WorldWideScience

Sample records for group cc structure

  1. On Locally Finite Group with CC-Subgroups%含有CC-子群的局部有限群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛海波; 吕恒

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is proved that;Let G be a locally finite group with a CC-subgroup. If every proper infinite subgroup has no proper CC-subgroup, then G is an extension of divisible abelian P-subgroup of rank q-1 by cyclic group of order q, where p,q are different prime numbers, moreover, every proper infinite subgroup of G is abelian.%主要证明了:G是局部有限群,若G存在CC-子群,但是其每一个无限真子群都不含有CC-子群,则G是秩为q-1的可除阿贝尔p-群被q阶循环群的扩张,其中p,q是互不相同的素数,且G的每一个无限真子群都是阿贝尔群.

  2. Structural And Functional Characterization of CC Chemokine CCL14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blain, K.Y.; Kwiatkowski, W.; Zhao, Q.; Fleur, D.La; Naik, C.; Chun, T.-W.; Tsareva, T.; Kanakaraj, P.; Laird, M.W.; Shah, R.; George, L.; Sanyal, I.; Moore, P.A.; Demeler, B.; Choe, S.

    2009-06-02

    CC chemokine ligand 14, CCL14, is a human CC chemokine that is of recent interest because of its natural ability, upon proteolytic processing of the first eight NH{sub 2}-terminal residues, to bind to and signal through the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) co-receptor, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). We report X-ray crystallographic structures of both full-length CCL14 and signaling-active, truncated CCL14 [9-74] determined at 2.23 and 1.8 {angstrom}, respectively. Although CCL14 and CCL14 [9-74] differ in their ability to bind CCR5 for biological signaling, we find that the NH{sub 2}-terminal eight amino acids (residues 1 through 8) are completely disordered in CCL14 and both show the identical mode of the dimeric assembly characteristic of the CC type chemokine structures. However, analytical ultracentrifugation studies reveal that the CCL14 is stable as a dimer at a concentration as low as 100 nM, whereas CCL14 [9-74] is fully monomeric at the same concentration. By the same method, the equilibrium between monomers of CCL14 [9-74] and higher order oligomers is estimated to be of EC{sub 1,4} = 4.98 {mu}M for monomer-tetramer conversion. The relative instability of CCL14 [9-74] oligomers as compared to CCL14 is also reflected in the K{sub d}'s that are estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method to be {approx}9.84 and 667 nM for CCL14 and CCL14 [9-74], respectively. This {approx}60-fold difference in stability at a physiologically relevant concentration can potentially account for their different signaling ability. Functional data from the activity assays by intracellular calcium flux and inhibition of CCR5-mediated HIV-1 entry show that only CCL14 [9-74] is fully active at these near-physiological concentrations where CCL14 [9-74] is monomeric and CCL14 is dimeric. These results together suggest that the ability of CCL14 [9-74] to monomerize can play a role for cellular activation.

  3. Evaluation by Rocket Combustor of C/C Composite Cooled Structure Using Metallic Cooling Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegoshi, Masao; Ono, Fumiei; Ueda, Shuichi; Saito, Toshihito; Hayasaka, Osamu

    In this study, the cooling performance of a C/C composite material structure with metallic cooling tubes fixed by elastic force without chemical bonding was evaluated experimentally using combustion gas in a rocket combustor. The C/C composite chamber was covered by a stainless steel outer shell to maintain its airtightness. Gaseous hydrogen as a fuel and gaseous oxygen as an oxidizer were used for the heating test. The surface of these C/C composites was maintained below 1500 K when the combustion gas temperature was about 2800 K and the heat flux to the combustion chamber wall was about 9 MW/m2. No thermal damage was observed on the stainless steel tubes that were in contact with the C/C composite materials. The results of the heating test showed that such a metallic tube-cooled C/C composite structure is able to control the surface temperature as a cooling structure (also as a heat exchanger) as well as indicated the possibility of reducing the amount of coolant even if the thermal load to the engine is high. Thus, application of this metallic tube-cooled C/C composite structure to reusable engines such as a rocket-ramjet combined-cycle engine is expected.

  4. Asynchronous Group Key Distribution on top of the CC2420 Security Mechanisms for Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    2009-01-01

    scheme with no time synchronization requirements. The scheme decreases the number of key updates by providing them on an as needed basis according to the amount of network traffic. We evaluate the CC2420 radio security mechanism and show how to use it as a basis to implement secure group communication......A sensor network is a network consisting of small, inexpensive, low-powered sensor nodes that communicate to complete a common task. Sensor nodes are characterized by having limited communication and computation capabilities, energy, and storage. They often are deployed in hostile environments...... creating a demand for encryption and authentication of the messages sent between them. Due to severe resource constraints on the sensor nodes, efficient key distribution schemes and secure communication protocols with low overhead are desired. In this paper we present an asynchronous group key distribution...

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of PHP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)], a monodentate chiral phosphine derived from intramolecular C-C coupling of tetramethylcyclopentadienyl groups: an evaluation of steric and electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Bridgewater, B M; Churchill, D G; Parkin, G

    2001-10-22

    The chiral monodentate phosphine PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)] is readily obtained by oxidation of the lithium complex Li(2)[PhP(C(5)Me(4))(2)] with I(2), which couples the two cyclopentadienyl groups to form a five-membered heterocyclic ring. The steric and electronic properties of PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)] have been evaluated by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopic studies on a variety of derivatives, including Ph[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]PE (E = S, Se), Cp*MCl(4)[P[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]Ph] (M = Mo, Ta), Ir[P[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]Ph](2)(CO)Cl, and CpFe(CO)[PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)

  6. Structural Insights into the Interaction Between a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Protein, Viral CC Chemokine Inhibitor (vCCI), and the Human CC Chemokine, Eotaxin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Nai-Wei; Gao, Yong; Schill, Megan S.; Isern, Nancy G.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.; Liwang, Patricia J.

    2014-01-30

    Chemokines play important roles in the immune system, not only recruiting leukocytes to the site of infection and inflammation but also guiding cell homing and cell development. The soluble poxvirusencoded protein vCCI, a CC chemokine inhibitor, can bind to human CC chemokines tightly to impair the host immune defense. This protein has no known homologs in eukaryotes, and may represent a potent method to stop inflammation. Previously, our structure of the vCCI:MIP-1β complex indicated that vCCI uses negatively charged residues in β-sheet II to interact with positively charged residues in the MIP-1βN-terminus, 20’s region and 40’s loop. However, the interactions between vCCI and other CC chemokines have not yet been fully explored. Here, we used NMR and fluorescence anisotropy to study the interaction between vCCI and eotaxin-1 (CCL11), another CC chemokine that is an important factor in the asthma response. NMR results reveal that the binding pattern is very similar to the vCCI:MIP-1βcomplex, and suggest that electrostatic interactions provide a major contribution to binding. Fluorescence anisotropy results on variants of eotaxin-1 further confirm the critical roles of the charged residues in eotaxin. Compared to wild-type eotaxin, single, double, or triple mutations at these critical charged residues weaken the binding. One exception is the K47A mutation that exhibits increased affinity for vCCI, which can be explained structurally. In addition, the binding affinity between vCCI and other wild type CC chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1β and RANTES, were determined as 1.09 nM, 1.16 nM, and 0.22 nM, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first work quantitatively measuring the binding affinity between vCCI and different CC chemokines.

  7. Structural Transformation and Aggregation of cc-beta Peptides Into Amyloid Proto-fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Yuba; Steckmann, Timothy; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    The study of amyloid fibrils has important implications in understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. During the formation of amyloid fibrils, peptide polymers manifest fascinating physical behavior by undergoing complicated structural transformations. We examine the behavior of a small engineered peptide called cc-beta, that was designed to mimic the structural changes of the much larger, naturally occurring amyloid beta proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to uncover the underlying physics that is responsible for the large scale structural transformations. By using implicit solvent replica exchange MD simulations, we examined the behavior of 12 peptides, initially arranged in four different cc-beta alpha helix trimers. We observed various intermediate stages of aggregation, as well as an organized proto-fibril beta aggregate. We discuss the time evolution and the various interactions involved in the structural transformation.

  8. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  9. Structure of CC chemokine receptor 2 with orthosteric and allosteric antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Qin, Ling; Ortiz Zacarías, Natalia V.; de Vries, Henk; Han, Gye Won; Gustavsson, Martin; Dabros, Marta; Zhao, Chunxia; Cherney, Robert J.; Carter, Percy; Stamos, Dean; Abagyan, Ruben; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Heitman, Laura H.; Tebben, Andrew; Kufareva, Irina; Handel , Tracy M. (Vertex Pharm); (Leiden-MC); (USC); (BMS); (UCSD)

    2016-12-07

    CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is one of 19 members of the chemokine receptor subfamily of human class A G-protein-coupled receptors. CCR2 is expressed on monocytes, immature dendritic cells, and T-cell subpopulations, and mediates their migration towards endogenous CC chemokine ligands such as CCL2 (ref. 1). CCR2 and its ligands are implicated in numerous inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases2 including atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, neuropathic pain, and diabetic nephropathy, as well as cancer3. These disease associations have motivated numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials4 (see http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) in search of therapies that target the CCR2–chemokine axis. To aid drug discovery efforts5, here we solve a structure of CCR2 in a ternary complex with an orthosteric (BMS-681 (ref. 6)) and allosteric (CCR2-RA-[R]7) antagonist. BMS-681 inhibits chemokine binding by occupying the orthosteric pocket of the receptor in a previously unseen binding mode. CCR2-RA-[R] binds in a novel, highly druggable pocket that is the most intracellular allosteric site observed in class A G-protein-coupled receptors so far; this site spatially overlaps the G-protein-binding site in homologous receptors. CCR2-RA-[R] inhibits CCR2 non-competitively by blocking activation-associated conformational changes and formation of the G-protein-binding interface. The conformational signature of the conserved microswitch residues observed in double-antagonist-bound CCR2 resembles the most inactive G-protein-coupled receptor structures solved so far. Like other protein–protein interactions, receptor–chemokine complexes are considered challenging therapeutic targets for small molecules, and the present structure suggests diverse pocket epitopes that can be exploited to overcome obstacles in drug design.

  10. Exchanging Alkyl Groups through Unstrained C-C Bond Cleavage in the Presence of a Copper Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Noda, Yushi; Nishikata, Takashi

    2017-04-05

    Although numerous reports exist on strained C-C bond cleavage reactions in aryl substitutions, the cleavage methodology for unstrained C-C bonds in alkylation reactions has not yet been established. We found that unstrained allylic C-C bonds can be cleaved using α-radicals to form C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) bonds in the presence of a copper catalyst. In this reaction, the property of leaving and loading radicals is very important for radical fragmentations. In this paper, we investigated the effects of these properties in cleavage reactions for unstrained C-C bonds.

  11. Group Assessment and Structured Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Warren; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two new techniques that were used with a group of seven blind, multiply handicapped young adults in a half-way house are described. Structured learning therapy is a social skills training technique and group assessment is a method of averaging psychological data on a group of clients to facilitate program planning based on client needs.…

  12. Spread of the blaOXA–23-Containing Tn2008 in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Grouped in CC92 from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Haomin; Ying, Chunmei

    2017-01-01

    The rapid expansion of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) clinical isolates is a big issue. We investigated the antibiotic susceptibility, molecular epidemiology and resistance gene of A. baumannii collected at two hospitals in Shanghai, China. Besides, the A. baumannii PCR-based replicon typing method (AB-PBRT) was conducted to categorize the plasmids into homogeneous groups on the basis of replicase genes. Most CRAB isolates showed high-level resistance to almost all antibiotics but retain susceptibility to colistin and tigecycline. A total of 101 isolates carried blaOXA-51-like gene. Sequencing identified the presence of blaOXA-66 for CRAB isolates. blaOXA–23 gene were discovered in all CRAB isolates. Each CRAB isolate contained 1–3 of 19 different plasmid replicase (rep) gene homology groups (GRs) and the GR6 (repAci6) was ubiquitous. Genotyping by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) showed seven defined MLST patterns and three novel STs were found. eBURST analysis indicated they were all grouped in CC92 (GCII) with the most frequent ST208 (50%). Two blaOXA–23-bearing transposons were found: Tn2006 and Tn2008. Tn2008 were detected in 54 (96.4%) isolates and Tn2006 in two remaining isolates. The blaOXA–23 carbapenem gene was vitally associated with repAci6 plasmid belong to CC92 clonal group. Our survey revealed severe drug resistance in A. baumannii isolates. Tn2008-containing CC92 A. baumannii were endemic, which may facilitate the blaoxa23 dissemination. PMID:28220115

  13. High-Gradient test results from a CLIC prototype accelerating structure : TD26CC

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, A; Farabolini, W; Grudiev, A; Kovermann, J; Montessinos, E; Riddone, G; Syratchev, I; Wegner, R; Wuensch, W; Solodko, A; Woolley, B

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC study has progressively tested prototype accelerating structures which incorporate an ever increasing number of features which are needed for a final version ready to be installed in a linear collider. The most recent high power test made in the CERN X-band test stand, Xbox-1, is of a CERN-built prototype which includes damping features but also compact input and output power couplers, which maximize the overall length to active gradient ratio of the structure. The structure’s high-gradient performance, 105 MV/m at 250 ns pulse length and low breakdown rate, matches previously tested structures validating both CERN fabrication and the compact coupler design.

  14. First principles study of the electronic and magnetic structures and bonding properties of UCoC2 ternary, characteristic of C-C units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Samir F.

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of UCoC2, a di-carbide with the C-C units is examined from ab initio with an assessment of the properties of chemical bonding. The energy-volume equation of state shows large anisotropy effects due to C-C alignment along tetragonal c-axis leading to high linear incompressibility. Relevant features of selective bonding of uranium and cobalt with carbon at two different Wyckoff sites and strong C-C interactions are remarkable. The vibrational frequencies for C⋯C stretching modes indicate closer behavior to aliphatic C-C rather than Cdbnd C double bond. A ferromagnetic ground state is proposed from the calculations.

  15. Bosonization and Lie Group Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, Yuan K

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a concise quantum operator formula for bosonization in which the Lie group structure appears in a natural way. The connection between fermions and bosons is found to be exactly the connection between Lie group elements and the group parameters. Bosonization is an extraordinary way of expressing the equation of motion of a complex fermion field in terms of a real scalar boson in two dimensions. All the properties of the fermion field theory are known to be preserved under this remarkable transformation with substantial simplification and elucidation of the original theory, much like Lie groups can be studied by their Lie algebras.

  16. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotype C/C1 in the Minangkabau ethnic group in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siburian Marlinang D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Minangkabau is one of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia. Previous studies with a limited number of samples have shown a different prevalence of HBV/C in the Minangkabau compared to the Indonesian population in general. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV genotype distribution pattern and the prevalence of pre-S, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations among the Minangkabau HBV carriers. The samples were collected from Padang, West Sumatera and from western Java. Mixed primers for specific genotypes were used to determine the HBV genotype. Pre-S or S genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequences from GenBank to derive a phylogenetic tree for subgenotyping. Pre-S genes were also analyzed for mutations. The basal core promoter (BCP region was amplified and directly sequenced to analyze T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. Results The predominant HBV genotype among the Minangkabau HBV carriers (n=117 was C (72.6% followed by B (24.8% and co-infection with B and C (2.6%. The prevalence of pre-S mutations, including both the pre-S deletion and pre-S2 start codon mutation, was 41.0%, and the T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations were found in 51.9% and 71.2% respectively. HBV/C1 was the predominant HBV subgenotype in the Minangkabau HBV carriers, and was found in 66.2%, followed by B3, B7, C8, B2, B9, C2, and C10 (18.3%, 7.0%, 2.8%, 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.4%, and 1.4% respectively. From samples that were found to be co-infected with HBV B and C, two samples were successfully cloned and subgenotyped, including one with mixed subgenotypes of B3 and C1, and another one with mixed subgenotypes of B7, C1, putative intergenotypic of B/A, and C/A. Furthermore, three samples from donors of non-Minangkabau ethnicity from Padang were found to be infected with an intragenotypic recombination form, including a putative recombinant of B8/B3 and B9/B7. Conclusion HBV/C with subgenotype C1 was the predominant HBV genotype among

  17. Use of secondary structural information and C-C distance restraints to model protein structures with MODELLER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boojala V B Reddy; Yiannis N Kaznessis

    2007-08-01

    Protein secondary structure predictions and amino acid long range contact map predictions from primary sequence of proteins have been explored to aid in modelling protein tertiary structures. In order to evaluate the usefulness of secondary structure and 3D-residue contact prediction methods to model protein structures we have used the known Q3 (alpha-helix, beta-strands and irregular turns/loops) secondary structure information, along with residue-residue contact information as restraints for MODELLER. We present here results of our modelling studies on 30 best resolved single domain protein structures of varied lengths. The results shows that it is very difficult to obtain useful models even with 100% accurate secondary structure predictions and accurate residue contact predictions for up to 30% of residues in a sequence. The best models that we obtained for proteins of lengths 37, 70, 118, 136 and 193 amino acid residues are of RMSDs 4.17, 5.27, 9.12, 7.89 and 9.69, respectively. The results show that one can obtain better models for the proteins which have high percent of alpha-helix content. This analysis further shows that MODELLER restrain optimization program can be useful only if we have truly homologous structure(s) as a template where it derives numerous restraints, almost identical to the templates used. This analysis also clearly indicates that even if we satisfy several true residue-residue contact distances, up to 30% of their sequence length with fully known secondary structural information, we end up predicting model structures much distant from their corresponding native structures.

  18. Genomic analysis reveals multi-drug resistance clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 hypervirulent isolates causing neonatal invasive disease in southern mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmondo Campisi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013-2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide (CPS type, pilus islands (PIs distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease (EOD and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD. Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases, particularly among LOD strains (n=11, followed by types Ib (n=5, V (n=3, Ia (n=2 and II (n=1. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17.The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistances could in part explain

  19. Unusual C-C bond cleavage in the formation of amine-bis(phenoxy) group 4 benzyl complexes: Mechanism of formation and application to stereospecific polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Gowda, Ravikumar R.

    2014-08-11

    Group 4 tetrabenzyl compounds MBn4 (M = Zr, Ti), upon protonolysis with an equimolar amount of the tetradentate amine-tris(phenol) ligand N[(2,4-tBu2C6H2(CH 2)OH]3 in toluene from -30 to 25 °C, unexpectedly lead to amine-bis(phenoxy) dibenzyl complexes, BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn2 (M = Zr (1), Ti (2)) in 80% (1) and 75% (2) yields. This reaction involves an apparent cleavage of the >NCH2-ArOH bond (loss of the phenol in the ligand) and formation of the >NCH 2-CH2Bn bond (gain of the benzyl group in the ligand). Structural characterization of 1 by X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the complex formed is a bis(benzyl) complex of Zr coordinated by a newly derived tridentate amine-bis(phenoxy) ligand arranged in a mer configuration in the solid state. The abstractive activation of 1 and 2 with B(C6F 5)3·THF in CD2Cl2 at room temperature generates the corresponding benzyl cations {BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn(THF)}+[BnB(C6F5) 3]- (M = Zr (3), Ti, (4)). These cationic complexes, along with their analogues derived from (imino)phenoxy tri- and dibenzyl complexes, [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(3,5- tBu2C6H2)O]ZrBn3 (5) and [2,4-Br2C6H2(O)(6-CH2(NC 5H9))CH2N=CH(2-adamantyl-4-MeC 6H2O)]ZrBn2 (6), have been found to effectively polymerize the biomass-derived renewable β-methyl-α-methylene- γ-butyrolactone (βMMBL) at room temperature into the highly stereoregular polymer PβMMBL with an isotacticity up to 99% mm. A combined experimental and DFT study has yielded a mechanistic pathway for the observed unusual C-C bond cleavage in the present protonolysis reaction between ZrBn4 and N[(2,4-tBu2C 6H2(CH2)OH]3 for the formation of complex 1, which involves the benzyl radical and the Zr(III) species, resulting from thermal and photochemical decomposition of ZrBn4, followed by a series of reaction sequences consisting of protonolysis, tautomerization, H-transfer, oxidation, elimination, and radical coupling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  20. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Bi(Hsal)3(1,10-phenanthroline)(Hsal=O2CC6H4-2-OH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-Jing; XU Li

    2008-01-01

    A new bismuth compound Bi(Hsal)3(1,10-phenanthroline)(Hsal=O2CC6H4-2-OH)has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.It crystallizes in the triclinic system,space group P(-1),with a=10.243(2),b=11.905(3),c=12.934(3)(A),α=76.780(6),β=68.683(6),γ=80.930(7)°V=1425.6(5)(A)3,Dc=1.865g/cm3,Mr=800.51,F(000)=780,μ=6.247 mm-1,Z=2,R=0.0456 and wR=0.1131 for 5612 observed reflections(Ⅰ>2σ(Ⅰ)).In this compound,three salicylate ligands coordinate to the Bi atom through the carboxylate groups to form a four-membered chelate ring,and phenanthroline ligand chelates the metal through two N atoms. The structure of the title compound manifests a possible coordination mode between bismuth subsalicylate and N atom containing amino acid in the biological system.

  1. CC-1088 Celgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredge, Keith

    2005-05-01

    CC-1088, a thalidomide analog inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, was being developed by Celgene for the potential treatment of inflammatory diseases and myelodysplastic syndromes, and had undergone clinical trials. By April 2005, however, the company was no longer developing CC-1088, with CC-10004 presumed to be the preferred compound.

  2. Structure and Function of CC-Chemokine Receptor 5 Homologues Derived from Representative Primate Species and Subspecies of the Taxonomic Suborders Prosimii and Anthropoidea

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A chemokine receptor from the seven-transmembrane-domain G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily is an essential coreceptor for the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains. To investigate nonhuman primate CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) homologue structure and function, we amplified CCR5 DNA sequences from peripheral blood cells obtained from 24 representative species and subspecies of the primate suborders Prosimii (family L...

  3. Reduction of unsaturated compounds under interstellar conditions: chemoselective reduction of C≡C and C=C bonds over C=O functional group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonusas, Mindaugas; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Krim, Lahouari

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of the H-addition reactions on unsaturated organic molecules bearing a triple or a double carbon-carbon bond such as propargyl or allyl alcohols and a CO functional group such as propynal, propenal or propanal may play an important role in the understanding of the chemical complexity of the interstellar medium. Why different aldehydes like methanal, ethanal, propynal and propanal are present in dense molecular clouds while the only alcohol detected in those cold regions is methanol? In addition, ethanol has only been detected in hot molecular cores. Are those saturated and unsaturated aldehyde and alcohol species chemically linked in molecular clouds through solid phase H-addition surface reactions or are they formed through different chemical routes? To answer such questions, we have investigated a hydrogenation study of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols at 10 K. We prove through this experimental study that while pure unsaturated alcohol ices bombarded by H atoms lead to the formation of the corresponding fully or partially saturated alcohols, surface H-addition reactions on unsaturated aldehyde ices exclusively lead to the formation of fully saturated aldehyde. Such results show that in addition to a chemoselective reduction of C≡C and C=C bonds over the C=O group, there is no link between aldehydes and their corresponding alcohols in reactions involving H atoms in dense molecular clouds. Consequently, this could be one of the reasons why some aldehydes such as propanal are abundant in dense molecular clouds in contrast to the non-detection of alcohol species larger than methanol.

  4. Metal-catalyzed C-C bond cleavage in alkanes: effects of methyl substitution on transition-state structures and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, David W; Hibbitts, David D; Iglesia, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    Methyl substituents at C-C bonds influence hydrogenolysis rates and selectivities of acyclic and cyclic C2-C8 alkanes on Ir, Rh, Ru, and Pt catalysts. C-C cleavage transition states form via equilibrated dehydrogenation steps that replace several C-H bonds with C-metal bonds, desorb H atoms (H*) from saturated surfaces, and form λ H2(g) molecules. Activation enthalpies (ΔH(‡)) and entropies (ΔS(‡)) and λ values for (3)C-(x)C cleavage are larger than for (2)C-(2)C or (2)C-(1)C bonds, irrespective of the composition of metal clusters or the cyclic/acyclic structure of the reactants. (3)C-(x)C bonds cleave through α,β,γ- or α,β,γ,δ-bound transition states, as indicated by the agreement between measured activation entropies and those estimated for such structures using statistical mechanics. In contrast, less substituted C-C bonds involve α,β-bound species with each C atom bound to several surface atoms. These α,β configurations weaken C-C bonds through back-donation to antibonding orbitals, but such configurations cannot form with (3)C atoms, which have one C-H bond and thus can form only one C-M bond. (3)C-(x)C cleavage involves attachment of other C atoms, which requires endothermic C-H activation and H* desorption steps that lead to larger ΔH(‡) values but also larger ΔS(‡) values (by forming more H2(g)) than for (2)C-(2)C and (2)C-(1)C bonds, irrespective of alkane size (C2-C8) or cyclic/acyclic structure. These data and their mechanistic interpretation indicate that low temperatures and high H2 pressures favor cleavage of less substituted C-C bonds and form more highly branched products from cyclic and acyclic alkanes. Such interpretations and catalytic consequences of substitution seem also relevant to C-X cleavage (X = S, N, O) in desulfurization, denitrogenation, and deoxygenation reactions.

  5. Group theory analysis of braided geometry structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wei; MA Wensuo

    2005-01-01

    The braided geometry structures are analyzed with point groups and space groups for which the continuous yarn of the braided preforms is segmented and expressed in some special symbols. All structures of braided material are described and classified with group theory, and new braiding methods are found. The group theory analysis lays the theoretical foundation for optimizing material performance.

  6. Structure and reactivity studies of transition metals ligated by tBuSi3X (X = O, NH, N, S, and CC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolczanski, Peter T

    2009-02-21

    Use of the (t)Bu(3)Si group can sterically protect O, N, S, and acetylide donors, enabling chemistry at low-coordinate transition metal centers. This article provides examples from these laboratories on the utilization of (t)Bu(3)SiO(-), (t)Bu(3)SiNH(-), (t)Bu(3)SiN(2-), (t)Bu(3)SiS(-) and (t)Bu(3)SiCC(-) as ligands in exploratory synthesis and reactivity studies of transition metal complexes.

  7. Endpoint comparison for bone mineral density measurements in North Central Cancer Treatment Group cancer clinical trials N02C1 and N03CC (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Atherton, P.; Liu, H.; Novotny, P.; Hines, S.; Loprinzi, C. L.; Perez, E. A.; Tan, A.; Burger, K.; Zhao, X.; Diekmann, B.; Sloan, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement can vary depending upon anatomical site, machine, and normative values used. This analysis compared different BMD endpoints in two clinical trials. Trial results differed across endpoints. Future clinical trials should consider inclusion of multiple endpoints in sensitivity analysis to ensure sound overall study conclusions. Introduction Methodological issues hamper efficacy assessment of osteoporosis prevention agents in cancer survivors. Osteoporosis diagnosis can vary depending upon which bone mineral density (BMD) anatomical site and machine is used and which set of normative values are applied. This analysis compared different endpoints for osteoporosis treatment efficacy assessment in two clinical studies. Methods Data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase III clinical trials N02C1 and N03CC (Alliance) were employed involving 774 patients each comparing two treatments for osteoporosis prevention. Endpoints for three anatomical sites included raw BMD score (RawBMD); raw machine-based, sample-standardized, and reference population-standardized T scores (RawT, TSamp, TRef); and standard normal percentile corresponding to the reference population-standardized T score (TPerc). For each, treatment arm comparison was carried out using three statistical tests using change and percentage change from baseline (CB, %CB) at 1 year. Results Baseline correlations among endpoints ranged from 0.79 to 1.00. RawBMD and TPerc produced more statistically significant results (14 and 19 each out of 36 tests) compared to RawT (11/36), TSamp (8/36), and TRef (7/36). Spine produced the most statistically significant results (26/60) relative to femoral neck (20/60) and total hip (13/60). Lastly, CB resulted in 44 statistically significant results out of 90 tests, whereas %CB resulted in only 15 significant results. Conclusions Treatment comparisons and interpretations were different across endpoints and anatomical sites

  8. Dreamweaver CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Janine

    2013-01-01

    Turn your wonderful website dreams into robust realities with the help of Dreamweaver CC For Dummies! Creating dynamic websites is easy with Dreamweaver CC and this friendly, full-color guide. Updated for the latest version of Adobe's world-renowned web development tool, Dreamweaver CC For Dummies covers all aspects of creating websites, from understanding web design basics to using style sheets, integrating multimedia, implementing responsive design, testing and publishing your sites, and more. With the professional guidance of Web design expert Jan

  9. Population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from five Mediterranean countries: evidence for frequent recombination and epidemic occurrence of CC235.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaoui Maatallah

    Full Text Available Several studies in recent years have provided evidence that Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a non-clonal population structure punctuated by highly successful epidemic clones or clonal complexes. The role of recombination in the diversification of P. aeruginosa clones has been suggested, but not yet demonstrated using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from five Mediterranean countries (n = 141 were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, serotyping and PCR targeting the virulence genes exoS and exoU. The occurrence of multi-resistance (≥ 3 antipseudomonal drugs was analyzed with disk diffusion according to EUCAST. MLST was performed on a subset of strains (n = 110 most of them had a distinct PFGE variant. MLST data were analyzed with Bionumerics 6.0, using minimal spanning tree (MST as well as eBURST. Measurement of clonality was assessed by the standardized index of association (I(A (S. Evidence of recombination was estimated by ClonalFrame as well as SplitsTree4.0. The MST analysis connected 70 sequence types, among which ST235 was by far the most common. ST235 was very frequently associated with the O11 serotype, and frequently displayed multi-resistance and the virulence genotype exoS⁻/exoU⁺. ClonalFrame linked several groups previously identified by eBURST and MST, and provided insight to the evolutionary events occurring in the population; the recombination/mutation ratio was found to be 8.4. A Neighbor-Net analysis based on the concatenated sequences revealed a complex network, providing evidence of frequent recombination. The index of association when all the strains were considered indicated a freely recombining population. P. aeruginosa isolates from the Mediterranean countries display an epidemic population structure, particularly dominated by ST235-O11, which has earlier also been coupled to the spread of ß-lactamases in many countries.

  10. The structure of complex Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dong Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Complex Lie groups have often been used as auxiliaries in the study of real Lie groups in areas such as differential geometry and representation theory. To date, however, no book has fully explored and developed their structural aspects.The Structure of Complex Lie Groups addresses this need. Self-contained, it begins with general concepts introduced via an almost complex structure on a real Lie group. It then moves to the theory of representative functions of Lie groups- used as a primary tool in subsequent chapters-and discusses the extension problem of representations that is essential for studying the structure of complex Lie groups. This is followed by a discourse on complex analytic groups that carry the structure of affine algebraic groups compatible with their analytic group structure. The author then uses the results of his earlier discussions to determine the observability of subgroups of complex Lie groups.The differences between complex algebraic groups and complex Lie groups are sometimes subtle ...

  11. CC-5013 (Celgene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiades, Constantine S; Mitsiades, Nicholas

    2004-06-01

    Celgene, in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute, is developing CC-5013, the lead compound in a series of thalidomide derivatives that inhibit TNFalpha overproduction, for the potential treatment of hematological and solid tumor cancers and inflammatory diseases.

