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Sample records for group citalopram administered

  1. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of anpirtoline and citalopram in isolated and group housed mice.

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    Rilke, O; Will, K; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J

    2001-07-01

    Acute effects of serotonergic drugs acting via different mechanisms were investigated by a social interaction test and subsequent determination of serotonin and dopamine metabolisms in mice housed in groups or isolated for 6 weeks. A resident/intruder test was performed with anpirtoline (5-HT1B receptor agonist in rodents; 1 mg/kg), citalopram (SSRI; 0.5 mg/kg) and saline treatment before animals were decapitated and different brain regions were frozen for subsequent HPLC-analyses. Behavioral investigations indicated a strong increase of aggressive behavior after 6 weeks of isolation housing. Acute citalopram treatment did not influence behavioral parameters of isolated and group housed mice. In contrast, anpirtoline antagonized isolation induced aggressive behavioral components in a specific manner. Analysis of dopamine and serotonin metabolism revealed that citalopram treatment did not affect dopamine metabolism, but reduced serotonin metabolism in the striatum, hippocampus, cortex and midbrain independent of housing conditions. In contrast, anpirtoline treatment increased dopamine metabolism in cortex, striatum and midbrain as well as influenced serotonin metabolism in a structure- and state-specific manner. Whereas anpirtoline decreased serotonin metabolism in the cortex, the midbrain and the hippocampus independent of housing conditions, in the striatum anpirtoline abolished the isolation induced decrease of serotonin metabolism. These results indicate that anpirtoline might induce antiaggressive effects via postsynaptic receptor- and structure-specific activation of serotonergic but also dopaminergic processes, whereas structure independent increase of synaptic serotonin via citalopram was ineffective to reverse aggressivity in isolated mice.

  2. The role of adenosine receptors and endogenous adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiovascular toxicity

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    Kubilay Oransay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated the role of adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Protocol 1: Rats were randomized into four groups. Sodium cromoglycate was administered to rats. Citalopram was infused after the 5% dextrose, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A 1 receptor antagonist, 8-(-3-chlorostyryl-caffeine (CSC; A 2a receptor antagonist, or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO administrations. Protocol 2: First group received 5% dextrose intraperitoneally 1 hour prior to citalopram. Other rats were pretreated with erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl adenine (EHNA; inhibitor of adenosine deaminase and S-(4-Nitrobenzyl-6-thioinosine (NBTI; inhibitor of facilitated adenosine transport. After pretreatment, group 2 received 5% dextrose and group 3 received citalopram. Adenosine concentrations, mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR,  QRS duration and QT interval were evaluated. Results: In the dextrose group, citalopram infusion caused a significant decrease in MAP and HR and caused a significant prolongation in QRS and QT. DPCPX infusion significantly prevented the prolongation of the QT interval when compared to control. In the second protocol, citalopram infusion did not cause a significant change in plasma adenosine concentrations, but a significant increase observed in EHNA/NBTI groups. In EHNA/NBTI groups, citalopram-induced MAP and HR reductions, QRS and QT prolongations were more significant than the dextrose group. Conclusions: Citalopram may lead to QT prolongation by stimulating adenosine A 1 receptors without affecting the release of adenosine.

  3. Results of the citalopram to enhance cognition in Huntington disease trial.

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    Beglinger, Leigh J; Adams, William H; Langbehn, Douglas; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Jorge, Ricardo; Biglan, Kevin; Caviness, John; Olson, Blair; Robinson, Robert G; Kieburtz, Karl; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate citalopram for executive functioning in Huntington's disease (HD). The study was randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled. Thirty-three adults with HD, cognitive complaints, and no depression (Hamilton Depression [HAM-D] rating scale ≤ 12) were administered citalopram 20 mg or placebo (7 visits, 20 weeks), with practice and placebo run-ins. The primary outcome was change in executive functioning. The intent to treat analysis was controlled for practice effects, comparing visits 1 and 2 to visits 5 and 6 for citalopram versus placebo. There were no significant benefits on the executive function composite (treatment-placebo mean difference -0.167; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.361 to 0.028; P = .092). Citalopram participants showed improved clinician-rated depression symptoms on the HAM-D (t = -2.02; P = 0.05). There were no group differences on motor ratings, self-reported executive functions, psychiatric symptoms, or functional status. There was no evidence that short-term treatment with citalopram improved executive functions in HD. Despite excluding patients with active depression, participants on citalopram showed improved mood, raising the possibility of efficacy for subsyndromal depression in HD. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

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    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni

    2003-01-01

    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  5. The Effects of the Adenosine Receptor Antagonists on the Reverse of Cardiovascular Toxic Effects Induced by Citalopram In-Vivo Rat Model of Poisoning

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    Büyükdeligöz, Müjgan; Hocaoğlu, Nil; Oransay, Kubilay; Tunçok, Yeşim; Kalkan, Şule

    2015-01-01

    Background: Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that requires routine cardiac monitoring to prevent a toxic dose. Prolongation of the QT interval has been observed in acute citalopram poisoning. Our previous experimental study showed that citalopram may be lead to QT prolongation by stimulating adenosine A1 receptors without affecting the release of adenosine. Aims: We examined the effects of adenosine receptor antagonists in reversing the cardiovascular toxic effects induced by citalopram in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into three groups randomly (n=7 for each group). Sodium cromoglycate (20 mg/kg) was administered to all rats to inhibit adenosine A3 receptor mast cell activation. Citalopram toxicity was achieved by citalopram infusion (4 mg/kg/min) for 20 minutes. After citalopram infusion, in the control group (Group 1), rats were given an infusion of dextrose solution for 60 minutes. In treatment groups, the selective adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX (Group 2, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 20 μg/kg/min) or the selective A2a antagonist CSC (Group 3, 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine, 24 μg/kg/min) was infused for 60 minutes. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), QRS duration and QT interval measurements were followed during the experiment period. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results: Citalopram infusion reduced MAP and HR and prolonged the QT interval. It did not cause any significant difference in QRS duration in any group. When compared to the control group, DPCPX after citalopram infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT interval after 40, 50 and 60 minutes (p<0.01). DPCPX infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT interval at 60 minutes compared with the CSC group (p<0.05). CSC infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT at 60 minutes compared with the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: DPCPX improved QT interval

  6. The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews

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    Yerushalmi, Edit; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.

  7. A comparison between antidepressant effects of transcranial near-infrared laser and citalopram in a rat model of depression

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    Salehpour, Farzad; Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Mohaddes, Gisou; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Salarirad, Sima

    2017-02-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that its prevalence has been reported to be 16% among adults. In recent years, transcranial near-infrared laser therapy (NILT) has gained considerable attention as a novel non-pharmaceutical method for depression. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of two different treatment strategies in a rat model of depression. Forty male Wistar rats (180-200 g) divided into 4 groups: control, depressive, depressive-NILT, and depressive-Citalopram. All animals excepted control group was exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) for 4 weeks. Rats in laser group received 10-Hz pulsed NILT (810 nm, energy density 1.2 J/cm2 per session) transcranially for a total of 12 sessions over a three-week period. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, Intraperitoneal) was administered for 21 consecutive days. Depressive-like behavior was tested in the forced swimming test (FST) model. Serum cortisol levels were also determined. The results of FST showed an increase in swimming and decrease in immobility period, for both NILT and Citalopram groups compared to the stress group. There was also no significant difference between the experimental groups in climbing behavior. The induction of CMS significantly increased serum cortisol levels and treatments with NILT and Citalopram decreased it. Our findings showed that NILT will be more beneficial to improve the depressive-like behaviors in the rat. Our data also showed that transcranial NILT was as effective as Citalopram in the treatment of depression. Therefore, these pieces of evidence may help improve NILT as an alternative non-pharmaceutical method for depression therapy.

  8. [Safety and efficacy of oral escitalopram as continuation treatment of intravenous citalopram, in patients with major depressive disorder--the navigade switch study].

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    Schmitt, L; Arbus, C; Tonnoir, B

    2006-01-01

    Intravenous (iv) administration of an antidepressant is a common practice in some European countries, particularly in France, Spain, and Italy in the initial treatment phase of hospitalised, severe depressed patients. After a beneficial response is observed, patients are switched to an oral formulation. The approved treatment period of the iv form of citalopram is limited to 8-10 days. The high bioavailability of citalopram permits the use of identical iv and oral doses. Citalopram is a racemate, consisting of a 1:1 mixture of the S- and R-enantiomers. The therapeutically active component is the S-enantiomer (escitalopram). Pharmacokinetic single dose administration studies in healthy subjects have demonstrated that daily oral administration of 20 mg of escitalopram or 40 mg citalopram results in similar plasma concentrations of the S-enantiomer of citalopram. This open-label multicentre French prospective study investigated the tolerability and efficacy of oral escitalopram 10 and 20 mg/day, administered for a 6-week period as continuation treatment of citalopram (20 mg or 40 mg daily) intravenous (iv), in patients with Major Depressive Disorder. A total of 171 patients were enrolled, of whom 147 (85%) completed the study. The mean MADRS score at inclusion (last citalopram dose) was 31.6 +/- 9.9. The total MADRS score decreased after 3 days of oral treatment with escitalopram. Escitalopram demonstrated a continuous effect in treating depressive symptoms throughout the study. The decrease in MADRS mean total score from baseline was statistically significant to each visit (day 3, 15; p or = 50%), and the majority of them were considered remitters (final MADRS score escitalopram was well tolerated in the study population. In all, 57 patients (33%) reported at least one adverse event (AE) during the study (21 patients in the 10 mg group and 36 patients in the 20 mg group); of these, 7 patients (4%) withdrew from the study. The most frequently reported AEs were

  9. Pharm GKB: citalopram [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine chlorpromazine citalopram clomipramine clozapine codeine debrisoquine desipramine dextromethorphan doxep...hlorpromazine citalopram clomipramine clozapine codeine debrisoquine desipramine dextromethorphan...ne citalopram clomipramine clozapine codeine debrisoquine desipramine dextromethorphan doxepin duloxetine es...ne clozapine codeine debrisoquine desipramine dextromethorphan doxepin escitalopram flecainide fluoxetine fl...e chlorpromazine citalopram clomipramine clozapine codeine debrisoquine desipramine dextromethorphan

  10. Synergistic Effects of Citalopram and Morphine in the Renal Colic Pain Relief; a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the synergistic effects of opioids and other analgesic drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been established in relieving acute pain due to renal calculi, no studies today have evaluated the concomitant administration of opiates and other drugs with analgesic effects, such as serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Considering the high prevalence of renal colic, the present study was carried out to compare the effect of concomitant prescription of morphine and a placebo with that of morphine and citalopram on the management of acute pain due to renal calculi. Methods: The present double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out from October 2012 to March 2013 in the Al-Zahra educational Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 90 patients with acute renal colic pain were randomly divided into two groups of 45 subjects. The subjects in one group received morphine/ placebo and another one morphine/citalopram. The patients’ pain severity was determined by visual analogue scale (VAS before and 20 minutes after administration of medications. In case of persistent pain the second or even third dose was administered and the pain severity was once again determined. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 using chi-squared, two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test, and log rank test. Results: The decrease in pain severity in the morphine/citalopram group was significantly compared to the morphine/placebo group and the time before administration of the medications (p<0.001. In contrast, administration of morphine/placebo did not have a significant effect on pain severity at this interval (p=0.32. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the first injection was successful in relieving pain in 15 (33.3% and 26 (57.8% subjects in the morphine/placebo and morphine/citalopram groups, respectively. The second injection of these medications resulted in therapeutic success in 35 (87.8% and 42 (95.6% subjects in the above groups

  11. Cost-effectiveness of escitalopram vs. citalopram in major depressive disorder.

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    Fantino, Bruno; Moore, Nicholas; Verdoux, Hélène; Auray, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    Clinical trials have shown better efficacy of escitalopram over citalopram, and review-based economic models the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram vs. citalopram (brand and generic). No head-to-head clinical trial has, however, evaluated the cost-effectiveness of both drugs so far. The aim of this study was to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of escitalopram compared with citalopram in patients with major depressive disorder. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted by general practitioners and psychiatrists comparing fixed doses of escitalopram (20 mg/day) or citalopram (40 mg/day) over 8 weeks in ambulatory care patients with major depressive disorder (baseline Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score > or =30). Resources use was recorded using a standardized form recording use of healthcare services and days of sick leave for the 2-month prestudy period and for the 8-week study period. Statistically significant improvements were observed in patients treated with escitalopram. Mean per-patient costs for the escitalopram group, compared with the citalopram group, were 41% lower (96 euro vs. 163 euro; Pescitalopram compared with citalopram recipients, assuming a parity price between escitalopram and citalopram. Bootstrapped distributions of the cost-effectiveness ratios also showed better effectiveness and lower costs for escitalopram compared with citalopram. Escitalopram is significantly more effective than citalopram, and is associated with lower healthcare costs. This prospective economic analysis demonstrated that escitalopram is a cost-effective first-line treatment option for major depressive disorder.

  12. EFFICACY OF CITALOPRAM IN TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SKIN PICKING, A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL

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    M Arbabi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nVarious studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs may be useful in treating pathological skin picking (PSP. This study sought to assess effectiveness of citalopram in comparison with placebo in treating PSP. Forty five individuals with PSP were recruited in a four-week, randomized clinical trial of citalopram (20 mg/day in comparison with placebo. Study measures assessing skin picking severity, mental health status, obsessive compulsive disorder and quality of life were given at baseline, weeks 2 and 4. PSP severity, general health status, obsession-compulsion severity and quality of life level were similar between two groups at baseline (P > 0.05. Treatment analyses revealed significant improvements in quality of life, general health status and obsession-compulsion severity in citalopram group compared to placebo group (P < 0.05. Mean PSP severity reduction in citalopram group was more than placebo group but this difference was not significant. Citalopram can improve general health status and quality of life in individuals with PSP but its effect on skin picking behavior doesn't differ significantly with placebo. Other trials with longer time are needed to determine the exact efficacy of citalopram on PSP

  13. Citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease: design and methods.

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    Drye, Lea T; Ismail, Zahinoor; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Rosenberg, Paul B; Weintraub, Daniel; Marano, Christopher; Pelton, Gregory; Frangakis, Constantine; Rabins, Peter V; Munro, Cynthia A; Meinert, Curtis L; Devanand, D P; Yesavage, Jerome; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Schneider, Lon S; Pollock, Bruce G; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2012-01-01

    Agitation is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is associated with serious adverse consequences for patients and caregivers. Evidence-supported treatment options for agitation are limited. The citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD) study was designed to evaluate the potential of citalopram to ameliorate these symptoms. CitAD is a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial, with two parallel treatment groups assigned in a 1:1 ratio and randomization stratified by clinical center. The study included eight recruiting clinical centers, a chair's office, and a coordinating center located in university settings in the United States and Canada. A total of 200 individuals having probable AD with clinically significant agitation and without major depression were recruited for this study. Patients were randomized to receive citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/d) or matching placebo. Caregivers of patients in both treatment groups received a structured psychosocial therapy. Agitation was compared between treatment groups using the NeuroBehavioral Rating Scale and the AD Cooperative Study- Clinical Global Impression of Change, which are the primary outcomes. Functional performance, cognition, caregiver distress, and rates of adverse and serious adverse events were also measured. The authors believe the design elements in CitAD are important features to be included in trials assessing the safety and efficacy of psychotropic medications for clinically significant agitation in AD. Copyright © 2012 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Allelic variation in 5-HTTLPR and the effects of citalopram on the emotional neural network.

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    Ma, Yina; Li, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenbo; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-05-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as citalopram, which selectively block serotonin transporter (5-HTT) activity, are widely used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Numerous neuroimaging studies have examined the effects of SSRIs on emotional processes. However, there are considerable inter-individual differences in SSRI effect, and a recent meta-analysis further revealed discrepant effects of acute SSRI administration on neural responses to negative emotions in healthy adults. We examined how a variant of the serotonin-transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which affects the expression and function of 5-HTT, influenced the acute effects of an SSRI (citalopram) on emotion-related brain activity in healthy adults. Combining genetic neuroimaging, pharmacological technique and a psychological paradigm of emotion recognition, we scanned the short/short (s/s) and long/long (l/l) variants of 5-HTTLPR during perception of fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions after the acute administration of an SSRI (i.e. 30 mg citalopram administered orally) or placebo administration. We found that 5-HTTLPR modulated the acute effects of citalopram on neural responses to negative emotions. Specifically, relative to placebo, citalopram increased amygdala and insula activity in l/l but not s/s homozygotes during perception of fearful faces. Similar analyses of brain activity in response to happy faces did not show any significant effects. Our combined pharmacogenetic and functional imaging results provide a neurogenetic mechanism for discrepant acute effects of SSRIs. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Stress Sensitive Female Macaques Have Decreased Fev and Serotonin-Related Gene Expression That Is Not Reversed by Citalopram

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    Lima, Fernanda B.; Centeno, Maria L.; Costa, Maria E.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Cameron, Judy L.; Bethea, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Female cynomolgus monkeys exhibit different degrees of reproductive dysfunction with moderate metabolic and psychosocial stress. When stressed with a paradigm of relocation and diet for 60 days or 2 menstrual cycles, highly stress resilient monkeys (HSR) continued to ovulate during the stress cycles whereas stress sensitive monkeys (SS) did not. After cessation of stress, monkeys characterized as HSR or SS were administered placebo (PL) or S-citalopram (CIT) for 15 weeks at doses that normalized ovarian steroid secretion in the SS animals and that maintained blood citalopram levels in a therapeutic range. After euthanasia, the brain was perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. The pontine midbrain was blocked and sectioned at 25μm. The expression of 4 genes pivotal to serotonin neural function was assessed in the 4 groups of monkeys (n=4/group). Fev (fifth Ewing variant) ETS transcription factor, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), and the 5HT1A autoreceptor were determined at 7–8 levels of the dorsal raphe nucleus with in situ hybridization (ISH) using radiolabeled- and digoxygenin-incorporated riboprobes. Positive pixel area and cell number were measured with Slidebook 4.2 in the digoxigenin assay for Fev. Optical density (OD) and positive pixel area were measured with NIH Image software in the radiolabeled assays for TPH2, SERT and 5HT1A. All data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA. Stress-sensitive monkeys had significantly fewer Fev-positive cells and lower Fev-positive pixel area in the dorsal raphe than stress-resilient monkeys. Stress-sensitive macaques also had significantly lower levels of TPH2, SERT and 5HT1A mRNAs in the dorsal raphe nucleus than stress-resilient macaques. However, citalopram did not alter the expression of either Fev, TPH2, SERT or 5HT1A mRNAs. These data suggest that stress-sensitive macaques have fewer serotonin neurons than stress-resilient macaques, and that they have deficient Fev expresssion

  16. Comparison of escitalopram versus citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder in a geriatric population.

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    Wu, Eric; Greenberg, Paul E; Yang, Elaine; Yu, Andrew; Erder, M Haim

    2008-09-01

    To compare escitalopram versus citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in geriatric patients. Administrative claims data (2003-2005) were analyzed for patients aged > or =65 years with at least one inpatient claim or two independent medical claims associated with MDD diagnosis. Patients were continuously enrolled for at least 12 months, filled at least one prescription for citalopram or escitalopram and had no second generation antidepressant use during the 6-month pre-index date. Contingency table analysis and survival analysis were used to compare outcomes between the two treatment groups. Treatment persistence, hospitalization utilization, and prescription drug, medical, and total healthcare costs were analyzed. Outcomes were compared between patients initiated on escitalopram and those initiated on citalopram both descriptively and using multivariate analysis adjusting for baseline characteristics. Among 691 geriatric patients, escitalopram-treated patients (n=459) were less likely to discontinue treatment (hazard ratio [HR]=0.83, p=0.049) or switch to another second generation antidepressant (HR=0.62, p=0.001) compared to patients treated with citalopram (n=232). Patients treated with escitalopram had a significantly lower hospitalization rate (31.2% vs. 38.8%, p=0.045) and 66% fewer hospitalization days based on negative binomial regression (pGeriatric patients treated with escitalopram had better treatment persistence, fewer hospitalizations, and lower medical and total healthcare costs than patients treated with citalopram. Most of the cost reduction was attributable to significantly lower hospitalizations and total medical costs.

  17. SSRIs and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose study with paroxetine and citalopram.

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    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-12-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to induce delayed orgasm and ejaculation. However, different SSRIs may differentially delay ejaculation. A double-blind, fixed-dose study in healthy men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to evaluate potential differences between clinically relevant doses of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine and citalopram, in their effects on ejaculation. Thirty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) less than 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day) and citalopram (20 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after taking half the dosage in the first week. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home by using a stopwatch procedure. The trial was completed by 23 men. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.0004); the IELT after paroxetine and citalopram gradually increased from 18 and 21 seconds to approximately 170 and 44 seconds, respectively. Paroxetine 20 mg/day exerted a strong delay (8.9-fold increase), whereas citalopram 20 mg/day mildly delayed ejaculation (1.8-fold increase). These results indicate that paroxetine leads to a significant delay in orgasm and ejaculation, whereas citalopram seems to have less of an effect on it.

  18. Neonatal administration of citalopram delays somatic maturation in rats

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    T.C.B.J. Deiró

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the somatic maturation of neonate rats treated during the suckling period with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Groups with 6 male neonates were randomly assigned to different treatments 24 h after birth. Each litter was suckled by one of the dams until the 21st postnatal day. Body weight, head axis and tail length were measured daily from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day. Time of ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, incisor eruption, and eye opening was determined. Pups received 5 mg (Cit5, 10 mg (Cit10 or 20 mg/kg (Cit20 citalopram sc, or saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v, sc. Compared to saline, body weight was lower (24.04%, P < 0.01 for Cit10 from the 10th to the 21st day and for Cit20 from the 6th to the 21st day (38.19%, P < 0.01. Tail length was reduced in the Cit20 group (15.48%, P < 0.001 from the 8th to the 21st day. A reduction in mediolateral head axis (10.53%, P < 0.05 was observed from the 11th to the 21st day in Cit10 and from the 6th to the 21st day in Cit20 (13.16%, P < 0.001. A reduction in anteroposterior head axis was also observed in the Cit20 group (5.28%, P < 0.05 from the 13th to the 21stday. Conversely, this axis showed accelerated growth from the 12th to the 21stday in the Cit5 group (13.05%, P < 0.05. Auditory conduit opening was delayed in the Cit5 and Cit20 groups and incisor eruption was delayed in all citalopram groups. These findings show that citalopram injected during suckling to rats induces body alterations and suggest that the activity of the serotoninergic system participates in growth mechanisms.

  19. Effects of a Social Skills Intervention Administered in Mixed Diagnostic Groups for Children with Peer Relationship Problems

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    Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Scambler, Douglas J.; Page, Melanie C.; Sullivan, Maureen A.; Armendariz, Monica L.; Isenberg, Jill C.; Warner, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    Research on social skills interventions has been mixed. This study evaluates a group-administered, manualized social skills intervention program. Twenty-three boys and 9 girls between the ages of 7 and 13 participated. Participants were included in the groups based on peer relationship difficulties rather than diagnostic status, resulting in a…

  20. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

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    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  1. Time to Response to Citalopram Treatment for Agitation in Alzheimer Disease.

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    Weintraub, Daniel; Drye, Lea T; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Rosenberg, Paul B; Pollock, Bruce G; Devanand, Devangere P; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Munro, Cynthia A; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V; Schneider, Lon S; Shade, David M; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2015-11-01

    Agitation is a common and significant problem in Alzheimer disease (AD). In the recent Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) study, citalopram was efficacious for the treatment of AD agitation. Here we examined the time course and predictors of response to treatment. Response in CitAD was defined as a modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) score of 1 or 2 or a Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) score reduction ≥ 50% from baseline. "Stable early response" was defined as meeting the aforementioned criteria at both weeks 3 and 9, "late response" was response at week 9 but not at week 3, and "unstable response" was response at week 3 but not at week 9. In the primary analyses, citalopram was superior to placebo on both the CGIC and the NBRS-A response measures. Little between-group differences were found in response rates in the first 3 weeks of the study (21% versus 19% on the CGIC). Citalopram patients were more likely than placebo patients to be a late responder (18% versus 8% on CGIC, Fisher's exact p = 0.09; 31% versus 15% on NBRS-A, Fisher's exact p = 0.02). Approximately half of citalopram responders (45%-56%) at end of study achieved response later in the study compared with 30%-44% of placebo responders. Treatment with citalopram for agitation in AD needs to be at least 9 weeks in duration to allow sufficient time for full response. Study duration is an important factor to consider in the design of clinical trials for agitation in AD. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in group treatment procedures of Danish finishers and its influence on the amount of administered antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2016-01-01

    antimicrobials between the years was significantly different in Cohort Change when compared to both Cohort Water and Cohort Feed. Results from this study demonstrate that farms changing their procedure of group treatment from feed administration to water administration may increase their overall use......When treating groups of pigs orally, antimicrobials can be administered through either feed or water. During the last decade, the group treatment procedure for finishers has shifted from feed to water administration. We hypothesized that farms implementing this change in treatment procedure would...... increase their total amount of administered antimicrobials. Based on Danish national register data, we performed a retrospective cohort study with three groups. The cohort of primary interest (Cohort Change) consisted of 50 finisher farms which changed their group treatment procedure from feed...

  3. Peripheral Edema Occurring during Treatment with Risperidone Combined with Citalopram

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    Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old female presented with symptoms of depression, worthlessness, hopelessness, loss of energy, insomnia, impatience, and forgetfulness associated with persecutory delusion that had begun about one year before her visit. She was diagnosed with major depression with psychotic signs and began treatment with risperidone (2 mg/night and citalopram (20 mg/day. After 20 days, she returned and reported partial improvement in her symptoms, although she had developed severe swelling of the hands and feet. The results of liver and renal function tests and rheumatologic tests were found to be within normal limits. Risperidone was discontinued for a week, and the swelling resolved completely. Risperidone was then administered again, and the swelling returned so that the patient had to discontinue taking the drug. The reappearance of edema on rechallenge is strong evidence implicating risperidone as the cause of the swelling.

  4. [Development of a method for estimation of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in nails and hair and its usefulness in forensic toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufal, Ewa; Sykutera, Marzena; Nowacka, Teresa; Stefanowicz, Anna; Sliwka, Karol

    2010-01-01

    The report presents the possibility of using an alternative material of determining citalopram and its metabolite (desmethylcitalopram) in hair and nails. Citalopram (Cipramil, Citaratio, Citaxin, Oropram, Cital, Cilon, Aurex) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class, employed in treatment of depression, prevention of depressive disorders recurrence and in some anxiety disorders. The investigations were performed using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrophotometry (LC-ESI-MS). In the course of the study, the authors developed a method for isolation and identification of Citaprolam and its metabolite (desmethylcitaprolam) from hair and nails. Determination were performed in hair and nail samples collected from individuals who had been administered citalopram in therapeutic doses at least for 12 months before sample collection. Hair and nail samples were obtained 4, 6, 9 and 15 months after discontinuing drug administration. The concentration of citalopram in nails was 0.40-10.49 ng/mg and the concentration of desmethylcitalopram was 0.32-3.70 ng/mg. In hair, citalopram concentration was 1.04-8.69 ng/mg and for desmethylcitalopram, the concentration range was 0.07-1.27 ng/mg.

  5. Citalopram in the treatment of dysthymic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, David J; Batchelder, Sarai; Miozzo, Ruben; Kreditor, David; Hyler, Steven; Gangure, Dinu; Clark, Joy

    2004-05-01

    This study aimed to provide preliminary data on the tolerability and effectiveness of citalopram for patients with dysthymic disorder. Twenty-one adult subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for dysthymic disorder were enrolled in this 12-week open-label study, of whom 15 had pure dysthymia (e.g. no major depression in the past 2 years). Citalopram was initiated at 20 mg/day, and increased to a maximum of 60 mg/day. Response was defined as 50% or greater drop in score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and a Clinical Global Impressions-I score of 1 ('very much improved') or 2 ('much improved'). Of these 15 pure dysthymic disorder subjects, all completed the trial, and 11 (73.3%) were treatment responders. All paired sample t-tests were highly significant, demonstrating significant average improvement on all measures of symptomatology and functioning. Scores on the 24-item HDRS decreased from 22.3+/-4.3 at baseline to 9.1+/-7.8 at week 12 [t(14)=6.1, P<0.001]. In addition, improvement was noted in self-reported measures of temperament and social functioning. The average final dose of citalopram was 39 mg/day. Side-effects were reported by nine of 15 subjects (60%), most frequently gastrointestinal symptoms (n=5), dry mouth (n=5) and sexual side-effects (n=3). These findings suggest the effectiveness and tolerability of citalopram in treating dysthymic disorder. Double-blind prospective studies are needed comparing citalopram both to placebo and to other medications, assessing both initial and sustained response to treatment.

  6. On-Demand Treatment of Premature Ejaculation with Citalopram: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafuri Zahra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nAs the most common male sexual disorder premature ejaculation (PE, also referred to as early ejaculation (EE or rapid ejaculation (RE, affects 30%-40% of sexually active men. Despite the limited number of available studies comparing the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI they have been thought to have beneficial effects for the treatment of patients with PE. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of on-demand use of citalopram, in the treatment of premature ejaculation. A randomized double blind study of fixed dose on-demand use of citalopram was performed in Roozbeh Psychiatry Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was consisted of 80 married patients diagnosed with PE according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 consisting of 42 patients received 20mg citalopram, and group 2 consisting of 38 patients received placebo four hours before intercourse for a 4-week treatment course. The effects of drug on the ejaculatory function in each group were assessed by the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT, and the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE before and at the end of treatment course. The mean IELT increased from 66.78±36.94 to 80.85±43.05 seconds in group 1 and from 63.44±33.16 to 65.71±34.26 seconds in group 2 (P = 0.000. Mean CIPE score increased 1.14±1.04 and 0.52±0.50 in group 1 and 2 respectively (P = 0.002. The patients treated with on demand citalopram showed significantly greater improvement in IELT and CIPE score compared to the patients receiving placebo. It seems that citalopram may be an effective treatment of premature ejaculation with on-demand usage. However further studies are warranted.

  7. Effect of citalopram on agitation in Alzheimer disease: the CitAD randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsteinsson, Anton P; Drye, Lea T; Pollock, Bruce G; Devanand, D P; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Munro, Cynthia A; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V; Rosenberg, Paul B; Schneider, Lon S; Shade, David M; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2014-02-19

    Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer disease. Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with Alzheimer disease. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer Disease Study (CitAD) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable Alzheimer disease and clinically significant agitation from 8 academic centers in the United States and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Participants (n = 186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n = 94) or placebo (n = 92) for 9 weeks. Dosage began at 10 mg per day with planned titration to 30 mg per day over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Primary outcome measures were based on scores from the 18-point Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC). Other outcomes were based on scores from the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), ability to complete activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (based on scores from the 30-point Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]), and adverse events. Participants who received citalopram showed significant improvement compared with those who received placebo on both primary outcome measures. The NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was -0.93 (95% CI, -1.80 to -0.06), P = .04. Results from the mADCS-CGIC showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared with 26% of placebo

  8. Citalopram for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, H; Pourmoghaddas, Z; Saneian, H; Gholamrezaei, A

    2014-11-01

    Antidepressants are effective in adults with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. We investigated the effectiveness of citalopram in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP, based on the Rome III criteria (n = 115, aged 6-18 years), were randomized to receive either citalopram 20 mg/day or placebo for 4 weeks. Treatment response was defined as ≥ 2 point reduction in the 6-point Faces pain rating scale or 'no pain'. Depression, anxiety, somatization, and physician-rated global severity and improvement were also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 8 weeks after medication period. Eighty-six patients completed the medication (43 in each group). Response rate in the citalopram and placebo groups based on per-protocol (intention-to-treat) analysis was 55.8% (40.6%) and 39.5% (30.3%) at week 4 (p = 0.097 [0.169]) and 72.0% (52.5%) and 53.4% (41.0%) at week 12 (p = 0.059 [0.148]), respectively. In per-protocol analysis, more reduction was observed in pain (F = 3.84, p = 0.024) and global severity scores (F = 4.12, p = 0.021) in the citalopram group compared with the placebo group over the study period. Such differences were not present in the intention-to-treat analysis. No difference was found between the two groups regarding change in depression, anxiety, or somatization score over the study. Overall, we found a trend toward the effectiveness of citalopram in the treatment of children with FAP. Trials with longer treatment duration in larger samples of patients are required in this regard. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Enhanced Antidepressant-Like Effects of Electroacupuncture Combined with Citalopram in a Rat Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, antidepressants are the dominative treatment for depression, but they have limitations in efficacy and may even produce troublesome side effects. Electroacupuncture (EA has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of depressive disorders. The present study was conducted to determine whether EA could enhance the antidepressant efficacy of a low dose of citalopram (an SSRI antidepressant in the chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression model rats. Here, we show that a combined treatment with 2 Hz EA and 5 mg/kg citalopram for three weeks induces a significant improvement in depressive-like symptoms as detected by sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test, whereas these effects were not observed with either of the treatments alone. Further investigations revealed that 2 Hz EA plus 5 mg/kg citalopram produced a remarkably increased expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in the hippocampus compared with those measured in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that EA combined with a low dose of citalopram could produce greater therapeutic effects, thereby, predictive of a reduction in drug side effects.

  10. Phasic craving for carbohydrate observed with citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, C D; Harvey, B H

    1996-12-01

    The serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have clinically and ancedotally been associated with nausea and weight loss as a side effect of their action. The tricyclic antidepressants have been linked to carbohydrate (CHO) craving and weight gain in patients with major depressive disorders. This side effect has been attributed to the strong anti-histaminergic actions of these agents and is recognized as a causal factor of non-compliance in a substantial percentage of patients. CHO craving is an important feature and complication of the treatment of depression and is often ignored. A total of 18 patients were treated with the SSRI citalopram in our mood disorder clinic. In eight cases there was a significant increase in CHO craving together with weight gain shortly after initiation of treatment. The craving for CHO took on a phasic presentation. These cases are presented, together with data on the change in mood and anxiety symptom rating scales. Our observations appear paradoxical, given that serotonin (5-HT) typically mediates a reduction in CHO intake and that citalopram displays potent and select 5-HT-enchancing actions. However, the receptor binding profile of citalopram may predict a risk for inducing this adverse event. These, together with serotonergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic and other possible mechanisms are discussed. A profound influence on patient acceptability was observed, suggesting that the impact on compliance needs to be considered.

  11. Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet-and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53 or group CBT (n = 60. After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition. Results Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost

  12. Citalopram/Escitalopram (Celexa/Lexapro) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citalopram | Escitalopram (Celexa®|Lexapro®) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to citalopram/escitalopram may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  13. Efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stuart; Hansen, Thomas; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical relevance of the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and citalopram by meta-analysis. Studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) with both escitalopram and citalopram treatment arms were identified. Adult patients had to meet DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The primary outcome measure was the treatment difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram, n=995; citalopram, n=1014). Escitalopram was significantly more effective than citalopram in overall treatment effect, with an estimated mean treatment difference of 1.7 points at week 8 (or last assessment if escitalopram. In this meta-analysis, the statistically significant superior efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram was shown to be clinically relevant.

  14. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: A study based on focus group interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Fukuda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. Methods: This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs. The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1–1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. Results: In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. Conclusions: The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted.

  15. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: a study based on focus group interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Risa; Shimizu, Yasuko; Seto, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1-1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a) the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b) nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted.

  16. Serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and response to citalopram in terminally ill cancer patients: report of twenty-one cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzo, Maria Anna; Schillani, Giulia; Aguglia, Eugenio; De Vanna, Maurizio; Grassi, Luigi; Conte, Maria Anna; Giraldi, Tullio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the SSRI antidepressant drug citalopram on anxiety, depression and mental adjustment to cancer in terminally ill cancer patients, considering also the 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism. A group of twenty-one consecutive patients admitted to the hospice of the Casa di Cura Pineta del Carso (Trieste, Italy) with different types of advanced cancer, who were clinically judged to require treatment with an antidepressive drug, was treated with citalopram for two weeks. The response was determined and related to 5-HTTLPR. Citalopram significantly reduced the scores on the depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). When the effects of citalopram were analyzed in relation to the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, the HADS depression score was significantly decreased only in patients with the "l/l" allelic variant of the serotonin transporter conferring high functional activity, while the score of the Mini-MAC fatalism scale was significantly increased in patients carrying at least one "s" allele. These preliminary findings seem to indicate that two weeks of treatment with citalopram are effective in reducing depressive symptoms in terminally ill cancer patients. Moreover, the effects of citalopram on fatalism as a strategy of mental adaptation to cancer, and on depressive symptoms depend on the allelic variants of the 5-HTTLPR genotype of the patients. These results seem to encourage the examination of a larger patient sample and of different treatment schedules, as well as a more thorough characterization of fatalism as a coping strategy in cancer patients.

  17. Comparison of melissa with citalopram and placebo in treatment of sleep disorders in menopausal women: clinical trial

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    Mahboobeh Shirazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different treatment used for resolving menopausal problems. Some studies assayed effectiveness of citalopram but it had some side effects and other studies about medicinal plants in Iran, including Melissa (combination of officinalis and foeniculum vulgare showed improvement insomnia and anxiety. This study decided to assay effectiveness of this drug and comparison with placebo and citalopram in treatment of sleep disturbance of menopausal women. Methods: Sixty postmenopausal women suffering from sleep disturbances that referred to Yas hospital between 2011-2013 were recruited to this double blind controlled study with 8 weeks’ follow-up period. They were randomized in three groups of twenty patients each, group A: received Melissa 600 mg that made by traditional medical school, group B: received citalopram 20 mg from Arya company that increased to 30 mg after one week and group C: received placebo. The patients were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire before and after treatment, also we checked the side effects of every drugs. Study was dissertation of one of the author with code 22263. This research has been supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services Grant. This study was registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with code of IRCT2013072714174N1. Results: Pittsburgh sleep quality index improved significantly in all groups, there was significant differences between Melissa group and two other group, but there wasn’t significance difference between citalopram and placebo group, there was a trend in favor of Melissa versus citalopram and placebo. All of seven field of PSQI improved significantly in all groups that showed improvement of sleep quality in all field of sleep disturbance. Conclusion: Melissa (compound of officinalis and foeniculum vulgare may be recommended for the treatment of sleep disturbances in postmenopausal women. Although further investigation with

  18. Sexual dysfunction during treatment of major depressive disorder with vilazodone, citalopram, or placebo: results from a phase IV clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Dalei; Nunez, Rene; Mathews, Maju

    2015-07-01

    Sexual dysfunction commonly occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD). Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist antidepressant approved for the treatment of MDD in adults, was evaluated to determine its effects on sexual function. The primary study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day with placebo; citalopram 40 mg/day was an active control (NCT01473381; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Post-hoc analyses evaluated change from baseline to week 10 on the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ); no inferential statistics were performed. CSFQ scores increased for women [1.2 (citalopram) to 3.0 (vilazodone 40 mg)] and men [1.2 (vilazodone 40 mg) to 3.5 (placebo)] in all treatment groups. Greater changes in CSFQ scores were seen in responders [women: 2.33 (citalopram) to 5.06 (vilazodone 40 mg); men: 2.26 (vilazodone 40 mg) to 4.35 (placebo)] versus nonresponders. CSFQ change from baseline was small for patients with normal baseline sexual function; in patients with baseline sexual dysfunction, CSFQ scores improved across groups [women: 2.35 (citalopram) to 4.52 (vilazodone 40 mg); men 2.83 (vilazodone 40 mg) to 6.43 (placebo)]. Across treatment groups, baseline sexual function improved in women and men, MDD responders, and patients with baseline sexual dysfunction.

  19. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) associated with citalopram use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpekar, Vivek C.; Joshi, Prashant P.

    2005-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH is associated with hyponatraemia without oedema. We report the case of a patient who developed acute-onset hyponatraemia that progressed rapidly to serious neurological dysfunction shortly after the introduction of citalopram. All SSRIs including citalopram should be used with care in the elderly. The water and electrolyte balance should be monitored carefully during SSRI therapy. PMID:20711296

  20. The Efficacy of Citalopram in the Treatment of Functional Abdominal Pain in Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Pourmoghaddas

    2014-04-01

    Eighty six patients completed the trial (43 in each group. Treatment response rate in the citalopram and the placebo group was 55.8% and 39.5% at week 4 (P=0.097 and 72.0% and 53.4% at week 12 (P=0.059, respectively. Controlling for baseline characteristics, more reduction was observed in pain (z=-2.67, P=0.008 and global severity scores (z=-3.08, P=0.002 in the citalopram group compared with the placebo group. Changes in depression, anxiety, and somatization scores were comparable between the two groups. Receiving citalopram (OR=7.718, P=0.006, father education level (OR=3.179, P=0.040, baseline pain score (OR=5.621, P

  1. Risk of Ventricular Arrhythmia with Citalopram and Escitalopram: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirjazi, Elena; McArthur, Eric; Nash, Danielle M.; Dixon, Stephanie N.; Weir, Matthew A.; Vasudev, Akshya; Jandoc, Racquel; Gula, Lorne J.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Wald, Ron; Garg, Amit X.

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of ventricular arrhythmia with citalopram and escitalopram is controversial. In this study we investigated the association between these two drugs and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age 76 years) from 2002 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada, newly prescribed citalopram (n = 137 701) or escitalopram (n = 38 436), compared to those prescribed referent antidepressants sertraline or paroxetine (n = 96 620). After inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score, the baseline characteristics of the comparison groups were similar. The primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 90 days of a new prescription, assessed using hospital diagnostic codes. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality within 90 days. Results Citalopram was associated with a higher risk of a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia compared with referent antidepressants (0.06% vs. 0.04%, relative risk [RR] 1.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI]1.03 to 2.29), and a higher risk of mortality (3.49% vs. 3.12%, RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18). Escitalopram was not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia compared with the referent antidepressants (0.03% vs. 0.04%, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.68), but was associated with a higher risk of mortality (2.86% vs. 2.63%, RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Conclusion Among older adults, initiation of citalopram compared to two referent antidepressants was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the 90-day risk of a hospital encounter for ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:27513855

  2. Usefulness of serotoninergic challenge with oral citalopram Utilidade do desafio serotoninérgico com citalopram oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mattos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Challenge tests designed to evaluate serotoninergic pathways have widely used intravenous citalopram. Oral citalopram has also been used, but unsatisfactory results were obtained with a dose of 20 mg. The objective of this study was to determine whether a higher oral dose would reproduce similar to those described for intravenous administration. To that end, we evaluated cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin levels. METHOD: Eight healthy male volunteers were evaluated in a randomized crossover challenge test with 40 mg of oral citalopram or placebo. RESULTS: Cortisol levels increased at 2-4h after the oral citalopram intake, with a small amplitude peak occurring in two-thirds of the subjects. Levels of prolactin and growth hormone remained unchanged throughout the study. CONCLUSION: The use of oral citalopram might present an alternative in serotoninergic challenge tests, but higher doses are required.OBJETIVO: Testes-desafio desenvolvidos para avaliar as vias serotoninérgicas utilizaram amplamente citalopram intravenoso. Citalopram oral também foi utilizado, mas obtiveram-se resultados insatisfatórios com uma dose de 20 mg. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de determinar se uma dose oral mais elevada poderia reproduzir resultados similares aos descritos para administração intravenosa. Com esta finalidade, avaliamos os níveis de cortisol, de hormônio do crescimento e de prolactina. MÉTODO: Oito voluntários do sexo masculino saudáveis foram avaliados em um teste-desafio cruzado, aleatorizado, com 40 mg de citalopram oral ou placebo. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de cortisol aumentaram após 2-4 horas da ingestão de citalopram oral, com um pequeno pico de amplitude ocorrendo em dois terços dos indivíduos. Os níveis de prolactina e de hormônio de crescimento permaneceram inalterados ao longo do estudo. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de citalopram oral poderia apresentar uma alternativa em testes-desafio serotoninérgicos, mas doses maiores s

  3. [Escitalopram and citalopram: the unexpected role of the R-enantiomer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, C; David, D J; Gardier, A M; Sánchez, C

    2007-01-01

    Citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is composed of 2 enantiomers, R-citalopram and S-citalopram, 2 different non-superimposable mirror image forms of the same molecule. Separating these 2 enantiomers has enabled studying their individual properties. Citalopram's pharmacologic activity is centered on the S enantiomer's high affinity for the serotonin transporter which is twice as high as citalopram's and 30 to 40 times higher than R-citalopram. This leads to an inhibition of serotonin reuptake two times higher for escitalopram compared with citalopram and confirms that citalopram's pharmacologic activity is due to the S-enantiomer. Contrary to what might be expected, the effect of escitalopram (DCI of S-citalopram) is not superimposable on an equivalent dose of citalopram but is superior. Several hypotheses could explain this superiority. First, conversions of the S-enantiomer into the R-enantiomer may occur, but there is no reason why this phenomenon would happen more when both enantiomers are present than when escitalopram is alone. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies have shown that S or R configurations are stable in vivo. Second, a particular action of R-citalopram may influence the S-enantiomer's kinetic from intestinal absorption to blood-brain barrier. But concentrations of both enantiomers in the frontal cortex are the same. Therefore, R-citalopram does not interfere with escitalopram's kinetic. Finally, interactions may appear at the synaptic level. Results of experimentation, after in situ injection to the cortex level, confirm that an interaction between the 2 enantiomers takes place at that level. A direct negative interaction of R-citalopram on one or several effectors that create the antidepressive effect seems justified. This negative interaction has been studied in depth. Animal models have shown that the R-enantiomer has no antidepressive potential and when associated with escitalopram prohedonic effects disappear. Escitalopram

  4. The treatment of minor depression with St. John's Wort or citalopram: failure to show benefit over placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Howland, Robert; Dording, Christina; Schettler, Pamela J; Mischoulon, David

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents new data addressing two important controversies in psychiatry: the construct of Minor Depression (MinD) and the efficacy of St. John's Wort for milder forms of depressive disorders. Data are from a three-arm, 12 week, randomized clinical trial of investigating the efficacy of St. John's Wort (810 mg/day), citalopram (20 mg/day), or placebo for acute treatment of MinD. Due to a high placebo response on all outcome measures, neither St. John's Wort nor citalopram separated from placebo on change in depressive symptom severity, quality of life, or well-being. However, systematic assessment of potential adverse effects (AEs) led to three important observations: (1) prior to the administration of study compound, 60% of subjects endorsed items that would be characterized as AEs once study compound was administered, (2) St. John's Wort and citalopram were each associated with a significant number of new or worsening AEs during treatment, and (3) using a structured interview for identifying AEs at baseline and during treatment is informative. MinD was not responsive to either a conventional antidepressant or a nutraceutical, and both compounds were associated with a notable side effects burden. Other treatment approaches for MinD should be investigated.

  5. Cardiac safety of citalopram: prospective trials and retrospective analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Poul Lind; Overø, K F; Tanghøj, P

    1999-01-01

    of citalopram on ECG parameters. Results of both prospective and retrospective analyses showed that the only effect of citalopram on ECG findings is a small reduction in heart rate (... in volunteers and patients and in retrospective evaluations of all electrocardiographic (ECG) data from all clinical trials conducted from 1978 through 1996 (a total of 40 studies). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in healthy volunteers (N = 23) to assess intraindividual...... variability of the QTc interval, as well as possible changes during treatment with placebo or citalopram, and its correlation to plasma drug levels. To document any dose-related changes, ECGs were performed at baseline and at the end of study in three randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active...

  6. Galactorrhea Following Citalopram Treatment: A Case Report and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst J. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old women suffering from major depression who was treated with citalopram for several weeks with doses between 20 mg and 60 mg. She gradually developed marked mydriasis within 2 months after treatment and subsequently neuritis nervi optici. Moreover, abrupt galactorrhea occurred after 2 months of treatment. All neuro-ophthalmological, neurophysiological, clinical laboratory, and neuroradiological diagnostic efforts did not reveal an underlying organic pathophysiology. The ocular symptoms disappeared rapidly after the discontinuation of citalopram and pulse therapy with methyl-prednisolone. However, galactorrhea persisted for a few weeks necessitating treatment with bromocriptine.

  7. [Citalopram, escitalopram and prolonged QT: warning or alarm?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enric; Vieira, Sara; Garcia-Moll, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The alerts issued by regulatory agencies on the potential cardiac toxicity of citalopram and escitalopram have caused alarm among clinicians. A review of the data concerning this topic shows that the alarm should be limited to patients with a history of syncope or poisoning. As a precautionary measure, an electrocardiogram should be performed on elderly patients.

  8. Augmentation by escitalopram, but not citalopram or R-citalopram, of the effects of low-dose risperidone: behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Gertow, Jens; Konradsson-Geuken, Asa; Svensson, Torgny H

    2012-04-01

    Antidepressant drugs are frequently used to treat affective symptoms in schizophrenia. We have recently shown that escitalopram, but not citalopram or R-citalopram, increases firing rate and burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons, potentiates cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated transmission and enhances cognition, effects that might influence the outcome of concomitant antipsychotic medication. Here, we studied, in rats, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of adding escitalopram, citalopram, or R-citalopram to the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone. We examined antipsychotic efficacy using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test, extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability using a catalepsy test, dopamine outflow in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving animals, and NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in the mPFC using intracellular electrophysiological recording in vitro. Only escitalopram (5 mg/kg), but not citalopram (10 mg/kg), or R-citalopram (10 mg/kg), dramatically enhanced the antipsychotic-like effect of a low dose of risperidone (0.25 mg/kg), without increasing catalepsy. Given alone, escitalopram, but not citalopram or R-citalopram, markedly enhanced both cortical dopamine output and NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Addition of escitalopram and to some extent R-citalopram, but not citalopram, significantly enhanced both cortical dopamine output and cortical NMDA receptor-mediated transmission induced by a suboptimal dose/concentration of risperidone. These results suggest that adjunct treatment with escitalopram, but not citalopram, may enhance the effect of a subtherapeutic dose of risperidone on positive, negative, cognitive, and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia, yet without increased EPS liability.

  9. Area-specific modulation of neural activation comparing escitalopram and citalopram revealed by pharmaco-fMRI: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Holik, Alexander; Spindelegger, Christoph; Stein, Patrycja; Moser, Ulrike; Gerstl, Florian; Fink, Martin; Moser, Ewald; Kasper, Siegfried

    2010-01-15

    Area-specific and stimulation-dependent changes of human brain activation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are an important issue for improved understanding of treatment mechanisms, given the frequent prescription of these drugs in depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this neuroimaging study was to investigate differences in BOLD-signal caused by administration of the SSRIs escitalopram and citalopram using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (pharmaco-fMRI). Eighteen healthy subjects participated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study in cross-over repeated measures design. Each volunteer performed facial emotional discrimination and a sensorimotor control paradigm during three scanning sessions. Citalopram (20 mg/d), escitalopram (10 mg/d) and placebo were administered for 10 days each with a drug-free period of at least 21 days. Significant pharmacological effects on BOLD-signal were found in the amygdala, medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal, fusiform and middle temporal gyri. Post-hoc t-tests revealed decreased BOLD-signal in the right amygdala and left parahippocampal gyrus in both pharmacological conditions, compared to placebo. Escitalopram, compared to citalopram, induced a decrease of BOLD-signal in the medial frontal gyrus and an increase in the right fusiform and left parahippocampal gyri. Drug effects were concentrated in brain regions with dense serotonergic projections. Both escitalopram and citalopram attenuated BOLD-signal in the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex to emotionally significant stimuli compared to control stimuli. We believe that reduced reactivity in the medial frontal gyrus found for escitalopram compared to citalopram administration might explain the response differences between study drugs as demonstrated in previous clinical trials.

  10. PET measurement of serotonin transporter occupancy: a comparison of escitalopram and citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Johan; Christophersen, Jacob Strøyer; Petersen, Kamilla Buchberg; Loft, Henrik; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2007-12-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (R,S-citalopram) is a racemic compound of two enantiomers. On the basis of in-vitro studies, inhibition of the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is achieved by the S-enantiomer (S-citalopram or escitalopram). The aim of the present PET study was to compare 5-HTT occupancy after single equimolar doses (with respect to S-enantiomer) in humans in vivo using R,S-citalopram (20 mg) and S-citalopram (10 mg) using PET and the radioligand [(11)C]MADAM. The design was a single-dose, double-blind, two-way crossover study in eight healthy male subjects. The 5-HTT binding potential at baseline and after single doses of study drugs was used to calculate 5-HTT occupancy in seven brain regions. Serum concentrations of the study drugs were determined in order to calculate the apparent inhibition constant (K(i),(app)), a secondary parameter of interest for the comparison. In all brain regions examined, occupancy was numerically higher after treatment with R,S-citalopram [66+/-19% to 78+/-17% (mean+/-s.d.) depending on the region] than after S-citalopram (59+/-15% to 69+/-13%; overall comparison: F=14.8, d.f.=1, 90, p<0.001). In line with this the apparent inhibition constant was significantly lower for R,S-citalopram than for S-citalopram (overall comparison: F=6.7, d.f.=1, 90, p<0.05). The small but significant difference in occupancy and K(i),(app) found between R,S-citalopram and S-citalopram suggests that not only S-citalopram but also R-citalopram to some degree occupies the 5-HTT in the human brain in vivo.

