between attributes and attributes,attributes and methods,methods and methods of a class,and the properties of these relationships.Based on these properties,the letter proposes a new framework to measure the cohesion of a class.The approach overcomes the limitations of previous class cohesion measures,which comsider only one or two of the three relationships in class.

  9. Measuring Class Cohesion Based on Dependence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Qiang Chen; Bao-Wen Xu; Yu-Ming Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Classes are the basic modules in object-oriented (OO) software, which consist of attributes and methods. Thus, in OO environment, the cohesion is mainly about the tightness of the attributes and methods of classes. This paper discusses the relationships between attributes and attributes, attributes and methods, methods and methods of a class based on dependence analysis. Then the paper presents methods to compute these dependencies. Based on these, the paper proposes a method to measure the class cohesion, which satisfies the properties that a good measurement should have. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous class cohesion measures, which consider only one or two of the three relationships in a class.

  10. A FRAMEWORK TO MEASURE CLASS COHESION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Baowen; Chen Zhenqiang; Zhou Yuming

    2003-01-01

    Classes are the basic modules in Object-Oriented (OO) software, which consist of attributes and methods. Thus, in OO environment, the cohesion is mainly about how tightly the attributes and methods of classes cohere with each other. This letter discusses the relationships between attributes and attributes, attributes and methods, methods and methods of a class,and the properties of these relationships. Based on these properties, the letter proposes a new framework to measure the cohesion of a class. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous class cohesion measures, which consider only one or two of the three relationships in a class.

  11. STUDY ON STARTING VELOCITY OF COHESIVE SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, with the starting velocity experiments of natural cohesive sedimentation, the author proposes an assumption concerning the starting mechanism of cohesive sedimentation and gives a formula to determine the starting velocity of compact clay. It is pointed out that the fluctuating function of flow is a main factor for the starting of sedimentation. And the component and the structure of cohesive sedimentation are also the affecting factors for the starting. Consequently, the study shows that modern results of soil mechanics, clay mineralogy and fluid mechanics are helpful in the investigation of this kind of engineering problem.

  12. Natural disasters and indicators of social cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo-Blanco, Aitor; Kovářík, Jaromír; Mengel, Friederike; Romero, José Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Do adversarial environmental conditions create social cohesion? We provide new answers to this question by exploiting spatial and temporal variation in exposure to earthquakes across Chile. Using a variety of methods and controlling for a number of socio-economic variables, we find that exposure to earthquakes has a positive effect on several indicators of social cohesion. Social cohesion increases after a big earthquake and slowly erodes in periods where environmental conditions are less adverse. Our results contribute to the current debate on whether and how environmental conditions shape formal and informal institutions. PMID:28591148

  13. Cohesion Metrics for Ontology Design and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haining Yao

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, domain specific ontology development has been driven by research on the Semantic Web. Ontologies have been suggested for use in many application areas targeted by the Semantic Web, such as dynamic web service composition and general web service matching. Fundamental characteristics of these ontologies must be determined in order to effectively make use of them: for example, Sirin, Hendler and Parsia have suggested that determining fundamental characteristics of ontologies is important for dynamic web service composition. Our research examines cohesion metrics for ontologies. The cohesion metrics examine the fundamental quality of cohesion as it relates to ontologies.

  14. Spilling over: Partner parenting stress as a predictor of family cohesion in parents of adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Darcy B; Szczerepa, Alexandra; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Family cohesion relates to positive outcomes for both parents and children. Maintaining cohesion may be especially challenging for families of adolescents with developmental disabilities, yet this has been studied infrequently in this group. We investigated cohesion in these families, particularly with respect to partner stress, using the notion of the 'spillover effect' as a model. Adolescents with disabilities and their parents participated. Parents reported on teen adaptive and problem behaviours and on marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and family cohesion. The stress of one partner was tested as a predictor of the quality of family cohesion reported by the other. Adolescent behaviour problems were negative predictors of family cohesion in mothers, and marital satisfaction positively predicted cohesion for both parents. Above other factors, greater partner stress predicted poorer family cohesion for both fathers and mothers. Marital satisfaction acted as a suppressor of this relation. To improve the overall climate of families, care providers should take into consideration individual relationships, including the marital relationship. In addition, the possibility of spillover from one individual to another should be recognized as a factor in family functioning. Family-centred practices are likely to lead to greater feelings of cohesion and overall better individual and family well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Textual Cohesion in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurowski, Mary Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Presents a description of textual cohesion in Modern standard Chinese (MSC), and describes three types of relations as discourse and text features that contribute to the overall unity or coherence of a text. (24 references) (Author/VWL)

  16. A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW OF TERRITORIAL COHESION

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    MARIA VASILESCU (DUMITRASCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is a complex concept that cannot be explained by a single definition. During the previous decades, territorial issues represented, undoubtedly, subjects of interest for various policy documents, actions and funding of the European Union, but the asymmetric impact of recent global crisis, doubled by the launch of the Green Paper (2008 and its inclusion in the Lisbon Treaty, in 2009, has underlined the importance of territorial cohesion, as one of the three main pillars of the new cohesion policy. In this context, this article tries to create a holistic perspective on territorial cohesion by analyzing the available studies and to determine its relevance to the European objective of strengthening the regions, promoting territorial integration and producing coherent policies, thus contributing to the sustainable development and global competitiveness of the European Union.

  17. DYNAMIC COHESIVENESS IN A COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Qiyan[1; Fu; Yanjun[2

    2001-01-01

    One of the main features of a communicative English classis activities, organized by the teacher and conducted by studentsperforming certain functions and involving different topics. Theuse of activities has gained much attention. However, the linkbetween activities seems to have been ignored. This paper is anattempt to explore the role of cohesiveness between activities incommunicative teaching. The cohesiveness can be eithermechanical or dynamic. The key is that dynamic cohesivenesscontributes to the atmosphere and effectiveness of communicativeEnglish classroom teaching.

  18. Modelling cohesive, frictional and viscoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehossein, Habib; Qin, Zongyi

    2016-06-01

    Most materials in mining and civil engineering construction are not only viscoplastic, but also cohesive frictional. Fresh concrete, fly ash and mining slurries are all granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids, although solid concrete is normally considered as a cohesive frictional material. Presented here is both a formulation of the pipe and disc flow rates as a function of pressure and pressure gradient and the CFD application to fresh concrete flow in L-Box tests.

  19. Quantification of SLIT-ROBO transcripts in hepatocellular carcinoma reveals two groups of genes with coordinate expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konu Ozlen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SLIT-ROBO families of proteins mediate axon pathfinding and their expression is not solely confined to nervous system. Aberrant expression of SLIT-ROBO genes was repeatedly shown in a wide variety of cancers, yet data about their collective behavior in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is missing. Hence, we quantified SLIT-ROBO transcripts in HCC cell lines, and in normal and tumor tissues from liver. Methods Expression of SLIT-ROBO family members was quantified by real-time qRT-PCR in 14 HCC cell lines, 8 normal and 35 tumor tissues from the liver. ANOVA and Pearson's correlation analyses were performed in R environment, and different clinicopathological subgroups were pairwise compared in Minitab. Gene expression matrices of cell lines and tissues were analyzed by Mantel's association test. Results Genewise hierarchical clustering revealed two subgroups with coordinate expression pattern in both the HCC cell lines and tissues: ROBO1, ROBO2, SLIT1 in one cluster, and ROBO4, SLIT2, SLIT3 in the other, respectively. Moreover, SLIT-ROBO expression predicted AFP-dependent subgrouping of HCC cell lines, but not that of liver tissues. ROBO1 and ROBO2 were significantly up-regulated, whereas SLIT3 was significantly down-regulated in cell lines with high-AFP background. When compared to normal liver tissue, ROBO1 was found to be significantly overexpressed, while ROBO4 was down-regulated in HCC. We also observed that ROBO1 and SLIT2 differentiated histopathological subgroups of liver tissues depending on both tumor staging and differentiation status. However, ROBO4 could discriminate poorly differentiated HCC from other subgroups. Conclusion The present study is the first in comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of SLIT-ROBO family gene expression in HCC, and suggests that the expression of SLIT-ROBO genes is regulated in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our results implicate that SLIT-ROBO transcription profile is bi-modular in nature, and

  20. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Prevalence of Hypertension and Diabetes in a South Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisetty, Pooja A; Wen, Ming; Choi, Hwajung; Heisler, Michele; Kanaya, Alka M; Kandula, Namratha R

    2016-12-01

    South Asians have a high burden of cardiovascular disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Little has been done to evaluate how neighborhood environments may influence cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and type 2 diabetes in this immigrant population. We evaluated the association of perceived neighborhood social cohesion with hypertension and type 2 diabetes among 906 South Asian adults who participated in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America Study. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and physiologic covariates. Subgroup analyses examined whether associations differed by gender. South Asian women living in neighborhoods with high social cohesion had 46 % reduced odds of having hypertension than those living in neighborhoods with low social cohesion (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.30-0.99). Future research should determine if leveraging neighborhood social cohesion prevents hypertension in South Asian women.

  1. Appraisal in a Team Context: Perceptions of Cohesion Predict Competition Importance and Prospects for Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Svenja A; Eys, Mark A; Sadler, Pamela; Kleinert, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Athletes' precompetitive appraisal is important because it determines emotions, which may impact performance. When part of a team, athletes make their appraisal within a social context, and in this study we examined whether perceived team cohesion, as a characteristic of this context, related to appraisal. We asked 386 male and female intercollegiate team-sport athletes to respond to measures of cohesion and precompetitive appraisal before an in-season game. For males and females, across all teams, (a) an appraisal of increased competition importance was predicted by perceptions of higher task cohesion (individual level), better previous team performance, and a weaker opponent (team level) and (b) an appraisal of more positive prospects for coping with competitive demands was predicted by higher individual attractions to the group (individual level). Consequently, athletes who perceive their team as more cohesive likely appraise the pending competition as a challenge, which would benefit both emotions and performance.

  2. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliffe, Julie M; Cole, Michael D; Wieschaus, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications. PMID:17519021

  3. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Michael D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications.

  4. Rotation Induced Disruption of Cohesive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Lana, Diego; Scheeres, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    We use a Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) code to study the evolution of self-gravitating cohesive granular aggregates that are spun to disruption as a proxy to "rubble-pile" asteroids. Calculations have shown that the fine regolith in asteroids and molecular Van der Waals forces together may act as a cohesive matrix that provides enough structural strength to hold small NEAs together even at the observed high spin rates. With this in mind we have implemented cohesive forces between the large 10 m) particles that form our aggregates; its strength being controlled by the mean particle size of the matrix. The addition of rolling friction also has allowed us to obtain cohesionless aggregates with friction angles of at least 35° as measured by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. A series of experiments were run with the code, keeping the size, density and number of grains constant while increasing the cohesive strength of the matrix holding the grains in place. It can be shown, through a scaling analysis, that when the cohesive strength between rubble pile components is increased by a factor of f, that the effective size of the asteroid being modeled will decrease by a factor of 1/√f. To evaluate this we ran a series of 12 cases with increasing cohesive strength, effectively modeling rubble piles of size from 0.1 km up to 100 km with a constant cohesive strength of 25 Pa. Some of our main results are as follows: 1. results from simulations are compatible with a simple model of asteroid strength that predicts, in the cohesion dominated case, that the spin rate for fission is inversely proportional to the size of the asteroid; 2. aggregates may disrupt by shedding or fission, depending on the cohesive strength and the size of the aggregate (shape and heterogeneity factors have not yet been considered); 3. disruption by fission is more likely for small aggregates than for larger aggregates with the same cohesive strength. Further results with spherical and a

  5. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  6. Contrasting coordination behavior of Group 12 perchlorate salts with an acyclic N3O2 donor ligand by X-ray crystallography and (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Daniel B; Pike, Robert D; Bebout, Deborah C

    2016-08-09

    An unbranched N3O2 ligand 2,6-bis[((2-pyridinylmethyl)oxy)methyl]pyridine (L1) was used to prepare new mononuclear heteroleptic Group 12 perchlorate complexes characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and X-ray crystallography. Racemic complexes with pentadentate L1 and one to four oxygens from either water or perchlorate bound to a metal ion were structurally characterized. Octahedral [Zn(L1)(OH2)](ClO4)2 (1) and pentagonal bipyramidal [Cd(L1)(OH2)(OClO3)]ClO4 (2) structures were found with lighter congeners. The polymorphic forms of [Hg(L1)(ClO4)2] characterized (3 in P1[combining macron] and 4 in P21/c) had a mix of monodentate, anisobidentate and bidentate perchlorates, providing the first examples of a tricapped trigonal prismatic Hg(ii) coordination geometry, as well as additional examples of a rare square antiprismatic Hg(ii) coordination geometry. Solution state (1)H NMR characterization of the Group 12 complexes in CD3CN indicated intramolecular reorganization remained rapid under conditions where intermolecular M-L1 exchange was slow on the chemical shift time scale for Zn(ii) and on the J(M(1)H) time scale for Cd(ii) and Hg(ii). Solution studies with more than one equivalent of ligand also suggested that a complex with a 1 : 2 ratio of M : L1 contributed significantly to solution equilibria with Hg(ii) but not the other metal ions. The behavior of related linear pentadentate ligands with Group 12 perchlorate salts is discussed.

  7. The Reading Level Paradox: Why Children's Picture Books Are Less Cohesive than Adult Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Roberta; Surber, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments explored how pictures in award-winning children's storybooks contribute to their cohesion. In Experiment 1, one group of college students read storybooks with pictures, and another group read them with the pictures removed. Both groups answered questions inserted periodically. The source for about one half of the questions was…

  8. Cohesion from Conflict: Does Intergroup Conflict Motivate Intragroup Norm Enforcement and Support for Centralized Leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Classic work suggests that intergroup conflict increases intragroup cohesion and cooperation. But how do group members respond when their peers refuse to cooperate? Simmel ([1908] 1955) argued that groups in conflict quell dissent by sanctioning group members and supporting centralized leadership systems. This claim has important implications, but…

  9. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Research in the last three decades has shown that negative neighborhood factors such as neighborhood violence, noise, traffic, litter, low neighborhood socioeconomic status, and poor air quality increase the risk of poor health. Fewer studies have examined the potential protective effect that neighborhood factors can have on health, particularly stroke. We examined whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower stroke incidence after adjusting for traditional risk and psychological factors that have been linked with stroke risk. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used. Analyses were conducted on a subset of 6740 adults who were stroke-free at baseline. Analyses adjusted for chronic illnesses and relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. Over a four-year follow-up, higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of stroke. Each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (O.R.) of 0.85 for stroke incidence (95% CI, 0.75-0.97, p social cohesion remained significant after adjusting for a comprehensive set of risk factors. Therefore, perceived neighborhood social cohesion plays an important role in protecting against stroke.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and In-Vitro cytotoxic studies of 5,10,15,20 tetra pyridyl porphyrin coordinated to four [Ru (bipy2 Cl]+ groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uthayanila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium possesses several favorable properties suited to rational anticancer drug design when conjugation with the porphyrin moiety was accomplished through peripheral pyridyl rings. The ruthenium porphyrin conjugates are soluble at least moderately in aqueous solution and are thus suitable for biological investigations in particular for cytotoxicity and photocyotoxicity tests. In present study the compound 5,10,15,20 tetra pyridyl porphyrin coordinated to four [Ru (bipy2 Cl]+ groups (meso-5,10,15,20 tetrakis {4(chloro-bis-bipyridyl ruthenium(II pyridyl} porphyrin is synthesized by modified Alder method. This compound is characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, FT-IR Spectroscopy, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Cyclic Voltametry. In-Vitro anticancer activity of the compounds have been evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay method. The results show that the compound is cytotoxic against human lymphoma cancer cells.

  11. Cohesion, Flexibility, and the Mediating Effects of Shared Visionand Compassionon Engagement Army Acquisition Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    social trust that facilitates coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit” ( Putnam , 1995, p. 66). Individuals who are focused on being a cohesive...after having created a shared vision or objective around which those team members can rally (Bass, 1990; Mayer, Roberts , & Barsade, 2008). A properly...of Psychological Research, 3(1), 97–110. Mayer, J. D., Roberts , R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional Intelligence. Annual

  12. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras Rafael Jaimes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  13. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rafael Jaimes; Berger, Nicolas; Izard, Edouard; Douce, Jean-François; Koltsov, Alexey; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azema, Emilien; Nezamabadi, Saeid; van Loo, Frédéric; Pellenq, Roland; Radjai, Farhang

    2017-06-01

    We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite) granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  14. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  15. PERSPECTIVES ON IMPROVING COHESION POLICY SPENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Sebastian Badea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and summarize the latest visions and opinions published in articles and academic papers on the evaluation, institutional factors and the future of the European Cohesion Policy. The literature on the economic, territorial and social integration is vast and great emphasize has been put into the techniques, policies and instruments used in achieving these goals. The paper identifies some of the currents of opinion starting from cohesion evaluation methods and heading towards methods, techniques and policies for intervention without claiming to be an exhaustive endeavour. The article concludes with the summarising of the main opinions on the trends, directions and future of the European Cohesion Policy.