  12. Direct C-C Coupling of CO2 and the Methyl Group from CH4 Activation through Facile Insertion of CO2 into Zn-CH3 σ-Bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuntao; Cui, Chaonan; Han, Jinyu; Wang, Hua; Zhu, Xinli; Ge, Qingfeng

    2016-08-17

    Conversion of CO2 and CH4 to value-added products will contribute to alleviating the green-house gas effect but is a challenge both scientifically and practically. Stabilization of the methyl group through CH4 activation and facile CO2 insertion ensure the realization of C-C coupling. In the present study, we demonstrate the ready C-C coupling reaction on a Zn-doped ceria catalyst. The detailed mechanism of this direct C-C coupling reaction was examined based on the results from density functional theory calculations. The results show that the Zn dopant stabilizes the methyl group by forming a Zn-C bond, thus hindering subsequent dehydrogenation of CH4. CO2 can be inserted into the Zn-C bond in an activated bent configuration, with the transition state in the form of a three-centered Zn-C-C moiety and an activation barrier of 0.51 eV. The C-C coupling reaction resulted in the acetate species, which could desorb as acetic acid by combining with a surface proton. The formation of acetic acid from CO2 and CH4 is a reaction with 100% atom economy, and the implementation of the reaction on a heterogeneous catalyst is of great importance to the utilization of the greenhouse gases. We tested other possible dopants including Al, Ga, Cd, In, and Ni and found a positive correlation between the activation barrier of C-C coupling and the electronegativity of the dopant, although C-H bond activation is likely the dominant reaction on the Ni-doped ceria catalyst.

  13. Development of a (13)C NMR Chemical Shift Prediction Procedure Using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ and Empirically Derived Systematic Error Correction Terms: A Computational Small Molecule Structure Elucidation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dongyue; Sader, C Avery; Chaudhary, Om; Jones, Paul-James; Wagner, Klaus; Tautermann, Christofer S; Yang, Zheng; Busacca, Carl A; Saraceno, Reginaldo A; Fandrick, Keith R; Gonnella, Nina C; Horspool, Keith; Hansen, Gordon; Senanayake, Chris H

    2017-05-19

    An accurate and efficient procedure was developed for performing (13)C NMR chemical shift calculations employing density functional theory with the gauge invariant atomic orbitals (DFT-GIAO). Benchmarking analysis was carried out, incorporating several density functionals and basis sets commonly used for prediction of (13)C NMR chemical shifts, from which the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of theory was found to provide accurate results at low computational cost. Statistical analyses from a large data set of (13)C NMR chemical shifts in DMSO are presented with TMS as the calculated reference and with empirical scaling parameters obtained from a linear regression analysis. Systematic errors were observed locally for key functional groups and carbon types, and correction factors were determined. The application of this process and associated correction factors enabled assignment of the correct structures of therapeutically relevant compounds in cases where experimental data yielded inconclusive or ambiguous results. Overall, the use of B3LYP/cc-pVDZ with linear scaling and correction terms affords a powerful and efficient tool for structure elucidation.

  14. Structuring group medical practices: tax planning aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, A S; Conetta, T F

    1992-01-01

    This article is the first in a series addressing the structuring of group medical practice entities, shareholder relationships, and general representation factors. In this article, a general background in federal tax planning is provided, including strategies for minimization of income tax payment and the potential problems that may be encountered when a group practice is not carefully structured.

  15. One-Dimensional Stacking of Bifunctional Dithia- and Diselenadiazolyl Radicals : Preparation and Structural and Electronic Properties of 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] (E = S, Se)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, M.P.; Douglass, D.C.; Fleming, R.M.; Glarum, S.H.; Haddon, R.C.; Marsh, P.; Oakley, R.T.; Palstra, T.T.M.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Trucks, G.W.; Tycko, R.; Waszczak, J.V.; Young, K.M.; Zimmerman, N.M.; Cordes, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and solid-state characterization of the 1,3-phenylene-bridged bis(dithiadiazolyl) and bis(diselenadiazolyl) diradicals 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] (E = S, Se) are reported. The isomorphous crystals of 1,3-[(E2N2C)C6H4(CN2E2)] so obtained are tetragonal, space group I41/a. Stacks of dira

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New One-dimensional Double Helical-chain Polymer, {Zn(O2CC12H8CO2)(H2O)}n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new zinc polymer, {Zn(O2CC12H8CO2)(H2O)}n or {Zn(DPHA)(H2O)}n (O2CC12-H8CO2, DPHA = 1,1 ′-biphenyl-2,2′-dicarboxylate dianion) has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal is of monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 12.8418(5), b = 5.9505(2),c = 17.2989(5) (A), β = 104.020(2)°, V= 1282.52(8)(A)3, C14H10O5Zn, Mr= 323.61, Z = 4, Dc = 1.676g/cm3,μ = 1.930 mm- 1, F(000) = 656, R = 0.0766 and wR = 0.1871 for 1775 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). It consists of Zn2(DPHA)2(H2O)2 units, which are further extended into a one-dimensional double helical-chain polymer via Zn-O bonding. The hydrogen bonding interactions extend the helical chains into a two-dimensional layer structure.

  17. Illustrator CC digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A complete training package lets you learn Adobe Illustrator CC at your own speed Adobe Illustrator is the leading drawing and illustration software used to create artwork for a variety of media. This book-and-DVD package provides 13 self-paced lessons that get you up to speed on the latest version of Illustrator (Creative Cloud). Step-by-step instructions in the full-color book are supported by video tutorials on the DVD. Together, these tools will help you learn Adobe Illustrator basics, essential skills, and all the new capabilities in Illustrator CC-in no time.  Includes step-by-step in

  18. Photoshop CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stretch your creativity beyond the cloud with this fully-updated Photoshop guide!Photoshop puts amazing design and photo-editing tools in the hands of creative professionals and hobbyists everywhere, and the latest version - Photoshop CC - is packed with even more powerful tools to help you manage and enhance your images. This friendly, full-color guide introduces you to the basics of Photoshop CC and provides clear explanations of the menus, panels, tools, options, and shortcuts you'll use the most. Plus, you'll learn valuable tips for fixing common photo flaws, improvin

  19. Photoshop CC bible

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, Lisa DaNae

    2013-01-01

    The one reference book every Photoshop user needs! Adobe Photoshop is the industry leading image-editing software, and the newest version boasts exciting new features. This must-have comprehensive resource gets you started with the basics and then highlights the latest updates and revisions to the new Photoshop CC (Creative Cloud). You'll learn every aspect of Photoshop CC, from image editing basics to techniques for working with the histogram palette, Lens Blur, Match Color, and the color replacement tool, as well as keyboard shortcuts. Explores retouching and color correction, working

  20. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of indazole arylsulfonamides as allosteric CC-chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopiou, Panayiotis A; Barrett, John W; Barton, Nicholas P; Begg, Malcolm; Clapham, David; Copley, Royston C B; Ford, Alison J; Graves, Rebecca H; Hall, David A; Hancock, Ashley P; Hill, Alan P; Hobbs, Heather; Hodgson, Simon T; Jumeaux, Coline; Lacroix, Yannick M L; Miah, Afjal H; Morriss, Karen M L; Needham, Deborah; Sheriff, Emma B; Slack, Robert J; Smith, Claire E; Sollis, Steven L; Staton, Hugo

    2013-03-14

    A series of indazole arylsulfonamides were synthesized and examined as human CCR4 antagonists. Methoxy- or hydroxyl-containing groups were the more potent indazole C4 substituents. Only small groups were tolerated at C5, C6, or C7, with the C6 analogues being preferred. The most potent N3-substituent was 5-chlorothiophene-2-sulfonamide. N1 meta-substituted benzyl groups possessing an α-amino-3-[(methylamino)acyl]-group were the most potent N1-substituents. Strongly basic amino groups had low oral absorption in vivo. Less basic analogues, such as morpholines, had good oral absorption; however, they also had high clearance. The most potent compound with high absorption in two species was analogue 6 (GSK2239633A), which was selected for further development. Aryl sulfonamide antagonists bind to CCR4 at an intracellular allosteric site denoted site II. X-ray diffraction studies on two indazole sulfonamide fragments suggested the presence of an important intramolecular interaction in the active conformation.

  1. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  2. Determination of the Biological Activity and Structure Activity Relationships of Drugs Based on the Highly Cytotoxic Duocarmycins and CC-1065

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The natural antibiotics CC‑1065 and the duocarmycins are highly cytotoxic compounds which however are not suitable for cancer therapy due to their general toxicity. We have developed glycosidic prodrugs of seco-analogues of these antibiotics for a selective cancer therapy using conjugates of glycohydrolases and tumour-selective monoclonal antibodies for the liberation of the drugs from the prodrugs predominantly at the tumour site. For the determination of structure activity relationships of ...

  3. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  4. Action Recognition Using Discriminative Structured Trajectory Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2015-01-06

    In this paper, we develop a novel framework for action recognition in videos. The framework is based on automatically learning the discriminative trajectory groups that are relevant to an action. Different from previous approaches, our method does not require complex computation for graph matching or complex latent models to localize the parts. We model a video as a structured bag of trajectory groups with latent class variables. We model action recognition problem in a weakly supervised setting and learn discriminative trajectory groups by employing multiple instance learning (MIL) based Support Vector Machine (SVM) using pre-computed kernels. The kernels depend on the spatio-temporal relationship between the extracted trajectory groups and their associated features. We demonstrate both quantitatively and qualitatively that the classification performance of our proposed method is superior to baselines and several state-of-the-art approaches on three challenging standard benchmark datasets.

  5. Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/exodus/SCYA20, showing gene structure, splice variants, and chromosome localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R T; Boyd, J; Gladue, R P; Paradis, T; Thomas, R; Cunningham, A C; Lira, P; Brissette, W H; Hayes, L; Hames, L M; Neote, K S; McColl, S R

    2001-04-01

    We describe the genomic organization of a recently identified CC chemokine, MIP3alpha/CCL20 (HGMW-approved symbol SCYA20). The MIP-3alpha/CCL20 gene was cloned and sequenced, revealing a four exon, three intron structure, and was localized by FISH analysis to 2q35-q36. Two distinct cDNAs were identified, encoding two forms of MIP-3alpha/CCL20, Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20, that differ by one amino acid at the predicted signal peptide cleavage site. Examination of the sequence around the boundary of intron 1 and exon 2 showed that use of alternative splice acceptor sites could give rise to Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 or Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20. Both forms of MIP-3alpha/CCL20 were chemically synthesized and tested for biological activity. Both flu antigen plus IL-2-activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphoblasts and cord blood-derived dendritic cells responded to Ser and Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20. T lymphocytes exposed only to IL-2 responded inconsistently, while no response was detected in naive T lymphocytes, monocytes, or neutrophils. The biological activity of Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and the tissue-specific preference of different splice acceptor sites are not yet known.

  6. Null structure groups in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Cariglia, M; Conamhna, Oisin A. P. Mac

    2004-01-01

    We classify all the structure groups which arise as subgroups of the isotropy group, $(Spin(7)\\ltimes\\mathbb{R}^8)\\times\\mathbb{R}$, of a single null Killing spinor in eleven dimensions. We construct the spaces of spinors fixed by these groups. We determine the conditions under which structure subgroups of the maximal null strucuture group $(Spin(7)\\ltimes\\mathbb{R}^8)\\times\\mathbb{R}$ may also be embedded in SU(5), and hence the conditions under which supersymmetric spacetime admits only null, or both timelike and null, Killing spinors. This concludes, for spacetimes admitting at least one null Killing spinor, the first, purely algebraic, phase of the refined G-structure classification of supersymmetric spacetimes in eleven dimensions, the objective of which is the derivation of the general local bosonic solution of the Killing spinor equation of eleven dimensional supergravity. Finally, we discuss how the second phase of the classification, involving the direct analysis of the Killing spinor equation, may b...

  7. Structure investigations of group 13 organometallic carboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justyniak, Iwona; Prochowicz, Daniel; Tulewicz, Adam; Bury, Wojciech; Goś, Piotr; Lewiński, Janusz

    2017-01-17

    The octet-compliant group 13 organometallics with highly polarized bonds in the metal coordination sphere exhibit a significant tendency to maximize their coordination number through the formation of adducts with a wide range of neutral donor ligands or by self-association to give aggregates containing tetrahedral and higher coordinated aluminium centres, and even in some cases molecular complexes equilibrate with ionic species of different coordination numbers of the metal centre. This work provides a comprehensive overview of the structural chemistry landscape of the group 13 carboxylates. Aside from a more systematic approach to the general structural chemistry of the title compounds, the structure investigations of [R2M(μ-O2CPh)]2-type benzoate complexes (where M = B, Al and Ga) and their Lewis acid-base adducts [(R2M)(μ-O2CPh)(py-Me)] are reported. DFT calculations were also performed to obtain a more in-depth understanding of both the changes in the bonding of group 13 organometallic carboxylate adducts with a pyridine ligand.

  8. Probing the electronic structures and properties of neutral and anionic ScSi(n)((0,-1)) (n = 1-6) clusters using ccCA-TM and G4 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Jucai; Kang, Yali; Ning, Hongmei

    2014-02-01

    The geometries, electronic structures and energies of small ScSi n species (n = 1-6) and their anions have been systematically investigated by means of the higher level of the ccCA-TM, G4, and G4(MP2) schemes. The global minima of these clusters have been presented. The global minima of neutral ScSi n (n = 1-6) and their anions are "substitutional structure" which is derived from Si n+1 by replacing a Si atom with a Sc atom. The adiabatic electron affinities for ScSi n have been estimated. Compared with limited experimental data, the average absolute deviations from experiment for ccCA-TM, G4, and G4(MP2) are 0.21 eV, 0.22 eV, and 0.25 eV, respectively. The dissociation energies of Sc atom from the lowest-energy structure of ScSi n clusters have been evaluated to examine relative stabilities. The electron affinities and dissociation energies predicted by ccCA-TM, G4, and G4(MP2) methods, especially for ccCA-TM and G4, differ little from each other. The agreement may indicate they are reliable.

  9. Group decision support using Toulmin argument structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering; Sage, A.P. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the need for sound science, technology, and management assessment relative to environmental policy decision making through an approach that involves a logical structure for evidence, a framed decision-making process, and an environment that encourages group participation. Toulmin-based logic possesses these characteristics and is used as the basis for development of a group decision support system. This system can support several user groups, such as pesticide policy-making experts, who can use the support system to state arguments for or against an important policy issue, and pest management experts, who can use the system to assist in identifying and evaluating alternatives for controlling pests on agricultural commodities. The resulting decision support system assists in improving the clarity of the lines of reasoning used in specific situations; the warrants, grounds, and backings that are used to support claims and specific lines of reasoning; and the contradictions, rebuttals, and arguments surrounding each step in the reasoning process associated with evaluating a claim or counterclaim. Experts and decisions makers with differing views can better understand each other`s thought processes. The net effect is enhanced communications and understanding of the whole picture and, in many cases, consensus on decisions to be taken.

  10. Reproducing the entropy structure in galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Finoguenov, A; Tornatore, L; Böhringer, H

    2003-01-01

    We carry out a comparison between observations and hydrodynamic simulations of entropy profiles of groups and clusters of galaxies. We use the Tree+SPH GADGET code to simulate four halos of sizes in the M_500 = 1.0 - 16.e13 h^-1 Msun range, corresponding to poor groups up to Virgo-like clusters. We concentrate on the effect of introducing radiative cooling, star formation, and a variety of non-gravitational heating schemes on the entropy structure and the stellar fraction. We show that all the simulations result in a correct entropy profile for the Virgo-like cluster. With the heating energy budget of ~0.7 keV/particle injected at z_h=3, we are also able to reproduce the entropy profiles of groups. We obtain the flat entropy cores as a combined effect of preheating and cooling, while we achieve the high entropy at outskirts by preheating. The resulting baryon fraction locked into stars is in the 25-30% range, compared to 35-40% in the case of no preheating. Heating at higher redshift, z_h=9, strongly delays t...

  11. The cohomology group of weak entwining structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we reveal that a weak entwining structure admits a rich cohomology theory. As an application we compute the cohomology of a weak entwining structure associated to a weak coalgebra-Galois extension.

  12. Ideologically Structured Information Exchange among Environmental Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotka, Laura; Bailey, Conner; Dubois, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We use social network analysis to test the hypothesis that group ideology affects information exchange among environmental groups. The analysis is based on interviews with leaders of 136 environmental groups in Alabama. This paper adds to the literature on resource mobilization among social movement organizations by exploring information exchange…

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Structure of Ruthenium 1,2-Naphthoquinone-1-oxime Complex and Its Mediated C-C Coupling Reactions of Terminal Alkynes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN, Ke; WONG, Wing-Tak; LIU, Xiao-Xia; ZHANG, Bao-Yan

    2003-01-01

    Substituted decarbonylation reaction of ruthenium 1,2-naphthoquinone-1-oxime (1-nqo) complex, cis-, cis-[Ru{ η2-N(O)C10-H6O}2(CO)2] (1), with acetonitrile gave cis-, cis-[Ru { η2-N(O)C10H6O}2(CO)(NCMe)] (2). Complex 2 was fully characterized by 1H NMR, FAB MS, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray analysis. Complex 2 maintains the coordination structure of 1 with the two naphthoquinonic oxygen atoms, as well as the two oximato nitrogen atoms located cis to each other, showing that there is no ligand rearrangement of the 1-nqo ligands during the substitution reaction. The carbonyl group originally trans to the naphthoquinonic oxygen in one 1-nqo ligand is left in its original position [O(5)-Ru-C(1), 174.0(6)°], while the other one originally trans to the oximato group of the other 1-nqo llgand is substituted by NCMe [N(1)-Ru-N(3), 170.6(6)°].This shows that the carbonyl trans to oximato group is more labile than the one trans to naphthoquinonic O atom towards substitution. This is probably due to the comparatively stronger π back bonding from ruthenium metal to the carbonyl group trans to naphthoquinonic O atom, than the one trans to oximato group, resulting in the comparatively weaker Ru-CO bond for the latter and consequently easier replacement of this carbonyl. Selected coupling of phenylacetylene mediated by 2 gave a single trans-dimerization product 3, while 2 mediated coupling reaction of methyl propiolate produced three products:one trans-dimerization product 4 and two cyclotrimeric products 5 and 6.

  14. C-C bond unsaturation degree in monosubstituted ferrocenes for molecular electronics investigated by a combined near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccia, A.; Lanzilotto, V.; Marrani, A. G.; Zanoni, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Stranges, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); IOM-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Alagia, M. [IOM-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Fronzoni, G.; Decleva, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy and IOM-CNR Democritos, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-04-07

    We present the results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of monosubstituted ethyl-, vinyl-, and ethynyl-ferrocene (EtFC, VFC, and EFC) free molecules, obtained by means of synchrotron-radiation based C 1s photoabsorption (NEXAFS) and photoemission (C 1s XPS) spectroscopies, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Such a combined study is aimed at elucidating the role played by the C-C bond unsaturation degree of the substituent on the electronic structure of the ferrocene derivatives. Such substituents are required for molecular chemical anchoring onto relevant surfaces when ferrocenes are used for molecular electronics hybrid devices. The high resolution C 1s NEXAFS spectra exhibit distinctive features that depend on the degree of unsaturation of the hydrocarbon substituent. The theoretical approach to consider the NEXAFS spectrum made of three parts allowed to disentangle the specific contribution of the substituent group to the experimental spectrum as a function of its unsaturation degree. C 1s IEs were derived from the experimental data analysis based on the DFT calculated IE values for the different carbon atoms of the substituent and cyclopentadienyl (Cp) rings. Distinctive trends of chemical shifts were observed for the substituent carbon atoms and the substituted atom of the Cp ring along the series of ferrocenes. The calculated IE pattern was rationalized in terms of initial and final state effects influencing the IE value, with special regard to the different mechanism of electron conjugation between the Cp ring and the substituent, namely the {sigma}/{pi} hyperconjugation in EtFC and the {pi}-conjugation in VFC and EFC.

  15. Structure of group invariants of a quasiperiodic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennard F. Bakker

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the multiplier representation of the generalized symmetry group of a quasiperiodic flow induces a semidirect product structure on certain group invariants (including the generalized symmetry group of the flow's smooth conjugacy class.

  16. Structured Learning Teams: Reimagining Student Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvay, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Even in a standards-based curriculum, teachers can apply constructivist practices such as structured learning teams. In this environment, students become invested in the learning aims, triggering the desire in students to awaken, get information, interpret, remix, share, and design scenarios.

  17. The analytic structure of an algebraic quantum group

    CERN Document Server

    Kustermans, J

    1997-01-01

    A. Van Daele introduced and investigated so-called algebraic quantum groups. We proved that such algebraic quantum groups give rise to C*-algebraic quantum groups in the sense of Masuda, Nakagami & Woronowicz. We prove in this paper that the analytic structure of these C*-algebraic quantum groups can be pulled down to the algebraic quantum group.

  18. Analysis of the carbonyl group stretching vibrations in some structural fragments of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsevich, George A; Doroshenko, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The structure and the medium effects exerted on the spectral characteristics of the carbonyl group stretching vibrations in some structural fragments of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate have been analyzed. Calculations of the equilibrium configurations and IR spectra were carried out using the Gaussian program set in the approximation B3LYP/cc-pVDZ. It has been shown that typical bending of the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate chain is observed with an increase in the number of structural units. In order to explain the difference between the calculated and experimental frequencies of the C=O group stretching vibrations, the calculations of the potential energy curve associated with variations in the length of C=O bond and the subsequent numerical solution of a one-dimensional vibrational Schr\\"odinger equation have been performed. The medium effects have been taken into account within the scope of a polarizable continuum model. Owing to the inclusion of the above-mentioned factors, which affect frequencies of the carbonyl groups...

  19. Synthesis of Ru2Br(μ-O2CC6H4–R4 (R = o-Me, m-Me, p-Me Using Microwave Activation: Structural and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Delgado-Martínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New bromidotetracarboxylatodiruthenium(II,III compounds of the type [Ru2Br(μ-O2CC6H4–R4]n [R = o-Me (1, m-Me (2, p-Me (3] have been prepared using microwave-assisted methods. Syntheses by means of solvothermal and conventional activations have also been carried out to compare different preparation methods. The crystal structure determination of complexes 1–3 is also described. All compounds display a typical carboxylate-bridged paddlewheel-type structure with the metal atoms connected by four bridging carboxylate ligands. The axial bromide ligands connect the dimetallic units giving one-dimensional zigzag chains. The magnetic properties of all compounds have also been analyzed. Weak antiferromagnetic intermolecular interactions mediated by the bromide ligands and an appreciable zero field splitting are calculated in the fits of the magnetic data of these complexes.

  20. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    OpenAIRE

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in...

  1. Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed C-C Arylations and Alkylations: Decarbamoylative C-C Functionalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselage, Marc; Li, Jie; Kramm, Frederik; Ackermann, Lutz

    2017-04-05

    Ruthenium(II)biscarboxylate catalysis enabled selective C-C functionalizations by means of decarbamoylative C-C arylations. The versatility of the ruthenium(II) catalysis was reflected by widely applicable C-C arylations and C-C alkylations of aryl amides, as well as acids with modifiable pyrazoles, through facile organometallic C-C activation.

  2. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-02-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion.

  3. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2010-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion. PMID:21572969

  4. Experimental and theoretical investigation of 1J(CC) and (n)J(CC) coupling constants in strychnine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R Thomas; Buevich, Alexei V; Martin, Gary E

    2012-10-05

    A relatively unexplored and unexploited means of establishing molecular structure, stereochemistry, and probing vicinal bond angles is through the use of long-range (13)C-(13)C coupling constants. The measurement of these multifunctional, diagnostic (3)J(CC) couplings has not been reported on sample amounts viable for the practicing organic chemist. A generalized protocol for the measurement of (1)J(CC) and (3)J(CC) couplings using a 4.6 mg sample of strychnine as a model compound is described, and the utility of DFT calculations for the prediction of these useful molecular descriptors and the congruence of the calculated and experimental data is demonstrated.

  5. Multivariate sparse group lasso for the multivariate multiple linear regression with an arbitrary group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanming; Nan, Bin; Zhu, Ji

    2015-06-01

    We propose a multivariate sparse group lasso variable selection and estimation method for data with high-dimensional predictors as well as high-dimensional response variables. The method is carried out through a penalized multivariate multiple linear regression model with an arbitrary group structure for the regression coefficient matrix. It suits many biology studies well in detecting associations between multiple traits and multiple predictors, with each trait and each predictor embedded in some biological functional groups such as genes, pathways or brain regions. The method is able to effectively remove unimportant groups as well as unimportant individual coefficients within important groups, particularly for large p small n problems, and is flexible in handling various complex group structures such as overlapping or nested or multilevel hierarchical structures. The method is evaluated through extensive simulations with comparisons to the conventional lasso and group lasso methods, and is applied to an eQTL association study.

  6. Searching for Ξcc+ in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaxing; He, Hang; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2017-08-01

    We study the doubly charmed baryon Ξcc+ structure and production in high energy nuclear collisions. By solving the three-quark Schrödinger equation including relativistic correction and calculating the yield via coalescence mechanism, we find that, the Ξcc+ created in nuclear collisions is in the quark-diquark state as a consequence of chiral symmetry restoration in hot medium, and the production is extremely enhanced due to the large number of charm quarks.

  7. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1991-05-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materialsrelated inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The Chairman of EMaCC for FY 1990 was Scott L. Richlen; the Executive Secretary was Dr. Jerry Smith.

  8. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Structured Approach to Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chari A.; Brigman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a group counseling intervention on student academic and social performance. Twenty-five school counselors were trained to use a structured approach to small-group counseling with students scoring in the mid-to-low range in math and reading. The group intervention focused on improving student achievement and…

  9. Structure-Activity Relationships and Identification of Optmized CC-Chemokine Receptor CCR1, 5, and 8 Metal-Ion Chelators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalikiopoulos, Alexander; Thiele, Stefanie; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine receptors are involved in trafficking of leukocytes and represent targets for autoimmune conditions, inflammatory diseases, viral infections, and cancer. We recently published CCR1, CCR8, and CCR5 agonists and positive modulators based on a three metal-ion chelator series: 2,2'-bipyridine...... bipyridine (23). The structure-activity relationships contribute to small-molecule drug development, and the novel chelators constitute valuable tools for studies of structural mechanisms for chemokine receptor activation....

  10. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful. PMID:27512586

  11. Onto-CC: a web server for identifying Gene Ontology conceptual clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Zaliz, R.; del Val, C.; Cobb, J. P.; Zwir, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity. Moreover, the GO database can contain incomplete information resulting from human annotations, or highly influenced by the available knowledge about a specific branch in an ontology. In spite of these drawbacks, there is a trend to ignore these problems and even use GO terms to conduct searches of gene expression profiles (i.e. expression + GO) instead of more cautious approaches that just consider them as an independent source of validation (i.e. expression versus GO). Consequently, propagating the uncertainty and producing biased analysis of the required gene grouping hypotheses. We proposed a web tool, Onto-CC, as an automatic method specially suited for independent explanation/validation of gene grouping hypotheses (e.g. coexpressed genes) based on GO clusters (i.e. expression versus GO). Onto-CC approach reduces the uncertainty of the queries by identifying optimal conceptual clusters that combine terms from different ontologies simultaneously, as well as terms defined at different levels of specificity in the GO hierarchy. To do so, we implemented the EMO-CC methodology to find clusters in structural databases [GO Directed acyclic Graph (DAG) tree], inspired on Conceptual Clustering algorithms. This approach allows the management of optimal cluster sets as potential parallel hypotheses, guided by multiobjective/multimodal optimization techniques. Therefore, we can generate alternative and, still, optimal explanations of queries that can provide new insights for a given problem. Onto-CC has been successfully used to test different medical and biological hypotheses including the explanation and prediction of

  12. STRUCTURES, ROTATIONAL BARRIERS, AND THERMOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CHLORINATED ALDEHYDES AND THE CORRESPONDING ACETYL (CC=O) AND FORMYL METHYL RADICALS (CC=O), AND ADDITIVITY GROUPS. (R826371C009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Structure of augmentation quotients of finite homocyclic abelian groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-ping TANG

    2007-01-01

    Let G be a finite abelian group and its Sylow p-subgroup a direct product of copies of a cyclic group of order pr, i.e., a finite homocyclic abelian group. Let △n (G) denote the n-th power of the augmentation ideal △(G) of the integral group ring ZG. The paper gives an explicit structure of the consecutive quotient group Qn (G) = △n (G)/△n+1 (G) for any natural number n and as a consequence settles a problem of Karpilovsky for this particular class of finite abelian groups.

  14. Structure of augmentation quotients of finite homocyclic abelian groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Let G be a finite abelian group and its Sylow p-subgroup a direct product of copies of a cyclic group of order pr,i.e.,a finite homocyclic abelian group.LetΔn (G) denote the n-th power of the augmentation idealΔ(G) of the integral group ring ZG.The paper gives an explicit structure of the consecutive quotient group Qn(G)=Δn(G)/Δn+1(G) for any natural number n and as a consequence settles a problem of Karpilovsky for this particular class of finite abelian groups.

  15. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator.

  16. Adobe Photoshop CC for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adobe Photoshop for Photographers 2014 Release by Photoshop hall-of-famer and acclaimed digital imaging professional Martin Evening has been fully updated to include detailed instruction for all of the updates to Photoshop CC 2014 on Adobe's Creative Cloud, including significant new features, such as Focus Area selections, enhanced Content-Aware filling, and new Spin and Path blur gallery effects. This guide covers all the tools and techniques photographers and professional image editors need to know when using Photoshop, from workflow guidance to core skills to advanced techniques for profess

  17. Teach yourself visually Photoshop CC

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Get savvy with the newest features and enhancements of Photoshop CC The newest version of Photoshop boasts enhanced and new features that afford you some amazing and creative ways to create images with impact, and this popular guide gets visual learners up to speed quickly. Packed with colorful screen shots that illustrate the step-by-step instructions, this visual guide is perfect for Photoshop newcomers as well as experienced users who are looking for some beginning to intermediate-level techniques to give their projects the ""wow"" factor! Veteran and bestselling authors Mik

  18. Structure of CC Chemokine Receptor 5 with a Potent Chemokine Antagonist Reveals Mechanisms of Chemokine Recognition and Molecular Mimicry by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Han, Gye Won; Abagyan, Ruben; Wu, Beili; Stevens, Raymond C; Cherezov, Vadim; Kufareva, Irina; Handel, Tracy M

    2017-06-20

    CCR5 is the primary chemokine receptor utilized by HIV to infect leukocytes, whereas CCR5 ligands inhibit infection by blocking CCR5 engagement with HIV gp120. To guide the design of improved therapeutics, we solved the structure of CCR5 in complex with chemokine antagonist [5P7]CCL5. Several structural features appeared to contribute to the anti-HIV potency of [5P7]CCL5, including the distinct chemokine orientation relative to the receptor, the near-complete occupancy of the receptor binding pocket, the dense network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the similarity of binding determinants with the FDA-approved HIV inhibitor Maraviroc. Molecular modeling indicated that HIV gp120 mimicked the chemokine interaction with CCR5, providing an explanation for the ability of CCR5 to recognize diverse ligands and gp120 variants. Our findings reveal that structural plasticity facilitates receptor-chemokine specificity and enables exploitation by HIV, and provide insight into the design of small molecule and protein inhibitors for HIV and other CCR5-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure of CC Chemokine Receptor 5 with a Potent Chemokine Antagonist Reveals Mechanisms of Chemokine Recognition and Molecular Mimicry by HIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Han, Gye Won; Abagyan, Ruben; Wu, Beili; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim; Kufareva, Irina; Handel, Tracy M. (USC); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (UCSD)

    2017-06-01

    CCR5 is the primary chemokine receptor utilized by HIV to infect leukocytes, whereas CCR5 ligands inhibit infection by blocking CCR5 engagement with HIV gp120. To guide the design of improved therapeutics, we solved the structure of CCR5 in complex with chemokine antagonist [5P7]CCL5. Several structural features appeared to contribute to the anti-HIV potency of [5P7]CCL5, including the distinct chemokine orientation relative to the receptor, the near-complete occupancy of the receptor binding pocket, the dense network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the similarity of binding determinants with the FDA-approved HIV inhibitor Maraviroc. Molecular modeling indicated that HIV gp120 mimicked the chemokine interaction with CCR5, providing an explanation for the ability of CCR5 to recognize diverse ligands and gp120 variants. Our findings reveal that structural plasticity facilitates receptor-chemokine specificity and enables exploitation by HIV, and provide insight into the design of small molecule and protein inhibitors for HIV and other CCR5-mediated diseases.