  11. Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Andrea; Purgato, Marianna; Furukawa, Toshi A; Trespidi, Carlotta; Imperadore, Giuseppe; Signoretti, Alessandra; Churchill, Rachel; Watanabe, Norio; Barbui, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent US and UK clinical practice guidelines recommend that second-generation antidepressants should be considered amongst the best first-line options when drug therapy is indicated for a depressive episode. Systematic reviews have already highlighted some differences in efficacy between second-generation antidepressants. Citalopram, one of the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) introduced in the market, is one of these antidepressant drugs that clinicians use for routine depression care. Objectives To assess the evidence for the efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of citalopram in comparison with tricyclics, heterocyclics, other SSRIs and other conventional and non-conventional antidepressants in the acute-phase treatment of major depression. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to February 2012. No language restriction was applied. We contacted pharmaceutical companies and experts in this field for supplemental data. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials allocating patients with major depression to citalopram versus any other antidepressants. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently extracted data. Information extracted included study characteristics, participant characteristics, intervention details and outcome measures in terms of efficacy (the number of patients who responded or remitted), patient acceptability (the number of patients who failed to complete the study) and tolerability (side-effects). Main results Thirty-seven trials compared citalopram with other antidepressants (such as tricyclics, heterocyclics, SSRIs and other antidepressants, either conventional ones, such as mirtazapine, venlafaxine and reboxetine, or non-conventional, like hypericum). Citalopram was shown to be significantly less effective than escitalopram in achieving acute response (odds

  12. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W

    2013-01-01

    search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group...

  13. R-citalopram inhibits functional and 5-HTP-evoked behavioural responses to the SSRI, escitalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Connie; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2004-01-01

    Escitalopram mediates the serotonin re-uptake inhibitory and antidepressant effect of citalopram racemate. However, recent studies have shown that R-citalopram inhibits the escitalopram-induced increase of extracellular 5-HT levels in the frontal cortex of rats. Here, we investigated the inhibitory...... effect of R-citalopram on the escitalopram-induced increase of 5-HT neurotransmission at the behavioural [potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced behavioural changes in mice and rats] and functional (increase in serum corticosterone in rats) levels. The effect of escitalopram was inhibited...... by R-citalopram in all three models, and R-citalopram, given alone, was inactive. The effects were more pronounced using an escitalopram to R-citalopram ratio of 1:4 than ratios of 1:2 and 1:1, suggesting a dose-dependent effect. The ED(50)-value of escitalopram in mouse 5-HTP potentiation studies...

  14. Citalopram increases the differentiation efifcacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Verdi; Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei; Shiva Sharif; Hadi Verdi; Alireza Shoae-Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control cells in neurobasal medium. In addition, the cumulative population doubling level of the citalopram-treated cells was signiifcantly increased compared to that of control cells. Also BrdU incorporation was elevated in citalopram-treated cells. These ifndings suggest that citalopram can improve the neuronal-like cell differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing cell proliferation and survival while maintaining their neuronal characteristics.

  15. Citalopram increases the differentiation efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Javad; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Hadi; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2014-04-15

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control cells in neurobasal medium. In addition, the cumulative population doubling level of the citalopram-treated cells was significantly increased compared to that of control cells. Also BrdU incorporation was elevated in citalopram-treated cells. These findings suggest that citalopram can improve the neuronal-like cell differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing cell proliferation and survival while maintaining their neuronal characteristics.

  16. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: A study based on focus group interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Risa Fukuda; Yasuko Shimizu; Natsuko Seto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. Methods: This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setti...

  17. X-ray structure based evaluation of analogs of citalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topiol, Sid; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Sanchez, Connie

    2017-01-01

    analogs, showing distinct structure-activity relationship (SAR) at both sites that is independent of the SAR at the other site. Analogs with a higher affinity and selectivity than benchmark R-Citalopram (R-Cit) for the S2 versus the S1 site were identified. We deploy structural and computational analyses...... to explain this SAR and demonstrate the potential utility of the newly emerging X-ray structures within the neurotransmitter:sodium Symporter family for drug design....

  18. Severe symptomatic hyponatremia during citalopram therapy - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Jesus

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone is an uncommon complication of treatment with the new class of antidepressant agents, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The risk of hyponatremia seems to be highest during the first weeks of treatment particularly, in elderly females and in patients with a lower body weight. Case Presentation A 61-year-old diabetic male was admitted to the hospital because of malaise, progressive confusion, and a tonic/clonic seizure two weeks after starting citalopram, 20 mg/day. On physical examination the patient was euvolemic and had no evidence of malignancy, cardiac, renal, hepatic, adrenal or thyroid disease. Laboratory tests results revealed hyponatremia, serum hypoosmolality, urine hyperosmolarity, and an elevated urine sodium concentration, leading to the diagnosis of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Citalopram was discontinued and fluid restriction was instituted. The patient was discharged after serum sodium increased from 124 mmol/L to 134 mmol/L. Two weeks after discharge the patient denied any new seizures, confusion or malaise. At that time his serum sodium was 135 mmol/L. Conclusions Because the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors is becoming more popular among elderly depressed patients the present paper and other reported cases emphasize the need of greater awareness of the development of this serious complication and suggest that sodium serum levels should be monitored closely in elderly patients during treatment with citalopram.

  19. Structure-activity relationship studies of citalopram derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M Andreas B; Plenge, Per; Andersen, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    towards the S2 site. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We performed a systematic structure-activity relationship study based on the scaffold of citalopram and the structurally closely related congener, talopram, that shows low-affinity S1 binding in SERT. The role of the four chemical substituents, which distinguish......-activity relationship study revealed a di-methyl citalopram, which binds to the S1 site with an affinity of 6.4 [4.7;8.8] μM (mean[SEM interval]) and shows an allosteric potency of 3.6 [3.3;3.8] μM, thus bearing ~2-fold selectivity for the allosteric site relative to the S1 site in SERT. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS....... The antidepressant drug citalopram displays high-affinity S1 binding and low-affinity S2 binding. To elucidate a possible therapeutic role of allosteric inhibition of SERT a drug that specifically targets the allosteric site is required. The purpose of this study was to find a compound bearing higher selectivity...

  20. R-citalopram inhibits functional and 5-HTP-evoked behavioural responses to the SSRI, escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Connie; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2004-02-01

    Escitalopram mediates the serotonin re-uptake inhibitory and antidepressant effect of citalopram racemate. However, recent studies have shown that R-citalopram inhibits the escitalopram-induced increase of extracellular 5-HT levels in the frontal cortex of rats. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of R-citalopram on the escitalopram-induced increase of 5-HT neurotransmission at the behavioural [potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced behavioural changes in mice and rats] and functional (increase in serum corticosterone in rats) levels. The effect of escitalopram was inhibited by R-citalopram in all three models, and R-citalopram, given alone, was inactive. The effects were more pronounced using an escitalopram to R-citalopram ratio of 1:4 than ratios of 1:2 and 1:1, suggesting a dose-dependent effect. The ED(50)-value of escitalopram in mouse 5-HTP potentiation studies corresponded to a serum concentration of approximately 50 ng/ml, which can be considered to be in the range of clinically relevant serum concentrations. In conclusion, R-citalopram inhibited the escitalopram-induced increase of 5-HT activity in functional, as well as behavioural, animal models. The mechanism involved in this interaction is currently unknown, but may be related to an improved clinical effect seen with escitalopram in comparison with citalopram.

  1. Desensitisation of 5-HT autoreceptors upon pharmacokinetically monitored chronic treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, TIFH; Spoelstra, EN; Bosker, FJ; Mork, A; den Boer, JA; Westerink, BHC; Wikstrom, HV

    2000-01-01

    Rats were chronically treated with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram [1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phtalancarbonitril], by means of osmotic minipumps. Using an infusion concentration of 50 mg/ml citalopram, steady-state plasma concentrations of approximately 0.

  2. Analysis of Citalopram and Desmethylcitalopram in Postmortem Fluids and Tissues Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Scan.event.2. collected.the.citalopram.product.ions.between.100-340. following. collision-induced. dissociation. ( CID ). of. the. precursor.ion.(m/z.325... Gutierrez ,.M .. and.Abramowitz,.W ..Steady-State. Pharmacokinetics. of. Citalopram. in. Young. and. Elderly. Subjects .. Pharmacotherapy,. 20:. 1441-7

  3. Citalopram indtaget under graviditet og barn født med Mb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sebastian Werngreen; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Citalopram taken during pregnancy and the child born with Ugeskr Laeger 2013;175:V03130178 A woman treated with citalopram during the entirety of her pregnancy bore a child with Hirschsprung’s disease. Theories on the development of the enteric nervous system support a possible negative effect of...

  4. Memantine add on to citalopram in elderly patients with depression: A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Omranifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper management of depression in elderly population would improve the outcome of the disease and reduce its related disability and mortality. Use of memantine with minimal side effects and drug interaction seems reasonable in the elderly but its antidepressant activity is controversial. The aim of the current research is to investigate the effects of add-on memantine during citalopram therapy in elderly patients with depression, in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial study; elderly patients aged more than 60 years who were recently diagnosed with depression, were enrolled. The selected patients were randomlysplit into two groups, viz. intervention and placebo groups. The intervention was memantine (20 mg daily or identical placebo plus citalopram for 8 weeks. The severity of depression and quality of life was evaluated using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Hamilton Rating Scale for depression (HRSD and World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF respectively. The mentioned scores were evaluated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after initiating the trial in two studied groups and compared with each other. Results: 28 and 29 patients were studied in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively. Score of GDS-15, HRSD and WHO-QOL-BREF scales at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after initiating trial did not change significantly after use of memantine (P > 0.05. There was no significant difference in mean +/- SD of GDS-15, HRSD and WHO-QOL-BREF scales among intervention and placebo groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The outcome of this clinical trial did not support the antidepressant effect of add-on memantine in elderly patients with depression receiving citalopram. It is recommended to design further studies considering the limitations of the current study mentioned herein and the effect of memantine with other anti-depressant agents.

  5. CNS effects of citalopram, a new serotonin inhibitor antidepressant (a quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalography study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Menon, G N; Bozak, M M; Itil, K Z

    1984-01-01

    Citalopram, a new phthalane derivative and a specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitor in animal pharmacological tests, was evaluated in a double-blind, crossover, quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEGTM) study in healthy human volunteers. The CNS effects of citalopram are linear, dose- and time-related, can statistically be differentiated from placebo, and indicate a rapid onset of effects with short duration. According to the Computer Data Bank, citalopram has a mode of action similar to mood elevators (antidepressants) with fewer sedative properties. Thus the therapeutic action of citalopram is predicted to be similar to desipramine and protriptyline from the tricyclics, and fluvoxamine from non-tricyclics. According to data bank assessment, it is hypothesized that the single antidepressant dose of citalopram is to be more than 25 mg, which should be given t.i.d. in clinical trials.

  6. Effect of Maternal ±Citalopram Exposure on P11 Expression and Neurogenesis in the Mouse Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer R; Velasquez, Juan C; Torii, Masaaki; Bonnin, Alexandre

    2017-01-13

    Fetal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. In the adult brain, SSRI therapy regulates p11 (s100a10) expression and alters neurogenesis. The protein p11 indirectly regulates 5-HT signaling through 5-HT1B/D receptors. In the fetal brain, signaling through these receptors modulates axonal circuit formation. We determined whether p11 is expressed in the fetal mouse brain, and whether maternal SSRI exposure affects fetal p11 expression and neurogenesis. The SSRI ± citalopram was administered to pregnant mice from gestational day 8 to 17. Results show that p11 is expressed in fetal thalamic neurons and thalamocortical axons. Furthermore, p11 protein expression is significantly decreased in the fetal thalamus after in utero ±citalopram exposure compared to untreated controls, and neurogenesis is significantly decreased in specific fetal brain regions. These findings reveal differential regulation of p11 expression and altered neurogenesis in the fetal brain as a result of maternal SSRI exposure.

  7. Daily rhythms of cloacal temperature in broiler chickens of different age groups administered with zinc gluconate and probiotic during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwong, Tagang; Sumanu, Victory O; Ayo, Joseph O; Ocheja, Benjamin O; Zakari, Friday O; Minka, Ndazo S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate effects of zinc gluconate (ZnGlu) and probiotic administration on the daily rhythm of cloacal temperature (tcloacal) in broiler chickens of different age groups during the hot-dry season. One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 60) were divided into groups I-IV of 15 chicks per group, and treated for 35 days: Group I (control) was given deionized water; Group II, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg); Group III, probiotic (4.125 × 10(6 )cfu/100 mL), and Group IV, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10(6 )cfu/100 mL). Air dry-bulb temperature (tdb), relative humidity (RH), and temperature-humidity index (THI) inside the pen, and tcloacal of each broiler chick were obtained bihourly over a 24-h period; on days 21, 28, and 35 of the study. Values of tdb (32.10 ± 0.49°C), RH (49.94 ± 1.91%), and THI (38.85 ± 0.42) obtained were outside the thermoneutral zone for broiler chickens, and suggested that the birds were subjected to heat stress. Application of the periodic model showed disruption of daily rhythm of tcloacal in broilers on day 21, which was synchronized by probiotic administration. The administration of probiotics or ZnGlu + probiotics to a greater extent decreased the mesor and amplitude, delayed the acrophases of tcloacal in broilers, especially at day 35, as compared to the controls. Overall, the tcloacal values in broiler chickens administered with probiotic alone (41.25 ± 0.05°C) and ZnGlu + probiotic (41.52 ± 0.05°C) were lower (P heat stress on broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Crystal structure of citalopram hydrobromide, C20H22FN2OBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaduk, James A.; Zhong, Kai; Gindhart, Amy M.; Blanton, Thomas N.

    2016-04-29

    The crystal structure of citalopram hydrobromide has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory techniques. Citalopram hydrobromide crystallizes in space group P21/c(#14) with a= 10.766 45(6),b= 33.070 86(16),c= 10.892 85(5) Å,β= 90.8518(3)°,V= 3878.03(4) Å3, andZ= 8. N–H∙∙∙Br hydrogen bonds are important to the structure, but the crystal energy is dominated by van der Waals attraction. The powder pattern was submitted to International Centre for Diffraction Data for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File™.

  9. Characterization of an allosteric citalopram-binding site at the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Breum Larsen, Mads; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft

    2005-01-01

          rate, of [3H]S-citalopram from human SERT, is retarded by the presence of       serotonin, as well as by several antidepressants, when present in the       dissociation buffer. Dissociation of [3H]S-citalopram from SERT is most       potently inhibited by S-citalopram followed by R...... is independent of       temperature, or the presence of Na+ in the dissociation buffer.       Dissociation of [3H]S-citalopram from a complex with the SERT       double-mutant, N208Q/N217Q, which has been suggested to be unable to       self-assemble into oligomeric complexes, is retarded to an extent similar...

  10. Oral application of citalopram (20 mg) and its usefulness for neuroendocrine challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Netter, P

    2002-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether a single oral dosage of 20 mg of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram could be used as a tool to stimulate hormone secretion in neuroendocrine challenge paradigms. A total number of 48 healthy male subjects received either 20 mg citalopram or placebo in a randomized, double-blind cross-over design at an interval of 1 wk between both sessions. Citalopram was well tolerated without side-effects. Growth hormone (GH), prolactin (Prl) and cortisol (Cort) were determined in blood samples obtained at different time-points across the experiment according to drug kinetics. While GH and Prl were not changed after citalopram Cort levels increased as compared to the placebo condition, significantly about 2 h after drug intake. Results will be discussed in respect of the question of whether or not Prl and GH responses after treatment with i.v. applications of SSRIs reflect sertonergic involvement.

  11. 西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗脑卒中后抑郁临床对照研究%Citalopram and fluoxetine in t he treatment of post-stroke depression clinical control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段媛卿; 王文泽; 王继禹

    2010-01-01

    Objective Discussion of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of post-stroke depression efficacy and safety of. Methods 82 cases of post-stroke depression were randomly divided into groups of citalopram and fluoxetine groups, treatment of 6 weeks, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) in pre-treatment and treatment of 1,2,4,6 weekend separately assessed the efficacy and adverse reactions. Results Citalopram and fluoxetine group the overall effect of a considerable, citalopram group effect faster than the fluoxetine group of adverse reactions due to limited light. Conclusion Citalopram in the treatment of post-stroke depression are both effective and safe.%目的 探讨西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗脑卒中后抑郁的疗效和安全性.方法 82例脑卒中后抑郁患者,随机分为西酞普兰组和氟西汀组,治疗6周,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)于治疗前和治疗1、2、4、6周末分别评定疗效和不良反应.结果 西酞普兰组和氟西汀组总体疗效相当,西酞普兰组起效较快,不良反应较氟西汀组少而轻.结论 西酞普兰治疗脑卒中后抑郁既有效又安全.

  12. Characterization of an allosteric citalopram-binding site at the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Breum Larsen, Mads; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT), which belongs to a family of       sodium/chloride-dependent transporters, is the major pharmacological       target in the treatment of several clinical disorders, including       depression and anxiety. In the present study we show that the dissociation......       rate, of [3H]S-citalopram from human SERT, is retarded by the presence of       serotonin, as well as by several antidepressants, when present in the       dissociation buffer. Dissociation of [3H]S-citalopram from SERT is most       potently inhibited by S-citalopram followed by R......-citalopram, sertraline,       serotonin and paroxetine. EC50 values for S- and R-citalopram are 3.6 +/-       0.4 microm and 19.4 +/- 2.3 microm, respectively. Fluoxetine, venlafaxine       and duloxetine have no significant effect on the dissociation of       [3H]S-citalopram. Allosteric modulation of dissociation...

  13. Differences in the dynamics of serotonin reuptake transporter occupancy may explain superior clinical efficacy of escitalopram versus citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Siegfried; Sacher, Julia; Klein, Nikolas; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Attarbaschi-Steiner, Trawat; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Spindelegger, Christoph; Asenbaum, Susanne; Holik, Alexander; Dudczak, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Escitalopram the S-enantiomer of the racemate citalopram, is clinically more effective than citalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, the precise mechanism by which escitalopram achieves superiority over citalopram is yet to be determined. It has been hypothesized that the therapeutically inactive R-enantiomer competes with the serotonin-enhancing S-enantiomer at a low-affinity allosteric site on serotonin reuptake transporters (SERTs), and reduces the effectiveness of the S-enantiomer at the primary, high-affinity serotonin-binding site. This study summarizes the results of two recent single-photon emission computerized tomography studies measuring SERT occupancy in citalopram-treated and escitalopram-treated healthy volunteers, after a single dose and multiple doses (i.e. under steady-state conditions). The single-dose study showed no attenuating effect of R-citalopram. After multiple dosing, however, SERT occupancy was significantly reduced in the presence of R-citalopram. Under steady-state conditions, R-enantiomer concentrations were greater than for the S-enantiomer because of slower clearance of R-citalopram. A pooled analysis suggests that build-up of the R-enantiomer after repeated citalopram dosing may lead to increased inhibition of S-enantiomer occupancy of SERT. This review adds to the growing body of evidence regarding differences in the dynamics of SERT occupancy, that is, molecular mechanisms underlying the often-observed superior clinical efficacy of escitalopram compared with citalopram in major depressive disorder.

  14. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT of anxiety disorders before and after treatment with citalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seedat Soraya

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have now examined the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment on brain function in a variety of anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and social anxiety disorder (social phobia (SAD. Regional changes in cerebral perfusion following SSRI treatment have been shown for all three disorders. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC (OCD, caudate (OCD, medial pre-frontal/cingulate (OCD, SAD, PTSD, temporal (OCD, SAD, PTSD and, thalamic regions (OCD, SAD are some of those implicated. Some data also suggests that higher perfusion pre-treatment in the anterior cingulate (PTSD, OFC, caudate (OCD and antero-lateral temporal region (SAD predicts subsequent treatment response. This paper further examines the notion of overlap in the neurocircuitry of treatment and indeed treatment response across anxiety disorders with SSRI treatment. Methods Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT using Tc-99 m HMPAO to assess brain perfusion was performed on subjects with OCD, PTSD, and SAD before and after 8 weeks (SAD and 12 weeks (OCD and PTSD treatment with the SSRI citalopram. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM was used to compare scans (pre- vs post-medication, and responders vs non-responders in the combined group of subjects. Results Citalopram treatment resulted in significant deactivation (p = 0.001 for the entire group in the superior (t = 4.78 and anterior (t = 4.04 cingulate, right thalamus (t = 4.66 and left hippocampus (t = 3.96. Deactivation (p = 0.001 within the left precentral (t = 4.26, right mid-frontal (t = 4.03, right inferior frontal (t = 3.99, left prefrontal (3.81 and right precuneus (t= 3.85 was more marked in treatment responders. No pattern of baseline activation distinguished responders from non-responders to subsequent pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Although each of the anxiety disorders may be mediated by different

  15. 西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗抑郁症的疗效比较%Comparison of the effect of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗抑郁症的疗效及不良反应.方法 将46例符合CCMD-3诊断标准的抑郁症患者随机分为西酞普兰组和氟西汀组,疗程6周,用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应.结果 西酞普兰组显效率为75.4%,氟西汀组为74.8%,两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组治疗第2周末HAND评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).西酞普兰组TESS评分低于氟西汀组(P<0.05).结论 西酞普兰和氟西汀均有良好的抗抑郁效果.西酞普兰具有起效早、不良反应小的优点.%Objective To compare the effect and side effects of citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of depression.Methods 46 cases meet the diagnostic criteria of CCMD-3 in patients with depression were randomly divided into citalopram group and fluoxetine group,treatment for 6 weeks,with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) assessed the efficacy and adverse reactions.Results The efficiercy in citalopram group was 75.4%,74.8% for the fluoxetine group,the difference between the two groups was not significant ( P>0.05).Affter 2weeks treatment HAMD score between the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.05),TESS score in Citalopram group was lower than the fluoxetine group,the differences were significant ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Citalopram and fluoxetine have good antidepressant effects.Citalopram has the advanteges of early onset,cess adverse reactions.

  16. Design and Subject Characteristics in the Federally-Funded Citalopram Trial in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T.; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (plus or minus 3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were…

  17. Low proarrhythmic potential of citalopram and escitalopram in contrast to haloperidol in an experimental whole-heart model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommeyer, Gerrit; Brücher, Benedict; von der Ahe, Henning; Kaese, Sven; Dechering, Dirk G; Kochhäuser, Simon; Bogossian, Harilaos; Milberg, Peter; Eckardt, Lars

    2016-10-05

    In several case reports proarrhythmic effects of citalopram and escitalopram have been reported. Systematic analyses on prorarrhythmic effects of these drugs are not yet available. The aim of the present study was to investigate if application of citalopram, escitalopram or haloperidol provokes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive model of proarrhythmia. In isolated rabbit hearts monophasic action potentials and ECG showed a significant QT-prolongation after application of citalopram (2µM: +47ms, 4µM: +56ms, Pescitalopram also increased QT-interval (2µM: +3ms, 4µM: +30ms, Pescitalopram demonstrated a rather safe electrophysiologic profile despite significant QT prolongation. In contrast, haloperidol led to significant increase of dispersion of repolarization while this parameter remained stable under the influence of citalopram or escitalopram. These results imply that application of citalopram or escitalopram is not as proarrhythmic as some case reports might suggest while haloperidol is torsadogenic.

  18. Allosteric effects of R- and S-citalopram on the human 5-HT transporter: evidence for distinct high- and low-affinity binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Per; Gether, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Søren G

    2007-01-01

    SERT and the three mutants. Further, R-citalopram previously thought of as an inactive enantiomer strongly attenuated dissociation of the wild-type [(3)H]-imipramine:hSERT complex, whereas S-citalopram had almost no effect on this complex. These results suggest that 1: The allosteric site on hSERT is distinct from...... the site to which S-citalopram binds with high affinity. 2: The allosteric effects of R-citalopram on the dissociation of [(3)H]-imipramine from hSERT indicate that R-citalopram introduces a conformational change in hSERT....

  19. Effect of citalopram in the modified forced swim test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmider, Maciej; Solich, Joanna; Pałach, Paulina; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of citalopram (7.5 and 15 mg/kg) in the modified forced swim test (FST) in Wistar rats, in comparison to the effect of desipramine at the same doses. The citalopram at both doses increased swimming behavior, at the cost of climbing and immobility. The administration of desipramine increased climbing behavior while immobility counts were decreased. The modified FST is indeed more sensitive than the conventional FST in describing precisely the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs, allowing to roughly estimate the contribution of individual neurotransmitter system to the mechanism of action of the studied drug.

  20. Enantioseparation of citalopram analogues with sulfated β-cyclodextrin by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yadi; Zhang, Shusheng; Breitbach, Zachary S; Petersen, Hans; Ellegaard, Peter; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    Capillary electrophoresis methods were developed for the enantiomeric separation of 27 citalopram analogues. Sulfated β-cyclodextrin was the most broadly selective and useful chiral selector. The separations of most of the citalopram analogue compounds reported in this work have not been reported previously. Excellent enantiomeric separations were obtained for 26 out of 27 compounds, and most of the separations were achieved within 10 min. The effects of chemical parameters such as chiral selector types, buffer types, chiral selector and buffer concentrations, buffer pH and organic modifiers on the separation were investigated. The influence of analyte structure on separation also was examined and discussed.

  1. Quality of Life and Functioning in Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder After Treatment With Citalopram Monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Alexander J; Boulos, Nathalie; Mirocha, James; Wright, Stephanie M; Collison, Katherine L; IsHak, Waguih W

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) often have high comorbidity, consequently influencing patient-reported outcomes of depressive symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), and functioning. We hypothesized that the combined effects of concurrent PTSD and MDD would result in worse treatment outcomes, whereas individuals who achieved MDD remission would have better treatment outcomes. We analyzed 2280 adult participants who received level 1 treatment (citalopram monotherapy) in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study, including 2158 participants with MDD without comorbid PTSD and 122 participants with MDD with comorbid PTSD (MDD + PTSD). Post hoc analysis examined the proportion of participants whose scores were within normal or severely impaired for functioning and QOL. Remission status at exit from MDD was also determined. At entry, participants with MDD + PTSD experienced significantly worse QOL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity compared with participants with MDD without comorbid PTSD. Although both groups had significant improvements in functioning and QOL posttreatment, the participants with MDD + PTSD were less likely to achieve remission from MDD. Findings suggested that participants with MDD + PTSD are at a greater risk for severe impairment across all domains and less likely to achieve remission from MDD after treatment with citalopram monotherapy. As such, the use of patient-reported measures of QOL and functioning may inform practicing clinicians' and clinical trial researchers' abilities to develop appropriate interventions and monitor treatment efficacy. More importantly, we encourage clinicians and health care providers to routinely screen for PTSD in patients with MDD because this at-risk group requires tailored and specific pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy interventions beyond traditionally standard treatments for depression.

  2. Altered brain concentrations of citalopram and escitalopram in P-glycoprotein deficient mice after acute and chronic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Louise; Carlsson, Björn; Hiemke, Christoph; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn; Schmitt, Ulrich; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2013-11-01

    According to both in vitro and in vivo data P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may restrict the uptake of several antidepressants into the brain, thus contributing to the poor success rate of current antidepressant therapies. The therapeutic activity of citalopram resides in the S-enantiomer, whereas the R-enantiomer is practically devoid of serotonin reuptake potency. To date, no in vivo data are available that address whether the enantiomers of citalopram and its metabolites are substrates of P-gp. P-gp knockout (abcb1ab (-/-)) and wild-type (abcb1ab (+/+)) mice underwent acute (single-dose) and chronic (two daily doses for 10 days) treatment with citalopram (10mg/kg) or escitalopram (5mg/kg) Serum and brain samples were collected 1-6h after the first or last i.p. injection for subsequent drug analysis by an enantioselective HPLC method. In brain, 3-fold higher concentrations of S- and R-citalopram, and its metabolites, were found in abcb1ab (-/-) mice than in abcb1ab (+/+) mice after both acute and chronic citalopram treatments. After escitalopram treatment, the S-citalopram brain concentration was 3-5 times higher in the knockout mice than in controls. The results provide novel evidence that the enantiomers of citalopram are substrates of P-gp. Possible clinical and toxicological implications of this finding need to be further elucidated.

  3. Changes in sleep polygraphic variables and clinical state in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Alex L. van; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.

    1993-01-01

    Drug-induced improvement of depression may be mediated by changes in sleep physiology. The aim of this study was to relate changes in sleep polygraphic variables to clinical state during treatment with citalopram, a highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. Sixteen patients took part. The study wa

  4. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  5. Novel and high affinity fluorescent ligands for the serotonin transporter based on (s)-citalopram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vivek; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Billesbølle, Christian B

    2014-01-01

    Novel rhodamine-labeled ligands, based on (S)-citalopram, were synthesized and evaluated for uptake inhibition at the human serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters (hSERT, hDAT, and hNET, respectively) and for binding at SERT, in transiently transfected COS7 cells. Compound 14 demons...

  6. Citalopram indtaget under graviditet og barn født med mb. Hirschsprung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sebastian Werngreen; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A woman treated with citalopram during the entirety of her pregnancy bore a child with Hirschsprung's disease. Theories on the development of the enteric nervous system support a possible negative effect of SSRI usage. Epidemiological studies confirm a correlation between pregnant women's use of ...

  7. Investigation on the binding activities of citalopram with human and bovine serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jingjing; Liu, Yan, E-mail: liuyan@fjirsm.ac.cn; Chen, Mingmao; Huang, Huayin; Song, Ling, E-mail: songling@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2014-02-15

    The binding interactions of citalopram (CIT), an efficient antidepressant, with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by a series of spectroscopic methods including fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). The fluorescence quenching and UV–vis absorption studies reveal that CIT could form complexes with both HSA and BSA. The CIT–BSA complex exhibits higher binding affinity than CIT–HSA complex. The thermodynamic study further suggests that the interactions between CIT and SAs are mainly driven by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. The {sup 1}H NMR analysis indicates that the participation of different functional groups of CIT is unequal in the complexation of CIT–HSA and CIT–BSA. Site marker competitive experiments show that the interactions between CIT and SAs primarily locate at sub-domain II A (site I). The effects of CIT on the conformation of SAs are further analyzed via synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence and CD spectra techniques. The results prove that the presence of CIT decreases the α-helical content of both SAs and induces the slight unfolding of the polypeptides of protein. Additionally, the conformational change of BSA induced by CIT is larger than that of HSA. -- Highlights: • The difference of binding activity between CIT–BSA and CIT–HSA is first reported. • Use spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and NMR methods. • CIT exhibits higher binding affinity to BSA than to HSA. • The binding forces between CIT and SA have been investigated. • The complexation of CIT–SA induces the conformational change of SA.

  8. Altered brain concentrations of citalopram and escitalopram in P-glycoprotein deficient mice after acute and chronic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to both in vitro and in vivo data P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may restrict the uptake of several antidepressants into the brain, thus contributing to the poor success rate of current antidepressant therapies. The therapeutic activity of citalopram resides in the Senantiomer, whereas the R-enantiomer is practically devoid of serotonin reuptake potency. To date, no in vivo data are available that address whether the enantiomers of citalopram and its metabolites are substrates of...

  9. From selective to highly selective SSRIs: a comparison of the antinociceptive properties of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram and escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Shaul; Pick, Chaim G

    2006-08-01

    Most Serotonin Selective Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been found to possess secondary binding properties, while citalopram and its S-enantiomer (escitalopram) have been reconfirmed "purest SSRIs". Using the mouse model of acute pain hotplate analgesia meter, we evaluated the antinociceptive properties of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram and escitalopram, injected i.p. Fluvoxamine induced a dose-dependent clear antinociceptive effect (with an ED(50) value of 6.4 mg/kg). Both fluoxetine and citalopram induced (separately) only a weak antinociceptive effect with an inverse "U" shape curve. All three drug's effects were not abolished by naloxone. Escitalopram did not elicit any effect at quasi-equipotent doses. These findings show that fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and citalopram given i.p. are weak antinociceptors, (not mediated through opioid mechanisms), while escitalopram possesses no antinociceptive properties when injected i.p. This difference between citalopram and escitalopram calls for further studies in order to assess the various differences between the two enantiomers of citalopram, and between each enantiomer and the racemic mixture.

  10. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  11. 西酞普兰对成年孤养大鼠认知功能及皮层tau蛋白磷酸化的影响%Citalopram attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation of cortex and memory deficits in social isolation-reared rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公卫刚; 任庆国

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of citalopram on tau phosphorylation and memory defi-cits induced by social isolation (SI) in adult rats.Methods Sixty Sprague-Dawley adult rats (8 months) were grouped or isolation reared for six-weeks.Following the initial two-week period of rearing, citalopram ( 10 mg/kg,i.p.) was administered for 4 weeks.Novel object recognition test,Western blot and ELISA were used to detect recognitive function,the levels of tau and GSK-3βprotein,and melatonin level respectively. Results In the novel object recognition test,compared with the citalopram group(0.71±0.05) and housed group(0.73±0.13),discrimination ratio(0.48±0.15) in SI group was significant decreased (P<0.05).Tau hyperphosphorylation at Tau-1 ((0.88±0.11)),Ser396 (3.94±0.74) episodes were found and almost re-versed by citalopram at Tau-1 (1.56±0.17),Ser396 (2.31±0.24) episodes in SI group.Compared with GH group,the total level of GSK-3β(1.12±0.09) was significantly increased,while the level of Ser9-phosphoryl-ated GSK-3β(inactive form) (0.47±0.11) was significantly decreased in the SI group,both of which were reversed by citalopram (GSK-3β(0.87±0.08) and Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β(0.80±0.07)).The me-latonin level was decreased in SI group ((359.54±18.80)pg/ml),and citalopram could partly restore the level of melatonin (418.15±18.72)pg/ml, P<0.05).Conclusion The results demonstrate that citalopram increases the level of melatonin which negatively regulates GSK-3βand attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and memory deficits induced by SI in adult rats.%目的:探讨经典抗抑郁药物西酞普兰对孤养导致的认知损害的改善作用与内在机制。方法60只8月龄的成年SD大鼠随机分组,分别予以群养(4只/笼)和孤养(1只/笼)6周。从孤养的第3周开始,孤养大鼠被随机分为孤养+西酞普兰组(西酞普兰10 mg/kg腹腔内注射)和孤养组(等量生理盐水腹腔内注射)。持续4周后

  12. R-citalopram prevents the neuronal adaptive changes induced by escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Faure, Céline; Mansari, Mostafa El; Lambás-Señas, Laura; Bérod, Anne; Zimmer, Luc; Sánchez, Connie; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2007-10-08

    This study examined the long-term effects of the antidepressant escitalopram on rat serotonin (5-HT) neuronal activity and hippocampal neuroplasticity. In the dorsal raphe nucleus, a 2-week treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous) did not modify the firing activity of 5-HT neurons, whereas a cotreatment with R-citalopram (20 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous) decreased it. In the dentate gyrus of dorsal hippocampus, escitalopram increased significantly (57%) the number of de novo cells and this was prevented by a cotreatment with R-citalopram. The present results support the role of the allosteric modulation of the 5-HT transporter in the regulation of the recovery of 5-HT neuronal activity and long-lasting hippocampal cellular plasticity induced by escitalopram, two adaptive changes presumably associated with the antidepressant response.

  13. Citalopram induced nightmare in an elderly man: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Davoudi-Monfared

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old man developed nightmares while using citalopram for mild depression. During the first two weeks of treatment with citalopram (10 mg daily, he didn’t experience any adverse reactions. After two weeks, he developed nightmaresand vivid dreams that were repeated every night and awakened him in midnight. Although the signs of depression were relatively disappeared, the patient was anxious during the day due to nightmares and nocturnal awakenings. We, as pharmacists, consulted his family to decrease the dose to 10 mg every other day, and tell his physician as soon as possible. He decreased the doses and after two weeks the frequencyof nightmares was less. More follow-up revealed that the nightmares were totally disappeared one month after drug withdrawal. A Naranjo assessment score of 7 was obtained, showing a probable relationship between theadverse reaction and suspected drug.

  14. Do equivalent doses of escitalopram and citalopram have similar efficacy? A pooled analysis of two positive placebo-controlled studies in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Ulla; Wade, Alan; Andersen, Henning Friis

    2004-05-01

    Escitalopram is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. In this study, we compared the efficacy of equivalent dosages of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD), based on data from two, pooled, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of escitalopram in which citalopram was the active reference. The primary efficacy parameter was the mean change from baseline in the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. Significant differences in favour of escitalopram were observed for the MADRS [PEscitalopram separated from placebo at week 1 on the primary efficacy parameter, whereas citalopram first separated from placebo at week 6. An analysis of time to response showed that escitalopram-treated patients responded significantly faster to treatment than citalopram-treated patients (Pescitalopram than to citalopram (Pescitalopram-treated patients had a significant reduction in HAMD-17 total score at week 8 compared to citalopram-treated patients (P or = 30), escitalopram-treated patients showed greater improvement than citalopram-treated patients (PEscitalopram showed consistently superior efficacy compared to citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe MDD on all efficacy parameters, and was similarly well tolerated.

  15. The R-enantiomer of citalopram counteracts escitalopram-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, A; Kreilgaard, Mads; Sánchez, C

    2003-01-01

    The selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, is a racemic mixture of an S(+)- and R(-)-enantiomer, escitalopram and R-citalopram, respectively. The present study compares the effects of escitalopram, R-citalopram and citalopram on extracellular levels of 5-HT in the frontal cortex...... of freely moving rats. In addition, co-injection of escitalopram and R-citalopram (ratios 1:2 and 1:4) were assessed. In some experiments escitalopram and R-citalopram were infused into the frontal cortex by reverse microdialysis. Finally, the extracellular level of escitalopram in the frontal cortex...... was studied after administration of escitalopram alone or in combination with R-citalopram. Escitalopram (1.0-3.9 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a greater maximal increase in extracellular 5-HT than citalopram (2.0-8.0 mg/kg, s.c.). R-citalopram (15.6 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect the 5-HT levels. When co-injected, R...

  16. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  17. Treatment of a patient with dementia and inappropriate sexual behaviors with citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    Inappropriate sexual behaviors (ISBs) associated with dementias and their treatment have not been commonly reported in the medical literature. This report presents an elderly male patient with moderately severe dementia and incident onset of ISBs who was treated with citalopram (20-mg daily) and subsequently displayed a reduction in ISBs. A review of the literature suggests that ISBs may be underrecognized and undertreated, and therefore should be actively monitored and treated.

  18. Low-dose intravenous lipid emulsion for the treatment of severe quetiapine and citalopram poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purg, Darinka; Markota, Andrej; Grenc, Damjan; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of quetiapine and/or citalopram poisoning is mainly supportive and involves gastric lavage, activated charcoal, intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Recently, however, there were reports of successful treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion. Here we report a case of a 19-year-old Caucasian girl who ingested approximately 6000 mg of quetiapine, 400 mg of citalopram, and 45 mg of bromazepam in a suicide attempt. The patient developed ventricular tachycardia and epileptic seizures 12 h after admission to the hospital. As the patient's condition deteriorated, we combined standard therapy (intubation, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors) with low-dose intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) (a total of 300 mL of 20 % lipid emulsion) and normalised her heart rhythm and stopped the seizures. She was discharged to the psychiatric ward after 48 h and home after a prolonged (2-month) psychiatric rehabilitation. Intravenous lipid emulsion turned out to be effective even in the lower dose range than previously reported for quetiapine poisoning in patients presenting with seizure and ventricular arrhythmia. To our knowledge, there are no case reports describing the use of ILE in treating citalopram poisoning.

  19. A Promotora-administered group education intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screening in a rural community along the U.S.-Mexico border: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Martinez, Maria Elena; Harris, Robin; García, Francisco

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm among Hispanic women. Cervical cancer has a higher incidence and mortality among Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic White women. To assess the effectiveness of a promotora-administered educational intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screening among post-reproductive age, medically underserved Hispanic women residing along the U.S.-Mexico border. Women age 50 or older were eligible to participate in this intervention study. A total of 381 subjects agreed to participate. Women were randomly assigned into one of two groups, educational intervention or usual care. The primary outcomes were self-reported mammogram and Pap smear screening. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios for comparisons between intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were 2.0 times more likely to report having had a mammogram within the last year when compared with the usual care group (95% CI = 1.3-3.1). Likewise, women in the intervention group were 1.5 times more likely to report having a Pap smear within the last year when compared with the usual care group, although this was not statistically significant (95% CI = 0.9-2.6). In a secondary analysis, the intervention suggests a stronger effect on those that had not had a mammogram or Pap smear within the past year at baseline. A promotora-based educational intervention can be used to increase breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic women.

  20. A clinical study of combined Citalopram Hydrobromide and psychotherapy in the treatment of depression%氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗对抑郁症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽聪; 龚飞中

    2012-01-01

      目的观察氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗对抑郁症的疗效。方法对80例符合标准的抑郁症患者随机分成两组,一组是给予氢溴酸西酞普兰联合心理治疗(研究组,n=41),另一组为氢溴酸西酞普兰治疗(对照组,n=39),疗程6周。用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)在治疗前、1、2、4、6周末评定疗效。结果两组总体疗效有显著差异性,心理干预组(研究组)抗抑郁显效更快,治愈率、临床显效率明显高于对照组。结论合并心理治疗不仅可以加快抑郁症状缓解的速度,而且本身心理治疗对抑郁症有一定的疗效,明显提高抑郁症的治疗效果,值得临床推广。%  Objective To observe the clinical ef icacy of Citalopram Hydrobromide combined with Psychotherapy in the treatment of depression. Methods On 80 patients with standard depression were randomly divided into two groups,one group was given citalopram hydrobromide combined with psychological therapy (study group, n=41), another group of citalopram hydrobromide treatment (the control group, n=39), 6 weeks. With Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) before treatment,1,2,4,6 weekend for evaluating ef icacy. Results The two groups have significant dif erences in overal ef icacy, psychological intervention group(Study Group) antidepressant increased speed,the cure rate, the clinical ef ective rate was significantly higher than that of control group. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of combined psychological therapy take a active part earlier than only the use of Citalopram Hydrobromide,and the psychotherapy has a certain effect in depression and improve treatment ef ect in depression, it is worthy of clinical application.

  1. Clinical toxicology of citalopram after acute intoxication with the sole drug or in combination with other drugs : overview of 26 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink, Afra; Caminada, Klaartje; Hunfeld, Nicole G M; Touw, Daan J

    2008-01-01

    There is discussion concerning the cardiac safety of citalopram in an overdose. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects and toxicokinetic parameters of citalopram in an overdose as a single drug and in combination with other drugs. Cases observed between 1997 and 2006 were evaluat

  2. Analysis on Minimum Cost of Duloxetine and Citalopram in Treating Depression%度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的最小成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧民; 韦德会

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic effects and safety of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression to provide the guidance for clinical rational drug use.Methods Fifty patients with depression were randomly divided into the duloxetine group and the citalopram group,and treated by duloxetine and citalopram for 6 weeks,respectively.The curative efficacies and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.The evaluation was performed by the pharmacoeconomics cost minimization analysis method.Results The total effective rates in the duloxetine group and the citalopram group were 96.00% and 92.00% respectively,without statistical difference between the two groups existed(P>0.05); the costs were 1 030.88 Yuan and 1 092.09 Yuan,cost/effect ratios(C/E) were 1 073.83 and 1 187.05 respectively.The rate of adverse reactions in the duloxetine group was lower than that in the citalopram group.Conclusion The effects of duloxetine and and citalopram in the treatment of depression are equivalent.Duloxetine has the lower cost and is a better therapeutic scheme for the treatment of depression.%目的 评价度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的经济效果和安全性,以利临床合理用药.方法 将50例抑郁症患者随机分为度洛西汀组、西酞普兰组,分别给予度洛西汀、西酞普兰治疗6周,比较两组疗效和不良反应,并应用药物经济学最小成本分析法进行评价.结果 度洛西汀组和西酞普兰组总有效率分别为96.00%和92.00%,2组间疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),成本分别为1 030.88元和1 092.09元,成本/效果(C/E)分别为1 073.83和1 187.05,度洛西汀组的不良反应率较西酞普兰组低.结论 度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗抑郁症疗效相当,度洛西汀治疗成本与不良反应发生率均较低,是治疗抑郁症较佳治疗方案.

  3. 艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症对照观察%A control study of escitalopram vs.citalopram in the treat-ment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆占峰; 杨伟; 孙永勋

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的临床疗效及安全性。方法将60例抑郁症患者按就诊顺序随机分为艾司西酞普兰组和西酞普兰组,每组30例,分别口服艾司西酞普兰、西酞普兰治疗,观察6周。于治疗前后采用汉密顿抑郁量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗第6周末艾司西酞普兰组总有效率为86.67%,西酞普兰组为83.33%,两组比较差异无显著性(P >0.05)。艾司西酞普兰组治疗第1周末起,西酞普兰组治疗第2周末起汉密顿抑郁症量表总分较治疗前显著降低(P 0.05)。艾司西酞普兰组不良反应发生率为43.3%,西酞普兰组为50.0%,两组比较差异无显著性(P >0.05)。结论艾司西酞普兰治疗抑郁症疗效显著,安全性高,与西酞普兰相当。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of depression.Methods Sixty depression patients were divided into two groups of 30 ones each according to visiting order,they took orally escitalopram or citalopram for 6 weeks.Efficacies were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD)before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS).Results At the end of the 6 st week treatment total effective rate was respectively 86.67% in escitalopram and 83.33% in citalopram group,which showed no significant group difference (P >0.05).The total score of the HAMD since the end of the 1 th week in escitalopram and since the 2 nd in citalopram group lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P 0.05).The incidence of adverse reac-tions was 43.3% in escitalopram and 50.0% in citalopram group,which showed no significant group difference (P >0.05 ).Conclusion Both escitalopram and citalopram have an evident effect and higher safety in the treatment of depression.

  4. Perinatal exposure to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram alters spatial learning and memory, anxiety, depression, and startle in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprowles, Jenna L N; Hufgard, Jillian R; Gutierrez, Arnold; Bailey, Rebecca A; Jablonski, Sarah A; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2016-11-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) block the serotonin (5-HT) reuptake transporter (SERT) and increase synaptic 5-HT. 5-HT is also important in brain development; hence when SSRIs are taken during pregnancy there exists the potential for these drugs to affect CNS ontogeny. Prenatal SSRI exposure has been associated with an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and peripheral 5-HT is elevated in some ASD patients. Perinatal SSRI exposure in rodents has been associated with increased depression and anxiety-like behavior, decreased sociability, and impaired learning in the offspring, behaviors often seen in ASD. The present study investigated whether perinatal exposure to citalopram causes persistent neurobehavioral effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to two groups and subcutaneously injected twice per day with citalopram (10mg/kg; Cit) or saline (Sal) 6h apart on embryonic day (E)6-21, and then drug was given directly to the pups after delivery from postnatal day (P)1-20. Starting on P60, one male/female from each litter was tested in the Cincinnati water maze (CWM) and open-field before and after MK-801. A second pair from each litter was tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and open-field before and after (+)-amphetamine. A third pair was tested as follows: elevated zero-maze, open-field, marble burying, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, social preference, and forced swim. Cit-exposed rats were impaired in the MWM during acquisition and probe, but not during reversal, shift, or cued trials. Cit-exposed rats also showed increased marble burying, decreased time in the center of the open-field, decreased latency to immobility in forced swim, and increased acoustic startle across prepulse intensities with no effects on CWM. The results are consistent with citalopram inducing several ASD-like effects. The findings add to concerns about use of SSRIs during pregnancy. Further research on different classes of

  5. Marked Mydriasis and Neuritis Nervi Optici Associated with Galactorrhea Following Citalopram Treatment: A Case Report and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Horst J.; Zellmer, Heike

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old women suffering from major depression who was treated with citalopram for several weeks with doses between 20 mg and 60 mg. She gradually developed marked mydriasis within 2 months after treatment and subsequently neuritis nervi optici. Moreover, abrupt galactorrhea occurred after 2 months of treatment. All neuro-ophthalmological, neurophysiological, clinical laboratory, and neuroradiological diagnostic efforts did not reveal an underlying organic pathophysiology. The ocular symptoms disappeared rapidly after the discontinuation of citalopram and pulse therapy with methyl-prednisolone. However, galactorrhea persisted for a few weeks necessitating treatment with bromocriptine. PMID:21869891

  6. The Treatment of Minor Depression with St. John’s Wort or Citalopram: Failure to Show Benefit over Placebo

    OpenAIRE

    Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Howland, Robert; Dording, Christina; Pamela J. Schettler; Mischoulon, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new data addressing two important controversies in psychiatry: the construct of Minor Depression (MinD) and the efficacy of St. John’s Wort for milder forms of depressive disorders. Data are from a three-arm, 12 week, randomized clinical trial of investigating the efficacy of St. John’s Wort (810 mg/day), citalopram (20 mg/day), or placebo for acute treatment of MinD. Due to a high placebo response on all outcome measures, neither St. John’s Wort nor citalopram separated f...

  7. The Effects of Escitalopram Compared With Citalopram in the Treatment of Geriatric Depression%艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰对老年抑郁症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁; 刘瑞龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗老年抑郁症的临床疗效。方法将74例老年抑郁症患者随机分为观察组(艾司西酞普兰联用组)及对照组(西酞普兰联用组),比较两组疗效。结果两组治疗后汉密尔顿抑郁量表、汉密尔顿焦虑量表总分差异显著(P<0.05)。结论艾司西酞普兰治疗老年抑郁症效果显著。%Objective To investigate the clinical efifcacy of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of senile depression.Methods 74 cases of elderly patients with depression were randomly divided into observation group (escitalopram group) and control group (citalopram group), the effects of the two groups were compared.Results After treatment, the Hamilton depression rating scale and Hamilton anxiety scale scores of the two groups were signiifcantly different (P<0.05).Conclusion Escitalopram treatment of senile depression is signiifcant.

  8. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and escitalopram in postmortem blood together with genotyping for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Björn; Holmgren, Anita; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn

    2009-03-01

    Citalopram is marketed as a racemate (50:50) mixture of the S(+)-enantiomer and R(-)-enantiomer and the active S(+)-enantiomer (escitalopram) that possess inhibitory effects. Citalopram was introduced in Sweden in 1992 and is the most frequently used antidepressant to date in Sweden. In 2002, escitalopram was introduced onto the Swedish market for treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The main objective of this study was to investigate S(+)-citalopram [i.e., the racemic drug (citalopram) or the enantiomer (escitalopram)] present in forensic autopsy cases positive for the presence of citalopram in routine screening using a non-enantioselective bioanalytical method. Fifty out of the 270 samples found positive by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection were further analyzed using enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography. The 50 cases were genotyped for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, as these isoenzymes are implicated in the metabolism of citalopram and escitalopram. In samples positive for racemic citalopram using the screening method for forensic autopsy cases, up to 20% would have been misinterpreted in the absence of an enantioselective method. An enantioselective method is thus necessary for correct interpretation of autopsy cases, after the enantiomer has been introduced onto the market. The percentage of poor metabolizers was 6% for CYP2D6 and 8% for CYP2C19.