  16. Whither Elite Cohesion in Mexico: A Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Generacicnes: Los Protagonistas de Ia Reforma y la Revoluci(n Mexicana, Secretaria de Educacion Pblica, Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educat ivo, Mexico City...t-, ~ ir;opy 000 WHITHER ELITE COHESION IN MEXICO : A COMMENT David Ronfeldt November 1988 DTIC ELECTEI Novo 6 la ... . ... ,D The RAND...Monica, CA 90406 21:8 WHITHER ELITE COHESION IN MEXICO : A COMMENT Pavii Ronfeldt Por dec:ies . .I(,xi -as had a ,henomena!!y cohr sive ruling e I ite non

  17. Development of a cohesion questionnaire for youth: the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark; Loughead, Todd; Bray, Steven R; Carron, Albert V

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to initiate the development of a psychometrically sound measure of cohesion for youth sport groups. A series of projects were undertaken in a four-phase research program. The initial phase was designed to garner an understanding of how youth sport group members perceived the concept of cohesion through focus groups (n = 56), open-ended questionnaires (n = 280), and a literature review. In Phase 2, information from the initial projects was used in the development of 142 potential items and content validity was assessed. In Phase 3, 227 participants completed a revised 87-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses further reduced the number of items to 17 and suggested a two-factor structure (i.e., task and social cohesion dimensions). Finally, support for the factorial validity of the resultant questionnaire was provided through confirmatory factor analyses with an independent sample (n = 352) in Phase 4. The final version of the questionnaire contains 16 items that assess task and social cohesion in addition to 2 negatively worded spurious items. Specific issues related to assessing youth perceptions of cohesion are discussed and future research directions are suggested.

  18. Social cohesion, social participation and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Elise; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin; Fonner, Virginia; Adams, Darrin; Sithole, Bhekie; Mnisi, Zandile; Maziya, Sibusiso Lulu; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Social cohesion and social participation are social factors that may help reduce HIV risks and optimize health-seeking behaviors. We examined the association between these factors and HIV testing in the last 12 months among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Swaziland using a cross-sectional survey conducted with 326 men, 18 years of age or older reporting having sex with another man in the last 12 months. Social capital analyses included measures of social cohesion and social participation. The social cohesion measurement scale was created through exploratory factor analysis using polychoric correlations to determine unidimensionality and Cronbach's Alpha to assess internal consistency. The measurement scale was divided at the 25th and 75th percentiles using "high," "medium" and "low" levels of social cohesion for between-group comparisons. The social participation index included four questions regarding participation, resulting in a participation index ranging from 0 to 4. In the final multivariate logistic regression model, an increase in the level of social participation was found to be significantly associated with HIV testing in the last 12 months, adjusting for age, income, reporting a casual partner, family exclusion and rejection by other MSM due to sexual orientation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.7, p cohesion had almost twice the odds of HIV testing in the last 12 months (aOR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.3, p cohesion, though the overall social cohesion variable was not found to be significant using a Wald test in either the adjusted or unadjusted logistic regression models. These data suggest that building solidarity and trust within and between groups may be a strategy to improve uptake of HIV testing.

  19. Ethnic Intermarriage and Social Cohesion. What Can We Learn from Yugoslavia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Social cohesion theory is tested using data on ethnic intermarriage in former Yugoslavia. Before the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the proportion of marriages outside the own ethnic group was generally low, but in this respect large differences among the groups existed. The proportion of mixed marriages with a Serbian partner was much higher among…

  20. Decoupling the contribution of dispersive and acid-base components of surface energy on the cohesion of pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Umang V; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Narang, Ajit S; Hussain, Munir A; Tobyn, Michael J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2014-11-20

    This study reports an experimental approach to determine the contribution from two different components of surface energy on cohesion. A method to tailor the surface chemistry of mefenamic acid via silanization is established and the role of surface energy on cohesion is investigated. Silanization was used as a method to functionalize mefenamic acid surfaces with four different functional end groups resulting in an ascending order of the dispersive component of surface energy. Furthermore, four haloalkane functional end groups were grafted on to the surface of mefenamic acid, resulting in varying levels of acid-base component of surface energy, while maintaining constant dispersive component of surface energy. A proportional increase in cohesion was observed with increases in both dispersive as well as acid-base components of surface energy. Contributions from dispersive and acid-base surface energy on cohesion were determined using an iterative approach. Due to the contribution from acid-base surface energy, cohesion was found to increase ∼11.7× compared to the contribution from dispersive surface energy. Here, we provide an approach to deconvolute the contribution from two different components of surface energy on cohesion, which has the potential of predicting powder flow behavior and ultimately controlling powder cohesion.

  1. Towards an integrated approach to cohesion and coherence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    section discusses current theories of cohesion and coherence. .... that they are much more interested in developing cognitive strategies for .... directionality of research on cohesion and coherence in film translation but also pave the way.

  2. [Adaptation of the MSCI for the measurement of cohesion in Spanish young soccer players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Quinteiro, Eva María; Rodríguez Casal, Mauro; Andrade, Elena M; Arce, Constantino

    2006-08-01

    This work describes the Spanish adaptation and studies the psychometric properties of Yukelson, Weinberg, and Jackson's Multidimensional Sport Cohesion Instrument (MSCI) with a sample of 173 soccer players. The Spanish version is composed of 22 items grouped in four factors: quality of teamwork (performance aspects), attraction to the group, valued roles and quality of teamwork (interpersonal relationships), that accounted for 53.30% of the total variance. Reliability coefficients (Cronbach's Alphas) for the factors ranged from .84 (factor 1) to .56 (factor 4). Suggestions are made for future research on the validity of the scale, mainly in terms of convergence with other multidimensional measures of sport cohesion.

  3. The Cohesion and Teaching of English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪明

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the purpose of our English teaching briefly and a few points for attention in the standards of English writing evaluation. On the basis of this, it discusses the relationship between English writing and cohesion in order to try to find an appropriate method for our English writing.

  4. Discourse Cohesion in Sign and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of discourse cohesion in bilingual children through an analysis of narrative discourses produced by hearing children of deaf parents (HCDP) in both British Sign Language (BSL) and spoken English. Reference mechanisms in both languages are described in the context of recent work on narrative and discourse organization…

  5. Cohesion in Interlanguage: A Study of Conjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Leslie M.

    A study of textual cohesion in the oral discourse of learners of English as a second language had as subjects 19 Asians from 4 language backgrounds, who were living and, in most cases, studying English in the United States. Analysis of taped conversations focused on the use of conjunctive adjuncts of three kinds: (1) simple adverbs (e.g., and,…

  6. Textual Cohesion and Second-Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonz, Jon

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of responses to two cloze tests administered to native and non-native speakers of English revealed that non-natives were far less capable of coping with the loss of redundant cohesive data than were natives. Nonnatives were more reliant on text in comprehension process than were native speakers. (Author/CB)

  7. The Corporate Stake in Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2005-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a function that transcends, but includes, making profits, creating jobs, and producing goods and services. The effectiveness with which corporations perform this function determines their contribution (or lack of contribution) to social cohesion. This article therefore presents a discussion of some of the…

  8. On Coherence and Cohesion in Discourse Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振国

    2013-01-01

    ‘cohesion’is the way words formally hang together in sentences and the like, and“coherence”captures the content-based connections between the words that make them produce sense. In the discourse, while the local sequence of turns creates a certain amount of cohesion, it isn’t sufficient to guarantee coherence.

  9. Investigating Team Cohesion in COCOMO II.2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdeal-Carden, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    Software engineering is team oriented and intensely complex, relying on human collaboration and creativity more than any other engineering discipline. Poor software estimation is a problem that within the United States costs over a billion dollars per year. Effective measurement of team cohesion is foundationally important to gain accurate…

  10. Role of Education in Building Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Social Cohesion is the expression of that tradition of tolerance in all religions and cultures that are the basis of peace and progress. It is foreign to know culture and native to all nations. Tolerance and mercy have always and in all cultures being ideals of Government rules and human behavior. Professional educator often comments on the poor…

  11. Investigating Team Cohesion in COCOMO II.2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdeal-Carden, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    Software engineering is team oriented and intensely complex, relying on human collaboration and creativity more than any other engineering discipline. Poor software estimation is a problem that within the United States costs over a billion dollars per year. Effective measurement of team cohesion is foundationally important to gain accurate…

  12. Microzonation Analysis of Cohesionless and Cohesive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Choy Soon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban seismic risk is a continuous worldwide issue, numerous researchers are putting great effort in dealing with how to minimise the level of the threat. The only way to minimise the social and economic consequences caused but the seismic risk is through comprehensive earthquake scenario analysis such as ground response analysis. This paper intends to examine the characteristic of shear wave velocity and peak ground acceleration on cohesionless and cohesiveness soil. In order to examine the characteristic of shear wave velocity and peak ground acceleration on cohesionless and cohesiveness soil, ground response analysis was performed using Nonlinear Earthquake Site Response Analysis (NERA and Equivalent-linear Earthquake Site Response Analysis (EERA. The value of ground acceleration was initially high at bedrock and vanishes during the propagation process. It is thus, the measured acceleration at surface is therefore much lower as compare to at bedrock. Result shows that seismic waves can travel faster in harder soil as compared to softer soil. Cohesive soil contributes more to the shaking amplification than cohesionless soil such as sand and harder soil. This is known as local site effect. The typical example is the Mexico Earthquake that happened in 1985. As conclusion, peak ground acceleration for cohesive soil is higher than in cohesionless soil.

  13. On the Relationships between the Cohesive Devices and Their Meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖肇威

    2008-01-01

    Cohesion is one of the phenomena of the text. It is expressed through the cohesive devices.As part of Functional Grammar,the cohesive devices relate themselves naturally to the meanings,which exist both in the text and in its social context.This paper is to explore the relationship between the cohesive devices and their meanings.These meanings subsume the discourse semantics in the text and the register in the social context.

  14. Central European MEPs as Agents of Two Principals Party Cohesion in the European Parliament after Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bíró-Nagy, András

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of Central European MEPs on party cohesion in the European Parliament. By applying the principal-agent theory, it is also analyzed how loyal are the MEPs of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia to their European political groups and national parties. The empirical research carried out in this study demonstrates that the Central European MEPs have not brought more division to their political groups, but have been loyal members of their European parties. The Central European MEPs have not weakened the cohesion of the EP party groups, but party cohesion was even further strengthened between 2004 and 2014. Cohesion is the strongest in the biggest parliamentary groups. EPP and S&D set the direction for most politicians on most occasions. Clear ’rebel’ cases, when national parties as a whole went against their European political groups are not more than 2-3 percent of all votes in the two biggest European political families. National parties have a bigger room of maneuver in the smaller political groups. In ECR and GUE-NGL the difference between loyalty to the national party and the European party group is significantly higher than in EPP and S&D.

  15. The impact of trait emotional intelligence on nursing team performance and cohesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work team performance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. However, despite the huge interest that media and business consultants put in EI and its fast-growing use in organizations, there is very little empirical evidence to support these claims. In this study, we investigated the relationships between EI, performance, and cohesiveness in 23 nursing teams. EI was assessed using the modified version of the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale and cohesiveness with the Group Cohesiveness Scale. Finally, nursing team performance was measured at four different levels: job satisfaction, chief nursing executives' rating, turnover rate, and health care quality. Results showed that health care quality was positively correlated with emotion regulation. Emotion regulation was also positively correlated with group cohesiveness. Surprisingly, it also appears that emotion appraisal was negatively correlated with the health care quality provided by teams. These results suggest that EI and, more specifically, Emotional Regulation may provide an interesting new way of enhancing nursing teams' cohesion and patient/client outcomes.

  16. Path dependence of truss-like mixed mode cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2012-01-01

    A general theoretical analysis is presented to prove that, under mixed mode fracture, truss-like mixed mode cohesive laws (cohesive laws that are coupled in a special manner such that the traction vector follows the separation/opening vector) are path independent only in the limited case where th...... and numerically that these cohesive laws are path dependent....

  17. Territorial cohesion post - 2013: to whomsoever it may concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    Conceived as a motion for resolution, the paper considers territorial cohesion now being on the statute book, the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion, Barca making the case for integrated, place-based strategies, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region and the future of Cohesion policy. The recom

  18. Intact Discourse Cohesion and Coherence Following Bilateral Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Discourse cohesion and coherence give communication its continuity providing the grammatical and lexical links that hold an utterance or text together and give it meaning. Researchers often link cohesion and coherence deficits to the frontal lobes by drawing attention to frontal lobe dysfunction in populations where discourse cohesion and…

  19. Cohesion in Compositions of Turkish and Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Eyyup

    2011-01-01

    Cohesion refers to the relationships established between sentences and paragraphs via the units in the surface structure of the text. This study evaluated texts written by Uzbek origin immigrant students and Turkish students living in Hatay in terms of the use of cohesion devices (ellipsis, conjunctions, lexical cohesion, reference, substitution).…

  20. Is social cohesion one latent concept? Investigating the dimensionality of social cohesion using Kearns and Forrest Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Reeskens, Tim; Botterman, Sarah; Hooghe, Marc

    2008-01-01

    One of the most abundantly used concepts in contemporary social sciences and among policy experts is 'social cohesion'. However, it is difficult to grasp how social cohesion is defined or measured. In this paper, we follow the line of reasoning of urban sociologists Kearns and Forrest (2000), who ascribed five dimensions to social cohesion. Although frequently used in theoretical discussions, methodological rigorous tests on the dimensionality of these five social cohesion dimensions are abse...

  1. 加强高校学生党员群体凝聚力建设的实践探索——以淮南师范学院学生公寓党员工作站建设为例%The exploration of how to strengthen group cohesion of party member in universities --Taking the residence workstation construction of party members in Huainan Normal University as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2012-01-01

    The party member's education and training is the important part of Party Building Work in universities. How to give full play to the exemplary vanguard role of Party members among college students? From the perspective of group construction, this paper proposed the view of playing the group cohesion of Party member in universities. Taking the residence workstation construction of party members in Huainan Normal University as an example, it talks about how to enhance the cohesion, the influence and the combat effectiveness of Party members in practice.%高校学生党员的教育与培养是高校党建工作的重要环节,从群体建设的角度提出发挥高校学生党员群体凝聚力的观点,并以淮南师范学院学生公寓党员工作站建设为例,探究如何增强高校学生党员群体凝聚力、影响力和战斗力。

  2. Measurement of aggregate cohesion by tissue surface tensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christine M; Foty, Ramsey A

    2011-04-08

    Rigorous measurement of intercellular binding energy can only be made using methods grounded in thermodynamic principles in systems at equilibrium. We have developed tissue surface tensiometry (TST) specifically to measure the surface free energy of interaction between cells. The biophysical concepts underlying TST have been previously described in detail. The method is based on the observation that mutually cohesive cells, if maintained in shaking culture, will spontaneously assemble into clusters. Over time, these clusters will round up to form spheres. This rounding-up behavior mimics the behavior characteristic of liquid systems. Intercellular binding energy is measured by compressing spherical aggregates between parallel plates in a custom-designed tissue surface tensiometer. The same mathematical equation used to measure the surface tension of a liquid droplet is used to measure surface tension of 3D tissue-like spherical aggregates. The cellular equivalent of liquid surface tension is intercellular binding energy, or more generally, tissue cohesivity. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that tissue surface tension (1) predicts how two groups of embryonic cells will interact with one another, (2) can strongly influence the ability of tissues to interact with biomaterials, (3) can be altered not only through direct manipulation of cadherin-based intercellular cohesion, but also by manipulation of key ECM molecules such as FN and 4) correlates with invasive potential of lung cancer, fibrosarcoma, brain tumor and prostate tumor cell lines. In this article we will describe the apparatus, detail the steps required to generate spheroids, to load the spheroids into the tensiometer chamber, to initiate aggregate compression, and to analyze and validate the tissue surface tension measurements generated.