  20. Coupling Multiple SU(2) Groups Into A SU(3) Group Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Raphaelian, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    A specific algebraic coupling model involving multiple quantization axes is presented in which previously indistinguishable SU(2) symmetry groups become distinguishable when coupled into a SU(3) group structure. The model reveals new intrinsic angular momentum (or isospin) eigenvectors whose structural symmetries are detailed, some of which are not available for groups having only one quantization axis available for configurations. Additionally, an intrinsic cyclic ordering of the quantization axes and internal geometric phase relations between the basis states naturally fall out from the algebraic properties of the group. The nature of the coupling into a SU(3) symmetry group also allows for the definition of both positive and negative basis states along each quantization axis relative to the center of the group. These basis states configurations mimic those observed in color-charge and electroweak theories.

  1. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting.

  2. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosapia eLauro Grotto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: 1 they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious emotions to combine into structured group patterns; 2 they have a certain degree of stability in time; 3 they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; 4 they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical 'leadership’ pattern, and in 'cognitive’ terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e. the group behaves 'as if’ it was assuming that…. Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: 1 are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? 3 can these states be differentiated in structural terms? 3 to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  3. Brief Analysis of Group Structure in the Language Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹晨

    2013-01-01

    Group activities are commonly used in second language classroom in recent years mostly because they encourage stu⁃dents to work together, helping each other. However, it is of great importance for teachers to notice the group structures so that this class activity could play its important role in the classroom.

  4. Some Structure Properties of the Cyclic Fuzzy Group Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hacl Akta(s); Naim (C)a(g)man

    2005-01-01

    In crisp environment, the notion of cyclic group on a set is well known. We study an extension of this classical notion to the fuzzy sets to define the concept of cyclic fuzzy subgroups. By using these cyclic fuzzy subgroups, we then define a cyclic fuzzy group family and investigate its structure properties.

  5. Group size, grooming and fission in primates: a modeling approach based on group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile; Couzin, Iain D

    2011-03-21

    In social animals, fission is a common mode of group proliferation and dispersion and may be affected by genetic or other social factors. Sociality implies preserving relationships between group members. An increase in group size and/or in competition for food within the group can result in decrease certain social interactions between members, and the group may split irreversibly as a consequence. One individual may try to maintain bonds with a maximum of group members in order to keep group cohesion, i.e. proximity and stable relationships. However, this strategy needs time and time is often limited. In addition, previous studies have shown that whatever the group size, an individual interacts only with certain grooming partners. There, we develop a computational model to assess how dynamics of group cohesion are related to group size and to the structure of grooming relationships. Groups' sizes after simulated fission are compared to observed sizes of 40 groups of primates. Results showed that the relationship between grooming time and group size is dependent on how each individual attributes grooming time to its social partners, i.e. grooming a few number of preferred partners or grooming equally or not all partners. The number of partners seemed to be more important for the group cohesion than the grooming time itself. This structural constraint has important consequences on group sociality, as it gives the possibility of competition for grooming partners, attraction for high-ranking individuals as found in primates' groups. It could, however, also have implications when considering the cognitive capacities of primates.

  6. Multiple Group Analysis in Multilevel Structural Equation Model Across Level 1 Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces and evaluates a procedure for conducting multiple group analysis in multilevel structural equation model across Level 1 groups (MG1-MSEM; Ryu, 2014). When group membership is at Level 1, multiple group analysis raises two issues that cannot be solved by a simple extension of the standard multiple group analysis in single-level structural equation model. First, the Level 2 data are not independent between Level 1 groups. Second, the standard procedure fails to take into account the dependency between members of different Level 1 groups within the same cluster. The MG1-MSEM approach provides solutions to these problems. In MG1-MSEM, the Level 1 mean structure is necessary to represent the differences between Level 1 groups within clusters. The Level 2 model is the same regardless of Level 1 group membership. A simulation study examined the performance of MUML (Muthén's maximum likelihood) estimation in MG1-MSEM. The MG1-MSEM approach is illustrated for both a multilevel path model and a multilevel factor model using empirical data sets.

  7. Nickel(II) complexes containing ONS donor ligands: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and catalytic application towards C-C cross-coupling reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Panneerselvam Anitha; Rajendran Manikandan; Paranthaman Vijayan; Govindan Prakash; Periasamy Viswanathamurthi; Ray Jay Butcher

    2015-04-01

    Nickel(II) complexes containing thiosemicarbazone ligands [Ni(L)2] (1-3) (L = 9,10-phenanthrenequinonethiosemicarbazone (HL1), 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-N-methylthio semicarbazone (HL2) and 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone-N-phenylthiosemicarbazone (HL3)) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C-NMR and ESI mass) methods. The molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were identified by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The analysis revealed that the complexes possess a distorted octahedral geometry with the ligand coordinating in a uni-negative tridentate ONS fashion. The catalytic activity of complexes towards some C–C coupling reactions (viz., Kumada-Corriu, Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira) has been examined. The complexes behave as efficient catalysts in the Kumada-Corriu and Sonogashira coupling reactions rather than Suzuki-Miyaura coupling.

  8. Kin groups and trait groups: population structure and epidemic disease selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A G

    1984-10-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation based on the population structure of a small-scale human population, the Semai Senoi of Malaysia, has been developed to study the combined effects of group, kin, and individual selection. The population structure resembles D.S. Wilson's structured deme model in that local breeding populations (Semai settlements) are subdivided into trait groups (hamlets) that may be kin-structured and are not themselves demes. Additionally, settlement breeding populations are connected by two-dimensional stepping-stone migration approaching 30% per generation. Group and kin-structured group selection occur among hamlets the survivors of which then disperse to breed within the settlement population. Genetic drift is modeled by the process of hamlet formation; individual selection as a deterministic process, and stepping-stone migration as either random or kin-structured migrant groups. The mechanism for group selection is epidemics of infectious disease that can wipe out small hamlets particularly if most adults become sick and social life collapses. Genetic resistance to a disease is an individual attribute; however, hamlet groups with several resistant adults are less likely to disintegrate and experience high social mortality. A specific human gene, hemoglobin E, which confers resistance to malaria, is studied as an example of the process. The results of the simulations show that high genetic variance among hamlet groups may be generated by moderate degrees of kin-structuring. This strong microdifferentiation provides the potential for group selection. The effect of group selection in this case is rapid increase in gene frequencies among the total set of populations. In fact, group selection in concert with individual selection produced a faster rate of gene frequency increase among a set of 25 populations than the rate within a single unstructured population subject to deterministic individual selection. Such rapid evolution with plausible rates of

  9. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Muthu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation and is stored in a specialised organelle called lipid droplets (LDs. Both the LDs and body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP. It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of S. quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17. The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129mg/L compared to control (236mg/L on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  10. H->cc at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Ammara; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV was an extraordinary event for the CMS experiment and for particle physics as a whole. But to check whether this Higgs is the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson or not depends on one of its fundamental properties i.e. it’s coupling to fermions. The sensitivity of Higgs decay to the fermionic final states (H->tau anti-tau, H->bottom anti-bottom) is still limited. Furthermore, the sensitivity to the coupling of the Higgs boson to fermions of the second generation is even smaller. Recently, significant developments have been made within the CMS Collaboration in the development of charm tagging. These improvements, together with the increased dataset available in LHC Run-2, will enhance significantly the sensitivity to the H->cc coupling. In this report I study the decay of Higgs to charm anti charm quark pair.

  11. Opinion dynamics on a group structured adaptive network

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, F

    2009-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to analyze the evolution of opinion structure due to the interaction of individuals in their social environment. Such models analyze the spreading of ideas both in completely interacting backgrounds and on social networks, where each person has a finite set of interlocutors.Moreover also the investigation on the topological structure of social networks has been object of several analysis, both from the theoretical and the empirical point of view. In this framework a particularly important area of study regards the community structure inside social networks.In this paper we analyze the reciprocal feedback between the opinions of the individuals and the structure of the interpersonal relationships at the level of community structures. For this purpose we define a group based random network and we study how this structure co-evolve with opinion dynamics processes. We observe that the adaptive network structure affects the opinion dynamics process helping the consensus formation. Th...

  12. Structure and Dynamics of Humpback Whales Competitive Groups in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Félix

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the social structure and behavior of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae competitive groups off Ecuador between July and August 2010. During this time we followed 185 whales in 22 competitive groups for 41.45 hr. The average group size was 8.4 animals (SD = 2.85. The average sighting time was 113.05 min/group (SD = 47.1. We used photographs of dorsal fins and video to record interactions and estimate an association index (AI between each pair of whales within the groups. Sightings were divided into periods, which were defined by changes in group membership. On average, group composition changed every 30.2 min, which confirms that the structure of competitive groups is highly dynamic. Interactions between escorts characterized by low level of aggression. At least 60% of escorts joined or left together the group in small subunits between two and five animals, suggesting some type of cooperative association. Although singletons, as well as pairs or trios were able to join competitive groups at any moment, escorts that joined together were able to stay longer with the group and displace dominant escorts. Genetic analysis showed that in three occasions more than one female was present within a competitive group, suggesting either males are herding females or large competitive groups are formed by subunits. Males and females performed similar surface displays. We propose that competition and cooperation are interrelated in humpback whales’ competitive groups and that male cooperation would be an adaptive strategy either to displace dominant escorts or to fend off challengers.

  13. Automatic structures and growth functions for finitely generated abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kamei, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the formal power series whose n-th coefficient is the number of copies of a given finite graph in the ball of radius n centred at the identity element in the Cayley graph of a finitely generated group and call it the growth function. Epstein, Iano-Fletcher and Uri Zwick proved that the growth function is a rational function if the group has a geodesic automatic structure. We compute the growth function in the case where the group is abelian and see that the denominator of the rational function is determined from the rank of the group.

  14. Punishment can promote defection in group-structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Simon T; Taylor, Daniel J; Bryson, Joanna J

    2012-10-21

    Pro-social punishment, whereby cooperators punish defectors, is often suggested as a mechanism that maintains cooperation in large human groups. Importantly, models that support this idea have to date only allowed defectors to be the target of punishment. However, recent empirical work has demonstrated the existence of anti-social punishment in public goods games. That is, individuals that defect have been found to also punish cooperators. Some recent theoretical studies have found that such anti-social punishment can prevent the evolution of pro-social punishment and cooperation. However, the evolution of anti-social punishment in group-structured populations has not been formally addressed. Previous work has informally argued that group-structure must favour pro-social punishment. Here we formally investigate how two demographic factors, group size and dispersal frequency, affect selection pressures on pro- and anti-social punishment. Contrary to the suggestions of previous work, we find that anti-social punishment can prevent the evolution of pro-social punishment and cooperation under a range of group structures. Given that anti-social punishment has now been found in all studied extant human cultures, the claims of previous models showing the co-evolution of pro-social punishment and cooperation in group-structured populations should be re-evaluated.

  15. A Possible Neural Representation of Mathematical Group Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomi, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    Every cognitive activity has a neural representation in the brain. When humans deal with abstract mathematical structures, for instance finite groups, certain patterns of activity are occurring in the brain that constitute their neural representation. A formal neurocognitive theory must account for all the activities developed by our brain and provide a possible neural representation for them. Associative memories are neural network models that have a good chance of achieving a universal representation of cognitive phenomena. In this work, we present a possible neural representation of mathematical group structures based on associative memory models that store finite groups through their Cayley graphs. A context-dependent associative memory stores the transitions between elements of the group when multiplied by each generator of a given presentation of the group. Under a convenient election of the vector basis mapping the elements of the group in the neural activity, the input of a vector corresponding to a generator of the group collapses the context-dependent rectangular matrix into a virtual square permutation matrix that is the matrix representation of the generator. This neural representation corresponds to the regular representation of the group, in which to each element is assigned a permutation matrix. This action of the generator on the memory matrix can also be seen as the dissection of the corresponding monochromatic subgraph of the Cayley graph of the group, and the adjacency matrix of this subgraph is the permutation matrix corresponding to the generator.

  16. Detailed temporal structure of communication networks in groups of songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Dan; Gill, Lisa; Clayton, David

    2016-06-01

    Animals in groups often exchange calls, in patterns whose temporal structure may be influenced by contextual factors such as physical location and the social network structure of the group. We introduce a model-based analysis for temporal patterns of animal call timing, originally developed for networks of firing neurons. This has advantages over cross-correlation analysis in that it can correctly handle common-cause confounds and provides a generative model of call patterns with explicit parameters for the influences between individuals. It also has advantages over standard Markovian analysis in that it incorporates detailed temporal interactions which affect timing as well as sequencing of calls. Further, a fitted model can be used to generate novel synthetic call sequences. We apply the method to calls recorded from groups of domesticated zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) individuals. We find that the communication network in these groups has stable structure that persists from one day to the next, and that 'kernels' reflecting the temporal range of influence have a characteristic structure for a calling individual's effect on itself, its partner and on others in the group. We further find characteristic patterns of influences by call type as well as by individual.

  17. High-risk clonal complexes CC2 and CC9 are widely distributed among Enterococcus faecalis hospital isolates recovered in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Coque, Teresa M.; Canton, Rafael; Willems, Rob J. L.; Baquero, Fernando; del Campo, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Our previously described multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Enterococcus faecalis has provided insight into the population structure and global epidemiology of this organism. Two high-risk complexes, CC2 and CC9, especially adapted to the hospital environment and widely distr

  18. High-risk clonal complexes CC2 and CC9 are widely distributed among Enterococcus faecalis hospital isolates recovered in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Coque, Teresa M.; Canton, Rafael; Willems, Rob J. L.; Baquero, Fernando; del Campo, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Our previously described multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Enterococcus faecalis has provided insight into the population structure and global epidemiology of this organism. Two high-risk complexes, CC2 and CC9, especially adapted to the hospital environment and widely

  19. High-risk clonal complexes CC2 and CC9 are widely distributed among Enterococcus faecalis hospital isolates recovered in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Coque, Teresa M.; Canton, Rafael; Willems, Rob J. L.; Baquero, Fernando; del Campo, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Our previously described multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Enterococcus faecalis has provided insight into the population structure and global epidemiology of this organism. Two high-risk complexes, CC2 and CC9, especially adapted to the hospital environment and widely distr

  20. Synthesis and Crystal Structures of Schiff Bases Bearing Ferrocenylphenyl Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan XU; Yong FU; Mao Ping SONG; Yang Jie WU

    2005-01-01

    The Schiff bases bearing ferrocenylphenyl and diferrocenylphenyl groups were synthesized by the reactions of m-ferrocenylaniline with salicylaldehyde or 1, 4-bis (2'-formylphenyl)-1, 4-dioxabutane. The title compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and X-ray structural determination.

  1. Genetic structure in four West African population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Chen, Guanjie; Chen, Yuanxiu; Rotimi, Charles

    2005-06-24

    Africa contains the most genetically divergent group of continental populations and several studies have reported that African populations show a high degree of population stratification. In this regard, it is important to investigate the potential for population genetic structure or stratification in genetic epidemiology studies involving multiple African populations. The presences of genetic sub-structure, if not properly accounted for, have been reported to lead to spurious association between a putative risk allele and a disease. Within the context of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) Study (a genetic epidemiologic study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in West Africa), we have investigated population structure or stratification in four ethnic groups in two countries (Akan and Gaa-Adangbe from Ghana, Yoruba and Igbo from Nigeria) using data from 372 autosomal microsatellite loci typed in 493 unrelated persons (986 chromosomes). There was no significant population genetic structure in the overall sample. The smallest probability is associated with an inferred cluster of 1 and little of the posterior probability is associated with a higher number of inferred clusters. The distribution of members of the sample to inferred clusters is consistent with this finding; roughly the same proportion of individuals from each group is assigned to each cluster with little variation between the ethnic groups. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the between-population component of genetic variance is less than 0.1% in contrast to 99.91% for the within population component. Pair-wise genetic distances between the four ethnic groups were also very similar. Nonetheless, the small between-population genetic variance was sufficient to distinguish the two Ghanaian groups from the two Nigerian groups. There was little evidence for significant population substructure in the four major West African ethnic groups represented in the AADM study sample. Ethnicity

  2. Binuclear metal carbonyl DAB complexes X. Activation of h2-C=N coordinated DAB ligands towards C-C bond formation with alkynes. The X-ray structure of {2-phenyl-3-(tert-butylamino)-4-(tertbutyl-imino)-1-butene-1-yl}Ru2(CO)5. Application to the catalytic cyclotrimerization of alkynes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Staal, L.H.; Vrieze, K.; Santen, B. van; Stam, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Ru,(CO),(DAB) (DAB = 1,4-diazabutadiene) complexes react with alkynes forming RU,(CO)~(AIB) complexes (AIB = 3-amino-4-imino-1-buten-1-ylI)n. these products the DAB ligand and the alkyne are coupled via a C-C bond. The molecular structure of these complexes has been determined by a single-crystal X-

  3. Group-scale asymmetric abundance structures in the NGC 533 group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hua Gu; Min Lei; Hai-Guang Xu; Jing-Ying Wang; Yu Wang; Shao-Feng Xu; Zhen-Zhen Qin; Li-Yi Gu; Tao An; Zhong-Li Zhang

    2012-01-01

    By performing a two dimensional spectral analysis on the galaxy group NGC 533 with high-quality Chandra data,we find that the metal abundance distribution in this group is anisotropic.In the area around 2.5' from the center,we find two concentrations of high abundance structures,in which the abundances are significantly higher than their surrounding regions at the 90% confidence level.We find that the total iron mass in these two regions agrees with the iron mass synthesized in the central dominant galaxy in 0.12+0.08-0.03 Gyr.The double-sided configuration of the high abundance structure,together with the point-like radio emission in the center suggests that the abundance structures could have been transported from the center to their present positions by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity.We further calculate the energy required for transport,and find that it could have been supplied during an AGN period.However,considering that this group is reported to have experienced a recent merger,the possibility that this merger is responsible for the abundance structures still cannot be excluded.

  4. Dynamical behavior of price forecasting in structures of group correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the prediction of the future prices from the structures and the networks of the companies in special financial groups. After the financial group network has been constructed from the value of the high cross-correlation, each company in a group is simulated and analyzed how it buys or sells stock is anaylzed and how it makes rational investments is forecasted. In the shortmemory behavior rather than the long-memory behavior, each company among a group can make a rational investment decision by using a stochastic evolution rule in the financial network. In particular, we simulate and analyze the investment situation in connection with the empirical data and the simulated result.

  5. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in herd

  6. Stable single-layer structure of group-V elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersan, F.; Aktürk, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2016-12-01

    In addition to stable single-layer buckled honeycomb and washboard structures of group-V elements (or pnictogens P, As, Sb, and Bi) we show that these elements can also form two-dimensional, single-layer structures consisting of buckled square and octagon rings. An extensive analysis comprising the calculation of mechanical properties, vibration frequencies, and finite-temperature ab initio molecular dynamics confirms that these structures are dynamically and thermally stable and suitable for applications at room temperature and above. All these structures are semiconductors with a fundamental band gap, which is wide for P but decreases with increasing row number. The effect of the spin-orbit coupling decreases the band gap and is found to be crucial for Sb and Bi. These results are obtained from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory.

  7. Alkali metal mediated C-C bond coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-14

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz)2, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz)2, the structure of [Li(Bz)2](-) was drastically changed: Bz-Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C-C single bond was formed in the C1-C1' position of Bz-Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz-Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C-C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  8. The Effectiveness of Structured Group Education on Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoglu Aksoy, Meliha; Birtane, Murat; Taştekin, Nurettin; Ekuklu, Galip

    2017-04-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton which can lead to structural and functional impairments. It has a negative impact on the person's daily life activities. Early diagnosis, exercise and patient education are factors playing a major role on prognosis. The purpose of the study was to compare the structured theoretical and exercise educational program with routine clinic educational efforts on the parameters of the disorder over a 3 month follow up. This randomized, educational intervention study was performed on 41 AS patients. A 5 day structured education and exercise program was applied to the first group of patients (Group 1) in subgroups consisting 4-5 patients each. Patients had group exercises throughout the education program. The second group followed routine clinical care. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional (BASFI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis global (BAS-G), Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology indices (BASMI), chest expansion, short form-36 (SF-36), ankylosing spondylitis quality of life scale (ASQoL) and laboratory parameters in all patients. Patients were evaluated on initiation and after 3 months. Significant improvements in BASFI, BASDAI and BAS-G, chest expansion, SF-36 and ASQoL indices were observed in Group 1 No difference could be found in BASMI and chest expansion. A structured educational and exercise intervention had a positive effect on the functional status,disease activity, and general well-being and quality of life. It also, shows that education programs should be within the routine treatment program for AS.

  9. Understanding `galaxy groups' as a unique structure in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; John, R. S.; Gupta, P.; Kumar, H.

    2017-10-01

    'Galaxy groups' have hardly been realized as a separate class of objects with specific characteristics in the structural hierarchy. The presumption that the self-similarity of dark matter structures is a valid prescription for the baryonic universe at all scales has rendered smaller structures undetectable by current observational facilities, leading to lesser dedicated studies on them. Some recent reports that indicate a deviation from LX-T scaling in groups compared to clusters have motivated us to study their physical properties in depth. In this article, we report the extensive study on physical properties of groups in comparison to the clusters through cosmological hydrodynamic plus N-body simulations using enzo 2.2 code. As additional physics, radiative cooling, heating due to supernova and star motions, star formation and stellar feedback have been implemented. We have produced a mock sample of 362 objects with mass ranging from 5 × 1012 M⊙ to 2.5 × 1015 M⊙. Strikingly, we have found that objects with mass below ∼8 × 1013 M⊙ do not follow any of the cluster self-similar laws in hydrostatics, not even in thermal and non-thermal energies. Two distinct scaling laws are observed to be followed with breaks at ∼8 × 1013 M⊙ for mass, ∼1 keV for temperature and ∼1 Mpc for radius. This places groups as a distinct entity in the hierarchical structures, well demarcated from clusters. This study reveals that groups are mostly far away from virialization, suggesting the need for formulating new models for deciphering their physical parameters. They are also shown to have high turbulence and more non-thermal energy stored, indicating better visibility in the non-thermal regime.

  10. A Group Oriented Cryptosystem for the Vector Space Access Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chun-xiang; MA Hua; ZHOU Jun-hui; XIAO Guo-zheng

    2006-01-01

    A group oriented cryptosystem for the vector space access structure was proposed. This cryptosystem adopts self-certified public keys. It allows the participants of an authorized subset to cooperatively access an en crypted message. All data delivered in the cryptosystem are public. Therefore it does not need a partial decrypting results combiner and any secure communication channel. The security of the group oriented cryptosystem is based on the intractability of the discrete log problem and difficulty of factoring large integers. The suspected attacks can not break it.

  11. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    This report summarizes EMaCC activities for fiscal year 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the department. The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the department. (JL)

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Reveals a Sub-Lineage Epidemiologically Associated with Infections in Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelbary, Mohamed M. H.; Wittenberg, Anne; Cuny, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, a particular MRSA clonal complex (CC398) was found mainly in pigs and pig farmers in Europe. Since then, CC398 has been detected among a wide variety of animal species worldwide. We investigated the population structure of CC398 through mutation discovery at 97 genetic...

  13. A note on structured means analysis for a single group

    OpenAIRE

    Beauducel, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of common factor means in structured means analysis (SMM) is considered. The SMM equations imply that the unique factors are defined as having zero means. It was shown within the one factor solution that this definition implies larger absolute common factor loadings to co-occur with larger absolute expectations of the observed variables in the single group case. This result was illustrated by means of a small simulation study. It is argued that the proportionality of factor lo...

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz; Szolnoki, Attila; Floría, Luis M; Moreno, Yamir; 10.1098/rsif.2012.0997

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and nonliving matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proven valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection, and self-organisation in evolutionary games. Here we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory...

  15. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY OF POLYFLUORINATED GROUP SUBSTITUTED POLYTHIOPHENES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuqing; SHEN Xueming; YANG Shiyong; LU Wei; ZHANG Jingyun

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical polymerization of 3-fluoroalkoxy and 3-fluoroether thiophenes gives polymers with relatively high molecular weights and good processibility . Investigation of these polymers by means of GPC indicates that an increase in the number of fluorine atoms in the fluorinated group results in a decrease in degree of polymerization of the polymers in the same polythiophene series. As shown by NMR and FTIR, the polyfluorinated group substituted polythiophenes have regular 2, 5-coupling in their main chains.The SEM micrographs of the polymer films exhibit that polymer (1)-poly [3-2, 2, 3, 3-tetrafluoro-propoxy) thiophene] possesses more regular structure than the other polymers do. Substitution of polythiophenes by fluorinated groups leads to the polymers with high electric, electrochemical and thermal stability.

  16. New statistical tools for analyzing the structure of animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Cimarelli, Alessio; Giardina, Irene; Orlandi, Alberto; Parisi, Giorgio; Procaccini, Andrea; Santagati, Raffaele; Stefanini, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    The statistical characterization of the spatial structure of large animal groups has been very limited so far, mainly due to a lack of empirical data, especially in three dimensions (3D). Here we focus on the case of large flocks of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in the field. We reconstruct the 3D positions of individual birds within flocks of up to few thousands of elements. In this respect our data constitute a unique set. We perform a statistical analysis of flocks' structure by using two quantities that are new to the field of collective animal behaviour, namely the conditional density and the pair correlation function. These tools were originally developed in the context of condensed matter theory. We explain what is the meaning of these two quantities, how to measure them in a reliable way, and why they are useful in assessing the density fluctuations and the statistical correlations across the group. We show that the border-to-centre density gradient displayed by starling flocks gives rise to an anomalous behaviour of the conditional density. We also find that the pair correlation function has a structure incompatible with a crystalline arrangement of birds. In fact, our results suggest that flocks are somewhat intermediate between the liquid and the gas phase of physical systems.

  17. Structure and content of competitive group compositions in sports aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Moshenska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to make the analysis of modern competitive group compositions in sports aerobics. Material & Methods: pedagogical, sociological and methods of mathematical statistics were used. 10 coaches took part in the experimental part; analysis of protocols and video records of competitions of the aged category of children of 9–11 years old, who perform in the nomination of triplets and quintuples (group exercises, is carried out. Results: the content of competitive compositions and the allocated indicators are studied which defined it. Conclusions: the basic structural elements, which characterize competitive compositions, are allocated. Their components, quantity and time of performance are defined. It is established that variety of aerobic contents, spaces, and means of registration, musical compliance and logicality of creation of the whole competitive composition at high quality of performance characterizes teams – winners.

  18. Berkeley Phylogenomics Group web servers: resources for structural phylogenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Jake Gunn; Kirshner, Dan; Krishnamurthy, Nandini; Sjölander, Kimmen

    2007-07-01

    Phylogenomic analysis addresses the limitations of function prediction based on annotation transfer, and has been shown to enable the highest accuracy in prediction of protein molecular function. The Berkeley Phylogenomics Group provides a series of web servers for phylogenomic analysis: classification of sequences to pre-computed families and subfamilies using the PhyloFacts Phylogenomic Encyclopedia, FlowerPower clustering of proteins sharing the same domain architecture, MUSCLE multiple sequence alignment, SATCHMO simultaneous alignment and tree construction and SCI-PHY subfamily identification. The PhyloBuilder web server provides an integrated phylogenomic pipeline starting with a user-supplied protein sequence, proceeding to homolog identification, multiple alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, subfamily identification and structure prediction. The Berkeley Phylogenomics Group resources are available at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu.

  19. The Affine Structure of Gravitational Theories: Symplectic Groups and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2014-01-01

    We give a geometrical description of gravitational theories from the viewpoint of symmetries and affine structure. We show how gravity, considered as a gauge theory, can be consistently achieved by the nonlinear realization of the conformal-affine group in an indirect manner: due the partial isomorphism between $CA\\left( 3,1\\right) $ and the centrally extended $Sp\\left( 8\\right) $, we perform a nonlinear realization of the centrally extended (CE)$Sp\\left( 8\\right) $ in its semi-simple version. In particular, starting from the bundle structure of gravity, we derive the conformal-affine Lie algebra and then, by the non-linear realization, we define the coset field transformations, the Cartan forms and the inverse Higgs constraints. Finally we discuss the geometrical Lagrangians where all the information on matter fields and their interactions can be contained.

  20. Angular structure of lacunarity, and the renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball; Caldarelli; Flammini

    2000-12-11

    We formulate the angular structure of lacunarity in fractals, in terms of a symmetry reduction of the three point correlation function. This provides a rich probe of universality, and first measurements yield new evidence in support of the equivalence between self-avoiding walks (SAW's) and percolation perimeters in two dimensions. We argue that the lacunarity reveals much of the renormalization group in real space. This is supported by exact calculations for random walks and measured data for percolation clusters and SAW's. Relationships follow between exponents governing inward and outward propagating perturbations, and we also find a very general test for the contribution of long-range interactions.

  1. CC-PSM: A Preference-Aware Selection Model for Cloud Service Based on Consumer Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to give full consideration to the consumer’s personal preference in cloud service selection strategies and improve the credibility of service prediction, a preference-aware cloud service selection model based on consumer community (CC-PSM is presented in this work. The objective of CC-PSM is to select a service meeting a target consumer’s demands and preference. Firstly, the correlation between cloud consumers from a bipartite network for service selection is mined to compute the preference similarity between them. Secondly, an improved hierarchical clustering algorithm is designed to discover the consumer community with similar preferences so as to form the trusted groups for service recommendation. In the clustering process, a quantization function called community degree is given to evaluate the quality of community structure. Thirdly, a prediction model based on consumer community is built to predict a consumer’s evaluation on an unknown service. The experimental results show that CC-PSM can effectively partition the consumers based on their preferences and has good effectiveness in service selection applications.

  2. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  3. Cc (X) Spaces with X Locally Compact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. C. FERRANDO; S. MOLL

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we show, among other results, that if X is a [separable] locally compact space X [satisfying the first countability axiom] then the space Cc (X) has countable tightness [if and only if it has bounding tightness] if and only if it is Fréchet-Urysohn, if and only if Cc (X) contains a dense (LM) subspace and if and only if X is σ-compact.

  4. Explicitly Correlated Methods within the ccCA Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Andrew; Wilson, Angela K

    2013-03-12

    The prediction of energetic properties within "chemical accuracy" (1 kcal mol(-1) from well-established experiment) can be a major challenge in computational quantum chemistry due to the computational requirements (computer time, memory, and disk space) needed to achieve this level of accuracy. Methodologies such as coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) combined with very large basis sets are often required to reach this level of accuracy. Unfortunately, such calculations quickly become cost prohibitive as system size increases. Our group has developed an ab initio composite method, the correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA), which enables such accuracy to be possible, on average, but at reduced computational cost as compared with CCSD(T) in combination with a large basis set. While ccCA has proven quite useful, computational bottlenecks still occur. In this study, the means to reduce the computational cost of ccCA without compromising accuracy by utilizing explicitly correlated methods within ccCA have been considered, and an alternative formulation is described.