  9. Selective labeling of serotonin uptake sites in rat brain by (/sup 3/H)citalopram contrasted to labeling of multiple sites by (/sup 3/H)imipramine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, R.J.; Largent, B.L.; Snowman, A.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-07-01

    Citalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin uptake. In rat brain membranes (/sup 3/H)citalopram demonstrates saturable and reversible binding with a KD of 0.8 nM and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 570 fmol/mg of protein. The drug specificity for (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding and synaptosomal serotonin uptake are closely correlated. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding by both serotonin and imipramine is consistent with a competitive interaction in both equilibrium and kinetic analyses. The autoradiographic pattern of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding sites closely resembles the distribution of serotonin. By contrast, detailed equilibrium-saturation analysis of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding reveals two binding components, i.e., high affinity (KD = 9 nM, Bmax = 420 fmol/mg of protein) and low affinity (KD = 553 nM, Bmax = 8560 fmol/mg of protein) sites. Specific (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding, defined as the binding inhibited by 100 microM desipramine, is displaced only partially by serotonin. Various studies reveal that the serotonin-sensitive portion of binding corresponds to the high affinity sites of (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding whereas the serotonin-insensitive binding corresponds to the low affinity sites. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with p-chloroamphetamine causes a large decrease in (/sup 3/H)citalopram and serotonin-sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding with only a small effect on serotonin-insensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding. The dissociation rate of (/sup 3/H)imipramine or (/sup 3/H)citalopram is not altered by citalopram, imipramine or serotonin up to concentrations of 10 microM. The regional distribution of serotonin sensitive (/sup 3/H)imipramine high affinity binding sites closely resembles that of (/sup 3/H)citalopram binding.

  10. Quantification of citalopram or escitalopram and their demethylated metabolites in neonatal hair samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Vogliardi, Susanna; Terranova, Claudio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Citalopram and escitalopram are highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors widely used in the treatment of depression. They exhibit adverse drug reactions and side effects, however, and the development of specific methods for their determination is of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the assay of citalopram, escitalopram, and their demethylated metabolites in 10-mg hair samples. The analytes were extracted by incubation in methanol and liquid/liquid extraction with diethyl ether/dichloromethane. Gradient elution on a narrow bore C18 column was realized using clomipramine-d3 as an internal standard. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method exhibited a linear range of 25 to 2000 pg/mg, a quantification limit of 25 pg/mg for all analytes, relative standard deviations in the range of 12.10 to 9.80 (intraassay), and 13.80 to 11.78 (interassay), and accuracies (as percent recovery of the spiked standards) in the range of 90% to 110%; it was applied to the determination of citalopram and escitalopram and their metabolites in hair samples of two newborns to document their in utero exposure to the drugs. The method proved suitable for neonatal hair analysis of citalopram or escitalopram and was applied to two real cases of gestational exposure.

  11. Partial purification of the 5-hydroxytryptophan-reuptake system from human blood platelets using a citalopram-derived affinity resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biessen, E.A.L; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1990-04-03

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopram affinity chromatographies. Upon solubilization of the carrier with 1% digitonin, a 50-70-fold increase in specific ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity with a 70% recovery could be accomplished through WGA-lectin chromatography. The WGA pool was then subjected to affinity chromatography on citalopram-agarose. At least 90% of the binding capacity adsorbed to the column. Specific elution using 10 {mu}M citalopram resulted in a 22% recovery of binding activity. A 10,000-fold overall purification was obtained by using this two-step procedure. Analysis of the fractions on SDS-PAGE after {sup 125}I labeling revealed specific elution of 78- and 55-kDa proteins concomitant with the appearance of ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity. The pharmacological profile of the partially purified reuptake system correlated well with that derived from the crude membrane-bound reuptake system, suggesting a copurification of the 5HT binding activity and ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding activity.

  12. A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Løland, Claus Juul

    2013-01-01

    A novel fluorescent ligand was synthesized as a high-affinity, high specificity probe for visualizing the serotonin transporter (SERT). The rhodamine fluorophore was extended from an aniline substitution on the 5-position of the dihydroisobenzofuran ring of citalopram (2, 1-(3-(dimethylamino)prop...

  13. Preliminary evidence that sub-chronic citalopram triggers the re-evaluation of value in intimate partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderbeck, Amy C; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples' physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants' own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others' relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences.

  14. 度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的对照研究%A comparation study of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康明秀

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较度洛西汀与西酞普兰治疗不同症状抑郁症的疗效.方法:将122例符合国际疾病分类第10版抑郁症诊断标准的患者,按不同主诉(精神症状或躯体症状)分为精神症状组60例和躯体症状组62例,每组再随机分为度洛西汀组(30例/30例)和西酞普兰组(30例/32例),分别给予度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗6周.用汉密尔顿抑郁量表17项(HAMD)评定疗效,用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果:在以精神症状为主的患者中,度洛西汀组与西酞普兰组疗效比较差异无显著性(P>0.05);在以躯体症状为主的患者中,以度洛西汀组显效率(76.67%)高于西酞普兰组(53.12%),两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:度洛西汀和西酞普兰治疗抑郁症均有效,但度洛西汀起效较快,治疗伴有躯体症状的抑郁症疗效更好.%Objective: To compare efficacy of duloxetine and citalopram in the treatment of depression with different symptoms. Method:122 patients meeting with lCD-10 for depression were divided into psychotic symptom group ( n = 60 ) and somatic symptom group ( n = 62 ), according to their different complaints. Then psychotic symptom group and somatic symptom group were randomly divided into two sub-groups respectively, duloxetine sub-group (n = 30/30) and citalopram sub-group ( n = 30/32) for 6 weeks treatment. The efficacy and the safety were assessed by Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and the treatment emergent syruptom scale (TESS), respectively. Results:There was no significant difference in the efficacy between duloxetine sub-group and citalopram sub-group in the treatment of depressed patients predominant in psychotic symptoms. The response rate was significantly higher in patients of duloxetine sub-group compared with that in citalopram sub-group 76.67% vs. 53.12% (P < 0.05 ) in the treatment of depressed patients predominant in somatic symptoms. Conclusion: Both duloxetine and citalopram were

  15. 舒必利合用西酞普兰治疗阻滞性抑郁症的临床研究%Clinical study on sulpiride combined with citalopram in treatment of retardative depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆慧; 韩翠萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe effects and adverse reactions of sulpiridein treatment of retardative depression. Methods:62 patients with retardative depression were randomly divided into study group( sulpiride combined with citalopram,31 cases) and control group( citalopram, 31 cases) . All the patients were treated for 8 weeks. The adverse reactions were evaluated with Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS). Results:At the end of 4th, 6th, and 8th week of the treatment, the total score of HAMD and item score of retardative symptom in study group were lower than those of control group, and there werestatisti-cal differences (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). At the end of 8th week of the treatment, the effective rates of study group and control group were 83. 87% and 58. 06%, respectively, and there was the statistical difference (P<0. 01). For TESS score, the cases in control group had gastrointestinal adverse reactions, such as nausea and vomiting;while no adverse reactions were observed instudy group, and there was the significant difference. Conclusions:The effect of low dosage of sulpiride combined with citalopram is better than citalo-pram alone in the treatment of retardative depression, and it takes effect faster as well. Sulpiride can eliminate nausea, vomiting and other gastrointestinal adverse reactions induced by citalopram.%目的:观察舒必利治疗阻滞性抑郁症的疗效和不良反应。方法:对62例阻滞性抑郁症患者,随机分为合用组(舒必利合并西酞普兰,31例患者)和单用组(单用西酞普兰,31例患者),治疗8周,采用汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果:治疗第4、6、8周末两组患者间HAMD总分和阻滞症状项目评分比较,合用组患者低于单用组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05);治疗8周末合用组和单用组患者的显效率分别为83.87%和58.06%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两组患者间TESS评分比

  16. 西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效及安全性%The efficacy and safety of combined citalopram and clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia patient with suicidal risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娴; 邱育平; 张业祥

    2012-01-01

      To research the efficacy and safety of combined citalopram and clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia with suicidal risk,A study was contucted in which 46 patients with schizophrenia were randomised divided to study group and control group.The result shows that the efficacy of treatment of Combined Citalopram and Clozapine is better than treatment of Clozapine. the risk of suicide also cecreace by Combined Citalopram and Clozapine.and the safety is equivalent.%  [要] 本文通过46例有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组(23例)和对照组(23例)探讨西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效及安全性。验证了西酞普兰合并氯氮平治疗有自杀风险的精神分裂症患者的疗效好于单用氯氮平,自杀风险降低,安全性相仿。

  17. Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of citalopram and fluoxetine for depression in Chinese patients%西酞普兰与氟西汀治疗中国抑郁症患者疗效和安全性的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭珍珍; 祝漫琴; 李焕德; 成日华; 刘艺平

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较西酞普兰与氟西汀在中国抑郁症患者中的疗效和安全性.方法 计算机检索CBM、CNKI、万方数据库,采用RevMan 5.0软件进行meta分析.结果 西酞普兰与氟西汀抗抑郁治疗6周后,以汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效,总有效率的meta分析结果表明,有效率比值比OR值为1.29,其95%的可信区间为0.98~1.69,两者不存在显著性差异.疗程为1、2周时,西酞普兰治疗组的HAMD评分比氟西汀治疗组低,具有统计学差异,即西酞普兰起效速度优于氟西汀;疗程为4、6周时,西酞普兰治疗组的HAMD评分与氟西汀治疗组差异无统计学意义,即两者疗效无统计学差异性.以西酞普兰与氟西汀抗抑郁治疗失败的相对危险度RR比较其不良反应的危险度,结果显示便秘、失眠这2个不良反应的合并RR值分别为0.4 (95%CI 0.24,0.64)和0.54 (95%CI0.34,0.86),表明西酞普兰便秘和失眠不良反应的发生率均低于氟西汀,具有统计学差异.结论 西酞普兰与氟西汀长期治疗效果相当,但西酞普兰起效快于氟西汀,且西酞普兰便秘和失眠不良反应的发生率均低于氟西汀.%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of citalopram and fluoxetine in Chinese patients with depression. Methods CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang database were searched. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5. 0. Results There was no significant difference in the efficacy between citalopram and fluoxetine by Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) with OR= 1. 29 and 95%CI 0. 98 to 1. 69 after 6 weeks. Citalopram caused greater reduction in HAMD score than fluoxetine after 1 and 2 weeks, suggesting the onset of citalopram was faster than that of fluoxetine. There were no significant differences in the decrease of HAMD scores between citalopram and fluoxetine after 4 and 6 weeks. Incidence of astriction [RR=0. 4, 95%CI 0. 24, 0. 64], insomnia [RR=0. 54, 95%CI 0. 34, 0. 86] induced by the citalopram group was

  18. Effect of citalopram in treating hypersexuality in an Alzheimer's disease case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Talarico, Giuseppina; Lenzi, Gian Luigi; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    Hypersexuality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been rarely investigated. Hypersexual behaviours should be classified as a sexual obsession and included in the "obsessive-compulsive disorder-like" spectrum. Hypersexuality has no proven treatment, although reports have described reductions of this behaviour using antiandrogen treatment, H2-receptor antagonists and antipsychotic drugs. Serotonin reuptake blockers seem to be effective in the treatment of sexual obsessions or compulsions and less on paraphilic disturbances. We present the case of a 54-year-old male patient with Alzheimer's disease with compulsive sexual behaviour as reported by his wife. A 18-FDG PET scan evidenced prevalent hypometabolism of the right hemisphere, congruent with neuropsychological evaluation. Donepezil, 10 mg per day, produced cognitive improvement but no effects on sexual behaviour. Therapy with SSRI was subsequently started (citalopram): after 60 days, the patient showed improvement in both the compulsive pursuit of sex acts and the level of frustration when refused.

  19. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Overo, Kerstin Fredricson

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder lie on discrete dimensions. Relatively little work has, however, explored the relationship between such factors and response to pharmacotherapy. METHOD: Data from a multi-site randomized placebo......-controlled study of citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder were analyzed. Factor analysis of individual items and symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist were undertaken, and the impact of symptom dimensions on treatment outcomes was analysed. RESULTS: Factor analysis of Yale......-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist individual items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, aggressive/sexual/religious, hoarding/symmetry, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Hoarding/symmetry was associated with male gender, longer duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder and early onset...

  20. Observation on the effect of Tianshu Capsule and Citalopram treating the chronic primary headache%天舒胶囊联合西酞普兰治疗慢性原发性头痛的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇凤; 段劲峰; 岳涛; 陈立芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of combination Tianshu Capsule and Citalopram on chronic primary headache.Methods:Chronic primary headache patients were collected from the outpatient and inpatient department of neurology and randomly divided into treatment group (40 patients treated with Tianshu Capsule and Citalopram) and control group (43patients treated with Sodium Valproate and Amitriptyline).All of them were assessed in NRS (numerical rating scale) for the degree of headache and life quality before 2 and 4 weeks after the therapy.Results:The severity of headache revealed effectively improvement in both groups.The effect of the treatment group was superior to the control group.The quality of life in treatment group improved more obviously than in control group.Adverse drug reactions in treatment group were lower than in control group.Conclusions:Tianshu Capsule combined with citalopram had satisfactory and safe curative effect on patients of primary headache.%目的:评价天舒胶囊联合西酞普兰治疗慢性原发性头痛的疗效.方法:在门诊及病房工作中收集原发性头痛患者,以区组随机法随机分为治疗组40例(天舒胶囊、西酞普兰)和对照组43例(丙戊酸钠、阿米替林),分别于治疗初进行头痛程度的评分及生活质量综合评分,然后于治疗后2周、4周复查头痛程度的评分及生活质量综合评分.结果:治疗后两组患者的头痛程度均有改善,治疗组疗效优于对照组.治疗组患者的生活质量改善程度优于对照组.治疗组患者的药物不良反应发生率低于对照组.结论:天舒胶囊联合西酞普兰治疗原发性头痛安全有效.

  1. Impact of evergreening on patients and health insurance: a meta analysis and reimbursement cost analysis of citalopram/escitalopram antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhafaji Ali A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Evergreening" refers to the numerous strategies whereby owners of pharmaceutical products use patent laws and minor drug modifications to extend their monopoly privileges on the drug. We aimed to evaluate the impact of evergreening through the case study of the antidepressant citalopram and its chiral switch form escitalopram by evaluating treatment efficacy and acceptability for patients, as well as health insurance costs for society. Methods To assess efficacy and acceptability, we performed meta-analyses for efficacy and acceptability. We compared direct evidence (meta-analysis of results of head-to-head trials and indirect evidence (adjusted indirect comparison of results of placebo-controlled trials. To assess health insurance costs, we analyzed individual reimbursement data from a representative sample of the French National Health Insurance Inter-regime Information System (SNIIR-AM from 2003 to 2010, which allowed for projecting these results to the whole SNIIR-AM population (53 million people. Results In the meta-analysis of seven head-to-head trials (2,174 patients, efficacy was significantly better for escitalopram than citalopram (combined odds ratio (OR 1.60 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.46. However, for the adjusted indirect comparison of 10 citalopram and 12 escitalopram placebo-controlled trials, 2,984 and 3,777 patients respectively, efficacy was similar for the two drug forms (combined indirect OR 1.03 (0.82 to 1.30. Because of the discrepancy, we could not combine direct and indirect data (test of inconsistency, P = 0.07. A similar discrepancy was found for treatment acceptability. The overall reimbursement cost burden for the citalopram, escitalopram and its generic forms was 120.6 million Euros in 2010, with 96.8 million Euros for escitalopram. Conclusions The clinical benefit of escitalopram versus citalopram remains uncertain. In our case of evergreening, escitalopram represented a substantially

  2. Fabrication a new modified electrochemical sensor based on Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle decorated graphene for citalopram determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Leili; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Tarahomi, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a simple approach for sensing of citalopram (CTL) using gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-PdNPs) decorated graphene modified gold electrode. Au-PdNPs were deposited at the surface of a graphene modified gold electrode with simple electrodeposition method. The morphology and the electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The novel sensor exhibited an excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of CTL. The oxidation peak current of CTL, was linear in the range of 0.5-50μM with a detection limit 0.049μM with respect to concentration of citalopram. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of CTL tablet and human plasma samples with satisfactory results.

  3. Safety and efficacy of oral escitalopram as continuation treatment of intravenous citalopram in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laurent; Tonnoir, Brigitte; Arbus, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this open-label, multicentre study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of treatment with escitalopram (10 or 20 mg/day) for 6 weeks following a switch from intravenous citalopram treatment (20 or 40 mg/day) in patients presenting with a major depressive episode. A total of 173 patients were included, 147 (85%) of whom completed the study. The mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at inclusion (last citalopram dose) was 31.6 +/- 9.9. The MADRS score decreased to 23.4 +/- 10.5 after 3 days of oral treatment with escitalopram and was 12.7 +/- 9.3 at the end of the study. The scores on the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and Patient Global Evaluation scales also improved: at the end of the study, the response rates were 67% on the MADRS (defined as >or=50% decrease from MADRS baseline score) and 68% on the CGI-I (defined as CGI-I citalopram to escitalopram was well tolerated. In all, 57 patients (33%) reported at least 1 adverse event, and 7 patients (4%) were withdrawn due to an adverse event. The most frequently reported adverse events were probably linked to residual depressive symptoms (anxiety: 9%; insomnia: 5%). In conclusion, escitalopram was well tolerated as a continuation treatment after switching from intravenous citalopram and reduced depressive symptoms in patients with a moderate to severe major depressive episode. (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Sexual dysfunction during treatment of major depressive disorder with vilazodone, citalopram, or placebo: results from a phase IV clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Anita H.; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Dalei; Nunez, Rene; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction commonly occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD). Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist antidepressant approved for the treatment of MDD in adults, was evaluated to determine its effects on sexual function. The primary study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day with placebo; citalopram 40 mg/day was an active control (NCT01473381; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Post-hoc...

  5. The differential effects of chronic imipramine or citalopram administration on physiological and behavioral outcomes in naïve mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Anthony, Daniel C; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Kubatiev, Aslan; Steinbusch, Harry M W; Schroeter, Careen

    2013-05-15

    Tricyclics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are probably the most widely employed reference antidepressants in animal studies on depression. Using imipramine and citalopram, we sought to assess which drug would be more appropriate as pharmacological reference in paradigms of depression in C57BL6N mice by measuring their effect on liquid consumption, home cage activity, body weight and long-term memory in naïve animals treated with each compound at generally used dose of 15 mg/kg/day. Continuous logging of home cage movement, weekly monitoring of vertical activity in a novel cage, and body weight was recorded during four-week treatment period and for four weeks after discontinuation of the antidepressant; sucrose preference was evaluated at weekly intervals during drug administration. A novel object recognition memory test was performed in mice treated the antidepressants for two weeks. Compared to control, imipramine-treated mice displayed increased sucrose and water intake, as well as enhanced home-cage and novelty exploration activities, and reduced body weight. Imipramine also impaired learning in the object recognition task, but citalopram diminished object exploration sufficiently to invalidate the test. Citalopram-treated animals demonstrated no changes in a sucrose test and had elevated body mass. Thus basic physiological and behavioral outcomes in naïve mice were significantly altered by the chronic administration of imipramine and, to a lesser extent, citalopram. As altered variables are crucial for the evaluation of antidepressant-like effects in mice, our data suggest that, at commonly used doses, both drugs must be applied in mouse models of depression with caution.

  6. Subtype-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists enhance the responsiveness to citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Christensen, Jeppe K; Olsen, Gunnar M; Peters, Dan; Mirza, Naheed R; Redrobe, John P

    2011-10-01

    Nicotine increases serotonergic and noradrenergic neuronal activity and facilitates serotonin and noradrenaline release. Accordingly, nicotine enhances antidepressant-like actions of reuptake inhibitors selective for serotonin or noradrenaline in the mouse forced swim test and the mouse tail suspension test. Both high-affinity α4β2 and low-affinity α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are implicated in nicotine-mediated release of serotonin and noradrenaline. The present study therefore investigated whether selective agonism of α4β2 or α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors would affect the mouse forced swim test activity of two antidepressants with distinct mechanisms of action, namely the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine. Subthreshold and threshold doses of citalopram (3 and 10 mg/kg) or reboxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) were tested alone and in combination with the novel α4β2-selective partial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, NS3956 (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) or the α7-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, PNU-282987 (10 and 30 mg/kg). Alone, NS3956 and PNU-282987 were devoid of activity in the mouse forced swim test, but both 1.0 mg/kg NS3956 and 30 mg/kg PNU-282987 enhanced the effect of citalopram and also reboxetine. The data suggest that the activity of citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim test can be enhanced by agonists at either α4β2 or α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, suggesting that both nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes may be involved in the nicotine-enhanced action of antidepressants.

  7. Acute psychological effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") are attenuated by the serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, M E; Baumann, C; Gamma, A; Vollenweider, F X

    2000-05-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a recreational drug that has been shown to release serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in animals. The effect of MDMA on 5-HT release can be blocked by 5-HT uptake inhibitors such as citalopram, suggesting that MDMA interacts with the 5-HT uptake site. It is unknown whether this mechanism is also responsible for the psychological effects of MDMA in humans. We investigated the effect of citalopram pretreatment (40 mg iv) on the psychological effects of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg po) in a double-blind placebo-controlled psychometric study in 16 healthy human volunteers. MDMA produced an emotional state with heightened mood, increased self-confidence and extroversion, moderate derealization, and an intensification of sensory perception. Most of these effects were markedly reduced by citalopram. This finding suggests that the psychological effects of MDMA are mediated via action at the 5-HT uptake site to increase 5-HT release through the carrier, as expected from animal studies.

  8. The serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram reduces acute cardiovascular and vegetative effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, M E; Vollenweider, F X

    2000-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or 'Ecstasy' is a widely used recreational drug that produces a state of heightened mood but also cardiovascular and vegetative side-effects. In animals, MDMA releases serotonin and, to a lesser extent, dopamine and norepinephrine. The release of serotonin can be blocked by serotonin uptake inhibitors such as citalopram. It is unknown to what extent this mechanism is also responsible for the physiological side-effects of MDMA seen in humans. We investigated the effect of citalopram pretreatment (40 mg i.v.) on vegetative and cardiovascular effects of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg p.o.) in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in 16 healthy volunteers. MDMA moderately increased blood pressure and heart rate, slightly elevated body temperature and produced a broad range of acute and short-term side-effects. Citalopram reduced all these MDMA-induced physiological changes except for body temperature. These findings suggest that physiological effects of MDMA in humans are partially due to an interaction of MDMA with the serotonin carrier and a subsequent release of serotonin.

  9. Effects of acute and long-term administration of escitalopram and citalopram on serotonin neurotransmission: an in vivo electrophysiological study in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mansari, Mostafa; Sánchez, Connie; Chouvet, Guy; Renaud, Bernard; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2005-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the acute and long-term effects of escitalopram and citalopram on rat brain 5-HT neurotransmission, using electrophysiological techniques. In hippocampus, after 2 weeks of treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or citalopram (20 mg/kg/day, s.c.), the administration of the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100,635 (20-100 microg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently induced a similar increase in the firing activity of dorsal hippocampus CA(3) pyramidal neurons, thus revealing direct functional evidence of an enhanced tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. In dorsal raphe nucleus, escitalopram was four times more potent than citalopram in suppressing the firing activity of presumed 5-HT neurons (ED(50)=58 and 254 mug/kg, i.v., respectively). Interestingly, the suppressant effect of escitalopram (100 microg/kg, i.v.) was significantly prevented, but not reversed by R-citalopram (250 microg/kg, i.v.). Sustained administration of escitalopram and citalopram significantly decreased the spontaneous firing activity of presumed 5-HT neurons. This firing activity returned to control rate after 2 weeks in rats treated with escitalopram, but only after 3 weeks using citalopram, and was associated with a desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. These results suggest that the time course of the gradual return of presumed 5-HT neuronal firing activity, which was reported to account for the delayed effect of SSRI on 5-HT transmission, is congruent with the earlier onset of action of escitalopram vs citalopram in validated animal models of depression and anxiety.

  10. The S-enantiomer of R, S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Larsen, Mads; Sanchez, Connie

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of the S- and R-enantiomers (escitalopram and R-citalopram) of citalopram, with high- and low-affinity binding sites in COS-1 cell membranes expressing human SERT (hSERT) were investigated. Escitalopram affinity for hSERT and its 5-HT uptake inhibitory potency was in the nanomolar...... range and approximately 40-fold more potent than R-citalopram. Escitalopram considerably stabilised the [3H]-escitalopram/SERT complex via an allosteric effect at a low-affinity binding site. The stereoselectivity between escitalopram and R-citalopram was approximately 3:1 for the [3H]-escitalopram....../hSERT complex. The combined effect of escitalopram and R-citalopram was additive. Paroxetine and sertraline mainly stabilised the [3H]-paroxetine/hSERT complex. Fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine have only minor effects. 5-HT stabilised the [125I]-RTI-55, [3H]-MADAM, [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-fluoxetine and [3H...

  11. The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism. Comparison with other serotonin transporter inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Larsen, Mads Breum; Sánchez, Connie

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of the S- and R-enantiomers (escitalopram and R-citalopram) of citalopram, with high- and low-affinity binding sites in COS-1 cell membranes expressing human SERT (hSERT) were investigated. Escitalopram affinity for hSERT and its 5-HT uptake inhibitory potency was in the nanomolar...... range and approximately 40-fold more potent than R-citalopram. Escitalopram considerably stabilised the [3H]-escitalopram/SERT complex via an allosteric effect at a low-affinity binding site. The stereoselectivity between escitalopram and R-citalopram was approximately 3:1 for the [3H]-escitalopram....../hSERT complex. The combined effect of escitalopram and R-citalopram was additive. Paroxetine and sertraline mainly stabilised the [3H]-paroxetine/hSERT complex. Fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine have only minor effects. 5-HT stabilised the [125I]-RTI-55, [3H]-MADAM, [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-fluoxetine and [3H...

  12. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path dec......The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three...... in 2004 DDK. The expected overall 6-month remission rate was higher for escitalopram (64.1%) than citalopram (58.9%). From both perspectives, the total expected cost per successfully treated patient was lower for escitalopram (DKK 22,323 healthcare, DKK 72,399 societal) than for citalopram (DKK 25......,778 healthcare, DKK 87,786 societal). Remission rates and costs were similar for escitalopram and venlafaxine. Robustness of the findings was verified in multivariate sensitivity analyses. For patients in primary care, escitalopram appears to be a cost-effective alternative to (generic) citalopram, with greater...

  13. Differential regulation of serotonin-1A receptor-stimulated [35S]GTP gamma S binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus by citalopram and escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Dania V; Burke, Teresa F; Hensler, Julie G

    2008-03-31

    The effect of chronic citalopram or escitalopram administration on 5-HT1A receptor function in the dorsal raphe nucleus was determined by measuring [35S]GTP gamma S binding stimulated by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (1nM-10 microM). Although chronic administration of citalopram or escitalopram has been shown to desensitize somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, we found that escitalopram treatment decreased the efficacy of 5-HT1A receptors to activate G proteins, whereas citalopram treatment did not. The binding of [3H]8-OH-DPAT to the coupled, high affinity agonist state of the receptor was not altered by either treatment. Interestingly, escitalopram administration resulted in greater occupancy of serotonin transporter sites as measured by the inhibition of [3H]cyanoimipramine binding. As the binding and action of escitalopram is limited by the inactive enantiomer R-citalopram present in racemic citalopram, we propose that the regulation of 5-HT1A receptor function in the dorsal raphe nucleus at the level of receptor-G protein interaction may be a result of greater inhibition of the serotonin transporter by escitalopram.

  14. A randomized controlled study of Fluoxetine and Citalopram on the treatment of depressive symptom due to Alzheimer's disease%盐酸氟西汀与西酞普兰治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症状随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 王京丽; 张海林; 刘英; 吴炬

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in treatment of the depressive symptom due to Alzheimer's Disease. Methods: 80 cases of patients were randomly divided into two groups, the patients of two groups were treated with Fluoxetine and Citalopram respectively; the course was 8 weeks; HAMD and TESS was adopted to assess the clinical effect and adverse reaction. Results: HAMD of Citalopram group decreased significantly after two weeks' treatment (P<0.05), and HAMD of Fluoxetine group decreased significantly after four weeks' treatment (P< 0.05). The two groups showed the same effect after 8 weeks. Adverse reactions of two groups were lighter, the incidence of adverse reactions of Citalopram group (38.1%) was lower than Fluoxetine group (60.5%)(P<0.05). Conclusion: Citalopram has quicker effect and better safety than Fluoxetine in the depressive symptom due to AD, long-term effect of two drugs was almost the same. Citalopram is worthy of wide application in treatment of depressive symptom due to AD.%目的:比较盐酸氟西汀与西酞普兰治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症状的有效性和安全性.方法:将80例受试者随机分为两组,分别给予盐酸氟西汀和西酞普兰治疗,疗程为8周,于治疗前和治疗后2、4、6、8周末分别采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和副反应量表(TESS)评定两药的疗效及不良反应.结果:在用药2周后,西酞普兰组HAMD得分较治疗前显著下降(P<0.05),在治疗4周后盐酸氟西汀组较治疗前显著下降(P<0.05),两组在用药8周后,疗效相当(P>0.05).两组不良反应均较轻,西酞普兰组的总体不良反应发生率(38.1%)低于盐酸氟西汀组(60.5%)(P<0.05).结论:在治疗阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁症方面,西酞普兰起效较快,且较盐酸氟西汀安全性好.两组长期使用疗效相当.西酞普兰适合阿尔茨海默病所致抑郁患者服用.

  15. 西酞普兰联合舒必利在有精神病性症状抑郁症治疗中的临床价值分析%Citalopram combined with sulpiride in the analysis of the clinical value of psychotic symptoms in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建

    2015-01-01

    目的:对西酞普兰联合舒必利在有精神病性症状抑郁症治疗中的临床价值进行分析和研究。方法选择2013年4月~2014年4月在本院住院治疗的有精神病性症状的抑郁症患者50例,随机分为对照组和实验组,各25例,对照组行西酞普兰治疗,实验组行西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗,观察两组患者的疗效。结果对照组患者经西酞普兰治疗后,总有效率为68%,明显低于实验组经西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗后的总有效率96%,对照组患者的汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分也明显优于实验组,两组间有效率的比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针对有精神病性症状的抑郁症患者行西酞普兰联合舒必利治疗,具有显著的疗效,值得各医院临床推广使用。%Objective Of citalopram in combination with sulpiride with psychotic symptoms of clinical value in the treatment of depression is analyzed and studied. Methods The data in April 2013-April 2014 in our hospital hospitalization with 50 patients with psychotic symptoms of depression, randomly divided into two groups, each 25 cases, the control line citalopram treatment, the experimental group lines of citalopram in combination with sulpiride treatment, to observe the efifcacy of two groups of patients. Results The patients with the control group after treatment with citalopram, the total effective rate was 68.00%, signiifcantly lower than the experimental group after treatment with citalopram combined sulpiride the total effective rate of 96.00%, the experimental group is obviously better than the control group patients with HAMD scores also, efifcient comparative differences between the two groups have statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion For patients with psychotic symptoms of depression citalopram combined therapy with sulpiride, has signiifcant curative effect, is worth the clinical promotion use.

  16. To Study the Clinical Effect of Sulpiride Combined Citalopram in the Treatment of Depression with Psychotic Symptoms%舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症的临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪锦华

    2016-01-01

    目的::研究舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症的临床效果。方法:将某院2013年6月~2015年6月收治的伴精神病性症状抑郁症患者76例,随机分为两组各38例,观察组采用舒必利联合西酞普兰进行治疗,对照组采用西酞普兰治疗,比较两组治疗前后 HAMD、HAMA评分变化和疗效。结果:观察组治疗后 HAMD、HAMA评分均低于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(均P<0.05);观察组总有效率高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:舒必利联合西酞普兰治疗伴精神病性症状抑郁症效果较单纯西酞普兰治疗更好,值得临床上推广。%Objective:To study the clinical effect of Sulpiride combined citalopram in the treatment with psychotic symptoms.Methods:A total of 76 patients of depression with psychotic symptoms received in a hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 were randomly divided into two groups,each of 38 cases.The observa-tion group were treated with Sulpiride combined citalopram,while the control group were treated with citalo-pram.Then compare the HAMD,HAMA score changes and the clinical effect.Results:After treatment,the HAMD,HAMA score of the observation group were lower than those of the control group,and the differ-ences were statistically significant(P<0.05).The total effective rate of the observation group were higher than that of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical effect of sulpiride combined citalopram in the treatment of psychotic symptoms of depression is better than that of treating with only citalopram,which is worth of clinical promotion.

  17. Palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas Case: Administer Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Vänttinen, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas sähköisen taloushallinnon palveluntarjoajalle Administer Oy:lle. Työn päätavoitteena oli luoda palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas Administer Oy:n sisäiseen käyttöön. Perehdytysoppaan on tarkoitus tukea ja selkeyttää uusien palkanlaskijoiden työn aloittamista ja työtehtävien omaksumista. Perehdytysoppaan tavoitteena on lisäksi nopeuttaa ja helpottaa perehdyttäjien työtä perehdytysprosessin aikana. Työ keskittyy vain palkanlaskentapalveluun...

  18. Glufosfamide administered using a 1-hour infusion given as first-line treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. A phase II trial of the EORTC-new drug development group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasoulis, E; Pavlidis, N; Terret, C; Bauer, J; Fiedler, W; Schöffski, P; Raoul, J L; Hess, D; Selvais, R; Lacombe, D; Bachmann, P; Fumoleau, P

    2003-11-01

    The activity of glufosfamide (beta-D-glucopyranosyl-N,N'-di-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphoric acid diamide) against pancreatic cancer was investigated in a multicentre, phase II clinical study. Chemotherapy-nai;ve patients with advanced or metastatic disease were treated with glufosfamide (5 g/m(2)) using a 1-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion every 3 weeks. Patients were randomised between active-hydration and normal fluids to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of forced diuresis. Patients experiencing >0.4 mg/dl (>35 micromol/l) increase in serum creatinine compared with their baseline value were taken off treatment for safety reasons. The evaluation of response was according to the Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST). Blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses. 35 patients from 13 institutions were registered over a 13-month period. A total of 114 treatment cycles (median 3, range 1-8) were administered to 34 patients; 18 patients were allocated to the hydration arm. Overall haematological toxicity was mild. Metabolic acidosis occurred in 2 patients treated in the active-hydration arm, grade 3 hypokalaemia was recorded in 5 patients and grade 3 hypophosphataemia in 4 patients. One patient had a grade 4 increase in serum creatinine level, concomitantly to disease progression. Active-hydration did not show a nephroprotective effect and the plasma pharmacokinetics (Pk) of glufosfamide was not significantly influenced by hydration. Two confirmed partial remissions (PR) were reported (response rate 5.9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.7-19.7%) and 11 cases obtained disease stabilisation (32.4%). An extra mural review panel confirmed all of the responses. Median overall survival was 5.3 months (95% CI 3.9-7.1) and time to progression (TTP) was 1.4 months (95% CI 1.3-2.7). In conclusion, glufosfamide administered using a 1-h infusion every 3 weeks has a modest activity in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Haematological toxicity is

  19. Positive allosteric modulation of AMPA receptors differentially modulates the behavioural effects of citalopram in mouse models of antidepressant and anxiolytic action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Larsen, Maria; Madsen, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Drugs that increase monoamine neurotransmission are effective in both anxiety and depression. The therapeutic effects of monoamine-based antidepressant drugs may involve indirect effects on neurotransmission through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptors (AMPAR...... serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (0-10 mg/kg) was investigated in mice, using the APAM LY451646 (0-3 mg/kg). Antidepressant-like effects were assessed with the forced swim test (FST), while anxiolytic-like effects were tested with the elevated zero maze (EZM) and the marble burying test (MBT...... the number of marbles buried in citalopram-treated mice. These results suggest that AMPAR neurotransmission plays opposite roles in anxiety and depression, as AMPAR potentiation facilitated the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram while attenuating its anxiolytic-like effect. These findings have...

  20. Fast Removal of Citalopram Drug from Waste Water Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Followed by UV-Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoeini Sharifabadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive, solid-phase extraction method for the removal of Citalopram drug from waste water has been developed by using magnetic nanoparticles modified with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. These magnetic nanoparticles have shown great adsorptive tendency towards Citalopram drug. The effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of this drug were investigated and optimized including the pH, amount of the surfactant, contact time and temperature. The extracts were analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 239nm. Under these conditions, the related standard deviation (RSD % of the method at two concentrations (5 and 50µg.mL-1 was in the range of (3.14–3.75 % (n = 8. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 2-100 µg.mL-1 of Citalopram drug with a correlation coefficient of >0.99.

  1. Fast Removal of Citalopram Drug from Waste Water Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Followed by UV-Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoeini Sharifabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive, solid-phase extraction method for the removal of Citalopram drug from waste water has been developed by using magnetic nanoparticles modified with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. These magnetic nanoparticles have shown great adsorptive tendency towards Citalopram drug. The effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of this drug were investigated and optimized including the pH, amount of the surfactant, contact time and temperature. The extracts were analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 239nm. Under these conditions, the related standard deviation (RSD % of the method at two concentrations (5 and 50µg.mL-1 was in the range of (3.14–3.75 % (n = 8. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 2-100 µg.mL-1 of Citalopram drug with a correlation coefficient of >0.99.

  2. Escitalopram dose-response revisited: an alternative psychometric approach to evaluate clinical effects of escitalopram compared to citalopram and placebo in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Per; Tanghøj, Per; Cialdella, Philippe; Andersen, Henning Friis; Pedersen, Anders Gersel

    2004-09-01

    In continuation of a previous psychometric analysis of dose-response data for citalopram in depression, the corresponding study data for escitalopram is of interest, since escitalopram is the active enantiomer of citalopram and because citalopram was used as the active control. Revisiting those corresponding data, the psychometric properties of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were investigated by focusing on the unidimensional HAMD6 and MADRS6. Effect sizes were calculated and compared for two dosages of escitalopram (10 mg and 20 mg daily) and between each of these two dosages and 40 mg citalopram daily. The results showed that the three depression scales MADRS6, MADRS10 and HAMD6 were psychometrically acceptable (coefficient of homogeneity of 0.40 or higher). In the severely depressed patients (MADRS10> or =30) a rather clear dose-response relationship for escitalopram was seen on all three scales after 6 and 8 wk of therapy. Thus, the effect size for 10 mg escitalopram ranged from 0.28 to 0.38 while the effect sizes for 20 mg escitalopram ranged from 0.57 to 0.77. This difference was statistically significant (pescitalopram and 40 mg citalopram was seen after 8 wk of therapy for MADRS10 (effect size 0.71 vs. 0.37). An item analysis identified 'suicidal thoughts' to be the most discriminating item in this respect. These results for the severely depressed patients were confirmed by the patients self-reported quality of life evaluation. When all included patients were analysed, however, no clear dose-response relationship was seen. In conclusion, a dose-response relationship for escitalopram was seen in the severely depressed patients on all outcome scales after 6 and 8 wk of treatment. After 8 wk of treatment 20 mg escitalopram was superior to 40 mg citalopram, but not after 2 wk of treatment.

  3. Glufosfamide administered by 1-hour infusion as a second-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer; a phase II trial of the EORTC-New Drug Development Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccone, G; Smit, E F; de Jonge, M; Dansin, E; Briasoulis, E; Ardizzoni, A; Douillard, J-Y; Spaeth, D; Lacombe, D; Baron, B; Bachmann, P; Fumoleau, P

    2004-03-01

    The activity of glufosfamide (beta-D-glucosylisophosphoramide mustard) was tested in a multicentre phase II clinical trial in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had received one prior line of platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients were treated with 5000 mg/m(2) glufosfamide by a 1-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion every 3 weeks following registration at the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Data Center. Patients were randomised between hydration and no hydration to evaluate the nephroprotective effects of forced diuresis. Patients experiencing >/= 35 micromol/l increase of serum creatinine compared with baseline values were taken off the treatment. The Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) criteria were applied for the response assessment. Blood sampling was performed for a pharmacokinetic analysis. 39 patients from seven institutions were registered and a median of three cycles was given (range 0-6) cycles; 20 patients were randomised to the hydration arm. Haematological toxicity was mild, but treatment-related metabolic and electrolytic abnormalities and increases of serum creatinine occurred in several patients. Hydration did not have any significant influence on the plasma pharmacokinetics of glufosfamide and did not show any nephroprotective effect. Only one confirmed partial remission was observed (response rate 3%; 95% (Confidence Interval (CI) 0-14) and 18 cases with stable disease (49%) were recorded as assessed by an independent panel. Median survival of all patients treated was 5.8 months (95% CI 4.2-7.9). In conclusion, glufosfamide administered by a 1-h infusion every 3 weeks has modest activity in advanced NSCLC patients after one prior platinum-based chemotherapy.

  4. No change in [¹¹C]CUMI-101 binding to 5-HT(1A) receptors after intravenous citalopram in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Lars H; Feng, Ling; Haahr, Mette E

    2012-01-01

    Med Biol 38:273-277; Kumar et al. [2006] J Med Chem 49:125-134) and has previously been demonstrated to be sensitive to bolus citalopram in monkeys (Milak et al. [2011] J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31:243-249). We studied six healthy individuals. Two PET-scans were performed on the same day in each...... individual before and after constant infusion of citalopram (0.15 mg/kg). The imaging data were analyzed using two tissue compartment kinetic modeling with metabolite corrected arterial input and Simplified Reference Tissue Modeling using cerebellum as a reference region. There was no significant difference...

  5. 艾司西酞普兰与氯硝安定治疗广泛性焦虑症的临床对照分析%A Comparative Study of Citalopram and Clonazepam in the Treatment of Patients with Generalized anxiety Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春芝; 侯海燕

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To evaluate the efifcacy and side effects of citalopram in the treatment of general anxiety disorder.Methods 76 patients who met the criteria of CCMD-3 for generalized anxiety disorder were randomly assigned into citalopram group and clonaz-epam group for treatment of 8 weeks.The effects and side effects of two groups were assessed by HAMD,SAS and TESS. Results Both drugs had marked efifcacy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusion Citalopram is a safe and efifcient drug with fewer side effects for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.%目的:评价西酞普兰治疗广泛性焦虑症的临床疗效和副反应。方法将76例符合CCMD--3诊断标准的广泛性焦虑症患者,随机分为两组,分别应用西酞普兰(38例)、氯硝安定(38例)进行对照治疗,疗程8周。采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、Hamilton焦虑量表(HAMA)和副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和副反应。结果西酞普兰与氯硝安定对广泛性焦虑症均有显著疗效,两组间疗效差异无显著性(P>0.05),西酞普兰组副反应明显少于氯硝安定组(P<0.01)。结论西酞普兰治疗广泛性焦虑症安全有效,副反应少。

  6. Fate of citalopram during water treatment with O3, ClO2, UV and fenton oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörsing, Maritha; Kosjek, Tina; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the fate of citalopram (CIT) at neutral pH using advanced water treatment technologies that include O3, ClO2 oxidation, UV irradiation and Fenton oxidation. The ozonation resulted in 80% reduction after 30 min treatment. Oxidation with ClO2 removed >90% CIT...... at a dosage of 0.1 mg L−1. During UV irradiation 85% reduction was achieved after 5 min, while Fenton with addition of 14 mg L−1 (Fe2+) resulted in 90% reduction of CIT. During these treatment experiments transformation products (TPs) were formed from CIT, where five compounds were identified by using high...

  7. [18F]altanserin binding to human 5HT2A receptors is unaltered after citalopram and pindolol challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, L. H.; Adams, K. H.; Yndsgaard, S

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop an experimental paradigm for the study of serotonergic neurotransmission in humans using positron emission tomography and the 5-HT2A selective radioligand [18F]altanserin. [18F]altanserin studies were conducted in seven subjects using the bolus/infusion...... challenge, even after pindolol pretreatment. The biochemical and cellular events possibly affecting the unsuccessful translation of the citalopram/pindolol challenge into a change in 5-HT2A receptor binding of [18F]altanserin are discussed...

  8. Melatonin synergizes with citalopram to induce antidepressant-like behavior and to promote hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Vega-Rivera, Nelly Maritza; Oikawa-Sala, Julián; Gómez-Sánchez, Ariadna; Ortiz-López, Leonardo; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2014-05-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is affected in some neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Numerous evidence indicates that plasma levels of melatonin are decreased in depressed patients. Also, melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behavior. In addition, antidepressants revert alterations of hippocampal neurogenesis present in models of depression following a similar time course to the improvement of behavior. In this study, we analyzed the effects of both, citalopram, a widely used antidepressant, and melatonin in the Porsolt forced swim test. In addition, we investigated the potential antidepressant role of the combination of melatonin and citalopram (MLTCITAL), its type of pharmacological interaction on depressive behavior, and its effect on hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we found decreased immobility behavior in mice treated with melatonin (29%), survival (>39%), and the absolute number of -associated new neurons (>53%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These results indicate that the MLTCITAL combination exerts synergism to induce an antidepressant-like action that could be related to the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This outcome opens the opportunity of using melatonin to promote behavioral benefits and hippocampal neurogenesis in depression and also supports the use of the MLTCITAL combination as an alternative to treat depression.

  9. Effects of the SSRI citalopram on behaviours connected to stress and reproduction in Endler guppy, Poecilia wingei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, K Håkan; Ask, Katarina; Olsén, Hanna; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been identified in high levels in effluents from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP) at concentrations high enough to give pharmacological effects in fish. In humans SSRIs are used in the treatment of depression and they have anxiolytic effects. In the present study we exposed Endler guppy (Poecilia wingei) of both sexes to citalopram that showed the highest concentrations of SSRIs in STP effluents and studied reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. Male courting behaviours were not affected compared to control fish after 14-28 days exposure to 1 μg L(-1). In two experiments exposing both sexes to 0.2, 2.3 or 15 μg L(-1) for 21 days, fish exposed to the two highest doses showed anxiolytic effects when placed in a novel environment (novel tank diving test, NT). Males were only affected by exposure to 15 μg L(-1). They had significantly longer latency to explore the upper half of the aquarium, more visits and longer time spent in the upper half, and showed less bottom freezing behaviour, all markers of anxiolytic behaviour. In females exposure to 2.3 or 15 μg L(-1) significantly increased freezing behaviour, while no effects on other behaviour variables were observed. No effects on shoaling behaviour could be discerned. These results show that citalopram have anxiolytic effects on guppy fish and thus affect ecologically relevant behaviours of importance to survival of fish.

  10. Renal histopathology in toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with tert-butyl alcohol administered in drinking water to F344 rats: a pathology working group review and re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Gordon C; Bruner, Richard H; Cohen, Samuel M; Pletcher, John M; Regan, Karen S

    2011-04-01

    An independent Pathology Working Group (PWG) re-evaluated the kidney changes in National Toxicology Program (NTP) toxicology/carcinogenicity studies of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in F344/N rats to determine possible mode(s) of action underlying renal tubule tumors in male rats at 2-years. In the 13-week study, the PWG confirmed that the normal pattern of round hyaline droplets in proximal convoluted tubules was replaced by angular droplet accumulation, and identified precursors of granular casts in the outer medulla, changes typical of alpha(2u)-globulin (α(2u)-g) nephropathy. In the 2-year study, the PWG confirmed the NTP observation of increased renal tubule tumors in treated male groups. Linear papillary mineralization, another hallmark of the α(2u)-g pathway was present only in treated male rats. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) was exacerbated in high-dose males and females, with a relationship between advanced grades of CPN and renal tumor occurrence. Hyperplasia of the papilla lining was a component of CPN in both sexes, but there was no pelvic urothelial hyperplasia. High-dose females showed no TBA-related nephrotoxicity. The PWG concluded that both α(2u)-g nephropathy and exacerbated CPN modes of action were operative in TBA renal tumorigenicity in male rats, neither of which has relevance for human cancer risk.

  11. A Group-Administered social Skills Training for 8- to 12- Year-Old, high-Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evaluation of its Effectiveness in a Naturalistic Outpatient Treatment Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Anne; Muris, Peter; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-11-01

    A social skills training (SST) for high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in an outpatient setting using a combined between- and within-subject design in which SST and a waiting list condition were compared. According to parents and teachers, the SST produced greater improvement of social skills than the waiting list, and these effects were maintained at 3 months follow-up. No between-group effects were found for loneliness, although in general scores on this outcome measure decreased from pre- to follow-up. The effects of SST were unaffected by social anxiety, ADHD symptoms, Theory of Mind, or desire for social interaction. Altogether, SST seems an effective intervention for high-functioning children with ASD that can be applied in daily clinical practice.

  12. Effects of citalopram and escitalopram on fMRI response to affective stimuli in healthy volunteers selected by serotonin transporter genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michael E; Lauriat, Tara L; Lowen, Steven B; Churchill, Jeffrey H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-09-30

    This study was designed to assess whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following antidepressant administration (pharmaco-fMRI) is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in patterns of activation between enantiomers of the same compound. Healthy adult males (n=11) participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial with three medication periods during which they received citalopram (racemic mixture), escitalopram (S-citalopram alone), or placebo for 2 weeks. All participants had high expression serotonin transporter genotypes. An fMRI scan that included passive viewing of overt and covert affective faces and affective words was performed after each medication period. Activation in response to overt faces was greater following escitalopram than following citalopram in the right insula, thalamus, and putamen when the faces were compared with a fixation stimulus. For the rapid covert presentation, a greater response was observed in the left middle temporal gyrus in the happy versus fearful contrast following escitalopram than following citalopram. Thus, the combination of genomics and fMRI was successful in discriminating between two very similar drugs. However, the pattern of activation observed suggests that further studies are indicated to understand how to optimally combine the two techniques.

  13. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels; Le Lay, Agathe; Hemels, Michiel E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path decision analytic model with a 6-month horizon was used. All patients started at the primary care path and were referred to outpatient or inpatient secondary care in the case of insufficient response to treatment. Model inputs included drug-specific probabilities derived from systematic literature review, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS escitalopram (64.1%) than citalopram (58.9%). From both perspectives, the total expected cost per successfully treated patient was lower for escitalopram (DKK 22,323 healthcare, DKK 72,399 societal) than for citalopram (DKK 25,778 healthcare, DKK 87,786 societal). Remission rates and costs were similar for escitalopram and venlafaxine. Robustness of the findings was verified in multivariate sensitivity analyses. For patients in primary care, escitalopram appears to be a cost-effective alternative to (generic) citalopram, with greater clinical benefit and cost-savings, and similar in cost-effectiveness to venlafaxine.

  14. Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Hallgren, S;

    2016-01-01

    to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg...

  15. High- and low-affinity binding of S-citalopram to the human serotonin transporter mutated at 20 putatively important amino acid positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Per; Wiborg, Ove

    2005-01-01

    of presumed importance. Binding of S-citalopram, both to the high-affinity-binding site and to the allosteric binding site, was measured in these mutants with the purpose of investigating the connection between the two binding sites. The amino acid substitutions did not introduce large changes in the two...

  16. CB-1 receptors modulate the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram on extracellular serotonin levels in the rat prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, Jelle; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.; Hofland, Corry M.; Westerink, Ben H. C.

    2011-01-01

    A large percentage of depressed individuals use drugs of abuse, like cannabis. This study investigates the impact of cannabis on the pharmacological effects of the antidepressant citalopram. Using microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex of rats we monitored serotonin levels before and after cannabino

  17. Association between tryptophan hydroxylase-2 genotype and the antidepressant effect of citalopram and paroxetine on immobility time in the forced swim test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Osipova, Daria V; Kulikov, Victor A; Popova, Nina K

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is the rate limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis in the brain. The 1473G allele of the C1473G polymorphism in mTPH2 gene is associated with reduced enzyme activity and serotonin synthesis rate in the mouse brain. Here, the influence of the 1473G allele on the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), citalopram (2.5 or 5.0mg/kg) and paroxetine (5.0 or 10.0mg/kg), in the forced swim test was studied using B6-1473G and B6-1473C congenic mouse lines with the 1473G (decreased TPH2 activity) or 1473C (normal TPH2 activity) alleles, respectively, transferred to the genome of C57BL/6 mouse strain. Paroxetine (5.0 or 10.0mg/kg) and citalopram (2.5 or 5.0mg/kg) decreased immobility time in B6-1473C mice, while both doses of paroxetine and 2.5mg/kg of citaloprame did not alter immobility time in B6-1473G mice. However, 5.0mg/kg of citalopram reduced immobility in B6-1473G mice. The results provided genetic evidence of moderate association between 1473G allele and reduced sensitivity to SSRIs in mice.

  18. “Positive allosteric modulation of AMPA receptors differentially modulates the behavioural effects of citalopram in mouse models of antidepressant and anxiolytic action”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Larsen, Maria; Madsen, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (0-10 mg/kg) was investigated in mice, using the APAM LY451646 (0-3 mg/kg). Antidepressant-like effects were assessed with the forced swim test (FST), while anxiolytic-like effects were tested with the elevated zero maze (EZM) and the marble burying test (MBT...

  19. CB-1 receptors modulate the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram on extracellular serotonin levels in the rat prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, Jelle; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.; Hofland, Corry M.; Westerink, Ben H. C.