  3. Developing a coordinated school health approach to child obesity prevention in rural Appalachia: results of focus groups with teachers, parents, and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; Vonwerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Stern, Harold P

    2009-01-01

    High prevalence rates of obesity, particularly among those residing in US rural areas, and associated physical and psychosocial health consequences, direct attention to the need for effective prevention programs. The current study describes an initial step in developing a school-based obesity prevention program in rural Appalachia, USA. The program, modeled on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Coordinated School Health (CSH) Program, includes a community-based participatory research approach to addressing the health needs specific to this region. Focus groups with teachers, parents, and 4th grade students were used to understand perceptions and school policy related to nutrition, physical activity, and the role of the school in obesity prevention. Results revealed that these community stakeholders were concerned about the problem of child obesity and supported the idea of their school doing more to improve the diet and physical activity of its students. Specifically, all groups thought that foods and drinks consumed by students at school should be healthier and that they should have more opportunities for physical activity. However, they cited limitations of the school environment, academic pressures, and lack of parental support as potential barriers to making such changes. Parents were most concerned that their children were not getting enough to eat and they and the teachers were not in favor of BMI screening at the school. Parents were in favor of increasing physical activity during school and thought that parent volunteers should help students select foods in the cafeteria. Students cited examples of how diet and physical activity affect their health and school performance, and thought that they should have more physical education time and recess. The data collected in the current study contributed to the limited knowledge base regarding rural populations as well as identified strengths and potential barriers to assist with the development of a

  4. A community based intervention program to enhance neighborhood cohesion: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wan, Alice; Kwok, Lit Tung; Pang, Sally; Wang, Xin; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood cohesion, which refers to the extent of the connectedness and solidarity among residents in a community or neighborhood, is an important determinant of human health. To enhance neighborhood cohesion, the "Learning Families Project" was developed with a series of intervention programs in Kwun Tong in Hong Kong, a district with low neighborhood cohesion. This project, based on the social ecological model, provided a platform for neighbors to learn, communicate and interact with each other. This quasi-experimental study included two nearby government subsidized low rent housing estates separated by busy main roads. One served as the intervention (Tsui Ping (South) Estate) and one as the control (Shun Tin Estate) estate. The intervention included promotion, resident training and learning programs, embodied by a series of community activities such as talks, day camp, thematic activities and horticulture class. Baseline (before the programs) and follow-up (one year after the programs) surveys were conducted both in the intervention and control estate to assess the impact of the programs on neighborhood cohesion. The number of residents who completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys was 502 in the intervention estate and 476 in the control estate. Neighborhood cohesion significantly improved in the intervention group after the programs (Cohen effect size d: 0.15). Compared with the control group, the improvements in closeness of the neighborhood and trust in neighbors were significantly greater in the intervention group (Cohen effect size d: 0.13 and 0.14, respectively). This brief intervention program using a quasi-experimental study design increased neighborhood cohesion in a low rent housing estate. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02851667.

  5. A test of the social cohesion hypothesis: interactive female marmots remain at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Wey, Tina W; Tang, Karisa

    2009-08-22

    Individuals frequently leave home before reaching reproductive age, but the proximate causes of natal dispersal remain relatively unknown. The social cohesion hypothesis predicts that individuals who engage in more (affiliative) interactions are less likely to disperse. Despite the intuitive nature of this hypothesis, support is both limited and equivocal. We used formal social network analyses to quantify precisely both direct and indirect measures of social cohesion in yellow-bellied marmots. Because approximately 50 per cent of female yearlings disperse, we expected that social relationships and network measures of cohesion would predict dispersal. By contrast, because most male yearlings disperse, we expected that social relationships and cohesion would play a less important role. We found that female yearlings that interacted with more individuals, and those that were more socially embedded in their groups, were less likely to disperse. For males, social interactions were relatively unimportant determinants of dispersal. This is the first strong support for the social cohesion hypothesis and suggests that the specific nature of social relationships, not simply the number of affiliative relationships, may influence the propensity to disperse.

  6. Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia under the recent crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaššo Matej

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion has been one of the most prominent topics of discourse among spatial planners, urban sociologists, economists and experts from various other fields. Territorial systems with high degree of cohesion are better equipped to withstand the external pressures and situational imbalancies. Recent global crisis exposed these imbalancies and challenged the smooth and balanced spatial development of European countries. Major economic setbacks influenced entire society in Slovakia. Global financial crisis evaporated the ultimate growth of Slovak economics and exposed hidden imbalancies of development policies solely related to GDP growth instead of creating the fundaments for sustainability in the transition economy. Spatial polarization on different levels of society weakened down the overall (mainly social cohesion and highlighted the problems of marginalized regions and social groups. Social aspects of territorial and spatial processes are more visible than ever before and regional disparities are becoming more prominent issue in political and scientific discourse. Despite the deep profilation of regional identity and place attachment, there are still considerable distinctions and disparities between metropolitan/urban and rural communities in terms of values, consumption patterns, life style, sense of solidarity or wealth distribution. Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia, mainly in the field of social cohesion are in the spotlight in this paper. Focus on integrative spatial development balancing the contradictions by effective mixture of general approach and reasonable and sensible differentiation is considered highly essential.

  7. Trends in Homolytic Bond Dissociation Energies of Five- and Six-Coordinate Hydrides of Group 9 Transition Metals: Co, Rh, Ir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger; Elbert, Stephen T; Franz, James A

    2017-03-09

    The homolytic bond dissociation energies of a series of five- and six-coordinate mono- and dihydride complexes of the type HM(diphosphine)2 and [H2M(diphosphine)2](+) (where M = Co, Rh, and Ir) are calculated and compared with experimental values. This work probes the relationship between the homolytic bond dissociation energies (HMBDEs) of these complexes in these two different coordination environments and formal oxidation states. The results of these calculations and previous experimental observations suggest that for M = Rh the HMBDE of the five-coordinate HM(diphosphine)2 species are 0-2 kcal/mol larger than the HMBDE of the corresponding six-coordinate [H2M(diphosphine)2](+) species. For M = Ir the bond energies of the five- and six-coordinate complexes are nearly the same and for M = Co the six-coordinate species are 1-5 kcal/mol less than the corresponding five-coordinate species. Simplified models of large and complicated ligands seem to capture the essential trends and give very good estimates of these thermodynamic properties compared with experimentally available data that are difficult to obtain.

  8. Motivational atmosphere, leadership and group cohesion in university sports context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Maximiliano Troncoso Avalos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To learn about the coach-athlete interactions and understand the practice of leadership, motivational atmosphere generation and communication between players and sport leaders. Methodology: Mixed cohort methodology. A correlation of quantitative variables was performed and the experience and sense of sporting context were analysed with a qualitative approach. The following instruments were applied to 31 college athletes: Perceived Motivational atmosphere in Sport (PMASQ-2 Sport atmosphere (SA and ego orientation and Task in Sport. To obtain further information, semi-structured interviews were carried out to 6 athletes and 2 university coaches. Results: the sportsperson’s feeling of confidence in his/her coach is a result of his/her feeling understood and accepted by the coach. He/She generates a motivational atmosphere oriented towards ego is related to athletes with ego-goal orientations. Coaches use two opposing styles of leadership: democratic leadership (training and autocratic leadership (competitions Conclusions: When sportspeople trust the person who coaches them, they experience more satisfaction in sport. Moreover, when the coach promotes social comparison, this contributes to create rivalry among teammates and to base their performance in sport results.

  9. Relating Cohesive Zone Model to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions required for a cohesive zone model (CZM) to predict a failure load of a cracked structure similar to that obtained by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis are investigated in this paper. This study clarifies why many different phenomenological cohesive laws can produce similar fracture predictions. Analytical results for five cohesive zone models are obtained, using five different cohesive laws that have the same cohesive work rate (CWR-area under the traction-separation curve) but different maximum tractions. The effect of the maximum traction on the predicted cohesive zone length and the remote applied load at fracture is presented. Similar to the small scale yielding condition for an LEFM analysis to be valid. the cohesive zone length also needs to be much smaller than the crack length. This is a necessary condition for a CZM to obtain a fracture prediction equivalent to an LEFM result.

  10. Cohesion and Metaphor Aspects in Andabhuana Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Mahardika

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion and metaphor are the unique and interesting parts of language aspects in Andhabhuan text to research. They are quite dominant aspects in the story in developing its literature aesthetic. This research is based on the arts technical and analytical method. The result of the research on those two aspects shows that traditional aesthetic style in arts, as described in Andabhuana verses emphasize on the reference, meaning, selection and variation of words. The language parts used are aimed at bringing the text ideology to humanity perspective, especially the ?iwatattwa values as parts of Hindu teaching. Hence the cohesion and metaphor in Andabhuana text  are  semiotic description to transform to Balinese Hindus as most of them follow ?iwatattwa belief.

  11. AUTOMATIC TEXT SUMMARIZATION BASED ON TEXTUAL COHESION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanmin; Liu Bingquan; Wang Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents two different algorithms that derive the cohesion structure in the form of lexical chains from two kinds of language resources HowNet and TongYiCiCiLin.The research that connects the cohesion structure of a text to the derivation of its summary is displayed.A novel model of automatic text summarization is devised,based on the data provided by lexicai chains from original texts.Moreover,the construction rules of lexical chains are modified according to characteristics of the knowledge database in order to be more suitable for Chinese suIninarization.Evaluation results show that high quality indicative summaries are produced from Chinese texts.

  12. Measurement of Cohesion in Asteroid Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Harvey, Ralph; Zeszut, Zoe; Carreno, Brandon; Shober, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    A study has been initiated to examine cohesive forces in asteroid materials to contribute to a better understanding of low density bodies such as asteroids and Phobos, and assist in exploration missions involving interaction with their surface material. The test specimen used in this study was a lightly weathered CM2 meteorite which is spectroscopically similar to Type C (carbonaceous) asteroids, and thought to have representative surface chemistry. To account for sample heterogeneity, adhesion forces were measured between the CM2 sample and its five primary mineral phase components. These adhesive forces bound the range of cohesive force that can be expected for the bulk material. All materials were characterized using a variety of optical and spectroscopic methods. Adhesive forces on the order of 50 to 400 µN were measured using a torsion balance in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. The mineral samples exhibited clearly different adhesive strengths in the following hierarchy: Serpentine > Siderite > Bronzite > Olivine ˜ Fe-Ni.

  13. Cohesion and Coalition Formation in the European Parliament: Roll-Call Votes and Twitter Activities

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We study the cohesion within and the coalitions between political groups in the Eighth European Parliament (2014--2019) by analyzing two entirely different aspects of the behavior of the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) in the policy-making processes. On one hand, we analyze their co-voting patterns and, on the other, their retweeting behavior. We make use of two diverse datasets in the analysis. The first one is the roll-call vote dataset, where cohesion is regarded as the tendency ...

  14. Enhancing Unit Cohesion Via Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    and a social network that individuals rely on for advice, help, and even references for future work and education .4 Prior to the social media boom...door for further research in the field . The nascent elements from this analysis of unit cohesion via social media indicate the following key points...upon the knowledge base within the civilian education system. Similarly, vertical bonding may occur via social media ; however, it is often very

  15. Brownfield regeneration: Towards strengthening social cohesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In broader terms, the paper refers to the topic of brownfield regeneration, as one of the most complex mechanisms for sustainable spatial development. In addition to the fact that brownfield regeneration demands a variety of instruments, such as: tax subsidies, the change of land use ownership, soil remediation, planning regulative amendments, etc., the complexity of brownfield regeneration is primarily seen in a number of stakeholders participating in such a process. Thus, the paper focuses on the social aspect of brownfield regeneration - precisely, on researching the community role and reviewing the possibilities for achieving the 'local' interests in complex developmental processes. The main research hypothesis is that brownfield regeneration positively affects the creation of and strengthening the social cohesion in the areas close to the brownfield site. More precisley, the paper presents the ways towards strenghtening social cohesion in the initial phase of the brownfield regeneration process, as well as the effects of such a process in its operationalisation phase on social cohesion. The thesis is examined by two main parameters: 1 participation of local community, and 2 social costs and benefits of brownfield regeneration versus greenfield investment. The research results are presented in the form of argumentative essay. In fact, the critical overview of arguments for and against the main research hypothesis is provided based on the review of interdisciplinary literature in the domain of brownfield regeneration. Such research organisation ensures the identification and description of the measures needed for strengthening social cohesion, as an utmost goal of this research. The final research contribution is about offering the guidelines for similar methodological approach in urban research.

  16. Force transmission in cohesive granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjai, Farhang; Topin, Vincent; Richefeu, Vincent; Voivret, Charles; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azéma, Emilien; El Youssoufi, Said

    2010-05-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate force and stress transmission in cohesive granular media covering a wide class of materials encountered in nature and industrial processing. The cohesion results either from capillary bridges between particles or from the presence of a solid binding matrix filling fully or partially the interstitial space. The liquid bonding is treated by implementing a capillary force law within a debonding distance between particles and simulated by the discrete element method. The solid binding matrix is treated by means of the Lattice Element Method (LEM) based on a lattice-type discretization of the particles and matrix. Our data indicate that the exponential fall-off of strong compressive forces is a generic feature of both cohesive and noncohesive granular media both for liquid and solid bonding. The tensile forces exhibit a similar decreasing exponential distribution, suggesting that this form basically reflects granular disorder. This is consistent with the finding that not only the contact forces but also the stress components in the bulk of the particles and matrix, accessible from LEM simulations in the case of solid bonding, show an exponential fall-off. We also find that the distribution of weak compressive forces is sensitive to packing anisotropy, particle shape and particle size distribution. In the case of wet packings, we analyze the self-equilibrated forces induced by liquid bonds and show that the positive and negative particle pressures form a bi-percolating structure.

  17. Three Educational Values for a Multicultural Society: Difference Recognition, National Cohesion and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Educational aims for societies comprising multiple ethnic, cultural and racial groups should involve three different values--recognizing difference, national cohesion and equality. Recognition of difference acknowledges and respects ethnocultural identities and in educational contexts also encourages mutual engagement across difference. National…

  18. Who's in and who's out? Studying the effects of communication management on social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims at providing a theoretical perspective to study the effects of the communication management/public relations of organizations on the social cohesion of individuals, groups and societies. Design/methodology/approach - The possible connections between communication management

  19. Who's in and who's out? Studying the effects of communication management on social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims at providing a theoretical perspective to study the effects of the communication management/public relations of organizations on the social cohesion of individuals, groups and societies. Design/methodology/approach - The possible connections between communication management

  20. History Museums and Social Cohesion: Building Identity, Bridging Communities, and Addressing Difficult Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Tracy Jean

    2011-01-01

    Museums have the capacity to enhance social cohesion, which is the product of a trusting, connected community. History museums and historic sites, in particular, can serve communities by stimulating dialogue on difficult issues, accurately representing all the people of a nation, and creating forums for discussion among groups with disparate…

  1. Emotional Intelligence, Communication Competence, and Student Perceptions of Team Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troth, Ashlea C.; Jordan, Peter J.; Lawrence, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Students generally report poor experiences of group work in university settings. This study examines whether individual student perceptions of team social cohesion are determined by their level of emotional intelligence (EI) and whether this relationship is mediated by their communication skills. Business students (N = 273) completed the 16-item…

  2. Overtopping breaching of cohesive homogeneous earth dam with different cohesive strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In consideration of the range of clay content of Chinese earth dams, the world’s highest prototype tests have been made to research on the effects of cohesive strength of filling of cohesive homogeneous earth dam on breach formation. Three breach mechanisms were presented, they were the source-tracing erosion of dam body with the form of "multilevel headcut", "two-helix flow" erosion of dam crest and collapse of breach sidewalls due to instability. It can be concluded that the cohesive strength of filling of earth dam has great effect on breach formation. When the cohesive strength is bigger, the breach process becomes slower, and the peak outflow and the final width and depth of breach become smaller. The main character of the breach formation is head cutting and dumping collapse. When the cohesive strength is smaller, the breach process becomes faster, and the peak outflow, the final width and depth of breach become bigger. The main character of the breach formation is single level head cutting and shearing collapse.

  3. Effects of interface roughness on cohesive strength of self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Awasthi, Amnaya P.; Geubelle, Philippe H.; Grady, Martha E.; Sottos, Nancy R.

    2017-03-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are aggregates of small molecular chains that have the property to form highly ordered assemblies. The choice of terminal groups on the chains makes them excellent contenders of molecular-level tailoring. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental observations of spallation of two SAM-enhanced gold-film/silicon-substrate interfaces have shown that the cohesive strength of SAM-enriched transfer-printed interfaces is strongly dependent on the choice of terminal groups. Though the MD results of perfectly ordered atomistic surfaces show the same qualitative trend as the experiments, they over-predict the interfacial cohesive strengths by a factor of about 50. Results from AFM studies have revealed that the roughness of these interfaces is of the same order (∼1 nm) as the range of atomistic interactions. Hence, surface roughness is a key contributor in significantly reducing interfacial cohesive strength in these systems. In this manuscript, a continuum-level study is performed to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the cohesive strength of the interface between a Si/SAM substrate and a transfer-printed gold film. We approximate the film as a deformable continuum interacting with a rough substrate of SAMs represented by a harmonic function. Using a cohesive law derived from MD, spallation is simulated to evaluate the effective traction-separation characteristics for the rough SAM-gold interface. Our analysis shows that incorporating roughness may reduce the interfacial cohesive strength by an order of magnitude depending on the film properties and the surface roughness. Additionally, we observe that the gold film adopts unique separation attributes based on roughness parameters and material properties.