  5. Structure of ganglioside with CAD blood group antigen activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, B.K.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.P.; van Kuik, G.A.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Marcus, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    The novel erythrocyte ganglioside which carries the blood group Cad determinant has been isolated, and its structure has been determined. The ganglioside contained Glu:Gal:GalNAc:GlcNAc in a molar ratio of 1.00:1.94:0.93:0.95. The ganglioside binds Helix pomatia lectin and its chromatographic mobility is similar to G/sub D3/. After treatment with ..beta..-hexosaminidase (human placenta HexA) the product migrated with sialosylparagloboside (SPG), no longer binds Helix lectin, and binds a human anti-SPG antibody. Treatment of this material with neuraminidase (V. cholera) yielded a product with the mobility of paragloboside that bound monoclonal antibody 1B2. NMR analysis revealed that the terminal GalNAc is linked ..beta..1-4 to Gal, and confirms the structure proposed previously: GalNAc..beta..1-4(NeuAc..cap alpha..2-3)Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc..beta..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-Cer. This structure is consistent with the previous demonstration that a compound with the same chromatographic mobility as the Cad ganglioside could be synthesized by enzymatic transfer of GalNAc to sialosylparagloboside.

  6. Copper-catalyzed domino synthesis of 2-imino-1H-imidazol-5(2H)-ones and quinoxalines involving C-C bond cleavage with a 1,3-dicarbonyl unit as a leaving group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Ni, Fan; Shu, Wen-Ming; Wu, An-Xin

    2014-09-08

    Although 2-imino-1H-imidazol-5(2H)-ones have important biological activities in metabolism, their synthesis has rarely been investigated. Quinoxalines as "privileged scaffolds" in medicinal chemistry have been extensively investigated, but the development of novel and efficient synthetic methods remains very attractive. Herein, we have developed two copper-catalyzed domino reactions for the synthesis of 2-imino-1H-imidazol-5(2H)-ones and quinoxalines involving CC bond-cleavage with a 1,3-dicarbonyl unit as a leaving group. The domino sequence for the synthesis of 2-imino-1H-imidazol-5(2H)-ones includes aza-Michael addition, intramolecular cyclization, CC bond-cleavage, 1,2-rearrangement, and aerobic dehydrogenation reaction, whereas the domino sequence for the synthesis of quinoxalines includes aza-Michael addition, intramolecular cyclization, elimination reaction, and CC bond-cleavage reaction. The two domino reactions have significant advantages including high efficiency, mild reaction conditions, and high tolerance of various functional groups. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. EM Structure-Based Accelerators Working Group Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, W. D.; Lidia, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    This Working Group (WG) focused on EM Structure-Based Accelerators, which covers a broad area of mechanisms and experiments. Topics covered included dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWA), photonic bandgap accelerators (PBGA), inverse free electron lasers (IFEL), vacuum laser accelerators (VLA), other novel schemes, and supporting analysis and modeling. In addition, this WG was tasked at the Workshop with developing conceptual (strawman) designs for a 1-GeV accelerator system based upon any of the experimentally-proven approaches covered in this WG. Two strawmen designs were developed based upon IFELs and DWAs. The presentations given and strawmen designs indicate great progress has been made in many areas. Proof-of-principle experiments will occur shortly in PBGA and VLA. Other well-proven devices, such as IFELs, are becoming accepted as "workhorse" providers of microbunches.

  8. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Legeza, Ö; Poves, A; Dukelsky, J

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous $400$ KeV discrepancy in the ground state energy of $^{56}$Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the $pf+g9/2$ shell model space for the ground $0^+$ and first $2^+$ states of $^{64}$Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of the two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  9. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeza, Ã.-.; Veis, L.; Poves, A.; Dukelsky, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous 400 keV discrepancy in the ground state energy of 56Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the p f +g 9 /2 shell model space for the ground 0+ and first 2+ states of 64Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from a Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  10. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  11. Cohort profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2014-06-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70,000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  12. Introductory group theory and its application to molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1975-01-01

    The success of the first edition of this book has encouraged us to revise and update it. In the second edition we have attempted to further clarify por­ tions of the text in reference to point symmetry, keeping certain sections and removing others. The ever-expanding interest in solids necessitates some discussion on space symmetry. In this edition we have expanded the discus­ sion on point symmetry to include space symmetry. The selection rules in­ clude space group selection rules (for k = 0). Numerous examples are pro­ vided to acquaint the reader with the procedure necessary to accomplish this. Recent examples from the literature are given to illustrate the use of group theory in the interpretation of molecular spectra and in the determination of molecular structure. The text is intended for scientists and students with only a limited theoretical background in spectroscopy. For this reason we have presented detailed procedures for carrying out the selection rules and normal coor­ dinate treatment of ...

  13. Four-dimensional space groups for pedestrians: composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junliang; Lee, Stephen; Lin, Jianhua

    2007-10-01

    Higher-dimensional crystals have been studied for the last thirty years. However, most practicing chemists, materials scientists, and crystallographers continue to eschew the use of higher-dimensional crystallography in their work. Yet it has become increasingly clear in recent years that the number of higher-dimensional systems continues to grow from hundreds to as many as a thousand different compounds. Part of the problem has to do with the somewhat opaque language that has developed over the past decades to describe higher-dimensional systems. This language, while well-suited to the specialist, is too sophisticated for the neophyte wishing to enter the field, and as such can be an impediment. This Focus Review hopes to address this issue. The goal of this article is to show the regular chemist or materials scientist that knowledge of regular 3D crystallography is all that is really necessary to understand 4D crystal systems. To this end, we have couched higher-dimensional composite structures in the language of ordinary 3D crystals. In particular, we developed the principle of complementarity, which allows one to identify correctly 4D space groups solely from examination of the two 3D components that make up a typical 4D composite structure.

  14. The Structure of the Cubic Coincident Site Lattice Rotation Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B W; Minich, R W; Rudd, R E; Kumar, M

    2004-01-13

    This work is intended to be a mathematical underpinning for the field of grain boundary engineering and its relatives. The interrelationships within the set of rotations producing coincident site lattices in cubic crystals are examined in detail. Besides combining previously established but widely scattered results into a unified context, the present work details newly developed representations of the group structure in terms of strings of generators (based on quaternionic number theory, and including uniqueness proofs and rules for algebraic manipulation) as well as an easily visualized topological network model. Important results that were previously obscure or not universally understood (e.g. the {Sigma} combination rule governing triple junctions) are clarified in these frameworks. The methods also facilitate several general observations, including the very different natures of twin-limited structures in two and three dimensions, the inadequacy of the {Sigma} combination rule to determine valid quadruple nodes, and a curious link between allowable grain boundary assignments and the four-color map theorem. This kind of understanding is essential to the generation of realistic statistical models of grain boundary networks (particularly in twin-dominated systems) and is especially applicable to the field of grain boundary engineering.

  15. Multi-label Image Annotation by Structural Grouping Sparsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yahong; Wu, Fei; Zhuang, Yueting

    We can obtain high-dimensional heterogeneous features from real-world images on photo-sharing website, for an example Flickr. Those features are implemented to describe their various aspects of visual characteristics, such as color, texture and shape etc. The heterogeneous features are often over-complete to describe certain semantic. Therefore, the selection of limited discriminative features for certain semantics is hence crucial to make the image understanding more interpretable. This chapter introduces one approach for multi-label image annotation with a regularized penalty. We call it Multi-label Image Boosting by the selection of heterogeneous features with structural Grouping Sparsity (MtBGS). MtBGS induces a (structural) sparse selection model to identify subgroups of homogeneous features for predicting a certain label. Moreover, the correlations among multiple tags are utilized in MtBGS to boost the performance of multi-label annotation. Extensive experiments on public image datasets show that the proposed approach has better multi-label image annotation performance and leads to a quite interpretable model for image understanding.

  16. XPS spectra and electronic structure of Group IA sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlqvist, M. [Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Umea University, S-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Shchukarev, A. [Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Umea University, S-901 87 Umea (Sweden)], E-mail: andrei.shchukarev@chem.umu.se

    2007-05-15

    The results of systematic XPS measurements of Group IA (H, Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) sulfates together with NaHSO{sub 4}, KHSO{sub 4} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} are presented. The experiments on the alkali metal salts were preformed on ground powders at both liquid nitrogen and room temperatures; concentrated sulfuric acid was measured as a fast-frozen liquid drop. Spectra from grounded and floated samples were compared, and no significant difference relating to charging effects was observed. The influence of grinding on surface chemistry of the powders is described. Such a mechanical activation produces mainly monohydrates on the surface of all sulfates. In the case of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, an additional NaHSO{sub 4} surface phase seems to form that is not stable in vacuum even at liquid nitrogen temperatures. It was found that the binding energies (O 1s and S 2p) of sulfate ion decrease down the group. The shifts are discussed and related to ionicity of the metal-sulfate bond. The structure of XPS valence band spectra is in good agreement with cluster calculations of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HSO{sub 4}{sup -} [A.A. Audi, P.M.A. Sherwood, Surf. Interface Anal. 29 (2000) 265]. While the energies of bisulfate bands are not influenced by the cation (H{sup +}, Na{sup +} or K{sup +}), the sulfate ones experience an increase in bond ionicity and demonstrate the same binding energy shifts as the core levels.

  17. Adobe Edge Animate CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to build HTML5 mobile and web apps using Adobe's new Edge Animate CC Edge Animate CC is an approachable WYSIWYG alternative for leveraging the power of languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to design and develop for the web and mobile devices, even if you have no programming experience. Written by Michael Rohde, the book calls on this seasoned web developer's wealth of experience using Edge Animate CC, and a companion website includes all code from the book to help you apply what you learn as you go. Features an easy-to-use interface, with a propert

  18. InDesign CC digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Learn the newest version of Adobe's premiere page design software-InDesign CC- with this complete package Written by a team of expert instructors, this complete book-and-DVD package teaches even the most inexperienced beginner how to design eye-popping layouts for brochures, magazines, e-books, and flyers. Step-by-step instructions in the full-color book are enhanced by video tutorials on the companion DVD. Thirteen self-paced lessons let you learn Adobe InDesign CC (Creative Cloud) at your own speed; it's like having your own personal tutor teaching you the hottest new version of this leadi

  19. Veech groups of flat structures on Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Shinomiya, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct new examples of Veech groups by extending Schmithusen's method for calculating Veech groups of origamis to Veech groups of unramified finite coverings of regular 2n-gons. We show that in our case, the calculations of Veech groups of Abelian coverings always stop.

  20. Holographic Renormalization Group Structure in Higher-Derivative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuma, M; Fukuma, Masafumi; Matsuura, So

    2002-01-01

    Classical higher-derivative gravity is investigated in the context of the holographic renormalization group (RG). We parametrize the Euclidean time such that one step of time evolution in (d+1)-dimensional bulk gravity can be directly interpreted as that of block spin transformation of the d-dimensional boundary field theory. This parametrization simplifies the analysis of the holographic RG structure in gravity systems, and conformal fixed points are always described by AdS geometry. We find that higher-derivative gravity generically induces extra degrees of freedom which acquire huge mass around stable fixed points and thus are coupled to highly irrelevant operators at the boundary. In the particular case of pure R^2-gravity, we show that some region of the coefficients of curvature-squared terms allows us to have two fixed points (one is multicritical) which are connected by a kink solution. We further extend our analysis to Minkowskian time to investigate a model of expanding universe described by the act...

  1. Nontrivial Flavor Structure from Noncompact Lie Group in Noncommutative Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Masaki J S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a mechanism which induces nontrivial flavor structure from transformations of a noncompact Lie group SL(3,C) in noncommutative geometry. Matrices $L \\in$ SL(3,C) are associated with accompanied by the preon fields as $a_{L,R} (x) \\to L_{L,R} a_{L,R} (x)$. In order to retain the Hermiticity of the Lagrangian, we assume the same trick when $\\psi^{\\dagger} \\psi$ is replaced by $\\bar \\psi \\psi$ to construct a Lorentz invariant Lagrangian. As a result, the Dirac Lagrangian has both of flavor-universal gauge interactions and nontrivial Yukawa interactions. Removing the unphysical unitary transformations, Yukawa matrices found to be $Y_{ij} = L_{L}^{\\dagger} k L_{R} \\to \\Lambda_{L}^{} U^{\\dagger}_{L} k U_{R} \\Lambda_{R}$. Here, $k$ is a coefficient, $U$ is 3 $\\times$ 3 unitary matrix and $\\Lambda$ is the eigenvalue matrix $\\Lambda = {\\rm diag}(\\lambda_{1}, \\lambda_{2}, \\lambda_{3})$ with $\\lambda_{1}\\lambda_{2}\\lambda_{3} = 1$. If $L_{L,R}$ are originated from a broken symmetry, the hierarc...

  2. Iberian Atlantic Margins Group investigates deep structure of ocean margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Iberian Atlantic Margins Group; Banda, Enric; Torne, Montserrat

    With recent seismic reflection data in hand, investigators for the Iberian Atlantic Margins project are preparing images of the deep continental and oceanic margins of Iberia. In 1993, the IAM group collected near vertical incidence seismic reflection data over a total distance of 3500 km along the North and Western Iberian Margins, Gorringe Bank Region and Gulf of Cadiz (Figure 1). When combined with data on the conjugate margin off Canada, details of the Iberian margin's deep structure should aid in distinguishing rift models and improve understanding of the processes governing the formation of margins.The North Iberian passive continental margin was formed during a Permian to Triassic phase of extension and matured during the early Cretaceous by rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to Eurasia. From the late Cretaceous to the early Oligocene period, Iberia rotated in a counterclockwise direction around an axis located west of Lisbon. The plate boundary between Iberia and Eurasia, which lies along the Pyrenees, follows the north Spanish marginal trough, trends obliquely in the direction of the fossil Bay of Biscay triple junction, and continues along the Azores-Biscay Rise [Sibuet et al., 1994]. Following the NE-SW convergence of Iberia and Eurasia, the reactivation of the North Iberian continental margin resulted in the formation of a marginal trough and accretionary prism [Boillot et al., 1971].

  3. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological s...

  4. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological st...

  5. Groups definable in o-minimal structures: structure theorem, G^000, definable amenability and bounded orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Pillay, Anand

    2010-01-01

    We settle some open problems in the special case of groups in o-minimal structures, such as the equality of G^00 and G^000 and the equivalence of definable amenability and existence of a type with bounded orbit. We prove almost exactness of the G to G^00 functor. We ask further questions about types with bounded orbits in NIP theories.

  6. Infinite loop space structure(s) on the stable mapping class group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Tillmann introduced two infinite loop space structures on the plus construction of the classifying space of the stable mapping class group, each with different computational advantages. The first one uses disjoint union on a suitable cobordism category, whereas the second uses an operad which...

  7. ELFms deployment in- and outside CERN CC

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, G

    2004-01-01

    ELFms (http://cern.ch/elfms) stands for Extremely Large Fabric management system, and comprises tools for fabric configuration and installation (Quattor), monitoring (Lemon), and hardware/state management (LEAF). In this talk, I will describe the ELFms modules and overall architecture, as well as the integration/deployment status at CERN-CC and other sites/projects.

  8. Collaborative Filtering via Group-Structured Dictionary Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, Zoltan; Lorincz, Andras

    2012-01-01

    Structured sparse coding and the related structured dictionary learning problems are novel research areas in machine learning. In this paper we present a new application of structured dictionary learning for collaborative filtering based recommender systems. Our extensive numerical experiments demonstrate that the presented technique outperforms its state-of-the-art competitors and has several advantages over approaches that do not put structured constraints on the dictionary elements.

  9. Mathematical Simulation of Graphene With Modified c-c Bond Length and Transfer Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Alvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In nanotechnology research, allotropes of carbon like Graphene, Fullerene (Buckyball and Carbon nanotubes are widely used due to their remarkable properties. Electrical and mechanical properties of those allotropes vary with their molecular geometry. This paper is specially based on modeling and simulation of graphene in order to calculate energy band structure in k space with varying the C-C bond length and C-C transfer energy. Significant changes have been observed in the energy band structure of graphene due to variation in C-C bond length and C-C transfer energy. In particular, this paper focuses over the electronic structure of graphene within the frame work of tight binding approximation. It has been reported that conduction and valence states in graphene only meet at two points in k-space and that dispersion around these special points is conical.

  10. Anomalous absorption in c-C_3H and c-C_3D radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Shinde, S. V.; Kegel, W. H.; Sedlmayr, E.

    Yamamoto et al. (1987) reported the first detection of the c-C_3H radical in TMC-1 through its transition 2_1 2 rightarrow 1_1 1 at 91.5 GHz. The column density of c-C_3H in TMC-1 was estimated to be 6 times 10^12 cm^-2, which is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the c-C_3H_2 which is ubiquitous in galactic objects. Mangum & Wootten (1990) detected c-C_3H through the transition 1_1 0 rightarrow 1_1 1 at 14.8 GHz in 12 additional galactic objects. The most probable production mechanism of both the c-C_3H and c-C_3H_2 in dark clouds is a common dissociation reaction of the C_3H_3^+ ion (Adams & Smith 1987). Although the c-C_3H is 0.8 eV less stable than its isomer l-C_3H, finding of comparable column densities of both the isomers in TMC-1 suggests that the formation rate for both, c-C_3H and l-C_3H, are of about the same order in the cosmic objects. The existence of a metastable isomer under interstellar conditions is a well known phenomenon in astronomy. The aim of this investigation is a quantitative estimate of relative line intensities under NLTE conditions. For wide ranges of physical parameters, where these molecules may be found, we have solved a set of statistical equilibrium equations coupled with the equations of radiative transfer in an on-the-spot approximation. For c-C_3H, we accounted for 51 energy levels connected by 207 radiative transitions and for c-C_3D, we accounted for 51 energy levels connected by 205 radiative transitions. Our results show that the 3_3 1 rightarrow 3_3 0 transition of c-C_3H and c-C_3D may be found in absorption against the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Furthermore, we found population inversion for the 1_1 0 rightarrow 1_1 1 transition. These findings may be useful in identifying these molecules in other cosmic objects, as well as for the determination of physical parameters in these objects.

  11. Dynamic analysis of C/C composite finger seal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Guoding; Wang Li’na; Yu Qiangpeng; Su Hua

    2014-01-01

    A seal device as an important component of aeroengines has decisive influence on per-formance, reliability, and working life of aeroengines. With the development of aeroengines, demands on the performance characteristics of seal devices are made strictly. Finger seal as a novel kind of sealing device, recently attracts more and more attentions in academic circles and engineer-ing fields at home and abroad. Research on finger seals has been extensively developed, especially on leakage and wear performances under dynamic conditions. However, it is a pity that the work on finger seals has been limited with a single approach that is improving the performance by structural optimization;in addition, the technology of dynamic analysis on finger seals is weak. Aiming at the problems mentioned above, a distributed mass equivalent dynamic model of finger seals considering the coupling effect of overlaid laminates is established in the present paper, the dynamic perfor-mance of 2.5 dimension C/C composite finger seal is analyzed with the model, and then the effects of fiber bundle density and fiber bundle preparation direction on finger seal’s dynamic performance are discussed, as well as compared with those of Co-based alloy finger seal. The current work is about dynamic analysis of finger seals and application of C/C composite in this paper may have much academic significance and many engineering values for improving research level of finger seal dynamics and exploring feasibility of C/C composite being used for finger seals.

  12. [Study on spectral emissivity of C/C composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Cao, Wei-Wei; Jing, Min; Dong, Xing-Guang; Wang, Cheng-Guo

    2009-11-01

    Different types of C/C composites were prepared by conventional molding, and the changes in normal spectral emissivity of samples were tested. The testing results show that spectral emissivity of C/C composite reinforced by short cut carbon fibers is generally higher than the sample reinforced by carbon cloth in the entire 2500-13000nm wavelength region. The structure of short cut carbon fibers is relatively loose and the number of material particles is less than other samples in unit volume, which increases the penetration depth of electromagnetic waves. This is the reason for higher normal spectral emissivity and better heat radiation property. Meanwhile, the test results of normal spectral emissivity for fiber perform and C/C composite samples show that the spectral emissivity of resin carbon is better than fiber carbon because of the difference in microstructure for the two kinds of carbon materials. Laser Raman spectroscopy was employed to analyze the microstructures of different carbon materials, and the results show that because sp3 and sp2 hybrid states of carbon atoms in resin carbon produced more vibration modes, the resin carbon also has higher normal spectral emissivity and better characteristics of heat radiation.

  13. Dynamic analysis of C/C composite finger seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guoding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A seal device as an important component of aeroengines has decisive influence on performance, reliability, and working life of aeroengines. With the development of aeroengines, demands on the performance characteristics of seal devices are made strictly. Finger seal as a novel kind of sealing device, recently attracts more and more attentions in academic circles and engineering fields at home and abroad. Research on finger seals has been extensively developed, especially on leakage and wear performances under dynamic conditions. However, it is a pity that the work on finger seals has been limited with a single approach that is improving the performance by structural optimization; in addition, the technology of dynamic analysis on finger seals is weak. Aiming at the problems mentioned above, a distributed mass equivalent dynamic model of finger seals considering the coupling effect of overlaid laminates is established in the present paper, the dynamic performance of 2.5 dimension C/C composite finger seal is analyzed with the model, and then the effects of fiber bundle density and fiber bundle preparation direction on finger seal’s dynamic performance are discussed, as well as compared with those of Co-based alloy finger seal. The current work is about dynamic analysis of finger seals and application of C/C composite in this paper may have much academic significance and many engineering values for improving research level of finger seal dynamics and exploring feasibility of C/C composite being used for finger seals.

  14. Structure Group and Fermion-Mass-Term in General Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] two problems remain to be resolved. One is that we lack a minimal group to replace GL(4,C), the other is that the Equation of Motion (EoM) for fermion has no mass term. After careful investigation we find these two problems are linked by conformal group, a subgroup of GL(4,C) group. The Weyl group, a subgroup of conformal group, can bring about the running of mass, charge etc. while making it responsible for the transformation of interaction vertex. However, once concerning the generation of the mass term in EoM, we have to resort to the whole conformal group, in which the generators $K_\\mu $ play a crucial role in making vacuum vary from space-like (or light-cone-like)to time-like. Physically the starting points are our previous conclusion, $\\vec E^2-\\vec B^2\

  15. Conversores CC-CC com elevada taxa de conversão estática

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Franciéli Lima de

    2014-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica, Florianópolis, 2014. Nesse trabalho é introduzida uma nova família de Conversores CC-CC com elevada taxa de conversão estática. Tais conversores tem origem a partir dos Conversores CC-CC básicos convencionais (Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost, Zeta, Cúk e Sepic), no qual inserindo a célula básica de comutação proposta no trabalho, é possível tornar esses conversores conve...

  16. Exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria (strains CC9311 and CC9902) differentially alters fish behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T J; Paz-Yepes, J; Morrison, R A; Palenik, B; Tresguerres, M

    2014-01-01

    Coastal California experiences large-scale blooms of Synechococcus cyanobacteria, which are predicted to become more prevalent by the end of the 21st century as a result of global climate change. This study investigated whether exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two Synechococcus strains, CC9311 and CC9902, alters fish behaviour. Black perch (Embiotoca jacksoni) were exposed to Synechococcus strain CC9311 or CC9902 (1.5 × 10(6) cells ml(-1)) or to control seawater in experimental aquaria for 3 days. Fish movement inside a testing arena was then recorded and analysed using video camera-based motion-tracking software. Compared with control fish, fish exposed to CC9311 demonstrated a significant preference for the dark zone of the tank in the light-dark test, which is an indication of increased anxiety. Furthermore, fish exposed to CC9311 also had a statistically significant decrease in velocity and increase in immobility and they meandered more in comparison to control fish. There was a similar trend in velocity, immobility and meandering in fish exposed to CC9902, but there were no significant differences in behaviour or locomotion between this group and control fish. Identical results were obtained with a second batch of fish. Additionally, in this second trial we also investigated whether fish would recover after a 3 day period in seawater without cyanobacteria. Indeed, there were no longer any significant differences in behaviour among treatments, demonstrating that the sp. CC9311-induced alteration of behaviour is reversible. These results demonstrate that blooms of specific marine Synechococcus strains can induce differential sublethal effects in fish, namely alterations light-dark preference behaviour and motility.

  17. Benchmarks for electronically excited states: CASPT2, CC2, CCSD, and CC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Marko; Silva-Junior, Mario R.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Thiel, Walter

    2008-04-01

    A benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules is assembled that covers the most important classes of chromophores including polyenes and other unsaturated aliphatic compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocycles, carbonyl compounds, and nucleobases. Vertical excitation energies and one-electron properties are computed for the valence excited states of these molecules using both multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory, CASPT2, and a hierarchy of coupled cluster methods, CC2, CCSD, and CC3. The calculations are done at identical geometries (MP2/6-31G*) and with the same basis set (TZVP). In most cases, the CC3 results are very close to the CASPT2 results, whereas there are larger deviations with CC2 and CCSD, especially in singlet excited states that are not dominated by single excitations. Statistical evaluations of the calculated vertical excitation energies for 223 states are presented and discussed in order to assess the relative merits of the applied methods. CC2 reproduces the CC3 reference data for the singlets better than CCSD. On the basis of the current computational results and an extensive survey of the literature, we propose best estimates for the energies of 104 singlet and 63 triplet excited states.

  18. Microstructure of C/C Composites with Different Matrix Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Hao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of carbon/carbon(C/C composites with different matrix carbon was studied by polarized light microscopy (PLM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and XRD techniques respectively. PLM results indicate that the different matrix carbon exhibits different optical reactivity, and the average optical reactivity is gradually enhanced from normal pitch carbon, smooth laminar of pyrocarbon, rough laminar of pyrocarbon to mesophase pitch carbon; SEM results show that the normal pitch carbon is mainly of grapy structure, the pyrocarbon exhibits like-crinkle lamellar structure, while the mesophase pitch carbon exhibits lamellar banded structure with different shapes. Under HRTEM, the lattice fringes of the mesophase pitch carbon are arranged regularly, is a long range ordered crystal structure, and the preferred orientation is high. The degree of the graphite and the interlayer spacing of the material B (mesophase pitch-based C/C composites are better than that of the material D (pyrocarbon-based C/C composites.

  19. Microwave assisted solid-state synthesis, crystal structure and properties of the dialkyltin 2-Naphthyl benzoate%微波固相合成二正丁基锡2-萘甲酸酯配合物{[n-Bu2Sn(O2CC10H9)]2O}2及其结构与性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复兴; 王剑秋; 邝代治; 冯泳兰; 张志坚; 李俊华; 张可

    2011-01-01

    二正丁基氧化锡和2-萘甲酸按物质的量比1∶1,通过微波固相合成法合成了二正丁基锡2-萘甲酸酯配合物{[n-Bu2Sn(O2CC10H9)]2O}2.经X-射线衍射方法测定了其晶体结构,配合物属三斜晶系,空间群为π,晶体学参数a=1.19564(7)nm,b=1.26634(7)nm,c=1.42679(9)nm,α=79.7120(10),β=69.0330(10)°,γ=72.1050(10)°,V=1.9146(2)nm3,Z=1,Dc=1.430 g/cra3,μ(MoKa)=13.42 cm-1,F(000)=836,R1=0.0426,wR2=0.1189.配合物是以Sn2O2构成的平面四元环为中心环的二聚体结构,锡原子均为五配位的畸变三角双锥构型.对其结构进行量子化学从头计算,探讨了配合物的稳定性、分子轨道能量以及一些前沿分子轨道的组成特征.通过循环伏安法研究了其电化学性质.%The dialkyltin 2-Naphthyl benzoate Compound {[n-Bu2Sn(O2CC10H9)]2I}2 was synthesized by Microwave assisted solid-state synthesis. Its structure has been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The crystal belongs to triclinic with space groupPI-, a = 1.19564(7) nm, b =1.26634(7) nm, c =1. 42679(9) nm, α = 79.7120(10),βi = 69.0330(10)°, γ=72.1050(10)°, V= 1.9146(2) nm3, Z=1, Dc = 1.430 g/cm3, μ(UoKa)=l3A2 cm-1, F(000)=836, R1=0.0426, wR2=0.1189. In the complex, the tin atoms are rendered five-coordination in a distorted tigonal bipyram idalstructure, and the dimer structure is shaped by one Sn2O2 planar. The study on title complex has been performed, with quantum chemistry calculation by means of G98W package and taking Lanl2dz basis set. The stabilities of the complex, the orbital energies and composition characteristics of some frontier molecular orbitals have been investigated. The electrochemistry propertieswere studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Mathematical Simulation of Graphene With Modified c-c Bond Length and Transfer Energy

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. Alvi; S.Z. Hashmi; S. Dalela; Rahman, F.

    2011-01-01

    In nanotechnology research, allotropes of carbon like Graphene, Fullerene (Buckyball) and Carbon nanotubes are widely used due to their remarkable properties. Electrical and mechanical properties of those allotropes vary with their molecular geometry. This paper is specially based on modeling and simulation of graphene in order to calculate energy band structure in k space with varying the C-C bond length and C-C transfer energy. Significant changes have been observed in the energy band struc...

  1. Structural analysis of a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from the coenocytic green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researches on structural chemistry of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs have been mainly focused on red and brown algae. Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Chlorophyta contains three SPs fractions (Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and Cc-SP3. Cc-SP1 and Cc-SP2 had anticoagulant (in vitro and anti- and prothrombotic, antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory (in vivo effects. However, their structural features have not yet been investigated. This study analyzed the chemical composition, elemental microanalysis and structural features by infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy of Cc-SPs. Fractionation of SPs by DEAE-cellulose yielded Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and CcSP3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (14.67-26.72%, total sugars (34.92-49.73% and uronic acid (7.15-7.22%. Carbon (21.76-29.62%, sulfate (2.16-4.55%, nitrogen (0.85-1.57% and hydrogen (4.57-5.86% contents were obtained using a CHN equipment. Data from IR indicated occurrence of sulfate ester, galactose-6-sulfate, uronic acid and glycoside linkages. For 1H NMR spectrum of the soluble Cc-SP1 fraction, it was mainly found β-galactopyranose residues and CH3 group. The results showed that Cc-SPs fractions have some structural features similar to others studied Caulerpaceae SPs.

  2. Structural group auditing of a UMLS semantic type's extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying Helen; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Halper, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Each UMLS concept is assigned one or more of the semantic types (STs) from the Semantic Network. Due to the size and complexity of the UMLS, errors are unavoidable. We present two auditing methodologies for groups of semantically similar concepts. The straightforward procedure starts with the extent of an ST, which is the group of all concepts assigned this ST. We divide the extent into groups of concepts that have been assigned exactly the same set of STs. An algorithm finds subgroups of suspicious concepts. The human auditor is presented with these subgroups, which purportedly exhibit the same semantics, and thus she will notice different concepts with wrong or missing ST assignments. The dynamic procedure detects concepts which become suspicious in the course of the auditing process. Both procedures are applied to two semantic types. The results are compared with a comprehensive manual audit and show a very high error recall with a much higher precision.

  3. The Power Structure of 2-Generator 2-Groups of Class Two

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Friedrich L. Kluempen

    2002-01-01

    In 1934, Hall introduced regular p-groups. Any regular 2-group is abelian. A regular p-group is power closed, exponent closed, strongly semi-pabelian, and an exact power margin group. The study of these properties and relationships among them constitutes the investigation of the power structure of a p-group. In this paper, we classify 2-generator 2-groups of nilpotency class two according to their power structure.

  4. Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Research of Main Group Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Kelin; WANG Zhendong

    2006-01-01

    New approaches were applied to improve the molecular connectivity indices mχv. The vertex valence is redefined and it was reasonable for hydrogen atom. The distances between vertices were used to propose novel connectivity topological indexes. The vertices and the distances in a molecular graph were taken into account in this definition. The linear regression was used to develop the structural property models. The results indicate that the novel connectivity topological indexes are useful model parameters for Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship(QSPR) analysis.