    2011-01-01

    A large percentage of depressed individuals use drugs of abuse, like cannabis. This study investigates the impact of cannabis on the pharmacological effects of the antidepressant citalopram. Using microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex of rats we monitored serotonin levels before and after cannabino

  20. 小剂量利培酮强化抗抑郁剂治疗双相抑郁发作的疗效和安全性研究%Efficacy and safety of low dosage risperidone added on valproate and citalopram in the treatment of acute bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 王刚; 马辛

    2014-01-01

    目的考察小剂量利培酮强化抗抑郁剂治疗对双相抑郁发作的疗效和安全性。方法符合入组标准的住院患者,先接受2周的丙戊酸钠( valproate,VPA)合并西酞普兰( citalopram,CIT)治疗。2周末相对于基线的蒙哥马利抑郁量表( Montgomery and Asberg Depression Scale,MADRS)减分率0.05)。 CGI-I 2组对比,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。随机治疗第1周末BPRS阳性因子评分VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),显示VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组在改善阳性精神病性症状方面起效更快。在随机治疗第2周,VPA+CIT+RIS组有效率为66.0%,VPA+CIT组为33.3%,显示VPA+CIT+RIS组较VPA+CIT组起效更快。结论 VPA+CIT+RIS与VPA+CIT治疗双相抑郁发作均安全有效。在快速起效及降低转相风险方面,VPA+CIT+RIS组优于VPA+CIT组。%Objective To evaluate the augmentation efficacy and safety of low dosage risperidone, added on the usual treatment ( valproate and citalopram) in the acute treatment of bipolar depression. Methods A total of 46 inpatients with a diagnostic criteria for acute depression episode with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV-TR were first given valproate and citalopram treatment. The subjects who achieve little clinical response( i. e. reduction from baseline in total MADRS score by<50%) at the end of 2-week will enter into the randomized open-label 6-week treatment phase. The eligible subjects will be randomized to treatment with valproate & citalopram or valproate & citalopram & risperidone in a 1:1 ratio. Efficacy rating scales to be used in the study include MADRS, YMRS, BPRS( total score and positive subscale), CGI-S, and CGI-I. The evaluations of safety and tolerability include SAS, treatment-emergent mania, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs , ECG, and adverse events reports. Results At the end of treatment, the scores of MADRS, BPRS, GIC-I, and CGI-S in both treatment groups decreased significantly compared

  1. Effect of desipramine and citalopram treatment on forced swimming test-induced changes in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Jeong Min; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-05-01

    Recent study demonstrates antidepressant-like effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the forced swimming test (FST), but less is known about whether antidepressant treatments alter levels of CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) in the FST. To explore this possibility, we assessed the treatment effects of desipramine and citalopram, which inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into the presynaptic terminals, respectively, on changes in levels of CART-IR before and after the test swim in mouse brain. Levels of CART-IR in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were significantly increased before the test swim by desipramine and citalopram treatments. This increase in CART-IR in the AcbSh, dBNST, and PVN before the test swim remained elevated by desipramine treatment after the test swim, but this increase in these brain areas returned to near control levels after test swim by citalopram treatment. Citalopram, but not desipramine, treatment increased levels of CART-IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the locus ceruleus (LC) before the test swim, and this increase was returned to control levels after the test swim in the CeA, but not in the LC. These results suggest common and distinct regulation of CART by desipramine and citalopram treatments in the FST and raise the possibility that CART in the AcbSh, dBNST, and CeA may be involved in antidepressant-like effect in the FST.

  2. Clinical doses of citalopram or reboxetine differentially modulate passive and active behaviors of female Wistar rats with high or low immobility time in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Serrano, Ana Gisela; Vila-Luna, María Leonor; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando José; Heredia-López, Francisco José; Góngora-Alfaro, José Luis; Pineda, Juan Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The sensitivity of immobility time (IT) to antidepressant-drugs differs in rats expressing high or low motor activity during the forced swimming test (FST). However, whether this heterogeneity is expressed after the administration of the most selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and SNRIs, respectively) is unknown. We compared the influence of either the SSRI citalopram or the SNRI reboxetine with the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on two subgroups of female Wistar rats expressing high IT (HI; at or above the mean value) or low IT (LI; below the mean) during the initial 5 min of the first session of the FST. None of the tested drugs increased motor activity in the open field test. When vehicle was applied to either HI or LI rats, IT increased in the second session of the FST. This increment concurred with a simultaneous climbing time (CT) decrement. When amitriptyline (15 mg/kg) was tested the CT increased for both HI and LI rats. This increment was accompanied by an IT decrement in HI and LI rats. Reboxetine (0.16 or 1 mg/kg) precluded IT and CT changes in both HI and LI rats and produced a swimming time reduction. Citalopram (0.4, 1, and 3 mg/kg) essentially mimicked the influence of reboxetine on the IT and CT in LI rats, as well as in HI rats, but in the latter case only at 3 mg/kg. Yet, at the dose of 10 mg/kg citalopram lacked this effect in both subgroups. No differences were detected when the IT of LI rats was evaluated with citalopram (3 mg/kg) during estrus or diestrus stage. These results show that clinical doses of citalopram produced an antidepressant-like effect selectively in LI rats, while amitriptyline or reboxetine produced this effect in both LI and HI animals.

  3. Danish physicians' preferences for prescribing escitalopram over citalopram and sertraline to treatment-naïve patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Karen Killerup; Glintborg, Dorte; Moreno, Søren Ilsøe

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether general practitioners, hospital physicians and specialized practitioners in psychiatry have similar preferences for initiating treatment with expensive serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). METHODS: All first-time prescriptions for the SSRIs escitalopram....... Of the treatment-naïve patients, 19 % were initially prescribed escitalopram. Hospital physicians prescribed escitalopram to 34 % of their treatment-naïve patients, while practitioners specialized in psychiatry prescribed it to 25 %, and general practitioners prescribed it to 17 %. General practitioners, however......, were responsible for initiating 87 % of all treatment-naïve patients. CONCLUSION: The most expensive SSRI, escitalopram, is prescribed as first choice to one in five patients receiving their first antidepressant of escitalopram, citalopram or sertraline. General practitioners made the bulk of all first...

  4. Brief, unidimensional melancholia rating scales are highly sensitive to the effect of citalopram and may have biological validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Bech, Per; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most depression rating scales are multidimensional and the resulting heterogeneity may impede identification of coherent biomarkers. The aim of this study was to compare the psychometric performance of the multidimensional 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and the 30......-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C30) to that of their unidimensional six-item melancholia subscales (HAM-D6 and IDS-C6). METHODS: A total of 2242 subjects from level 1 (citalopram) of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR* study were included in the analysis....... Symptom change, response and remission rates were compared for HAM-D6 versus HAM-D17 and for IDS-C6 versus IDS-C30. The changes in total scores on these scales were compared to the change in Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLES-Q) score using correlation analysis. RESULTS...

  5. [18F]altanserin binding to human 5HT2A receptors is unaltered after citalopram and pindolol challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, L. H.; Adams, K. H.; Yndsgaard, S;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop an experimental paradigm for the study of serotonergic neurotransmission in humans using positron emission tomography and the 5-HT2A selective radioligand [18F]altanserin. [18F]altanserin studies were conducted in seven subjects using the bolus...... subjects as a constant infusion for 20 minutes. To reduce 5-HT1A-mediated autoinhibition of cortical 5-HT release, four of the seven subjects were pretreated with the partial 5-HT1A agonist pindolol for 3 days at an increasing oral dose (25 mg on the day of scanning). In each subject, the baseline...... condition (120 to 180 minutes) was compared with the stimulated condition (195 to 300 minutes). Despite a pronounced increase in plasma prolactin and two subjects reporting hot flushes compatible with an 5-HT-induced adverse effect, cortical [18F]altanserin binding was insensitive to the citalopram...

  6. Comparison of quality of induction of anaesthesia between intramuscularly administered ketamine, intravenously administered ketamine and intravenously administered propofol in xylazine premedicated cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Dzikiti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of induction of general anesthesia produced by ketamine and propofol, 2 of the most commonly used anaesthetic agents in cats, was assessed. Eighteen cats admitted for elective procedures were randomly assigned to 3 groups and then premedicated with xylazine 0.75 mg/kg intramuscularly before anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 15 mg/kg intramuscularly (KetIM group, ketamine 10 mg/kg intravenously (KetIV group or propofol 4 mg/kg intravenously (PropIV group. Quality of induction of general anaesthesia was determined by scoring ease of intubation, degree of struggling, and vocalisation during the induction period. The quality of induction of anaesthesia of intramuscularly administered ketamine was inferior to that of intravenously administered ketamine, while intravenously administered propofol showed little difference in quality of induction from ketamine administered by both the intramuscular and intravenous routes. There were no significant differences between groups in the ease of intubation scores, while vocalisation and struggling were more common in cats that received ketamine intramuscularly than in those that received intravenously administered ketamine or propofol for induction of anaesthesia. Laryngospasms occurred in 2 cats that received propofol. The heart rates and respiratory rates decreased after xylazine premedication and either remained the same or decreased further after induction for all 3 groups, but remained within normal acceptable limits. This study indicates that the 3 regimens are associated with acceptable induction characteristics, but administration of ketamine intravenously is superior to its administration intramuscularly and laryngeal desensitisation is recommended to avoid laryngospasms.

  7. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo Resposta das dimensões dos sintomas no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo ao tratamento com citalopram ou placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan J Stein

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder lie on discrete dimensions. Relatively little work has, however, explored the relationship between such factors and response to pharmacotherapy. METHOD: Data from a multi-site randomized placebo-controlled study of citalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder were analyzed. Factor analysis of individual items and symptom categories of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist were undertaken, and the impact of symptom dimensions on treatment outcomes was analysed. RESULTS: Factor analysis of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist individual items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, aggressive/sexual/religious, hoarding/symmetry, and somatic/hypochondriacal. Hoarding/symmetry was associated with male gender, longer duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder and early onset, whereas contamination/cleaning was associated with female gender. Citalopram was more effective than placebo, but high scores on the symmetry/hoarding and contamination/cleaning subscales predicted worse outcome at the end of study while high scores on the aggressive/religious/sexual subscale predicted better outcome. Factor analysis of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist symptom clusters yielded a 4 factor solution, but confirmed that symmetry/ordering was associated with male gender, early onset, and long duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder while high scores on the hoarding subscale predicted worse response to pharmacotherapy. CONCLUSION: Citalopram shows good efficacy across the range of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions. The relatively worse response of symmetry/hoarding to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is consistent with other evidence that this symptom dimension is mediated by the dopamine system. There may be associations between symmetry/hoarding, male gender, early onset, tics, and particular

  8. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 by citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, U; Gram, L F; Vistisen, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pharmacokinetic study was to investigate the dose-dependent inhibition of model substrates for CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 by four marketed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine. METHODS: The study...... by sparteine (CYP2D6), mephenytoin (CYP2C19) and caffeine (CYP1A2) tests. Fluoxetine was given at 3-week intervals because of the long half-life of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine. Citalopram, fluoxetine and paroxetine were given in doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg and fluvoxamine was given in doses...... after fluoxetine intake, although no volunteers changed phenotype from extensive metabolisers to poor metabolisers. Three of the six volunteers changed phenotype from extensive metabolisers to poor metabolisers after intake of 40 or 80 mg paroxetine. There was a statistically significant increase...

  9. Pharmaceutical-Oriented Selective Synthesis of Mononitriles and Dinitriles Directly from Methyl(hetero)arenes: Access to Chiral Nitriles and Citalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Hong-Xing; Yao, Chuan-Zhi; Sun, Bing-Feng; Kang, Yan-Biao

    2016-03-16

    A pharmaceutical-oriented, transition-metal-free, cyanide-free one-step direct transformation of methylarenes to aryl nitriles is described. For the dimethylarenes, the selectivity can be well-controlled to form mononitriles or dinitriles. Enantioenriched nitriles can also be synthesized by this method. As a pharmaceutically practical method, the antidepressant drug citalopram was synthesized from cheap and commercially abundant m-xylene on a gram scale in high yield, avoiding transition-metal residues and toxic cyanides.

  10. 度洛西汀、西肽普兰对伴躯体疼痛症状的抑郁症患者P物质的影响%Effects of Duloxetine and Citalopram on Substance P in Major Depression Patients with Somatic Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何其华

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察比较度洛西汀、西肽普兰对伴有躯体疼痛症状的抑郁症患者血浆P物质水平的影响。方法伴有躯体疼痛症状的抑郁症患者随机分组,分别接受度洛西汀(60 mg/d,n=25),西肽普兰(20~40 mg/d,n=25)治疗,于治疗前、治疗4、8周末分别测定血浆P物质水平。结果①度洛西汀组治疗4、8周末的血浆P物质水平均较治疗前显著下降( t=2.095,3.504;P=0.046,0.003);西肽普兰组治疗8周末,血浆P物质水平较治疗前显著下降( t=2.170, P=0.040);②治疗前、治疗4周末,度洛西汀组、西肽普兰组血浆P物质水平无显著差异;治疗8周末,度洛西汀组血浆P物质水平显著低于西肽普兰组(t=2.030,P=0.047)。结论度洛西汀、西肽普兰均可使伴躯体疼痛症状的抑郁症患者血浆SP水平下降,但度洛西汀起效更快、作用更强。%Objective To investigate the effect of duloxetine and citalopram on substance P in major depression patients with somatic pain.Methods Depressed inpatients with pain symptom of body were randomly divided into two groups treated with duloxetine (60mg/d,n=25) or citalopram(20~40mg/d,n=25) and measured by serum SP obtained from external jugular vein .Results The plasma levels of substance P were significantly reduced after 4,8 weeks duloxetine treatment (t=2.095,3.504;P=0.046,0.003) or 8 weeks citalopram treatment (t=2.170,P=0.040).The plasma levels of substance P showed no significant difference between two groups be -fore and after 4 weeks treatment ,but the plasma levels of substance P were significantly lower in depressed patients treated with duloxe -tine compared to those treated with citalopram (t=2.030,P=0.047).Conclusion Duloxetine or Citalopram should have effects on down-regulating the plasma levels of substance P in major depression patients with somatic pain ,which is rapider and stronger in the former than

  11. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and demethylcitalopram in human whole blood by chiral LC-MS/MS and application in forensic cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2017-01-01

    OH. The analytes were separated on a 250 x 4.6 mm Chirobiotic V, 5 µm column by isocratic elution with methanol:ammonia:acetic acid (1000:1:1) using an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system. Quantification was performed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring......Citalopram is one of the most frequently used antidepressants in Denmark. Citalopram is marketed as a racemic mixture (50:50) of S- and R-enantiomers as well as of the S-enantiomer alone, which is the active enantiomer named escitalopram that processes the inhibitory effects. In this study......, a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the measurement of citalopram and demethylcitalopram enantiomers in whole blood and is applied to forensic cases. Whole blood samples (0.10 g) were extracted with butyl acetate after adjusting the pH with 2 M Na...

  12. Utility of eosin Y as a complexing reagent for the determination of citalopram hydrobromide in commercial dosage forms by fluorescence spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Syed Najmul Hejaz; Al-Fazari, Ahlam; Al-Badaei, Munira; Al-Mahrazi, Ruqiya

    2015-12-01

    An accurate, selective and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of citalopram hydrobromide in commercial dosage forms. The method was based on the formation of a fluorescent ion-pair complex between citalopram hydrobromide and eosin Y in the presence of a disodium hydrogen phosphate/citric acid buffer solution of pH 3.4 that was extractable in dichloromethane. The extracted complex showed fluorescence intensity at λem = 554 nm after excitation at 259 nm. The calibration curve was linear over at concentrations of 2.0-26.0 µg/mL. Under optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The effect of common excipients used as additives was tested and the tolerance limit calculated. The limit of detection for the proposed method was 0.121 μg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of citalopram hydrobromide in commercial dosage forms. The results were compared with the reference RP-HPLC method.

  13. Contrast analysis of Escitalopram and Citalopram in treatment of 120 cases with generalized anxiety disorder%艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗广泛性焦虑障碍120例临床对照分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅芬; 吴迎春

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore clinical effects of Escitalopram and Citalopram in treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, and provide a reference for future clinical work. Methods:According to different treatment methods, 120 patients with generalized anx-iety disorder were divided into control group and observation group. The cases in control group were treated with Citalopram, while those in observation group were given Escitalopram. The clinical effects and adverse reactions of the two groups were observed after the treatment. Results: There were significant differences in the Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) scores at the 2nd, 4th, and 6th week-ends of the treatment between the two groups (P<0. 05). At the 6th weekends of the treatment, the total effective rates of Escitalopram group and Citalopram group were 91. 7% and 80. 0% , respectively; and the difference was significant (P<0. 05). The incidences of the adverse reactions of Escitalopram group were significantly lower than those of Citalopram group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05). Conclusions: Escitalopram in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder has good clinical effects, less ad-verse reactions, and is safe and effective. Therefore, it is worthy of promotion.%目的:探究艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗广泛性焦虑障碍的临床效果,为今后的临床工作提供参考依据。方法:选取广泛性焦虑障碍患者120例,按照治疗方法的不同分为对照组与观察组,对照组患者给予西酞普兰治疗,观察组患者给予艾司西酞普兰治疗,观察两组患者治疗后的临床效果及不良反应。结果:治疗第2、4、6周末,两组患者 HAMA 比较差异显著(P<0.01);治疗6周末,艾司西酞普兰组的总有效率为91.7%,西酞普兰组的总有效率为80.0%,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。艾司西酞普兰组患者的不良反应明显低于西酞普兰组(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义。

  14. A comparative study of escitalopram vs.citalopram in improving depressive symptoms of patients with epilepsy.%艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰改善癫痫发作患者抑郁症状的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓静; 张艳; 李翠鸾; 王旸

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰改善癫痫发作患者抑郁症状的效果.方法 将158例伴发抑郁症状的癫痫发作患者随机分为研究组(80例)和对照组(78例),研究组给予艾司西酞普兰系统治疗,对照组给予西酞普兰系统治疗,疗程均为4周.入组患者应用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)与不良反应量表(TESS)在基线及治疗后第1、2、4周末分别评定疗效与不良反应.结果 与基线相比,研究组HAMD评分在第1周末即有显著性降低(P<0.05),而对照组HAMD评分在第2周末才有显著性降低(P<0.05).在治疗后的第1、2、4周末,研究组HAMD评分均低于对照组(P<0.05).在治疗后的第4周末,研究组临床整体疗效优于对照组(P<0.05).两组均未出现严重不良反应.结论 艾司西酞普兰和西酞普兰均可有效、安全地改善癫痫发作患者的抑郁症状,而艾司西酞普兰起效更快,疗效更好.%Objective To explore efficacy of escitalopram vs. citalopram in improving depressive symptoms of patients with epilepsy. Methods A total of 158 epilepsy patients with depressive symptoms were randomly divided into study group (80 cases) and control group (78 cases) treated with escitalopram and citalopram respectively for 4 weeks. The efficacy and side effects were assessed with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) at baseline and the end of the 1st, 2nd and 4 th week of treatment. Results Compared with the baseline, the total scores of HAMD in study group decreased significantly at the 1 st weekend (P < 0. 05 ) , while the significance appeared till the 2nd weekend in control group (P < 0. 05). The scores of HAMD in study group were significantly lower than those in control group at the 1st, 2nd and 4th weekend of treatment (P <0. 05). The global efficacy in study group was better than that in control group at the end of the treatment (P < 0. 05). No severe side effects happened in

  15. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program.......The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program....

  16. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State...

  17. 西酞普兰治疗早泄的临床观察%Efficacy of citalopram on premature ejaculation: A clinical observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商学军; 耿强; 张凯; 夏欣一; 邵永; 黄宇烽

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨西酞普兰治疗早泄的临床疗效和安全性. 方法:将2011年5月至2012年5月男科门诊就诊的80例早泄患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组40例.治疗组每天口服西酞普兰20 mg,对照组口服安慰剂,记录治疗前、治疗2周和4周后患者阴道内射精潜伏时间(IELT)和性交满意度分值. 结果:治疗组治疗2、4周后IELT分别为(5.64±1.31) min和(7.12 ±1.56)min,均比治疗前[(0.91±0.18) min]明显延长(P均<0.01),且西酞普兰治疗4周后的IELT明显高于2周后(P<0.01);治疗组治疗2、4周后性交满意度分别为(6.1±1.3)分和(6.3±1.1)分,与治疗前[(2.5±0.8)分]相比有明显提高(P<0.01),而治疗2周和4周后性交满意度无显著性差异(P>0.05).对照组治疗2、4周后IELT和性交满意度分别为(1.02±0.24) min、1.01±0.21 min和(3.0±1.1)分、(3.1±1.3)分,与治疗前[(0.95±0.17) min和(3.2±1.2)分]比较,均无显著性差异(P均>0.05). 结论:每天口服西酞普兰20 mg,对早泄患者IELT和性交满意度均有明显改善,西酞普兰治疗早泄具有较好的临床疗效和安全性.%To investigate the clinical efficacy and reliability of citalopram in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Methods: We included in this study 80 patients who came to our andrological clinic for premature ejaculation from May 2011 to May 2012, and randomly assigned them to a treatment and a control group of equal number to receive citalopram (20 mg/d) and placebo, respectively. We recorded the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and sexual intercourse satisfaction scores before and at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, and compared them between the two groups. Results: In the treatment group, IELT was significantly longer at 2 and 4 weeks than before treatment ([5. 64 ± 1. 31 ] and [7. 12 ± 1.56] min vs [0.91 ±0. 18] min, P 0.05). The control group showed no significant differences in the mean IELT and sexal intercourse satisfaction scores

  18. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  19. Glycine and a glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC) SNP as citalopram/escitalopram response biomarkers in depression: pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y; Hebbring, S; Zhu, H; Jenkins, G D; Biernacka, J; Snyder, K; Drews, M; Fiehn, O; Zeng, Z; Schaid, D; Mrazek, D A; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Weinshilboum, R M

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an important class of drugs used in the treatment of MDD. However, many patients do not respond adequately to SSRI therapy. We used a pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomic research strategy to identify citalopram/escitalopram treatment outcome biomarkers. Metabolomic assay of plasma samples from 20 escitalopram remitters and 20 nonremitters showed that glycine was negatively associated with treatment outcome (P = 0.0054). This observation was pursued by genotyping tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genes encoding glycine synthesis and degradation enzymes, using 529 DNA samples from SSRI-treated MDD patients. The rs10975641 SNP in the glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC) gene was associated with treatment outcome phenotypes. Genotyping for rs10975641 was carried out in 1,245 MDD patients in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, and its presence was significant (P = 0.02) in DNA taken from these patients. These results highlight a possible role for glycine in SSRI response and illustrate the use of pharmacometabolomics to "inform" pharmacogenomics.

  20. A novel voltammetric sensor for citalopram based on multiwall carbon nanotube/(poly(p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid)/β-cyclodextrin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand2013@gmail.com; Akbari, Arezoo

    2016-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTS) coated with poly p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid/β-cyclodextrin (p-ABSA/β-CD) film was used as an effective strategy for modification of the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electrochemical study and determination of citalopram (CT) were investigated at the p (p-ABSA)/β-CD/MWCNT/GC using cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric techniques. The results indicate that the p (p-ABSA)/β-CD/MWCNT/GC significantly enhanced the oxidation peak current of CT. The modified electrode was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV).The fabricated electrochemical sensor exhibits a fast and reversible linear response toward CT within the concentration ranges of 90 nM–1 μM, 1–11 μM and 11–100 μM with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 and detection limit of 44 nM. The resulting functionalized polymer film features interesting electrochemical properties such good recovery, reproducibility and selectivity toward CT. The applicability of the proposed sensor was tested by determination of CT in pharmaceutical combinations and human body fluids. - Highlights: • A novel voltammetric sensor for CT based on p (p-ABSA)/β-CD/MWCNT/GC • Electrochemical study of CT was investigated using CV and DPASV techniques. • This sensor is made easy with good sensitivity and reproducibility. • The method was developed in real sample in the presence of matrix effect.

  1. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan Sophia; Cai, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT) was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um). A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD), methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%), linearity (regression coefficients close to 1), limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S)-CIT), and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S)-CIT).

  2. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfeng Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um. A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD, methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%, linearity (regression coefficients close to 1, limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S-CIT, and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S-CIT.

  3. Renal and hepatic histopathology of intraperitoneally administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... The biochemistry and histopathology of intraperitoneally administered potassium ... and necrosis of crops in birds. ..... The stressful behavior of respiratory impairment .... specific bile acid transport system) which is responsible.

  4. Validated Densitometric TLC-Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of (R)- and (S)-Citalopram and its Related Substances Using Macrocyclic Antibiotic as a Chiral Selector: Application to the Determination of Enantiomeric Purity of Escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Suzan Mahmoud

    2012-03-01

    A novel economic procedure for the simultaneous stereospecific separation and analysis of (R)- and (S)-citalopram and its related substances or impurities has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 F254 plates with acetonitrile: methanol: water (15:2.5:2.5: v/v/v) as a mobile phase containing 1.5 mM norvancomycin or 2.5 mM vancomycin as a selector at ambient temperature. (R)- and (S)-citalopram enantiomers in presence of its related substances; citalopram citadiol and citalopram N-oxide were well separated with significant Rf values of 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.85 ± 0.02, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 0.22 ± 0.02, respectively. The spots were detected with either iodine vapor, or by use of a UV lamp followed by densitometric measurement at 239 nm. All variables affecting the resolution, such as concentration of chiral selectors, mobile phase system at different temperatures and pH-values were investigated and the conditions were optimized. Calibration plots for analysis of (R)- and (S)-enantiomers were linear in the range of 0.2-16.8 μg/10 μl (R≥0.9994, n=6) with acceptable precision (%RSDescitalopram, respectively). The limit of detection and quantification were 0.08 μg/10 μl and 0.25 μg/10 μl, respectively, for (R)- and (S)-citalopram. The proposed method is simple, selective, and robust and can be applied for quantitative determination of enantiomeric purity of (R)- and (S)-citalopram (escitalopram) as well as the related impurities in drug substances and pharmaceutical preparations. The method can be useful to investigate adulteration of pure isomer with the cheep racemic form.

  5. An allosteric binding site at the human serotonin transporter mediates the inhibition of escitalopram by R-citalopram: kinetic binding studies with the ALI/VFL-SI/TT mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huailing; Hansen, Kasper B; Boyle, Noel J; Han, Kiho; Muske, Galina; Huang, Xinyan; Egebjerg, Jan; Sánchez, Connie

    2009-10-25

    The human serotonin transporter (hSERT) has primary and allosteric binding sites for escitalopram and R-citalopram. Previous studies have established that the interaction of these two compounds at a low affinity allosteric binding site of hSERT can affect the dissociation of [(3)H]escitalopram from hSERT. The allosteric binding site involves a series of residues in the 10th, 11th, and 12th trans-membrane domains of hSERT. The low affinity allosteric activities of escitalopram and R-citalopram are essentially eliminated in a mutant hSERT with changes in some of these residues, namely A505V, L506F, I507L, S574T, I575T, as measured in dissociation binding studies. We confirm that in association binding experiments, R-citalopram at clinically relevant concentrations reduces the association rate of [(3)H]escitalopram as a ligand to wild type hSERT. We demonstrate that the ability of R-citalopram to reduce the association rate of escitalopram is also abolished in the mutant hSERT (A505V, L506F, I507L, S574T, I575T), along with the expected disruption the low affinity allosteric function on dissociation binding. This suggests that the allosteric binding site mediates both the low affinity and higher affinity interactions between R-citalopram, escitalopram, and hSERT. Our data add an additional structural basis for the different efficacies of escitalopram compared to racemic citalopram reported in animal studies and clinical trials, and substantiate the hypothesis that hSERT has complex allosteric mechanisms underlying the unexplained in vivo activities of its inhibitors.

  6. Essential Contributions of Serotonin Transporter Inhibition to the Acute and Chronic Actions of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in the SERT Met172 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackenoff, Alex G; Moussa-Tooks, Alexandra B; McMeekin, Austin M; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Blakely, Randy D

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a common mental illness and a leading cause of disability. The most widely prescribed antidepressant medications are serotonin (5-HT) selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Although there is much support for 5-HT transporter (SERT) antagonism as a basis of antidepressant efficacy, this evidence is indirect and other targets and mechanisms have been proposed. In order to distinguish SERT-dependent and -independent effects of SSRIs, we developed a knock-in mouse model whereby high-affinity interactions of many antidepressants at SERT have been ablated via knock-in substitution (SERT Met172) without disrupting 5-HT recognition or uptake. Here we utilize the C57BL/6J SERT Met172 model to evaluate SERT dependence for the actions of two widely prescribed SSRIs, fluoxetine and citalopram, in tests sensitive to acute and chronic actions of antidepressants. In the tail suspension and forced swim tests, fluoxetine and citalopram fail to reduce immobility in SERT Met172 mice. In addition, SERT Met172 mice are insensitive to chronic fluoxetine and citalopram administration in the novelty induced hypophagia test (NIH) and fail to exhibit enhanced proliferation or survival of hippocampal stem cells. In both acute and chronic studies, SERT Met172 mice maintained sensitivity to paroxetine, an antidepressant that is unaffected by the Met172 mutation. Together, these studies provide definitive support for an essential role of SERT antagonism in the acute and chronic actions of two commonly used SSRIs in these tests, and reinforce the utility of the SERT Met172 model for isolating SERT/5-HT contributions of drug actions in vivo.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of I-125/I-123-labelled analogues of citalopram and escitalopram as potential radioligands for imaging of the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Elfving, Betina; Frokjaer, Vibe G.

    2011-01-01

    Two novel radioligands for the serotonin transporter (SERT), [I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-2) and S-[I-125]{3-[5-iodo-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl]-propyl}-dimethylamine ([I-125]-(S)-2) were synthesized in a ...... of the radioligand in imaging cortical SERT distribution in vivo. These data suggest that the iodine-labelled derivatives of citalopram and escitalopram are not superior to another SPECT tracer for the SERT, namely [I-123] ADAM....

  8. Evaluation of S-[[sup 11]C]citalopram as a radioligand for in vivo labelling of 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, S.P.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Bench, C.J.; Pike, V.W.; Pascali, C.; Cremer, J.E. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit); Dolan, R.J. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    The biologically active S-enantiomer of [N-methyl-[sup 11]C]citalopram was evaluated as a radioligand for in vivo labelling of the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake site in brain, using ex vivo tissue counting in rats and positron emission tomography in man. In rats, the maximal signal for total versus non-specific binding was approx. 2 at 60-120 min after radioligand injection. Subsequent studies in man failed to identify a specific signal over a 90 min scanning period, due to prolonged retention of non-specific label. (author).

  9. Clinical Observation of Citalopram in the Treatment of Depression after Lung Cancer Operation%西酞普兰治疗肺癌术后抑郁症的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振卿; 郭强; 李鹤飞; 王海波; 祖金池; 石林; 张越; 李亚静; 桑文华

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察西酞普兰治疗肺癌术后抑郁症的临床疗效及安全性。方法:选取肺癌术后伴发抑郁症的患者114例,按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,各57例。对照组患者术后给予营养支持、平衡电解质等常规治疗,未服用抗抑郁药物;观察组患者术后口服氢溴酸西酞普兰片20 mg,qd。两组患者均连续治疗6周。观察两组患者临床疗效及治疗前后汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评分、健康调查量表(SF-36)评分,并记录不良反应发生情况。结果:观察组总有效率为87.72%,显著高于对照组的71.93%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者治疗前HAMD评分、HAMA评分及SF-36各项评分和总分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组患者治疗后HAMA评分、HAMD评分显著降低,且观察组显著低于对照组, SF-36各项评分和总分显著升高,且观察组显著高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患者均未见明显不良反应发生。结论:西酞普兰治疗肺癌术后抑郁症的疗效显著,能明显改善患者精神状态和生存质量,且安全性较好。%OBJECTIVE:To observe clinical efficacy and safety of citalopram in the treatment of depression patients after lung cancer operation. METHODS:114 depression patients after lung cancer operation were selected and randomly divided into observa-tion group and control group (n=57). Control group was given routine treatment as nutrition support and electrolyte balance,but had no anti-depression drugs;observation group was given Citalopram tablet 20 mg orally,qd. Two groups were treated for 6 weeks. Clinical efficacy,HAMD and HAMA scores,each score and total score of SF-36 were observed before and after treatment. The occurrence of ADR was recorded. RESULTS:The total effective rate of observation group was 87.72%,which was significant

  10. Clinical efficacy of citalopram on coronary heart disease patients with depressive disorder%西酞普兰治疗冠心病合并抑郁患者的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵清珍; 刘超; 刘刚; 刘坤申

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察西酞普兰对冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心病)合并抑郁症患者治疗后抑郁状态的改变,对高敏CRP (hsCRP)与心血管事件的影响,评估其安全性。方法将120例确诊为冠心病合并抑郁症患者随机分为对照组(n=58)和治疗组(n=62),两组患者均给予冠心病常规治疗加心理干预,治疗组患者加用西酞普兰20 mg/晚,两组患者于治疗前及治疗8周末进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分,测定血浆hsCRP,观察心绞痛发作、 AMI、急性心力衰竭发生情况,及不良药物发生情况。结果治疗8周后,治疗组HAMD评分(7.60±3.49)分,与对照组(20.58±3.20)分比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);两组hsCRP均下降,治疗组hsCRP (2.57±0.64) mg/L,对照组(2.90±0.81) mg/L,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);治疗组心绞痛发作、AMI、急性心力衰竭发生率分别为10%、2%、2%,对照组分别为18%、5%、9%,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。两组治疗前后药物不良反应未见明显差异。结论西酞普兰可以明显改善冠心病症合并抑郁患者的抑郁症状,更显著降低hsCRP水平,降低心血管事件发生率,且药物安全。%Objective To study the efficacy , safety and mechanism of Citalopram on coronary artery disease ( CAD) patients with depressive disorder by observing depressive state , Cardiovascular events and high sensitive CRP (hsCRP).Methods We enrolled 120 CAD patients admitted to our hospital with depres-sive disorder.All patients were randomized to control group ( n=58 ) and treatment group ( n=62 ) for 8 weeks.Both groups were given conventional treatment on CAD combined with psychological intervention , Cita-lopram tablets of 20 mg were additionally supplemented to treatment group every night.Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) and hsCRP of the patients were

  11. Best Practices for Administering Concept Inventories

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2014-01-01

    There are a plethora of concept inventories in physics available for faculty to use, but it is not always clear exactly why you would use these tests, or how you should administer them and interpret the results. These multiple-choice research-based tests about physics concepts are valuable because they allow for standardized comparisons among institutions, instructors, or over time. In order for these comparisons to be meaningful, you should use best practices for administering the tests. Here we discuss best practices for administering concept inventories including background on these types of tests and specifics of how to give them online or in-class. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of different incentives you could give your students, interpretation of scores and common concerns you may have about using concept inventories.

  12. 胶质瘤化疗后周围神经病变西酞普兰联合弥可保治疗的临床疗效和安全性探讨%The clinical efficacy and safety of citalopram and mecobalamin in the treatment of the peripheral neuropathy which is caused after the oxaliplatin chemotherapy in malignant glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    建平; 李卫峰; 姚净; 龚晴勇

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨西酞普兰联合弥可保治疗恶性胶质瘤奥沙利铂化疗后引起周围神经病变的临床疗效和安全性。方法:选取2009-2012年来我院恶性胶质瘤奥沙利铂化疗后引起周围神经病变的患者68例,通过计算机随机分组的方式将其随机分为实验组和对照组,每组均为34例,两组患者均给予相同的基础对症治疗,在此基础上实验组给予西酞普兰联合弥可保治疗,对照组患者给予维生素 B12治疗,观察两组患者的总体治疗有效情况及神经传导速度、不良情况发生情况。结果:实验组患者的总体治疗有效率显著高于对照组(P<0.05),实验组患者的神经传导速度也要显著快于对照组(P<0.05),两组均无显著不良反应发生。结论:西酞普兰联合弥可保治疗恶性胶质瘤奥沙利铂化疗后引起周围神经病变临床疗效显著,安全性高。%Objectives:Obeserve the clinical efficacy and safety of citalopram and mecobalamin in the treatment of the peripheral neuropathy which is caused after the oxaliplatin chemotherapy in malignant glioma. Methods:Choose 68 cases of the peripheral neuropathy disease patients who are caused after the oxaliplatin chemotherapy in malignant glioma at our hospital form 2009 to 2012, random grouping by computer, it can be divided into the experimental group and control group, each group was 34 cases,both of two groups of patients were given the same basic symptomatic treatment,meanwhile the experimental group were treated by citalopram and mecobalamin, and control group were treated with vitamin B12 therapy, observed the overal effective treatment and nerve conduction velocity,the occurrence of adverse events of two groups of patients. Results:the overal treatment efficiency of the experimental group of patients was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05), the nerve conduction velocity of the experimental group of patients was also

  13. 2种西酞普兰制剂的人体生物等效性研究%Study on Bioequivalence of 2 Kinds of Citalopram Preparations in Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天文; 文隽; 潘文; 李艳; 雷宇

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较西酞普兰胶囊与片剂在健康人体内的生物等效性.方法:20名健康志愿者采用双周期交叉试验,单剂量空腹口服西酞普兰胶囊(受试制剂)与西酞普兰片(参比制剂)各40 mg,以高效液相色谱法测定其西酞普兰血药浓度,药-时数据经3p97软件处理,计算主要药动学参数,并进行2种制剂的生物等效性评价.结果:西酞普兰胶囊与片剂的主要药动学参数分别为tmax(36.9±9.1)、(39.3±6.8)h,cmax(68.7±5.6)、(71.8±6.9)μg·L-1,t1/2(4.3±1.1)、(4.6±1.0)h,AUC0~144h(2 418±636)、(2 483±342)μg·h·L-1,AUC0~∞(2 576±561)、(2 742±371)μg·h·L-1.西酞普兰胶囊的相对生物利用度为(98.8±11.4)%.结论:西酞普兰胶囊与片剂具有生物等效性.%OBJECTIVE: To compare the bioequivalence of Citalopram capsules and Citalopram tablets in healthy volunteers. METHODS: In bi-periodic cross-over study, 20 healthy volunteers were given Citalopram capsule 40 mg (test preparation) and Citalopram tablet 40 mg (reference preparation) orally respectively. The blood concentration of citalopram was determined by HPLC and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with 3p97 software. The bioequivalence of 2 kinds of preparations was evaluated. RESULTS: Main pharmacokinetic parameters of Citalopram capsules vs. Citalopram tablets were as follows: tmax(36.9±9.1)h and (39.3 ±6.8)h;Cmax(68.7 ±5.6)ng·L-1 and (71.8 ±6.9)ug-L-1;rM(4.3± l.l)h and (4.6 ±1.0) h; AUC0~144 h(2 418 ±636)μg·h· L-1 and (2 483 ± 342)μg·h·L-1; AUC0~00 were(2 576 ± 561)μg·h·L-1 and (2 742 ± 371) μg·h·L-1. The relative bioavailability of Citalopram capsules was (98.8 ±11.4)%. CONCLUSION: Citalopram capsule and Citalopram tablet are bioequivalent.

  14. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA.

  15. Comparison of total costs of administering calcium polycarbophil and psyllium mucilloid in an institutional setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, R; Cimino, J A; Cooperman, J M; Kugel, R

    1990-01-01

    The total cost of administering calcium polycarbophil per unit dose (two tablets) was compared with that of administering psyllium mucilloid (one packet dissolved in 8 oz of water) in 20 elderly nursing-home residents. Times for printing labels, checking and initialing labels, gathering materials needed, and preparing and administering the medications were recorded during at least 50 observations in each treatment group. Total cost included nurses' and pharmacists' time, materials, and medications. Calcium polycarbophil doses were prepared and administered more quickly (mean, 49.5 sec) than psyllium mucilloid (105.3 sec). The mean cost of preparing and administering a unit dose was 28.2 for calcium polycarbophil tablets and 59.9 for psyllium mucilloid. The results suggest that the use of calcium polycarbophil tablets would save time and money in institutions in which laxatives are frequently administered.

  16. A randomized double-blind study of escitalopram and citalopram in treating major depression%艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的随机、双盲对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕振雷; 张云彪; 祁曙光

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of escitalopram for depressive patients. Method: Forty-two depressive patients were randomized into escitalopram group ( n = 20 ) and citalopram group (n =22) for a 6 weeks double-blind study. 17 items HAMD and treatment emergent symptoms scale were used to assess the effectiveness and safety before treatment and by the end of 1,2,4,and 6 weeks. Results:After 6 weeks of treatment, the HAMD scores decreased from (23.06 ±2.22)and(22.78 ±2.03)to(7.76 ±2.98) and (7.90 ±3. 11) in the escitalopram group and the citalopram group respectively, the effective rate was 80.0% and 77. 3% ,and the curative rate was 50. 0% and 45. 5%. There was no significant difference in the effective and curative rate between the 2 groups (χ2 =0.046,P = 0. 830; χ2 =1.828,P=0.176). No significant difference was found in main side effects between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Escitalopram and citalopram are similarly effective and safe in the treatment of depression, but escitalopram has earlier response.%目的:观察艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的疗效及安全性. 方法:将42例抑郁症患者随机分为艾司西酞普兰组20例(艾司西酞普兰治疗)和西酞普兰组22例(西酞普兰治疗),疗程6周.于治疗前及治疗1、2、4和6周分别采用17项汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定疗效和不良反应. 结果治疗6周,艾司西酞普兰组和西酞普兰组的HAMD总分分别从治疗前(23.06±2.22)分和(22.78 ±2.03)分降至(7.76 ±2.98)分和(7.90±3.11)分;两组有效率分别为80.0%和77.3%(x2=0.046,P=0.830),痊愈率分别为50.0%和45.5%(x2=1.828,P=0.176).两组间不良反应差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论:艾司西酞普兰与西酞普兰抗抑郁疗效相同,但艾司西酞普兰起效更快.

  17. Micelle Enhanced Fluorimetric and Thin Layer Chromatography Densitometric Methods for the Determination of (± Citalopram and its S – Enantiomer Escitalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham A. Taha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two sensitive and validated methods were developed for determination of a racemic mixture citalopram and its enantiomer S-(+ escitalopram. The first method was based on direct measurement of the intrinsic fluorescence of escitalopram using sodium dodecyl sulfate as micelle enhancer. This was further applied to determine escitalopram in spiked human plasma, as well as in the presence of common and co-administerated drugs. The second method was TLC densitometric based on various chiral selectors was investigated. The optimum TLC conditions were found to be sensitive and selective for identification and quantitative determination of enantiomeric purity of escitalopram in drug substance and drug products. The method can be useful to investigate adulteration of pure isomer with the cheap racemic form.

  18. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A structured training program was developed both for endosco...... for sedation, and can be used as basis for further comparison. NAPS for endoscopic procedures is safe when performed by personnel properly trained in airway handling and sedation with propofol, and has considerable advantages compared with conventional sedation for endoscopy....

  19. Antidepressants in Parkinson's disease. Recommendations by the movement disorder study group of the Neurological Association of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, E; Mata, M; López-Manzanares, L; Kurtis, M; Eimil, M; Martínez-Castrillo, J C; Navas, I; Posada, I J; Prieto, C; Ruíz-Huete, C; Vela, L; Venegas, B

    2016-03-19

    Although antidepressants are widely used in Parkinson's disease (PD), few well-designed studies to support their efficacy have been conducted. These clinical guidelines are based on a review of the literature and the results of an AMN movement disorder study group survey. Evidence suggests that nortriptyline, venlafaxine, paroxetine, and citalopram may be useful in treating depression in PD, although studies on paroxetine and citalopram yield conflicting results. In clinical practice, however, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are usually considered the treatment of choice. Duloxetine may be an alternative to venlafaxine, although the evidence for this is less, and venlafaxine plus mirtazapine may be useful in drug-resistant cases. Furthermore, citalopram may be indicated for the treatment of anxiety, atomoxetine for hypersomnia, trazodone and mirtazapine for insomnia and psychosis, and bupropion for apathy. In general, antidepressants are well tolerated in PD. However, clinicians should consider the anticholinergic effect of tricyclic antidepressants, the impact of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on blood pressure, the extrapyramidal effects of antidepressants, and any potential interactions between monoamine oxidase B inhibitors and other antidepressants. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreased sensitivity to thermal pain in rats bred for high anxiety-related behaviour is attenuated by citalopram or diazepam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael Karl; Wigger, Alexandra; Beiderbeck, Daniela; Neumann, Inga D; Landgraf, Rainer; Sauer, Heinrich; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    Complex interactions between pain perception, anxiety and depressive symptoms have repeatedly been described. However, pathophysiological or biochemical mechanisms underlying the alterations of pain perception in patients suffering from anxiety or depression still remain a matter of debate. Thus, we aimed to perform an investigation on pain perception in an animal model of extremes in anxiety-related behaviour, which might provide a tool for future studies. Here, thermal pain thresholds were obtained from rats with a genetic predisposition to high anxiety-related behaviour (HAB), including signs of comorbid depression-like behaviour and from controls (low-anxiety rats (LAB); cross-bred HAB and LAB rats; Wistar rats). Furthermore, the effect of eight-week antidepressive treatment using citalopram and of short-term anxiolytic treatment with diazepam on pain-related behaviour was assessed. Simultaneously, anxiety-related behaviour was monitored. At baseline, HAB animals showed 35% higher thresholds for thermal pain than controls. These were normalized to control levels after eight weeks of continuous citalopram treatment paralleled by a reduction of anxiety-related behaviour, but also acutely after diazepam administration. Overall, thermal pain thresholds in HAB animals are shifted in a similar fashion as seen in patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Antidepressive, as well as anxiolytic treatments, attenuated these differences. As the relative importance of the factors anxiety and depression cannot be derived from this study with certainty, extending these investigations to additional animal models might represent a valuable tool for future investigations concerning the interrelations between anxiety, depression, and pain at a molecular level.

  1. Cardioprotective effect of Volvariella volvacea in streptozotocin administered rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosaimanickam Carmel Punitha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the cardioprotective role of methanol extract of the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea against oxidative stress in hyperglycemic rats. Rats divided into 6 groups were administered with nicotinamide and streptozotocin intraperitoneally, except Group I (control. Group II served as diabetic control. Group III was given glibenclamide. Two groups (IV and V of rats received (200 and 400 mg/kg mushroom extracts orally for 30 days and Group VI received vitamin E (40 mg/kg. After the treatment period, lipid peroxides, carbonyl end products, advanced glycation end products, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants (vitamin C and E were assessed in the heart tissues of experimental animals. Glycosylated hemoglobin was estimated in blood. Electrocardiography recordings of the treated groups were also done. The results showed that mushroom extract treatment reduced the lipid peroxides, advanced glycation end products and protein carbonyls significantly and reversed the altered anti-oxidant enzymes, and the vitamins.

  2. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  3. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  4. Effects of escitalopram, R-citalopram, and reboxetine on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Zhang, Ji-chun; Yao, Wei; Ren, Qian; Yang, Chun; Ma, Min; Han, Mei; Saito, Ryo; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram, its inactive enantiomer R-citalopram, and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine, show anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced model of depression. Pretreatment with escitalopram (1, 3, or 10mg/kg, i.p.) markedly blocked an increase in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), after a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5mg/kg). Furthermore, escitalopram (3 or 10mg/kg) significantly increased the serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) by a single administration of LPS. In contrast, pretreatment with R-citalopram (10mg/kg, i.p.) or reboxetine (10mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the alterations in serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 after LPS administration. Co-administration of reboxetine with escitalopram did not show anti-inflammatory effects. Pretreatment with escitalopram (10mg/kg) significantly attenuated LPS-induced increase of the immobility time in the tail-suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). In contrast, pretreatment with R-citalopram (10mg/kg), or reboxetine (10mg/kg) did not alter LPS-induced increase of immobility time of TST and FST. Interestingly, co-administration of reboxetine with escitalopram did not show antidepressant effect in this model. These findings suggest that escitalopram, but not R-citalopram and reboxetine, has anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in LPS-treated model of depression, and that reboxetine can antagonize the effects of escitalopram in the inflammation model. Therefore, it is likely that serotonergic system plays a key role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced depression.

  5. THE EXCLUSION OF ILEGALLY ADMINISTERED EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Emanuela IONIŢĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Both judicial practice and specialized texts have brought up the problem of what the punishment for breaking the legal provisions in the activity of evidence administration is, if a matter of fact had been presented by means that are not legally specified or if a piece of evidence was administered by means that are legally specified, but with the violation of legal provisions. Romania has adhered to the most important international juridical instruments adopted in the sphere of human rights by the adoption, modification or completion of internal legislation. As such, for the first time in Romanian criminal procedural legislation, a sanction for the exclusion of evidence has been introduced, as a corollary for the principle of legality and of loyalty in administering evidence. The New Criminal Procedure Code provides the sanction of exclusion as well, but this time the legislator didn’t resume his or herself to a mere conceptual regulation of the sanction, providing both a specific invalidation procedure as well as procedural solutions. In the New Criminal Procedure Code it is shown that in the sphere of evidence-showing a set of rules has been introduced that establishes the principle of loyalty in the obtainment of evidence. These rules, that provide the sanction of excluding evidence obtained through illegal or unloyal means, will determined the growth of professionalism in the ranks of the judiciary bodies on the subject of obtaining evidence and, on the other hand, will guarantee the firm upholding of the parties rights to a fair trial. “Truth, like all other good things, may be loved unwisely – may be pursued too keenly – may cost too much…” Lord Justice Sir James Lewis Knight-Bruce ”It is a deeply ingrained value in our democratic system that the ends do not justify the means. In particular, evidence or convictions may, at times, be obtained at too high a price”. – Antonio Lamer Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

  6. Effects of orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-07-01

    The effect of lactoperoxidase (LPO) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis was examined in mice. After 9 d of colitis induction, weight loss, colon shortening, and the histological score were significantly suppressed in mice orally administered LPO (62.5 mg/body/d) as compared to a group administered bovine serum albumin. These results suggest that LPO exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Evaluation of administered dose using portal images in craniospinal irradiation of pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carina Marques; Calçada, Raquel; Rodrigues, Sofia; Barragán, Juan Antonio; Sá, Ana Cravo; Macedo, Ana Paula; de Fátima Monsanto, Maria

    2017-03-21

    This study aimed to assess the administered dose based on portal imaging in craniospinal pediatric irradiation by evaluating cases in which portal images did or did not account for the total administered dose. We also intended to calculate the mean increase in total administered dose. Data were collected from General University Hospital Gregorio Marañón; we evaluated the total dose administered, total dose planned, number of portal images per treatment and corresponding monitor units of two different groups: one in which the dose from portal images is deducted from the total administered dose (D), and another in which it was not (N). We used descriptive statistics to analyze the collected data, including the mean and respective standard deviation. We used the Shapiro-Wilk and Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests and estimated the linear regression coefficients. Patients in group D received a mean dose of 29.00 ± 10.28 cGy based on the verification portal images, a quantity that was deducted from the planned dose to match the total administered dose. Patients in group N received a mean dose of 41.50 ± 30.53 cGy, which was not deducted from the planned dose, evidencing a mean increase of 41.50 ± 30.55 cGy over the total administered dose. The acquisition of the set-up verification portal images, without their inclusion in the total administered dose, reflects an average increase in total dose for craniospinal irradiation of pediatric patients. Subtraction of the monitor units used to acquire the verification images is recommended.

  8. Techniques to administer oral, inhalational, and IV sedation in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Krystyna Harbuz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that light sedation on low-risk American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA groups, that is ASA I, and possibly II, is the safest method for sedation in a dental outpatient setting. Conclusion Formal training is essential to achieve the safe practice of sedation in dentistry or medicine. The appropriate setting for sedation should be determined as there is an increased risk outside the hospital setting. Patients should be adequately assessed and medication titrated appropriately, based on individual requirements.

  9. Safety of florfenicol administered in feed to tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Schleis, Susan M.; Tuomari, Darrell; Endris, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    The safety of Aquaflor® (50% w/w florfenicol [FFC]) incorporated in feed then administered to tilapia for 20 days (2x the recommended duration) at 0, 15, 45, or 75 mg/kg body weight/day (0, 1, 3, or 5x the recommended dose of 15 mg FFC/kg BW/d) was investigated. Mortality, behavioral change, feed consumption, body size, and gross and microscopic lesions were determined. Estimated delivered doses were >96.9% of target. Three unscheduled mortalities occurred but were considered incidental since FFC-related findings were not identified. Feed consumption was only affected during the last 10 dosing days when the 45 and 75 mg/kg groups consumed only 62.5% and 55.3% of the feed offered, respectively. There were significant, dose-dependent reductions in body size in the FFC-dose groups relative to the controls. Treatment-related histopathological findings included increased severity of lamellar epithelial hyperplasia, increased incidence of lamellar adhesions, decreased incidence of lamellar telangiectasis in the gills, increased glycogen-type and lipid-type hepatocellular vacuolation in the liver, decreased lymphocytes, increased blast cells, and increased individual cell necrosis in the anterior kidney, and tubular epithelial degeneration and mineralization in the posterior kidney. These changes are likely to be of minimal clinical relevance, given the lack of mortality or morbidity observed. This study has shown that FFC, when administered in feed to tilapia at the recommended dose (15 mg FFC/kg BW/day) for 10 days would be well tolerated.