  4. A liderança e coesão grupal no futebol profissional: o pesquisador fora do jogo El liderazgo y cohesión del grupo en el fútbol profesional: el investigador fuera del juego Leadership and group cohesion in professional football: the off-game researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreno Castellani

    2012-09-01

    ínculo creado y las funciones asumidas han dañado aún más los análisis. La percepción de la importancia acerca del liderazgo y de la cohesión del grupo está presente en el fútbol profesional, teniendo el liderazgo situacional y el democrático más grande relevancia en este contexto particular.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of leadership on the functioning of the group; detect the importance and necessity of cohesion in a professional team of footballers; describe/analyze the relationship between the researcher and club; and point the limitations and obstacles found during field research. Following the guidelines of qualitative research and having as a theoretical reference the field of social psychology, with emphasis on studies of Kurt Lewin and Pichon-Rivière, this research came from analysis of a professional football club. The main difficulties encountered were: impossibility of access to places or situations suggested as methodology; the denials for interviews; and rejection of the applicability of a free choice test. The bonds created and the roles taken harmed attempts of further analysis. Perception of the importance of leadership and group cohesion is present in professional football, with situational and democratic leadership being more relevant in that specific context.

  5. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  6. Neighborhoods and mental health: exploring ethnic density, poverty, and social cohesion among Asian Americans and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N = 2095 Asian Americans living in N = 259 neighborhoods; N = 2554 Latinos living in N = 317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups.

  7. Positive parenting, family cohesion, and child social competence among immigrant Latino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Melinda S; Guerra, Nancy G; Toro, Rosa I

    2010-06-01

    The relation between positive parenting, family cohesion, and child social competence was examined among Latino families (predominantly from Mexico) who were recent immigrants to the United States. A mixed method study was conducted, including both pre- and post-test self-reported surveys (9-month interval) and qualitative data from focus groups. A total of 282 parents and 282 children (ages 9-12) participated in the survey study. Results at post-test follow-up indicated that family cohesion predicted improvements in child social problem-solving skills and social self-efficacy, and positive parenting predicted improvements in child social self-efficacy. A total of 12 mothers participated in the focus group study that was designed to explore barriers to positive parenting and family cohesion in this population. Results from focus groups revealed four major themes impacting parenting and family cohesion: (a) acculturation differences between parents and children and the resulting power imbalance; (b) difficulty getting involved in their child's education; (c) loss of extended family; and (d) discrimination against immigrants and legal status. The implications for family support programs for immigrant Latino families and their children are discussed.

  8. Multiculturalism and Community Cohesion in Britain: The Case of Arab Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benitto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article falls within the scope of debate about 'Community Cohesion' in Britain. Community cohesion is at the centre of public policy initiated in response to the urban disturbances in northern towns. Many official reports pointed out that lack of community cohesion is an element jeopardizing security and safe coexistence. In this sense, this article explores hindrances to intergroup coexistence, given that this issue is the main concern in this pluralist society since the attacks in London in July, 7, 2005, through the study of intercultural relations between Arab minority of London and mainstream society in Britain. This research adopts an approach which aims to contribute to the understanding of the reasons hampering community cohesion through juxtaposition of viewpoints of both the minority and majority group. The originality of this approach lies in the fact that it tackles the issue of integration from two sided points of view: the point of the majority group and the point of view of the minority group; unlike most literature on intergroup relations which basically focus on the integration of the minority and its daptation to the dominant culture.

  9. 团队凝聚力、工作-家庭促进与员工在职行为关系研究%An Empirical Study on Relations between Group Cohesion, Work-Family Facilitation and On-Job-Behaviors: Mediating Effect of Leader Member Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伶; 聂婷

    2013-01-01

    With a sample of 1795 employees in 19 regions and provinces, we use statistical analysis and find out that perceived task cohesion and interpersonal cohesion influence positive behavior and withdrawal behavior of employees in the workplace through the mediating effect of work-family facilitation. We also confirm the moderating effect of leader member exchange on relations between team cohesion and positive behavior of employees, but the moderating effect of leader member exchange does not exist between team cohesion and withdrawal behavior of employees.%通过对中国大陆19个省市自治区的1 795名在职员工的问卷调查发现,员工感知到的团队凝聚力能够通过工作-家庭促进的中介效应影响员工在职行为(积极行为与退缩行为);伴随着领导-成员交换关系的密切,团队凝聚力对员工积极行为的影响也更为显著;而在团队凝聚力与退缩行为的关系中,并没有发现领导-成员交换关系的显著调节作用.

  10. Poisson Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  11. Uranyl ion coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.

    1963-01-01

    A review of the known crystal structures containing the uranyl ion shows that plane-pentagon coordination is equally as prevalent as plane-square or plane-hexagon. It is suggested that puckered-hexagon configurations of OH - or H2O about the uranyl group will tend to revert to plane-pentagon coordination. The concept of pentagonal coordination is invoked for possible explanations of the complex crystallography of the natural uranyl hydroxides and the unusual behavior of polynuclear ions in hydrolyzed uranyl solutions.

  12. Coaches' Perceptions of Team Cohesion in Paralympic Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, William R; Bloom, Gordon A; Loughead, Todd M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches' perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches' perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented.

  13. Validation of French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire among young Swiss males, and its relationship with substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Henchoz, Yves; Deline, Stéphane; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    This study main purpose was the validation of both French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire. The sample group comprised 5065 Swiss men from the "Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors." Multigroup Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well, which substantiates the generalizability of Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire factor structure, regardless of the language. The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire demonstrated excellent homogeneity (α = 95) and split-half reliability (r = .96). The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire was sensitive to community size and participants' financial situation, confirming that it also measures real social conditions. Finally, weak but frequent correlations between Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire and alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis dependence were measured.

  14. Family cohesion and the loneliness of adolescents from temporarily disconnected families due to economic migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołęga Zofia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of a comparative analysis of the two groups students coming from temporarily disconnected families due to foreign work parents (TDF, n = 68; male = 30, female = 38 and teenagers with the same social environment (NDF, n = 179, male = 89, female = 90, but without the experience of separation time (N= 247. The subject of the analysis was: the cohesion of a family from the perspective of the evaluated adolescent and three factors of psychological loneliness: social loneliness (sense of social marginalization and isolation, emotional loneliness (solitude and existential loneliness (sense of self-alienation. The Loneliness Scale (SBS was used based on an original concept of multidimensional sense of loneliness. The questionnaire for the survey of family cohesion (KSR were used too. The age (12-14 and 15-17, gender, family structure and the family lifestyle were controlled. Obtained results revealed significantly lower cohesion and significantly higher existential loneliness in group of teenagers from temporarily disconnected families (TDF. Not confirmed the supposition that made in earlier studies of temporarily disconnected families due to economic migration, that these teenagers suffer from a sense of emotional loneliness There has also confirmed the belief that the level of family cohesion and a sense of loneliness in adolescents is associated with atypical organization of family life associated with the duration of migration of parent/parents, frequency of contact with family members working abroad: mothers, fathers or broth parents, the duration of stays at home

  15. Personality in teams: its relationship to social cohesion, task cohesion, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study continued past research on the relationship between personality composition in teams and social cohesion and team performance (Barrick, Stewart, Neubert, & Mount, 1998). Results from the Barrick et al. sample (N = 50) were compared with data from two new samples, one comprising drilling t

  16. Overtopping breaching of cohesive homogeneous earth dam with different cohesive strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JianYun; LI Yun; XUAN GuoXiang; WANG XiaoGang; LI Jun

    2009-01-01

    dumping collapse.When the cohesive strength is smaller,the breach process becomes faster,and the peak outflow,the final width and depth of breach become bigger.The main character of the breach formation is single level head cutting and shearing collapse.

  17. Personality in teams: its relationship to social cohesion, task cohesion, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study continued past research on the relationship between personality composition in teams and social cohesion and team performance (Barrick, Stewart, Neubert, & Mount, 1998). Results from the Barrick et al. sample (N = 50) were compared with data from two new samples, one comprising drilling

  18. Social Cohesion, Structural Holes, and a Tale of Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latora, V.; Nicosia, V.; Panzarasa, P.

    2013-05-01

    In the social sciences, the debate over the structural foundations of social capital has long vacillated between two positions on the relative benefits associated with two types of social structures: closed structures, rich in third-party relationships, and open structures, rich in structural holes and brokerage opportunities. In this paper, we engage with this debate by focusing on the measures typically used for formalising the two conceptions of social capital: clustering and effective size. We show that these two measures are simply two sides of the same coin, as they can be expressed one in terms of the other through a simple functional relation. Building on this relation, we then attempt to reconcile closed and open structures by proposing a new measure, Simmelian brokerage, that captures opportunities of brokerage between otherwise disconnected cohesive groups of contacts. Implications of our findings for research on social capital and complex networks are discussed.

  19. Social cohesion, structural holes, and a tale of two measures

    CERN Document Server

    Latora, Vito; Panzarasa, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    In the social sciences, the debate over the structural foundations of social capital has long vacillated between two positions on the relative benefits associated with two types of social structures: closed structures, rich in third-party relationships; and open structures, rich in structural holes and brokerage opportunities. In this paper, we engage with this debate by focusing on the measures typically used for formalising the two conceptions of social capital: clustering and effective size. We show that these two measures are simply two sides of the same coin, as they can be expressed one in terms of the other through a simple functional relation. Building on this relation, we then attempt to reconcile closed and open structures by proposing a new measure, Simmelian brokerage, that captures opportunities of brokerage between otherwise disconnected cohesive groups of contacts. Implications of our findings for research on social capital and complex networks are discussed.

  20. Tampering with molecular cohesion in crystals of hexaphenylbenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Eric; Halperin, Shira D; Métivaud, Valérie; Maly, Kenneth E; Wuest, James D

    2010-01-15

    Hexaphenylbenzene (HPB) and analogous compounds have properties of broad utility in science and technology, including conformationally well-defined molecular structures, high thermal stability, high HOMO-LUMO gaps, little self-association, inefficient packing, and high solubilities. Previous structural studies of HPB and its analogues have revealed persistent involvement of the central aromatic ring in strong C-H...pi interactions. These interactions can be blocked by adding simple ortho alkyl substituents to the peripheral phenyl groups. Comparison of the structures of HPB and a series of ortho-substituted derivatives has shown systematic changes in molecular cohesion and packing, as measured by packing indices, densities, solubilities, temperatures of sublimation, melting points, and ratios of H...H, C...H, and C...C contacts. These results illustrate how crystal engineering can guide the search for improved materials by identifying small but telling molecular alterations that thwart established patterns of association.

  1. Key Skills for Science Learning: The Importance of Text Cohesion and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sophie Susannah; Maltby, John; Filik, Ruth; Paterson, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the importance of text cohesion, we conducted two experiments. We measured online (reading times) and offline (comprehension accuracy) processes for texts that were high and low cohesion. In study one (n?=?60), we manipulated referential cohesion using noun repetition (high cohesion) and synonymy (low cohesion). Students showed enhanced…

  2. Iconicity of cohesion in Persian causative constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Salmani Nodoushan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to show that Persian causative constructions are not only iconic in nature but also employ iconicity of cohesion in their syntactic structures productively. It starts with a description of iconicity and specifically focuses on the notion of conceptual distance as discussed by Haiman (1983. It then briefly reviews the formal typology of causative constructions (i. e., lexical, morphological, and periphrastic and summarizes the ideas proposed by Comrie (1989, Dixon (2000, Shibatani (1976, and Talmy (2003 to come up with a list of, and a table for, the semantic properties of causative constructions (i. e., directness, coercion, control, manipulation, separability, and clause structure. The paper then presents tangible evidence and examples from Persian to claim that the linguistic distance observed between [Vcause] and [Veffect] in different types of Persian causative constructions mirrors the conceptual distance between them, and concludes that the iconic nature of causative constructions in Persian can be explained on the basis of the principle of iconicity of cohesion. It lends support to the universality of the principles of functional-cognitive linguistics and shows that iconicity theory still has a high potential for explaining form-meaning relations in different syntactic structures.

  3. Marital conflict typology and children's appraisals: the moderating role of family cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M

    2011-04-01

    Intense and frequent marital conflict is associated with greater appraisals of threat and self-blame in children, but little else is known about contextual factors that might affect appraisals. Systemic family theories propose that to understand child adaptation, it is necessary to understand the interconnected nature of family subsystem relationships. In a sample of 257 families with 8- to 12-year-old children, this study examined whether a four-level typology of marital conflict management was related to children's perceptions of marital conflict and their appraisals of perceived threat and self-blame. In addition, family cohesion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between marital conflict style and children's appraisals. Observational coding was used to group couples into Harmonious, Disengaged, Conflictual-Expressive, and Conflictual-Hostile groups. Children's report of the intensity, frequency, and degree of resolution of interparental discord corresponded well with observers' ratings. The relationship between marital conflict style and appraisals of threat and self-blame was moderated by family cohesiveness. At high levels of family cohesiveness, no group differences were found for either perceived threat or self-blame, whereas when family cohesiveness was low, threat was higher for the Harmonious and Conflictual-Hostile groups, as compared to the Conflictual-Expressive group, and self-blame was higher for both conflict groups (expressive and hostile), as compared to the Disengaged group. The results provide further evidence of interconnected nature of family subsystem relationships and the importance of distinguishing among different approaches to marital conflict management for understanding the complex and perhaps subtle but meaningful effects different family system factors have on child adaptation.

  4. Preimmigration Family Cohesion and Drug/Alcohol Abuse Among Recent Latino Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Schwartz, Seth J

    2012-07-01

    Given the growing population of Latino immigrants in the United States, it is critical for counselors to understand pre- and postimmigration social contextual factors affecting the mental health of this heterogeneous ethnic population. The objective of our cross-sectional, retrospective study was to investigate the potential protective influence of preimmigration family cohesion on drug/alcohol abuse just prior to migration among 527 Latino young adults (age 18-34 years). Multivariate Poisson regression indicated that preimmigration family cohesion was inversely related with harmful/hazardous alcohol consumption, the frequency/quantity of alcohol use, and illicit drug use when controlling for the potentially confounding sociodemographic factors of gender, age, education, income, marital status, and immigration status (documented or undocumented). Associations between family cohesion and drug/alcohol use behaviors varied between Central American immigrants and Caribbean/South American regional groups. Preimmigration findings offer a fuller contextual understanding of the lives of Latino young adult immigrants and support the importance of family cohesion as a buffer against drug/alcohol abuse.

  5. M@B9 and M@B10 molecular wheels containing planar nona-and deca-coordinate heavy group 11, 12, and 13 metals (M=Ag, Au, Cd, Hg, In, Tl)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A density functional and ab initio theory investigation on M@B9 and M@B10 molecular wheels containing planar nona-and deca-coordinate heavy group 11, 12 and 13 metals (M=Ag, Au, Cd, Hg, In, Ti) has been performed. These unusual clusters all prove to be true minima on the potential energy surfaces of the systems and σ+π double aromatic in nature. The first two vertical one-electron detachment energies of M@B-10 (M=Ag, Au) anions and first two ionization potentials of M@B9 (M=Ag, Au) and M@B10 (M=Cd, Hg) neutrals were calculated to aid future experiments. The cluster complexes designed in this work may expend the domain of planar hyper-coordinate elements to include heavy group 11, 12, and 13 metals and serve as interesting candidates to be targeted in experiments.

  6. Characterizing delamination of fibre composites by mixed mode cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, Torben K.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is used for the determination of mixed mode cohesive laws and bridging laws for the characterisation of crack bridging in composites. The approach is based on an application of the J integral. The obtained cohesive laws were found to possess high peak stress values. Mixed mode...

  7. An Analysis of Lexical Cohesion in"How Empathy Unfolds"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲霞

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyze the lexical cohesion in the text"How Empathy Unfolds" in the new standard college English textbook. This paper focuses on four kinds of lexical cohesive devices: repetition, synonymy, hyponymy and collocation. It is expected that these analyses can help readers gain a better and deeper comprehension of the structure and content of the text.