  5. CC-Case as an Integrated Method of Security Analysis and Assurance over Life-cycle Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Secure system design faces many risks such as information leakage and denial of service. We propose a method named CC-Case to describe se-curity assurance cases based on the security struc-tures and thereat analysis. CC-Case uses Common Criteria (ISO/IEC15408. While the scope of CC-Case mainly focuses to the requirement stage, CC-Case can handle the life-cycle process of sys-tem design that contains the requirement, design, implementation, test and the maintenance stages. It can make countermeasure easily against the situation which an unexpected new threat produced by invisible attackers incessantly.

  6. Norm Development, Decision Making, and Structuration in CMC Group Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    The use of new and advanced technologies has a significant potential to impact the way students communicate in a number of contexts and settings. Many students will find themselves in both academic and career situations where computer-mediated communication (CMC) group interaction will be necessary. As a result, it is important to integrate…

  7. Multiple Imputation Strategies for Multiple Group Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Craig K.; Gottschall, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Although structural equation modeling software packages use maximum likelihood estimation by default, there are situations where one might prefer to use multiple imputation to handle missing data rather than maximum likelihood estimation (e.g., when incorporating auxiliary variables). The selection of variables is one of the nuances associated…

  8. A possible global group structure for exotic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue-Qian [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2014-12-01

    Based on the fact that the long expected pentaquark which possesses the exotic quantum numbers of B = 1 and S = 1 was not experimentally found, although exotic states of XY Z have been observed recently, we conjecture that the heavy flavors may play an important role in stabilizing the hadronic structures beyond the traditional q anti q and qqq composites. (orig.)

  9. Differentiable structure of ω-subsets of symplectic groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study the differentiable structure of theω-subset of Sp(2n), which is formed by all matrices in Sp(2n) possessing ω as an eigenvalue, for ω on the unit circle in the complex plane. Based on this result the ω-index theory parametrized by all ω on the unit circle for arbitrary symplectic paths is defined.

  10. Group III-nitride based hetero and quantum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monemar, B.; Pozina, G.

    2000-11-01

    The present paper attempts an overview of a presently very active research field: the III-nitrides and their interesting possibilities for a range of device applications employing heterostructures and low-dimensional quantum structures. The family of materials containing AlN, GaN, InN and the alloys between them span a range of direct bandgaps between 6.2 and 1.9 eV, with very large band offsets in type I heterojunctions, which is very favourable for a number of interesting device concepts. A very important feature of these materials is the dominant influence of strong polarisation fields (spontaneous as well as piezo-electric) on the physical properties of multilayer structures, as well as on devices. Exciton binding energies are large, and excitonic effects are therefore important at room temperature. Many alloy systems, in particular InGaN, have a high miscibility gap, leading to a strong tendency for phase separation and consequently to many novel physical properties which yet have to be explored in detail. Localization effects for carriers and excitons are very important in quantum structures based on these alloys. Devices based on III-N heterostructures cover a wide range, from optical devices (violet lasers, LEDs covering a range from UV to red, white LEDs, photodetectors, UV cameras) to high-frequency power devices, both unipolar transistors (AlGaN/GaN HEMTs) and bipolar HBTs.

  11. Orbit structure of Hamiltonian systems arising from Lie transformation group actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzia, M. R.; Loparo, K. A.; Martin, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper associates the Riccati group and its group action on linear-quadratic optimal control problems to the action of a Lie transformation group on a set of Hamiltonian matrices. In this Lie theoretic setting results are presented concerning the associated orbit structure and the structure of the group itself. These results are of importance in understanding the solution structure of matrix Riccati differential equations, and thus also of importance in linear-quadratic optimal control.

  12. Orbit structure of Hamiltonian systems arising from Lie transformation group actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzia, M. R.; Loparo, K. A.; Martin, C. F.

    This paper associates the Riccati group and its group action on linear-quadratic optimal control problems to the action of a Lie transformation group on a set of Hamiltonian matrices. In this Lie theoretic setting results are presented concerning the associated orbit structure and the structure of the group itself. These results are of importance in understanding the solution structure of matrix Riccati differential equations, and thus also of importance in linear-quadratic optimal control.

  13. The Effect of Wave Grouping on On-Shore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1979-01-01

    generated solely in accordance with an energy spectrum obtained from field data can be used. To investigate the importance of the succession of waves to the impact on coastal structures, run-up/down on permeable and impermeable slopes and stability of dolos armour were investigated in model tests by using......-up/down and to the stability of dolos armour is shown. A proposal to establish a set of universal graphs for the stability of dolos blocks (or any other “interlocking” blocks) is made....

  14. Renormalization group and the deep structure of the proton

    CERN Document Server

    Petermann, Andreas

    1979-01-01

    The spirit of the renormalization group approach lies entirely in the observation that in a specific theory the renormalized constants such as the couplings, the masses, are arbitrary mathematical parameters which can be varied by changing arbitrarily the renormalization prescription. Given a scale of mass mu , prescriptions can be chosen by doing subtractions of the relevant amplitudes at the continuously varying points mu e/sup t/, t being an arbitrary real parameter. A representation of such a renormalization group transformation mu to mu + mu e/sup t/ is the transformation g to g(t) of the renormalized coupling into a continuously varying coupling constant, the so-called 'running coupling constant'. If, for the theory under investigation there exists a domain of the t space where g(t) is small, then because it is not known how to handle field theory beyond the perturbative approach attention must be focused on the experimental range in which the g(t) 'runs' with small values. The introduction of couplings...

  15. Co-creating meaningful structures within long-term psychotherapy group culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Robin G

    2009-07-01

    Meaningful group structures are co-created within the long-term outpatient psychotherapy group through a hermeneutical interaction between structure and immediate experience of structure by individuals embedded in personal and collective contexts. Co-created meanings expand original group- and self-understandings and further evolve structures that are stable yet do not exist independently of the narratives and affects of the members who interact with them. Group structures do not reduce, expand, or dissolve but change in connection to the experiences and meaning attributions within the group. This intersubjective process mediates the emphasis within group theory on leader responsibility for culture building that risks overpromoting certain psychotherapeutic cultural intentions over others. Three examples of intersubjective hermeneutical interaction within long-term psychotherapy groups lend insight into global, cultural, and societal groups.

  16. Introductory group theory and its application to molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1969-01-01

    This volume is a consequence of a series of seminars presented by the authors at the Infrared Spectroscopy Institute, Canisius College, Buffalo, New York, over the last nine years. Many participants on an intermediate level lacked a sufficient background in mathematics and quantum mechan­ ics, and it became evident that a non mathematical or nearly nonmathe­ matical approach would be necessary. The lectures were designed to fill this need and proved very successful. As a result of the interest that was developed in this approach, it was decided to write this book. The text is intended for scientists and students with only limited theore­ tical background in spectroscopy, but who are sincerely interested in the interpretation of molecular spectra. The book develops the detailed selection rules for fundamentals, combinations, and overtones for molecules in several point groups. Detailed procedures used in carrying out the normal coordinate treatment for several molecules are also presented. Numerous examples...

  17. Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Łukasik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Duffy (Fy blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1 and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fya and Fyb, encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fya and Fyb antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fya and/or Fyb on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-, Fy(a-b+ and Fy(a+b+, identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-, frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fyb antigen. Fyx antigen differs from the native Fyb by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally. Tytuł główny Tak

  18. [Chemokine CC receptors in the nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzik, Tomasz Łukasz; Głabiński, Andrzej; Żylińska, Ludmiła

    2015-01-01

    Chemoattractant cytokines (chemokines) are traditionally known as the important mediators of inflammatory processes, however, recently, is also given to their other functions in the body. Acting through specific receptors belonging to the G proteins they regulate immune processes in the body. About 20 chemokine receptors have been identified so far, and 10 of them bind chemokines CC, i.e. having in amino-terminal domain 2 adjacent molecules of cysteins. An increasing number of data indicates that chemokines and their receptors play an important role in the nervous system by acting as trophic factors, increasing the neurons survival, neural migration and synaptic transmission. Special role chemokine receptors play primarily in the diseases of the nervous system, because due to damage of the blood-brain barrier and the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier, infiltration of leukocytes results in development of inflammation. Chemokine CC receptors has been shown to participate in Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, dementia associated with HIV infection, stroke or some type of cancers.

  19. Autosomal-STR based genetic structure of Chinese Xibe ethnic group and its relationships to various groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Haotian; Guo, Yuxin; Dong, Qian; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiangwei; Shi, Jianfeng; Zhu, Bofeng

    2016-11-01

    The short tandem repeat (STR) is one of the most widely used genetic makers in forensic DNA labs worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the genetic structure of 19 autosomal STRs and 1 sex-determining locus (amelogenin) in the Xibe ethnic group in China, as well as its relationships to other groups. One hundred and ninety-five alleles were detected in 222 unrelated healthy Xibe individuals. The values of combined power of discrimination and probability of exclusion of all 19 STR loci were 0.99999999999999999999996912 and 0.999999997538, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed relationships between the Xibe group and other groups, which showed a relatively close genetic relationship between the Xibe and Korean groups.

  20. Collaborative group work: effects of group size and assignment structure on learning gain, student satisfaction and perceived participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Klaassen, Tim; Vereijken, Mayke; Van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Vorstenbosch, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative group sessions in Nijmegen include 15 students who work all together on a group assignment. Sometimes, the group is split-up in three and every subgroup elaborates a part of the assignment. At the end, they peer-teach each other. It is believed that the split-up enhances participation and therefore learning gain. To establish the effect of group size and structure of the assignment on the perceived participation, the satisfaction and learning gain of collaborative group sessions. In this study, 27 groups of 15 students were equally divided into: A-group: all 15 students working on the complete assignment. B-group: subgroups of 5 students working on the complete assignment. C-group: subgroups of 5 students working on a smaller part, and peer-teaching each other at the end of the group session. All students took a pre-test, a post-test and a follow-up test and completed a questionnaire. Questionnaires were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc by multiple comparisons. Learning gain was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. A group size effect is observed in favor of working in subgroups. Perceived participation of the students differs between A and B (p ≤ 0.001) and between A and C (p ≤ 0.001), but not between B and C. Also, an assignment effect is found in favor of the smaller assignment combined with peer-teaching. The students' satisfaction differs between A and C (p ≤ 0.003) and between B and C (p ≤ 0.001), but not between A and B. The C-group also shows higher test results (p ≤ 0.043). The students prefer smaller groups as well as smaller assignments including peer-teaching. A possible larger learning gain of this format needs to be re-investigated.

  1. Alternative similarity renormalization group generators in nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dicaire, Nuiok M; Navratil, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The similarity renormalization group (SRG) has been successfully applied to soften interactions for ab initio nuclear calculations. In almost all practical applications in nuclear physics, an SRG generator with the kinetic energy operator is used. With this choice, a fast convergence of many-body calculations can be achieved, but at the same time substantial three-body interactions are induced even if one starts from a purely two-nucleon (NN) Hamiltonian. Three-nucleon (3N) interactions can be handled by modern many-body methods. However, it has been observed that when including initial chiral 3N forces in the Hamiltonian, the SRG transformations induce a non-negligible four-nucleon interaction that cannot be currently included in the calculations for technical reasons. Consequently, it is essential to investigate alternative SRG generators that might suppress the induction of many-body forces while at the same time might preserve the good convergence. In this work we test two alternative generators with oper...

  2. The radial structure of galaxy groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ascasibar, Y; Müller, V; Gottlöber, S

    2003-01-01

    Simple self-consistent models of galaxy groups and clusters are tested against the results of high-resolution adiabatic gasdynamical simulations. We investigate two models based on the existence of a 'universal' dark matter density profile and two versions of the beta-model. The mass distribution of relaxed clusters can be fitted by phenomenological formulae proposed in the literature. Haloes that have experienced a recent merging event are systematically less concentrated and show steeper profiles than relaxed objects near the centre. The hot X-ray emitting gas is found to be in approximate hydrostatic equilibrium with the dark matter potential, and it is well described by a polytropic equation of state. Analytic formulae for the gas density and temperature can be derived from these premises. Though able to reproduce the X-ray surface brightness, the beta-model is shown to provide a poor description of our numerical clusters. We find strong evidence of a 'universal' temperature profile that decreases by a fa...

  3. Replacement of Neisseria meningitidis C cc11/ET-15 variant by a cc103 hypervirulent clone, Brazil 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Guilherme; Cordeiro, Soraia; Gomes, Erica; Romanelli, Cinthia; Andrade, Claudia; Reis, Joice; de Filippis, Ivano

    2013-08-01

    Outbreaks caused by serogroup C meningococci in the northeast region of Brazil from 2005 to 2011 were associated to the emergence of variant ET-15 of cc11, which has been replaced by cc103 from 2006 to date. The increase of cc103 should be closely monitored to prevent the spread of this clone to neighbouring regions.

  4. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-30

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity (established in FY 1987). In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1988 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  5. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-03-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. The first part of the Program Descriptions consists of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. This is followed by a summary of project titles and objectives, including the program/project manager(s) and principal investigator. The second part of the Program Descriptions consists of more detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments.

  6. High Power test of a low group velocity X-band Accelerator Structure for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Döbert, S; Riddone, G; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W; Zennaro, R; Fukuda, S; Higashi, Y; Higo, T; Matsumoto, S; Ueno, K; Yokoyama, K; Adolphsen, C; Dolgashev, V; Laurent, L; Lewandowski, J; Tantawi, S; Wang, F; Wang, JW

    2008-01-01

    In recent years evidence has been found that the maximum sustainable gradient in an accelerating structure depends on the rf power flow through the structure. The CLIC study group has consequently designed a new prototype structure for CLIC with a very low group velocity, input power and average aperture ( = 0.13). The 18 cell structure has a group velocity of 2.6 % at the entrance and 1 % at the last cell. Several of these structures have been made in a collaboration between KEK, SLAC and CERN. A total of five brazed-disk structures and two quadrant structures have been made. The high power results of the first KEK/SLAC built structure is presented which reached an unloaded gradient in excess of 100 MV/m at a pulse length of 230 ns with a breakdown rate below 10-6 per meter active length. The high-power testing was done using the NLCTA facility at SLAC.

  7. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  8. Structural variations in aromatic 2-electron three-membered rings of the main group elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dibyendu Mallick; Eluvathingal D Jemmis

    2015-02-01

    Structural variations of different 2-aromatic three-membered ring systems of main group elements, especially group 14 and 13 elements as compared to the classical description of cyclopropenyl cation has been reviewed in this article. The structures of heavier analogues as well as group 13 analogues of cyclopropenyl cation showed an emergence of dramatic structural patterns which do not conform to the generalnorms of carbon chemistry. Isolobal analogies between the main group fragments have been efficiently used to explain the peculiarities observed in these three-membered ring systems.

  9. Diseño de un convertidor cc/cc bidireccional controlado analógicamente

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En el presente documento se van a desarrollar las fases de diseño, simulación e implementación de un convertidor CC/CC bidireccional basado en las topologías reductora y elevadora, junto con el diseño y construcción de un lazo de control analógico único para ambos modos de funcionamiento. Se comienza elaborando un estudio de las dos formas de conversión de la planta, así como de los componentes que conforman la misma; más tarde se abordará el análisis de su respuesta dinámica con el fin de en...

  10. Search for Doubly Charmed Baryons Xi_cc^+ and Xi_cc^++ in BABAR

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yu, K; Todyshev; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, 2C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z

    2006-01-01

    We search for the production of doubly charmed baryons in e^+e^- annihilations at or near a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV, in a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 232 fb^-1 recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We search for Xi_cc^+ baryons in the final states Lambda_c^+K^-pi^+ and Xi_c^0pi^+, and Xi_cc^++ baryons in the final states Lambda_c^+K^-pi^+pi^+ and Xi_c^0pi^+pi^+. We find no evidence for the production of doubly charmed baryons.

  11. Effects of a Group of High-Rise Structures on Ground Motions under Seismic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-jun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional simulation was created to determine the seismic performance of coupled systems with a group of up to 100 pile-high-rise structures resting on soil layers using system modal, harmonic, and time domain analysis. The results demonstrated that the existence of a structural group mitigates the structural responses with respect to the single-structure-soil interaction (SSI and results in significantly nonuniform ground seismic motions. Due to the influence of a structural group, adjacent structures can exhibit fully alternating mechanical behavior, and buildings in the urban fringe are subjected to stronger shaking than downtown buildings. The overall trend of the influence of structural groups is that ground motions are lessened inside an urban area, and ground motions at the locations between structures differ from those at the locations of the structures. Moreover, the effective distance of a structural group on ground motions is associated with the urban width. Less distance between structures enhances the interaction effect. In addition, the soil properties can greatly influence the system’s seismic responses and can even completely change the effect trends. The results in our paper are consistent with the phenomena observed in the Mexico City earthquake and the 1976 earthquake in Friuli, Italy.

  12. Win-CC Control Extension Development: Pressure-Enthalpy Win-CC Panel

    CERN Document Server

    Gaona, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews in detail the development and implementation of a Win-CC Control Extension for both Windows and Linux Platforms. The Control Extension consists in a Win-CC panel linked by dynamic libraries (*.dll or *.so) to the NIST Thermodynamics properties library. This linking permits to handle in real time different thermodynamic properties of a wide range of refrigerants. The Win-CC panel uses this information to produce a Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram of any required refrigeration cycle. In general, the p-H diagram enhance the understanding of the refrigeration cycle and facilitate the control and supervision of the system. Ideally, this control extension will be part of several Cooling Projects at CERN such as ATLAS IBL and CMS TIF. The development of this tool required several weeks of programming in C++ in both Linux and Windows platforms. At the end, the tool was constructed successfully and tested in both operating systems. The following sections go deeper into the develop, operation, and impleme...

  13. sp3-hybridized framework structure of group-14 elements discovered by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong [Ames Laboratory; Zhao, Xin [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Ho, Kai-Ming [Ames Laboratory

    2014-05-01

    Group-14 elements, including C, Si, Ge, and Sn, can form various stable and metastable structures. Finding new metastable structures of group-14 elements with desirable physical properties for new technological applications has attracted a lot of interest. Using a genetic algorithm, we discovered a new low-energy metastable distorted sp3-hybridized framework structure of the group-14 elements. It has P42/mnm symmetry with 12 atoms per unit cell. The void volume of this structure is as large as 139.7Å3 for Si P42/mnm, and it can be used for gas or metal-atom encapsulation. Band-structure calculations show that P42/mnm structures of Si and Ge are semiconducting with energy band gaps close to the optimal values for optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications. With metal-atom encapsulation, the P42/mnm structure would also be a candidate for rattling-mediated superconducting or used as thermoelectric materials.

  14. An excursion from normal to inverted C-C bonds shows a clear demarcation between covalent and charge-shift C-C bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Sason; Chen, Zhenhua; Wu, Wei; Stanger, Amnon; Danovich, David; Hiberty, Philippe C

    2009-10-19

    What is the nature of the C-C bond? Valence bond and electron density computations of 16 C-C bonds show two families of bonds that flesh out as a phase diagram. One family, involving ethane, cyclopropane and so forth, is typified by covalent C-C bonding wherein covalent spin-pairing accounts for most of the bond energy. The second family includes the inverted bridgehead bonds of small propellanes, where the bond is neither covalent nor ionic, but owes its existence to the resonance stabilization between the respective structures; hence a charge-shift (CS) bond. The dual family also emerges from calculated and experimental electron density properties. Covalent C-C bonds are characterized by negative Laplacians of the density, whereas CS-bonds display small or positive Laplacians. The positive Laplacian defines a region suffering from neighbouring repulsive interactions, which is precisely the case in the inverted bonding region. Such regions are rich in kinetic energy, and indeed the energy-density analysis reveals that CS-bonds are richer in kinetic energy than the covalent C-C bonds. The large covalent-ionic resonance energy is precisely the mechanism that lowers the kinetic energy in the bonding region and restores equilibrium bonding. Thus, different degrees of repulsive strain create two bonding families of the same chemical bond made from a single atomic constituent. It is further shown that the idea of repulsive strain is portable and can predict the properties of propellanes of various sizes and different wing substituents. Experimentally (M. Messerschmidt, S. Scheins, L. Bruberth, M. Patzel, G. Szeimies, C. Paulman, P. Luger, Angew. Chem. 2005, 117, 3993-3997; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 3925-3928), the C-C bond families are beautifully represented in [1.1.1]propellane, where the inverted C-C is a CS-bond, while the wings are made from covalent C-C bonds. What other manifestations can we expect from CS-bonds? Answers from experiment have the potential

  15. Isolation and characterization of Exodus-2, a novel C-C chemokine with a unique 37-amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromas, R; Kim, C H; Klemsz, M; Krathwohl, M; Fife, K; Cooper, S; Schnizlein-Bick, C; Broxmeyer, H E

    1997-09-15

    Chemokines are a group of small, homologous proteins that regulate leukocyte migration, hemopoiesis, and HIV-1 absorption. We report here the cloning and characterization of a novel murine and human C-C chemokine termed Exodus-2 for its similarity to Exodus-1/MIP-3alpha/LARC, and its chemotactic ability. This novel chemokine has a unique 36 or 37 (murine and human, respectively) amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension not seen in any other chemokine family member. Purified recombinant Exodus-2 was found to have two activities classically associated with chemokines: inhibiting hemopoiesis and stimulating chemotaxis. However, Exodus-2 also had unusual characteristics for C-C chemokines. It selectively stimulated the chemotaxis of T-lymphocytes and was preferentially expressed in lymph node tissue. The combination of these characteristics may be a functional correlate for the unique carboxyl-terminal structure of Exodus-2.

  16. 基于单片Wi-Fi MCU CC3200的无线串口%Wireless UART Base on the Wi-Fi MCU CC3200

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书军; 田志鹏

    2016-01-01

    A wireless UART based on the Wi-Fi MCU CC3200 of TI is introduced by this paper. It can implement wireless point to point short distance data transmission transparently. It can extend legacy serial device with function of wireless communication without modification. It has features of simple structure and high reliability with CC3200 as the core device. It can be widely used in remote control and debug, data acquisition and other fields.%本文介绍了基于TI公司单片Wi-Fi MCU CC3200的无线串口。无线串口采用透明传输方式,实现点对点近距离无线传输。无线串口可以为串口设备在无需对设备本身进行改造的情况下增加无线通信功能。无线串口以CC3200芯片为核心器件,硬件简单,可靠性高,可广泛应用于远程控制、数据采集、远程调试等领域。

  17. Characterization of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures in the offshore Santa Maria Basin, south-central California: Chapter CC of Evolution of sedimentary basins/onshore oil and gas investigations - Santa Maria province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, C. Richard; Rietman, Jan D.; Heck, Ronald G.; Lettis, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone trends subparallel to the south-central California coast for 110 km from north of Point Estero to south of Purisima Point and forms the eastern margin of the present offshore Santa Maria Basin. Knowledge of the attributes of the Hosgri Fault Zone is important for petroleum development, seismic engineering, and environmental planning in the region. Because it lies offshore along its entire reach, our characterizations of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures are primarily based on the analysis of over 10,000 km of common-depth-point marine seismic reflection data collected from a 5,000-km2 area of the central and eastern parts of the offshore Santa Maria Basin. We describe and illustrate the along-strike and downdip geometry of the Hosgri Fault Zone over its entire length and provide examples of interpreted seismic reflection records and a map of the structural trends of the fault zone and adjacent structures in the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. The seismic data are integrated with offshore well and seafloor geologic data to describe the age and seismic appearance of offshore geologic units and marker horizons. We develop a basin-wide seismic velocity model for depth conversions and map three major unconformities along the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. Accompanying plates include maps that are also presented as figures in the report. Appendix A provides microfossil data from selected wells and appendix B includes uninterpreted copies of the annotated seismic record sections illustrated in the chapter. Features of the Hosgri Fault Zone documented in this investigation are suggestive of both lateral and reverse slip. Characteristics indicative of lateral slip include (1) the linear to curvilinear character of the mapped trace of the fault zone, (2) changes in structural trend along and across the fault zone that diminish in magnitude toward the ends of the fault zone, (3) localized compressional and extensional structures

  18. Characteristics of an optimized active metal cast joint between copper and C/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schedler, B [Technology Centre of PLANSEE SE, A-6600 Reutte (Austria); Huber, T [Technology Centre of PLANSEE SE, A-6600 Reutte (Austria); Friedrich, T [Technology Centre of PLANSEE SE, A-6600 Reutte (Austria); Eidenberger, E [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Kapp, M [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Erich-Schmid-Institute of Material Science, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Scheu, C [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Pippan, R [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Erich-Schmid-Institute of Material Science, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Clemens, H [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, an optimized active metal cast copper to carbon composite (C/C) joint is examined. Mechanical characterization by means of shear and tensile tests as well as fracture toughness measurements at ambient temperature are employed, which show that the obtained values are above those of the reference joint that has been used so far. The phases occurring at the interface region and the fracture surface of the optimized joint are investigated in detail to explain the improved mechanical behaviour. The composition and the morphology at the interface region are analysed by means of scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the crack path is analysed by stereomicroscopy. The improved properties can be explained by the circumstance that the fracture of the optimized joint is not restricted to the interface between the occurring carbide and the C/C but changes between C/C, the carbide to C/C interface and the copper, depending on the local structure in the C/C composite.

  19. THE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS IN THE RURAL AREAS OF BUCOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ILEANA MORAR (BUMBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure analysis of population by age groups in the rural area of Bucovina desires to create a recent image of the rural population by age groups in the region of Bucovina , provided that after the year 2000 have occurred socio – economic changes with repercussions on the demographic component. The structure analysis by age group will be based on the share of population indicators on the major age groups, the share of population by age and quinquennial gender illustrated by age pyramid, the index of demographic aging and age-dependency ratio. This study is definitely needed in forecasting future regional development objectives and measures.

  20. How Are Distributed Groups Affected by an Imposed Structuring of their Decision-Making Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Anders Lorentz; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Groups often suffer from ineffective communication and decision making. This experimental study compares distributed groups solving a preference task with support from either a communication system or a system providing both communication and a structuring of the decision-making process. Results...... as its outcome. Notably, the task solutions arrived at by the groups using the system that imposes a structuring of the decision-making process show limited correlation with the task solutions suggested by the system on the basis of the groups’ explicitly stated criteria. We find no differences in group...

  1. The 033(6R) structural group existence condition in real field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, C.; Buium, F.

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes an approach to identify and study the critical configurations of the 6R (033) structural group, based on an new idea, similar to the case of dyad groups. Starting up from the idea that the critical configurations of a structural group correspond to the singularities of the equation system, modeling the velocity problem and the critical positions are obtained when the lines through the binary link joints are concurrent in a point or are parallel. The velocity equation system for the case of 0/3/3 group with revolute joints, in conditions that the (6x6) system determinant equals zero.

  2. Basis set effects on coupled cluster benchmarks of electronically excited states: CC3, CCSDR(3) and CC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Junior, Mario R.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Schreiber, Marko;

    2010-01-01

    to those obtained previously with the smaller TZVP basis set. For each of the three coupled cluster methods, a correlation coefficient greater than 0.994 is found between the vertical excitation energies computed with the two basis sets. The deviations of the CC2 and CCSDR(3) results from the CC3 reference...... strengths and excited-state dipole moments, CC2 calculations with the aug-cc-pVTZ and TZVP basis sets give correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.833, respectively, implying that basis set convergence is slower for these one-electron properties....

  3. Structural equation models of memory performance across noise conditions and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enmarker, Ingela; Boman, Eva; Hygge, Staffan

    2006-12-01

    Competing models of declarative memory were tested with structural equation models to analyze whether a second-order latent variable structure for episodic and semantic memory was invariant across age groups and across noise exposure conditions. Data were taken from three previous experimental noise studies that were performed with the same design, procedure, and dependent measures, and with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45, and 55-65 years). Two noise conditions, road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech, were compared to a quiet control group. The structural models put to the test were taken from Nyberg et al. (2003), which employed several memory tests that were the same as ours and studied age-groups that partly overlapped with our groups. In addition we also varied noise exposure conditions. Our analyses replicated and supported the second-order semantic-episodic memory models in Nyberg et al. (2003). The latent variable structures were invariant across age groups, with the exception of our youngest group, which by itself showed a less clear latent structure. The obtained structures were also invariant across noise exposure conditions. We also noted that our text memory items, which did not have a counterpart in the study by Nyberg et al. (2003), tend to form a separate latent variable loading on episodic memory.

  4. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1-1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera.

  5. Iterative reactions of transient boronic acids enable sequential C-C bond formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battilocchio, Claudio; Feist, Florian; Hafner, Andreas; Simon, Meike; Tran, Duc N.; Allwood, Daniel M.; Blakemore, David C.; Ley, Steven V.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to form multiple carbon-carbon bonds in a controlled sequence and thus rapidly build molecular complexity in an iterative fashion is an important goal in modern chemical synthesis. In recent times, transition-metal-catalysed coupling reactions have dominated in the development of C-C bond forming processes. A desire to reduce the reliance on precious metals and a need to obtain products with very low levels of metal impurities has brought a renewed focus on metal-free coupling processes. Here, we report the in situ preparation of reactive allylic and benzylic boronic acids, obtained by reacting flow-generated diazo compounds with boronic acids, and their application in controlled iterative C-C bond forming reactions is described. Thus far we have shown the formation of up to three C-C bonds in a sequence including the final trapping of a reactive boronic acid species with an aldehyde to generate a range of new chemical structures.

  6. Reporting Multiple-Group Mean and Covariance Structure across Occasions with Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, David

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Using baseline and second wave data, the study evaluated the measurement and structural properties of parenting stress, personal mastery, and economic strain with N = 381 lower income parents who decided to join and those who did not join in a child development savings account program. Methods: Structural equation modeling mean and…

  7. Thermal structure and flow patterns around Seychelles group of Islands (Indian Ocean) during austral autumn

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; RameshBabu, V.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    Properties of thermal structure in the upper 750 m around the Seychelles group of islands in the Indian Ocean, based on Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) data collected in March 1984, are presented along with the inferred flow patterns...

  8. Energy transfer between octahedral tungstate and uranate groups in oxides with perovskite structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, A.C. van der; Hair, J.Th.W. de; Blasse, G.

    1975-01-01

    Energy transfer between tungstate and uranate groups in oxides with perovskite structure is reported. The critical distance for this process is about 25 Å. Evidence is given for energy transfer between tungstate groups. In this case the critical distance is estimated to be about 8 Å.

  9. Nanoconfinement crystallization of frustrated alkyl groups: crossover of mesophase to crystalline structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifeng; Wang, Haixia; Xin, John H; Zhang, Xingxiang; Wang, Dujin

    2011-04-07

    Crossover of mesophase to crystalline structure in the nanoconfinement crystallization process of frustrated side groups elucidates the critical crystal thickness d(c) or the length scale of side groups, which defines the transition process from mesophase (hexagonal and monoclinic phase) to crystalline phase (orthorhombic phase) of confined CH(2) sequences in a given crystal size restriction.

  10. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  11. The Influence of Primitive Subgroups on the Structure of Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu-feng; Du Xian-kun(Communicated)

    2013-01-01

    A subgroup H of a group G is said to be primitive if it is a proper subgroup of the intersection of all subgroups of G containing H as its proper subgroup. The purpose of this note is to go further into the influence of primitive subgroups on the structure of finite groups. Some new results are obtained.

  12. Energy transfer between octahedral tungstate and uranate groups in oxides with perovskite structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, A.C. van der; Hair, J.Th.W. de; Blasse, G.

    1975-01-01

    Energy transfer between tungstate and uranate groups in oxides with perovskite structure is reported. The critical distance for this process is about 25 Å. Evidence is given for energy transfer between tungstate groups. In this case the critical distance is estimated to be about 8 Å.