  10. The citalopram/5-HTP-induced head shake syndrome is correlated to 5-HT2 receptor affinity and also influenced by other transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnt, J; Hyttel, J; Larsen, J J

    1984-11-01

    Combination of the 5-HT-uptake inhibitor, citalopram, with 1-5-HTP induced a characteristic head shake syndrome in rats. This was blocked by a range of 5-HT antagonists, including the selective 5-HT2 antagonists, ketanserin and pirenperone and was also blocked by the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin and WB 4101, and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine. 1-5-HTP-antagonistic effect was also recorded for 26 neuroleptic drugs. Their inhibitory potencies showed close correlation to 5-HT2-receptor affinity in vitro and, slightly weaker, to alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity. In contrast, no correlation to dopamine D-2 receptor affinity was found, indicating that the cataleptogenic and motility-inhibitory properties of neuroleptics did not unspecifically influence 1-5-HTP-induced head shakes. These were not influenced by a histaminic antagonist, muscarinic antagonist or alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, but were inhibited by beta-adrenoceptor blockers, GABA agonists, a benzodiazepine and morphine. The results indicate that 1-5-HTP-induced head shakes are most sensitive to 5-HT2 antagonists, but that the syndrome is influenced by other neuronal systems. Since 5-HT2 affinity and alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity of many compounds is found concomitantly, caution is needed to evaluate the relative importance of these properties for 1-5-HTP antagonism.

  11. Effects of diazepam, citalopram, methadone and naloxone on PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in the rat social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1998-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) can induce a model psychosis in humans that mimics the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In the social interaction test PCP induces stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in rats, and these behaviours can be inhibited by antipsychotic drugs. In order to further evaluate the predictive validity of this model of schizophrenia the anxiolytic diazepam (0.02-17.5 micromol/kg; 0.005-5.0 mg/kg), the antidepressant citalopram (0.62-19.8 micromol/kg; 0.3-4.0 mg/kg), the opioid agonist methadone (0.36-5.8 micromol/kg; 0.13-2.0 mg/kg) and the opioid antagonist naloxone (0.34-22.0 micromol/kg; 0.13-8.0 mg/kg) were tested as examples of drugs without antipsychotic activity. The experiments demonstrated that these compounds did not specifically inhibit the behavioural effects of PCP. So far only antipsychotic drugs have been able to specifically inhibit the PCP-induced behaviours.

  12. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    -99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

  13. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H

    2012-01-01

    Scale (HAM-D(17) ) and of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C(30) ), referred to as HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) , were focussed on pure antidepressive effect. Side-effects (tolerable vs. intolerable) and quality of life were measured using patient-administered questionnaires. A modified...... of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLES-Q) showed a trend (P = 0.10) from baseline to endpoint of a superiority for bupropion-SR compared with buspirone. Conclusion: In all domains of the pharmacopsychometric triangle, bupropion-SR was superior to buspirone as augmentation therapy...... vs. buspirone in the acute therapy of major depression in the STAR*D study. The triangle provides a composite view in three domains of antidepressive activity, side effects, and quality of life. Method: Within the pharmacopsychometric triangle, the short six-item subscales of the Hamilton Depression...

  14. Citalopram, Methylphenidate, or Their Combination in Geriatric Depression: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lavretsky, Helen; Reinlieb, Michelle; St. Cyr, Natalie; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Senturk, Damla

    2015-01-01

    ... patients.Method:The authors conducted a 16-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial for geriatric depression in 143 older outpatients diagnosed with major depression comparing treatment response in three treatment groups...

  15. Safety and efficiency of prehospital pain management with fentanyl administered by emergency medical technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Brogaard, Kjeld; Dahl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    minor, and were not treated with naloxone.   Conclusions: Our results suggest that non-medical personnel safely can administer IV fentanyl to selected groups of patients with a satisfactory result in terms of a considerable reduction in pain score and an acceptable rate of negative coincident events....

  16. Quality Control for Scoring Tests Administered in Continuous Mode: An NCME Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi; Gutentag, Tony; Baumer, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Quality control (QC) in testing is paramount. QC procedures for tests can be divided into two types. The first type, one that has been well researched, is QC for tests administered to large population groups on few administration dates using a small set of test forms (e.g., large-scale assessment). The second type is QC for tests, usually…

  17. Depression in People with Intellectual Disability: An Evaluation of a Staff-Administered Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Kershaw, Mavis M.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of co-morbid depression in people with intellectual disability (ID) provides a strong rationale for the early identification and treatment of individuals at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate a staff-administered group CBT program for the treatment of depression in people with mild ID. A sample of 13 staff employed at two…

  18. Safety and efficiency of prehospital pain management with fentanyl administered by emergency medical technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Brogaard, Kjeld; Dahl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    minor, and were not treated with naloxone.   Conclusions: Our results suggest that non-medical personnel safely can administer IV fentanyl to selected groups of patients with a satisfactory result in terms of a considerable reduction in pain score and an acceptable rate of negative coincident events....

  19. Depression in People with Intellectual Disability: An Evaluation of a Staff-Administered Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Kershaw, Mavis M.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of co-morbid depression in people with intellectual disability (ID) provides a strong rationale for the early identification and treatment of individuals at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate a staff-administered group CBT program for the treatment of depression in people with mild ID. A sample of 13 staff employed at two…

  20. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  1. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-05-03

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT.

  2. Acute responsivity of the serotonergic system to S-citalopram and positive emotionality – the moderating role of the 5-HTTLPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin eWielpuetz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the idea that the central serotonergic system has a modulatory function on behavior and personality in general, we aimed to highlight its association to habitual positive emotionality. In a placebo-controlled double-blind and randomized cross-over neuroendocrine challenge design (n = 72 healthy males we investigated the association of the central serotonergic responsivity, 5-HTTLPR-genotype as well as their combined effects on positive emotionality. Regression analyses revealed an involvement of the serotonergic system in positive emotionality. There was, however, no direct association between positive emotionality and cortisol responses to S-citalopram; rather 5-HTTLPR-genotype showed an association (p < .05. That is, positive emotionality scores increased with the number of s-alleles carried by the individuals. Most notable was the moderating role of 5-HTTLPR-genotype (p < .05 on the association between acute serotonergic responsivity and positive emotionality. Indeed, this association was only found in ss-homozygotes, in which the acute responsivity of the serotonergic system additionally seems to contribute to the level of positive emotionality (r = .70, p < .05. The findings correspond to previous research demonstrating that the 5-HTTLPR is not only involved in the negative-emotional aspects of behavior and temperament, but is associated, moreover, with positive affectivity – supporting the assumption of its valence-neutrality. In addition, our data are in line with the idea of possible influences of the 5-HTTLPR-genotype on early neuronal development. They also indicate the need for further studies in order to clearly elucidate the role of the serotonergic system and its subcomponents in the regulation of positive emotionality.

  3. A Computer-Administered Examination in Professional Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Presents rationale and procedure for a computer-administered examination in professional ethics. Discusses advantages and implications of computer-administered testing in professional ethics, noting benefits for instructors and students of professional ethics in counseling and counseling psychology. (Author/NB)

  4. 40 CFR 147.1450 - State-administered program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Code , Underground Injection Control Regulations, Sections 1 through 96.1, Inclusive. July 22... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Nevada § 147.1450 State-administered program. The UIC program for all classes of underground injection wells in the State...

  5. Safety evaluation of orally administered afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime in eight-week-old dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, M; Saik, J; Harriman, J; Letendre, L; Yoon, S; Larsen, D

    2016-11-27

    The safety profile of afoxolaner (an isoxazoline molecule) when combined with milbemycin oxime (a macrocyclic lactone) was evaluated according to the regulatory requirements when administered six times orally in a soft chewable formulation at a dose of at least 1×, 3×, or 5× the maximum exposure dose in 8-week-old Beagle dogs. Thirty-two healthy puppies (16 males and 16 females) were enrolled and allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups. Three doses were administered at 28-day intervals (Days 0, 28, and 56), followed by three additional doses administered with 14-day intervals (Days 84, 98, and 112). The study ended on Day 126. Treatment groups were as follows: Group 1: untreated, sham-dosed control; Group 2: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 5 and 1 mg/kg, respectively (1×); Group 3: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 15 and 3 mg/kg, respectively (3); and Group 4: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 25 and 5 mg/kg, respectively (5×). All dogs were examined for general health twice a day beginning on Day -14. Physical examinations, and blood collections for clinical pathology analysis and afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime plasma concentrations, were performed throughout the study. No afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime treatment-related changes were observed in growth, physical variables, clinical pathology variables, or tissues examined histologically. No clinically relevant or statistically significant health abnormalities related to the administration of afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime were observed. No signs of macrocyclic lactone sensitivity were observed at any time during the study. Vomiting and diarrhea were observed sporadically across all groups including the controls. Based upon the results of this study, afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime soft chewables were shown to be safe when administered repeatedly at up to 5× the maximum exposure dose in dogs as

  6. Neonatal exposure to citalopram, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor, programs a delay in the reflex ontogeny in rats Exposição neonatal ao citalopram, um inibidor seletivo da recaptação de serotonina, programa retardo na ontogênese reflexa em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Bomfim de Jesus Deiró

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin influences the growth and development of the nervous system, as well as its behavioral manifestations. The possibility exists that increased brain serotonin availability in young animals modulates their neuro-behavioral responses. This study investigated the body weight gain and reflex ontogeny of neonatal rats treated during the suckling period with two doses of citalopram (5 mg, or 10 mg/kg, sc, daily. The time of the appearance of reflexes (palm grasp righting, free-fall righting, vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance as well as the body weight evolution were recorded. In general, a delay in the time of reflex development and a reduced weight gain were observed in drug-treated animals. These findings suggest that serotoninergic mechanisms play a role in modulating body weight gain and the maturation of most reflex responses during the perinatal period in rats.A serotonina influencia o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso e sua expressão comportamental. O aumento da disponibilidade de serotonina no cérebro de ratos jovens parece modular as respostas neurocomportamentais. Neste estudo, foram investigados o ganho de peso corporal e a ontogênese dos reflexos em ratos neonatos, tratados diariamente, durante o período de aleitamento, com duas doses de citalopram (5 ou 10 mg/Kg de peso corporal, via subcutânea. Foram avaliados, o tempo de aparecimento dos reflexos (preensão palmar, endireitamento, colocação pelas vibrissas, resposta ao susto, geotáxico negativo e aversão ao precipício, e a evolução do peso corporal. Foi observado atraso no tempo de desenvolvimento de alguns reflexos e redução no ganho de peso corporal. Os achados em ratos sugerem que as alterações no ganho de peso corporal e na maturação dos reflexos são programadas, durante o período perinatal, com participação de mecanismos serotoninérgicos de modulação.

  7. Can we safely administer the recommended dose of phenobarbital in very low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Osman; Kalay, Salih; Tezel, Gonul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Oygur, Nihal

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the recommended phenobarbital loading dose of 15-20 mg/kg with maintenance of 3-4 mg/kg/day can safely be administered to very low birth weight preterm newborns with seizures. Twenty-four convulsive preterms of Phenobarbital was administered intravenously with a loading dose of 15 mg/kg in approximately 10-15 min. After 24 h, the maintenance dose of 3 mg/kg/day was administered as a single injection. Blood samples were obtained 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the phenobarbital loading dose was administered, immediately before the next phenobarbital dose was injected. None of the cases had plasma phenobarbital concentrations above the therapeutic upper limit of 40 μg/mL on the 2nd hour; one case (4.7%), on the 24th; 11 cases (45.8%), on the 48th; 15 cases (62.5%), on the 72nd; and 17 cases (70.8%), on the 96th hour. A negative correlation was detected between the serum concentrations of phenobarbital and gestational age on the 72th (p, 0.036; r, -0.608) and 96th hour (p, 0.043; r, -0.769). We suggest that particular attention should be done while administering phenobarbital in preterms, as blood levels of phenobarbital are higher than the reference ranges that those are often reached with the recommended doses in these groups of babies.

  8. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  9. Impact of Methods of Administering Growth-Stage Deficit Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Methods of Administering Growth-Stage Deficit Irrigation on Yield and Soil Water ... study reveal that at vegetative growth stage of the maize crop, it is better to skip weekly irrigation (to ..... Treatment Class. ..... middle Egypt conditions.

  10. Safety evaluation of orally administered afoxolaner in 8-week-old dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Marlene; Saik, Judith; Harriman, Jay; Larsen, Diane

    2014-04-02

    The safety profile of afoxolaner, a new isoxazoline molecule, was evaluated following the regulatory requirements when administered six times orally in a soft chewable formulation at a dose of at least 1×, 3× or 5× the maximum exposure dose (6.3mg/kg) in 8-week-old Beagle dogs. Thirty-two healthy puppies (16 males and 16 females) were enrolled and allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups. Treatments were administered at three, one-month dose intervals (Days 0, 28 and 56) followed by three, 2-week dose intervals (Days 84, 98 and 112). The study ended at Day 126. The groups were: Group 1: non-treated control; Group 2: afoxolaner chews administered at a dosage of at least 6.3mg/kg (1×); Group 3: afoxolaner chews administered at a dosage of at least 18.9 mg/kg (3×); and Group 4: afoxolaner chews administered at a dosage of at least 31.5mg/kg (5×). All dogs were examined for general health twice a day beginning on at least Day-14. Physical examinations, and blood collections for clinical pathology analysis and afoxolaner plasma concentrations, were performed throughout the study. On Day 126, 2 weeks following the last treatment, all dogs were humanely euthanized prior to the conduction of a full necropsy with tissue collection. No afoxolaner-related changes were observed in growth, physical variables, clinical pathology variables, or tissues examined histologically. No clinically or statistically significant health abnormalities related to the administration of afoxolaner were observed. Vomiting and diarrhea were observed sporadically across all groups including the controls. The kinetics of afoxolaner plasma concentrations was linear following 6 doses of 6.3, 18.9 and 31.5mg/kg and dose proportionality was demonstrated. There were no statistical differences (pafoxolaner was shown to be safe when administered repeatedly in a soft chewable formulation at up to 5× the maximum exposure dose in dogs as young as 8 weeks of age.

  11. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  12. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly M. Vega Rivera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2 and citalopram (CIT in the forced swim test (FST. Middle-aged (15 months old female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT.

  13. Characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cross-linked chitosan films as implant for controlled release of citalopram

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patit P Kundu; Santosh Kumar Jindal; Manish Goswami

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop cross-linked chitosan (CH) films that can release drug over an extended period of time and that too in a controlled manner. A solution of different percentages of CH, is prepared in 1% lactic acid, followed by addition of citalopram (CTP) and then reacted with increasing amounts of glutaraldehyde (GL) to obtain films with different cross-linking densities. Prepared films are characterized for their physical and mechanical properties. The films are then subjected to in vitro drug release studies using pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as dissolution medium and cumulative amount of drug released is calculated. Kinetic analysis of drug release is performed using Power law model and Higuchi’s model.With increase in concentration of CH, water absorption capacity and mechanical strength are increased; whereas, water vapour permeability and elasticity of the films are decreased. The effect of cross-linking agent, GL, is such that with an increase in the amount of GL, water vapour permeability, water absorption capacity and elasticity of the films are decreased; whereas, mechanical strength increased to some extent and then decreased. In vitro release studies indicate that films containing 3% CH, cross-linked with 2–3% GL and films containing 4%CH, cross-linked 1%GL are able to sustain the drug release for a prolonged time along with releasing almost complete drug in a desired period. Out of these batches, films containing 3% CH, cross-linked with 2–3% GL are having sufficient strength, water vapour permeation, water absorption capacity and elongation at break for implantation purpose. The in vitro degradation studies and histopathological studies were carried out with a sample film (batch C3 as in table 1) in rabbit model. In vitro degradation study indicates that the films maintained their integrity for desired implantation. The histopathological studies under optical microscope indicates that on implanting, there is no

  14. An Experimental Study on Blood according to the administered dosage of Carthami Flos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho, Hoo-Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine what are the effect of Carthami Flos on Blood according to the administered dosage. Methods : thrity Sprague-Dawleys rats of starved during 3 days were used and divided 3 groups ; Normal group ; Experimental group that were administered Carthmi Flos 117mg/200g(Sample1 ; Experimental group that were administered Carthmi Flos 936mg/200g(Sample2. and the observerd blood(RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, WBC NEUT, LYM, MONO, EOSIN. Results : the result were obtained as follows ; 1. RBC, Hb, MCHC were significantly increased, and MCV were decreased in Sample1.(p<0.05 2. PLT, MCHC, LYM were significantly increased, and Hct, MCV were decreased in Sample2.(p<0.05 Conclusions : According th the above result, it was consided that a small quantity dosage of Carthami Flos was nourished the blood, and a large quantity of that was curative for thrombosis and elevated blood viscosity and it is suggested that more interest and study in the mechanism and clinical use were needed

  15. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Aithal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  16. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  17. NEUROMUSCULAR AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF NEOSTIGMINE AND METHYL-ATROPINE ADMINISTERED AT DIFFERENT DEGREES OF ROCURONIUM-INDUCED NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBROEK, L; PROOST, JH; WIERDA, JMKH; NJOO, MD; HENNIS, PJ

    1994-01-01

    The neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of neostigmine, 40 mug kg-1, and methyl-atropine, 7 mug kg-1, administered at different degrees of rocuronium-induced (600 mug kg-1) neuromuscular block were evaluated. In one group of patients spontaneous recovery was awaited (Group A; n = 20). Neostigmi

  18. A Mobile Platform for Administering Questionnaires and Synchronizing Their Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginardi, Maria Germana; Lanzola, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a platform for administering questionnaires on smart-phones and tablets. The project arises from the need of acquiring data for monitoring the outcomes of different homecare interventions. First a model has been defined for representing questionnaires, able to support adaptivity in the dialog with the user and enforce some…

  19. 40 CFR 282.68 - Louisiana State-Administered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Louisiana State-Administered Program. 282.68 Section 282.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.68...

  20. Teaching Auction Strategy Using Experiments Administered Via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, John; Grosskopf, Brit; McKinney, C. Nicholas; Niederle, Muriel; Roth, Alvin E.; Weizsacker, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an experimental design used to teach concepts in the economics of auctions and implications for e-Business procurement. The experiment is easily administered and can be adapted to many different treatments. The chief innovation is that it does not require the use of a lab or class time. Instead, the design can be implemented on…

  1. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDIES ON VAGINALLY ADMINISTERED LEVONORGESTREL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEChang-Hai; XUJian-Qiu; ZHUYue-Hua; SHIYong-En

    1989-01-01

    Comparative studies on pharmacokinetics of vaginally and orally administered levonorgestrel (LNG) tablet (Postinor) in one single dose containing 0,75mg LNG were performed. The pharmacokinetics of LNG and its effects on ovarian functions werealso studied after repeated vaginal administration.

  2. Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations for nonanesthetist-administered sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Rumesh; Jagadisan, Barath; Vasudevan, Arumugam

    2015-06-01

    There is a need to compare propofol requirement between propofol-ketamine (PK) and propofol-fentanyl (PF) given as nonanesthetist-administered propofol sedation during pediatric esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The study was a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind comparison of the need for additional doses of propofol in the first minute after sedation induction between PK and PF, administered by rotating trainees in pediatrics for sedation during pediatric EGD. A total of 95 children with American Society of Anesthesiologists class I to III between 3 and 12 years undergoing EGD were included and randomized to either of the groups. After midazolam premedication, children received either 0.5 mg/kg ketamine (PK) or 1 μg/kg of fentanyl (PF) followed by a mandatory 1 mg/kg of propofol. Additional doses of propofol of 0.5 mg/kg each were given to achieve sedation induction (modified Ramsay scale level 6), and further doses were administered during the procedure as required. A total of 92 children (PK, n = 47; PF, n = 45) were analyzed. P propofol dose required for successful scope introduction and also in the need for additional propofol doses and the total additional propofol doses required in the first minute after sedation induction. Propofol injection pain was higher in the PF group (odds ratio 1.78). The adverse events and recovery time were similar. There was no escalation of care, airway intubations, death, or disability. Nonanesthetist-administered propofol sedation is feasible in teaching hospitals. Propofol requirement is similar in both PK and PF combination regimens, but the lower frequency of propofol injection pain may favor the use of PK.

  3. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yasufumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  4. Chronic treatment with escitalopram but not R-citalopram translocates Galpha(s) from lipid raft domains and potentiates adenylyl cyclase: a 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-independent action of this antidepressant compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanqiu; Rasenick, Mark M

    2010-03-01

    Chronic antidepressant treatment has been shown to increase adenylyl cyclase activity, in part, due to translocation of Galpha(s) from lipid rafts to a nonraft fraction of the plasma membrane where they engage in a more facile stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. This effect holds for multiple classes of antidepressants, and for serotonin uptake inhibitors, it occurs in the absence of the serotonin transporter. In the present study, we examined the change in the amount of Galpha(s) in lipid raft and whole cell lysate after exposing C6 cells to escitalopram. The results showed that chronic (but not acute) escitalopram decreased the content of Galpha(s) in lipid rafts, whereas there was no change in overall Galpha(s) content. These effects were drug dose- and exposure time-dependent. Although R-citalopram has been reported to antagonize some effects of escitalopram, this compound was without effect on Galpha(s) localization in lipid rafts, and R-citalopram did not inhibit these actions of escitalopram. Escitalopram treatment increased cAMP accumulation, and this seemed due to increased coupling between Galpha(s) and adenylyl cyclase. Thus, escitalopram is potent, rapid and efficacious in translocating Galpha(s) from lipid rafts, and this effect seems to occur independently of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters. Our results suggest that, although antidepressants display distinct affinities for well identified targets (e.g., monoamine transporters), several presynaptic and postsynaptic molecules are probably modified during chronic antidepressant treatment, and these additional targets may be required for clinical efficacy of these drugs.

  5. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of four benzodiazepines and citalopram in eleven postmortem rabbit fluids and tissues, with application to animal and human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartiser, N; Bévalot, F; Le Meur, C; Gaillard, Y; Malicier, D; Hubert, N; Guitton, J

    2011-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies and postmortem toxicological investigations require a validated analytical technique to quantify drugs on a large number of matrices. Three-step liquid/liquid extraction with online derivatization (silylation) ahead of analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated on rabbit specimens in order to quantify citalopram and 4 benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordazepam, oxazepam and temazepam) in 11 biological matrices (blood, urine, bile, vitreous humor, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, adipose tissue, bone marrow (BM) and lung). Since the 11 biological matrices came from the same animal species, full validation was performed on 1 matrix, bone marrow (considered the most complex), while the other 10 underwent partial validation. Due to non-negligible matrix effects, calibration curves were performed on each matrix. Within-day and between-day precision (less than 12.0% and 12.6%, respectively) and accuracy (from 88.9% to 106.4%) were acceptable on BM at both low and high concentrations. Assessment on the other matrices confirmed accuracy and within-day precision (less than 12%, and generally between 85.1% and 114.5%, respectively). The lower limit of quantification of the method was 1ng/g for nordazepam, 5ng/g for citalopram and 10ng/g for oxazepam, diazepam and temazepam. The combination of 3-step extraction and MS/MS detection provided good selectivity in all matrices, including the most lipid-rich. Application to real-case samples showed that the method was sensitive enough to describe distribution patterns in an animal experiment, and specific enough to detect molecules in highly putrefied samples from human postmortem cases.

  6. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  7. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Nikolajsen, Lone; Giebner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered...... by ambulance personnel. METHODS: Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival...... patients (1.3%) and hypotension observed in 71 patients (3.0%). CONCLUSION: Intravenous fentanyl caused clinically meaningful pain reduction in most patients and was safe in the hands of ambulance personnel. Many patients had moderate to severe pain at hospital arrival. As the protocol allowed higher doses...

  8. Hemodynamic effects of calcium gluconate administered to conscious horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, T L; Foreman, J H; Benson, G J; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Constable, P D; Olson, W O; Davis, L E

    1996-01-01

    Calcium gluconate was administered to conscious horses at 3 different rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for 15 minutes each). Serum calcium concentrations and parameters of cardiovascular function were evaluated. All 3 calcium administration rates caused marked increases in both ionized and total calcium concentrations, cardiac index, stroke index, and cardiac contractility (dP/dtmax). Mean arterial pressure and right atrial pressure were unchanged; heart rate decreased markedly during calcium administration. Ionized calcium concentration remained between 54% and 57% of total calcium concentration throughout the study. We conclude that calcium gluconate can safely be administered to conscious horses at 0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg/min and that administration will result in improved cardiac function.

  9. Intravenously administered nanoparticles increase survival following blast trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret M; Shoffstall, Erin; Atkins, Kristyn T; Keane, Nickolas; Bir, Cynthia; VandeVord, Pamela; Lavik, Erin B

    2014-07-15

    Explosions account for 79% of combat-related injuries, leading to multiorgan hemorrhage and uncontrolled bleeding. Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of death in battlefield traumas as well as in civilian life. We need to stop the bleeding quickly to save lives, but, shockingly, there are no treatments to stop internal bleeding. A therapy that halts bleeding in a site-specific manner and is safe, stable at room temperature, and easily administered is critical for the advancement of trauma care. To address this need, we have developed hemostatic nanoparticles that are administered intravenously. When tested in a model of blast trauma with multiorgan hemorrhaging, i.v. administration of the hemostatic nanoparticles led to a significant improvement in survival over the short term (1 h postblast). No complications from this treatment were apparent out to 3 wk. This work demonstrates that these particles have the potential to save lives and fundamentally change trauma care.

  10. Fetal Tachycardia Treated Successfully with Maternally Administered Propylthiouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara V. Parilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fetal tachycardia may result from the transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in a patient with hypothyroidism secondary to ablation of Graves’ disease. Case. A 32-year-old woman, gravida 4, para 2, and abortus 1, with hypothyroidism and a history of Graves’ disease, presented at 23 6/7 weeks of gestation with a persistent fetal tachycardia. The treatment of the fetal tachycardia with maternally administered digoxin and Sotalol was unsuccessful. Maternal thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were elevated, and treatment with maternally administered propylthiouracil (PTU resulted in a normal sinus rhythm for the remainder of the pregnancy. An induction of labor was performed at 37 weeks. Four to five days after delivery, the neonate exhibited clinical signs of hyperthyroidism necessitating treatment. Conclusion. Fetal tachycardia resulting from the transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins can be successfully treated with maternally administered PTU. The neonate needs to be followed up closely as clinical signs of hyperthyroidism may occur as thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins continue to circulate in the neonate, while the serum levels of PTU decline.

  11. Effect of subcutaneously administered diclazuril on the output of Eimeria species oocysts by experimentally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, B L; Zhang, Y F; Suo, X; Xue, Y

    2008-02-02

    The effect of subcutaneously injected diclazuril on the output of Eimeria species oocysts was studied in experimentally infected rabbits. Diclazuril was administered either prophylactically at 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg bodyweight two days before each rabbit was inoculated with 20,000 oocysts of a mixed-species field isolate of Eimeria or therapeutically at 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg bodyweight five days after they were inoculated. The prophylactic treatments significantly reduced (PEimeria stiedae, Eimeria magna, Eimeria irresidua, Eimeria flavescens, Eimeria piriformis and Eimeria intestinalis was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all the treated groups. The burden of oocysts in the livers of the therapeutic groups (4000 to 9000) were significantly lower (P<0.05) than in the inoculated but untreated control group (23,000), but higher than in the prophylactic groups (around 1000).

  12. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, Pcyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DELAYED PREPUTIAL SEPARATION (PPS) AND SP22 MEASUREMENT IN RATS ADMINISTERED BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive effects of BCA were determined in a dose range finding study (DRFS) and definitive two-generational study. Adult male and female CD� (SD) rats were administered BCA in drinking water for two weeks in the DRFS (10/sex/group) and ten weeks in the definitive study (25/s...

  14. A self administered reliable questionnaire to assess lower bowel symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelaris Peter H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bowel symptoms are considered indicators of the presence of colorectal cancer and other bowel diseases. Self administered questionnaires that elicit information about lower bowel symptoms have not been assessed for reliability, although this has been done for upper bowel symptoms. Our aim was to develop a self administered questionnaire for eliciting the presence, nature and severity of lower bowel symptoms potentially related to colorectal cancer, and assess its reliability. Methods Immediately before consulting a gastroenterologist or colorectal surgeon, 263 patients likely to have a colonoscopy completed the questionnaire. Reliability was assessed in two ways: by assessing agreement between patient responses and (a responses given by the doctor at the consultation; and (b responses given by patients two weeks later. Results There was more than 75% agreement for 78% of the questions for the patient-doctor comparison and for 92% of the questions for the patient-patient comparison. Agreement for the length of time a symptom was present, its severity, duration, frequency of occurrence and whether or not medical consultation had been sought, all had agreement of greater than 70%. Over all questions, the chance corrected agreement for the patient-doctor comparison had a median kappa of 65% (which represents substantial agreement, interquartile range 57–72%. The patient-patient comparison also showed substantial agreement with a median kappa of 75%, interquartile range 68–81%. Conclusion This self administered questionnaire about lower bowel symptoms is a useful way of eliciting details of bowel symptoms. It is a reliable instrument that is acceptable to patients and easily completed. Its use could guide the clinical consultation, allowing a more efficient, comprehensive and useful interaction, ensuring that all symptoms are assessed. It will also be a useful tool in research studies on bowel symptoms and their predictive

  15. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat

    2016-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  16. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  17. Urinary metabolites of daidzin orally administered in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, T; Ohsawa, K

    1998-09-01

    In a study on the metabolism of flavonoids, the isoflavone glycoside daidzin was orally administered to rats. Urine samples were collected and treated with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase. Aglycone daidzein (M3) and other three metabolites, 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone (M1), 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavanone (M2) and 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavan (M4) were isolated from the urine following treatment with enzymes. The structures of M1, M2 and M4 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectral data.

  18. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Miller, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  19. Electroencephalographic and autonomic effects of centrally administered dermorphin in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, A; Maurelli, M; Marchioni, E

    1985-01-01

    Dermorphin, administered into the third ventricle of conscious rabbits, induces an increase of the total power density spectrum of the cortex and a decrease of the total power of the hippocampus. The electrocortical pattern is similar to that found with other opiates and reported as specific of mu agonists. Simultaneously the peptide causes respiratory depression, bradycardia and hypothermia. Naloxone (0.5 mg/kg IV) quickly and completely inverts all these effects. The activity of serotoninergic, Gabaergic, catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems does not seem to be required for these dermorphin actions. Thus, the hypothesis that dermorphin acts directly in modifying cerebral electrical activity is put forward.

  20. Self-administered treatments for depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree-Smith, Nancy L; Floyd, Mark; Scogin, Forrest R

    2003-03-01

    Although there are numerous self-help books for depression, relatively few have been empirically tested. However, those that have been used in clinical trials have fared well, with an average effect size roughly equivalent to the average effect size obtained in psychotherapy studies. Computer-based treatments are being developed and appear promising as an alternative to bibliotherapy for those interested in self-administered treatments. This article provides a summary of the depression bibliotherapy literature and discusses several remaining questions such as effectiveness versus efficacy, practice applications, ethics, and future research. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 59: 275-288, 2003.

  1. Community Cognitive Screening Using the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu Ing; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Yager-Schweller, Jennifer; Murden, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the functionality of the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) for cognitive screening in community settings and examined its characteristics as a cognitive screening assessment tool. From 45 community events, 1,047 individuals over age 50 were screened with SAGE. Cognitive impairment was identified in 28%. Principal-component and correlation analysis indicate that SAGE is an internally-consistent test that is very well balanced, with language, cognition, visuospatial, executive, and memory domains. Community cognitive screening using SAGE was found to be feasible and efficient in diverse settings with both small and large groups.

  2. Mood changes by self-administered acupressure in Japanese college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Honda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Naruse, Mayu; Tsuchiyagaito, Aki

    2014-12-17

    The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28) and a control group (CG, n = 26). The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night), involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard), three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students.

  3. INFLUENCE OF SUCCINYLCHOLINE ON THE DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP OF SUBSEQUENTLY ADMINISTERED ROCURONIUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锡明; 闻大翔; 杭燕南; 孙大金

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of succinylcholine on the dose-response relationship of subsequently administered rocuronium in healthy patients. Methods Forty-eight ASA physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients,aged 17 -65 years, scheduled for elective general surgery, were randomly assigned to either the rocuronium treatment group (R) or succinylcholine-rocuronium treatment group (SR). General anesthesia was induced with thiopental 4 to 6mg/kg and fentanyl 2 to 5μg/kg intravenously and maintained with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Additional doses of thiopental or fentanyl were administered as required. The dose-response relationship of rocuronium was determined by the single dose-response technique. In R group ( n =24) , rocuronium was given after induction of anesthesia. In SR group (n =24 ) , patients were intubated after 1.5mg/kg of succinylcholine and rocuronium was given after the complete recovery of neuromuscular blockade from succinylcholine. Patients were further randomly divided into 4 subgroups receiving 150, 200, 250 or 300μg/kg of rocuronium respectively in both groups. Neuromuscular function was assessed accelographically with train-of-four (TOF) stimulation at the wrist every 12s (using the TOF Guard(R) accelerometer). The relationship between probit-tranformed percentage depression of first twitch height (Th) of train-of-four stimulation and logarithm dose of rocuronium was analyzed using linear regression.Results The dose-response curve of rocuronium after succinylcholine was shifted to the left in a parallel fashion compared with that of rocuronium given alone. ED50 and ED95 of rocuronium were 193 ±69 and 367 ± 73μg/kg respectively in R group, and 158 ± 35 and 317 ± 80μg/kg respectively in SR group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Succinylcholine shifts the dose-response curve of rocuronium to the left and potentiates the effects of the neuromuscular blockade by about 15% of subsequently administered rocuronium. Lower doses of rocuronium are

  4. Mifepristone and misoprostol administered simultaneously versus 24 hours apart for abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creinin, Mitchell D; Schreiber, Courtney A; Bednarek, Paula; Lintu, Hanna; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Meyn, Leslie A

    2007-04-01

    Mifepristone and oral misoprostol are typically used for medical abortion in women up to 49 days of gestation, with a 36- to 48-hour interval between the medications. Alternative routes of misoprostol administration allow for use beyond 49 days of gestation. We designed this randomized, noninferiority trial to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and acceptability of misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally administered simultaneously with, or 24 hours after, mifepristone 200 mg orally for abortion in women up to 63 days of gestation. The 1,128 participants swallowed mifepristone 200 mg and were then randomized to self-administer misoprostol intravaginally immediately in the office (group 1) or 24 hours later at home (group 2). Subjects returned for an evaluation, including transvaginal ultrasonography, 7+/-1 days after initiating treatment. Women who had not aborted were offered a second dose of misoprostol and returned for another evaluation in approximately 1 week. A phone contact was also attempted approximately 5 weeks after treatment. Treatment was considered a failure if a suction aspiration was performed for any indication. The complete abortion rate for group 1 (95.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 93.0-96.8%) was statistically noninferior to that for group 2 (96.9%, 95% CI 95.1-98.2%) (P=.003). The abortion rates between groups did not significantly differ by gestational age. Adverse effects were mostly similar, although nausea, diarrhea, and warmth or chills were significantly more common in group 1. Mifepristone 200 mg and misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally used simultaneously is as effective for abortion as compared with regimens using a 24-hour dosing interval. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00269568 I.

  5. Metabolism of exogenously administered natural surfactant in the newborn lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, T.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.

    1982-09-01

    (/sup 3/H)-Palmitate labeled natural lamb surfactant and free (/sup 14/C)-choline were mixed with the lung fluid of 11 term lambs at cesarean section, before the first breath. After receiving the isotope, the lambs were delivered, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and were subsequently sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h of age. Alveolar washes, lung homogenates, microsomal and lamellar body fractions of lungs, and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were examined for the presence of labeled phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the labeled natural surfactant kinetic data revealed an apparent t 1/2 of phosphatidylcholine in the whole lung of 6.0 days. This half-life can be interpreted only as a rough estimate. Appearance of considerable (/sup 3/H) labeled phosphatidylcholine in the lung homogenates demonstrated uptake of phosphatidylcholine from alveoli into lung tissue. The surfactant-associated label in homogenates was localized preferentially to lamellar body fractions. Some of the administered (/sup 14/C)-choline appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Almost all of this labeled phosphatidylcholine was associated with the homogenate. Extremely small % of administered (3H) and (14C) were found in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

  6. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesgaard, K D; Nikolajsen, L; Giebner, M; Rasmussen, C-H; Riddervold, I S; Kirkegaard, H; Christensen, E F

    2016-04-01

    Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel. Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival. Secondary outcomes included the number of patients with reduction in pain intensity during transport (NRS ≥ 2), the number of patients with NRS > 3 at hospital arrival, and potential fentanyl-related side effects. Fentanyl reduced pain from before treatment (8, IQR 7-9) to hospital arrival (4, IQR 3-6) (NRS reduction: 3, IQR 2-5; P = 0.001), 79.3% of all patients had a reduction in > 2 on the NRS during transport, and 58.4% of patients experienced pain at hospital arrival (NRS > 3). Twenty-one patients (0.9%) had oxygen saturation ambulance personnel. Many patients had moderate to severe pain at hospital arrival. As the protocol allowed higher doses of fentanyl, feedback on effect and safety should be part of continuous education of ambulance personnel. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Controlled Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy of Totally Self-Administered Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Highly anxious self-referred snake phobics received either (a) therapist-administered desensitization, (b) self-administered desensitization with weekly therapist phone calls, (c) totally self-administered desensitization, (d) self-administered double-blind placebo control, or (e) no treatment. Pretreatment to posttreatment measures revealed…

  8. 45 CFR 400.66 - Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program. 400.66 Section 400.66 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...-administered RCA program. (a) In administering a publicly-administered refugee cash assistance program,...

  9. Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... as patients developing an adverse event (oxygen saturation 30% or a drop in systolic blood pressure of > 50 mmHg). The remaining patients served as controls. RESULTS: A total of 6,840 consecutive patients undergoing 7,364 procedures were included. The mean propofol...... dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate of hypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p propofol dose (p = 0.001) were associated...

  10. Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-12-09

    Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (`PMI`) of a parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PMI and through a data communications network, including: sending, through the PMI on a source compute node, a quantity of data from the source compute node to a destination compute node; specifying, by an application on the destination compute node, a portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application on the destination compute node and a portion of the quantity of data to be discarded; receiving, by the PMI on the destination compute node, all of the quantity of data; providing, by the PMI on the destination compute node to the application on the destination compute node, only the portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application; and discarding, by the PMI on the destination compute node, the portion of the quantity of data to be discarded.

  11. Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate of hypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p ... with a higher rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Safety during intermittent deep sedation with NAPS was good. Age, ASA class 3 and total propofol dose were correlated with a higher rate of adverse events. Patients aged 60 years or more needed more handling during adverse events. FUNDING: Arvid Nilsson...

  12. Peripherally administered orexin improves survival of mice with endotoxin shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Irukayama-Tomobe, Yoko; Murakoshi, Nobuyuki; Kiyama, Maiko; Ishikawa, Yui; Hosokawa, Naoto; Tominaga, Hiromu; Uchida, Shuntaro; Kimura, Saki; Kanuka, Mika; Morita, Miho; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru; Hayashi, Yu; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, accounting for the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Here, we report that peripheral administration of the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin improves the survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxin shock, a well-studied septic shock model. The effect is accompanied by a suppression of excessive cytokine production and an increase of catecholamines and corticosterone. We found that peripherally administered orexin penetrates the blood-brain barrier under endotoxin shock, and that central administration of orexin also suppresses the cytokine production and improves the survival, indicating orexin’s direct action in the central nervous system (CNS). Orexin helps restore body temperature and potentiates cardiovascular function in LPS-injected mice. Pleiotropic modulation of inflammatory response by orexin through the CNS may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for septic shock. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21055.001 PMID:28035899

  13. Registered nurse-administered sedation for gastrointestinalendoscopic procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The rising use of nonanesthesiologist-administeredsedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy has clinicalsignificances. Most endoscopic patients require someforms of sedation and/or anesthesia. The goals ofthis sedation are to guard the patient's safety, minimizephysical discomfort, to control behavior and todiminish psychological responses. Generally, moderatesedation for these procedures has been offered by thenon-anesthesiologist by using benzodiazepines and/oropioids. Anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologistpersonnel will need to work together for these challengesand for safety of the patients. The sedationtraining courses including clinical skills and knowledgeare necessary for the registered nurses to facilitate thepatient safety and the successful procedure. However,appropriate patient selection and preparation, adequatemonitoring and regular training will ensure that the useof nurse-administered sedation is a feasible and safetechnique for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

  14. Balanced propofol sedation administered by nonanesthesiologists: The first Italian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repici, Alessandro; Pagano, Nico; Hassan, Cesare; Carlino, Alessandra; Rando, Giacomo; Strangio, Giuseppe; Romeo, Fabio; Zullo, Angelo; Ferrara, Elisa; Vitetta, Eva; Ferreira, Daniel de Paula Pessoa; Danese, Silvio; Arosio, Massimo; Malesci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a balanced approach using midazolam in combination with propofol, administered by non-anesthesiologists, in a large series of diagnostic colonoscopies. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were sedated with a single dose of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and low-dose propofol (starter bolus of 0.5 mg/kg and repeated boluses of 10 to 20 mg). Induction time and deepest level of sedation, adverse and serious adverse events, as well as recovery times, were prospectively assessed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were also collected. RESULTS: Overall, 1593 eligible patients were included. The median dose of propofol administered was 70 mg (range: 40-120 mg), and the median dose of midazolam was 2.3 mg (range: 2-4 mg). Median induction time of sedation was 3 min (range: 1-4 min), and median recovery time was 23 min (range: 10-40 min). A moderate level of sedation was achieved in 1561 (98%) patients, whilst a deep sedation occurred in 32 (2%) cases. Transient oxygen desaturation requiring further oxygen supplementation occurred in 8 (0.46%; 95% CI: 0.2%-0.8%) patients. No serious adverse event was observed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were 93.5% and 23.4% (27.8% for male and 18.5% for female, subjects), respectively. CONCLUSION: A balanced sedation protocol provided a minimalization of the dose of propofol needed to target a moderate sedation for colonoscopy, resulting in a high safety profile for non-anesthesiologist propofol sedation. PMID:21987624

  15. Balanced propofol sedation administered by nonanesthesiologists: The first Italian experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Repici; Eva Vitetta; Daniel de Paula Pessoa Ferreira; Silvio Danese; Massimo Arosio; Alberto Malesci; Nico Pagano; Cesare Hassan; Alessandra Carlino; Giacomo Rando; Giuseppe Strangio; Fabio Romeo; Angelo Zullo; Elisa Ferrara

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a balanced approach using midazolam in combination with propofol, administered by non-anesthesiologists, in a large series of diagnostic colonoscopies.METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were sedated with a single dose of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and low-dose propofol (starter bolus of 0.5 mg/kg and repeated boluses of 10 to 20 mg). Induction time and deepest level of sedation, adverse and serious adverse events, as well as recovery times, were prospectively assessed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were also collected.RESULTS: Overall, 1593 eligible patients were included. The median dose of propofol administered was 70 mg (range: 40-120 mg), and the median dose of midazolam was 2.3 mg (range: 2-4 mg). Median induction time of sedation was 3 min (range: 1-4 min), and median recovery time was 23 min (range: 10-40 min). A moderate level of sedation was achieved in 1561 (98%) patients, whilst a deep sedation occurred in 32 (2%) cases. Transient oxygen desaturation requiring further oxygen supplementation occurred in 8 (0.46%; 95% CI: 0.2%-0.8%) patients. No serious adverse event was observed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were 93.5% and 23.4% (27.8% for male and 18.5% for female, subjects), respectively.CONCLUSION: A balanced sedation protocol provided a minimalization of the dose of propofol needed to target a moderate sedation for colonoscopy, resulting in a high safety profile for non-anesthesiologist propofol sedation.

  16. Human metabolism of orally administered radioactive cobalt chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, H; Ranebo, Y; Rääf, C L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the human gastrointestinal uptake (f1) and subsequent whole-body retention of orally administered inorganic radioactive cobalt. Of eight adult volunteers aged between 24 and 68 years, seven were given solutions of (57)Co (T1/2 = 272 d) containing a stable cobalt carrier, and six were given carrier-free (58)Co (T1/2 = 71 d). The administered activities ranged between 25 and 103 kBq. The observed mean f1, based on 6 days accumulated urinary excretion sampling and whole-body counting, was 0.028 ± 0.0048 for carrier-free (58)Co, and 0.016 ± 0.0021 for carrier-associated (57)Co. These values were in reasonable agreement with values reported from previous studies involving a single intake of inorganic cobalt. The time pattern of the total retention (including residual cobalt in the GI tract) included a short-term component with a biological half-time of 0.71 ± 0.03 d (average ± 1 standard error of the mean for the two nuclides), an intermediate component with a mean half-time of 32 ± 8.5 d, and a long-term component (observed in two volunteers) with half-times ranging from 80 to 720 d for the two isotopes. From the present data we conclude that for the short-lived (57)Co and (58)Co, more than 95% of the internal absorbed dose was delivered within 7 days following oral intake, with a high individual variation influenced by the transit time of the unabsorbed cobalt through the gastro-intestinal tract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  18. Validity and reliability of nutrition screening administered by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Lin; Ang, Emily; Foo, Yet Li; Ng, Lian Ye; Tong, Chung Yan; Ferguson, Maree; Daniels, Lynne

    2013-12-01

    Nutrition screening is usually administered by nurses. However, most studies on nutrition screening tools have not used nurses to validate the tools. The 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS) assesses weight loss, dietary intake, and muscle wastage, with the composite score of each used to determine risk of malnutrition. The aim of the study was to determine the validity and reliability of 3-MinNS administered by nurses, who are the intended assessors. In this cross-sectional study, 3 ward-based nurses screened 121 patients aged 21 years and over using 3-MinNS in 3 wards within 24 hours of admission. A dietitian then assessed patients' nutrition status using Subjective Global Assessment within 48 hours of admission, while blinded to the results of the screening. To assess the reliability of 3-MinNS, 37 patients screened by the first nurse were rescreened by a second nurse within 24 hours, who was blinded to the results of the first nurse. The sensitivity, specificity, and best cutoff score for 3-MinNS were determined using the receiver operator characteristics curve. The best cutoff score to identify all patients at risk of malnutrition using 3-MinNS was 3, with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 88%. This cutoff point also identified all (100%) severely malnourished patients. There was strong correlation between 3-MinNS and SGA (r = .78, P nurses conducting the 3-MinNS tool was 78.3%. The 3-MinNS is a valid and reliable tool for nurses to identify patients at risk of malnutrition.

  19. Excitability scores of goats administered ascorbic acid and transported during hot-dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo, J O; Minka, N S; Mamman, M

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) administration on goat excitability due to transportation. Ten goats administered AA (p.o.) at 100 mg/kg of body weight before transportation served as the experimental group, and seven goats administered only 10 ml/kg of sterile water (p.o.) served as controls. Excitability scores were recorded for each goat; when weighed, before, immediately after, and 3 h after 8 h of transportation. A score of one to four was allocated to each goat; higher scores represent greater excitability. Immediately after transportation, excitability scores decreased significantly, especially those of control goats (p 0.05) different from their pre-transportation normal values, whereas those of control goats were significantly lower (p < 0.01). The correlation i.e. the relationship between excitability score values and percent excitability (percentage of goat with particular excitability score) for different excitability score group 3 h post-transportation was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001), in both experimental and control goats. Our results indicate that road transportation induces considerable stress (depression) in goats as evidenced by a lower excitability score posttransportation. Moreover, the administration of AA pretransportation facilitated the transition from a state of depression to excitation. In conclusion, AA administration to animals prior to transportation may ameliorate the depression often encountered after road transportation.

  20. Clarithromycin is an effective immunomodulator when administered late in experimental pyelonephritis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagou Charalambos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To apply clarithromycin as an immunomodulatory treatment in experimental urosepsis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods Acute pyelonephritis was induced in 40 rabbits after inoculation of the test isolate in the renal pelvis. Therapy was administered upon signs of sepsis in four groups: A, controls; B, intravenous clarithromycin; C, amikacin; and D, both agents. Survival and vital signs were recorded; blood was sampled for culture and estimation of pro-inflammatory mediators; monocytes were isolated for determination of apoptotic rate and ex vivo TNFα secretion. Quantitative cultures and biopsies of organs were performed after death. Results Increased rectal temperature and oxygen saturation were found in groups B and D compared to A and C. Mean survival of groups A, B, C and D was 2.65, 7.15, 4.25 and 8.70 days respectively. No differences were noted between groups concerning bacterial load in blood and tissues and serum endotoxins. Serum MDA and total caspase-3 activity of monocytes of group D decreased following treatment compared to other groups. Negative correlation was detected between cytoplasmic caspase-3 and ex vivo secretion of TNFα of blood monocytes of group A; similar correlation was not found for any other group. Pathology scores of liver and lung of group B were lower than group A. Conclusion Clarithromycin administered late in experimental urosepsis by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa prolonged survival and ameliorated clinical findings. Its effect is probably attributed to immunomodulatory intervention on blood monocytes.

  1. Bispectral index monitoring as an adjunct to nurse-administered combined sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se Young Jang; Hyun Gu Park; Min Kyu Jung; Chang Min Cho; Soo Young Park; Seong Woo Jeon; Won Young Tak

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO determine whether bispectral index (BIS)monitoring is useful for propofol administration for deep sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS:Fifty-nine consecutive patients with a variety of reasons for ERCP who underwent the procedure at least twice between 1 July 2010 and 30 November 2010.This was a randomized cross-over study,in which each patient underwent ERCP twice,once with BIS monitoring and once with control monitoring.Whether BIS monitoring was done during the first or second ERCP procedure was random.Patients were intermittently administered a mixed regimen including midazolam,pethidine,and propofol by trained nurses.The nurse used a routine practice to monitor sedation using the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scale or the BIS monitoring.The total amount of midazolam and propofol used and serious side effects were compared between the BIS and control groups.RESULTS:The mean total propofol dose administered was 53.1 ± 32.2 mg in the BIS group and 54.9± 30.8 mg in the control group (P =0.673).The individual propofol dose received per minute during the ERCP procedure was 2.90 ± 1.83 mg/min in the BIS group and 3.44 ± 2.04 mg in the control group (P =0.103).The median value of the MOAA/S score during the maintenance phase of sedation was comparable for the two groups.The mean BIS values throughout the procedure (from insertion to removal of the endoscope) were 76.5 ± 8.7 for all 59 patients in using the BIS monitor.No significant differences in the frequency of < 80% oxygen saturation,hypotension (< 80 mmHg),or bradycardia (< 50 beats/min) were observed between the two study groups.Four cases of poor cooperation occurred,in which the procedure should be stopped to add the propofol dose.After adding the propofol,the procedure could be conducted successfully (one case in the BIS group,three cases in the control group).The endoscopist rated patient sedation as excellent for

  2. Antifertility effect of chronically administered Tabernaemontana divaricata leaf extract on male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Jain; Ankit Jain; Pritesh Paliwal; Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the antifertility effect of chronically administeredTabernaemontana divaricata (T. divaricata) leaf extract on male rats.Methods:The effect of50% ethanol extract ofT. divaricata leaves on reproduction was studied on male rats.The study was divided into four groups of five animals each.The first groups(I) received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second, third and fourth groups(II,II andIV) of animals were administered theleaf extract daily at50 mg/kg body weight,p.o.,100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., and200 mg/kg body weight, p.o., respectively, for a period of60 days.Results:Significant decreases in the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were observed.A dose related reduction in the testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility, number of fertile male, ratio between delivered and inseminated females and numbers of pups were observed.The testis showed a clear correlation between the dose and severity of lesions of seminiferous epithelium. In general, the seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size with a frequently filled eosinophilic material.Spermatogenesis arrested at the secondary spermatocyte stage.Pachytene spermatocytes were undergoing degeneration.Disorganigation and sloughing of immature germ cell were visible. Leydinf cells were atrophied.No morphological changes were observed inSertoli cells.Significant reduction in serum concentration of luteinizing hormone and testosterone were observed.No distinct change in serumFSH concentration was recorded.The final body weights of all groups were elevated markedly.No alterations were recorded in any hematologiocal parameters. Conclusions:It is concluded that the50% ethanol extract ofT. divaricata leaf produced dose related effect on male reproduction without altering general body metabolism.