  8. Some Observations on Cohesion and Coherence in Simplified Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautamatti, Liisa

    Analysis of several texts simplified to teach reading comprehension to college second language students shows that simplification affects both textual cohesion and coherence. Moreover, simplification restricts the amount of significant semantic information and creates a more transparent pattern of reference. The use of cohesive conjunctions varies…

  9. Textual Cohesion and Coherence in Children's Writing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Dixie Lee; Fitzgerald, Jill

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between cohesion and coherence in children's writing. Finds evidence of a relationship between cohesion and coherence, and reports that this relationship (1) varies according to text content; (2) does not vary according to quality of writing; and (3) does not vary according to the students' grade level. (KEH)

  10. A cohesive segments method for the simulation of crack growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, J.J.C.; De Borst, R.; Needleman, A.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical method for crack growth is described in which the crack is not regarded as a single discontinuity that propagates continuously. Instead, the crack is represented by a set of overlapping cohesive segments. These cohesive segments are inserted into finite elements as discontinuities in the

  11. The Social Cohesion Role of the Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capshaw, N. Clark

    2005-01-01

    Social cohesion, the "glue" that keeps a society together, is influenced by the various sectors or "pillars" of that society-educational institutions, social and religious institutions, business institutions, and government. In this article, the effect of the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) on social cohesion is…

  12. A Reappraisal of Lexical Cohesion in Conversational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Maria De Los Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion, or the connectedness of discourse, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in both language production and comprehension processes. Researchers have debated about the "right" number and classification of cohesive devices, as well as about their interaction with coherence and/or genre. The present study proposes an integrative model…

  13. Effect of Alignment on Text Cohesion in the Continuation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Xu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A continuation task provides learners with a text with its ending removed and requires them to complete it through writing in a most coherent and logical way. The current study investigated (a) whether the continuation task had a positive effect on text cohesion and (b) whether texts produced by pairs exhibited higher cohesion than those produced…

  14. Forgiveness and Cohesion in Familial Perceptions of Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Worthington, Everett L.; Hook, Joshua N.; Campana, Kathryn L.; West, Steven L.; Gartner, Aubrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the relationships between forgiveness, family cohesion, and alcohol. In Study 1 (N = 190), participants reported lower levels of trust and forgiveness for family members who misuse alcohol. In Study 2 (N = 141), the authors present a model demonstrating family cohesion and trait forgiveness related to state forgiveness of an…

  15. A Study of Cohesive Devices in English IM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shu-yun

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research is to reveal features of the use of cohesive devices in English IM (Instant Message).In order to be accurate and explicit,Oxford WordSmith Tools (Version 4.0) is applied to investigate the frequency of each type of cohesive devices used by online-communicators.Cohesion in English IM is characterized by a number of distinguishing features:1) this genre of discourse makes abundant use of cohesive ties such as personal reference,lexical reiteration and ellipsis; 2) substitution and comparative reference are rarely applied; 3) The variety of conjunctions used is limited,and the most frequently used conjunctions are and,so,but and or.In analyzing the cohesive effect of each cohesive device,it is held that in order to overcome the limitations of the messaging systems and to achieve smooth communication,participants mainly adopt explicit cohesive ties which could achieve stronger force of cohesion in IM communication.

  16. 18Regional integration and social cohesion: Perspectives from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between social cohesion and regional integration in the developing world. Candice ... of public policy, and the EU even prioritises the EU Social Cohesion Funds in its .... networks of ethnic entrepreneurs and grassroots non-state actors. ... definitions and issues', Paper SRA-309, Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate,.

  17. 2-(Methylamido)pyridine-Borane: A Tripod κ(3)-N,H,H Ligand in Trigonal Bipyramidal Rhodium(I) and Iridium(I) Complexes with an Asymmetric Coordination of Its BH3 Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugos, Javier; Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Kennedy, Alan R; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Van der Maelen, Juan F

    2016-09-06

    The complexes [M(κ(3)-N,H,H-mapyBH3)(cod)] (M = Rh, Ir; HmapyBH3 = 2-(methylamino)pyridine-borane; cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene), which contain a novel anionic tripod ligand coordinated to the metal atom through the amido N atom and through two H atoms of the BH3 group, were prepared by treating the corresponding [M2(μ-Cl)2(cod)2] (M = Rh, Ir) precursor with K[mapyBH3]. X-ray diffraction studies and a theoretical Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules analysis of their electron density confirmed that the metal atoms of both complexes are in a very distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination environment, in which two equatorial sites are asymmetrically spanned by the H-B-H fragment. While both 3c-2e BH-M interactions are more κ(1)-H (terminal σ coordination of the B-H bond) than κ(2)-H,B (agostic-type coordination of the B-H bond), one BH-M interaction is more agostic than the other, and this difference is more marked in the iridium complex than in the rhodium one. This asymmetry is not evident in solution, where the cod ligand and the BH3 group of these molecules participate in two concurrent dynamic processes of low activation energies (variable-temperature NMR and density functional theory studies), namely, a rotation of the cod ligand that interchanges its two alkene fragments (through a square pyramidal transition state) and a rotation of the BH3 group about the B-N bond that equilibrates the three B-H bonds (through a square planar transition state). While the cod rotation has similar activation energy in 2 and 3, the barrier to the BH3 group rotation is higher in the iridium complex than in the rhodium one.

  18. Effects of 6 Weeks Psychological Skill Training on Team Cohesion, Self-Confidence & Anxiety: A Case of Youth Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miçoogullari, Bülent Okan; Kirazci, Sadettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a six-week psychological skill training (PST) program that is based on a cognitive-behavioral conceptual framework on team cohesion, confidence, and anxiety of an intact team. Thirty-six male basketball players, 19 athletes for the experimental group and 17 athletes for the control group, aged…

  19. The Role of Collective Efficacy, Cognitive Quality, and Task Cohesion in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Ling; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Research has suggested that CSCL environments contain fewer social context clues, resulting in various group processes, performance or motivation. This study thus attempts to explore the relationship among collective efficacy, group processes (i.e. task cohesion, cognitive quality) and collaborative performance in a CSCL environment. A total of 75…

  20. Editing ’Father & Son’: Coherence and Cohesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Some writing is good in sentence structure but either poor in coherence or in cohesion. The problem of coherence is that the sequence of information is not always clear and the problem of cohesion is that the sequence of information is acceptable, while the connection between it is not so good. The question is how to analyze and improve these different weakness in writing. We have two methods. One to focus on coherence, the other to focus on cohesion. In this essay, the method used is based on the principle that coherence and cohesion should work together. I use this approach as a tool to edit and display the analysis of coherence and cohesion in the passage entitled ’ Father & Son". This passage is presented as a guided writing exercise in College English Course, Intensive Reading, Band 3, p271.

  1. Research on cohesive sediment erosion by flow: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Erosion of cohesive sediment by flow is a very complicated phenomenon occurring worldwide. Understanding and modeling of the erosion process are important for many issues such as the breaching of embankments, riverbank stability, siltation of harbors and navigation channels, service life of reservoirs, distribution of (heavy metal) pollutants and water quality problems. In the last few decades, numerous studies have been done on the erosion of cohesive sediment by flow. Nevertheless, the factors affecting the erosion resistance of cohesive sediment are still not fully understood and the knowledge of the physics of cohesive sediment erosion is in- adequate, as a result the mathematical modeling of this erosion is far from satis- factory. In this paper an overview of the studies on the erosion resistance, erosion threshold and the erosion rate of cohesive sediment by flow is presented. The outcomes achieved so far from the studies and the existing problems have been analyzed and summarized, based on which recommendations are proposed for future research.

  2. European Cohesion Policy: A Proposed Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bouroşu (Costăchescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current approach of European Cohesion Policy (ECP is intended to be a bridge between different fields of study, emphasizing the intersection between "the public policy cycle, theories of new institutionalism and the new public management”. ECP can be viewed as a focal point between putting into practice the principles of the new governance theory, theories of economic convergence and divergence and the governance of common goods. After a short introduction of defining the concepts used, the author discussed on the created image of ECP by applying three different theories, focusing on the structural funds implementation system (SFIS, directing the discussion on the evaluation part of this policy, by proposing a model of performance evaluation of the system, in order to outline key principles for creating effective management mechanisms of ECP.

  3. Lexicai Cohesion in Hearrt of Dartkness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马画

    2012-01-01

    Heart of Darkness, written by famous English novelist Joseph Conrad, is one of the most influential novellas in the 20^th century with its profound thoughts, remarkable artistry, unique double narrative structure, abundant metaphors and symbolic social meaning, has vivid stylistic features. This paper, by analyzing the novella from the angle of lexical cohesion, will help us know how the author achieves his literary meaning by making linguistic choices. The analysis of the novella from functional stylistic angle is of great stylistic siguificance and social significance. The aim of the textual analysis of Heart of Darkness is to find linguistic evidence for the reader's interpretation and the critical evaluation of the novella, which can also help college students appreciate and analyze literary texts, cultivating their ability in understanding and appreciating themes in literary works from a linguistic perspective.

  4. Measurement of Cohesion in Asteroid Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Gaier, James; Waters, Deborah; Harvey, Ralph; Zeszut, Zoe; Carreno, Brandon; Shober, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a large fraction of asteroids, and even Phobos, have such low densities (asteroids are thought to be made up of unconsolidated smaller particles of varying size referred to as rubble piles. Images of the asteroid Itokawa reinforce this hypothesis. What holds the rubble piles together? Gravitational forces alone are not strong enough to hold together rubble pile asteroids, at least not those that are rapidly spinning Van der Waals forces and or Electrostatic forces must therefore be responsible for holding them together. Previous work suggests that electrostatic forces, which are orders of magnitude stronger are far more likely. Charge build-up is a likely consequence of the interaction of airless bodies with the solar wind plasma, analogous to what has been proposed to occur on the moon. Objective: Experimentally measure cohesive forces relevant to those holding rubble pile asteroids together

  5. Ascending aortic wall cohesion: comparison of bicuspid and tricuspid valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedik, Jaroslav; Pilarczyk, Kevin; Wendt, Daniel; Indruch, Jiri; Flek, Radek; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Alaeddine, Savvas; Jakob, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Bicuspid aortic valve (AV) represents the most common form of congenital AV malformation, which is frequently associated with pathologies of the ascending aorta. We compared the mechanical properties of the aortic wall between patients with bicuspid and tricuspid AV using a new custom-made device mimicking transversal aortic wall shear stress. Methods. Between 03/2010 and 07/2011, 190 consecutive patients undergoing open aortic valve replacement at our institution were prospectively enrolled, presenting either with a bicuspid (group 1, n = 44) or a tricuspid (group 2, n = 146) AV. Aortic wall specimen were examined with the "dissectometer" resulting in nine specific aortic-wall parameters derived from tensile strength curves (TSC). Results. Patients with a bicuspid AV showed significantly more calcified valves (43.2% versus 15.8%, P group (P = 0.003, P = 0.02, P = 0.01). We found no difference in the aortic wall cohesion between both groups as revealed by shear stress testing (P = 0.72, P = 0.40, P = 0.41). Conclusion. We observed no differences of TSC in patients presenting with tricuspid or bicuspid AVs. These results may allow us to assume that the morphology of the AV and the pathology of the ascending aorta are independent.

  6. Psychobiological Assessment and Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets Using a Virtual-Reality Team Cohesion Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0042 TITLE: Psychobiological Assessment and Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets...Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets Using a Virtual-Reality Team Cohesion Test 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0042 5c. PROGRAM...and Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience using a Virtual Team Cohesion Test JW140070, W81XWH-15-1-0042 PI: Dr. Josh Woolley

  7. The tool for the automatic analysis of text cohesion (TAACO): Automatic assessment of local, global, and text cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S

    2016-12-01

    This study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Cohesion (TAACO), a freely available text analysis tool that is easy to use, works on most operating systems (Windows, Mac, and Linux), is housed on a user's hard drive (rather than having an Internet interface), allows for the batch processing of text files, and incorporates over 150 classic and recently developed indices related to text cohesion. The study validates TAACO by investigating how its indices related to local, global, and overall text cohesion can predict expert judgments of text coherence and essay quality. The findings of this study provide predictive validation of TAACO and support the notion that expert judgments of text coherence and quality are either negatively correlated or not predicted by local and overall text cohesion indices, but are positively predicted by global indices of cohesion. Combined, these findings provide supporting evidence that coherence for expert raters is a property of global cohesion and not of local cohesion, and that expert ratings of text quality are positively related to global cohesion.

  8. On the Application of News Grammatical Cohesion in Discourse%On the Application of News Grammatical Cohesion in Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭恒达

    2011-01-01

    A discourse is the combination of various sentences. These sentences are supposed to be not only cohesive in construction, but coherent in semantics. With the theory of cohesion this paper analyzes how they are applied in a news discourse in order to help readers and learners gain deeper understanding of a news discourse.

  9. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......) To what outcome does this coordination lead and why? Based on an analysis of EU coordination before and during the International Labour Conference in 2005, and on a comparison with coordination processes of the IMEC group, it is found that the Commission and the Presidency act as twin-agents vis...... by the principals. On the other hand, both before and during the Conference, the Member States accept the so-called discursive coordination of the Commission, which seems to be of great (but often neglected) importance. Owing to the organisational set-up in which coordination takes place, the EU is able...

  10. Team cohesion in intensive care nursing: at the interface of nurse self-concept and unit structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna; Li-Ying, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Team cohesion is a critical factor in the provision of high-quality care, yet its antecedents remain understudied, particularly in the context of some healthcare professional groups where structural and individual constraints coexist, and demand for high quality performance is prevailing....... In this study, we focus on the nursing group in intensive care units (ICU). Not researched, yet important for employee attitudes towards their workplaces and workgroups, is the interface between the characteristics of individual care providers and those of the teams and organizations in which they are employed...... their teams as cohesive. A multi-source and multi-level study of approximately 140 nurses employed in 20 ICUs across Denmark demonstrates the critical role of self-concept in easing and enhancing the constraints workplaces impose on team cohesion. Furthermore, the study confirms the positive relationship...

  11. Evaluation of a team-building retreat to promote nursing faculty cohesion and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Ellen; Lasala, Kathleen B; Wagstaff, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With the growing global shortage of nursing faculty, there is increased need to develop and evaluate strategies to promote nursing faculty job satisfaction. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, a team-building faculty retreat including challenge course activities was evaluated to determine its effects on group cohesion and job satisfaction. Mean Job in General scores for the sample (n = 29) at the start of the study were comparable with national norms for employees with graduate degrees. There were statistically significant increases in Job in General scores and group cohesion scores from pretest to posttest on the day of the retreat. However, the positive changes were not maintained at the end of the semester when follow-up data were gathered. Content analysis of the retreat day reflections revealed the following themes: getting to know each other better, seeing commonalities and differences, spending time together, developing trust, and working as a group. Several themes were identified in the end of the semester reflections: getting to know each other, feeling closer as a group, setting a friendlier tone for the semester, and that the retreat was a positive experience. Based on these findings, we recommend the use of a faculty retreat with challenge course activities to promote nursing faculty cohesion and job satisfaction. However, follow-up activities are recommended to maintain positive results over time.

  12. Spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Nadin; Polansky, Leo; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Group living animals can exhibit fission-fusion behavior whereby individuals temporarily separate to reduce the costs of living in large groups. Primates living in groups with fission-fusion dynamics face numerous challenges in maintaining spatial cohesion, especially in environments with limited visibility. Here we investigated the spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to better understand the mechanisms by which individuals maintain group cohesion during fission-fusion events. Over a 3-year period, we simultaneously tracked the movements of 2-4 males for 4-12 hr on up to 12 consecutive days using handheld GPS devices that recorded locations at one-minute intervals. Analyses of the male's inter-individual distance (IID) showed that the maximum, median, and mean IID values across all observations were 7.2 km, 73 m, and 483 m, respectively. These males (a) had maximum daily IID values below the limits of auditory communication (cohesion when out of sight, and that auditory communication is one likely mechanism by which they do so. We discuss mechanisms by which chimpanzees may maintain the level of cohesion observed. This study provides a first analysis of spatial group cohesion over large distances in forest chimpanzees using high-resolution tracking, and illustrates the utility of such data for quantifying socio-ecological processes in primate ecology.