  13. Radiological diagnosis and intervention of cholangiocarcinomas (CC); Radiologische Diagnostik und Intervention von Cholangiokarzinomen (CC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Zangos, S.; Eichler, K.; Gruber-Rouh, T.; Hammerstingl, R.M.; Weisser, P. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Trojan, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik I: Gastroenterologie, Endokrinologie, Pneumologie/Allergologie

    2012-10-15

    To present current data on diagnosis, indication and different therapy options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC) based on an analysis of the current literature and clinical experience. The diagnostic routine includes laboratory investigations with parameters of cholestasis and also serum tumor markers CA19 - 9 and CEA. After ultrasound for clarifying a tumor and/or dilated bile ducts, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed with magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP). The accuracy (positive predictive value) for diagnosing a CC is 37 - 84 % (depending on the location) for ultrasound, 79 - 94 % for computed tomography (CT), and 95 % for MRI and MRCP. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) can then be planned, especially if biliary drainage or cytological or histological specimen sampling is intended. A curative approach can be achieved by surgical resection, rarely by liver transplantation. However, many patients are not eligible for surgery. In addition to systemic chemotherapy, locoregional therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) - also known as chemoperfusion -, drug eluting beads-therapy (DEB) as well as thermoablative procedures, such as laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), microwave ablation (MWA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can be provided with a palliative intention.

  14. Extensive Genomic Diversity among Bovine-Adapted Staphylococcus aureus: Evidence for a Genomic Rearrangement within CC97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kathleen E; McCoy, Finola; Monecke, Stefan; Cormican, Paul; Mitchell, Jennifer; Keane, Orla M

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen associated with both human and veterinary disease and is a common cause of bovine mastitis. Genomic heterogeneity exists between S. aureus strains and has been implicated in the adaptation of specific strains to colonise particular mammalian hosts. Knowledge of the factors required for host specificity and virulence is important for understanding the pathogenesis and management of S. aureus mastitis. In this study, a panel of mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates (n = 126) was tested for resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis. Over half of the isolates (52%) demonstrated resistance to penicillin and ampicillin but all were susceptible to the other antibiotics tested. S. aureus isolates were further examined for their clonal diversity by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). In total, 18 different sequence types (STs) were identified and eBURST analysis demonstrated that the majority of isolates grouped into clonal complexes CC97, CC151 or sequence type (ST) 136. Analysis of the role of recombination events in determining S. aureus population structure determined that ST diversification through nucleotide substitutions were more likely to be due to recombination compared to point mutation, with regions of the genome possibly acting as recombination hotspots. DNA microarray analysis revealed a large number of differences amongst S. aureus STs in their variable genome content, including genes associated with capsule and biofilm formation and adhesion factors. Finally, evidence for a genomic arrangement was observed within isolates from CC97 with the ST71-like subgroup showing evidence of an IS431 insertion element having replaced approximately 30 kb of DNA including the ica operon and histidine biosynthesis genes, resulting in histidine auxotrophy. This genomic rearrangement may be responsible for the diversification of ST71 into an emerging bovine adapted subgroup.

  15. Extensive Genomic Diversity among Bovine-Adapted Staphylococcus aureus: Evidence for a Genomic Rearrangement within CC97.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E Budd

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen associated with both human and veterinary disease and is a common cause of bovine mastitis. Genomic heterogeneity exists between S. aureus strains and has been implicated in the adaptation of specific strains to colonise particular mammalian hosts. Knowledge of the factors required for host specificity and virulence is important for understanding the pathogenesis and management of S. aureus mastitis. In this study, a panel of mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates (n = 126 was tested for resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis. Over half of the isolates (52% demonstrated resistance to penicillin and ampicillin but all were susceptible to the other antibiotics tested. S. aureus isolates were further examined for their clonal diversity by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST. In total, 18 different sequence types (STs were identified and eBURST analysis demonstrated that the majority of isolates grouped into clonal complexes CC97, CC151 or sequence type (ST 136. Analysis of the role of recombination events in determining S. aureus population structure determined that ST diversification through nucleotide substitutions were more likely to be due to recombination compared to point mutation, with regions of the genome possibly acting as recombination hotspots. DNA microarray analysis revealed a large number of differences amongst S. aureus STs in their variable genome content, including genes associated with capsule and biofilm formation and adhesion factors. Finally, evidence for a genomic arrangement was observed within isolates from CC97 with the ST71-like subgroup showing evidence of an IS431 insertion element having replaced approximately 30 kb of DNA including the ica operon and histidine biosynthesis genes, resulting in histidine auxotrophy. This genomic rearrangement may be responsible for the diversification of ST71 into an emerging bovine adapted subgroup.

  16. Efficacy and safety of extended dosing schedules of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Manero, G; Gore, S D; Kambhampati, S; Scott, B; Tefferi, A; Cogle, C R; Edenfield, W J; Hetzer, J; Kumar, K; Laille, E; Shi, T; MacBeth, K J; Skikne, B

    2016-01-01

    CC-486, the oral formulation of azacitidine (AZA), is an epigenetic modifier and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of hematologic malignancies. CC-486 administered for 7 days per 28-day treatment cycle was evaluated in a phase 1 dose-finding study. AZA has a short plasma half-life and DNA incorporation is S-phase-restricted; extending CC-486 exposure may increase the number of AZA-affected diseased target cells and maximize therapeutic effects. Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) received 300 mg CC-486 once daily for 14 days (n=28) or 21 days (n=27) of repeated 28-day cycles. Median patient age was 72 years (range 31–87) and 75% of patients had International Prognostic Scoring System Intermediate-1 risk MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 7 (range 2–24) for the 14-day dosing schedule and 6 (1–24) for the 21-day schedule. Overall response (complete or partial remission, red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusion independence (TI), or hematologic improvement) (International Working Group 2006) was attained by 36% of patients receiving 14-day dosing and 41% receiving 21-day dosing. RBC TI rates were similar with both dosing schedules (31% and 38%, respectively). CC-486 was generally well-tolerated. Extended dosing schedules of oral CC-486 may provide effective long-term treatment for patients with lower-risk MDS. PMID:26442612

  17. Molecules and Models The molecular structures of main group element compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Haaland, Arne

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a systematic description of the molecular structures and bonding in simple compounds of the main group elements with particular emphasis on bond distances, bond energies and coordination geometries. The description includes the structures of hydrogen, halogen and methyl derivatives of the elements in each group, some of these molecules are ionic, some polar covalent. The survey of molecules whose structures conform to well-established trends is followed byrepresentative examples of molecules that do not conform. We also describe electron donor-acceptor and hydrogen bonded co

  18. Non-coboundary Poisson-Lie structures on the book group

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Angel; Musso, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    All possible Poisson-Lie (PL) structures on the 3D real Lie group generated by a dilation and two commuting translations are obtained. Its classification is fully performed by relating these PL groups with the corresponding Lie bialgebra structures on the corresponding "book" Lie algebra. By construction, all these Poisson structures are quadratic Poisson-Hopf algebras for which the group multiplication is a Poisson map. In contrast to the case of simple Lie groups, it turns out that most of the PL structures on the book group are non-coboundary ones. Moreover, from the viewpoint of Poisson dynamics, the most interesting PL book structures are just some of these non-coboundaries, which are explicitly analysed. In particular, we show that the two different q-deformed Poisson versions of the sl(2,R) algebra appear as two distinguished cases in this classification, as well as the quadratic Poisson structure that underlies the integrability of a large class of 3D Lotka-Volterra equations. Finally, the quantizatio...

  19. The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis (CC) of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint on chest radiographs and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parperis, Konstantinos; Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mautz, Alan; Dubois, Melissa; Cerniglia, Ross; Ryan, Lawrence M

    2013-09-01

    Digital imaging combined with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) access allows detailed image retrieval and magnification. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages, the cartilage of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint being one such structure. We sought to determine if examination of the AC joints on magnified PACS imaging of chest films would be useful in identifying chondrocalcinosis (CC). Retrospective radiographic readings and chart reviews involving 1,920 patients aged 50 or more who had routine outpatient chest radiographs over a 4-month period were performed. Knee radiographs were available for comparison in 489 patients. Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographics, chest film reports, and diagnoses. AC joint CC was identified in 1.1 % (21/1,920) of consecutive chest films. Patients with AC joint CC were 75 years of age versus 65.4 in those without CC (p AC joint CC, and of these, five also had knee CC (83 %). Of the 483 without AC joint CC, 62 (12 %) had knee CC (p = 0.002). Patients with AC joint CC were more likely to have a recorded history of CPPD crystal deposition disease than those without AC joint CC (14 versus 1 %, p = 0.0017). The prevalence of AC joint CC increases with age and is associated with knee CC. A finding of AC joint CC should heighten suspicion of pseudogout or secondary osteoarthritis in appropriate clinical settings and, in a young patient, should alert the clinician to the possibility of an associated metabolic condition.

  20. Do I Know You? How Individual Recognition Affects Group Formation and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Groups in nature can be formed by interactions between individuals, or by external pressures like predation. It is reasonable to assume that groups formed by internal and external conditions have different dynamics and structures. We propose a computational model to investigate the effects of individual recognition on the formation and structure of animal groups. Our model is composed of agents that can recognize each other and remember previous interactions, without any external pressures, in order to isolate the effects of individual recognition. We show that individual recognition affects the number and size of groups, and the modularity of the social networks. This model can be used as a null model to investigate the effects of external factors on group formation and persistence. PMID:28125708

  1. CC-Modeler: a topology generator for 3-D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Armin; Wang, Xinhua

    In this paper, we introduce a semi-automated topology generator for 3-D objects, CC-Modeler (CyberCity Modeler). Given the data as point clouds measured on Analytical Plotters or Digital Stations, we present a new method for fitting planar structures to the measured sets of point clouds. While this topology generator has been originally designed to model buildings, it can also be used for other objects, which may be approximated by polyhedron surfaces. We have used it so far for roads, rivers, parking lots, ships, etc. The CC-Modeler is a generic topology generator. The problem of fitting planar faces to point clouds is treated as a Consistent Labelling problem, which is solved by probabilistic relaxation. Once the faces are defined and the related points are determined, we apply a simultaneous least-squares adjustment in order to fit the faces jointly to the given measurements in an optimal way. We first present the processing flow of the CC-Modeler. Then, the algorithm of structuring the 3-D point data is outlined. Finally, we show the results of several data sets that have been produced with the CC-Modeler.

  2. Structures that should be Described in Higher-Symmetry,Centrosymmetric Space Groups. Part 1. The Disordered Structures of [(CH3CH2)4N]3{[(SCH2CH2S)MoS3]2Fe},[(CH3CH2)4N]2{[S2CN(C2H5)2]4Fe4S4} and[(CH3CH2)4N]3{[(SCH2CH2S)MoS3]2Fe}·1/4CH3CN,and the Ordered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The space groups of [ (CH3CH2)4N]3 { [(SCH2CH2S)MoS3]2Fe} and [ (CH3CH2)4N]2 { [S2CN(C2H5)2 ]4Fe4S4 } are revised from Cc to C2/c by solving the C2/c structure from the structure factorsthat are calculated from the Cc structure. The structures are both disordered in one of the tetraethylammonium cations. The space P21/c; because of the severe disorder in the cations that was not addressed in the original refinements, only the atomic coordinates of the metal-cluster anions could be re(originally described in P1) is re-assigned to C2/c. The general descriptions of the structures are unchanged in the higher-symmetry settings. The revised coordinates are given.

  3. The structure of compact groups a primer for the student, a handbook for the expert

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Karl H

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with subject matter of compact groups that is frequently cited in fields like algebra, topology, functional analysis, and theoretical physics, this book - now in its third revised and augmented edition - has been conceived with the dual purpose of providing a text book for upper level graduate courses or seminars, and of serving as a source book for research specialists who need to apply the structure and representation theory of compact groups. After a gentle introduction to compact groups and their representation theory, the book presents self-contained courses on linear Lie groups,

  4. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Isa Hatin

    Full Text Available Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

  5. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-04-05

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

  6. Prediction of cutting forces in ball-end milling of 2.5D C/C composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chenwei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Machining of carbon/carbon (C/C composite materials is difficult to carry out due to its high specific stiffness, brittleness, anisotropic, non-homogeneous and low thermal conductivity, which can result in tear, burr, poor surface quality and rapid wear of cutters. Accurate and fast prediction of cutting forces is important for milling C/C composite materials with high quality. This paper presents an alternative cutting force model involving the influences of the directions of fiber. Based on the calculated and experimental results, the cutting forces’ coefficients of 2.5D C/C composites are evaluated using multiple linear regression method. Verification experiment has been carried out through a group of orthogonal tests. Results indicate that the proposed model is reliable and can be used to predict the cutting forces in ball-end milling of 2.5D C/C composites.

  7. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

  8. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie A Wieters

    Full Text Available We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km and local (10's m scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against

  9. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieters, Evie A; McQuaid, Christopher; Palomo, Gabriela; Pappalardo, Paula; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km) and local (10's m) scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass) and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site ) to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against spatial variability

  10. The effects of capitation payment on the organizational structure of medical group practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralewski, J E; Wingert, T D; Knutson, D J; Johnson, C E; Veazie, P J

    1996-01-01

    This study explores the effects of capitation payment on the structural elements used by medical group practices to control physician-directed use of resources and the quality of patient care. Forty-five medical groups located in the highly competitive Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area were studied. The range of capitation payment in these medical group practices is from 2% to 87%. Although the practices vary considerably in the extent to which they have developed these control mechanisms, it does not appear that capitation payment is a major factor influencing that pattern. It appears that many of these medical group practices either use less formal mechanisms than those included in this study to control resource use and the quality of care or use none at all. In either event, the data suggest that the effects of capitation payment on the structure of medical practices may be overestimated.

  11. Influence of a Neighboring Charged Group on Hydrophobic Hydration Shell Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joel G; Zukowski, Samual R; Rankin, Blake M; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2015-07-23

    Raman multivariate curve resolution (Raman-MCR), as well as quantum and classical calculations, are used to probe water structural changes in the hydration shells of carboxylic acids and tetraalkyl ammonium ions with various aliphatic chain lengths. The results reveal that water molecules in the hydration shell around the hydrophobic chains undergo a temperature and chain length dependent structural transformation resembling that previously observed in aqueous solutions of n-alcohols. Deprotonation of the carboxylic acid headgroup (at pH ∼ 7) is found to suppress the onset of the hydration-shell structural transformation around the nearest aliphatic methylene group. Tetraalkyl ammonium cations are found to more strongly suppress the water structural transformation, perhaps reflecting the greater intramolecular charge delocalization and suppression of dangling OH defects in water's tetrahedral H-bond network. The observed coupling between ionic and hydrophobic groups, as well as the associated charge asymmetry, may influence the hydrophobicity of proteins and other materials.

  12. Search for the doubly charmed baryon $\\Xi_{cc}^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S -F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    A search for the doubly charmed baryon $\\Xi_{cc}^{+}$ in the decay mode $\\Xi_{cc}^{+} \\to \\Lambda_c^+ K^- \\pi^+$ is performed with a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.65 fb$^{-1}$, of $pp$ collisions recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. No significant signal is found in the mass range 3300--3800 MeV$/c^2$. Upper limits at the 95\\% confidence level on the ratio of the $\\Xi_{cc}^{+}$ production cross-section times branching fraction to that of the $\\Lambda_c^+$, $R$, are given as a function of the $\\Xi_{cc}^{+}$ mass and lifetime. The largest upper limits range from $R<1.5 \\times 10^{-2}$ for a lifetime of 100 fs to $R<3.9 \\times 10^{-4}$ for a lifetime of 400 fs.

  13. Summary report of working group 3: Laser and high-gradient structure-based acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonian, Gerard; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-03-01

    High-gradient particle acceleration with reduced power demands is essential for miniaturization and cost reduction of future accelerators. Applications for compact accelerators span collider research for High Energy Physics, light source development for Basic Energy Sciences and National Security, and industrial accelerators for Energy and Environmental Applications. Working Group 3 discussed and surveyed the recent advances in achieving higher gradients and better acceleration efficiency in externally powered, structure-based accelerators. The topics covered in Working Group 3 included dielectric laser acceleration, millimeter-wave accelerators, breakdown phenomena, exotic topologies such as photonic band-gap structures, artificial materials, and nanostructures, and novel rf technology.

  14. PHASE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF EPOXY RESIN MODIFIED BY POLYSILOXANE BEARING PENDANT AMINO GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Zhang; Xiang-luan Liu; Ying Huang

    2000-01-01

    Polysiloxane-modified epoxy resins were prepared through the reaction of epoxy resin with polydimethylsiloxanes bearing pendant N-(β-aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyl groups. The morphology and properties of the cured epoxy resins modified by the polysiloxanes were investigated. It was found that the phase structure and properties of the cured epoxy resins depend mainly on the amino group content in the polydimethylsiloxane and the level of the modifier. The change of phase structure in the cured epoxy resin systems was responsible for the dramatic change in their mechanical and surface properties.

  15. Pitch structure, but not selective attention, affects accent weightings in metrical grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jon B

    2014-10-01

    Among other cues, pitch and temporal accents contribute to grouping in musical sequences. However, exactly how they combine remains unclear, possibly because of the role of structural organization. In 3 experiments, participants rated the perceived metrical grouping of sequences that either adhered to the rules of tonal Western musical pitch structure (musical key) or did not (atonal). The tonal status of sequences did not provide any grouping cues and was irrelevant to the task. Experiment 1 established equally strong levels of pitch leap accents and duration accents in baseline conditions, which were then recombined in subsequent experiments. Neither accent type was stronger or weaker for tonal and atonal contexts. In Experiment 2, pitch leap accents dominated over duration accents, but the extent of this advantage was greater when sequences were tonal. Experiment 3 ruled out an attentional origin of this effect by replicating this finding while explicitly manipulating attention to pitch or duration accents between participant groups. Overall, the presence of tonal pitch structure made the dimension of pitch more salient at the expense of time. These findings support a dimensional salience framework in which the presence of organizational structure prioritizes the processing of the more structured dimension regardless of task relevance, independent from psychophysical difficulty, and impervious to attentional allocation.

  16. Line group techniques in description of the structural phase transitions in some superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, CS.; Balint, A.; Bankuti, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main features of the theory of line groups, and their irreducible representations are briefly discussed, as well as the most important applications of them. A new approach in the general symmetry analysis of the modulated systems is presented. It is shown, that the line group formalism could be a very effective tool in the examination of the structural phase transitions in High Temperature SUperconductors. As an example, the material YBa2Cu3O(7-x) is discussed briefly.

  17. 二正丁基锡二(邻氯苯甲酸)酯配合物{[n-Bu2Sn(O2CC6H4C1)]2O}2的微波固相合成、结构及体外抗癌活性%Microwave Assisted Solid-state Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Quantum Chemistry Calculation and in vitro Inhibition Activity to Cancer Cells of the Di-n-Buyltin Di-o-chlorobenzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复兴; 王剑秋; 邝代治; 冯泳兰; 许志锋; 庾江喜

    2012-01-01

    二正丁基氧化锡和邻氯苯甲酸按物质的量比1∶2,通过微波固相合成法合成了二正丁基锡邻氯苯甲酸酯配合物{[n-Bu2Sn(O2CC6H4Cl)]2O}2.经X射线衍射方法测定了其晶体结构,配合物属三斜晶系,空间群为P(1),晶体学参数a=1.17653(4) nm,b=1.20672(4) nm,c=2.74090 (9) nm,α=80.493 (2)°,β=83.995 (2)°,γ=64.260(2)°,V=3.4547(2)nm3,Z=2,D(ε)=1.525 g/cm3,μ(MoKα)=16.34 cm-1,F(000)=1592,R1=0.0414,wR2=0.1349.晶体中每一个结构单元包含了2个键参数完全不同的以Sn2O2构成的平面四元环为中心环的二聚体结构分子,锡原子均为五配位的畸变三角双锥构型.对其结构进行量子化学从头计算,探讨了配合物的稳定性、分子轨道能量以及部分前沿分子轨道的组成特征.%Di-n-buyltin di-o-chlorobenzoate { [n-Bu2Sn(O2CC10H9) ]2O }2 was synthesized by a microwave assisted solid-state synthesis. Its structure has been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The crystal belongs to the triclinic space group P 1 with a = 1. 17653(4) nm, 6 = 1. 20672(4) nm, c =2. 74090(9) nm, α=80.493(2)°,β = 83. 995 (2)°, γ = 64. 260 (2)°, V = 3. 4547 (2) nm3,Z =2,Dc = 1.525 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) =16.34 cnr',F(000) =1 592,R1 =0.0414,wR2 =0. 1349. In the complex, the tin atoms are five-coordinated in a distorted tigonal bipyram idalstructure, and the dimeric structure constitutes a Sn2O2 planar. Theoretical study on the title complex has been performed using a quantum chemistry calculation by means of G98W package and taking LANL2DZ basis set. The stabilities of the complex, the orbital energies and composition characteristics of some frontier molecular orbitals were presented.

  18. Mutual Exclusion in a Token Ring in CC++

    OpenAIRE

    Binau, Ulla

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a first attempt at using UNITY to verify reactive Compositional C++ (CC++) programs. We propose a distributed solution to the mutual exclusion problem using partially synchronous communication channels. The solution is described as a CC++ program, from which a small set of "basic" properties is derived. Using UNITY, we proof mutual exclusion and progress of the solution based on the set of properties derived from the code.

  19. Understanding Rotation about a C=C Double Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H.

    2005-09-01

    In this article, twisting about the C=C double bond and the consequential pyramidalization of sp 2 carbon atoms in alkenes were examined in a molecular modeling study using trans -2-butene as a model system. According to our trans -2-butene model and other similar work, most of the strength of a π bond is retained upon twisting, even for remarkably large C C=C C dihedral angles (up to 90°). The phenomenon of sp 2 carbon atom pyramidalization and preservation of π bond strength upon twisting a C=C double bond is well established in the literature, but is rarely discussed in introductory textbooks. This absence is noteworthy because profound manifestations of this effect do occur in compounds that are covered in an introductory organic chemistry curriculum. We present a simple method of introducing the concept of a flexible C=C π bond into beginning organic chemistry courses. We report the energetic demands of partial twisting about the C=C bond in 2-butene as calculated using DFT, LMP2, and MCSCF methods. Finally, using the results of these calculations, we assessed the degree of strain introduced by the twisted nature of the C=C bond in trans cycloalkenes.

  20. Parameter identification and synchronization for uncertain network group with different structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengren; Lü, Ling; Sun, Ying; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wenjun; Sun, Ao

    2016-09-01

    We design a novel synchronization technique to research the synchronization of network group constituted of uncertain networks with different structures. Based on Lyapunov theorem, the selection principles of the control inputs and the parameter identification laws of the networks are determined, and synchronization conditions of the network group are obtained. Some numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the synchronization technique. We find that the network number, the number of network nodes and network connections indeed will not affect the stability of synchronization of network group.

  1. The influence of X-semipermutability of subgroups on the structure of finite groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Let A be a subgroup of a group G and X be a nonempty subset of G. A is said to be X-semipermutable in G if A has a supplement T in G such that A is X-permutable with every subgroup of T. In this paper, we investigate further the influence of X-semipermutability of some subgroups on the structure of finite groups. Some new criteria for a group G to be supersoluble or p-nilpotent are obtained.

  2. Effects of Structured Group Counseling on Anger Management Skills of Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzar-Özçetin, Yeter Sinem; Hiçdurmaz, Duygu

    2017-03-01

    Anger management is an important skill for nurses to prevent conflicts in the health care environment. Efforts, beginning with nursing education, are required to improve this skill and evaluate the effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a structured counseling program on improving the anger management skills of nursing students. The study had an experimental design with pre- and posttests. Twenty-six undergraduate nursing students who were randomly assigned to the groups participated. The authors conducted eight counseling sessions with the experiment group and no intervention with the control group. Data were collected using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. The counseling group had higher anger control and repression scores and lower trait anger scores after the counseling, compared with the control group. This counseling improved the students' anger management skills. Therefore, such programs should be integrated into the services provided for nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(3):174-181.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. On the Effect of Group Structures on Ranking Strategies in Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Fabian; Henze, Nicola; Krause, Daniel; Kriesell, Matthias

    Folksonomies have shown interesting potential for improving information discovery and exploration. Recent folksonomy systems explore the use of tag assignments, which combine Web resources with annotations (tags), and the users that have created the annotations. This article investigates on the effect of grouping resources in folksonomies, i.e. creating sets of resources, and using this additional structure for the tasks of search & ranking, and for tag recommendations. We propose several group-sensitive extensions of graph-based search and recommendation algorithms, and compare them with non group-sensitive versions. Our experiments show that the quality of search result ranking can be significantly improved by introducing and exploiting the grouping of resources (one-tailed t-Test, level of significance α=0.05). Furthermore, tag recommendations profit from the group context, and it is possible to make very good recommendations even for untagged resources- which currently known tag recommendation algorithms cannot fulfill.

  4. Effects of a Structured Group Intervention on the Achievement of Academically At-Risk Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hardin L. K.; Freedman, Albert M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effects of a multi-component, structured group intervention on the academic achievement of 78 male and 71 female students on academic probation. Students participating in the intervention were removed from probation status at significantly higher rates and achieved significantly higher grade point averages and credit completion ratios…

  5. Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jeugd, HP; Prins, HHT

    Movements and group structure of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis were studied in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. The giraffe population in Manyara had increased from 60 to 85 individuals between the early 1980s and 1991. This increase may have been the result of an increase in browse

  6. Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeugd, van der H.P.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2000-01-01

    Movements and group structure of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis were studied in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. The giraffe population in Manyara had increased from 60 to 85 individuals between the early 1980s and 1991. This increase may have been the result of an increase in browse

  7. Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jeugd, HP; Prins, HHT

    2000-01-01

    Movements and group structure of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis were studied in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. The giraffe population in Manyara had increased from 60 to 85 individuals between the early 1980s and 1991. This increase may have been the result of an increase in browse a

  8. Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeugd, van der H.P.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2000-01-01

    Movements and group structure of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis were studied in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. The giraffe population in Manyara had increased from 60 to 85 individuals between the early 1980s and 1991. This increase may have been the result of an increase in browse a

  9. Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeugd, van der H.P.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2000-01-01

    Movements and group structure of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis were studied in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. The giraffe population in Manyara had increased from 60 to 85 individuals between the early 1980s and 1991. This increase may have been the result of an increase in browse a

  10. 26 CFR 1.1502-31 - Stock basis after a group structure change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(f)(1) for the definition of group structure change. For example, if P owns all of the stock of... transaction, P's basis in S's stock is reduced by the fair market value of the asset. (2) Allocable share—(i... redetermination equals the percentage (by fair market value) of the former common parent's stock subject to...

  11. Structure of Symmetry Groups via Cartan's Method: Survey of Four Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg I. Morozov

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review article we discuss four recent methods for computing Maurer-Cartan structure equations of symmetry groups of differential equations. Examples include solution of the contact equivalence problem for linear hyperbolic equations and finding a contact transformation between the generalized Hunter-Saxton equation and the Euler-Poisson equation.

  12. An Enhanced Collaborative Optimization Approach with Design Structure Matrix Algorithms to Group and Decouple Multidisciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifan Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the solution efficiency and reliability of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO, an enhanced MDO approach, called sequenced collaborative optimization (SCO, is proposed. The proposed approach introduces the design structure matrix (DSM to describe the coupling effects among disciplines and aggregates those mutually coupling disciplines into the strong tie groups among similar ones and the weak tie among heterogeneous ones through clustering algorithms. Further, those in the same group are sequenced by the DSM division algorithm. Moreover, by adding constraints, the groups are made independent, resulting in a tree structure without loops, thus decoupling the original multidisciplinary problem into several independent collaborative optimization modules. In the end, an example is employed to verify the efficiency and reliability of the approach.

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Reveals a Sub-Lineage Epidemiologically Associated with Infections in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Mohamed M. H.; Wittenberg, Anne; Cuny, Christiane; Layer, Franziska; Kurt, Kevin; Wieler, Lothar H.; Walther, Birgit; Skov, Robert; Larsen, Jesper; Hasman, Henrik; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Smith, Tara C.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Pantosti, Annalisa; Hallin, Marie; Struelens, Marc J.; Edwards, Giles; Böse, R.; Nübel, Ulrich; Witte, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, a particular MRSA clonal complex (CC398) was found mainly in pigs and pig farmers in Europe. Since then, CC398 has been detected among a wide variety of animal species worldwide. We investigated the population structure of CC398 through mutation discovery at 97 genetic housekeeping loci, which are distributed along the CC398 chromosome within 195 CC398 isolates, collected from various countries and host species, including humans. Most of the isolates in this collection were received from collaborating microbiologists, who had preserved them over years. We discovered 96 bi-allelic polymorphisms, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that an epidemic sub-clone within CC398 (dubbed ‘clade (C)’) has spread within and between equine hospitals, where it causes nosocomial infections in horses and colonises the personnel. While clade (C) was strongly associated with S. aureus from horses in veterinary-care settings (p = 2×10−7), it remained extremely rare among S. aureus isolates from human infections. PMID:24505386

  14. Developing a Framework for Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Using the Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Matthew F.; White, Paul J.; Larson, Ian; Malone, Daniel T.; Manallack, David T.; Nicolazzo, Joseph A.; McDowell, Jennifer; Lim, Angelina S.; Kirkpatrick, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To use the nominal group technique to develop a framework to improve existing and develop new objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) within a four-year bachelor of pharmacy course. Design. Using the nominal group technique, a unique method of group interview that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection, focus groups were conducted with faculty members, practicing pharmacists, and undergraduate pharmacy students. Five draft OSCEs frameworks were suggested and participants were asked to generate new framework ideas. Assessment. Two focus groups (n=9 and n=7) generated nine extra frameworks. Two of these frameworks, one from each focus group, ranked highest (mean scores of 4.4 and 4.1 on a 5-point scale) and were similar in nature. The project team used these two frameworks to produce the final framework, which includes an OSCE in every year of the course, earlier implementation of teaching OSCEs, and the use of independent simulated patients who are not examiners. Conclusions. The new OSCE framework provides a consistent structure from course entry to exit and ensures graduates meet internship requirements. PMID:28090107

  15. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  16. Effect of group walking traffic on dynamic properties of pedestrian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, E.; Pavic, A.; Racic, V.; Zivanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of reported vibration serviceability problems in newly built pedestrian structures, such as footbridges and floors, under walking load has attracted considerable attention in the civil engineering community over the past two decades. The key design challenges are: the inter- and intra-subject variability of walking people, the unknown mechanisms of their interaction with the vibrating walking surfaces and the synchronisation between individuals in a group. Ignoring all or some of these factors makes the current design methods an inconsistent approximation of reality. This often leads to considerable over- or under-estimation of the structural response, yielding an unreliable assessment of vibration performance. Changes to the dynamic properties of an empty structure due to the presence of stationary people have been studied extensively over the past two decades. The understanding of the similar effect of walking people on laterally swaying bridges has improved tremendously in the past decade, due to considerable research prompted by the Millennium Bridge problem. However, there is currently a gap in knowledge about how moving pedestrians affect the dynamic properties of vertically vibrating structures. The key reason for this gap is the scarcity of credible experimental data pertinent to moving pedestrians on vertically vibrating structures, especially for multi-pedestrian traffic. This paper addresses this problem by studying the dynamic properties of the combined human-structure system, i.e. occupied structure damping ratio, natural frequency and modal mass. This was achieved using a comprehensive set of frequency response function records, measured on a full-scale test structure, which was occupied by various numbers of moving pedestrians under different walking scenarios. Contrary to expectations, it was found that the natural frequency of the joint moving human-structure system was higher than that of the empty structure, while it was

  17. The Italian Red Brigades and the structure and dynamics of terrorist groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2010-06-01

    One of the problems in dealing with terrorism is that we have virtually no access to individual terrorists; only their actions are visible. The founders of the Italian terrorist group, the Red Brigades, on the other hand, have written about their experiences and have exhaustively explained their motivations. The author's premise is that these autobiographies and her interviews with several of the group's members give us access to the unconscious processes involved in the formation and operation of the group. After terrorist attacks, it is natural to ask whether the terrorists' capacity for collective violence is an indication of personal pathology. This paper argues that the relevant pathology in the terrorist enterprise is not that of the individual but that of the group. Relying on the theories of groups of Freud (1921), Bion (1961), Anzieu (1984) and Kaes (2007), the author argues that psychoanalytic theory is essential to understanding the motivations and actions of violent groups which otherwise remain obscure. Although the discussion has been confined to one terrorist group, the author hopes that it can also be useful for understanding the unconscious dynamics of other groups structured around an ideology which mandates the destruction of human life.