  3. Muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats: effects of continuous and intermittent swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the effects of intermittent and continuous swimming training on muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats. Methods Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous trained alloxan (CA, intermittent trained alloxan (IA, continuous trained control (CC and intermittent trained control (IC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg body weight was injected into newborn rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 5% of body weight; uninterrupted swimming for 1 h/day, five days a week. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 15% of body weight; 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest for a total of 20 min/day, five days a week. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals displayed higher glycemia after glucose overload than the control animals. No differences in insulinemia among the groups were detected. At 120 days, no differences in serum albumin and total protein among the groups were observed. Compared to the other groups, DNA concentrations were higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to continuous training, whereas the DNA/protein ratio was higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to intermittent training. Conclusion It was concluded that continuous and intermittent training sessions were effective in altering muscle growth by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, respectively, in alloxan-administered animals.

  4. Inducing and administering Tregs to treat human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Perdigoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells control unwanted immune responses including those that mediate tolerance to self as well as to foreign antigens. Their mechanisms of action include direct and indirect effects on effector T cells and important functions in tissue repair and homeostasis. Regulatory T cells express a number of cell surface markers and transcriptional factors that have been instrumental in defining their origins and potentially their function. A number of immune therapies such as rapamycin, IL-2, as well as anti-T cell antibodies are able to induce regulatory T cells and are being tested for their efficacy in diverse clinical settings with exciting preliminary results. However, a balance exists with the use of some, such as IL-2 that may have effects on unwanted populations as well as promoting expansion and survival of regulatory T cells requiring careful selection of dose for clinical use. The use of cell surface markers has enabled investigators to isolate and expand ex vivo regulatory T cells more than 500-fold routinely. Clinical trials have begun, administering these expanded regulatory T cells to patients as a means of suppressing autoimmune and alloimmune response and potentially inducing immune tolerance. Studies in the future are likely to build on these initial technical achievements and use combinations of agents to improve the survival and functional capacity of regulatory T cells.

  5. Toxicity and biodistribution of orally administered casein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Gloria; Irache, Juan Manuel; Peñuelas, Iván; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; López de Cerain, Adela

    2017-08-01

    In the last years, casein nanoparticles have been proposed as carriers for the oral delivery of biologically active compounds. However, till now, no information about their possible specific hazards in vivo was available. The aim of this work was to assess the safety of casein nanoparticles when administered orally to animals through a 90 days dose-repeated toxicity study (OECD guideline 408), that was performed in Wistar rats under GLP conditions. After 90 days, no evidences of significant alterations in animals treated daily with 50, 150 or 500 mg/kg bw of nanoparticles were found. This safety agrees well with the fact that nanoparticles were not absorbed and remained within the gut as observed by radiolabelling in the biodistribution study. After 28 days, there was a generalized hyperchloremia in males and females treated with the highest dose of 500 mg/kg bw, that was coupled with hypernatremia in the females. These effects were related to the presence of mannitol which was used as excipient in the formulation of casein nanoparticles. According to these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could be established in 150 mg/kg bw/day and the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) could be established in 500 mg/kg bw/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. EMPLOYEE GROUP PROPERTY AND LIABILITY INSURANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FIELD, IRVING M.

    AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO ESTABLISH A THEORETICAL FOUNDATION FOR GROUP PROPERTY AND LIABILITY INSURANCE AND TO ADVANCE THE GENERAL HYPOTHESIS THAT THE PRINCIPLES USED IN INSTALLING AND ADMINISTERING GROUP LIFE AND HEALTH INSURANCE ARE APPLICABLE TO THE INSTALLATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF GROUP PROPERTY AND LIABILITY INSURANCE. A SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED TO…

  7. Biorelevant in vitro performance testing of orally administered dosage forms-workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppas, Christos; Friedel, Horst-Dieter; Barker, Amy R; Buhse, Lucinda F; Cecil, Todd L; Keitel, Susanne; Kraemer, Johannes; Morris, J Michael; Shah, Vinod P; Stickelmeyer, Mary P; Yomota, Chikako; Brown, Cynthia K

    2014-07-01

    Biorelevant in vitro performance testing of orally administered dosage forms has become an important tool for the assessment of drug product in vivo behavior. An in vitro performance test which mimics the intraluminal performance of an oral dosage form is termed biorelevant. Biorelevant tests have been utilized to decrease the number of in vivo studies required during the drug development process and to mitigate the risk related to in vivo bioequivalence studies. This report reviews the ability of current in vitro performance tests to predict in vivo performance and generate successful in vitro and in vivo correlations for oral dosage forms. It also summarizes efforts to improve the predictability of biorelevant tests. The report is based on the presentations at the 2013 workshop, Biorelevant In Vitro Performance Testing of Orally Administered Dosage Forms, in Washington, DC, sponsored by the FIP Dissolution/Drug Release Focus Group in partnership with the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) and a symposium at the AAPS 2012 Annual meeting on the same topic.

  8. Tolerability assessment of a lectin fraction from Tepary bean seeds (Phaseolus acutifolius orally administered to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferriz-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that a lectin rich fraction (TBLF extracted from Tepary bean seeds differentially inhibits cancer cells proliferation in vitro. Before testing the in vivo anticancer effect, the acute and subchronic toxicological assays in rats were conducted, where an oral dose of 50 mg/body weight kg was determined as the NOAEL. This study evaluated the resistance to digestion and complete blood count (CBC after 24 h of the orally administered 50 mg/kg TBLF. The digestion resistance test showed lectins activity retention after 72 h and the CBC study showed a high level of eosinophils, suggesting an allergic-like response. Tolerability was assayed after 6 weeks of treatment by dosing with an intragastric cannula every third day per week. It was observed a transient reduction in food intake and body weight in the first weeks, resulting in body weight gain reduction of 10% respect to the control group at the end of the study. Additionally, organs weight, histopathological analysis and blood markers for nutritional status and for liver, pancreas and renal function were not affected. Our results suggest that 50 mg/kg TBLF administered by oral route, exhibit no toxicity in rats and it was well tolerated. Further studies will focus on long-term studies.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam administered as a concentrated intranasal spray. A study in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, P.D.; Jonker, D.M.; Hoeven, R.T. van der; Vermeij, T.A.; Edelbroek, P.M.; Brekelmans, G.J.; Haan, G.J. de

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of midazolam administered as a concentrated intranasal spray, compared with intravenous midazolam, in healthy adult subjects. METHODS: Subjects were administered single doses of 5 mg midazolam intranasally and intravenously in a cr

  10. Bioequivalence in dogs of a meloxicam formulation administered as a transmucosal oral mist with an orally administered pioneer suspension product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Cheng, Z; Keefe, T J; Weich, E; Bryd, J; Cedergren, R; Cozzi, E

    2013-02-01

    A mucosal mist formulation of meloxicam, administered as a spray into the mouth (test article), was compared for bioequivalence to a pioneer meloxicam suspension for oral administration (reference article). Pharmacokinetic profiles and average bioequivalence were investigated in 20 dogs. The study design comprised a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment cross-over design, with maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under plasma concentration-time curve to last sampling time (AUC(last)) used as pivotal bioequivalence variables. Bioequivalence of the products was confirmed, based on relative ratios of geometric mean concentrations (and 90% confidence intervals within the range 0.80-1.25) for C(max) of 101.9 (97.99-106.0) and for AUC(last) of 97.24 (94.44-100.1). The initial absorption of meloxicam was more rapid for the test article, despite virtually identical C(max) values for the two products. Mean elimination half-lives were 29.6 h (test article) and 30.0 h (reference article). The meloxicam plasma concentration-time profiles were considered in relation to published data on the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 isoenzymes by meloxicam.

  11. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  12. The role of capnography in endoscopy patients undergoing nurse-administered propofol sedation: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagelse, Charlotte; Vilmann, Peter; Hornslet, Pernille; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Horsted, Tina I

    2013-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. Standard benzodiazepine/opioid cocktail has proven inferior to propofol sedation during complicated endoscopic procedures and in low-tolerance patients. Propofol is a short-acting hypnotic with a potential risk of respiratory depression at levels of moderate to deep sedation. The existing literature on capnography for endoscopy patients sedated with nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) is limited. Can the addition of capnography to standard monitoring during endoscopy with NAPS reduce the number, duration, and level of hypoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study was a randomized controlled trial with an intervention group (capnography) and a control group (without capnography). Eligible subjects were consecutive patients for endoscopy at Gentofte Hospital compliant with the criteria of NAPS. RESULTS. Five hundred and forty patients, 263 with capnography and 277 without capnography, were included in the analysis. The number and total duration of hypoxia was reduced by 39.3% and 21.1% in the intervention group compared to the control group (p > 0.05). No differences in actions taken against insufficient respiration were found. Changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide (R = 0.177, p-value 0.05). Capnography is able to detect insufficient respiration that may lead to hypoxia prior to changes in pulse oximetry. However, due to a limited clinical benefit and additional costs associated with capnography, we do not find capnography necessary during the use of NAPS.

  13. Growth-promoting effects of single-dose intragastrically administered probiotics in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M; Raoult, D; Richet, H; Lepidi, H; La Scola, B

    2007-12-01

    1. Live body weight gain (WG) and food conversion efficiency (FCE) were measured over a 4-week period in chicks (female, Kabir strain), inoculated intragastrically at one week of age with either a single dose (1 ml) of 10(7) live bacterial cells of Lactobacillus fermentum (LBF) or a strain of Lactobacillus spp. (LB), named Autruche 4 (A4), suspended in 1 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.0); controls (n = 10) were inoculated only with PBS. The same commercial chicken feed was used throughout the 4-week experiment. 2. Compared with the control group, WG to 8 and 21 d, and also liver weight, were significantly greater in LBF and A4 treatments and FCE improved in both of the experimental groups. Compared with the A4 treatment group, WG was significantly higher and FCE improved in the LBF-treated group. The effects of A4 treatment on chicks were similar to those in an earlier pilot experiment using the same methodology but with 1-week-old female chicks (Kabir) inoculated with either the A4 strain or strain of LB named Autruche 5. 3. It is concluded that a single dose of Lactobacillus fermentum or Lactobacillus spp. (Autruche 4) administered intragastrically improves WG and FCE of broiler chicks.

  14. 45 CFR 400.65 - Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.65 Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA program. Sections 400.65 through 400.69 apply to publicly-administered RCA programs. If a State chooses to operate...

  15. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  16. Influenza vaccine concurrently administered with a combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lucy Chai See; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Breiman, Robert F; Vesikari, Timo; Sablan, Benjamin P; Chay, Oh Moh; Tantracheewathorn, Taweewong; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Lau, Yu-Lung; Bowonkiratikachorn, Piyaporn; Tam, John S; Lee, Bee Wah; Tan, Kah Kee; Pejcz, Jerzy; Cha, Sungho; Gutierrez-Brito, Maricruz; Kaltenis, Petras; Vertruyen, Andre; Czajka, Hanna; Bojarskas, Jurgis; Brooks, W Abdullah; Cheng, Sheau-Mei; Rappaport, Ruth; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William C; Forrest, Bruce D

    2010-02-10

    Children aged 11 to vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35+/-7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively).

  17. Exposure variability of fosfomycin administered to pigs in food or water: impact of social rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraci, Alejandro L; Amanto, Fabián; Tapia, María O; de la Torre, Eulalia; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to document the effect of social ranking on the internal exposure of pigs to an antibiotic (fosfomycin) administered either in food or in drinking water. Signs of aggression were recorded at the feeder and drinker. The interindividual variability explained by the social rank was even greater when the test antibiotic was given in food despite the fact that the water consumption was less variable than the food intake. The range of plasma concentrations after administration of fosfomycin either in food or drinking water leads to a number of pigs in the treated group being exposed to rather low and highly variable concentrations of fosfomycin and not able to maintain adequate plasma concentrations above the typical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Social rank clearly influences the level of exposure of pigs to fosfomycin both in food and drinking. However, its administration in drinking water is likely to be the best option to optimize antibiotic efficacy.

  18. User requirements for a practice-integrated nurse-administered online communication service for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruland, Cornelia M; Borosund, Elin; Varsi, Cecilie

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of participatory design methods in the development of a nurse-administered online patient-provider communication (OPPC) service that is designed to be integrated into routine clinical practice. The OPPC service let patients stay connected with expert nurses and other health care providers to ask questions and receive advice from home. Through focus groups, workshops, heuristic evaluations and usability testing, we identified patients' and clinicians' (nurses' and physicians') user requirements, factors important for successful adoption, implementation and maintenance of the OPPC service, and usability. This paper shares important insights from these participatory design processes that may be helpful for other researchers who wish to implement clinical applications into routine practice.

  19. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  20. Subchronic dispositional and toxicological effects of arsenate administered in drinking water to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M F; Thompson, D J

    1996-10-11

    Exposure to the drinking water contaminant arsenate is a daily occurrence and there are concerns that this exposure may lead to cancer. Although the acute dispositional effects of arsenate have been studied in detail, there is minimal information on the disposition and toxicological effects of it after continuous exposure. The objective of this study was to examine in mice the effect of a 4-wk treatment with arsenate administered in drinking water. Female B6C3F1 mice (3/cage) were housed in metabolism cages and given water and food ad libitum. Two groups (A, B) of mice were treated (4 cages/treatment/group) with distilled water (control, C) or water containing 0.025 mg/L (L) or 2.5 mg/L (H) arsenate. Group A was sacrificed on d 28 and plasma and urine samples were taken for determination of clinical chemistry parameters. Liver and kidney tissue samples were taken for histopathological analysis. The reduced nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) content in several tissues was determined. Group B was gavaged with [73As]arsenate on d 28 and continued the arsenate drinking water exposure for 48 h. Excreta and tissues were collected and analyzed for 73As. Urine was further analyzed for arsenate and its metabolites. There were no effects on the mean daily amount of water and food consumed, whereas the mean daily urine volume excreted was significantly elevated by 10% in the H-treated animals compared to C and L. A dose-related hepatic vacuolar degeneration in the liver was observed, but no histological changes were evident in the kidney. Only clinical chemistry parameters in plasma were altered by the arsenate treatment. Glucose was significantly lower at the H dose compared to C and L, triglycerides were significantly greater in C than L and H, and creatinine was significantly greater in H than C. Hepatic NPSH content in the H animals was significantly lower than C and L animals, whereas no effects in lung and kidney were detected. The weights of liver, lung, and kidney, as well

  1. Effect of carbamazepine or phenytoin therapy on blood level of intravenously administered midazolam: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    Dental treatment of intellectually disabled patients is frequently performed under general anesthesia or sedation. Many of these patients have epilepsy and are medicated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin (PHT) are known to promote the metabolism of midazolam, and the blood levels of midazolam in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT may be different from those in healthy individuals. In this study, we clarified the influences of CBZ and PHT on the blood level of intravenously administered midazolam in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT. The subjects were divided into the following groups: not medicated with AEDs (control group), medicated with only CBZ or PHT (mono CBZ/PHT group), and medicated with CBZ or PHT or both and other AEDs (poly CBZ/PHT group). General anesthesia was achieved using midazolam, propofol, and remifentanil, and then the blood midazolam level was measured at 10, 30, and 60 min after intravenous midazolam administration. According to the results, the blood midazolam level was significantly lower in the mono and poly CBZ/PHT groups than in the control group. This finding suggests that intravenously administered midazolam may have a weaker effect in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT.

  2. Effect of Orally Administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on Intestinal Cytokines and Chemokines Production of Suckling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran Rashid Rajput, Cai-hong Hu and Wei-fen Li*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on intestinal cytokines and chemokines production in piglets. Twenty-four newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (T1, orally administered sterilized (110 ºC for 30 min skim milk 10% (2 ml/piglet/day with addition of viable E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml on 1st, 3rd and 5th day after birth. The control group (T0, were fed the same volume of sterilized skim milk without addition of probiotics. Feeding trial was conducted for 25 days of suckling age. At the end of trail six piglets were randomly selected from each group to collect the samples of jejunum and ileum mucosa to observe the cytokines and chemokines production. The results showed that concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 significantly increased in T1 group. Whereas, production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased in T1 compared to T0. Levels of TNF-α were increased in jejunal mucosa, while decreased in ileal mucosa comparatively in T1 group. Our findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 induced a strong anti-inflammatory response in the small intestine. These immunomodulatory effects of this bacterium might contribute to maintenance of immune homeostasis in the intestine of piglets.

  3. [Comparison of tramadol, tramadol-metamizol and tramadol-lornoxicam administered by intravenous PCA in management of postoperative pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Sibel Ozçakir; Sahin, Saziye; Apan, Alparslan

    2007-10-01

    Comparison of tramadol, tramadol-metamizol and tramadol-lornoxicam administered by intravenous PCA in management of postoperative pain. The aim of the present study was to compare of the postoperative analgesic effects of tramadol, combinations of tramadol-metamizol and tramadol-lornoxicam administered by intravenous Patient Control Analgesia (PCA) in lower abdominal surgery. Sixty adult, female patients who undergoing lower abdominal surgery, were included in this study. Patients were randomized to three groups. The solutions were prepared containing 500 mg tramadol in 50 ml saline (10 mg/ml tramadol) for Group I, 250 mg tramadol+3000 mg metamizol in 50 ml saline (5 mg/ml tramadol+60 mg/ml metamizol) for Group II and 250 mg tramadol+20 mg lornoxicam in 50 ml saline (5mg/ml tramadol + 0.4 mg/ml lornoxicam) for Group III. Loading dose 10 ml was administrated within 30 min 30 to 40 min before the end of the surgery. PCA was started at the first complaint of pain. Pain was evaluated by VAS in every 15 minute intervals at the first hour and later at 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 18th and 24th hours postoperatively. Vital parameters, side-effects, sedation scores and total analgesic consumptions were also recorded concurrently. Total tramadol and anti-emetic consumption, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were significantly higher in group I than the other groups (pmetamizol and tramadol-lornoxicam combinations administered by intravenous PCA provide efficient postoperative analgesia with less side effects.

  4. Intrathecal clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine administered as a mixture and sequentially in caesarean section: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachee Sachan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Mixing adjuvants with hyperbaric bupivacaine in a single syringe before injecting the drugs intrathecally is an age old practice. In doing so, the density of the hyperbaric solution and also of the adjuvant drugs may be altered, thus affecting the spread of drugs. Administering local anaesthetic and the adjuvants separately may minimise the effect of the changes in densities. We aimed to compare block characteristics, intraoperative haemodynamics and post-operative pain relief in parturients undergoing caesarean section (CS after administering hyperbaric bupivacaine and clonidine intrathecally as a mixture and sequentially. Methods: In this single-blind prospective randomised controlled study at a tertiary care centre from 2010 to 12, 60 full-term parturients scheduled for elective CSs were divided into two groups on the basis of technique of intrathecal drug administration. Group M received mixture of clonidine (75 mcg and hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg intrathecally, whereas Group B received clonidine (75 mcg followed by hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg through separate syringes. Observational descriptive statistics, analysis of variance test, Wilcoxon test and Chi-square test were used as applicable. Results: Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (474.33 ± 20.79 min in which the drug was given sequentially than in Group M (337 ± 18.22 min. Furthermore, the time to achieve highest sensory block and complete motor block was significantly less in Group B without any major haemodynamic instability and neonatal outcome. Conclusions: When clonidine and hyperbaric bupivacaine were administered in a sequential manner, block characteristics improved significantly compared to the administration of the mixture of the two drugs.

  5. The hemodynamic effects of methylene blue when administered at the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Stearns, Gary; Butala, Parag; Batula, Parag; Schwartz, Carl S; Gough, Jeffrey; Singh, Arun K

    2006-07-01

    Hypotension occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), in part because of induction of the inflammatory response, for which nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase play a central role. In this study we examined the hemodynamic effects of methylene blue (MB), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, administered during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Thirty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized to receive either MB (3 mg/kg) or saline (S) after institution of CPB and cardioplegic arrest. CPB was managed similarly for all study patients. Hemodynamic data were assessed before, during, and after CPB. The use of vasopressors was recorded. All study patients experienced a similar reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) with the onset of CPB and cardioplegic arrest. MB increased MAP and SVR and this effect lasted for 40 minutes. The saline group demonstrated a persistently reduced MAP and SVR throughout CPB. The saline group received phenylephrine more frequently during CPB, and more norepinephrine after CPB to maintain a desirable MAP. The MB group recorded significantly lower serum lactate levels despite equal or greater MAP and SVR. In conclusion, administration of MB after institution of CPB for patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increased MAP and SVR and reduced the need for vasopressors. Furthermore, serum lactate levels were lower in MB patients, suggesting more favorable tissue perfusion.

  6. The influence of dexamethasone administered prenatally on cartilage of newborn spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniak, P; Dobrowolski, P; Tomaszewska, E; Hułas-Stasiak, M; Tomczyk, A; Gawron, A

    2015-11-17

    Considering the negative effects of glucocorticoid treatment, especially during fetal development it is important to investigate effectors decreasing such disadvantages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatally administered dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on the histomorphometry of the femur in the offspring of spiny mice. The study was performed on 24 pregnant spiny mice. The time of the experiment included the prenatal period between the 20th day of gestation until birth (pregnancy lasts on average of 36-38 days). The mice from the experimental group received dexamethasone per os in a dose of 125 mg/kg birth weight daily. At the end, the newborns from the experimental and control group were weighted and euthanized. Maternal Dex treatment resulted in a 17% decrease in birth weight in newborns. Dex administration significantly reduced the thickness of the hypertrophy zone of the growth plate by 34% and total thickness by 8,7%. In addition, Dex decreased the number of cells in the articular cartilage by 27% and significantly decreased their diameter by 5%. Dex also affected the structure and spatial distribution of thick and thin collagen fibers, lowering the proportion of thin fibers compared with the control group. Moreover, Dex treatment considerably lowered the amount of proteoglycans in articular and growth cartilages. Exposure to glucocorticoids in pregnant spiny mice affects cartilage development by accelerating maturity of collagen fibers and growth plate, presumably along with further disruption of longitudinal growth of long bones.

  7. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  8. Effect of Small-dose of Ephedrine Administered Prior to Induction of Anesthesia on the Onset Time of Succinylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Atashkhoyi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Onset of action of relaxants is influenced by cardiac output and muscle blood flow. Ephedrine increases blood flow to muscles and may shorten the onset of action of succinylcholine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of small-dose of ephedrine administered prior to rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia on the onset time of succinylcholine for endotracheal intubation. Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgeries in Alzahra hospital in Tabriz 1385, were selected. In these patients ephedrine, 70 µg/kg (study group, n=30, or saline (placebo group, n=30 was administered 3 minutes before induction of anesthesia with thiopentone/fentanyl. Succinylcholine, 0.6 mg/kg, was administrated to facilitate the tracheal intubation. Onset of succinylcholine, intubating conditions and hemodynamic variables were recorded in the subjects. Results: Fasciculation was absent in 60% (36 of the patients. No significant differences were found between the onsets of fasciculation between two groups. Moreover, the difference in duration of fasciculation in two groups was not significant. Onset time of succinylcholine was significantly shorter in study group (19.53±3.91 second, compared with placebo group (25.87±7.11 second (p<0.0001. Patients in study group were intubated in 47.07±4.51 seconds compared with 58.73±9.04 seconds in placebo group (p<0.0001. Intubation conditions were similar in both groups. Heart rate was slightly increased in study patients in the first and 3rd minutes after ephedrine administration, but there was no significant difference in systolic blood pressure values compared with the baseline value between two groups. Conclusion: The onset time of succinylcholine is shortened with small-dose of ephedrine pretreatment without significant adverse heamodynamic effects.

  9. Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6, a 1.0 mM agmatine-containing ophthalmic solution was administered four times daily for 2 weeks before occlusion. In the control group (N = 6, a 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL. Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P < 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test. Overall, we determined that topical agmatine application effectively decreases retinal damage in an in vivo ocular ischemic injury model. This implies that agmatine is a good candidate as a direct neuroprotective agent for eyes with ocular ischemic diseases.

  10. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  11. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T; O'Nan, Audrey T; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E; Ashwell, Melissa S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole and known drug metabolizing genes.

  12. Steroids administered after vacuum-assisted biopsy in the management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J Q; Yu, L; Yang, Y; Feng, X J; Sun, J; Liu, J; Fan, F S; Liao, L Q

    2017-10-01

    The aetiology and treatment options for idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) are controversial. The aim was to study the clinical and diagnostic features and discuss medical and surgical treatment for IGM in our patients. Sixty-five patients who met the histological criteria for IGM were retrospectively studied. The diagnosis of IGM was confirmed using Mammotome (an ultrasound-guided, vacuum-assisted biopsy system), core needle biopsy, quadrantectomy or segmental resection. Forty-five patients were treated with prednisolone (69.2%). Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for immune-related antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD79a, IgG, and IgM) was performed. Ultrasonography (USG) was carried out in all patients. Among them, 61 were considered to have an inflammatory mass and 15 had accompanying liquefaction. In four patients, the findings mimicked breast carcinoma (6.2%). The IHC results showed CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD79a lymphocytes diffusely distributed in the lesion. Stains for IgG and IgM were negative. Prednisolone was administered to the patients diagnosed with IGM. The success rate was 53 (81.5%) and the whole recurrence was 12 (18.5%). The median follow-up period was 12 months (range 4-42 months). The aetiology of IGM remains uncertain. The disease has no propensity for the right or left breast. It is a local autoimmune disease, involving humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Hyperprolactinaemia may play a role in some patients. Corticosteroids administered after complete removal of the IGM lesion using the Mammotome biopsy system is an effective treatment option. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Efficacy of internet and group-administered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.; Meijer, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that adolescents are at risk for insomnia, but are reluctant to seek help. Treatment of insomnia has been extensively examined in adults, but studies with adolescents are sparse. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess feasibility and efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy

  14. Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ≥ 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ≥ 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks.

  15. Reducing children's social anxiety symptoms: exploring a novel parent-administered cognitive bias modification training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Pettit, Eleanor; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    Social fears and worries in children are common and impairing. Yet, questions have been raised over the efficacy, suitability and accessibility of current frontline treatments. Here, we present data on the effectiveness of a novel parent-administered Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) training tool. CBM-I capitalises on findings demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and biased interpretations, the tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively. Through CBM-I training, participants are exposed to benign resolutions, and reinforced for selecting these. In adults and adolescents, CBM-I training is effective at reducing symptoms and mood reactivity. In the present study, we developed a novel, child-appropriate form of CBM-I training, by presenting training materials within bedtime stories, read by a parent to the child across three consecutive evenings. Compared to a test-retest control group (n = 17), children receiving CBM-I (n = 19) reported greater endorsement of benign interpretations of ambiguous situations post-training (compared to pre-training). These participants (but not the test-retest control group) also showed a significant reduction in social anxiety symptoms. Pending replication and extensions to a clinical sample, these data may implicate a cost-effective, mechanism-driven and developmentally-appropriate resource for targeting social anxiety problems in children.

  16. Differential effects of estradiol on carotid artery inflammation when administered early versus late after surgical menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophonsritsuk, Areepan; Appt, Susan E; Clarkson, Thomas B; Shively, Carol A; Espeland, Mark A; Register, Thomas C

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of estrogen therapy (ET) on carotid artery inflammation when initiated early and late relative to surgical menopause. Female cynomolgus macaques consuming atherogenic diets were ovariectomized and randomized to control or oral estradiol (E2; human equivalent dose of 1 mg/d micronized E2) initiated at 1 month (early menopause, n = 24) or 54 months (late menopause, n = 40) after ovariectomy. The treatment period was 8 months. Carotid artery expression of the markers of monocyte/macrophages (CD68 and CD163), dendritic cells (CD83), natural killer cells (neural cell adhesion molecule-1), and interferon-γ was significantly lower in E2-treated animals in the early menopause group but not in the late menopause group (P menopausal stage (P menopause inhibits macrophage accumulation in the carotid artery, an effect that is not observed when E2 is administered after several years of estrogen deficiency. No evidence for pro-inflammatory effects of late ET is observed. The results provide support for the timing hypothesis of postmenopausal ET with implications for the interpretation of outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative.

  17. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  18. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  19. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  20. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  1. Negative outcomes: what is the evidence on self-administered treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, F; Floyd, M; Jamison, C; Ackerson, J; Landreville, P; Bissonnette, L

    1996-10-01

    D.C. Mohr (1995) suggested that high deterioration rates may occur in self-directed treatments. The investigators examined data from 5 studies of self-administered treatment for depression and found in contrast much lower rates (9% vs. 19%) than those cited in Mohr's review. The negative response rates for the self-administered treatments compared favorably with the negative response rates in the therapist-administered treatments provided in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. The findings indicate that it may be the manner in which participants are prepared for self-administered treatment that is critical.

  2. Lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods: Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII of 5 animals each. Groups I, II and III were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight, coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight on the 7th day. Groups VI and VII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  3. Lipid proifle and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe; Callistus Izunna Iheme; Chinwe Slyvanus Alisi; Linus Ahuwaraeze Nwaogu; Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Aloysius Chinedu Ene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods:Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1 200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII) of 5 animals each. Groups I, II andIII were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight), coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight) and paracetamol (1 000 mg/kg body weight) respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight) and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight), respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1 000 mg/kg body weight) on the 7th day. GroupsVI andVII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  4. Electrocardiographic ( EKG ) Observation in 30 Volunteers Administered Gossypol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡承阅; 蒋婵华

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the safety of gossypol in small doses, electrocardiograms (EKG) of 30 healthy male voluteers were traced at the 4th, 12th, 36th and 52th weeks after administration of the drug. The dosage regimen was gossypol acetic acid, 15 mg per day, for the first 12 weeks (induction phase), followed by 10 mg or 7. 5 mg for the rest 40 weeks (effective phase ). Twelve voluteers were withdrawn due to hypokalemia, normal spermatogenesis in the effective phase or others before the 52thweek. Wave form of all EKGs (96 groups obtained in the period) .was normal. However, compared with EKG made before gossypol administration, in most cases the average of PR interval became longer and the average of QRS duration shorter. Subjects with PR interval prolongation, in the whole observation period, were more than those with PR interval reduction. Thea lteration of PR interval at the 4th and 12th week was statistically significant (P<0. 05). The results were difficult to be explained with effect of gossypol on potassium metabolism. More extensive research is necessary to use gossypol, as a polyphenolie aldehyde compound for any clinical object.

  5. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau CONTE NETO

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6 or saline solution (CTL; n = 6. After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  6. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate administered via dialysate reduces erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use and maintains hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ajay; Lin, Vivian; Guss, Carrie; Pratt, Raymond; Ikizler, T Alp; Besarab, Anatole

    2015-01-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (FPC) is a water-soluble iron salt administered via dialysate to supply iron directly to transferrin. The PRIME study tested whether treatment with FPC could reduce prescribed erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) use and maintain hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients. This 9-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical study included 103 patients undergoing hemodialysis 3–4 times weekly. The FPC group received dialysate containing 2 μmol/l of iron. The placebo group received standard dialysate. A blinded central anemia management group facilitated ESA dose adjustments. Intravenous iron was administered according to the approved indication when ferritin levels fell below 200 μg/l. The primary end point was the percentage change from baseline in prescribed ESA dose at end of treatment. Secondary end points included intravenous iron use and safety. At the end of treatment, there was a significant 35% reduction in prescribed ESA dose in FPC-treated patients compared with placebo. The FPC patients used 51% less intravenous iron than placebo. Adverse and serious adverse events were similar in both groups. Thus, FPC delivered via dialysate significantly reduces the prescribed ESA dose and the amount of intravenous iron needed to maintain hemoglobin in chronic hemodialysis patients. PMID:26154926

  7. Multi-omic profiles of hepatic metabolism in TPN-fed preterm pigs administered new generation lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gregory; Kulkarni, Madhulika; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Stoll, Barbara; Ng, Kenneth; Martin, Camilia; Belmont, John; Hadsell, Darryl; Heird, William; Newgard, Christopher B; Olutoye, Oluyinka; van Goudoever, Johannes; Lauridsen, Charlotte; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H; Burrin, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to characterize the lipidomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles in preterm piglets administered enteral (ENT) formula or three parenteral lipid emulsions [parenteral nutrition (PN)], Intralipid (IL), Omegaven (OV), or SMOFlipid (SL), for 14 days. Piglets in all parenteral lipid groups showed differential organ growth versus ENT piglets; whole body growth rate was lowest in IL piglets, yet there were no differences in either energy expenditure or (13)C-palmitate oxidation. Plasma homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated insulin resistance in IL, but not OV or SL, compared with ENT. The fatty acid and acyl-CoA content of the liver, muscle, brain, and plasma fatty acids reflected the composition of the dietary lipids administered. Free carnitine and acylcarnitine (ACT) levels were markedly reduced in the PN groups compared with ENT piglets. Genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were increased, whereas those associated with alternative pathways of fatty acid oxidation were decreased in all PN groups. Our results show that new generation lipid emulsions directly enrich tissue fatty acids, especially in the brain, and lead to improved growth and insulin sensitivity compared with a soybean lipid emulsion. In all total PN groups, carnitine levels are limiting to the formation of ACTs and gene expression reflects the stress of excess lipid on liver function.

  8. The effect of aromatherapy and massage administered in different ways to women with breast cancer on their symptoms and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovayolu, Ozlem; Seviğ, Umit; Ovayolu, Nimet; Sevinç, Alper

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of aromatherapy and classic massage administered in various ways to breast cancer patients on their symptoms and quality of life. The sampling consisted of 280 patients. Quality of life and symptoms of the patients were evaluated once at baseline and then at week 6 and week 10 following the intervention. After intervention, the control group was observed to have lower total quality of life score and subdomain scores, whereas fragrance, massage and aromatherapy massage groups had higher scores, and the increase was more obvious particularly in the patients in the aromatherapy massage group. Similarly, whereas psychological and physical symptoms were experienced more intensely in the control group, the severity of all the symptoms experienced by the other patients decreased at week 6 and week 10 as compared with baseline especially in the group that was administered massage with aromatherapy.

  9. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Interaction Between National Governments and ICANN While Administering the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2014-03-01

    parties. The expansion of the Internet allows implementing new service and business models. As a political tool, it is also attracting attention from different groups of interests and oversteps the boundaries of widely accepted values, such as freedom of speech, accessibility of information or economic interests. This question has a clear geopolitical context, for that reason, decision related with the future of the ICANN and the Internet governance should be solved responsibly. The authors give their insights about the topic by determining the main presumptions for the transformation of the ICANN’s legal status and by analyzing positive and negative sides of such hypothetical outcome.Research type: general review, viewpoint.

  11. Penetration of orally administered prulifloxacin into human prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, Claudio; Gallo, Fabrizio; Rosignoli, Maria T; Ruggieri, Alessandro; Barattè, Simona; Picollo, Rossella; Dionisio, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Prulifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, may be a useful addition to the antimicrobial armamentarium against prostatitis once the ability of its active metabolite, ulifloxacin, to penetrate prostatic tissue has been determined. This study set out to evaluate ulifloxacin penetration into the prostate following administration of the oral fluoroquinolone prodrug prulifloxacin in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). This was a phase I, randomized, open-label, single-centre study involving 20 male Caucasian patients (mean age 63.1 years) requiring TURP for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Sixteen patients were randomized to receive prulifloxacin; the other four patients were not treated (controls) in order to validate the bioanalytical method. Patients in the active treatment groups were randomized to receive one or three once-daily doses of prulifloxacin 600 mg, with the last administration 3 hours prior to surgery. Central/transitional and peripheral zone prostatic tissue samples were obtained from the 6 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions in the prostate, and blood samples were collected concurrently. Ulifloxacin concentrations were determined in the tissue samples and plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Safety was also assessed. Prostatic tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin always exceeded those in plasma. Mean ulifloxacin concentrations measured in samples collected from the 6 o'clock central/transitional zone of the prostate were higher in patients who received prulifloxacin for 3 days than in those who received a single dose. Mean prostatic tissue/plasma ulifloxacin concentration ratios after single and repeated prulifloxacin administration ranged from 3.8 to 7.1 and from 3.9 to 9.5, respectively. The highest mean ratio was found in the 6 o'clock central/transitional zone after repeated dosing. Prostatic levels of ulifloxacin were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations for the most

  12. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  13. The Comparison of Procalcitonin Guidance Administer Antibiotics with Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients Admitted in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The empiric antibiotic therapy can result in antibiotic overuse, development of bacterial resistance and increasing costs in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of procalcitonin (PCT guide treatment on antibiotic use and clinical outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS.  A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups, cases that underwent antibiotic treatment based on serum level of PCT as PCT group (n=30 and patients who undergoing antibiotic empiric therapy as control group (n=30. Our primary endpoint was the use of antibiotic treatment. Additional endpoints were changed in clinical status and early mortality. Antibiotics use was lower in PCT group compared to control group (P=0.03. Current data showed that difference in SOFA score from the first day to the second day after admitting patients in ICU did not significantly differ (P=0.88. Patients in PCT group had a significantly shorter median ICU stay, four days versus six days (P=0.01. However, hospital stay was not statistically significant different between two groups, 20 days versus 22 days (P=0.23.  Early mortality was similar between two groups. PCT guidance administers antibiotics reduce antibiotics exposure and length of ICU stay, and we found no differences in clinical outcomes and early mortality rates between the two studied groups.

  14. Evolocumab lowers LDL-C safely and effectively when self-administered in the at-home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Ricardo; Joshi, Raju; Stephen Djedjos, C; Legg, Jason; Elliott, Mary; Geller, Michelle; Meyer, Dawn; Somaratne, Ransi; Recknor, Chris; Weiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Evolocumab has been shown to consistently reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) across populations. The phase 3 studies included administration in the home-use and in-clinic settings but did not specifically evaluate the feasibility of home-use administration. Two clinical studies enrolled patients with hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia on statin therapy and with/without ezetimibe received evolocumab in the home-use setting. Patients were randomized to self-administer evolocumab using one of two injection devices biweekly over 6 weeks (autoinjector or prefilled syringe; n = 149; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01849497) or monthly over 12 weeks (autoinjector or automated minidoser; n = 164; NCT01879319). The first self-administration occurred in the in-clinic setting, and two more were performed in the at-home setting. Patients were successful in self-administering evolocumab in the home-use setting in approximately 95 % of attempts and experienced LDL-C reductions from baseline to week 6 or the mean of weeks 10 and 12 of approximately 65 %. Rates of successful self-administration and LDL-C reduction were similar across dosing schedules and study devices. Adverse events were similar between randomized groups and generally mild in severity. In two clinical studies, therefore, patients were able to successfully self-administer evolocumab in both the in-clinic and at-home settings regardless of which dosing schedule or device they used.

  15. Assessment of bioequivalence of citalopram in healthy Chinese subjects by population pharmacokinetic model%群体药动学模型估算我国健康男性西酞普兰生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐懿萍; 孙菁; 陈冰; 江涛; 陈红专

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of citalopram (CIT) in healthy man Chinese subjects, and to compare the bioequivalence of CIT estimated by PPK with that estimated by non-compartmental (NCA) model. Methods Blood samples of 23 healthy subjects were collected after CIT was given, and samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PPK model of CIT was evaluated by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM). Bioequivalence of CIT was evaluated by both PPK and NCA method. Results The PPK model of CIT was consistent with one-compartment model. The estimated CIT clearance rate was (15.90±0.70) L/h and volume of distribution was (702.0±19.2) L. The CIT bioavailability estimated by NCA and PPK model was 90%, and the confidence intervals were 96.4%~105.4% and 92.5%~103.4%, respectively. Conclusions Bioequivalence of CIT could be estimated by NONMEM model.%目的:建立我国健康男性志愿者服用西酞普兰(CIT)的群体药动学(PPK)模型,并比较PPK模型与非房室(NCA)模型法估算CIT生物等效性的价值.方法:23名健康男性志愿者服用CIT后采集0~144 h血标本,采用高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱法分析血浆中的CIT浓度,采用非线性混合效应模型(NONMEM)法评估CIT的PPK模型,并用NAC模型法和PPK模型法评价CIT的生物等效性.结果:CIT的PPK模型符合一房室模型,估算的CIT清除率和分布容积分别为(15.90±0.70)L/h和(702.0±19.2) L.采用NCA和PPK模型估算的CIT相对生物利用度90%可信区间分别为96.4%~105.4%和92.5%~103.4%,达到生物等效性的标准.结论:NONMEM法可用于评价CIT的生物等效性.

  16. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered ivermectin in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): implications for parasite elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolf, A Rae; Lifschitz, A; Stadler, C; Watson, B; Galvanek, L; Ballent, M; Lanusse, C

    2009-03-01

    Loxodonta africana are susceptible to a wide variety of parasites that are often treated with the broad spectrum antiparasitic ivermectin (IVM) based on empirical knowledge. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure plasma IVM levels following administration of 0.1 mg/kg IVM p.o., 2) compare plasma IVM levels following administration with regular versus restricted feed rations, 3) measure IVM excretion in feces, and 4) use these findings to generate dosing recommendations for this species. Using a crossover design, six African elephants were divided into two groups. Ivermectin was administered and typical grain rations were either provided or withheld for 2 hr. Blood and fecal samples were collected for 7 days following drug administration. After a 5-wk washout period, groups were switched and the procedure repeated. Plasma and fecal IVM were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. There was no statistically significant difference detected in the pharmacokinetic data between the fed and fasted groups. Peak plasma concentration, area under the curve, and half-life for plasma ranged between 5.41-8.49 ng/ml, 17.1-20.3 ng x day/ml, and 3.12-4.47 day, respectively. High IVM concentrations were detected in feces. The peak concentration values in feces were between 264-311-fold higher than those obtained in plasma. The comparatively large area under the curve and short time to maximum concentration in feces indicate elimination prior to absorption of much of the drug. Plasma IVM concentrations were low when compared to other species. Based on these findings, administration of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg p.o. should be appropriate for eliminating many types of parasites in elephants, and could minimize development of parasite resistance.

  17. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter

  18. The impact of abdominal massage administered to intubated and enterally fed patients on the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Burcu Bayrak; Ozdemir, Leyla

    2015-02-01

    Enteral nutrition is one of the major risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Abdominal massage is assumed to prevent the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia by reducing residual gastric volume. To identify the effect of abdominal massage administered to critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation and continuous enteral feeding on the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A randomized controlled design was used in this study. This study was performed in a critical care unit of a university hospital in Turkey. The sample of the study consisted of a total of 32 patients, selected randomly to receive abdominal massage (n=16) and a control group (n=16). The stratified randomization was used in this study. Patients were stratified according to age and gender. A fifteen-minute abdominal massage was administered to the patients in the intervention group twice daily. No intervention was administered to the patients in the control group. At the end of monitoring days a reduction, compared to the control patients, was identified. The amount of gastric residual volume and abdominal circumference measurement of the patients in the intervention group had decreased. This reduction was found to be significant in the statistical analysis (p0.05). This study revealed that abdominal massage administered to intubated and enterally fed patients reduced gastric residual volume and abdominal distension. In addition, a decrease in the ratio of ventilator-associated pneumonia was determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Suitability of the EPQ-R Short Scale for Counselling Brunei Student Teachers when Administered in English and Malay Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Abu Bakar, Hj Abu Zahari Bin

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the psychometric properties of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) Short Scale administered to two groups of Brunei trainee teachers of both genders taking psychology courses in English (117 students) and Malay (106 students). The extraversion scale had the most problematic items. Both administrations…

  20. The Efficacy of Group Metacognitive Therapy on Self-Esteem and Mental Health of Patients Suffering from Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Vahid; Hassanzadeh, Ramezan; Mirzaian, Bahram; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Feizi, Jaleh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research aims to analyze the efficacy of group metacognitive therapy (MCT) on self-esteem and mental Health of those who suffer from major depressive disorder. Methods: The research was a randomized clinical controlled trial, using pretest and posttest with 2 months of follow-up. Twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria were selected through available sampling from patients of two psychiatric hospitals of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. They were allocated randomly into two groups of trial (n = 11) and control (n = 11). Citalopram and sertraline were prescribed as antidepressant to both groups. The experimental group also attended nine 90-minute sessions of MCT (a 5-week program). Eysenck self-esteem scale (ESES) and Mental Health Checklist (MHC) were used in pretest, posttest, and follow-up as the study instrument. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using SPSS. Results: ANCOVA revealed that the patients receiving group MCT had significantly increased (p < 0.001) self-esteem in posttest, which remained significant in the follow up (p < 0.001). Moreover, mental health scores had increased in the MCT group (posttest, p < 0.001; follow up, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Group MCT has beneficial therapeutic roles in improving the self-steam and recuperation of mental health in MDD patients. PMID:25053952

  1. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator, as...

  2. Nurse administered propofol sedation for pulmonary endoscopies requires a specific protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Banning, Anne-Marie; Clementsen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline".......This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline"....

  3. Nurse administered propofol sedation for pulmonary endoscopies requires a specific protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Banning, Anne-Marie; Clementsen, Paul;

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline".......This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline"....

  4. Alliance in Two Telephone-Administered Treatments: Relationship with Depression and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Victoria; Vella, Lea; Howard, Isa; Mohr, David C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between therapeutic alliance and both depression and health outcomes in a randomized clinical trial of 2 telephone-administered treatments with 97 clients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The 16-week, manualized treatments compared were telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) and…

  5. 47 CFR 64.1110 - State notification of election to administer FCC rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State notification of election to administer FCC rules. 64.1110 Section 64.1110 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Telecommunications Service Providers § 64.1110 State notification of election to administer FCC rules. (a)...

  6. 42 CFR 447.520 - FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. 447.520 Section 447.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... § 447.520 FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. (a) No FFP is available...

  7. 40 CFR 147.250 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State of California, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the California... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.250 Section 147.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  8. 20 CFR 664.610 - How is the summer employment opportunities element administered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... element administered? 664.610 Section 664.610 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Opportunities § 664.610 How is the summer employment opportunities element administered? Chief elected officials... recipient or fiscal agent under WIA section 117(d)(3)(B). If, in the administration of the summer...

  9. Proinflammatory effects of exogenously administered IL-10 in experimental autoimmune orchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Tetsushi; Itoh, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yoichi;

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effects of exogenously administered recombinant murine interleukin (IL)-10 on the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in C3H/He mice. IL-10 significantly augments histological signs of EAO when administered for 6 consecutive days from days 15 to 20 after primary...

  10. Effect of Mesalamine and Prednisolone on TNBS Experimental Colitis, following Various Doses of Orally Administered Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Triantafillidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experimental data suggest that oral iron (I. supplementation can worsen colitis in animals. Aim. To investigate the influence of various concentrations of orally administered I. in normal gut mucosa and mucosa of animals with TNBS colitis, as well as the influence of Mesalamine (M. and Prednisolone (P. on the severity of TNBS colitis following orally administered I. Methods and Materials. 156 Wistar rats were allocated into 10 groups. Colitis was induced by TNBS. On the 8th day, all animals were euthanatized. Activity of colitis and extent of tissue damage were assessed histologically. The levels of tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (t-TNF-α and tissue malondialdehyde (t-MDA were estimated in all animal groups. Results. Moderate and high I. supplementation induced inflammation in the healthy colon and increased the activity of the experimentally induced TNBS colitis. Administration of M. on TNBS colitis following moderate iron supplementation (0.3 g/Kg diet resulted in a significant improvement in the overall histological score as well as in two individual histological parameters. M. administration, however, did not significantly reduce the t-TNF-α levels (17.67±4.92 versus 14.58±5.71, P=0.102, although it significantly reduced the t-MDA levels (5.79±1.55 versus 3.67±1.39, P=0.000. Administration of M. on TNBS colitis following high iron supplementation (3.0 g/Kg diet did not improve the overall histological score and the individual histological parameters, neither reduced the levels of t-TNF-α (16.57 ± 5.61 versus 14.65±3.88, P=0.296. However, M. significantly reduced the t-MDA levels (5.99±1.37 versus 4.04±1.41, P=0.000. Administration of P. on TNBS colitis after moderate iron supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in the overall histological score as well as in three individual histological parameters. P. also resulted in a significant reduction in the t-TNF-α levels (17.67±4.92 versus 12.64±3

  11. Optimization method for the administered activity to patients in Tc-99-HMPAO cerebral blood flow SPECT in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Diaz, Marlen [Central University of Las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba). Physics Dept.; Diaz Rizo, Oscar [Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba); Estevez Aparicio, Eric; Roque Diaz, Reinaldo; Hernandez Rodriguez, Carlos [University Hospital Celestino Hernandez, Santa Clara (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    A method based on the construction of an image quality discriminant function is proposed. The parameters which characterise it are selected among the typical ones measured in a Tc{sup 99m} - HMPAO cerebral blood flow SPECT. The results are compared among groups of patient's studies who received different activity (430, 640 and 807 MBq), looking for the minimum that guaranty good image quality. A reduction in the administered {sup 99m} Tc-HMPAO activity to the patient down to 430 MBq was possible without affecting the tomographic image quality. The labelling yield was the main parameter that determined the image quality. (author)

  12. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  13. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  14. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  15. Administering of pregabalin and acetaminophen on management of postoperative pain in patients with nasal polyposis undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Ahmad

    2017-08-08

    Management of postoperative pain is a common problem in endoscopic sinus surgery. The objective of this study is the evaluation of pregabalin and acetaminophen effects on the management of postoperative pain in patients with nasal polyposis undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). In this clinical trial, double-blinded study, 70 patients with nasal polyposis who have indication of FESS were enrolled to this study. After operation, patients were divided randomly into pregabalin and acetaminophen therapy groups. The pregabalin group (n = 35) was treated under pregabalin 50 mg TDS and the acetaminophen group (n = 35) was treated under tablet acetaminophen 500 mg/6 h. Each group was administered for 3 d. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was measured in onset, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. All data were entered into SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) and appropriate statistical tests were assessed to every relation. In this study, there was no significant difference between two groups according to VAS in onset (p = .37); however, VAS in 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after operation was significantly lower in the pregabalin group compared with the acetaminophen group (p acetaminophen group (p acetaminophen on the management of postoperative pain in the patients with nasal polyposis undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  16. Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a Chance on Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Daylor, Jordan M; Tangney, June P; Barboza, Sharen; Wilson, John S; Bonieskie, Lynda; Holwager, James

    2016-08-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Lack of selective developmental toxicity of three butanol isomers administered by inhalation to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B K; Brightwell, W S; Khan, A; Burg, J R; Goad, P T

    1989-04-01

    As part of an ongoing study of the developmental toxicology of industrial alcohols, this report presents the results of the teratology assessments of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and t-butanol administered by inhalation to rats. Groups of approximately 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed at 8000, 6000, 3500, or 0 ppm 1-butanol, 7000, 5000, 3500, or 0 ppm 2-butanol, or 5000, 3500, 2000, or 0 ppm t-butanol for 7 hr/day on Gestation Days 1-19 (sperm = 0). In each case, the highest concentration was selected to produce maternal toxicity. Dams were sacrificed on Gestation Day 20, and fetuses were individually weighed, tagged, and examined for external malformations. One-half of the fetuses were stained and examined for skeletal abnormalities, and the other half were examined for visceral defects using the Wilson technique. For each butanol isomer examined, the highest concentration (and the intermediate in some cases) was maternally toxic, as manifest by reduced weight gain and feed intake. Even at a maternally toxic dose, and in spite of a dose-dependent reduction in fetal weights for each isomer, the only teratogenicity observed was a slight increase in skeletal malformations (primarily rudimentary cervical ribs), seen with the highest concentration of 1-butanol. Thus, although teratogenicity was observed at 8000 ppm 1-butanol, and developmental toxicity was observed with each of the butyl alcohol isomers studied, concentrations 50 times the current permissible exposure limits for these three butanol isomers do not produce teratogenicity in rats.