  13. The contact density to characterize the mechanics of cohesive granular materials: application to snow microstructure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning

    2016-04-01

    Microstructural properties are essential to characterize the mechanics of loose and cohesive granular materials such as snow. In particular, mechanical properties and physical processes of porous media are often related to the volume fraction ν. Low-density microstructures typically allow for considerable structural diversity at a given volume fraction, leading to uncertainties in modeling approaches using ν-based parametrizations only. We have conducted discrete element simulations of cohesive granular materials with initial configurations which are drawn from Baxter's sticky hard sphere (SHS) model. This method allows to control independently the initial volume fraction ν and the average coordination number Z. We show that variations in elasticity and strength of the samples can be fully explained by the initial contact density C = νZ over a wide range of volume fractions and coordination numbers. Hence, accounting for the contact density C allows to resolve the discrepancies in particle based modeling between samples with similar volume fractions but different microstructures. As an application, we applied our method to the microstructure of real snow samples which have been imaged by micro-computed tomography and reconstructed using the SHS model. Our new approach opens a promising route to evaluate snow physical and mechanical properties from field measurements, for instance using the Snow Micro Penetrometer (SMP), by linking the penetration resistance to the contact density.

  14. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  15. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte­grating...

  16. Rockin' Readers Coordinator Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.

    This coordinator's handbook describes the "Rockin' Readers" program, in which senior-citizen volunteers are matched with specifically targeted at-risk children (usually of kindergarten age or slightly older) in Alachua County, Florida, who tested below their peer group in language development and reading readiness skills. The handbook…

  17. Cohesive Energies and Enthalpies: Complexities, Confusions, and Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Leslie; Sheppard, Drew A

    2016-07-18

    The cohesive or atomization energy of an ionic solid is the energy required to decompose the solid into its constituent independent gaseous atoms at 0 K, while its lattice energy, Upot, is the energy required to decompose the solid into its constituent independent gaseous ions at 0 K. These energies may be converted into enthalpies at a given temperature by the addition of the small energies corresponding to integration of the heat capacity of each of the constituents. While cohesive energies/enthalpies are readily calculated by thermodynamic summing of the formation energies/enthalpies of the constituents, they are also currently intensively studied by computational procedures for the resulting insight on the interactions within the solid. In supporting confirmation of their computational results, authors generally quote "experimental" cohesive energies which are, in fact, simply the thermodynamic sums. However, these "experimental" cohesive energies are quoted in many different units, atom-based or calorimetric, and on different bases such as per atom, per formula unit, per oxide ion, and so forth. This makes comparisons among materials very awkward. Additionally, some of the quoted values are, in fact, lattice energies which are distinctly different from cohesive energies. We list large numbers of reported cohesive energies for binary halides, chalcogenides, pnictogenides, and Laves phase compounds which we bring to the same basis, and identify a number as incorrectly reported lattice energies. We also propose that cohesive energies of higher-order ionic solids may also be estimated as thermodynamic enthalpy sums.

  18. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2013-01-17

    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Cohesion energetics of carbon allotropes: Quantum Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeondeok; Kang, Sinabro; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Hoonkyung; Kwon, Yongkyung, E-mail: ykwon@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeongnim, E-mail: jnkim@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division and Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    We have performed quantum Monte Carlo calculations to study the cohesion energetics of carbon allotropes, including sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond, sp{sup 2}-bonded graphene, sp–sp{sup 2} hybridized graphynes, and sp-bonded carbyne. The computed cohesive energies of diamond and graphene are found to be in excellent agreement with the corresponding values determined experimentally for diamond and graphite, respectively, when the zero-point energies, along with the interlayer binding in the case of graphite, are included. We have also found that the cohesive energy of graphyne decreases systematically as the ratio of sp-bonded carbon atoms increases. The cohesive energy of γ-graphyne, the most energetically stable graphyne, turns out to be 6.766(6) eV/atom, which is smaller than that of graphene by 0.698(12) eV/atom. Experimental difficulty in synthesizing graphynes could be explained by their significantly smaller cohesive energies. Finally, we conclude that the cohesive energy of a newly proposed graphyne can be accurately estimated with the carbon–carbon bond energies determined from the cohesive energies of graphene and three different graphynes considered here.

  20. Cohesion Energetics of Carbon Allotropes: Quantum Monte Carlo Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeondeok [Konkuk University, South Korea; Kang, Sinabro [Konkuk University, South Korea; Koo, Jahyun [Konkuk University, South Korea; Lee, Hoonkyung [Konkuk University, South Korea; Kim, Jeongnim [ORNL; Kwon, Yongkyung [Konkuk University, South Korea

    2014-01-01

    We have performed quantum Monte Carlo calculations to study the cohesion energetics of carbon allotropes, including sp3-bonded diamond, sp2-bonded graphene, sp-sp2 hybridized graphynes, and sp-bonded carbyne. The comput- ed cohesive energies of diamond and graphene are found to be in excellent agreement with the corresponding values de- termined experimentally for diamond and graphite, respectively, when the zero-point energies, along with the interlayer binding in the case of graphite, are included. We have also found that the cohesive energy of graphyne decreases system- atically as the ratio of sp-bonded carbon atoms increases. The cohesive energy of -graphyne, the most energetically- stable graphyne, turns out to be 6.766(6) eV/atom, which is smaller than that of graphene by 0.698(12) eV/atom. Experi- mental difficulty in synthesizing graphynes could be explained by their significantly smaller cohesive energies. Finally we conclude that the cohesive energy of a newly-proposed two-dimensional carbon network can be accurately estimated with the carbon-carbon bond energies determined from the cohesive energies of graphene and three different graphynes.

  1. An Investigation of Cohesion and Rhetorical Moves in Thesis Abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfiyah Luthfiyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating cohesion and rhetorical moves in thesis abstracts of English Education students. This study employed a qualitative research design in which 10 abstracts were chosen as samples. The cohesion is analyzed based on Halliday's and Hasan's  concept while rhetorical moves are analyzed based on Swales' and Feak's framework. The results show that all cohesive devices are used except substitution. Among those devices, reference is the most frequently used. The results also show that some cohesive devices are used incorrectly. As a result, seven abstracts (70% are still in medium category of cohesion level while three abstracts (30% are in high category of cohesion level. Furthermore, 7 abstracts are organized in different move patterns which do not follow the Swales' and Feak's framework. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that most of the abstract samples achieve medium category level of cohesion, and the rhetorical moves in most of the abstracts samples are not organized well. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v2i2.3086

  2. Coach-initiated motivational climate and cohesion in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark A; Jewitt, Eryn; Evans, M Blair; Wolf, Svenja; Bruner, Mark W; Loughead, Todd M

    2013-09-01

    The general purpose of the present study was to examine the link between cohesion and motivational climate in youth sport. The first specific objective was to determine if relationships demonstrated in previous research with adult basketball and handball participants would be replicated in a younger sample and with a more heterogeneous set of sports. The second specific objective was to examine whether sources of athlete enjoyment moderate the relationships between motivational climate and cohesion. Athletes (N = 997; 532 girls and 465 boys; Mage = 15.26 +/- 1.20 years) completed measures pertaining to coach-initiated motivational climate, cohesion, and sources of enjoyment. Bivariate and canonical correlations revealed positive correlations between perceptions of a task-involving motivational climate and both task and social cohesion, while ego-involving motivational climate was negatively related. Cluster analyses suggested that individuals perceiving a low task-involving climate and high ego-involving climate perceived their teams as less cohesive. Finally, the degree to which participants derived enjoyment through other-referenced competency served as a moderator in the motivational climate-task cohesion relationship. Specifically, the relationship between task cohesion and motivational climate was more pronounced for those individuals who were less likely to derive enjoyment through other-referenced competency. Youth athletes' perceptions of coach-initiated motivational climate are related to cohesion. This relationship is, however, moderated by the degree to which athletes derive enjoyment through other-referenced competency. Motivational climate is an important variable to consider within team-building protocols intent on developing cohesion.

  3. Versatile structures of group 13 metal halide complexes with 4,4'-bipy: from 1D coordination polymers to 2D and 3D metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastianova, Tatiana N; Bodensteiner, Michael; Maulieva, Albina F; Davydova, Elena I; Virovets, Alexander V; Peresypkina, Eugenia V; Balázs, Gábor; Graßl, Christian; Seidl, Michael; Scheer, Manfred; Frenking, Gernot; Berezovskaya, Ekaterina A; Kazakov, Igor V; Khoroshilova, Olesya V; Timoshkin, Alexey Y

    2015-12-21

    A systematic structural study of complexes formed by aluminium and gallium trihalides with 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy) in 2 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 2 stoichiometric ratios has been performed. Molecular structures of 11 complexes in the solid state have been determined for the first time. Complexes of 2 : 1 composition are molecular, while complexes of 1 : 1 composition form metal-organic frameworks of different kinds: an ionic 3D network (three interpenetrated lvt nets for AlCl3bipy), an ionic 2D network for AlBr3bipy and GaBr3bipy and a 1D coordination polymer in the case of GaCl3bipy. Thus, the nature of the Lewis acid plays a critical role in the structural type of the complex in the solid state. Incorporation of excess bipy molecules into (GaCl3bipy)∞ (formation of crystallosolvate) leads to an unprecedented change of the molecular structure from a non-ionic 1D coordination polymer to an ionic 2D metal organic framework [GaCl2bipy2](+)[GaCl4](-)·2bipy. As indicated by the temperature-dependent XRD study, removal of bipy by heating in a vacuum restores the non-ionic 1D structure. Quantum chemical computations for simple cluster model systems (up to eight Al and Ga atoms) reveal that ionic forms are slightly favourable, although the energy differences between the ionic and non-ionic structures are not large. These theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental findings. Thus, even relatively simple cluster models may be used to indicate the structural preferences in the solid state. Both experimental and computational IR frequency shifts of the in-plane ring bending mode of bipy upon complexation correlate well with the M-N bond distances in the complexes.

  4. 团体操复杂队形变化过程标示方法的研究%Study on the method of coordinate indication of the changing process of complex formation of group calisthenics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the design of the changing process of complex formation of group calisthenics and the training needs,we put forward methods that make actors into groups,number,and coordinate the changing process after divided into several components.This method could reduce a large number of moving path coordinates,and it is convenient for us to find the changes of every actor's coordinate position and moving path,the coordinate is clear and easily understand.Not only could we convenient to communicate and research the complex formation changing skills,but also reduce the training difficulty of the changing process of complex formation.Practices prove that the method is scientific and effective.%为了满足团体操复杂队形变化过程设计和训练的需要,提出了将演员分组、编号、划分成若干元件后标示变化过程的方法。这种方法大量地减少了移动路径的标示数量,可以方便地查找变化前后每个演员的坐标位置及移动路径,标示图清晰易懂。这不仅方便了复杂队形变化技巧的交流与研究,而且还降低了复杂队形变化过程的训练难度。

  5. Comparative studies of mononuclear Ni(II) and UO2(II) complexes having bifunctional coordinated groups: synthesis, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface morphology studies and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahem, Abeer A

    2012-03-01

    Two Schiff base ligands derived from condensation of phthalaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine in 1:2 (L(1)) and 2:1 (L(2)) having bifunctional coordinated groups (NH(2) and CHO groups, respectively) and their metal complexes with Ni(II) and UO(2)(II) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibilities and spectral data (IR, (1)H NMR, mass and solid reflectance) as well as thermal, XRPD and SEM analysis. The formula [Ni(L(1))Cl(2)]·2.5H(2)O, [UO(2)(L(1))(NO(3))(2)]·2H(2)O, [Ni(L(2))Cl(2)]·1.5H(2)O and [UO(2)(L(2))(NO(3))(2)] have been suggested for the complexes. The vibrational spectral data show that the ligands behave as neutral ligands and coordinated to the metal ions in a tetradentate manner. The Ni(II) complexes are six coordinate with octahedral geometry and the ligand field parameters: D(q), B, β and LFSE were calculated while, UO(2)(II) complexes are eight coordinate with dodecahedral geometry and the force constant, F(U-O) and bond length, R(U-O) were calculated. The thermal decomposition of complexes ended with metal chloride/nitrate as a final product and the highest thermal stability is displayed by [UO(2)(L(2))(NO(3))(2)] complex. The X-ray powder diffraction data revealed the formation of nano sized crystalline complexes. The SEM analysis provides the morphology of the synthesized compounds and SEM image of [UO(2)(L(2))(NO(3))(2)] complex exhibits nano rod structure. The growth-inhibiting potential of the ligands and their complexes has been assessed against a variety of bacterial and fungal strains.

  6. Determination of mode-I cohesive strength for interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J. B.; Thouless, M. D.; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    The cohesive strength is one of the governing parameters controlling crack deflection at interfaces, but measuring its magnitude is challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel approach to determine the mode-I cohesive strength of an interface by using a 4-point single-edge-notch beam...... in response to this stress, before the main crack starts to grow. Observations using 2D digital-image correlation showed that an ''apparent" strain across the interface initially increases linearly with the applied load, but becomes nonlinear upon the initiation of the interface crack. The cohesive strength...

  7. On the application of cohesive crack modeling in cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe;

    2007-01-01

    Cohesive crack models-in particular the Fictitious Crack Model - are applied routinely in the analysis of crack propagation in concrete and mortar. Bridged crack models-where cohesive stresses are assumed to exist together with a stress singularity at the crack tip-on the other hand, are used....... Further, a quantitative condition is established indicating when a bridged crack model can be approximated with a cohesive crack model with smooth crack closure in terms of the ratio between the energy dissipation associated with the crack tip and the process zone....

  8. Determination of mode-I cohesive strength for interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J. B.; Thouless, M. D.; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    The cohesive strength is one of the governing parameters controlling crack deflection at interfaces, but measuring its magnitude is challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel approach to determine the mode-I cohesive strength of an interface by using a 4-point single-edge-notch beam...... in response to this stress, before the main crack starts to grow. Observations using 2D digital-image correlation showed that an ''apparent" strain across the interface initially increases linearly with the applied load, but becomes nonlinear upon the initiation of the interface crack. The cohesive strength...

  9. Flowers in flour: avalanches in cohesive granular matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyssingeas, E; Dalbe, M-J; Géminard, J-C

    2011-05-01

    We report on the intermittent dynamics of the free surface of a cohesive granular material during a silo discharge. In absence of cohesion, one observes the formation and the growth of a conical crater whose angle is well defined and constant in time. When the cohesion is involved the free surface exhibits a complex dynamics and the crater, resulting from a series of individual avalanches, is no longer axisymmetric. However, in spite of the intermittent behavior of the free surface, the flow rate is observed to remain constant throughout the discharge.

  10. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  11. 重庆市建立公共文化服务体系协调组工作的重难点%Key Points and Difficulties in Establishing Chongqing Public Cultural Service System Coordinating Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭泽明

    2014-01-01

    In order to differentiate Chongqing Public Cultural Service System Coordinating Group ( hereafter referred to as Coordinating Group) from formerly-established steering groups and bureau-level joint conferences, prompt leading departments to actually exercise their functions and perform their duties, as well as motivate relevant departments to make concerted efforts and cooperate close-ly, this paper explores the key points and difficulties in establishing the Coordinating Group such as working principles, risk aversion, main content and working procedures in order to provide refer-ences for the establishment of a harmonious, efficient, authoritative and sustaining public cultural service system in Chongqing.%为了使重庆市公共文化服务体系协调组有别于以往建立的领导小组和局际联席会议,使牵头部门切实发挥作用、履行职责,相关部门齐心协力、深度融合,本文从学理上对公共文化服务体系协调组建立的工作原则、风险规避、主要内容、工作流程四个重点、难点问题进行了初步探究,试图为重庆市建立和谐、高效、权威、持续的公共文化服务体系协调组提供借鉴和参考。

  12. Family Rituals and Quality of Life in Children With Cancer and Their Parents: The Role of Family Cohesion and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M Cristina; Kazak, Anne E

    2015-08-01

    Family rituals are associated with adaptive functioning in pediatric illness, including quality of life (QoL). This article explores the role of family cohesion and hope as mediators of this association in children with cancer and their parents. Portuguese children with cancer (N = 389), on- and off-treatment, and one of their parents completed self-report measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect links between family rituals and QoL. When children and parents reported higher levels of family rituals, they also reported more family cohesion and hope, which were linked to better QoL. At the dyadic level, children's QoL was related to parents' family rituals through the child's family cohesion. This model was valid across child's age-group, treatment status, and socioeconomic status. Family rituals are important in promoting QoL in pediatric cancer via family cohesion and hope individually and via family cohesion in terms of parent-child interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A season-long team-building intervention: examining the effect of team goal setting on cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senécal, Julie; Loughead, Todd M; Bloom, Gordon A

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the implementation of a season-long team-building intervention program using team goal setting increased perceptions of cohesion. The participants were 86 female high school basketball players from 8 teams. The teams were randomly assigned to either an experimental team goal-setting or control condition. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 2002; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which assessed cohesion at both the beginning and end of the season. Overall, the results revealed a significant multivariate effect, Pillai's trace F(12, 438) = 2.68, p = .002. Post hoc analyses showed that at the beginning of the season, athletes from both conditions did not differ in their perceptions of cohesion. However, at the end of the season, athletes in the team goal-setting condition held higher perceptions of cohesion than athletes in the control condition. Overall, the results indicated that team goal setting was an effective team-building tool for influencing cohesiveness in sport teams.