  18. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-08-08

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The EMaCC Charter and the memorandum approving it are presented in the Appendix of this report. The FY 2002 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2002 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2002 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  19. Hierarchical cluster-tendency analysis of the group structure in the foreign exchange market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Ye; Zheng, Zhi-Gang

    2013-08-01

    A hierarchical cluster-tendency (HCT) method in analyzing the group structure of networks of the global foreign exchange (FX) market is proposed by combining the advantages of both the minimal spanning tree (MST) and the hierarchical tree (HT). Fifty currencies of the top 50 World GDP in 2010 according to World Bank's database are chosen as the underlying system. By using the HCT method, all nodes in the FX market network can be "colored" and distinguished. We reveal that the FX networks can be divided into two groups, i.e., the Asia-Pacific group and the Pan-European group. The results given by the hierarchical cluster-tendency method agree well with the formerly observed geographical aggregation behavior in the FX market. Moreover, an oil-resource aggregation phenomenon is discovered by using our method. We find that gold could be a better numeraire for the weekly-frequency FX data.

  20. Molecular early main group metal hydrides: synthetic challenge, structures and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Sjoerd

    2012-11-25

    Within the general area of early main group metal chemistry, the controlled synthesis of well-defined metal hydride complexes is a rapidly developing research field. As group 1 and 2 metal complexes are generally highly dynamic and lattice energies for their [MH](∞) and [MH(2)](∞) salts are high, the synthesis of well-defined soluble hydride complexes is an obvious challenge. Access to molecular early main group metal hydrides, however, is rewarding: these hydrocarbon-soluble metal hydrides are highly reactive, have found use in early main group metal catalysis and are potentially also valuable molecular model systems for polar metal hydrides as a hydrogen storage material. The article focusses specifically on alkali and alkaline-earth metal hydride complexes and discusses the synthetic challenge, molecular structures, reactivity and applications.

  1. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-07

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  2. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-01

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  3. Interstellar detection of c-C3D2

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzano, S; Schilke, P; Caselli, P; Menten, K M; McCarthy, M C; Bizzocchi, L; Trevino-Morales, S P; Aikawa, Y; Schlemmer, S

    2013-01-01

    We report the first interstellar detection of c-C3D2. The doubly deuterated cyclopropenylidene, a carbene, has been detected toward the starless cores TMC- 1C and L1544 using the IRAM 30m telescope. The J(Ka,Kc) = 3(0,3)-2(1,2), 3(1,3)-2(0,2), and 2(2,1)-1(1,0) transitions of this species have been observed at 3 mm in both sources. The expected 1:2 intensity ratio has been found in the 3(0,3)-2(1,2) and 3(1,3)-2(0,2) lines, belonging to the para and ortho species respectively. We also observed lines of the main species, c-C3H2, the singly deuterated c-C3HD, and the species with one 13C off of the principal axis of the molecule, c-H13CC2H. The lines of c-C3D2 have been observed with high signal to noise ratio, better than 7.5 sigma in TMC-1C and 9 sigma in L1544. The abundance of doubly deuterated cyclopropenylidene with respect to the normal species is found to be (0.4 - 0.8)% in TMC-1C and (1.2 - 2.1)% in L1544. The deuteration of this small hydrocarbon ring is analysed with a comprehensive gas-grain model, ...

  4. Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of “local ethnicity” on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  5. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  6. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  7. Design of synchronization technique for uncertain discrete network group with diverse structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ling; Li, Chengren; Li, Gang; Sun, Ao; Yan, Zhe; Rong, Tingting; Gao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we design a novel synchronization technique to realize the synchronization of the network group which is constituted by some uncertain discrete networks with diverse structures. Based on Lyapunov theorem, the selection principle of the control inputs and identification law of uncertain parameters in networks are determined, and the synchronization conditions of network group are obtained. Finally, numerical simulations using one-dimensional convective equations with spatiotemporal chaos behaviors illustrate the performance of the synchronization scheme. The research results show that our synchronization technique can be suitable for the network connecting arbitrarily, and not only the network number but also node number in each network can also be chosen freely.

  8. Line group techniques in description of the structural phase transitions in some superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, C.; Bankuti, J. [Roland Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary); Balint, A. [Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Goedoello (Hungary)

    1994-12-31

    The main features of the theory of line groups, and their irreducible representations are briefly discussed, as well as the most important applications of them. A new approach in the general symmetry analysis of the modulated systems is presented. It is shown, that the line group formalism could be a very effective tool in the examination of the structural phase transitions in High Temperature Superconductors. As an example, the material YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} is discussed briefly.

  9. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, S.K.; Waychunas, G.A.; Trainor, T.P.; Eng, P.J.

    2009-12-15

    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous stud-ies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite(100) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the(100) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface

  10. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-06-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature. We systematically study the efficacy of the methodology and generate a number of special quasirandom cells for future use. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the technique, the electronic structures of E centers in Si1-xGex and Si1-x -yGexSny alloys are discussed for a range of nearest neighbor environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The maize cystatin CC9 interacts with apoplastic cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Mueller, André N; Hemetsberger, Christoph; Kashani, Farnusch; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2012-11-01

    In a recent study we identified corn cystain9 (CC9) as a novel compatibility factor for the interaction of the biotrophic smut fungus Ustilago maydis with its host plant maize. CC9 is transcriptionally induced during the compatible interaction with U. maydis and localizes in the maize apoplast where it inhibits apoplastic papain-like cysteine proteases. The proteases are activated during incompatible interaction and salicylic acid (SA) treatment and, in turn, are sufficient to induce SA signaling including PR-gene expression. Therefore the inhibition of apoplastic papain-like cysteine proteases by CC9 is essential to suppress host immunity during U. maydis infection. Here were present new experimental data on the cysteine protease-cystatin interaction and provide an in silco analysis of plant cystatins and the identified apoplastic cysteine proteases.

  12. Structural elements of construction of individual and group exercises’ competition compositions in calisthenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Y.O.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze content of individual and group exercises’ competition compositions in calisthenics. Material: in the research HEEs’ girl students (n=20, junior sportswomen (n=10, experts (n=30, coaches with 10-40 years’ working experience participated. Results: it was found that temporary indicators permit to assess level of female gymnasts’ readiness for fulfillment of competition compositions’ elements; facilitated rational correlation of body and object’s elements of complexity. Quickness of preparation to elements and directly time of exercise’s fulfillment acquire great importance. In individual and group exercises the most important are distribution of sportswoman’s moving on all site with frequent change of directions. It was established that realization of structural elements facilitates full opening of female gymnast’s artistic image. Conclusions: for building of competition compositions coaches shall fully use indicators of space and time structural elements.

  13. structSSI: Simultaneous and Selective Inference for Grouped or Hierarchically Structured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    We briefly describe the group Benjamini-Hochberg and hierarchical false discovery rate procedures and then illustrate them using two examples, one a measure of ecological microbial abundances and the other a global temperature time series. For both procedures, we detail the steps associated with the analysis of these particular data sets, including establishing the dependence structures, performing the test, and interpreting the results. These steps are encapsulated by R functions, and we explain their applicability to general data sets.

  14. Incommensurate structures studied by a modified Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    A modified density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method is introduced and applied to classical two-dimensional models: the anisotropic triangular nearest- neighbor Ising (ATNNI) model and the anisotropic triangular next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. Phase diagrams of both models have complex structures and exhibit incommensurate phases. It was found that the incommensurate phase completely separates the disordered phase from one of the commensurate phases, i. e. the non-existenc...

  15. The group theory for solving electromagnetic scattering problems with geometric symmetric structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰; 杨海川; 任朗

    1997-01-01

    It is a very important issue to reduce computer storage and calculation time for matrix in solving scattering field by making use of geometric and physical symmetric features of a scattering body. A general definition for the symmetric and anti-symmetric structure is given by applying the group theory in mathematics and a general method for treating the electromagnetic scattering problems with symmetry is proposed. An example for applying the theory mentioned above is also given.

  16. Phase structure analysis of CP(N-1) model using Tensor renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Kawauchi, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    The phase structure of the lattice CP($N-1$) model in two dimensions is analyzed by the tensor renormalization group (TRG) method. We focus on the case $N=2$ and compare the numerical result of the TRG method with that of the strong-coupling analysis in the presence of the $\\theta$ term and investigate the nature of the phase transition at $\\theta=\\pi$.

  17. Structural analysis of the Rio Pardo Group - southeast of Bahia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Egydio-Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Meso- to Neoproterozoic Rio Pardo Group is located in the southeastern region of the Bahia State and consistsof low-grade metasedimentary rocks deposited on Paleoproterozoic to Archean basement. From the base to the top, themetasedimentary rocks are grouped into the following sequences: Panelinha Formation consisting of coarse-grainedimmature clastics; the overlying Itaimbé Subgroup which is made up of the Camacã Formation (metapelites with localcarbonates, the Água Preta Formation (fi ne-grained metapsamites and local carbonate lenses, Serra do Paraíso Formation(metacarbonates and quartzites and the Santa Maria Eterna Formation (metaconglomerates and metacarbonates. TheSalobro Formation was deposited unconformably on this sequence and consists of coarse-grained immature and local fi negrainedclastic rocks. The Rio Pardo Group was affected by three successive folding events, which were recorded in twolitho-structural units. The litho-structural unit 1 is located in the northeastern part of the basin, and the litho-structural unit2, in the southwestern part of the basin. These units are separated by the Rio Pardo-Água Preta inverse fault, trending NWSEand dipping SW. The fi rst unit is autochthonous and monophasic and displays open folds and slaty cleavage, changinggradually towards southwest into large overturned folds with axial plane schistosity. The second unit is polyphasic andshows large folds with NE vergence. A third folding is represented by folds and foliations present at the western marginof the basin. The NE vergence of the Rio Pardo Group can be explained by changes in the deformation regime and in thedirection of the principal axis of deformation in the north sector of the Araçuaí belt during the Brasiliano collision orogen.The tectonic transport to the north could be the cause of deformation of the Rio Pardo Group.

  18. Regional variations in microstructural properties of vertebral trabeculae with structural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, He; Zhang, Ming; Qin, Ling; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Guo, Xia; Shi, San-Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning to investigate three-dimensional microstructural properties of L4 vertebral bodies. To identify the regional variations in the three-dimensional microstructural properties of vertebral cancellous bones with respect to structural types for the prediction of related regional fracture risks. The literature contains no reports on regional variations in morphologic properties of vertebral trabeculae with microstructural types, which may shed light on the patterns of osteoporotic fractures. Ninety cubic cancellous specimens were obtained from 6 normal L4 vertebral bodies of 6 male donors 62 to 70 years of age and were scanned using a high-resolution micro-CT system. These specimens were further divided into two groups according to the average structure model index (SMI) of the 15 trabecular specimens in each vertebral body. Adjustment for age differences was done for the microstructural parameters, i.e.-, bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, structure model index, degree of architectural anisotropy, and connectivity density, to allow investigation on the regional variations in different transverse layers and vertical columns independent of age. Trabecular specimens with lower mass were liable to form high-SMI group and the differences in all parameters reached significance level either between columns or between layers from two groups. The anterior column in the high-SMI group is more susceptible to vertebral body wedge fracture; and in the low-SMI group, off-axis bone damage is most harmful to the central column of vertebral trabeculae. The data obtained may help to identify the most critical locations of fracture risks at an early stage and provide a microstructural basis for the repair and clinical treatment of vertebral fractures.

  19. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Emergence of spatial structure in cell groups and the evolution of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey D Nadell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On its own, a single cell cannot exert more than a microscopic influence on its immediate surroundings. However, via strength in numbers and the expression of cooperative phenotypes, such cells can enormously impact their environments. Simple cooperative phenotypes appear to abound in the microbial world, but explaining their evolution is challenging because they are often subject to exploitation by rapidly growing, non-cooperative cell lines. Population spatial structure may be critical for this problem because it influences the extent of interaction between cooperative and non-cooperative individuals. It is difficult for cooperative cells to succeed in competition if they become mixed with non-cooperative cells, which can exploit the public good without themselves paying a cost. However, if cooperative cells are segregated in space and preferentially interact with each other, they may prevail. Here we use a multi-agent computational model to study the origin of spatial structure within growing cell groups. Our simulations reveal that the spatial distribution of genetic lineages within these groups is linked to a small number of physical and biological parameters, including cell growth rate, nutrient availability, and nutrient diffusivity. Realistic changes in these parameters qualitatively alter the emergent structure of cell groups, and thereby determine whether cells with cooperative phenotypes can locally and globally outcompete exploitative cells. We argue that cooperative and exploitative cell lineages will spontaneously segregate in space under a wide range of conditions and, therefore, that cellular cooperation may evolve more readily than naively expected.

  1. Effects of concentration, head group, and structure of surfactants on the degradation of phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Danyue; Jiang Xia [State Environmental Protect Key Laboratory of Lake Eutrophication Control, Research Center of Lake Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No. 8 Dayangfang, An Wai Bei Yuan, Beijing 100012 (China)]. E-mail: jiangxia@craes.org.cn; Jing Xin [State Environmental Protect Agency of China (China); Ou Ziqing [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2007-06-01

    The effects of concentration, polar/ionic head group, and structure of surfactants on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aqueous phase, as well as their effects on the bacterial activity were investigated. The toxicity ranking of studied surfactants is: non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Brij30, 10LE and Brij35) < anionic surfactants (LAS) < cationic surfactants (TDTMA). For the same head group and similar molecular structure, the toxicity to the bacteria is due to the chain length, in which the toxicity becomes lower as the chain length increases. The bacterial growth increased slightly when phenanthrene and LAS ({<=}10 mg L{sup -1}) served the sole carbon and energy resource. However, the degradation of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene showed either a decrease or no obvious change with the surfactants present at all tested concentrations (5-40 mg L{sup -1}). Thus, the surfactant addition is not beneficial to the removal of phenanthrene or other PAH contaminants due presumably to the preferential utilization of surfactants at low levels as the non-toxic nutrient resource and to the high toxicity of the surfactants at high levels to the microorganism activity. Biodegradation of phenanthrene was also influenced by the surfactant concentration, head group type, and structure. Much more research has yet to be completed on the use of surfactants for soil remediation due to the surfactant toxicity or biodegradation effect.

  2. Behavioral responses in structured populations pave the way to group optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    An unresolved controversy regarding social behaviors is exemplified when natural selection might lead to behaviors that maximize fitness at the social-group level but are costly at the individual level. Except for the special case of groups of clones, we do not have a general understanding of how and when group-optimal behaviors evolve, especially when the behaviors in question are flexible. To address this question, we develop a general model that integrates behavioral plasticity in social interactions with the action of natural selection in structured populations. We find that group-optimal behaviors can evolve, even without clonal groups, if individuals exhibit appropriate behavioral responses to each other's actions. The evolution of such behavioral responses, in turn, is predicated on the nature of the proximate behavioral mechanisms. We model a particular class of proximate mechanisms, prosocial preferences, and find that such preferences evolve to sustain maximum group benefit under certain levels of relatedness and certain ecological conditions. Thus, our model demonstrates the fundamental interplay between behavioral responses and relatedness in determining the course of social evolution. We also highlight the crucial role of proximate mechanisms such as prosocial preferences in the evolution of behavioral responses and in facilitating evolutionary transitions in individuality.

  3. 24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic structure for Chinese Kazak ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-09-01

    The Kazak ethnic minority is a large ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and is valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 201 unrelated Kazak male individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Kazak group ranged from 0.0050 to 0.9104. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 113 different haplotypes were obtained, 96 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Kazak group were 0.9578 and 0.5622 at 24 STR loci, respectively. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity at Y-filer 17 loci, extended 11 loci, and minimal 9 loci were reduced to 0.9274 and 0.4279, 0.8459 and 0.3284, and 0.8354 and 0.2985, respectively, which could indicate that the more loci were detected, the higher forensic efficacy was obtained. We evaluated the application value of the 24 loci in forensic sciences and analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Kazak1 (represent our samples from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture) group and other 14 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that the Kazak1 group had the closer genetic relationships with Kazak2 (represent samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), Mongolian, and Uygur ethnic groups. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Kazak1 and other groups.

  4. The CC-Theory of the Origin of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I propose a research programme based on a theory called the CC-theory, consisting of three very tentative and speculative hypotheses that together account for the origin of the major aspects of natural language. The core hypothesis (which I will call the Conceptual Copy Hypothesis or CC-Hypothesis) states that a very small change in the genes of our ancestors had the effect that a second copy of the conceptual-intentional (C-I) component develops: this small change at the genoty...

  5. First Observation of the Doubly Charmed Baryon Xi_cc^+

    CERN Document Server

    Mattson, M E

    2002-01-01

    We observe a signal for the doubly charmed baryon Xi_cc^+ in the charged decay mode Xi_cc^+ --> Lambda_c^+ K- pi+ in data from SELEX, the charm hadro-production experiment at Fermilab. We observe an excess of 15.9 events over an expected background of 6.1 \\pm 0.5 events, a statistical significance of 6.3sigma. The observed mass of this state is (3519 \\pm 1) MeV/c^2. The Gaussian mass width of this state is 3MeV/c^2, consistent with resolution; its lifetime is less than 33fsec at 90% confidence.

  6. Efficient C/C++ programming smaller, faster, better

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Efficient C/C++ Programming describes a practical, real-world approach to efficient C/C++ programming. Topics covered range from how to save storage using a restricted character set and how to speed up access to records by employing hash coding and caching. A selective mailing list system is used to illustrate rapid access to and rearrangement of information selected by criteria specified at runtime.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins by discussing factors to consider when deciding whether a program needs optimization. In the next chapter, a supermarket price lookup system is used to

  7. Group-theoretic insights on the vibration of symmetric structures in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingoni, Alphose

    2014-02-13

    Group theory has been used to study various problems in physics and chemistry for many years. Relatively recently, applications have emerged in engineering, where problems of the vibration, bifurcation and stability of systems exhibiting symmetry have been studied. From an engineering perspective, the main attraction of group-theoretic methods has been their potential to reduce computational effort in the analysis of large-scale problems. In this paper, we focus on vibration problems in structural mechanics and reveal some of the insights and qualitative benefits that group theory affords. These include an appreciation of all the possible symmetries of modes of vibration, the prediction of the number of modes of a given symmetry type, the identification of modes associated with the same frequencies, the prediction of nodal lines and stationary points of a vibrating system, and the untangling of clustered frequencies.

  8. Synthesis, characterisation and crystal structures of two bi-oxadiazole derivatives featuring the trifluoromethyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, Marcos A; Klapötke, Thomas M; Witkowski, Tomasz G; von Hundling, Felix

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis, characterisation, and crystal structure determination of the closely related compounds 3,3'-bi-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole) and 5,5'-bi-(2-trifluoromethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole) are reported. These two compounds are known for their bioactivity; however, in this study they serve as model compounds to evaluate the suitability of the heterocyclic oxadiazole ring system for energetic materials when the fluorine atoms in the exocyclic CF3 groups are substituted successively by nitro groups. Quantum chemical calculations for the bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with difluoronitromethyl, fluorodinitromethyl, and trinitromethyl groups have been carried out and predict promising energetic performances for both explosive and propulsive applications.

  9. Structural and Substituent Group Effects on Multielectron Standard Reduction Potentials of Aromatic N-Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenboom, Mitchell C; Saravanan, Karthikeyan; Zhu, Yaqun; Carr, Jeffrey M; Marjolin, Aude; Faura, Gabriel G; Yu, Eric C; Dominey, Raymond N; Keith, John A

    2016-09-01

    Aromatic N-heterocycles have been used in electrochemical CO2 reduction, but their precise role is not yet fully understood. We used first-principles quantum chemistry to determine how the molecular sizes and substituent groups of these molecules affect their standard redox potentials involving various proton and electron transfers. We then use that data to generate molecular Pourbaix diagrams to find the electrochemical conditions at which the aromatic N-heterocycle molecules could participate in multiproton and electron shuttling in accordance with the Sabatier principle. While one-electron standard redox potentials for aromatic N-heterocycles can vary significantly with molecule size and the presence of substituent groups, the two-electron and two-proton standard redox potentials depend much less on structural modifications and substituent groups. This indicates that a wide variety of aromatic N-heterocycles can participate in proton, electron, and/or hydride shuttling under suitable electrochemical conditions.

  10. The effect of hydroxyl group on the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirmand, M.

    2016-09-01

    A single hydroxyl group is functionalized on both sides of one ring of several carbon nanotubes (CNT) as CNT-OH. The electronic structure and chemical bonding parameters are studied with the help of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Anionic states of the CNT-O as deprotonated hydroxyl are studied in order to get insight into the nature of CNT-OH species, considering frozen and relaxed geometries of CNT-O compounds. The results show a significant difference between inside or outside substituted hydroxyl groups; and also complicated behavior of the CNT's diameter, and it can be concluded that hydroxyl group can be used to tune the CNT's properties, effectively, in interesting application of these nanostructures.

  11. Lerdahl and Jackendoff's grouping structure rules in the performance of a Hindemith sonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Jose A; Laucirica, Ana

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, musical cognitive psychology has intervened to build a bridge towards the comprehension of musical structures. The present paper studies the behavior of several students and music professionals in relation to grouping structure and it does so through the performance analysis of the first movement of Hindemith's sonata for flute and piano, according to the rules formulated by Lerdahl and Jackendoff, movement chosen because of its tonal ambiguity. The participants of this experiment are three medium level female Conservatory students. They performed the aforementioned piece after studying it for a whole trimester. The performance of the same piece by three professional musicians was also analyzed, using the appropriate commercial recordings for this purpose. This analysis includes the choice of group limits used in performance by both professionals and students and the comparison of both groups' results. Differences were observed in the placement of said limits by the different groups but all of them respected the set of rules formulated by Lerdahl and Jackendoff.

  12. The structural basis for promoter -35 element recognition by the group IV sigma factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Lane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of bacterial transcription initiation depends on a primary sigma factor for housekeeping functions, as well as alternative sigma factors that control regulons in response to environmental stresses. The largest and most diverse subgroup of alternative sigma factors, the group IV extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, directs the transcription of genes that regulate a wide variety of responses, including envelope stress and pathogenesis. We determined the 2.3-A resolution crystal structure of the -35 element recognition domain of a group IV sigma factor, Escherichia coli sigma(E4, bound to its consensus -35 element, GGAACTT. Despite similar function and secondary structure, the primary and group IV sigma factors recognize their -35 elements using distinct mechanisms. Conserved sequence elements of the sigma(E -35 element induce a DNA geometry characteristic of AA/TT-tract DNA, including a rigid, straight double-helical axis and a narrow minor groove. For this reason, the highly conserved AA in the middle of the GGAACTT motif is essential for -35 element recognition by sigma(E4, despite the absence of direct protein-DNA interactions with these DNA bases. These principles of sigma(E4/-35 element recognition can be applied to a wide range of other group IV sigma factors.

  13. Stability and electronic structure of two-dimensional allotropes of group-IV materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusalem, Filipe; Marques, Marcelo; Teles, Lara K.; Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2015-07-01

    We study six different two-dimensional (2D) allotropes of carbon, silicon, germanium, and tin by means of the ab initio density functional theory for the ground state and approximate methods to calculate their electronic structures, including quasiparticle effects. Four of the investigated allotropes are based on dumbbell geometries, one on a kagome lattice, and one on the graphenelike hexagonal structure for comparison. Concerning carbon, our calculations of the cohesive energies clearly show that the hexagonal structure (graphene) is most stable. However, in the case of Si and Ge, the dumbbell structures, particularly the large honeycomb dumbbell (LHD) geometries, are energetically favored compared to the s p2/s p3 -bonded hexagonal lattice (i.e., silicene and germanene). The main reason for this is the opening of a band gap in the honeycomb dumbbell arrangements. The LHD sheet crystals represent indirect semiconductors with a K →Γ gap of about 0.5 eV. In the Sn case we predict the MoS2-like symmetry to be more stable, in contrast to the stanene and LHD geometries predicted in literature. Our results for freestanding group-IV layers shine new light on recent experimental studies of group-IV overlayers on various substrates.

  14. On the existence of deformed Lie-Poisson structures for quantized groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lyakhovsky, V D

    1996-01-01

    The geometrical description of deformation quantization based on quantum duality principle makes it possible to introduce deformed Lie-Poisson structure. It serves as a natural analogue of classical Lie bialgebra for the case when the initial object is a quantized group. The explicit realization of the deformed Lie-Poisson structure is a difficult problem. We study the special class of such constructions characterized by quite a simple form of tanjent vector fields. It is proved that in such a case it is sufficient to find four Lie compositions that form two deformations of the first order and four Lie bialgebras. This garantees the existence of two families of deformed Lie-Poisson structures due to the intrinsic symmetry of the initial compositions. The explicit example is presented.

  15. The Clinical Study on Acupuncture Sensation in CC, CF and BV Herbal Acupuncture -The Basic Study on Placebo Herbal Acupuncture-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Jung-Chul

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to find out whether NS(normal saline is able to be constituted as an appropriate control group for CC(Cervi Cornu Parvum herbal acupuncture, CF(Carthami-Flos herbal acupuncture and BV(bee venom herbal acupuncture. Methods : NS and three herbal acupuncture were inserted into Quchi(LI 11 of the subjects. After 5 minutes the subjects completed a questionnaire rating the intensity of 21 kinds of acupuncture sensation; hurting, penetrating, sharp, aching, intense, spreading, radiating, tingling, pricking, stinging, pulling, heavy, dull, numb, electric, shocking, hot, burning, cool, pulsing, and throbbing. We compared subjective evaluations of acupuncture sensation between or among the groups. Results : As for CC half items of the acupuncture sensation were significantly different from NS. As for CF all items were not significantly different from NS. As for CC all items were significantly different from NS except one item. In general the score of CF acupuncture sensation was lower than the others and the score of BV acupuncture sensation was higher than the others from comparison of sensation among herbal acupunctures(CC, CF, BV. Conclusion : We found that NS is able to be an appropriate placebo herbal acupuncture for CF. Further study is needed for new placebo herbal acupuncture for CC and BV.

  16. Usefulness of electromyography of the cavernous corpora (CC EMG) in the diagnosis of arterial erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virseda-Chamorro, M; Lopez-Garcia-Moreno, A M; Salinas-Casado, J; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2012-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of the corpora cavernosa (CC-EMG) is able to record the activity of the erectile tissue during erection, and thus has been used as a diagnostic technique in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study examines the usefulness of the technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED. A cross-sectional study was made of 35 males with a mean age of 48.5 years (s.d. 11.34), referred to our center with ED for >1 year. The patients were subjected to CC-EMG and a penile Doppler ultrasound study following the injection of 20 μg of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). The patients were divided into three groups according to their response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1: Group 1 (adequate erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity); Group 2 (insufficient erection and persistence of EMG activity); and Group 3 (insufficient erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity). Patient classification according to response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1 was as follows: Group 1: six patients (17%), Group 2: 18 patients (51%), and Group 3: 11 patients (31%). Patients diagnosed with arterial insufficiency according to Doppler ultrasound (systolic arterial peak velocity EMG activity showed a sensitivity of 66.7% (confidence interval between 50 and 84%) and a specificity of 92.9% (confidence interval between 84 and 100%) in the diagnosis of arterial ED. Owing to the high specificity of CC-EMG response to the injection of PGE1, this test is considered useful as a screening technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED.

  17. COPD 大鼠气道上皮 CC16 mRNA的表达及意义%CC16 expression in airway epithelium of rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方苏榕; 谷伟; 谭焰; 孙丽华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the significance of CC 16 in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD ) by examining the CC16 expression in the airway epithelium of COPD rats before and after Tiotropium intervention.Methods: The male Sprague-Dawley(SD)rats were randomly assigned into the healthy control group , COPD model group ( smoke+endotoxin ) , and Tiotropium intervention group , with 10 in each .RT-PCR was used to detect the gene expression of CC 16 mRNA and immunohistochemistery was applied to test the protein expression of CC16 in the lung tissue in each group of rats .Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted to investigate the levels of CC 16, PLA2, IL8 and TNFαin the serum as well as PLA2, IL8, and TNFαin the lung tissue .Results: CC16 mRNA gene expression was significantly reduced in the lung tissue of COPD model group compared with the healthy control group , but remarkably increased in Tiotropium intervention group as opposed to COPD model group .CC16 was found to be higher in the serum and lung tissue of COPD model group and PLA2, IL8 and TNFαwere lower than those in the healthy control group , while CC16 level was shown to be markedly elevated in the serum and lung tissue of Tiotropium intervention group and PLA 2, IL8, and TNFαlevels were significantly lower when compared with COPD model group .The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:Gene expression of CC16 mRNA and CC16 protein expression in the airway epithelium decreased in the development of COPD rats , which may be a histological marker of mild airway injury in pathogenesis of COPD and involved in the development and progression of COPD .%目的:探讨CC16在慢性阻塞性肺病( COPD)发病机制中的作用。方法:将雄性SD大鼠随机分为健康对照组、COPD模型组(烟熏+内毒素)和噻托溴铵药物干预组,每组10只。 RT-PCR检测各组大鼠气道上皮中CC16 mRNA的表达;免疫组化检测各组大鼠肺组织中CC

  18. Addition by subtraction in coupled-cluster theory: a reconsideration of the CC and CI interface and the nCC hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rodney J; Musiał, Monika

    2006-11-28

    The nCC hierarchy of coupled-cluster approximations, where n guarantees exactness for n electrons and all products of n electrons are derived and applied to several illustrative problems. The condition of exactness for n=2 defines nCCSD=2CC, with nCCSDT=3CC and nCCSDTQ=4CC being exact for three and four electrons. To achieve this, the minimum number of diagrams is evaluated, which is less than in the corresponding CC model. For all practical purposes, nCC is also the proper definition of a size-extensive CI. 2CC is also an orbitally invariant coupled electron pair approximation. The numerical results of nCC are close to those for the full CC variant, and in some cases are closer to the full CI reference result. As 2CC is exact for separated electron pairs, it is the natural zeroth-order approximation for the correlation problem in molecules with other effects introduced as these units start to interact. The nCC hierarchy of approximations has all the attractive features of CC including its size extensivity, orbital invariance, and orbital insensitivity, but in a conceptually appealing form suited to bond breaking, while being computationally less demanding. Excited states from the equation of motion (EOM-2CC) are also reported, which show results frequently approaching those of EOM-CCSDT.