  18. Treatment of hepatoma with liposome-encapsulated adriamycin administered into hepatic artery of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Sheng Sun; Jiang-Hao Chen; Rui Ling; Qing Yao; Ling Wang; Zhong Ma; Yu Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the therapeutic effects of liposomeencapsulated adriamycin (LADM) on hepatoma in comparison with adriamycin solution (FADM) and adriamycin plus blank liposome (ADM + BL) administered into the hepatic artery of rats.METHODS: LADM was prepared by pH gradient-driven method. Normal saline, FADM (2 mg/kg), ADM+BL (2 mg/kg), and LADM (2 mg/kg) were injected via the hepatic artery in rats bearing liver W256 carcinosarcoma,which were divided into four groups randomly. The therapeutic effects were evaluated in terms of survival time,tumor enlargement ratio, and tumor necrosis degree.The difference was determined with ANOVA and Dunnett test and log rank test.RESULTS: Compared to FADM or ADM + BL, LADM produced a more significant tumor inhibition (tumor volume ratio: 1.243 ± 0.523 vs 1.883 ± 0.708, 1.847 ± 0.661,P < 0.01), and more extensive tumor necrosis. The increased life span was prolonged significantly in rats receiving LADM compared with FADM or ADM+BL (231.48 v's 74.66, 94.70) (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: The anticancer efficacies of adriamycin on hepatoma can be strongly improved by liposomal encapsulation through hepatic arterial administration.

  19. Assessment of the effects of orally administered ferrous sulfate on Oncopeltus fasciatus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Amparo; Torreblanca, Amparo; Garcerá, María Dolores

    2017-03-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient needed for multiple biological processes, but it is also an effective pro-oxidant in its reduced form. Environmental sources of iron toxic species include reduced soils from rice plantations, polluted natural areas from metal industry waste, or iron oxides used in soil bioremediation. Few studies have been conducted to assess the toxicity of iron species in insects. The present work aims to assess the oxidative stress effects of ferrous sulfate administered in drinking water after acute exposure (96 h) to adults of the insect model Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Mortality was higher in exposed groups and significantly associated with iron treatment (OR [95% CI]; 11.8 [6.1-22.7]). Higher levels of body iron content were found in insects exposed to ferrous sulfate, with an increase of 5-6 times with respect to controls. Catalase activity and lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), but not glutathione S-transferase activity, were significantly higher in exposed insects and significantly correlated with body iron content (Pearson coefficient of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively) and between them (0.78). The present work demonstrates that, despite the disruption in water and food intake caused by iron administration, this metal is accumulated by insect causing lipid peroxidation and eliciting an antioxidant response mediated by catalase.

  20. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fourie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  1. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  2. The histopathological and morphometric investigation of the effects of systemically administered boric acid on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci Yuce, Hatice; Toker, Hulya; Goze, Fahrettin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemically administered boric acid on alveolar bone loss, histopathological changes and oxidant/antioxidant status in ligature-induced periodontitis in diabetic rats. Forty-four Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: (1) non-ligated (NL, n = 6) group, (2) ligature only (LO, n = 6) group, (3) Streptozotocin only (STZ, n = 8) group, (4) STZ and ligature (STZ+LO, n = 8) group, (5) STZ, ligature and systemic administration of 15 mg/kg/day boric acid for 15 days (BA15, n = 8) group and (6) STZ, ligature and systemic administration of 30 mg/kg/day boric acid for 15 days (BA30, n = 8) group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin of lower first molars of the mandibular quadrant. The study duration was 15 days after diabetes induction and the animals were sacrificed at the end of this period. Changes in alveolar bone levels were clinically measured and tissues were histopathologically examined. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels and oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated. Primary outcome was alveolar bone loss. Seconder outcome (osteoblast number) was also measured. At the end of 15 days, the alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the STZ+LO group compared to the other groups (p boric acid and STZ+LO 30 mg/kg boric acid groups (p > 0.05). Systemically administered boric acid significantly decreased alveolar bone loss compared to the STZ+LO group (p 0.05). The OSI values of the BA30 group were significantly lower than the STZ+LO group (p 0.05). Within the limits of this study, it can be suggested that BA, when administered systemically, may reduce alveolar bone loss in the diabetic rat model.

  3. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; O’Nan, Audrey T.; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E.; Ashwell, Melissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007) basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038) transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038) transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and

  4. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Howard

    Full Text Available Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169 spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15 of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control, flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007 basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038 transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038 transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin

  5. An estimate of the cost of administering intravenous biological agents in Spanish day hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla, Joan Miquel; Martín, Esperanza; Llamas, Pilar; Manero, Javier; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo; Fernández-Miera, Manuel Francisco; Rodríguez, Mercedes; López, José Manuel; Ivanova, Alexandra; Aragón, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the unit costs of administering intravenous (IV) biological agents in day hospitals (DHs) in the Spanish National Health System. Patients and methods Data were obtained from 188 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, collected from nine DHs, receiving one of the following IV therapies: infliximab (n=48), rituximab (n=38), abatacept (n=41), or tocilizumab (n=61). The fieldwork was carried out between March 2013 and March 2014. The following three groups of costs were considered: 1) structural costs, 2) material costs, and 3) staff costs. Staff costs were considered a fixed cost and were estimated according to the DH theoretical level of activity, which includes, as well as personal care of each patient, the DH general activities (complete imputation method, CIM). In addition, an alternative calculation was performed, in which the staff costs were considered a variable cost imputed according to the time spent on direct care (partial imputation method, PIM). All costs were expressed in euros for the reference year 2014. Results The average total cost was €146.12 per infusion (standard deviation [SD] ±87.11; CIM) and €29.70 per infusion (SD ±11.42; PIM). The structure-related costs per infusion varied between €2.23 and €62.35 per patient and DH; the cost of consumables oscillated between €3.48 and €20.34 per patient and DH. In terms of the care process, the average difference between the shortest and the longest time taken by different hospitals to administer an IV biological therapy was 113 minutes. Conclusion The average total cost of infusion was less than that normally used in models of economic evaluation coming from secondary sources. This cost is even less when the staff costs are imputed according to the PIM. A high degree of variability was observed between different DHs in the cost of the consumables, in the structure-related costs, and in those of the care process. PMID:28356746

  6. Use of and confidence in administering outcome measures among clinical prosthetists: Results from a national survey and mixed-methods training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunaurd, Ignacio; Spaulding, Susan E; Amtmann, Dagmar; Salem, Rana; Gailey, Robert; Morgan, Sara J; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    Outcome measures can be used in prosthetic practices to evaluate interventions, inform decision making, monitor progress, document outcomes, and justify services. Strategies to enhance prosthetists' ability to use outcome measures are needed to facilitate their adoption in routine practice. To assess prosthetists' use of outcome measures and evaluate the effects of training on their confidence in administering performance-based measures. Cross-sectional and single-group pretest-posttest survey. Seventy-nine certified prosthetists (mean of 16.0 years of clinical experience) were surveyed about their experiences with 20 standardized outcome measures. Prosthetists were formally trained by the investigators to administer the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor. Prosthetists' confidence in administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor was measured before and after training. The majority of prosthetists (62%) were classified as non-routine outcome measure users. Confidence administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor prior to training was low-to-moderate across the study sample. Training significantly (p confidence in administering both instruments. Prosthetists in this study reported limited use of and confidence with standardized outcome measures. Interactive training resulted in a statistically significant increase of prosthetists' confidence in administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor and may facilitate use of outcome measures in clinical practice. Frequency of outcome measure use in the care of persons with limb loss has not been studied. Study results suggest that prosthetists may not regularly use standardized outcome measures and report limited confidence in administering them. Training enhances confidence and may encourage use of outcome measures in clinical practice. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  7. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  8. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  9. The Effect of Compressor-Administered Defibrillation on Peri-shock Pauses in a Simulated Cardiac Arrest Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Glick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Results: Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47-0.67 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35-1.64. Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58-2.95 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08-4.43. Conclusion: Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:246–250.

  10. Gold nanoparticles and diclofenac diethylammonium administered by iontophoresis reduce inflammatory cytokines expression in Achilles tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnert MB

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo B Dohnert1,2, Mirelli Venâncio1, Jonathann C Possato1, Rodrigo C Zeferino1, Luciana H Dohnert2, Alexandra I Zugno1, Cláudio T De Souza1, Marcos MS Paula1, Thais F Luciano11Postgraduation Program in Health Sciences, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, Santa Catarina, 2Department of Physiotherapy, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilIntroduction: Tendinitis affects a substantial number of people in several occupations involving repetitive work or direct trauma. Iontophoresis is a therapeutic alternative used in the treatment of injury during the inflammatory phase. In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNP have been studied due to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory capacity and as an alternative to the transport of several proteins. Purpose: This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of iontophoresis using GNPs and diclofenac diethylammonium on inflammatory parameters in rats challenged with traumatic tendinitis.Methods: Wistar rats were divided in three treatment groups (n = 15: (1 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium; (2 iontophoresis + GNP; and (3 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium + GNP. External control was formed by challenged tendons without treatment (n = 15. Iontophoresis was administered using 0.3 mA direct current on 1.5 cm² electrodes. Results: The levels of both inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in untreated challenged rats, when compared with the control (5.398 ± 234 for interleukin 1 beta and 6.411 ± 432 for tumor necrosis factor alpha, which confirms the occurrence of an inflammatory stage in injury (P < 0.05. A significant decrease was observed in expression of cytokines interleukin 1 beta in the three treatment groups, in comparison with untreated challenged tendons, although, in the group treated with diclofenac and GNP, results were similar to the control (1.732 ± 239 (P < 0

  11. Self-Administered Lidocaine Gel for Pain Control With First-Trimester Surgical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jennifer A; Lerma, Klaira; Shaw, Kate A; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    To compare pain control at various time points during first-trimester surgical abortion using a patient-administered lidocaine gel compared with a traditional lidocaine paracervical block. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of women undergoing surgical abortion at less than 12 weeks of gestation in an outpatient setting. The primary outcome was pain at cervical dilation as measured on a 100-mm visual analog scale. A sample size of 142 participants was planned to detect a 15-mm or greater difference on the 100-mm visual analog scale with 90% power and a significance level of .025, adding 10% for participant dropout and protocol violations. Participants received either 12 mL of a 1% lidocaine paracervical block or 20 mL of a self-administered, 2% lidocaine gel 20-30 minutes before procedure initiation. Secondary outcomes included anticipated pain, baseline pain, pain with speculum and tenaculum placement, pain after suction aspiration, and pain 30-45 minutes postoperatively. From April to October 2015, a total of 142 women were enrolled (68 in the paracervical block group, 69 in the gel group, and five not analyzed as a result of participant withdrawal). Sociodemographic characteristics were similar between groups. The mean pain score with cervical dilation was 60 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 54-66) in the paracervical block group and 64 mm (95% CI 59-69) in the gel group (P=.3). There was no significant difference between mean pain scores at any time points measured. Self-administration of lidocaine gel before first-trimester surgical abortion is noninferior to a traditional paracervical lidocaine block and should be considered as an alternative, noninvasive approach to pain control for first-trimester surgical abortion. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02447029.

  12. Cognitive training in the elderly: a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a self-administered cognitive training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Mireille N

    2015-12-08

    To evaluate the efficacy of a self-administered cognitive training program for improving cognition in normal elderly persons. A multisite, randomized control, double-blind trial was conducted with 28 experimental participants (Mage = 70.7 ± 8.89) and 28 active controls (Mage = 74.4 ± 9.39). Treatment conditions: experimental intervention (EI) consisted of three modules: (1) executive functioning, (2) memory, and (3) emotion training. Active control (AC) consisted of word searches, reading short stories, and answering multiple-choice questions. Treatments were self-administered one hour/five days a week for four weeks. Pre-and post-training neuropsychological outcome measures were utilized as determinants of program success. Compared to the AC group, the EI group displayed significant gains on targeted executive (p = .002) and memory (p cognition (BCRS, p = .002) and functional abilities (DAD, p memory (55% vs. 19.5%) and functional (41% vs. 7.5%) ability. Participant recruitment and compliance rates were enhanced by the involvement of a physician. Results support the efficacy of self-directed cognitive training in reliably improving cognitive and functional abilities in normal older adults. While physicians are critical in enhancing the delivery of regimented treatment, the present study illustrates the potential for self-directed prophylactic training in deterring the development of cognitive decline.

  13. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n=15 or the control group (n=21 for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes (e.g., compliance and adverse effects and clinical outcomes (e.g., pain, stiffness, and physical function were assessed. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis were employed. Results. The training materials were well received. The feedback from participants suggests that self-administered acupressure exercise is easy to learn and safe to perform at home, although no statistically significant results of the clinical outcome were observed. Our findings didn’t reveal superiority or inferiority of acupressure compared with usual care. Conclusion. Acupressure exercise is feasible to be trained among postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. Due to the limitations of this study such as small sample size and high attrition rate, acupressure’s efficacy needs to be further explored in larger scale studies with more rigorous design.

  14. Open-label, multicenter study of self-administered icatibant for attacks of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Reshef, A

    2014-01-01

    Historically, treatment for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks has been administered by healthcare professionals (HCPs). Patient self-administration could reduce delays between symptom onset and treatment, and attack burden. The primary objective was to assess the safety of self...

  15. 26 CFR 20.2053-3 - Deduction for expenses of administering estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the law and practice in the jurisdiction in which the estate is being administered, and the skill and... expenses include such expenses as court costs, surrogates' fees, accountants' fees, appraisers' fees,...

  16. Historical review of the use of motorized vehicles on lands administered by Izembek Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review and describe the historical use of motorized vehicles within lands administered by the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, with...

  17. The effectiveness of self-administered treatments: a practice-friendly review of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Jennifer A; Scogin, Forrest R

    2003-02-01

    Self-administered treatments are a cost-effective way to treat a broad spectrum of people. This article focuses on the existing research of self-administered treatments and their effectiveness when integrated with ongoing practice or when implemented alone. Evidence for their effectiveness is mixed; self-help has been proven successful in the treatment of depression, mild alcohol abuse, and anxiety disorders. It has proven less successful for smoking cessation and moderate to severe alcohol abuse. When determining whether self-administered treatment is appropriate, individual characteristics and attitude as well as the nature and severity of the problem should be taken into consideration. In addition, because many self-help treatments have not been evaluated, caution should be exercised when implementing self-administered treatment, and progress should be carefully monitored. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    The local anesthetic lidocaine suppresses different pain conditions when administered systemically. Part of the antinociceptive effect appears to be mediated via receptor mechanisms. We have previously shown that muscarinic and nicotinic agonists that produce antinociception increase the intraspi...

  19. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  20. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  1. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  2. Genetic algorithm guided population pharmacokinetic model development for simvastatin, concurrently or non-concurrently co-administered with amlodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedula, Ayyappa; Sale, Mark E; Lee, Howard

    2014-02-01

    An automated model development was performed for simvastatin, co-administered with amlodipine concurrently or non-concurrently (i.e., 4 hours later) in 17 patients with coexisting hyperlipidemia and hypertension. The single objective hybrid genetic algorithm (SOHGA) was implemented in the NONMEM software by defining the search space for structural, statistical and covariate models. Candidate models obtained from the SOHGA runs were further assessed for biological plausibility and the precision of parameter estimates, followed by traditional backward elimination process for model refinement. The final population pharmacokinetic model shows that the elimination rate constant for simvastatin acid, the active form by hydrolysis of its lactone prodrug (i.e., simvastatin), is only 44% in the concurrent amlodipine administration group compared with the non-concurrent group. The application of SOHGA for automated model selection, combined with traditional model selection strategies, appears to save time for model development, which also can generate new hypotheses that are biologically more plausible.

  3. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation in advanced interventional endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burtea, Daniela Elena; Dimitriu, Anca; Maloş, Anca Elena

    2015-01-01

    the patients and medical personnel. Current guidelines support the use of propofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverse effects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recovery time. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation has become......, improved satisfaction for patients and doctors, as well as decreased recovery and discharge time. Despite the advantages of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol, there is still a continuous debate related to the successful generalization of the procedures....

  4. Enhanced brain targeting efficiency of intranasally administered plasmid DNA: an alternative route for brain gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In-Kwon; Kim, Mi Young; Byun, Hyang-Min; Hwang, Tae Sun; Kim, Jung Mogg; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Park, Tae Gwan; Jung, Woon-Won; Chun, Taehoon; Jeong, Gil-Jae; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Recently, nasal administration has been studied as a noninvasive route for delivery of plasmid DNA encoding therapeutic or antigenic genes. Here, we examined the brain targeting efficiency and transport pathways of intranasally administered plasmid DNA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measurements of plasmid DNA in blood and brain tissues revealed that intranasally administered pCMVbeta (7.2 kb) and pN2/CMVbeta (14.1 kb) showed systemic absorption and brain distribution. Following intranasal administration, the beta-galactosidase protein encoded by these plasmids was significantly expressed in brain tissues. Kinetic studies showed that intranasally administered plasmid DNA reached the brain with a 2,595-fold higher efficiency than intravenously administered plasmid DNA did, 10 min post-dose. Over 1 h post-dose, the brain targeting efficiencies were consistently higher for intranasally administered plasmid DNA than for intravenously administered DNA. To examine how plasmid DNA enters the brain and moves to the various regions, we examined tissues from nine brain regions, at 5 and 10 min after intranasal or intravenous administration of plasmid DNA. Intravenously administered plasmid DNA displayed similar levels of plasmid DNA in the nine different regions, whereas, intranasally administered plasmid DNA exhibited different levels of distribution among the regions, with the highest plasmid DNA levels in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, plasmid DNA was mainly detected in the endothelial cells, but not in glial cells. Our results suggest that intranasally applied plasmid DNA may reach the brain through a direct route, possibly via the olfactory bulb, and that the nasal route might be an alternative method for efficiently delivering plasmid DNA to the brain.

  5. Effects of interleukin-18 and Anti-interleukin-18-mAb on Experimental immunological Liver Fibrosis induced by Repeatedly Administered Concanavalin A and its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-wen Tan; Jian-cheng Wu; Yun Ye; Li Chen; Peng-li Pai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevention of IL-18 or anti-IL-18-mAb to the immune liver fibrosis model induced by repeated injection of concanavalin A in BALB/c mice and its mechanism. Methods Total of 120 BALB/c mice were divided into four groups, control group mice (Ga) were injected weekly with normal saline, concanavalin A group was divided into Gb, Gc, Gd. All mice were injected with concanavalin A (15 mg/kg) once a week. Moreover, Gc, Gd mice were injected weekly with IL-18 (7.5 mg/kg) and anti-IL-18-mAb (10 mg/kg) 2 hours before treatment with concanavalin A, respectively. Twenty-four hours after concanavalin A challenge at 1, 5, 12 and 20 weeks, 3 mice were killed by vena orbitalis, repectively. The sera were storaged at 4℃for detecting of up TNF-αand IFN-γby ELISA. The liver of mice in different groups were excised and fixed in 10%formalin for HE staining and Masson staining or frozen in liquid nitrogen for immunohistochemical staining forα-SMA. After extracting of total RNA from liver tissue, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 A messenger RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Products were electrophoresed on agrose gel containing ethidium bromide and visualized under ultraviolet light. Densitometric RT-PCR data were standardized withβ-actin signals. Results After experiment, the number of dead mice of Ga, Gb, Gc and Gd were 0, 6, 15 and 3, respectively. There were significant difference on each group (P<0.05). At the fifth week of experiment, hepatocellular necrosis in IL-18 administered group mice had become widespread throughout the lobule. Evidence of liver fibrosis was observed during this period. However, at the twelfth week of experimemt, bridging fibrosis and large fibrosis strip in the parenchyma with hepatocellular necrosis was detectable in Gb, but at twentieth week, only the small fibrosis strip had been found in anti-IL-18-mAb administered group mice by HE staining and Masson staining. The serum levels of TNF-αand IFN

  6. Citalopram enhances cocaine's subjective effects in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Paul L.; Hiranita, Takato; Katz, Jonathan L.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to enhance the locomotor stimulatory, discriminative-stimulus, and convulsive effects of cocaine in rodents. A pharmacokinetic mechanism for the interaction is supported by increases in the brain levels of cocaine by fluoxetine treatment. Furthermore, the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine in rodents are enhanced by fluoxetine and fluvoxamine, SSRIs known to inhibit cocaine-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, whereas citalo...

  7. Reduction of Pavlovian Bias in Schizophrenia: Enhanced Effects in Clozapine-Administered Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Albrecht

    Full Text Available The negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ are associated with a pattern of reinforcement learning (RL deficits likely related to degraded representations of reward values. However, the RL tasks used to date have required active responses to both reward and punishing stimuli. Pavlovian biases have been shown to affect performance on these tasks through invigoration of action to reward and inhibition of action to punishment, and may be partially responsible for the effects found in patients. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 30 demographically-matched controls completed a four-stimulus reinforcement learning task that crossed action ("Go" or "NoGo" and the valence of the optimal outcome (reward or punishment-avoidance, such that all combinations of action and outcome valence were tested. Behaviour was modelled using a six-parameter RL model and EEG was simultaneously recorded. Patients demonstrated a reduction in Pavlovian performance bias that was evident in a reduced Go bias across the full group. In a subset of patients administered clozapine, the reduction in Pavlovian bias was enhanced. The reduction in Pavlovian bias in SZ patients was accompanied by feedback processing differences at the time of the P3a component. The reduced Pavlovian bias in patients is suggested to be due to reduced fidelity in the communication between striatal regions and frontal cortex. It may also partially account for previous findings of poorer "Go-learning" in schizophrenia where "Go" responses or Pavlovian consistent responses are required for optimal performance. An attenuated P3a component dynamic in patients is consistent with a view that deficits in operant learning are due to impairments in adaptively using feedback to update representations of stimulus value.

  8. Orally administered tylosin for the control of pneumonia in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, T; Muenster, O A; Ose, E E; Tonkinson, L

    1980-08-16

    The effectiveness of orally administered tylosin tartrate for the control of naturally occurring pneumonia was determined in 287 neonatal calves. Tylosin tartrate was mixed with reconstituted milk replacer at the time of feeding. Daily doses of 1.0 g (0.5 g BID), 2.0 g (1.0 g BID) and 4.0 g (2.0 g BID) were evaluated for periods ranging from seven to 28 days. Tylosin at the optimum dose of 2.0 g daily reduced mortality to 12 out of 95 (12.6 per cent) compared to 38 out of 89 (42.7 per cent) in the non-medicated control calves. The 1.0 g daily dose did not reduce mortality. The number of calves with moderate to severe lung lesions was also reduced by treatment at 2.0 g daily to 13 out of 95 (13.7 per cent) compared to 45 out of 89 (50.6 per cent) in the control group. All dose levels had a similar effect in reducing the severity of clinical signs indicative of respiratory disease. Tylosin treatment at all dose levels reduced the number of Pasteurella multocida isolations from lung tissue to 15/146 (10.3 per cent) compared to 61/141 (43.3 per cent) for the controls. However, there were no differences between treated and controls in the number of P haemolytica isolations. The frequency of mycoplasma isolations from lung tissue were reduced significantly by tylosin treatment at the 4.0 g and 2.0 g dose levels to 36/93 (38.7 per cent) compared to 61/86 (70.9 per cent) for the control calves.

  9. Psychological wellness constructs: relationships and group differences

    OpenAIRE

    Liezl Gropp; Dirk Geldenhuys; Deléne Visser

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), Locus of Control Inventory (LOC), Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 20...

  10. Psychological wellness constructs: Relationships and group differences.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), Locus of Control Inventory (LOC), Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 200...

  11. Facilitating Group Cohesion among Adolescents through Challenge Course Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. Scott; Benshoff, James M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the effects of participation in a low-element challenge course on younger adolescents' perceptions of group cohesion. Pre- and post-tests of group cohesion were administered to 167 North Carolina adolescents aged 11-14. Participants perceived an increase in group cohesion after the daylong program, regardless of their age, race,…

  12. Effects of self-administered exercises based on Tuina techniques on musculoskeletal disorders of professional orchestra musicians:a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cludia Maria Sousa; Daniela Coimbra; Jorge Machado; HenrYJ Greten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Musicians are frequently affected by playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). Common solutions used by Western medicine to treat musculoskeletal pain include rehabilitation programs and drugs, but their results are sometimes disappointing. OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of self-administered exercises based on Tuina techniques on the pain intensity caused by PRMD of professional orchestra musicians, using numeric visual scale (NVS). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: We performed a prospective, controled, single-blinded, randomized study with musicians suffering from PRMD. Participating musicians were randomly distributed into the experimental (n= 39) and the control (n= 30) groups. After an individual diagnostic assessment, speciifc Tuina self-administered exercises were developed and taught to the participants. Musicians were instructed to repeat the exercises every day for 3 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain intensity was measured by NVS before the intervention and after 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 d of treatment. The procedure was the same for the control group, however the Tuina exercises were executed in points away from the commonly-used acupuncture points. RESULTS: In the treatment group, but not the control group, pain intensity was signiifcantly reduced on days 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20. CONCLUSION: The results obtained are consistent with the hypothesis that self-administered exercises based on Tuina techniques could help professional musicians controling the pain caused by PRMD. Although our results are very promising, further studies are needed employing a larger sample size and double blinding designs.

  13. Systemically administered IgG anti-toxin antibodies protect the colonic mucosa during infection with Clostridium difficile in the piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocean R Cohen

    Full Text Available The use of anti-toxin human monoclonal antibodies (HMab as treatment for C. difficile infection has been investigated in animal models and human clinical trials as an alternative to or in combination with traditional antibiotic therapy. While HMab therapy appears to be a promising option, how systemically administered IgG antibodies protect the colonic mucosa during Clostridium difficile infection is unknown. Using the gnotobiotic piglet model of Clostridium difficile infection, we administered a mixture of anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB HMabs systemically to piglets infected with either pathogenic or non-pathogenic C. difficile strains. The HMabs were present throughout the small and large intestinal tissue of both groups, but significant HMabs were present in the lumen of the large intestines only in the pathogenic strain-infected group. Similarly, HMabs measured in the large intestine over a period of 2-4 days following antibody administration were not significantly different over time in the gut mucosa among the groups, but concentrations in the lumen of the large intestine were again consistently higher in the pathogenic strain-infected group. These results indicate that systemically administered HMab IgG reaches the gut mucosa during the course of CDI, protecting the host against systemic intoxication, and that leakage through the damaged colon likely protects the mucosa from further damage, allowing initiation of repair and recovery.

  14. Curricular reform may improve students' performance on externally administered comprehensive examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Ivan; Fenderson, Bruce A; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Rubin, Emanuel

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether changes in the format of teaching pathology and the introduction of active learning principles can improve medical students' performance on external examinations and enhance clinical skills. The sophomore Pathology Course at Jefferson Medical College (JMC) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, was completely restructured in 1986, with greater emphasis placed on independent study, small group teaching, and case study discussion. We used the scores of JMC medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I Examination to compare the performance of JMC students who completed their medical education before curricular change (entering classes 1982-1984) with the performance of subsequent generations of students who were taught according to the reformed curriculum (entering classes 1985-1988). The two groups of students were comparable in terms of standard social and psychometric parameters, such as mean age at matriculation, female/male ratio, ratio of minority students in the class, premedical college grade point averages, and mean scores on the preadmission Medical College Admissions Test. JMC students who studied pathology prior to the curricular reform received on the pathology subsection of the NBME Part I Examination reform scores that were close to the national average. In contrast, mean scores for students who studied pathology after curricular changes were significantly higher than the national average (P<0.001). Based on their pathology subscores, the number of JMC students scoring below the cutoff line for passing (380 points) decreased significantly after the curricular reform, whereas the number of high-scoring students whose scores ranked them in the 90th percentile nationally increased. Curricular reform was also associated with an increase in overall student satisfaction. Curricular changes that include an emphasis on active learning can improve the performance of medical students on externally administered

  15. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of measles vaccine administered alone or with live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Philippine infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchalian, Salvacion; Yao, Yafu; Zhou, Benli; Zhang, Lei; Yoksan, Sutee; Kelly, Kim; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Yaïch, Mansour; Jacobson, Julie

    2008-04-24

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of disease, disability, and death in Asia. An effective, live, attenuated JE vaccine (LJEV) is available; however, its use in routine immunization schedules is hampered by lack of data on concomitant administration with measles vaccine (MV). This study evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of LJEV and MV when administered at the same or separate study visits in infants younger than 1 year of age. Three groups of healthy infants were randomized to receive LJEV at age of 8 months and MV at 9 months (Group 1; n=100); MV and LJEV together at 9 months (Group 2; n=236); or MV and LJEV at 9 and 10 months, respectively (Group 3; n=235). Blood was obtained 4 weeks after each vaccine administration to determine antibody levels for measles and JE. Reactogenicity was assessed by parental diaries and clinic visits. Four weeks after immunization, measles seroprotection rates (defined as > or =340 mIU/ml) were high and comparable in all three groups and specifically, rates in the combined MV-LJEV (Group 2) were not statistically inferior to those in Group 3 receiving MV separately (96% versus 100%, respectively). Likewise, the LJEV seroprotection rates were high and similar between the three groups. The reactogenicity profiles of the three vaccine schedules were also analogous. LJEV and MV administered together are well tolerated and immunogenic in infants younger than 1 year. These results should facilitate incorporation of LJEV into routine immunization schedules with MV.

  16. High-dose hydroxocobalamin administered after H2S exposure counteracts sulfide-poisoning-induced cardiac depression in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouzi, Philippe; Chenuel, Bruno; Sonobe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Severe H2S poisoning leads to death by rapid respiratory and cardiac arrest, the latter can occur within seconds or minutes in severe forms of intoxication. To determine the time course and the nature of H2S-induced cardiac arrest and the effects of high-dose hydroxocobalamin administered after the end of sulfide exposure. NaHS was infused in 16 sedated mechanically ventilated sheep to reach concentrations of H2S in the blood, which was previously found to lead to cardiac arrest within minutes following the cessation of H2S exposure. High-dose hydroxocobalamin (5 g) or saline solution was administered intravenously, 1 min after the cessation of NaHS infusion. All animals were still alive at the cessation of H2S exposure. Three animals (18%) presented a cardiac arrest within 90 s and were unable to receive any antidote or vehicle. In the animals that survived long enough to receive either hydroxocobalamin or saline, 71% (5/7) died in the control group by cardiac arrest within 10 min. In all instances, cardiac arrest was the result of a pulseless electrical activity (PEA). In the group that received the antidote, intravenous injection of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin provoked an abrupt increase in blood pressure and blood flow; PEA was prevented in all instances. However, we could not find any evidence for a recovery in oxidative metabolism in the group receiving hydroxocobalamin, as blood lactate remained elevated and even continued to rise after 1 h, despite restored hemodynamics. This, along with an unaltered recovery of H2S kinetics, suggests that hydroxocobalamin did not act through a mechanism of H2S trapping. In this sheep model, there was a high risk for cardiac arrest, by PEA, persisting up to 10 min after H2S exposure. Very high dose of hydroxocobalamin (5 g), injected very early after the cessation of H2S exposure, improved cardiac contractility and prevented PEA.

  17. From mapping class groups to automorphism groups of free groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    We show that the natural map from the mapping class groups of surfaces to the automorphism groups of free groups, induces an infinite loop map on the classifying spaces of the stable groups after plus construction. The proof uses automorphisms of free groups with boundaries which play the role...... of mapping class groups of surfaces with several boundary components....

  18. Investigations into the route of uptake and pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneally-administered monoclonal antibodies: I. Transdiaphragmatic blockade of the terminal lymphatics in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J S; Wahl, R L; Wagner, J G; Brown, R; Fisher, S J

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies on the intraperitoneal administration of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies indicate that the diaphragm and, in particular, the lymphatics associated with the diaphragm are more involved in the transport of such high-molecular-mass moieties than was earlier suspected. The current study examines the role of the diaphragm in the i.p. transport of an IgG2a murine monoclonal antibody, 5G6.4, by observing the effect on the absorption of the antibody produced when the diaphragm has been scarred. Normal, sham-operated, and diaphragmatically scarred (abrasions made with 600-grade sandpaper) female Sprague Dawley rats (150-250 g) were administered intraperitoneal injections of 125labeled 5G6.4 in a volume of 2.0 cm3. Approximately 5 micrograms antibody protein was administered in the individual 19-microCi injections per rat. Scarring was effective in partially blocking the amount of labeled antibody that crossed the diaphragm. Mean diaphragm levels (% injected dose/g) of 125I-labeled 5G6.4 from the scarred group were 16.8% lower than values from the sham-operated rats and 37.2% lower than those from the control rats. The blockade was effective in slowing the appearance of the labeled antibody in the systemic circulation. The half-time to absorption was significantly prolonged in the scarred group; mean t1/2 absorption values of 2.5 h for the control group, 5.3 h for the sham-operated group, and 9.6 h for the diaphragmatically blocked group were recorded. Scarring the diaphragm reduced the mean maximum blood concentration by 27.6% over the control group and 23.9% over the sham-operated group. The mean time to maximum blood concentration was lengthened by 93..0% over the control group and 35.3% over the sham-operated group due as a result of scarification. Presumably this impedence to absorption would increase the time that the radiolabeled antibody bathed the peritoneal space. The scarred group also had the largest "system mean residence time" (162.5 h

  19. Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

    The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

  20. Epidurally administered mepivacaine delays recovery of train-of-four ratio from vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Mizutani, H; Ishikawa, K; Miyake, E; Saeki, S; Ogawa, S

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of epidurally administered mepivacaine on recovery from vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to one of two study groups. They were either given epidurally a bolus of 0.15 ml kg(-1) of mepivacaine 2%, followed by repetitive injections of 0.1 ml kg(-1) h(-1) throughout the study, or were not given epidurally. General anaesthesia was induced and maintained with fentanyl, propofol and nitrous oxide. Neuromuscular block was induced with vecuronium 0.1 mg kg(-1) and monitored using acceleromyographic train-of-four (TOF) at the adductor pollicis. Patients in each treatment group were randomized to receive neostigmine 0.04 mg kg(-1) at 25% recovery of the first twitch of TOF or to recover spontaneously to a TOF ratio of 0.9. The effect of epidural mepivacaine on speed of spontaneous and facilitated recovery of neuromuscular function was evaluated. The time from administration of vecuronium to spontaneous recovery to a TOF ratio of 0.9 was significantly longer in the epidural mepivacaine group [105.4 (14.2) min] as compared with the control group [78.5 (9.1) min, P mepivacaine delays considerably the TOF recovery from neuromuscular block.

  1. 75 FR 7440 - Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Forest Service Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental... report to the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest Final Environmental... considered, the FS must receive written comments on the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by...

  2. 34 CFR 692.80 - How does a State administer its community service work-study program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Its Community Service Work-Study Program? § 692.80 How does a State administer its community service work-study program? When administering its community service work-study program, a State must follow... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State administer its community service...

  3. TECHNOLOGY FOR ADMINISTERING OF THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION RESOURCES IN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ON THE AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Degtyarev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of administering software-information complex occurs duringthe development of application systems for managing business-processes and is connected with the organization of access forusers to information resources in conditions of multi-user information systems for management. For solution of this problem proposed theapproach, which is based on a hierarchical system of access rightsto information resources on the levels: tool, object and procedural.Keywords: software-information complex, information resources,administering, permissions, separation of powers, access model.

  4. Self-administered treatment in stepped-care models of depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest R; Hanson, Ashley; Welsh, Douglas

    2003-03-01

    Stepped behavioral health care models have begun to receive increased attention. Self-administered treatments deserve consideration as an element in these models for some disorders and for some consumers. Features suggesting inclusion include low cost, wide availability, and evidence-based status. We present a stepped-care model for depression inclusive of a self-administered treatment component. We also discuss cautions such as depression severity and consumer preference. Evaluation of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of this approach to depression treatment is necessary. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 59: 341-349, 2003.

  5. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)--development of a self-administered outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    There is broad consensus that good outcome measures are needed to distinguish interventions that are effective from those that are not. This task requires standardized, patient-centered measures that can be administered at a low cost. We developed a questionnaire to assess short- and long......-term patient-relevant outcomes following knee injury, based on the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, a literature review, an expert panel, and a pilot study. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is self-administered and assesses five outcomes: pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport...

  6. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administrati...

  7. Biochemical and haematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Njiro, S M; Mugera, G M

    2000-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used. There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.

  8. Effects of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac potassium on pain, swelling and trismus following third molar surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Babatunde Olamide; Akinwande, Jelili Adisa; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre; Ladeinde, Akinola Ladipo; Arotiba, Godwin Toyin; Ogunlewe, Mobolanle Olugbemiga

    2005-01-01

    Background The apparent interactions between the mechanisms of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and steroids suggest that co-therapy may provide beneficial inflammatory and pain relief in the absence of side effects. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac potassium (diclofenac K) with diclofenac K alone on the postoperative pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of third molars. Patients and Methods A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. A total of 100 patients were randomly allocated to two treatment groups of dexamethasone (prophylactic 8 mg and postoperative 4 mg IV) and diclofenac K (50 mg Oral before and after surgery), and diclofenac K alone (as with first group). The overall analgesic efficacy of the drug combinations was assessed postoperatively by determination of pain intensity using a category rating scale. Facial swelling was measured using a tape measure placed from tragus to gonion to tragus, while interincisal mouth-opening of patients was measured using a vernier calibrated caliper pre-operatively and post-operatively. Results Co-administration of dexamethasone and diclofenac K was significantly superior to diclofenac alone for the relief of pain (P trismus relief between the two medication protocols (P > 0.05). Conclusion This study illustrates enhanced effects of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac K on short-term post-operative pain and swelling, compared to diclofenac potassium alone in third molar surgery. PMID:16274480

  9. Effects of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac potassium on pain, swelling and trismus following third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arotiba Godwin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The apparent interactions between the mechanisms of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS and steroids suggest that co-therapy may provide beneficial inflammatory and pain relief in the absence of side effects. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac potassium (diclofenac K with diclofenac K alone on the postoperative pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of third molars. Patients and Methods A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. A total of 100 patients were randomly allocated to two treatment groups of dexamethasone (prophylactic 8 mg and postoperative 4 mg IV and diclofenac K (50 mg Oral before and after surgery, and diclofenac K alone (as with first group. The overall analgesic efficacy of the drug combinations was assessed postoperatively by determination of pain intensity using a category rating scale. Facial swelling was measured using a tape measure placed from tragus to gonion to tragus, while interincisal mouth-opening of patients was measured using a vernier calibrated caliper pre-operatively and post-operatively. Results Co-administration of dexamethasone and diclofenac K was significantly superior to diclofenac alone for the relief of pain (P 0.05. Conclusion This study illustrates enhanced effects of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac K on short-term post-operative pain and swelling, compared to diclofenac potassium alone in third molar surgery.

  10. CT Venography for Deep Vein Thrombosis Using a Low Tube Voltage (100 kVp) Setting Could Increase Venous Enhancement and Reduce the Amount of Administered Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun-Suk; Chung, Jae-Joon; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Joo Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Yoon, Choon-Sik [Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the validity of the 100 kVp setting in CT venography (CTV) in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the amount of administered iodine in this setting. After receiving the contrast medium (CM) of 2.0 mL/kg, 88 patients underwent CTV of the pelvis and lower extremities by using one of four protocols: Group A, 120 kVp setting and 370 mgI/mL CM; group B, 120 kVp and 300 mgI/mL; group C, 100 kVp and 370 mgI/mL; group D, 100 kVp and 300 mgI/mL. The groups were evaluated for venous attenuation, vein-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR{sub VEIN}), DVT-to-vein contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR{sub DVT}), and subjective degree of venous enhancement and image quality. Venous attenuation and CNR{sub VEIN} were significantly higher in group C (144.3 Hounsfield unit [HU] and 11.9), but there was no significant difference between group A (118.0 HU and 8.2) and D (122.4 HU and 7.9). The attenuation value of DVT was not significantly different among the four groups, and group C had a higher absolute CNR{sub DVT} than the other groups. The overall diagnostic image quality and venous enhancement were significantly higher in group C, but there was no difference between groups A and D. The 100 kVp setting in CTV substantially help improve venous enhancement and CNR{sub VEIN}. Furthermore, it enables to reduce the amount of administered iodine while maintaining venous attenuation, as compared with the 120 kVp setting.

  11. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of gemifloxacin administered orally to healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A; Bygate, E; Vousden, M; Oliver, S; Johnson, M; Ward, C; Cheon, A; Choo, Y S; Kim, I

    2001-02-01

    Gemifloxacin mesylate (SB-265805-S, LB-20304a) is a potent, novel fluoroquinolone agent with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral gemifloxacin were characterized in two parallel group studies in healthy male volunteers after doses of 160, 320, 480, and 640 mg once daily for 7 days. Multiple serum or plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 7 and were analyzed for gemifloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence (study 1) or HPLC-mass spectrometry (study 2). Safety assessments included vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) readings, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and adverse experience monitoring. Gemifloxacin was rapidly absorbed, with a time to maximum concentration of approximately 1 h after dosing followed by a biexponential decline in concentration. Generally, maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased linearly with dose after either single or repeat doses. Mean +/- standard deviation values of AUC(0-tau) on day 7 were 4.92 +/- 1.08, 9.06 +/- 2.20, 12.2 +/- 3.69, and 20.1 +/- 3.67 microg x h/ml following 160-, 320-, 480-, and 640-mg doses, respectively. The terminal-phase half-life was approximately 7 to 8 h, independent of dose, and was similar following single and repeated administrations. There was minimal accumulation of gemifloxacin after multiple dosing. Approximately 20 to 30% of the administered dose was excreted unchanged in the urine. The renal clearance was 160 ml/min on average after single and multiple doses, which was slightly greater than the accepted glomerular filtration rate (approximately 120 ml/min). These data show that the pharmacokinetics of gemifloxacin are linear and independent of dose. Gemifloxacin was generally well tolerated, although one subject was withdrawn from the study after 6 days at 640 mg for mild, transient elevations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate

  12. Use assessment of self-administered epinephrine among food-allergic children and pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, S H; Forman, J A; Noone, S A

    2000-02-01

    Food allergy is a common cause of anaphylaxis, and early treatment with epinephrine can be life-saving. We sought to determine the ability of families with food allergic children and pediatricians to properly use self-injectable epinephrine. We enrolled families of consecutive, food-allergic pediatric patients newly referred to our allergy practice but previously prescribed epinephrine and a sampling of pediatricians. Parents or teenage patients answered a structured questionnaire concerning use of self-injectable epinephrine and demonstrated the use of devices with which they were familiar. Demonstrations were scored in a standard manner. One hundred one families of food-allergic children (mean age of patients, 6.4 years) were enrolled. Self-injectable epinephrine was prescribed (mean of 2.7 years previously) primarily by pediatricians (n = 46) and allergists (n = 49). Patients were prescribed EpiPen (n = 93), EpiE-Z Pen (n = 11), and Ana-Kit (n = 3). Eighty-six percent of the families responded that they had the device with them "at all times," but only 71% of this group had epinephrine at the visit. Among those with the epinephrine, 10% had devices beyond the labeled expiration date. Thus, only 55% of the 101 families had unexpired epinephrine on-hand at the time of the survey. Among children in school, 77% had the medication available in school, and 81% stated that the school knew the indications for administration. Only 32% of the participants correctly demonstrated the use of the device. Twenty-nine attending pediatricians were enrolled (mean 14 yrs in practice; mean 4 epinephrine prescriptions/year). Familiarity with the devices was as follows: EpiPen (86%), EpiE-Z Pen (17%) and Ana-Kit (7%). Only 24% generally gave patients written materials concerning indications. Overall, 18% were familiar with and able to demonstrate correct use of at least 1 device (21% correctly demonstrated Epi-Pen). Seventeen pediatric residents were enrolled; 65% were familiar with

  13. Efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa administered by continuous infusion to haemophilia patients with inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauser-Bunschoten, EP; Koopman, MMW; Goede-Bolder, ADE; Leebeek, FWG; Van der Meer, J; Kooij, GMV; Van der Linden, PWG

    2002-01-01

    We have prospectively monitored treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors by recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administered by continuous infusion to obtain more insight in the underlying factors of the clinical efficacy of this administration method. At present, 43 treatment episodes of 14 d

  14. 76 FR 22412 - Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot Contact Information Correction AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On April 13, 2011, at 71 FR 20699, HUD published a notice announcing HUD's proposal to conduct...

  15. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  16. Telephone-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Veterans Served by Community-Based Outpatient Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…

  17. The National Council for Geographic Education Standards-Based Geography Test. Intermediate Level. Directions for Administering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This document contains a test designed by the National Council for Geographic Education for middle school students to determine what knowledge, skills, and understandings students have developed in geography. The document also contains directions for administering the test, test performance data from a sample of 468 middle school students in 18…

  18. Comparison of the PTSD Checklist (PCL) Administered via a Mobile Device Relative to a Paper Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Kuhn, Eric; Hoffman, Julia E; Ruzek, Josef; Acierno, Ron

    2015-10-01

    Mobile devices are increasingly used to administer self-report measures of mental health symptoms. There are significant differences, however, in the way that information is presented on mobile devices compared to the traditional paper forms that were used to administer such measures. Such differences may systematically alter responses. The present study evaluated if and how responses differed for a self-report measure, the PTSD Checklist (PCL), administered via mobile device relative to paper and pencil. Participants were 153 trauma-exposed individuals who completed counterbalanced administrations of the PCL on a mobile device and on paper. PCL total scores (d = 0.07) and item responses did not meaningfully or significantly differ across administrations. Power was sufficient to detect a difference in total score between administrations determined by prior work of 3.46 with a d = 0.23. The magnitude of differences between administration formats was unrelated to prior use of mobile devices or participant age. These findings suggest that responses to self-report measures administered via mobile device are equivalent to those obtained via paper and they can be used with experienced as well as naïve users of mobile devices. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  19. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...

  20. [COOP/WONCA: Reliability and validity of the test administered by telephone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The COOP/WONCA test was initially proposed as a self-report in which the answers were supported by drawings illustrating the state investigated. Subsequent studies have confirmed its usefulness as a mere verbal self-report face-to-face administered. No data have been found about its useful when administered by telephone interview. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the COOP / WONCA test to measure Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) administered by telephone and compare them with those obtained in other forms of prior administration. Cross-sectional study on a random. City of Madrid. Random sample of 802 adult subjects, representative of the adult population in Madrid, obtained by stratification from the population census. Questionnaire COOP/WONCA with 9 ítems included in a broader battery, administered by telephone interview. The unrestricted factor analysis points to the unifactoriality of the scale, which measures a single latent construct (HRQOL), showing high internal consistency, not significantly different from those found by face-to-face administration, ruling out the existence of biases in the phone modality. The COOP/WONCA test appears as a reliable and valid measure of HRQOL and telephonic administration allows to assume no changes in the results, which can reduce costs in population studies, increasing efficiency without loss of quality in the information collected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. 22 CFR 196.2 - How is the Fellowship Program administered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the Fellowship Program administered? 196.2 Section 196.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.2 How is the Fellowship Program...

  2. Preliminary Reliability and Validity of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Jean S.; Bellack, Alan S.; Tenhula, Wendy N.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides preliminary psychometric support for a version of the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale (CAPS; D. D. Blake et al., 1990) adapted for use with patients with schizophrenia (CAPS-S; J. S. Gearon. S. Thomas-Lohrman, & A. S. Bellack, 2001). Nineteen women with schizophrenia and co-occurring illicit…

  3. 48 CFR 904.804-1 - Closeout by the office administering the contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closeout by the office administering the contract. 904.804-1 Section 904.804-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Government Contract Files 904.804-1 Closeout by the...

  4. Improving the Estimation of Moderating Effects by Using Computer-Administered Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A program designed to administer questionnaires on IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers is described. The program prompts subjects to indicate responses by clicking on a graphic line segment or entering a numeric value. The program enhances accuracy in estimating moderating effects by overcoming transcriptional errors and scale coarseness.…

  5. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...

  6. 24 CFR 511.50 - State election to administer a rental rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rental rehabilitation program. 511.50 Section 511.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... GRANT PROGRAM State Program § 511.50 State election to administer a rental rehabilitation program. (a) State allocations may be used to carry out eligible rehabilitation activities in accordance with...

  7. Effect of intranasally administered insulin on cerebral blood flow and perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; van Opstal, Anna M.; Westendorp, Rudi G.

    2017-01-01

    Insulin, a vasoactive modulator regulating peripheral and cerebral blood flow, has been consistently linked to aging and longevity. In this proof of principle study, using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, we explored the effects of intranasally administered insulin...

  8. Employing Computer-Administered Exams in General Psychology: Student Anxiety and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Carolyn A.; McIntosh, John L.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-administered exams offer many advantages, but instructors may be reluctant to use them due to concerns that computer anxiety may increase student test anxiety. Introductory psychology students (N = 265) completed surveys prior to their first exam about their anxiety related to the upcoming exam, computers in general, and taking exams on…

  9. A Study of Computer-Administered Stradaptive Ability Testing. Research Report 75-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, C. David; Weiss, David J.

    A conventional vocabulary test and two forms of a stradaptive vocabulary test were administered by a time-shared computer system to undergraduate college students. The two stradaptive tests differed in that one counted question mark responses (i.e., omitted items) as incorrect and the other ignored items responded to with question marks.…

  10. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control...

  11. Renal-selective delivery and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by subcutaneously administered captopril-lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Jai; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Haas, M; Proost, Hans; Meijer, D.K F; Moolenaar, Frits; Poelstra, Klaas; Kok, R.J

    In previous studies, we have demonstrated that the low molecular weight protein lysozyme can be used as a renal-selective drug carrier for delivery of the angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE) inhibitor captopril. Typically, such macromolecular drug-targeting preparations are administered

  12. Metabolic effects of growth hormone administered subcutaneously once or twice daily to growth hormone deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    1994-01-01

    -term metabolic effects in GH deficient patients. An improved growth response is obtained in GH deficient children when a fixed weekly GH dose is administered by daily subcutaneous injections instead of twice or thrice-weekly intramuscular injections. A more pulsatile pattern and serum GH levels above zero might...

  13. Serum growth hormone (GH) profiles after nasally administered GH in normal subjects and GH deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: GH-deficient patients are at present treated with daily subcutaneous GH injections. Further improvements in patient compliance and effects of treatment may occur with nasal administration. We have examined the absorption of nasally administered GH in healthy subjects and in GH...

  14. 40 CFR 147.52 - State-administered program-Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fracturing of Coal Beds. 147.52 Section 147.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Alabama § 147.52 State-administered program—Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds. The UIC program for hydraulic fracturing of coal beds in the State of Alabama, except those on Indian lands, is the...

  15. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  16. Bronchodilator effect of disodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder in exercise induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, C R; Jones, R M; Lee, D; Brennan, S R

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties. PMID:6439234

  17. Improving the Estimation of Moderating Effects by Using Computer-Administered Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A program designed to administer questionnaires on IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers is described. The program prompts subjects to indicate responses by clicking on a graphic line segment or entering a numeric value. The program enhances accuracy in estimating moderating effects by overcoming transcriptional errors and scale coarseness.…

  18. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. Objective: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo

  19. Higher Education in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan after 9/11: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Hafeez; Junaid, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The troubled state of affairs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan portends serious repercussions and grave consequences, destined to affect education particularly higher education in the entire tribal belt. Ironically, no extensive study has been conducted, to investigate those dimensions of FATA higher education which…

  20. The role of capnography in endoscopy patients undergoing nurse-administered propofol sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagelse, Charlotte; Vilmann, Peter; Hornslet, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    . The existing literature on capnography for endoscopy patients sedated with nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) is limited. Can the addition of capnography to standard monitoring during endoscopy with NAPS reduce the number, duration, and level of hypoxia. Materials and methods. This study...

  1. 41 CFR 302-5.100 - How should we administer the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.100 Section 302-5.100 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Agency Responsibilities § 302-5.100 How should we administer the househunting trip expenses allowance? You should...

  2. Safety of aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type a medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Endris, Richard G.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  3. The Effect of Locally Administered Pamidronate on Autogenous Bone Graft in Maxillofacial Reconstruction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, M.; Garajei, A.; Afshari Pour, E.; Hasheminasab, M.; Ghorbani, Y.; Kalantar Motamedi, M. H.; Bahrami, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although bone grafts are commonly used in reconstructive surgeries, they are sensitive to local perfusion and are thus prone to severe resorption. Biphosphonates can inactivate osteoclasts and can be used to control the undesirable bone resorption. Objective: To assess the effect of administration of biphosphonates on bone resorption. Methods: 20 patients with bony defects who were candidates for free autogenous grafts were randomized into “pamidronate” and “control” groups. Bone segments were soaked in either pamidronate solution or normal saline and were inserted into the area of the surgery. Bone densities were measured post-surgery and in 6-month follow-up. Data were obtained via Digora software and analyzed. Results: The mean±SD bone density in pamidronate group changed from 93.4±14.6 to 93.6±17.5 (p<0.05); in the control group the density decreased from 89.7±13.2 to 78.9±11.4 (p<0.05). The mean difference of bone density in anterior areas of the jaws showed higher DXA in comparison to posterior regions (p=0.002). Conclusion: Locally administered pamidronate affects reduction in bone resorption.