  14. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10 year old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky

    2017-01-01

    in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which...... of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure...

  15. Facing Sorrow as a Group Unites. Facing Sorrow in a Group Divides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rennung

    Full Text Available Collective gatherings foster group cohesion through providing occasion for emotional sharing among participants. However, prior studies have failed to disentangle two processes that are involved in emotional sharing: 1 focusing shared attention on the same emotion-eliciting event and 2 actively sharing one's experiences and disclosing one's feelings to others. To date, it has remained untested if shared attention influences group cohesion independent of active emotional sharing. Our experiment investigated the effect of shared versus individual attention on cohesion in groups of strangers. We predicted that differences in group cohesion as called forth by shared vs. individual attention are most pronounced when experiencing highly arousing negative affect, in that the act of experiencing intensely negative affect with others buffers negative affect's otherwise detrimental effect on group cohesion. Two-hundred sixteen participants were assembled in groups of 3 to 4 people to either watch an emotion-eliciting film simultaneously on a common screen or to watch the same emotion-eliciting film clip on a laptop in front of each group member using earphones. The film clips were chosen to elicit either highly arousing negative affect or one of three other affective states representing the other poles in Russel's Circumplex model of affect. We examined self-reported affective and cognitive group cohesion and a behavioral measure of group cohesion. Results support our buffer-hypothesis, in that experiencing intense negative affect in unison leads to higher levels of group cohesion than experiencing this affect individually despite the group setting. The present study demonstrates that shared attention to intense negative emotional stimuli affects group cohesion independently of active emotional sharing.

  16. Evidence for cohesive dispersal in the sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Ben-Tzvi

    Full Text Available As with many marine species, the vast majority of coral-reef fishes have a bipartite life cycle consisting of a dispersive larval stage and a benthic adult stage. While the potentially far-reaching demographic and ecological consequences of marine dispersal are widely appreciated, little is known of the structure of the larval pool and of the dispersive process itself. Utilizing Palindrome Sequence Analysis of otolith micro-chemistry (PaSA; we show that larvae of Neopomacentrus miryae (Pomacentridae appear to remain in cohesive cohorts throughout their entire pelagic larval duration (PLD; ~28 days. Genetically, we found cohort members to be maternally (mtDNA unrelated. While physical forcing cannot be negated as contributing to initial cohort formation, the small scale of the observed spatial structure suggests that some behavioral modification may be involved from a very early age. This study contributes to our ongoing re-evaluation of the processes that structure marine populations and communities and the spatial scales at which they operate.

  17. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  18. Framework for development of physician competencies in genomic medicine: report of the Competencies Working Group of the Inter-Society Coordinating Committee for Physician Education in Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Bruce R; Berry, Anna B; Limson, Melvin; Marian, Ali J; Murray, Michael F; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Passamani, Eugene R; Relling, Mary V; Tooker, John; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Rodriguez, Laura L

    2014-11-01

    Completion of the Human Genome Project, in conjunction with dramatic reductions in the cost of DNA sequencing and advances in translational research, is gradually ushering genomic discoveries and technologies into the practice of medicine. The rapid pace of these advances is opening up a gap between the knowledge available about the clinical relevance of genomic information and the ability of clinicians to include such information in their medical practices. This educational gap threatens to be rate limiting to the clinical adoption of genomics in medicine. Solutions will require not only a better understanding of the clinical implications of genetic discoveries but also training in genomics at all levels of professional development, including for individuals in formal training and others who long ago completed such training. The National Human Genome Research Institute has convened the Inter-Society Coordinating Committee for Physician Education in Genomics (ISCC) to develop and share best practices in the use of genomics in medicine. The ISCC has developed a framework for development of genomics practice competencies that may serve as a starting point for formulation of competencies for physicians in various medical disciplines.

  19. Student leadership and advocacy for social cohesion: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they commit themselves to a cause: in this case, a social cohesion vision.5. Following this ..... were soon going to create a Frankenstein's Monster manifesting in crime, ..... Dangerous others, insecure societies, fear and social division. Farnham ...

  20. Effect of cohesive force on the formation of a sandpile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, K. J.; Zou, R. P.; Chu, K. W.; Yang, R. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Hu, D. S.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the piling processes of mono-sized wet particles by the discrete element method (DEM). The capillary force between particles due to liquid bridge is implemented in an existing DEM model. The effects of moisture content on the repose angle and structure of a pile are studied by a series of controlled numerical experiments. It is confirmed that the structure of a pile is similar to that of a packing for cohesive particles. Moreover, the averaged local porosity and repose angle have similar changes with the moisture content and can be linearly correlated. Therefore, the relationship between the repose angle and the cohesive force can be established based on the previous correlation between the porosity and the force ratio of the cohesive force to gravity developed in the packing of cohesive particles.

  1. Tracking cohesive subgroups over time in inferred social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alvin; Chignell, Mark; Wang, Hao

    2010-04-01

    As a first step in the development of community trackers for large-scale online interaction, this paper shows how cohesive subgroup analysis using the Social Cohesion Analysis of Networks (SCAN; Chin and Chignell 2008) and Data-Intensive Socially Similar Evolving Community Tracker (DISSECT; Chin and Chignell 2010) methods can be applied to the problem of identifying cohesive subgroups and tracking them over time. Three case studies are reported, and the findings are used to evaluate how well the SCAN and DISSECT methods work for different types of data. In the largest of the case studies, variations in temporal cohesiveness are identified across a set of subgroups extracted from the inferred social network. Further modifications to the DISSECT methodology are suggested based on the results obtained. The paper concludes with recommendations concerning further research that would be beneficial in addressing the community tracking problem for online data.

  2. COHESIVE ZONE FINITE ELEMENT-BASED MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuorong Chen; A.P. Bunger; Xi Zhang; Robert G. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a powerful technology used to stimulate fluid production from reservoirs. The fully 3-D numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracturing process is of great importance to the efficient application of this technology, but is also a great challenge because of the strong nonlinear coupling between the viscous flow of fluid and fracture propagation. By taking advantage of a cohesive zone method to simulate the fracture process, a finite element model based on the existing pore pressure cohesive finite elements has been established to investigate the propagation of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture in an infinite elastic medium. The effect of cohesive material parameters and fluid viscosity on the hydraulic fracture behaviour has been investigated. Excellent agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions for the limiting case where the fracture process is dominated by rock fracture toughness demonstrates the ability of the cohesive zone finite element model in simulating the hydraulic fracture growth for this case.

  3. On the Cohesion of English Entertainment News Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of entertainment news, entertainment news has gained more and more attention in recent years. While previous studies have been mainly conducted from the perspective of journalism, the present study focuses on the co-hesion strategies of the selected news discourse from the linguistic point of view. Cohesion is an important linguistic concept pro-posed by Halliday. This paper will analyze the news discourse from China Daily quantitatively and qualitatively. It is found that in the entertainment news discourse grammatical cohesive devices are commonly used. The present study attempts to analyze the co-hesive features of English entertainment news, so as to help readers improve the efficiency in English news reading.

  4. ANALYSIS ON THE COHESIVE STRESS AT HALF INFINITE CRACK TIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利民; 徐世烺

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear fracture behavior of quasi-brittle materials is closely related with the cohesive force distribution of fracture process zone at crack tip. Based on fracture character of quasi-brittle materials, a mechanical analysis model of half infinite crack with cohesive stress is presented. A pair of integral equations is established according to the superposition principle of crack opening displacement in solids, and the fictitious adhesive stress is unknown function. The properties of integral equations are analyzed, and the series function expression of cohesive stress is certified. By means of the data of actual crack opening displacement, two approaches to gain the cohesive stress distribution are proposed through resolving algebra equation. They are the integral transformation method for continuous displacement of actual crack opening, and the least square method for the discrete data of crack opening displacement. The calculation examples of two approaches and associated discussions are given.

  5. Fluidization of fine powders cohesive versus dynamical aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Valverde Millán, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This book illustrates the rich phenomenology exhibited by fine powders when fluidized by a gas flow, describing novel processes to assist fluidization by helping the gas flow to mobilize and break cohesive aggregates, which help to homogenize fluidization.

  6. Family cohesion moderates the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in Japanese adolescent temporary residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roley, Michelle E; Kawakami, Ryoko; Baker, Jessica; Hurtado, Gabriela; Chin, Andrew; Hovey, Joseph D

    2014-12-01

    Acculturative stress is a risk factor for depression, and may be important in the risk for depression among acculturating Japanese adolescents. However, little to no research has been published on the mental health of acculturating Japanese adolescents. Further, although family cohesion has been shown to be protective against depression across ethnic groups, no prior research has examined family cohesion as a protective factor for Japanese adolescents. To examine these relationships, 26 Japanese temporary resident adolescents and 76 parents in the Midwest were recruited to participate. Moderate to strong correlations between acculturative stress, depression, likelihood for and seriousness of family conflict were found. A regression analysis found that likelihood for family conflict moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Findings broaden our understanding of the role of acculturative stress and family conflict on depression risk for Japanese adolescent immigrants.

  7. Does Decentralisation Enhance a School's Role of Promoting Social Cohesion? Bosnian School Leaders' Perceptions of School Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Taro

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand whether and how decentralised school governance in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) enhances the schools' role of promoting social cohesion. This includes increasing "horizontal" trust among different ethnic groups and "vertical" trust between civilians and public institutes. The study examined…

  8. 'Hunkering down' in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods? The effects of ethnic diversity on dimensions of social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsberts, M.; van der Meer, T.; Dagevos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Putnam (2007) claims that in ethnically diverse neighbourhoods, residents of all ethnic groups tend to ‘hunker down’. Solidarity and trust are lower, mutual help and cooperation rarer, and friends fewer. Various studies in the United States found a clear correlation between diversity and cohesion, a

  9. Utilization of Large Cohesive Interface Elements for Delamination Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law.......This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law....

  10. THE COHESIVE NATURE OF THE LATE RAMESSIDE LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim; Ridealgh

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction When addressing language cohesion,an attempt must be made to identify how language is used to create cohesive and coherent communication,or how one utterance follows another.William Labov describes the task at hand,stating that‘the fundamental problem of discourse analysis1is to show how one utterance follows another in a rational,rule governed manner—in other words,how we

  11. Study on Lexical Cohesion in English-Chinese and its Implications for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙菁; 李媛媛

    2014-01-01

    Lexical cohesion is one of the major cohesive devices. Based on the the theoretical framework proposed by Halliday and Hasan (2001), This paper tentatively compares lexical cohesion in English and Chinese, analyzes the similarities and differences of cohesive devices in English and Chinese and sheds a new light for learners upon Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation.

  12. Determinants of Sir2-Mediated, Silent Chromatin Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Chou, Chia-Ching; Gartenberg, Marc R

    2016-08-01

    Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir2 and silent chromatin.

  13. Sororin actively maintains sister chromatid cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, Rene; Kreidl, Emanuel; Ivanov, Miroslav P; Ekker, Heinz; Idarraga-Amado, Maria Helena; Busslinger, Georg A; Wutz, Gordana; Cisneros, David A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-03-15

    Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during DNA replication but needs to be maintained to enable proper chromosome-spindle attachments in mitosis or meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but also depends on cohesin acetylation and sororin. Sororin contributes to cohesion by stabilizing cohesin on DNA. Sororin achieves this by inhibiting WAPL, which otherwise releases cohesin from DNA and destroys cohesion. Here we describe mouse models which enable the controlled depletion of sororin by gene deletion or auxin-induced degradation. We show that sororin is essential for embryonic development, cohesion maintenance, and proper chromosome segregation. We further show that the acetyltransferases ESCO1 and ESCO2 are essential for stabilizing cohesin on chromatin, that their only function in this process is to acetylate cohesin's SMC3 subunit, and that DNA replication is also required for stable cohesin-chromatin interactions. Unexpectedly, we find that sororin interacts dynamically with the cohesin complexes it stabilizes. This implies that sororin recruitment to cohesin does not depend on the DNA replication machinery or process itself, but on a property that cohesin acquires during cohesion establishment.

  14. SHUGOSHINs and PATRONUS protect meiotic centromere cohesion in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamariola, Linda; De Storme, Nico; Vannerum, Katrijn; Vandepoele, Klaas; Armstrong, Susan J; Franklin, F Christopher H; Geelen, Danny

    2014-03-01

    In meiosis, chromosome cohesion is maintained by the cohesin complex, which is released in a two-step manner. At meiosis I, the meiosis-specific cohesin subunit Rec8 is cleaved by the protease Separase along chromosome arms, allowing homologous chromosome segregation. Next, in meiosis II, cleavage of the remaining centromere cohesin results in separation of the sister chromatids. In eukaryotes, protection of centromeric cohesion in meiosis I is mediated by SHUGOSHINs (SGOs). The Arabidopsis genome contains two SGO homologs. Here we demonstrate that Atsgo1 mutants show a premature loss of cohesion of sister chromatid centromeres at anaphase I and that AtSGO2 partially rescues this loss of cohesion. In addition to SGOs, we characterize PATRONUS which is specifically required for the maintenance of cohesion of sister chromatid centromeres in meiosis II. In contrast to the Atsgo1 Atsgo2 double mutant, patronus T-DNA insertion mutants only display loss of sister chromatid cohesion after meiosis I, and additionally show disorganized spindles, resulting in defects in chromosome segregation in meiosis. This leads to reduced fertility and aneuploid offspring. Furthermore, we detect aneuploidy in sporophytic tissue, indicating a role for PATRONUS in chromosome segregation in somatic cells. Thus, ploidy stability is preserved in Arabidopsis by PATRONUS during both meiosis and mitosis.

  15. Demythologising social cohesion: Towards a practical theological vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus F. de Beer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the topical issue of social cohesion. It seeks to demythologise the issuebringing it into critical conversation with eight related categories. It proposes that a vision ofa socially cohesive society should employ all eight categories as parallel and complementarystrategies. Secondly, it proposes a practical theological vision of social cohesion that will notonly embrace these eight categories but will root itself in a spirituality of the table, informedby a vision of the oikos of God, seeking shalom in the oikos and doing so through four strategicmoments of engagement.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article indicates that socialcohesion requires an integrated approach of different strategies, not competing butcomplementing each other. Social cohesion requires interdisciplinary, intradisciplinary andtransdisciplinary research and action. For example, exploring ways in which land redistributioninhibits or contributes to social cohesion requires multiple stakeholders and disciplinesdiscerning together. The proposed practical theological vision implies new categories to beincluded in curricula and practical theological discourse for it to contribute meaningfully notonly to the current debate but also to practices fostering a socially cohesive society.

  16. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  17. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia A Fonner

    Full Text Available Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317. Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90 and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03 and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51, and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91. Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  18. Coordination Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul; Cover, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We develop elements of a theory of cooperation and coordination in networks. Rather than considering a communication network as a means of distributing information, or of reconstructing random processes at remote nodes, we ask what dependence can be established among the nodes given the communication constraints. Specifically, in a network with communication rates between the nodes, we ask what is the set of all achievable joint distributions p(x1, ..., xm) of actions at the nodes on the network. Several networks are solved, including arbitrarily large cascade networks. Distributed cooperation can be the solution to many problems such as distributed games, distributed control, and establishing mutual information bounds on the influence of one part of a physical system on another.

  19. Cohesion in crumb rubber modified bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páez Dueñas, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study of crumb rubber-mediated improvement in bitumen cohesion, analyzed with the UCL method. UCL, a procedure developed to characterize bituminous binders, evaluates the cohesion obtained by adding a certain amount of bitumen or bituminous mastic to a standard mix aggregate. This method was chosen because it can be used to assess bitumen containing crumb rubber added by either the wet or the dry mix process. In the dry mix process crumb rubber is combined with the mix as if it were a fine aggregate; i.e., crumb rubber and binder are blended during mix manufacture, laying and compaction. In the wet mix process, the binder is blended with the crumb rubber prior to mixing with the aggregate; i.e., when added to the mix, it has already been modified. The effect of digesting this dry mixed material prior to use was also analyzed in the present study. A comparison of the dry (with and without digestion and wet mix processes showed the latter to be more effective, particularly when the crumb rubber was blended with the binder via microscopic dispersion.El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la influencia del polvo de neumático en la mejora de la cohesión proporcionada por la adición del polvo de neumático al betún mediante el método UCL. El método UCL es un procedimiento desarrollado para caracterizar ligantes bituminosos, basado en la evaluación de la cohesión dada por una cantidad determinada de un betún o un mástico bituminoso a unos áridos de granulometría establecida (mezcla patrón. Se ha empleado este método porque permite valorar al mismo tiempo los dos procedimientos de incorporación del polvo de neumático al betún: vía seca y vía húmeda.El procedimiento seco se lleva a cabo añadiendo el polvo de neumático a la mezcla como si fuera un filler, de modo que el polvo de neumático y el ligante se mezclan durante la fabricación, extendido y compactación de la mezcla. En el procedimiento h

  20. Innovation processes navigated by women groups in the Malian shea sector: How targeting of international niche markets results in fragmentation and obstructs coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidibe, A.; Vellema, S.; Dembele, M.M.; Traore, K.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of women and their associations into international markets and value chains is proposed increasingly as a development pathway in Sub-Saharan Africa. The underlying assumption is that exclusion of individual women from groups specialized in supplying a single international niche mar

  1. Seasonal and daily patterns of group size, cohesion and activity of the estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae, in southern Brazil Padrões sazonais e diários do tamanho de grupo, coesão e atividade do boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae, no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio G. Daura-Jorge

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The resident population of estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden, 1864, in Norte Bay, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, was studied from 2000 to 2003. Systematic one-day cruises were undertaken aboard a 5 m sail boat equipped with an outboard motor. Applying the focal-group method, information such as geographical position, predominant behavioural patterns, group size, cohesion index and the presence of calves, were registered at every five-minute interval, totalling 198 hours of direct observation of the dolphins. The estuarine dolphin used preferential areas for each behavioural pattern. The mean group size was approximately 29 individuals, and the presence of calves occurred throughout the entire year, but with a significant increase in the warm seasons. The frequency of behavioural patterns and group size varied according to season and time of day, and were strongly associated. The frequency of moving behaviours increased in the cold seasons and along the day. The seasonal variation in the moving behaviours suggest the requirement of a larger area in the cold seasons, probably related to seasonal fluctuations in the abundance of dominant prey items. Higher group sizes were observed while dolphins were foraging. The cohesion index also varied according to the behaviour. Our results showed that group organization and behavioural patterns of this estuarine dolphin population are probably linked to daily and seasonal environment cycles, and also possibly to the condition of being at the furthest southern limit of distribution of the species.A população residente de boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis (P.J. van Bénéden, 1864, da Baía Norte, Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil, foi estudada de 2000 a 2003. Foram realizados cruzeiros sistemáticos de um dia, a bordo de um veleiro de 5 m equipado com motor de popa. Utilizando o método de grupo-focal, informações como posição geográfica, padrão comportamental predominante, tamanho

  2. TEACHER GOVERNANCE FACTORS AND SOCIAL COHESION: INSIGHTS FROM PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Halai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores teacher governance factors, particularly recruitment and deployment of teachers, in relation to inequalities and social cohesion. Pakistan introduced major reforms in education in the post 9/11 context of escalating conflict. These include a merit and needs-based policy on teacher recruitment to eliminate corruption in recruitment and improve equity on the basis of gender, language, ethnicity, religion, and special needs. A 4Rs framework of redistribution, recognition, representation and reconciliation was employed to analyse data gathered from: interviews with teacher educators, policy makers and development partners, and focus group discussions with and questionnaires completed by pre- and in-service teachers. The study concluded that teacher recruitment was driven by concerns of quality with weakly implemented largely quantitative measures of inclusion. Socio-politically grounded measures would be required for a diverse teaching force. Alongside, policies and procedures for the transfer of teachers would need to be streamlined so that teachers deployed to schools in marginalised areas serve there for a specified period of time.

  3. Stochastic Flocculation Model for Cohesive Sediment Suspended in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Shin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing flocculation models for cohesive sediments are classified into two groups: population balance equation models (PBE and floc growth models. An FGM ensures mass conservation in a closed system. However, an FGM determines only the average size of flocs, whereas a PBE has the capability to calculate a size distribution of flocs. A new stochastic approach to model the flocculation process is theoretically developed and incorporated into a deterministic FGM in this study in order to calculate a size distribution of flocs as well as the average size. A log-normal distribution is used to generate random numbers based on previous laboratory experiments. The new stochastic flocculation model is tested with three laboratory experiment results. It was found and validated with measured data that the new stochastic flocculation model has the capability to replicate a size distribution of flocs reasonably well under different sediment and carrier flow conditions. Three more distributions (normal; Pearson type 3; and generalized extreme value distributions were also tested. From the comparison with results of different distribution functions, it is shown that a stochastic FGM using a log-normal distribution has a comparative advantage in terms of simplicity and accuracy.

  4. The Impact of Adventure Based Activity at Malaysian National Service Training Programme on Team Cohesion: A Demographic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffry Zakaria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effects of physical module elements (adventure based activity included in the Malaysian National Service Programme and to investigate the socio-demographic variables impact on team cohesion building among the participants. In this study, the participants were selected from three different camps, namely, Tasoh camp, Guar Chenderai camp and Meranti camp, located in the state of Perlis, Malaysia. The participants were those from the second batch intake in the year 2007. The sample sizes comprised of 994 participants (480=males, 514=females. The present study applied a pre-test and post-test design. The group was tested before and after the programme. This design was chosen because it could measure the impacts of the adventure-based activity towards team cohesion over time through the pre- and post-test scores (Berg & Latin, 2004. The variables comprised of the demographic factors (age, gender and place of residence, which included team cohesion were measured by Group Environmental Questionnaire (GEQ (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985. Results indicated that the participants of the National Service Training Programme underwent group cohesion change during the Physical Module activities (adventure based activities that were carried out at the camp. The changes were observable based on the statistically analyzed data during the pre and post-test.

  5. Unexpected metal ion-assisted transformations leading to unexplored bridging ligands in Ni(II) coordination chemistry: the case of PO3F(2-) group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Despina; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Psycharis, Vassilis; Escuer, Albert; Perlepes, Spyros P; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2014-10-21

    The initial 'accidental', metal ion-assisted hydrolysis of PF6(-) to PO3F(2-) has been evolved in a systematic investigation of the bridging affinity of the latter group in Ni(II)/oximate chemistry; mono-, di- and trinuclear complexes have been prepared and confirmed both the rich reactivity of PO3F(2-) and its potential for further use as bridging ligand in high-nuclearity 3d-metal cluster chemistry.

  6. Measuring powder flowability with a modified Warren Spring cohesion tester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salam A. Mohammed; Ezzat C. Abdullah; Derek Geldart; Abdul Aziz A. Raman

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of powder fiowability is a major concern for most industrial processes that deal with the handling of bulk solids as raw materials, intermediates, or products. The development of devices that measure the flowability of non-aerated powders has not progressed as rapidly as might have been hoped since most research activities have been based on various types of shear testers intended to aid the design of hoppers. A new flowability indicator named as weighted cohesion (WS) is established using newly improved version of direct cohesion texture. A cornerstone of the proposed technique is that the procedure is automated, using a digital Warren Spring tester called Warren Spring-University of Malaya cohesion tester (WSUMCT), thus making results operator-insensitive. Besides being a practical tool to diagnose the cohesion of experimental powders, the ratio between measured cohesion (using WSUMCT) and aerated density (using Hosokawa PT-S) provides us with a powerful technique to research fundamental particle internal cohesion forces directly and use these data to indicate the flowability. In this work, a series of fine (9.4 .μm) and coarse (60 μm) porous silica gel particle mixtures, and mixtures of fine (28 μm) and coarse (72 μm) glass ballotini as well, were used as test powders. The results from these tests agree well with relative flowability determined on our newly driven indicator using WSUMCT. The validation of aerated weighted cohesion (WSA) as a flowability indicator was authenticated by comparing the conducted parameter with established measured Hausner ratio (HR) and angle of repose (AoR).

  7. Pier and contraction scour prediction in cohesive soils at selected bridges in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Timothy D.; Over, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of testing the Scour Rate In Cohesive Soils-Erosion Function Apparatus (SRICOS-EFA) method for estimating scour depth of cohesive soils at 15 bridges in Illinois. The SRICOS-EFA method for complex pier and contraction scour in cohesive soils has two primary components. The first component includes the calculation of the maximum contraction and pier scour (Zmax). The second component is an integrated approach that considers a time factor, soil properties, and continued interaction between the contraction and pier scour (SRICOS runs). The SRICOS-EFA results were compared to scour prediction results for non-cohesive soils based on Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 (HEC-18). On average, the HEC-18 method predicted higher scour depths than the SRICOS-EFA method. A reduction factor was determined for each HEC-18 result to make it match the maximum of three types of SRICOS run results. The unconfined compressive strength (Qu) for the soil was then matched with the reduction factor and the results were ranked in order of increasing Qu. Reduction factors were then grouped by Qu and applied to each bridge site and soil. These results, and comparison with the SRICOS Zmax calculation, show that less than half of the reduction-factor method values were the lowest estimate of scour; whereas, the Zmax method values were the lowest estimate for over half. A tiered approach to predicting pier and contraction scour was developed. There are four levels to this approach numbered in order of complexity, with the fourth level being a full SRICOS-EFA analysis. Levels 1 and 2 involve the reduction factors and Zmax calculation, and can be completed without EFA data. Level 3 requires some surrogate EFA data. Levels 3 and 4 require streamflow for input into SRICOS. Estimation techniques for both EFA surrogate data and streamflow data were developed.

  8. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  9. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  10. The ELG1 clamp loader plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Parnas

    Full Text Available Mutations in the ELG1 gene of yeast lead to genomic instability, manifested in high levels of genetic recombination, chromosome loss, and gross chromosomal rearrangements. Elg1 shows similarity to the large subunit of the Replication Factor C clamp loader, and forms a RFC-like (RLC complex in conjunction with the 4 small RFC subunits. Two additional RLCs exist in yeast: in one of them the large subunit is Ctf18, and in the other, Rad24. Ctf18 has been characterized as the RLC that functions in sister chromatid cohesion. Here we present evidence that the Elg1 RLC (but not Rad24 also plays an important role in this process. A genetic screen identified the cohesin subunit Mcd1/Scc1 and its loader Scc2 as suppressors of the synthetic lethality between elg1 and ctf4. We describe genetic interactions between ELG1 and genes encoding cohesin subunits and their accessory proteins. We also show that defects in Elg1 lead to higher precocious sister chromatid separation, and that Ctf18 and Elg1 affect cohesion via a joint pathway. Finally, we localize both Ctf18 and Elg1 to chromatin and show that Elg1 plays a role in the recruitment of Ctf18. Our results suggest that Elg1, Ctf4, and Ctf18 may coordinate the relative movement of the replication fork with respect to the cohesin ring.

  11. Coordinating cohesion, co-orientation, and congression during meiosis: lessons from holocentric chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvarzstein, Mara; Wignall, Sarah M; Villeneuve, Anne M

    2010-02-01

    Organisms that reproduce sexually must reduce their chromosome number by half during meiosis to generate haploid gametes. To achieve this reduction in ploidy, organisms must devise strategies to couple sister chromatids so that they stay together during the first meiotic division (when homologous chromosomes separate) and then segregate away from one another during the second division. Here we review recent findings that shed light on how Caenorhabditis elegans, an organism with holocentric chromosomes, deals with these challenges of meiosis by differentiating distinct chromosomal subdomains and remodeling chromosome structure during prophase. Furthermore, we discuss how features of chromosome organization established during prophase affect later chromosome behavior during the meiotic divisions. Finally, we illustrate how analysis of holocentric meiosis can inform our thinking about mechanisms that operate on monocentric chromosomes.

  12. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.

  13. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2012-12-04

    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  14. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2013-09-10

    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  15. Acculturative stress and diminishing family cohesion among recent Latino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R; De La Rosa, Mario; Ibañez, Gladys E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates a theorized link between Latino immigrants' experience of acculturative stress during their two initial years in the United States (US) and declines in family cohesion from pre- to post-immigration contexts. This retrospective cohort study included 405 adult participants. Baseline assessment occurred during participants' first 12 months in the US. Follow-up assessment occurred during participants' second year in the US. General linear mixed models were used to estimate change in family cohesion and sociocultural correlates of this change. Inverse associations were determined between acculturative stress during initial years in the US and declines in family cohesion from pre-immigration to post-immigration contexts. Participants with undocumented immigration status, those with lower education levels, and those without family in the US generally indicated lower family cohesion. Participants who experienced more acculturative stress and those without family in the US evidenced a greater decline in family cohesion. Results are promising in terms of implications for health services for recent Latino immigrants.

  16. Cohesion in News Articles: A Discourse Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Subrayan Michael

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion is deemed to be outside of the structure of text because structure in text is provided by grammar. The design of cohesion in text is connected to semantic ties or “relations of meanings that exist within the text, and that define it as a text” (Halliday and Hasan, 1976. The study discusses an analysis done on two Malaysian newspaper articles from the New Straits Times. The study investigates the discourses apparent in the texts and the methods in which discourses are represented through particular linguistic choices. The purpose of the study is to identify discourses that stand for universally held assumptions about how different texts are created and how these discourses signify connection of specific practices and/or encompass a policy for change. Halliday & Hasan (1976 convey texture to the method in which diverse fundamentals in a text are connected or attached jointly to shape a cohesive unity, which also conveys the fact that the texts express completely to the setting in which it is located. Both articles project several connections in the field, in the theme and in the method of writing which are reflected in their corresponding ritual of structural and lexico-grammatical resources.Keywords: cohesion, discourse analysis, reference, conjunction, lexical cohesion

  17. Environmental cohesion across the Hungarian-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varjú Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cohesion (as a new EU paradigm for a place-based interpretation of environmental justice has a clear connection to territorial cohesion. Based on this idea, advantages for people can include an equitable distribution of environmental protection and access to environmental services. In non-EU countries regional environmental cohesion is used as an instrument to accelerate accession to the EU and it may be manifested as a declaration of environmental diplomacy. Environmental cohesion across a border can be identified as soon as two regions - alongside the border - start to cooperate in order to improve environmental conditions and to ensure equal access to natural resources and environmental services. After a literature review environmental cohesion is evaluated in multidimensional way, using empirical quantitative and qualitative data and a two-pillar based methodological approach. The Croatian-Hungarian border area was closed for a long time. As a result, developments avoided the area, on the other, natural resources remained mainly untouched. However, the two countries have had different approaches towards the area, while, Croatia made efforts to build another water power plant, Hungary intended to preserve and extend a Natural Park. This contradiction remained until the accession process of Croatia. Finally the disagreement between the two countries was moderated by a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve that was created alongside the border in 2015. The post-2010 period has been characterised by an increasing number of environmental-related cooperations.

  18. Research on cohesive sediment erosion by flow: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YongHui; LU dinYou; LIAO HongZhi; WANG diaSheng; FAN BeiLin; YAO ShiMing

    2008-01-01

    Erosion of cohesive sediment by flow is a very complicated phenomenon occurring worldwide. Understanding and modeling of the erosion process are important for many issues such as the breaching of embankments, riverbank stability, siltation of harbors and navigation channels, service life of reservoirs, distribution of (heavy metal) pollutants and water quality problems. In the last few decades, numerous studies have been done on the erosion of cohesive sediment by flow. Nevertheless, the factors affecting the erosion resistance of cohesive sediment are still not fully understood and the knowledge of the physics of cohesive sediment erosion is in-adequate, as a result the mathematical modeling of this erosion is far from saris-factory. In this paper an overview of the studies on the erosion resistance, erosion threshold and the erosion rate of cohesive sediment by flow is presented. The outcomes achieved so far from the studies and the existing problems have been analyzed and summarized, based on which recommendations are proposed for future research.

  19. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  20. Transport and deposition of cohesive pharmaceutical powders in human airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Chu, Kaiwei; Yu, Aibing

    2017-06-01

    Pharmaceutical powders used in inhalation therapy are in the size range of 1-5 microns and are usually cohesive. Understanding the cohesive behaviour of pharmaceutical powders during their transportation in human airway is significant in optimising aerosol drug delivery and targeting. In this study, the transport and deposition of cohesive pharmaceutical powders in a human airway model is simulated by a well-established numerical model which combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM). The van der Waals force, as the dominant cohesive force, is simulated and its influence on particle transport and deposition behaviour is discussed. It is observed that even for dilute particle flow, the local particle concentration in the oral to trachea region can be high and particle aggregation happens due to the van der Waals force of attraction. It is concluded that the deposition mechanism for cohesive pharmaceutical powders, on one hand, is dominated by particle inertial impaction, as proven by previous studies; on the other hand, is significantly affected by particle aggregation induced by van der Waals force. To maximum respiratory drug delivery efficiency, efforts should be made to avoid pharmaceutical powder aggregation in human oral-to-trachea airway.