  4. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  5. SERUM VITAMIN LEVELS IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS ADMINISTERED WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF PARACETAMOL AND PARACETAMOL/METHIONINE – AN ACUTE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyanda Ayobola Abolape

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has been identified to play a role in the metabolism of paracetamol in the CD 1 mouse, resulting in differences in renal presentations of male and female mice. Moreover, alterations have been observed in the serum levels of vitamins in male Wistar rats administered with paracetamol/methionine. The aim of this study is to determine if the sex of an animal plays a role in serum vitamin presentation in the Wistar strain after paracetamol/methionine administration. This will be achieved by comparing observation made from this study with an earlier one on male Wistar rats. Moreover, comparison of presentations at the 4th & 16th hours will be carried out, so as to establish how earlier in the course of exposure to paracetamol/methionine vitamin alteration takes place. Female Wistar Rats consisting of eight rats per group were administered with different doses of paracetamol & paracetamol/methionine (5:1 ranging from 350-5000 mg/kg. Results indicate that significant alterations (p<0.05 in the levels of all the vitamins commenced as early as the 4th hour in both paracetamol & paracetamol/methionine administered groups. Moreover, significant alterations in the female rats parallel those of male rats obtained from an earlier study. Evidence from this study when compared with an earlier one indicates that sex probable plays no role on the impact of paracetamol on serum vitamins in Wistar rats.

  6. Orally administered, insulin-loaded amidated pectin hydrogel beads sustain plasma concentrations of insulin in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabayane, C T; Munjeri, O; Bwititi, P; Osim, E E

    2000-01-01

    We report successful oral administration of insulin entrapped in amidated pectin hydrogel beads in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, with a concomitant reduction in plasma glucose concentration. The pectin-insulin (PI) beads were prepared by the gelation of humilin-pectin solutions in the presence of calcium. Separate groups of STZ-diabetic rats were orally administered two PI beads (30 micrograms insulin) once or twice daily or three beads (46 micrograms) once daily for 2 weeks. Control non-diabetic and STZ-diabetic rats were orally administered pectin hydrogel drug-free beads. By comparison with control non-diabetic rats, untreated STZ-diabetic rats exhibited significantly low plasma insulin concentration (0.32+/-0. 03 ng/ml, n=6, compared with 2.60+/-0.44 ng/ml in controls, n=6) and increased plasma glucose concentrations (25.84+/-1.44 mmol/l compared with 10.72+/- 0.52 mmol/l in controls). Administration of two PI beads twice daily (60 micrograms active insulin) or three beads (46 micrograms) once a day to STZ-diabetic rats increased plasma insulin concentrations (0.89+/-0.09 ng/ml and 1.85+/- 0.26 ng/ml, respectively), with a concomitant reduction in plasma glucose concentration (15.45+/-1.63 mmol/l and 10.56+/-0.26 mmol/l, respectively). However, a single dose of PI beads (30 micrograms) did not affect plasma insulin concentrations, although plasma glucose concentrations (17.82+/-2.98 mmol/l) were significantly reduced compared with those in untreated STZ-diabetic rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters in STZ-diabetic rats show that the orally administered PI beads (30 micrograms insulin) were more effective in sustaining plasma insulin concentrations than was s.c. insulin (30 micrograms). The data from this study suggest that this insulin-loaded amidated pectin hydrogel bead formulation not only produces sustained release of insulin, but may also reduce plasma glucose concentration in diabetes mellitus.

  7. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists in chronic morphine administered DSP4-treated rats: evidence for functional cross-sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, T; Fredriksson, A

    2001-10-01

    Five experiments were performed to study the effects of the Alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanfacine, upon spontaneous motor activity in chronically morphine administered DSP4-treated and control rats. DSP4 (2 x 50 mg/kg, with a 10-day interval between injections) and vehicle (distilled water) were injected i.p., on each occasion 30 min after zimeldine (20 mg/kg). Morphine dosages were raised incrementally from 5 mg/kg (Days 1-3), through 10 mg/kg (Days 4-7) and 20 mg/kg (Days 8-14), to 30 mg/kg (Days 15-20). Motor activity testing occurred on Day 21, Day 22 as well as in Experiments II-V, (from 1st morphine injection). DSP4 pretreatment and chronic morphine injections each reduced motor activity during the first 30 min of testing; combined DSP4 and morphine treatment potentiated the hypoactivity. Habituation quotients indicated deficits in habituation to the novel test environment by the Vehicle-morphine (Quoteint2 only) and DSP4-morphine groups. Acute clonidine treatment (0.04 mg/kg s.c.) reduced motor activity during the first 30 min of testing but attenuated or blocked the morphine-induced hypoactivity in DSP4-treated and control rats. During the 60-90 min test period, clonidine, but not guanfacine (0.08 mg/kg), potentiated morphine-induced hyperactivity in control rats; acute clonidine enhanced this effect, whereas acute guanfacine reduced it, in the DSP4-treated rats. The enhanced hyperactivity of morphine-clonidine suggest a cross-sensitivity effect. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg s.c.), injected after the 1st 30-min of testing, potentiated markely the clonidine-induced elevations of motor activity in morphine-administered control rats; in the DSP4-treated rats, these effects were dramatically potentiated, underlining the cross-sensitivity effect. Acute guanfacine treatment reduced motor activity during the first 30 min of testing but did not attenuate reliably morphine-induced hypoactivity in control or DSP4 rats. Naloxone did not potentiate the

  8. Causal Relationships between Communication Confidence, Beliefs about Group Work, and Willingness to Communicate in Foreign Language Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushino, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the causal relationships between three factors in second language (L2) group work settings: communication confidence (i.e., confidence in one's ability to communicate), beliefs about group work, and willingness to communicate (WTC). A questionnaire was administered to 729 first-year university students in Japan. A model…

  9. Causal Relationships between Communication Confidence, Beliefs about Group Work, and Willingness to Communicate in Foreign Language Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushino, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the causal relationships between three factors in second language (L2) group work settings: communication confidence (i.e., confidence in one's ability to communicate), beliefs about group work, and willingness to communicate (WTC). A questionnaire was administered to 729 first-year university students in Japan. A model…

  10. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Glenn Schellenberg

    Full Text Available We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills.

  11. Psychological wellness constructs: relationships and group differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Gropp

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI, Locus of Control Inventory (LOC, Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC, and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 200 employees of a financial services company. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups on several of the wellness variables with the manager and White groups obtaining higher scores on these variables than their comparison groups. However, in respect of External Locus of Control, the non-manager and Black groups obtained the higher scores. Factor analytic results demonstrated that the wellness variables clustered in two correlated factors (r = 0,43 labeled psychological wellness and self-actualisation.

  12. Disposition of intravenously or orally administered silver nanoparticles in pregnant rats and the effect on the biochemical profile in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Timothy R; Mortensen, Ninell P; Black, Sherry R; Snyder, Rodney W; Levine, Keith E; Poitras, Eric; Harrington, James M; Wingard, Christopher J; Holland, Nathan A; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Sumner, Susan C J

    2017-05-01

    Few investigations have been conducted on the disposition and fate of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in pregnancy. The distribution of a single dose of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNP was investigated in pregnant rats. Two sizes of AgNP, 20 and 110 nm, and silver acetate (AgAc) were used to investigate the role of AgNP diameter and particle dissolution in tissue distribution, internal dose and persistence. Dams were administered AgNP or AgAc intravenously (i.v.) (1 mg kg(-1) ) or by gavage (p.o.) (10 mg kg(-1) ), or vehicle alone, on gestation day 18 and euthanized at 24 or 48 h post-exposure. The silver concentration in tissues was measured using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of silver in dams was influenced by route of administration and AgNP size. The highest concentration of silver (μg Ag g(-1) tissue) at 48 h was found in the spleen for i.v. administered AgNP, and in the lungs for AgAc. At 48 h after p.o. administration of AgNP, the highest concentration was measured in the cecum and large intestine, and for AgAc in the placenta. Silver was detected in placenta and fetuses for all groups. Markers of cardiovascular injury, oxidative stress marker, cytokines and chemokines were not significantly elevated in exposed dams compared to vehicle-dosed control. NMR metabolomics analysis of urine indicated that AgNP and AgAc exposure impact the carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism. This study demonstrates that silver crosses the placenta and is transferred to the fetus regardless of the form of silver. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Streptococcus salivarius 24SMB administered by nasal spray for the prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, P; Santagati, M; Scillato, M; Baggi, E; Fattizzo, M; Rosazza, C; Stefani, S; Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the results of the first study in which Streptococcus salivarius 24SMB, a safe α-haemolytic strain capable of producing bacteriocin-like substances with significant activity against acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens, was intranasally administered in an attempt to reduce the risk of new episodes of AOM in otitis-prone children. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 100 children aged 1-5 years with histories of recurrent AOM were randomized 1:1 to receive an intranasal S. salivarius 24SMB or placebo twice daily for 5 days each month for 3 consecutive months. Fifty treated children and 47 who received placebo who were compliant with study protocol were followed monthly for 6 months. The number of children who did not experience any AOM was higher among the children treated with the S. salivarius 24SMB preparation than among those in the placebo group (30.0 vs 14.9%; p = 0.076). Moreover, the number of children who received antibiotics during the study period was lower among the children treated with S. salivarius 24 SMB than among those who received placebo (70 vs 83.0%; p = 0.13). Compared with the children who were not colonized by S. salivarius 24SMB after treatment, the number of colonized children who experienced any AOM was significantly lower (42.8 vs 13.6%; p = 0.03). Similar results were observed when the children treated with antibiotics for AOM were analysed (67.8 vs 95.5%; p = 0.029). This study revealed the ability of intranasally administered S. salivarius 24SMB to reduce the risk of AOM in otitis-prone children.

  14. Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kien Hoa; Trüschel, Anna; Jarl, Linnea; Magnusson, Susanna; Windahl, Tove; Johansson, Robert; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-09

    Evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of two smartphone-delivered treatments: one based on behavioural activation (BA) and other on mindfulness. Parallel randomised controlled, open, trial. Participants were allocated using an online randomisation tool, handled by an independent person who was separate from the staff conducting the study. General community, with recruitment nationally through mass media and advertisements. 40 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder received a BA treatment, and 41 participants received a mindfulness treatment. 9 participants were lost at the post-treatment. An 8-week long behaviour programme administered via a smartphone application. Mindfulness: An 8-week long mindfulness programme, administered via a smartphone application. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9). 81 participants were randomised (mean age 36.0 years (SD=10.8)) and analysed. Results showed no significant interaction effects of group and time on any of the outcome measures either from pretreatment to post-treatment or from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the BA treatment was more effective than the mindfulness treatment among participants with higher initial severity of depression from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 362.1)=5.2, p<0.05). In contrast, the mindfulness treatment worked better than the BA treatment among participants with lower initial severity from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 69.3)=7.7, p<0.01); BDI-II: (F(1, 53.60)=6.25, p<0.05). The two interventions did not differ significantly from one another. For participants with higher severity of depression, the treatment based on BA was superior to the treatment based on mindfulness. For participants with lower initial severity, the treatment based on mindfulness worked significantly better than the treatment based on BA. Clinical Trials

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol with or without 2% benzyl alcohol following a single induction dose administered intravenously in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffenhagen, Gregg M; Rezende, Marlis L; Gustafson, Daniel L; Hansen, Ryan J; Lunghofer, Paul J; Mama, Khursheed R

    2015-09-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol with or without 2% benzyl alcohol administered intravenously (IV) as a single induction dose in cats. Prospective experimental study. Six healthy adult cats, three female intact, three male castrated, weighing 4.8 ± 1.8 kg. Cats received 8 mg kg(-1) IV of propofol (P) or propofol with 2% benzyl alcohol (P28) using a randomized crossover design. Venous blood samples were collected at predetermined time points to 24 hours after drug administration to determine drug plasma concentrations. Physiologic and behavioral variables were also recorded. Propofol and benzyl alcohol concentrations were determined using high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were described using a 2-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were analyzed using repeated measures anova (p cats (33%), and by 30 minutes for the remaining four cats. Propofol pharmacokinetics, with or without 2% benzyl alcohol, were characterized by rapid distribution, a long elimination phase, and a large volume of distribution. No differences were noted between treatments with the exception of clearance from the second compartment (CLD2), which was 23.6 and 38.8 mL kg(-1)  minute(-1) in the P and P28 treatments, respectively. Physiologic and behavioral variables were not different between treatments with the exception of heart rate at 4 hours post administration. The addition of 2% benzyl alcohol as a preservative minimally altered the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol 1% emulsion when administered as a single IV bolus in this group of cats. These data support the cautious use of propofol with 2% benzyl alcohol for induction of anesthesia in healthy cats. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  16. Integrated Groups and Smooth Distribution Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro J. MIANA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we prove directly that α-times integrated groups define algebra homo-morphisms. We also give a theorem of equivalence between smooth distribution groups and α-times integrated groups.

  17. Effect of administration of bifidobacteria on intestinal microbiota in low-birth-weight infants and transition of administered bifidobacteria: a comparison between one-species and three-species administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizeki, Shinobu; Sugita, Masaoki; Takata, Masaaki; Yaeshima, Tomoko

    2013-10-01

    The effects of administration of bifidobacteria on the intestinal microbiota in low-birth-weight infants, and the transition of each strain of administered bifidobacteria were investigated. A single strain of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (5 × 10(8); one-species group) or a mixture of three species composed of B. breve M-16V, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis M-63 and B. longum subsp. longum BB536 (5 × 10(8) of each strain; three-species group) were administered daily for 6 weeks. Bifidobacterial administration significantly increased the detection rates and cell numbers of bifidobacteria in the feces (weeks 1-6). The proportion of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the one-species group at weeks 1-4, and in the three-species group at weeks 1-6 compared with the control group. Furthermore, the proportion of bifidobacteria in the three-species group was significantly higher than that in the one-species group at weeks 1 and 6. The proportion of infants with bifidobacteria-predominant microbiota was significantly higher in the three-species group than in the control group during the test period. The detection rates of Clostridium were lower in the bifidobacteria-administered groups. The proportions of Enterobacteriaceae were significantly lower in the three-species group compared to the other groups (weeks 4 and 6). Among the three strains administered, B. breve M-16V and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 were detected in 85% or more of the infants during the administration period, while B. longum BB536 was detected in 40% or less. Compared with administration of one species, administration of three species of bifidobacteria resulted in earlier formation of a bifidobacteria-predominant fecal microbiota and maintenance of this microbiota.

  18. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  19. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  20. [Are we legally allowed to administer blood for lifesaving to a patient who refuses it?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, H; Yamamoto, H; Magaribuchi, T; Urabe, N; Shimasaki, A

    1997-04-01

    We surveyed the literatures and discussed the legal issues whether we should administer blood for lifesaving to a patient who refuses it. The valid refusal of the transfusion requires the distinct intention of a competent patient. Minors below fifteen years of age are incompetent and their parents make a substituted judgement. Anyone must not give priority to the parents' belief and blood ought to be transfused if necessary for the children's benefits. We could evade liability for withholding blood only when we manage an operation arranged to succeed without blood transfusion, undergoing the sufficient treatments to avoid the risks, as well as on the basis of the valid refusal of a patient. The release deed and the intervention of hospital directors, ethics committees and courts are invalid for the immunity from liability. Anesthesiologists have to take the responsibility on themselves of administering blood or not. A statute law should be established to define what is a patient's valid intention and who is responsible.

  1. Regarding the inadvisability of administering postoperative analgesics in the drinking water of rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, R C; Smith, M S; Brogan, R S

    2001-11-01

    The feasibility of administering the pain reliever acetaminophen to rats via their water bottles was examined in this study. Two different preparations of acetaminophen were used, a cherry-flavored suspension and an alcohol-containing solution. Both preparations of acetaminophen were diluted to 6 mg/ml by using normal drinking water. When healthy unmanipulated rats were exposed to either of the acetaminophen preparations for the first time, the animals showed a dramatic reduction in fluid intake. A marked reduction in food intake also was associated with the cherry-flavored preparation. These reductions appear to be an expression of the well-characterized neophobic response that can be demonstrated by rodents when they encounter a novel taste. This neophobic behavior suggests that administering pain relievers to rats via their drinking water is counterproductive as a means of providing pain relief.

  2. Repetitive immunization enhances the susceptibility of mice to peripherally administered prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bremer

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of humans and animals to prion infections is determined by the virulence of the infectious agent, by genetic modifiers, and by hitherto unknown host and environmental risk factors. While little is known about the latter two, the activation state of the immune system was surmised to influence prion susceptibility. Here we administered prions to mice that were repeatedly immunized by two initial injections of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides followed by repeated injections of bovine serum albumin/alum. Immunization greatly reduced the required dosage of peripherally administered prion inoculum necessary to induce scrapie in 50% of mice. No difference in susceptibility was observed following intracerebral prion challenge. Due to its profound impact onto scrapie susceptibility, the host immune status may determine disease penetrance after low-dose prion exposure, including those that may give rise to iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  3. Long-term evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy-like symptoms in rotenone administered rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Laura; Philip, Ann L; Martinez, Juan C; Guttierez, Juan C; Marella, Mathieu; Patki, Gaurav; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao; Thomas, Biju B

    2015-01-12

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disorder affecting the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that lead to the loss of central vision. This study is aimed at evaluating the LHON symptoms in rats administered with rotenone microspheres into the superior colliculus (SC). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis showed substantial loss of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in rotenone injected rats. Optokinetic testing in rotenone treated rats showed decrease in head-tracking response. Electrophysiological mapping of the SC surface demonstrated attenuation of visually evoked responses; however, no changes were observed in the ERG data. The progressive pattern of disease manifestation in rotenone administered rats demonstrated several similarities with human disease symptoms. These rats with LHON-like symptoms can serve as a model for future investigators to design and implement reliable tests to assess the beneficial effects of therapeutic interventions for LHON disease.

  4. Centrally administered urocortin 3 inhibits food intake and gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Sakoguchi, Takeo; Tanaka, Chie; Inui, Akio

    2011-04-01

    Urocortin 3 (Ucn3) is recognized as a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which plays an important role in regulating food intake. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV)administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Ucn3 on food intake was less potent than that of centrally administered CRF and Urocortin 1. ICV administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased the gastric emptying rate in a dose-dependent manner. Ucn3 decreased food intake in high-fat diet-fed obese mice as well as in lean mice. These results indicated that Ucn3 influences feeding behavior and gut motility, and may be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of eating and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. In vivo release of bupivacaine from subcutaneously administered oily solution. Comparison with in vitro release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorrit Bjerg; Joergensen, Stig; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    2002-01-01

    A non-randomized cross-over study was performed with bupivacaine HCl (5 mg x ml(-1)) aqueous solution and bupivacaine free base (4.44 mg x ml(-1)) in Viscoleo/castor oil 2:1 (v/v) administered s.c. to male Wistar rats. Plasma levels were analyzed by LC-MS. Plasma profiles obtained after administr....... This led to establishment of an in vitro/in vivo correlation for this particular formulation....

  6. Dissociable neural activity to self- vs. externally administered thermal hyperalgesia: a parametric fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, C; Leyendecker, S; Helmchen, C

    2008-02-01

    Little is known regarding how cognitive strategies help to modulate neural responses of the human brain in ongoing pain syndromes to alleviate pain. Under pathological pain conditions, any self-elicited contact with usually non-painful stimuli may become painful. We examined whether the human brain is capable of dissociating self-controlled from externally administered thermal hyperalgesia in the experimental capsaicin model. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 17 male subjects were investigated in a parametric design with heat stimuli at topically capsaicin-sensitized skin. In contrast to external stimulation, self-administered pain was controllable. For both conditions application trials without noticeable thermal stimulation were introduced and used as high-level baseline (HLB) to account for the capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and other covariables. Following subtraction of the HLB, the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) but not the somatosensory cortices maintained parametric neural responses to thermal hyperalgesia. A stronger pain-related activity increase during self-administered stimuli was observed in the posterior insula. In contrast, prefrontal cortex showed stronger increases to uncontrollable external heat stimuli. In the state of ongoing pain (capsaicin), pain-intensity-encoding regions (anterior insula, ACC) but not those with sensory discriminative functions (SI, SII) showed graded, pain-intensity-related neural responses in thermal hyperalgesia. Some areas were able to dissociate between self- and externally administered stimuli in thermal hyperalgesia, which might be related to differences in perceived controllability. Thus, neural mechanisms maintain the ability to dissociate external from self-generated states of injury in thermal hyperalgesia. This may help to understand how cognitive strategies potentially alleviate chronic pain syndromes.

  7. Influence of emotional stress on pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate intraperitoneally administered to rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomita,Yutaka

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available The plasma level of isosorbide dinitrate intraperitoneally administered to rats stressed by foot-shock was almost the same as that in non-stressed control rats. However, levels of its metabolites, 5-isosorbide mononitrate and 2-isosorbide mononitrate, were lower in stressed rats than in non-stressed rats, suggesting that stress may influence the metabolism and/or excretion of the metabolites.

  8. Pain in adolescent girls receiving human papillomavirus vaccine with concomitantly administered vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Emmanuel B; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-02-01

    Using the Faces Pain Scale - Revised, we assessed injection site pain 10 minutes after vaccination in young females randomized to receive either quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before or after concomitantly administered vaccines. Although pain was modestly more after HPV4 injection than after other vaccines, the pain intensity after HPV4 injection was significantly less in those who received HPV4 before receiving other concomitant vaccines.

  9. 6-Hydroxydopamine inhibits some effects of mescaline centrally administered to rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Reina, R A; Braga, P

    1977-12-19

    The narcotic antagonist naloxone does not antagonize antinociception elicited in the rabbit by 100 microgram/kg of mescaline centrally administered, whereas pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) inhibits this mescaline effect. Stereotyped behavior of rabbits following central mescaline administration is also prevented by 6-hda pretreatment. Since 6-OHDA in known to produce a degeneration of catecholamine containing nerve terminals, a crucial role of catecholamines is suggested in the complex of effects seen in the rabbit after central administration of the hallucinogen.

  10. Justification of administered dose level in brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, I.; Geronikola-Trapali, X.; Armeniakos, I.; Prentakis, A.; Soultanis, S.; Chatziioannou, S. N.

    2011-09-01

    Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-HMPAO is widely used in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The administered dose range recommended by the manufacturer and reported in bibliography is rather wide (~ 9.5 - 27 mCi), necessitating further quantitative analysis. In the framework of this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose was carried out, based on image quality indicators. Evaluation of image quality was based on wavelet-generated contrast, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted as CI, NI and CNR respectively. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator (denoted as PI). Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal distributions) showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p 0.05) values. Application of Tukey test for CI and NI normal distributions demonstrated that CI (10 mCi) = CI (20 mCi) NI (20 mCi), while NI (15 mCi) could not be characterised. Finally, application of non-parametric multiple comparisons showed that CNR (20 mCi) < CNR (10 mCi), while CNR (15 mCi) could not be characterised. Consequently, brain perfusion imaging, by means of 99mTc-HMPAO utilising an administered dose of 20 mCi, results in improved image quality on the basis of the estimated indicators. Additionally, this image quality improvement is sufficient to justify the increased patient radiation burden.

  11. A Pilot Project Demonstrating that Combat Medics Can Safely Administer Parenteral Medications in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; Cunningham, Cord W; Fisher, Andrew D; DeLorenzo, Robert A

    2017-08-15

    Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration. Project Design This was a quality assurance project that monitored training of combat medics to administer parenteral medications and to ensure patient safety. Combat medics were provided training that included direct supervision during medication administration. Once proficiency was demonstrated, combat medics would prepare the medications under direct supervision, followed by indirect supervision during administration. As part of the quality assurance and safety processes, combat medics were required to document all medication administrations, supervising provider, and unexpected adverse events. Additional quality assurance follow-up occurred via complete chart review by the project lead. Data During the project period, the combat medics administered the following medications: ketamine (n=13), morphine (n=8), ketorolac (n=7), fentanyl (n=5), ondansetron (n=4), and other (n=6). No adverse events or patient safety events were reported by the combat medics or discovered during the quality assurance process. In this limited case series, combat medics safely administered parenteral medications under indirect provider supervision. Future research is needed to further develop this training model for both the military and civilian setting. Schauer SG , Cunningham C W, Fisher AD , DeLorenzo RA . A pilot project demonstrating that combat medics can safely administer parenteral medications in the emergency department.

  12. Self-Administered Home Series Fecal "Minitransplants" for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection on a Rectal Remnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Daniel; Laszlo, Mihaela; Ciobanu, Lidia; Ucenic, Elena; Mihalache, Manuela; Pascu, Oliviu

    2015-12-01

    A fecal microbiota transplant has proved to be an extremely effective method for patients with recurrent infections with Clostridium difficile. We present the case of a 65-year-old female patient with multiple Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) relapses on the rectal remnant, post-colectomy for a CDI-related toxic megacolon. The patient also evidenced associated symptomatic Clostridium difficile vaginal infection. She was successfully treated with serial fecal "minitransplants" (self-administered at home) and metronidazole ovules.

  13. Recommended administered activities for {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides in paediatric nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, J.S.; Beykan, S.; Lassmann, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Herrmann, K. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish a method for determining administered activities for {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides. Dose calculations were based on the weight-independent effective dose model proposed by the EANM paediatric dosage card for use in paediatric nuclear medicine. Previously published time-integrated activity coefficients for {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC and {sup 68}Ga-pentixafor were used to calculate age-independent effective doses. Consequently, the corresponding weight-dependent effective dose coefficients were rescaled according to the formalism of the EANM dosage card to determine the radiopharmaceutical class of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides (''multiples'') and to calculate the baseline activities based on an upper limit for administered activity (185 MBq) in an adult. All calculated normalization factors suggest that the {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides are class ''B'' radiopharmaceuticals. The baseline activity for all compounds is 12.8 MBq. In analogy to {sup 18}F-fluoride, we recommend a minimum activity of 14 MBq. For paediatric nuclear medicine applications involving {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides, we suggest determining administered activities based on the formalism proposed in this work. The corresponding effective doses from these procedures will remain age-independent. (orig.)

  14. Orally administered melatonin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fu

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, including fetal demise, intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR, neural tube defects (NTDs and preterm delivery in rodent animals. Previous studies demonstrated that melatonin protected against LPS-induced fetal demise, IUGR and preterm delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on LPS-induced NTDs. All pregnant mice except controls were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (25 µg/kg daily from gestational day (GD8 to GD12. Some pregnant mice were orally administered with melatonin (MT, 50 mg/kg before each LPS injection. A five-day LPS injection resulted in 27.5% of fetuses with anencephaly, exencephaly or encephalomeningocele. Additional experiment showed that maternal LPS exposure significantly down-regulated placental proton-coupled folate transporter (pcft and disturbed folate transport from maternal circulation through the placentas into the fetus. Interestingly, melatonin significantly attenuated LPS-induced down-regulation of placental pcft. Moreover, melatonin markedly improved the transport of folate from maternal circulation through the placentas into the fetus. Correspondingly, orally administered melatonin reduced the incidence of LPS-induced anencephaly, exencephaly or encephalomeningocele. Taken together, these results suggest that orally administered melatonin prevents LPS-induced NTDs through alleviating LPS-induced disturbance of folate transport from maternal circulation through the placenta into the fetus.

  15. Evaluation of kinetic behaviour of two preparations of tylosin administered in beehives for American foulbrood control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Reynaldi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We compared the kinetic behaviour of tylosin administered to beehives by dusting or paper-pack placement through three treatment protocols (D, PP, CONTROL. D (dusting: tylosin, divided in four portions, was sprinkled over the ends of the hives' top bars weekly for four weeks (n=3; PP (paper-pack placement: tylosin in paper packs was administered at two-week intervals (n=3; CONTROL (control: the hives were left untreated (n=3. In every inspection, from each of the nine hives, fifty young (2-day-old larvae were sampled for drug analysis. The concentration of tylosin in the young larvae was determined by a microbiological assay with Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 as test organism. The (mean±SD maximum concentration (Cmax for D was 136.0±194.0 and for PP – 144.0±187.4 µg/mL; the time to reach Cmax (tmax was 1.5±0.9 h for D and 1.8 ± 1.8 h for PP. The area under the tylosin behaviour kinetics curve between 0–1392 h with D was 308.7±185.2 and with PP: 326.4±141.0 µg/h/mL, indicating no statistical difference between the treatments (P>0.05. The shorter duration of paper-pack-administered tylosin observed in the larvae implied a lower risk of antibiotic residues in the resulting honey

  16. Lysostaphin: immunogenicity of locally administered recombinant protein used in mastitis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M J; Oldham, E R

    1992-03-01

    A recombinant bactericidal protein, recombinant lysostaphin (r-lysostaphin), that may be useful as an intramammary therapeutic for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle, was evaluated for immunogenicity to various hosts. Although immunogenicity could be demonstrated in a variety of other species when administered parenterally, oral administration failed to elicit a significant immunological response. Similarly, intramammary infusion of r-lysostaphin failed to elicit significant serum titers in the bovine until 18-21 infusions were administered (total administered dose of 2-3 g of protein). Antibody titers from dairy cattle which did develop an immune response were predominantly of the IgG1 subclass. Dairy cattle with significant anti-lysostaphin titers showed no deleterious symptoms (anaphylaxis, etc.) upon subsequent infusion, and these titers did not effect the in vitro bacteriostatic activity of r-lysostaphin. Intramammary infusion of r-lysostaphin does not elicit any observable effects on the host animal or on the potential efficacy of the recombinant molecule. Intramammary recombinant proteins may be suitable effective and safe infusion products that provide an alternative to classical antibiotic therapy.

  17. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled (241)Am.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Huckle, James E; Leed, Marina G D; Weber, Waylon M; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A; Jay, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [(14) C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared with a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of (241) Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of (241) Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  19. Pilot study of a self-administered stress management and exercise intervention during chemotherapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick W; Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2006-09-01

    This pilot project explored the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of a self-administered exercise and stress management intervention for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Thirty-nine of 56 eligible patients (acceptance =69%) with a variety of solid tumors volunteered for the study. Participants were advised to exercise 20-40 min at 50-75% estimated heart rate reserve 3-5 times per week. In addition, patients were provided with instruction and written materials regarding stress management techniques. Follow-up data were collected during regularly scheduled outpatient visits at the start of the second, third, and fourth chemotherapy cycles using diary entries and the same questionnaires previously administered at baseline. Twenty-four of 39 patients (62%) completed all study requirements. These participants completed 438 of the 678 exercise sessions assigned (adherence =62%). Of the stress management techniques, positive thinking most practiced most frequently (48%), followed by deep breathing (38%) and active relaxation (37%). Paired t tests, comparing baseline values with final recorded values, indicated a significant improvement over time in bodily pain (p<0.03) and mental health (p<0.04) subscale scores. Participants' evaluations of the combined intervention were favorable: 90% felt it was helpful to them and 100% would recommend it to another patient. A self-administered intervention combining aerobic exercise and stress management was acceptable and safe for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Preliminary data demonstrating intervention efficacy should be confirmed in subsequent randomized clinical trials.

  20. Patients with Advanced Ovarian Cancer Administered Oral Etoposide following Taxane as Maintenance Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Nagano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concept of maintenance therapy is one of the highly relevant approaches in the management of advanced ovarian cancer. The fundamental goal of maintenance therapy is to improve survival outcomes. We attempted to reinforce maintenance chemotherapy by adding oral etoposide following taxane administration. Cases: We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who had achieved clinically defined complete response to a primary platinum/taxane chemotherapy regimen and who were administered oral etoposide (50 mg/day × 21 days per cycle monthly for 3-5 cycles following paclitaxel or docetaxel administration as maintenance chemotherapy. With regard to oral etoposide toxicity, grade 2 oral mucositis and grade 3 anemia were observed in 1 patient each. Three to five cycles of etoposide were administered to all patients, though daily dosage was reduced to 25 mg in 2 patients due to toxicity. The median progression-free survival was 43.5 months, the median overall survival was 86 months, and 5-year overall survival was 77.1%. Conclusion: The results from this ovarian cancer treatment evaluation suggest that oral etoposide may be administered safely following paclitaxel or docetaxel as maintenance chemotherapy. We expect this regimen to contribute to the improvement in the survival outcomes of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

  1. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits.

  2. Self-administered physical exercise training as treatment of neck pain among military helicopter pilots and crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    Introduction: Flight related neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew and affect individual health, operational capacity and flight safety. Exercise training has proven effective in reducing neck pain within other job professions. The aim of this study was to investigate if an exerc......Introduction: Flight related neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew and affect individual health, operational capacity and flight safety. Exercise training has proven effective in reducing neck pain within other job professions. The aim of this study was to investigate...... if an exercise intervention might reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: A total of 31 helicopter pilots and 38 crew members were randomized to an exercise-training-group ETG (n=35) or a reference-group REF (n=34). ETG received 20 weeks of strength, endurance and coordination training...... targeting the deep and superficial neck muscles. Training was self-administered due to irregular work schedules. REF received no training. Primary outcome: Intensity of neck pain the previous 3 months (self-reported on a 0-10 numeric box scale) and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) in the trapezius m. (TRA...

  3. Effect of orally administered collagen hydrolysate on gene expression profiles in mouse skin: a DNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Chisato; Ito, Kyoko; Ichikawa, Satomi; Morifuji, Masashi; Nakai, Yuji; Ishijima, Tomoko; Abe, Keiko; Kawahata, Keiko

    2015-08-01

    Dietary collagen hydrolysate has been hypothesized to improve skin barrier function. To investigate the effect of long-term collagen hydrolysate administration on the skin, we evaluated stratum corneum water content and skin elasticity in intrinsically aged mice. Female hairless mice were fed a control diet or a collagen hydrolysate-containing diet for 12 wk. Stratum corneum water content and skin elasticity were gradually decreased in chronologically aged control mice. Intake of collagen hydrolysate significantly suppressed such changes. Moreover, we used DNA microarrays to analyze gene expression in the skin of mice that had been administered collagen hydrolysate. Twelve weeks after the start of collagen intake, no significant differences appeared in the gene expression profile compared with the control group. However, 1 wk after administration, 135 genes were upregulated and 448 genes were downregulated in the collagen group. This suggests that gene changes preceded changes of barrier function and elasticity. We focused on several genes correlated with functional changes in the skin. Gene Ontology terms related to epidermal cell development were significantly enriched in upregulated genes. These skin function-related genes had properties that facilitate epidermal production and differentiation while suppressing dermal degradation. In conclusion, our results suggest that altered gene expression at the early stages after collagen administration affects skin barrier function and mechanical properties. Long-term oral intake of collagen hydrolysate improves skin dysfunction by regulating genes related to production and maintenance of skin tissue.

  4. THE EFFECT OF OBESITY ON DOSE OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE WHEN ADMINISTERED WITH FENTANYL DURING POSTOPERATIVE MECHANICAL VENTILATION--RETROSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shinju; Morimoto, Issei; Iseki, Yuzo; Oishi, Rieko; Mogami, Midori; Imaizumi, Tsuyoshi; Hosono, Atsushi; Hakozaki, Takahiro; Nakano, Yuko; Isosu, Tsuyoshi; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective investigation on the effect of obesity on dexmedetomidine (DEX) requirements when administered with fentanyl (FEN) during mechanical ventilation after major surgeries. After Institutional Review Board approval, 14 obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and the same number of non-obese patients with similar backgrounds to the obese patients were selected from medical records. Doses of DEX in the first 48 h or until the end of sedation or extubation were calculated for comparison. In addition to comparison of dosing between the groups, associations between total body weight (TBW), BMI, and lean body mass (LBM) values and doses of DEX (mcg/h), between BMI and various indices (i.e., amount per TBW per hour and amount per LBM per hour) of DEX doses, and between above indices of DEX and FEN doses were also examined. There were no significant differences in DEX dose indices between the groups. However, DEX requirements (mcg/h) were significantly increased with TBW (kg) (r = 0.51, P = 0.003), BMI (r = 0.49, P = 0.006) and LBM (kg) (r = 0.42, P = 0.02), which might have enhanced the DEX metabolism with physiological changes with obesity. These findings will be beneficial for future clinical pharmacological analysis of DEX.

  5. Transplacental Distribution of Lidocaine and Its Metabolite in Peridural Anesthesia Administered to Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, Elaine Christine Dantas; Duarte, Luciana de Barros; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Carvalho, Daniela Miarelli; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Marques, Maria Paula; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Duarte, Geraldo

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal effects of drugs administered to mothers before delivery depend on the quantity that crosses the placental barrier, which is determined by the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the mother, fetus, and placenta. Diabetes mellitus can alter the kinetic disposition and the metabolism of drugs. This study investigated the placental transfer of lidocaine and its metabolite monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) submitted to peridural anesthesia. A total of 10 normal pregnant women (group 1) and 6 pregnant women with GDM (group 2) were studied, all at term. The patients received 200 mg 2% lidocaine hydrochloride by the peridural locoregional route. Maternal blood samples were collected at the time of delivery and, after placental expulsion, blood samples were collected from the intervillous space, umbilical artery, and vein for determination of lidocaine and MEGX concentrations and analysis of the placental transfer of the drug. The following respective lidocaine ratios between the maternal and the fetal compartments were obtained for groups 1 and 2: umbilical vein/maternal peripheral blood, 0.60 and 0.46; intervillous space/maternal blood, 1.01 and 0.88; umbilical artery/umbilical vein, 0.77 and 0.91; and umbilical vein/intervillous space, 0.53 and 0.51. The following MEGX ratios for groups 1 and 2 were, respectively, fetal/maternal, 0.43 and 0.97; intervillous space/maternal blood, 0.64 and 0.90; umbilical artery/umbilical vein, 1.09 and 0.99; and umbilical vein/intervillous space, 0.55 and 0.78. Gestational diabetes mellitus did not affect the transplacental transfer of lidocaine but interfered with the transfer of MEGX, acting as a mechanism facilitating the transport of the metabolite. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Toxicity of colloidal silica nanoparticles administered orally for 90 days in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1,* Seung-Young Lee,3,* Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,4 Nak-won Seong,3 Heung-Sik Seo,3 Sung-Sup Shin,3 Seon-Ju Kim,3 Eun-Ho Meang,3 Myeong-Kyu Park,3 Min-Seok Kim,3 Cheol-Su Kim,5 Soo-Ki Kim,5 Sang Wook Son,2 Young Rok Seo,6 Boo Hyon Kang,7 Beom Seok Han,8 Seong Soo A An,9 Beom-Jun Lee,10 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, 3General Toxicology Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 5Department of Microbiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Gangwon, 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, 7Nonclinical Research Institute, Chemon Inc, Gyeonggi, 8Toxicological Research Center, Hoseo University, Chungnam, 9Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi, 10College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the potential toxicity and establish the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL and target organ(s of negatively charged colloidal silica particles of different sizes, ie, SiO2EN,20(- (20 nm or SiO2EN,100(- (100 nm, administered by gavage in Sprague-Dawley rats. After verification of the physicochemical properties of the SiO2 particles to be tested, a preliminary dose range-finding study and 90-day repeated dose study were conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline. Based on the results of the 14-day dose range-finding study, a high dose was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg, and middle and low doses were set at 1,000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In the 90-day toxicity study, there were no animal deaths in relation to administration of SiO2 particles of

  7. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  8. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  9. Internet-administered Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaires Compared With Pen and Paper in an Adolescent Scoliosis Population: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitikman, Michael; Mulpuri, Kishore; Reilly, Christopher W

    2017-03-01

    Modern technology puts into question the effectiveness of using pen and paper as a means of collecting information from web-enabled patients. This study aimed to validate and test the reliability of using the Internet as a method of administering health-related quality of life questionnaires in a pediatric spine population. A prospective randomized crossover study was conducted. Patients aged 11 to 18 with idiopathic scoliosis were invited to participate, and informed consent was obtained from a scoliosis outpatient clinic setting. Participants were randomized to one of 4 groups determining the method of questionnaire administration [Scoliosis Research Society 30 (SRS-30) and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI)]. Both questionnaires were completed at 2 separate timepoints and 2 weeks apart to prevent recall bias. Groups included: Paper/Paper, Paper/Internet, Internet/Paper, and Internet/Internet. Paired-samples t tests were used to determine the test-retest reliability of each group. Analysis was stratified for surveys returned within or outside of the allotted 4-week timeframe following enrollment. Of the 96 participants who completed and returned both sets of questionnaires, 26 were allocated to the Paper/Paper group (27%), 20 to the Paper/Internet group (21%), 26 to the Internet/Paper group (27%), and 24 to the Internet/Internet group (25%). The second iteration of questionnaires was returned on time by 69 of the participants (71.2%). Of the late questionnaires, 18 (67%) were paper forms. Overall, no differences were observed between Internet-administered compared with pen and paper-administered questionnaires (P=0.206). No differences were observed within any group individually for either the SRS-30 or PODCI questionnaire. In addition, no significant differences were observed within groups for surveys returned within or outside of the 4-week timeframe. Eighty-four percent of the participants who completed both paper and Internet versions of

  10. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  11. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal influenza vaccine to HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Tagliaferri, Laura; Daleno, Cristina; Valzano, Antonia; Picciolli, Irene; Tel, Francesca; Prunotto, Giulia; Serra, Domenico; Galeone, Carlotta; Plebani, Anna; Principi, Nicola

    2011-02-11

    In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of the 2009 A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine to HIV-infected children and adolescents, 36 HIV-infected children and adolescents, and 36 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were randomised 1:1 to receive the pandemic vaccine upon enrollment and the seasonal vaccine one month later, or to receive the pandemic and seasonal vaccines simultaneously upon enrollment. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus were 100% two months after vaccine administration in both groups, regardless of the sequence of administration. Geometric mean titres against pandemic and seasonal antigens were significantly higher when the seasonal and pandemic vaccines were administered simultaneously than when the seasonal vaccine was administered alone. Local and systemic reactions were mild and not increased by simultaneous administration. In conclusion, the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine is as immunogenic, safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected children and adolescents as in healthy controls. Its simultaneous administration with virosomal-adjuvanted seasonal antigens seems to increase immune response to both pandemic and seasonal viruses with the same safety profile as that of the pandemic vaccine alone. However, because this finding cannot be clearly explained by an immunological viewpoint, further studies are needed to clarify the reasons of its occurrence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seromucosal transport of intravenously administered carbamazepine is not enhanced by oral doses of activated charcoal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Florian; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Witte, Andreas; Poethko, Thorsten; Henke, Julia; Zilker, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The fate of carbamazepine after intravenous injection in rats (n = 24) and the influence of activated charcoal on the kinetics was investigated. After randomization to four groups (n = 6, each), plasma concentration and the quantities of carbamazepine and metabolites excreted into bile, urine and intestine were determined using an in situ perfusion model of the small intestine (Ringer's solution) with or without orally administered activated charcoal (AC+; AC-) and with or without bile duct cannulation (BD+; BD-). The cumulative amount of carbamazepine and metabolites exsorbed into the small intestine within 3.5 hr after intravenous injection was about 15% in BD- animals and about 3% in BD+ animals. About 20% of the dose was detected in the externalized bile. Activated charcoal did not influence the amount exsorbed into the small intestine. Terminal half-life in plasma ranged from 159 min. to 194 min. within the four treatment groups without statistical significant difference (P = 0.751). Correspondingly, the area under the curve did not vary significantly and ranged between 1.13 and 1.41 g/min./l (P = 0.378). Excretion of carbamazepine and metabolites into urine varied between 3% and 6% of dose within all groups and showed close correlation with diuresis. In an identical experimental approach using a 2-fold intestinal perfusion rate (50 ml/hr; n = 8), no fundamental changes compared to the main experiment regarding pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine were observed. The lack of effect of activated charcoal on the elimination of carbamazepine and metabolites must be contributed to the small amount of the drug being exsorbed into the intestine and may be further influenced by reduced intestinal permeability of carbamazepine and metabolites or inadequate luminal stirring.

  13. Evaluation of factors important in modeling plasma concentrations of tetracycline hydrochloride administered in water in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sharon E; Almond, Glen W; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-10-01

    To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations. Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine. Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine. 2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time. The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Surgeon-administered conscious sedation and local anesthesia for ambulatory anorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, Miss; Hourigan, Jon S; Moore, Richard A; Stanley, J Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal procedures are often performed in an outpatient setting using a variety of anesthetic techniques. One technique that has not been well studied is surgeon-administered conscious sedation along with local anesthetic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of this technique with emphasis on safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction. Chart review was performed on 133 consecutive patients who had anorectal procedures at an outpatient surgery center. Additionally, 65 patients were enrolled prospectively and completed a satisfaction survey. Inclusively, charts of 198 patients who underwent outpatient anorectal surgery under conscious sedation and local anesthesia under the direction of a colorectal surgeon from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed. Parameters related to patient and procedural characteristics, safety, efficacy, and satisfaction were evaluated. Surgeon-administered sedation consisted of combined fentanyl and midazolam in 90 per cent. Eighty per cent of procedures were performed in the prone position and 23 per cent were in combination with an endoscopic procedure. Eighty-two per cent were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade 1 or 2. Transient mild hypoxemia or hypotension occurred in 4 and 3 per cent of the patients, respectively. Mean operative time was 29 minutes with a mean stay in the postanesthesia care unit of 37 minutes. There were no early major cardiac or respiratory complications. Ninety-seven per cent of the patients surveyed reported a high degree of satisfaction. Surgeon-administered conscious sedation with local anesthesia was well tolerated for outpatient anorectal surgeries. Additional studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this technique.

  15. Interviewer versus self-administered health-related quality of life questionnaires - Does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackatz Lori E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-reported outcomes are measured in many epidemiologic studies using self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires. While in some studies differences between these administration formats were observed, other studies did not show statistically significant differences important to patients. Since the evidence about the effect of administration format is inconsistent and mainly available from cross-sectional studies our aim was to assess the effects of different administration formats on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes in participants with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS. Methods We included participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS (LSOCA who completed the Medical Outcome Study [MOS] -HIV questionnaire, the EuroQol, the Feeling Thermometer and the Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ 25 every six months thereafter using self- or interviewer-administration. A large print questionnaire was available for participants with visual impairment. Considering all measurements over time and adjusting for patient and study site characteristics we used linear models to compare HRQL scores (all scores from 0-100 between administration formats. We defined adjusted differences of ≥0.2 standard deviations [SD] to be quantitatively meaningful. Results We included 2,261 participants (80.6% males with a median of 43.1 years of age at enrolment who provided data on 23,420 study visits. The self-administered MOS-HIV, Feeling Thermometer and EuroQol were used in 70% of all visits and the VFQ-25 in 80%. For eight domains of the MOS-HIV differences between the interviewer- and self- administered format were Conclusions Our large study provides evidence that administration formats do not have a meaningful effect on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes. As a consequence, longitudinal studies may not need to consider the effect of

  16. Osteopathic medical student administered smoking cessation counseling is an effective tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Capozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physician counseling on the risks of tobacco smoking and the benefits of cessation has been shown to be an effective method of increasing the rate of smoking cessation. Using the "Help Your Patients Quit Smoking: A Coaching Guide" also referred to as the "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guideline from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is thought to be effective to convey the importance of smoking cessation. Aim: To study the efficacy of the "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guideline counseling conducted by osteopathic medical students. Materials and Methods: Osteopathic medical students were trained to counsel smokers for 3-10 min based on New York City Department of Health′s "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guidelines by a licensed physician. Students then counseled health fair participants who were cigarette smokers for 3-10 min. Postcounseling, participants were administered an 4 question survey to evaluate the effect counseling had on their desire to quit smoking. Survey data were collected and analyzed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. Results: A total of 13 anonymous health fair participants who were also smokers were administered both counseling sessions and surveys. 11/13 (84.6% participants stated that the session motivated them to quit smoking. 9/13 (69.2% participants responded that they were now motivated to discuss smoking cessation with their doctor after being counseled. Of these participants 12/13 (92.3% had previously attempted to quit smoking without success. Conclusion: Participants reported an increased willingness to stop smoking after being counseled by osteopathic medical students. Participants also reported an increased motivation to discuss smoking cessation with their physician. These findings indicate that smoking cessation counseling administered by osteopathic medical students effectively in encouraging smokers to consider reduction or cessation of tobacco

  17. Tralokinumab pharmacokinetics and tolerability when administered by different subcutaneous injection methods and rates
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    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meena; Doughty, Diane; Clawson, Corbin; Li, Xiaobai; White, Nicholas; Agoram, Balaji; van der Merwe, René

    2017-07-01

    Tralokinumab, administered as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections every 2 weeks, at the target dose 300 mg, has been shown to improve lung function in patients with asthma. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and tolerability profile of tralokinumab 300 mg when administered by different rates of subcutaneous injection, as part of a pilot investigation of new injection regimens. This phase I study randomized 60 healthy adults to receive 300 mg tralokinumab, as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections, each delivered over 10 seconds, or one 2-mL injection delivered over 10 seconds (12 mL/min), 1 minute (2 mL/min), or 12 minutes (0.167 mL/min). No differences in the PK profile of tralokinumab were observed between cohorts. Immediately following injection, injection-site pain intensity (mean (SD)) was lowest following 0.167 mL/min injection (5.1 mm (8.0) via visual analog scale (VAS)) and greatest following 12 mL/min injection (41 mm (27.7) via VAS); with mean injection-site pruritus intensity low for all participants. Two types of local injection-site reactions were observed: erythema (58.3%) and hematoma/bleeding (18.3%). All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. Tralokinumab 300 mg is well tolerated, with comparable PK, when administered by a single 2-mL injection at different rates of subcutaneous injection vs. two 1-mL injections.
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  18. Tralokinumab pharmacokinetics and tolerability when administered by different subcutaneous injection methods and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meena; Doughty, Diane; Clawson, Corbin; Li, Xiaobai; White, Nicholas; Agoram, Balaji; van der Merwe, René

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Tralokinumab, administered as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections every 2 weeks, at the target dose 300 mg, has been shown to improve lung function in patients with asthma. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and tolerability profile of tralokinumab 300 mg when administered by different rates of subcutaneous injection, as part of a pilot investigation of new injection regimens. Methods: This phase I study randomized 60 healthy adults to receive 300 mg tralokinumab, as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections, each delivered over 10 seconds, or one 2-mL injection delivered over 10 seconds (12 mL/min), 1 minute (2 mL/min), or 12 minutes (0.167 mL/min). Results: No differences in the PK profile of tralokinumab were observed between cohorts. Immediately following injection, injection-site pain intensity (mean (SD)) was lowest following 0.167 mL/min injection (5.1 mm (8.0) via visual analog scale (VAS)) and greatest following 12 mL/min injection (41 mm (27.7) via VAS); with mean injection-site pruritus intensity low for all participants. Two types of local injection-site reactions were observed: erythema (58.3%) and hematoma/bleeding (18.3%). All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. Conclusions: Tralokinumab 300 mg is well tolerated, with comparable PK, when administered by a single 2-mL injection at different rates of subcutaneous injection vs. two 1-mL injections. PMID:28590244

  19. Exposure control practices for administering nitrous oxide: a survey of dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2016-12-12

    Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls [i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth] was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular

  20. Precautionary practices for administering anesthetic gases: A survey of physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L

    2016-10-02

    Scavenging systems and administrative and work practice controls for minimizing occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases have been recommended for many years. Anesthetic gases and vapors that are released or leak out during medical procedures are considered waste anesthetic gases. To better understand the extent recommended practices are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted in 2011 among members of professional practice organizations representing anesthesia care providers including physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, and anesthesiologist assistants. This national survey is the first to examine self-reported use of controls to minimize exposure to waste anesthetic gases among anesthesia care providers. The survey was completed by 1,783 nurse anesthetists, 1,104 physician anesthesiologists, and 100 anesthesiologist assistants who administered inhaled anesthetics in the seven days prior to the survey. Working in hospitals and outpatient surgical centers, respondents most often administered sevoflurane and, to a lesser extent desflurane and isoflurane, in combination with nitrous oxide. Use of scavenging systems was nearly universal, reported by 97% of respondents. However, adherence to other recommended practices was lacking to varying degrees and differed among those administering anesthetics to pediatric (P) or adult (A) patients. Examples of practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: using high (fresh gas) flow anesthesia only (17% P, 6% A), starting anesthetic gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (35% P; 14% A); not routinely checking anesthesia equipment for leaks (4% P, 5% A), and using a funnel-fill system to fill vaporizers (16%). Respondents also reported that facilities lacked safe handling procedures (19%) and hazard awareness training (18%). Adherence to precautionary work practices was generally highest among