  19. Diversity, mobility, and structural and functional evolution of group II introns carrying an unusual 3' extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourasse Nicolas J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are widespread genetic elements endowed with a dual functionality. They are catalytic RNAs (ribozymes that are able of self-splicing and they are also mobile retroelements that can invade genomic DNA. The group II intron RNA secondary structure is typically made up of six domains. However, a number of unusual group II introns carrying a unique extension of 53-56 nucleotides at the 3' end have been identified previously in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. Methods In the present study, we conducted combined sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of introns, host gene, plasmid and chromosome of host strains in order to gain insights into mobility, dispersal, and evolution of the unusual introns and their extension. We also performed in vitro mutational and kinetic experiments to investigate possible functional features related to the extension. Results We report the identification of novel copies of group II introns carrying a 3' extension including the first two copies in bacteria not belonging to the B. cereus group, Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 and Bacillus sp. 2_A_57_CT2, an uncharacterized species phylogenetically close to B. firmus. Interestingly, the B. pseudofirmus intron has a longer extension of 70 bases. From sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses, several possible separate events of mobility involving the atypical introns could be identified, including both retrohoming and retrotransposition events. In addition, identical extensions were found in introns that otherwise exhibit little sequence conservation in the rest of their structures, with the exception of the conserved and catalytically critical domains V and VI, suggesting either separate acquisition of the extra segment by different group II introns or a strong selection pressure acting on the extension. Furthermore, we show by in vitro splicing experiments that the 3' extension affects the splicing properties differently in

  20. Novel RNA structural features of an alternatively splicing group II intron from Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes in bacterial and organellar genomes that function as self-splicing introns and as retroelements. Previously, we reported that the group II intron C.te.I1 of Clostridium tetani alternatively splices in vivo to produce five distinct coding mRNAs. Accurate fusion of upstream and downstream reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the usual 5' GUGYG motif. This site is specified by the ribozyme through an altered intron/exon-binding site 1 (IBS1-EBS1) pairing. Here we use mutagenesis and self-splicing assays to investigate in more detail the significance of the structural features of the C.te.I1 ribozyme. The shifted 5' splice site is shown to be affected by structures in addition to IBS1-EBS1, and unlike other group II introns, C.te.I1 appears to require a spacer between IBS1 and the GUGYG motif. In addition, the mechanism of 3' exon recognition is modified from the ancestral IIB mechanism to a IIA-like mechanism that appears to be longer than the typical single base-pair interaction and may extend up to 4 bp. The novel ribozyme properties that have evolved for C.te.I1 illustrate the plasticity of group II introns in adapting new structural and catalytic properties that can be utilized to affect gene expression. © 2014 McNeil and Zimmerly; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Invariant generalized ideal classes - structure theorems for $p$-class groups in $p$-extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Georges Gras

    2017-02-01

    We give, in sections 2 and 3, an english translation of: Classes g\\acute{e}n\\acute{e}ralis\\acute{e}es invariantes, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 46, 3 (1994), with some improvements and with notations and definitions in accordance with our book: Class Field Theory: From Theory to Practice, SMM, Springer-Verlag, 2nd corrected printing 2005. We recall, in section 4, some structure theorems for finite $\\mathbb{Z}_p[G]$-modules ($G\\simeq\\mathbb{Z}/p\\mathbb{Z}$) obtained in: Sur les$\\scr l$-classes d’id\\acute{e}aux dans les extensions cycliques relatives de degr\\acute{e} premier $\\mathcal{l}$, Annales de l’Institut Fourier, 23, 3 (1973). Then we recall the algorithm of local normic computations which allows to obtain the order and (potentially) the structure of a $p$-class group in a cyclic extension of degree $p$. In section 5, we apply this to the study of the structure of relative $p$-class groups of Abelian extensions of prime to $p$ degree, using the Thaine–Ribet–Mazur–Wiles–Kolyvagin ‘principal theorem’, and the notion of ‘admissible sets of prime numbers’ in a cyclic extension of degree $p$, from: Sur la structure des groupes de classes relatives, Annales de l’Institut Fourier, 43, 1 (1993). In conclusion, we suggest the study, in the same spirit, of some deep invariants attached to the $p$-ramification theory (as dual form of non-ramification theory) and which have become standard in a $p$-adic framework. Since some of these techniques have often been rediscovered, we give a substantial (but certainly incomplete) bibliography which may be used to have a broad view on the subject.

  2. Hybrid Group IV Nanophotonic Structures Incorporating Diamond Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Ishiwata, Hitoshi; Babinec, Thomas M; Radulaski, Marina; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Dory, Constantin; Dahl, Jeremy; Edgington, Robert; Soulière, Veronique; Ferro, Gabriel; Fokin, Andrey A; Schreiner, Peter R; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-01-13

    We demonstrate a new approach for engineering group IV semiconductor-based quantum photonic structures containing negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV(-)) color centers in diamond as quantum emitters. Hybrid diamond-SiC structures are realized by combining the growth of nano- and microdiamonds on silicon carbide (3C or 4H polytype) substrates, with the subsequent use of these diamond crystals as a hard mask for pattern transfer. SiV(-) color centers are incorporated in diamond during its synthesis from molecular diamond seeds (diamondoids), with no need for ion-implantation or annealing. We show that the same growth technique can be used to grow a diamond layer controllably doped with SiV(-) on top of a high purity bulk diamond, in which we subsequently fabricate nanopillar arrays containing high quality SiV(-) centers. Scanning confocal photoluminescence measurements reveal optically active SiV(-) lines both at room temperature and low temperature (5 K) from all fabricated structures, and, in particular, very narrow line widths and small inhomogeneous broadening of SiV(-) lines from all-diamond nanopillar arrays, which is a critical requirement for quantum computation. At low temperatures (5 K) we observe in these structures the signature typical of SiV(-) centers in bulk diamond, consistent with a double lambda. These results indicate that high quality color centers can be incorporated into nanophotonic structures synthetically with properties equivalent to those in bulk diamond, thereby opening opportunities for applications in classical and quantum information processing.

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of Initial Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens: ACTG 5095 and 5142 Clinical Trials Relative to ART-CC Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugavero, Michael J.; May, Margaret; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Gulick, Roy M.; Riddler, Sharon A.; Haubrich, Richard; Napravnik, Sonia; Abgrall, Sophie; Phillips, Andrew; Harris, Ross; Gill, M. John; de Wolf, Frank; Hogg, Robert; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Chêne, Geneviève; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Guest, Jodie L.; Smith, Colette; Murillas, Javier; Berenguer, Juan; Wyen, Christoph; Domingo, Pere; Kitahata, Mari M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Saag, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The generalizability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinical trial efficacy findings to routine care settings is not well studied. We compared the relative effectiveness of initial ART regimens estimated in AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) randomized controlled trials with that among patients receiving ART at Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) study sites. Methods Treatment-naive HIV-infected patients initiating identical ART regimens in ACTG trials (A5095 and A5142) and at 15 ART-CC cohort study sites were included. Virological failure (HIV-1 RNA >200 copies/ml) at 24- and 48-weeks, incident AIDS-defining events and mortality were measured according to study design (ART-CC cohort vs. ACTG trial) and stratified by 3rd drug [Abacavir (ABC), Efavirenz (EFV), and Lopinavir/r (LPV/r)]. We used logistic regression to estimate and compare odds ratios for virological failure between different regimens and study designs, and used Cox models to estimate and compare hazard ratios for AIDS and death. Results Compared with patients receiving ABC, those receiving EFV had roughly half the odds of 24-week virologic failure (>200 copies/mL) in both ACTG 5095 (OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.36–0.79) and ART-CC (0.46, 0.37–0.57). Virologic superiority of EFV (vs. ABC) appeared comparable in ART-CC and ACTG 5095 (ratio of ORs 0.86, 95% CI 0.54–1.35). Odds ratios for 48-week virologic failure, comparing EFV with LPV/r, were also comparable in ACTG 5142 and ART-CC (ratio of ORs 0.87, 0.45–1.69). Conclusions Between ART regimen virologic efficacy of 3rd drugs ABC, EFV, and LPV/r observed in the ACTG 5095 and 5142 trials appear generalizable to the routine care setting of ART-CC clinical cohorts. PMID:21857357

  4. The roles of CC2D1A and HTR1A gene expressions in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Elif Funda; Cıkılı Uytun, Merve; Korkmaz Bayramov, Keziban; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Oztop, Didem Behice; Canatan, Halit; Ozkul, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Classical autism belongs to a group of heterogeneous disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by repetitive stereotypic behaviors or restricted interests, social withdrawal, and communication deficits. Numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism but the etiology of this disorder is unknown in many cases. CC2D1A gene has been linked to mental retardation (MR) in a family with a large deletion before. Intellectual disability (ID) is a common feature of autistic cases. Therefore we aimed to investigate the expressions of CC2D1A and HTR1A genes with the diagnosis of autism in Turkey. Forty-four autistic patients (35 boys, 9 girls) and 27 controls were enrolled and obtained whole blood samples to isolate RNA samples from each participant. CC2D1A and HTR1A gene expressions were assessed by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) in Genome and Stem Cell Center, Erciyes University. Both expressions of CC2D1A and HTR1A genes studied on ASD cases and controls were significantly different (p < 0.001). The expression of HTR1A was undetectable in the ASD samples. Comparison of ID and CC2D1A gene expression was also found statistically significant (p = 0.028). CC2D1A gene expression may be used as a candidate gene for ASD cases with ID. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential roles of these CC2D1A and HTR1A genes in their related pathways in ASD.

  5. Get more control over your C/C++ service

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Are you looking for a way to better diagnose or monitor your C/C++ programs? Find out more about CMX - a neat, lightweight library (<32Kb) which targets this need. It allows to expose information from inside a process through a simple API, enabling pre-failure detection in combination with your favourite monitoring system.

  6. Crossing Levels and Representations: The Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Connected Chemistry (named CC1 to denote Connected Chemistry Chapter 1) is a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry. It views chemistry from an "emergent" perspective, how macroscopic phenomena result from the interaction of many submicroscopic particles. Connected Chemistry employs…

  7. The CC-Theory of the Origin of Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I propose a research programme based on a theory called the CC-theory, consisting of three very tentative and speculative hypotheses that together account for the origin of the major aspects of natural language. The core hypothesis (which I will call the Conceptual Copy Hypothesis or C

  8. Crossing Levels and Representations: The Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Connected Chemistry (named CC1 to denote Connected Chemistry Chapter 1) is a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry. It views chemistry from an "emergent" perspective, how macroscopic phenomena result from the interaction of many submicroscopic particles. Connected Chemistry employs…

  9. ON THE POLYCONDENSATION REACTION OF Aa<Bb Cc TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zesheng; TANG Xinyi; SUN Chiachung; TANG Auchin

    1991-01-01

    For the polycondensation reaction of Aa<Bb Cc type, the sol fraction for post-gel is investigated from probability consideration to approach gelation condition as a limitation. Furthermore, by means of a direct differentiation technique, a recursion formula is proposed for the evaluation of polymer moments in explicit forms for both pre-gel and post-gel.

  10. Oxidative electrochemical aryl C-C coupling of spiropyrans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivashenko, Oleksii; van Herpt, Jochem T.; Rudolf, Petra; Feringa, Ben L.; Browne, Wesley R.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and definitive assignment of the species formed upon electrochemical oxidation of nitro-spiropyran (SP) is reported. The oxidative aryl C-C coupling at the indoline moiety of the SP radical cation to form covalent dimers of the ring-closed SP form is demonstrated. The coupling is block

  11. The Possible Topologic structure Types of Orthopyroxene with Space Group P21ca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗谷风; 林承毅; 等

    1990-01-01

    The possible topologic structure types of orthopyroxene with space group P21ca comprise four kinds of tetrahedral chains and four kinds of octahedral sites.all of which are non-equivalent in symmetry,In these structure types,the skew of the octahedral layers has a sequence of ++--,There are sixteen possible combination forms for the rotation type of tetradral chain.Twelve of them violate Thompson 's sparity rule and the remainder constitutes two pairs.In each pair,the two polar forms show a relationship of anti-orientation for their polar a-axes.Thus,there are only two possible different topologic structure types for P21ca-orthopyroxene.The ratios of O-rotated and S-rotated tetrahedral chains for these two structure types are 3:1 and 1:3,respectively,In the view S-rotated tetrahedral chains for these two structure types are 3:1 and 1:3,respectively,In the view of crystallochemical principle,the most likely form is the one with a ratio of 3:1,and its constitutions of two stacks of I-beam,which are non-equivalent both in symmetry and in topology,are and the configurations of the two types of M2 sites are P.P and P.N,respectively,A complementary twinning on(100) would be formed between the anti-oriented structure pairs,and their twin boundary is exactly equivalent to the inversion boundary,Moreover,it is possible that the ordered structure would appear when the atom ratio of Mg:Fe is equal to 3:1 as well as to 1:1。

  12. Functional renormalization group approach to electronic structure calculations for systems without translational symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Christian; Evers, Ferdinand

    2016-10-01

    A formalism for electronic-structure calculations is presented that is based on the functional renormalization group (FRG). The traditional FRG has been formulated for systems that exhibit a translational symmetry with an associated Fermi surface, which can provide the organization principle for the renormalization group (RG) procedure. We here advance an alternative formulation, where the RG flow is organized in the energy-domain rather than in k space. This has the advantage that it can also be applied to inhomogeneous matter lacking a band structure, such as disordered metals or molecules. The energy-domain FRG (ɛ FRG) presented here accounts for Fermi-liquid corrections to quasiparticle energies and particle-hole excitations. It goes beyond the state of the art G W -BSE , because in ɛ FRG the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) is solved in a self-consistent manner. An efficient implementation of the approach that has been tested against exact diagonalization calculations and calculations based on the density matrix renormalization group is presented. Similar to the conventional FRG, also the ɛ FRG is able to signalize the vicinity of an instability of the Fermi-liquid fixed point via runaway flow of the corresponding interaction vertex. Embarking upon this fact, in an application of ɛ FRG to the spinless disordered Hubbard model we calculate its phase boundary in the plane spanned by the interaction and disorder strength. Finally, an extension of the approach to finite temperatures and spin S =1 /2 is also given.

  13. Crystal structure of ilyukhinite, a new mineral of the eudialyte group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.; Chukanov, N. V.; Aksenov, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of ilyukhinite, a new mineral of the eudialyte group, is studied by X-ray diffraction. The mineral found in pegmatite bodies of the Kukisvumchorr Mountain (Khibiny alkaline complex) is characterized by low sodium content, high degree of hydration, and predominance of manganese over iron. The trigonal cell has the following parameters: a = 14.1695(6) and c = 31.026(1) Å; space group R3m. The structure is refined to final R = 0.046 in the anisotropic approximation of atomic displacements using 1527 F > 3σ F. The idealized formula of ilyukhinite ( Z = 3) is written as (H3O,Na)14Ca6Mn2Zr3Si26O72(OH)2 · 3H2O. The new mineral differs from other representatives of the eudialyte group by the predominance of both oxonium in the N positions of extra-framework cations and manganese in the M2 position centering the tetragonal pyramid.

  14. Catalytic conversion of aliphatic alcohols on carbon nanomaterials: The roles of structure and surface functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveritinova, E. A.; Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Chernyak, S. A.; Arkhipova, E. A.; Savilov, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials with the structure of graphene and different compositions of the surface groups are used as catalysts for the conversion of C2-C4 aliphatic alcohols. The conversions of ethanol, propanol- 1, propanol-2, butanol-1, butanol-2, and tert-butanol on carbon nanotubes, nanoflakes, and nanoflakes doped with nitrogen are investigated. Oxidized and nonoxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes, nanoflakes, and nanoflakes doped with nitrogen are synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electronic microscopies, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, derivatographic analyses, and the pulsed microcatalytic method are used to characterize comprehensively the prepared catalysts. It was established that all of the investigated carbon nanomaterials (with the exception of nondoped carbon nanoflakes) are bifunctional catalysts for the conversion of aliphatic alcohols, and promote dehydration reactions with the formation of olefins and dehydrogenation reactions with the formation of aldehydes or ketones. Nanoflakes doped with nitrogen are inert with respect to secondary alcohols and tert-butanol. The role of oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing surface groups, and of the geometrical structure of the carbon matrix of graphene nanocarbon materials in the catalytic conversion of aliphatic alcohols, is revealed. Characteristics of the conversion of aliphatic alcohols that are associated with their structure are identified.

  15. Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapais, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution has most often been treated in a piecemeal fashion, with studies focusing on the evolution of specific components of human society such as pair-bonding, cooperative hunting, male provisioning, grandmothering, cooperative breeding, food sharing, male competition, male violence, sexual coercion, territoriality, and between-group conflicts. Evolutionary models about any one of those components are usually concerned with two categories of questions, one relating to the origins of the component and the other to its impact on the evolution of human cognition and social life. Remarkably few studies have been concerned with the evolution of the entity that integrates all components, the human social system itself. That social system has as its core feature human social structure, which I define here as the common denominator of all human societies in terms of group composition, mating system, residence patterns, and kinship structures. The paucity of information on the evolution of human social structure poses substantial problems because that information is useful, if not essential, to assess both the origins and impact of any particular aspect of human society.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Structure, Path Characteristics, and Perceptual Grouping in Immediate Serial Spatial Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lillo, Carlo; Kirby, Melissa; Poole, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    dynamically during encoding and recall. This suggested that the effects of structure in spatial span are not dependent on perceptual grouping processes induced by the aerial view of the stimulus array typically afforded by spatial recall tasks. These results demonstrate the independence of coding strategies based on structure from effects of path characteristics and perceptual grouping in immediate serial spatial recall.

  17. Spatio-temporal structure, path characteristics and perceptual grouping in immediate serial spatial recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo De Lillo

    2016-11-01

    observer changed dynamically during encoding and recall. This suggested that the effects of structure in spatial span are not dependent on perceptual grouping processes induced by the aerial view of the stimulus array typically afforded by spatial recall tasks. These results demonstrate the independence of coding strategies based on structure from effects of path characteristics and perceptual grouping in immediate serial spatial recall.

  18. A typical wave wake from high-speed vessels: its group structure and run-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Didenkulova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-amplitude water waves induced by high-speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing marine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, here we present an experimental study of the group structure of these wakes at Pikakari beach, Tallinn Bay. The most energetic vessel waves at this location (100 m from the coast at the water depth 2.7 m have amplitudes of about 1 m and periods of 8–10 s and cause maximum run-up heights on a beach up to 1.4 m. These waves represent frequency modulated packets where the largest and longest waves propagate ahead of other smaller amplitude and period waves. Sometimes the groups of different heights and periods can be separated even within one wave wake event. The wave heights within a wake are well described by the Weibull distribution, which has different parameters for wakes from different vessels. Wave run-up heights can also be described by Weibull distribution and its parameters can be connected to the parameters of the distribution of wave heights 100 m from the coast. Finally, the run-up of individual waves within a packet is studied. It is shown that the specific structure of frequency modulated wave packets, induced by high-speed vessels, leads to a sequence of high wave run-ups at the coast, even when the original wave heights are rather moderate. This feature can be a key to understanding the significant impact on coasts caused by fast vessels.

  19. Energetics, molecular electronic structure, and spectroscopy of forming Group IIA dihalide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devore, T. C.; Gole, J. L.

    1999-02-01

    Multiple-collision relaxed (helium) chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescent spectroscopy have been used to demonstrate the highly efficient collisional stabilization of electronically excited Group IIA dihalide collision complexes formed in M (Ca,Sr)+X 2 (XY) (Cl 2, Br 2, ICl, IBr, I 2) reactive encounters. The first discrete emission spectra for the CaCl 2, CaBr 2, SrCl 2, SrBr 2, and SrICl dihalides are observed and evaluated; however, the low-pressure `continuous' chemiluminescent emission observed for forming barium dihalide (BaX 2) complexes is quenched under these experimental conditions. The reactions of the Group IIA metals with molecular fluorine do not readily produce the corresponding dihalide. While the lowest-lying observed dihalide visible transition is, as predicted, found to result in an extended progression in a dihalide complex bending mode (SrCl 2), the observed progression suggests the presence of a residual halogen (Cl-Cl) bond. Two higher-lying transitions are dominated by a vibrational mode structure corresponding to progressions in the symmetric stretching mode or, for nominally forbidden electronic transitions, odd quanta of the asymmetric stretching mode. Some evidence for sequence structure associated with the dihalide bending mode is also obtained. These observations are consistent with complex formation as it is coupled with a modified valence electron structure (correlation diagram) associated with the highly ionic nature of the dihalides. The bonding in the Group IIA dihalides (and their complexes), whose atomization energies are more than twice the metal monohalide bond energy, strongly influences the evaluation of energetics and the determination of monohalide bond energies from chemiluminescent processes. Discrepancies between those bond strengths determined by mass spectrometry and chemiluminescence are discussed with a focus on energy partitioning in dihalide complex formation and its influence on chemical vapor

  20. The vacuum structure of N=2 super-QCD with classical gauge groups

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C; Argyres, Philip C; Shapere, Alfred D

    1995-01-01

    We determine the vacuum structure of N=2 supersymmetric QCD with fundamental quarks for gauge groups SO(n) and Sp(2n), extending prior results for SU(n). The solutions are all given in terms of families of hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces of genus equal to the rank of the gauge group. In the scale invariant cases, the solutions all have exact S-dualities which act on the couplings by subgroups of PSL(2,Z) and on the masses by outer automorphisms of the flavor symmetry. They are shown to reproduce the complete pattern of symmetry breaking on the Coulomb branch and predict the correct weak--coupling monodromies. Simple breakings with squark vevs provide further consistency checks involving strong--coupling physics.

  1. Estimation of Formation Enthalpies of Organic Pollutants from a New Structural Group Contribution Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Bagheri; Afshin Bakhtiari; Masoume Jaberi

    2013-01-01

    Chemical stability and reactivity of organic pollutants is dependent to their formation enthalpies.The main objective of this study is to provide simple straightforward strategy for prediction of the formation enthalpies of wide range organic pollutants only from their structural functional groups.Using such an extended dataset comprising 1694 organic chemicals from 77 diverse material classes benefits the generalizability and reliability of the study.The new suggested collection of 12 functional groups and a simple linear regression lead to promising statistics of R2=0.958,Q2Loo =0.956,and δAEE=57 kJ·mol-1 for the whole dataset.Moreover,unknown experimental formation enthalpies for 27 organic pollutants are estimated by the presented approach.The resultant model needs no technical software/calculations,and thus can be easily applied by a non-specialist user.

  2. Electronic Structure Calculations of Ammonia Adsorption on Graphene and Graphene Oxide with Epoxide and Hydroxyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Anna Anasthasiya, A.; Khaneja, Mamta; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2017-10-01

    Ammonia adsorption on graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) was investigated through density functional theory calculations. In the GO system, the obtained binding energy, band gap, charge transfer and electronic structure revealed that the epoxide (GO-O) and hydroxyl groups (GO-OH) in GO enhance the NH3 adsorption, which leads to the chemisorption of NH3 on GO. The dissociation of NH3 to NH2 and formation of OH was also observed when the O and H atoms were separated at 0.985 Å, 1.019 Å, 1.035 Å, and 1.044 Å for various GO systems. The maximum charge transfer value was found to be 0.054 |e| with the binding energy of 1.143 eV for GO with a single epoxide (GO-1O) group. The charge transfer from NH3 to G or GO and the bond formation in this study agree with the reported experimental results.

  3. Main-Group Halide Semiconductors Derived from Perovskite: Distinguishing Chemical, Structural, and Electronic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabini, Douglas H; Labram, John G; Lehner, Anna J; Bechtel, Jonathon S; Evans, Hayden A; Van der Ven, Anton; Wudl, Fred; Chabinyc, Michael L; Seshadri, Ram

    2017-01-03

    Main-group halide perovskites have generated much excitement of late because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties, ease of preparation, and abundant constituent elements, but these curious and promising materials differ in important respects from traditional semiconductors. The distinguishing chemical, structural, and electronic features of these materials present the key to understanding the origins of the optoelectronic performance of the well-studied hybrid organic-inorganic lead halides and provide a starting point for the design and preparation of new functional materials. Here we review and discuss these distinguishing features, among them a defect-tolerant electronic structure, proximal lattice instabilities, labile defect migration, and, in the case of hybrid perovskites, disordered molecular cations. Additionally, we discuss the preparation and characterization of some alternatives to the lead halide perovskites, including lead-free bismuth halides and hybrid materials with optically and electronically active organic constituents.

  4. Nanoscale Distribution of Sulfonic Acid Groups Determines Structure and Binding of Water in Nafion Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiao; Bonn, Mischa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The connection between the nanoscale structure of two chemically equivalent, yet morphologically distinct Nafion fuel‐cell membranes and their macroscopic chemical properties is demonstrated. Quantification of the chemical interactions between water and Nafion reveals that extruded membranes have smaller water channels with a reduced sulfonic acid head group density compared to dispersion‐cast membranes. As a result, a disproportionally large amount of non‐bulk water molecules exists in extruded membranes, which also exhibit larger proton conductivity and larger water mobility compared to cast membranes. The differences in the physicochemical properties of the membranes, that is, the chemical constitution of the water channels and the local water structure, and the accompanying differences in macroscopic water and proton transport suggest that the chemistry of nanoscale channels is an important, yet largely overlooked parameter that influences the functionality of fuel‐cell membranes. PMID:26895211

  5. Isometric actions of simple groups and transverse structures: The integrable normal case

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroga-Barranco, Raul

    2010-01-01

    For actions with a dense orbit of a connected noncompact simple Lie group $G$, we obtain some global rigidity results when the actions preserve certain geometric structures. In particular, we prove that for a $G$-action to be equivalent to one on a space of the form $(G\\times K\\backslash H)/\\Gamma$, it is necessary and sufficient for the $G$-action to preserve a pseudo-Riemannian metric and a transverse Riemannian metric to the orbits. A similar result proves that the $G$-actions on spaces of the form $(G\\times H)/\\Gamma$ are characterized by preserving transverse parallelisms. By relating our techniques to the notion of the algebraic hull of an action, we obtain infinitesimal Lie algebra structures on certain geometric manifolds acted upon by $G$.

  6. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Haber

    Full Text Available Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

  7. Investigation of Terminal Group Effect on Electron Transport Through Open Molecular Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Preferencial Kala; P.Aruna Priya; D.John Thiruvadigal

    2013-01-01

    The effect of terminal groups on the electron transport through metal-molecule-metal system has been investigated using nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism combined with extended Huckel theory (EHT).Au-molecule-Au junctions are constructed with borazine and BCN unit structure as core molecule and sulphur (S),oxygen (O),selenium (Se) and cyano-group (CN) as terminal groups.The electron transport characteristics of the borazine and BCN molecular systems are analyzed through the transmission spectra and the current-voltage curve.The results demonstrate that the terminal groups modifying the transport behaviors of these systems in a controlled way.Our result shows that,selenium is the best linker to couple borazine to Au electrode and oxygen is the best one to couple BCN to Au electrode.Furthermore,the results of borazine systems are compared with that of BCN molecular systems and are discussed.Simulation results show that the conductance through BCN molecular systems is four times larger than the borazine molecular systems.Negative differential resistance behavior is observed with borazine-CN system and the saturation feature appears in BCN systems.

  8. Simulating the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Rogge, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance...... failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs...

  9. Opinion groups formation and dynamics : structures that last from non lasting entities

    CERN Document Server

    Grauwin, Sébastian

    2015-01-01

    We extend simple opinion models to obtain stable but continuously evolving communities. Our scope is to meet a challenge raised by sociologists of generating "structures that last from non lasting entities". We achieve this by introducing two kinds of noise on a standard opinion model. First, agents may interact with other agents even if their opinion difference is large. Second, agents randomly change their opinion at a constant rate. We show that for a large range of control parameters, our model yields stable and fluctuating polarized states, where the composition and mean opinion of the emerging groups is fluctuating over time.

  10. Syntheses, Structures and Coordination Behavior of Central Hydroxyl Group Containing Polydentate Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun JIA; Xing Wang WANG; Yi Li ZHAO; Yu ZHU; Jing Chao TAO

    2004-01-01

    Two central hydroxyl group containing Schiff base type ligands L1 and L2 as well as their metal complexes L1·2CuCl2·3H2O and L2·Zn2Cl2·C2H5OH were synthesized and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of L2 and its zinc complex indicated well the means of coordination behavior. Both the two ligands showed good ion transport ability for alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions.

  11. Genome sequence of Synechococcus CC9311: Insights into adaptation to a coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, Brian; Ren, Qinghu; Dupont, Chris L.; Myers, Garry S.; Heidelberg, John F.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Madupu, Ramana; Nelson, William C.; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Dodson, Robert J.; Durkin, A. Scott; Daugherty, Sean C.; Sullivan, Stephen A.; Khouri, Hoda; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Halpin, Rebecca; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal aquatic environments are typically more highly productive and dynamic than open ocean ones. Despite these differences, cyanobacteria from the genus Synechococcus are important primary producers in both types of ecosystems. We have found that the genome of a coastal cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. strain CC9311, has significant differences from an open ocean strain, Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102, and these are consistent with the differences between their respective environments. CC9311 has a greater capacity to sense and respond to changes in its (coastal) environment. It has a much larger capacity to transport, store, use, or export metals, especially iron and copper. In contrast, phosphate acquisition seems less important, consistent with the higher concentration of phosphate in coastal environments. CC9311 is predicted to have differences in its outer membrane lipopolysaccharide, and this may be characteristic of the speciation of some cyanobacterial groups. In addition, the types of potentially horizontally transferred genes are markedly different between the coastal and open ocean genomes and suggest a more prominent role for phages in horizontal gene transfer in oligotrophic environments. PMID:16938853

  12. A C/C++ Build System Based On Maven for the LHC Controls System

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen Xuan, J; Dönszelmann, M

    2011-01-01

    The CERN accelerator controls system, mainly written in Java and C/C++, consists nowadays of 50 projects and 150 active developers. The controls group has decided to unify the development process and standards (e.g. project layout) using Apache Maven and Sonatype Nexus. Maven is the de-facto build tool for Java, it deals with versioning and dependency management, whereas Nexus is a repository manager. C/C++ developers were struggling to keep their dependencies on other CERN projects, as no versioning was applied, the libraries have to be compiled and available for several platforms and architectures, and finally there was no dependency management mechanism. This results in very complex Makefiles which were difficult to maintain. Even if Maven is primarily designed for Java, a plugin (Maven NAR) adapts the build process for native programming languages for different operating systems and platforms. However C/C++ developers were not keen to abandon their current Makefiles. Hence our approach was to combine the ...

  13. A new C=C embedded porphyrin sheet with superior oxygen reduction performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawei Li[1; Shunhong Zhang[2; Jiabing Yu[1; Qian Wang[2; Qiang Sun[1,2,3; Puru Jena[3

    2015-01-01

    C2 is a well-known pseudo-oxygen unit with an electron affinity of 3.4 eV. We show that it can exhibit metal-ion like behavior when embedded in a porphyrin sheet and form a metal-free two-dimensional material with superior oxygen reduction performance. Here, the positively charged C=C units are highly active for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) via dissociation pathways with a small energy barrier of 0.09 eV, much smaller than that of other non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) ORR catalysts. Using a microkinetics-based model we calculated the partial current density to be 3.0 mA/cm2 at 0.65 V vs. a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst. We further confirm that the C=C embedded porphyrin sheet is dynamically and thermally stable with a quasi-direct band gap of 1.14 eV. The superior catalytic performance and geometric stability make the metal-free C=C porphyrin sheet ideal for fuel cell applications.

  14. Amide-directed photoredox-catalysed C-C bond formation at unactivated sp3 C-H bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, John C. K.; Rovis, Tomislav

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is paramount in the synthesis of biologically relevant molecules, modern synthetic materials and commodity chemicals such as fuels and lubricants. Traditionally, the presence of a functional group is required at the site of C-C bond formation. Strategies that allow C-C bond formation at inert carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds enable access to molecules that would otherwise be inaccessible and the development of more efficient syntheses of complex molecules. Here we report a method for the formation of C-C bonds by directed cleavage of traditionally non-reactive C-H bonds and their subsequent coupling with readily available alkenes. Our methodology allows for amide-directed selective C-C bond formation at unactivated sp3 C-H bonds in molecules that contain many such bonds that are seemingly indistinguishable. Selectivity arises through a relayed photoredox-catalysed oxidation of a nitrogen-hydrogen bond. We anticipate that our findings will serve as a starting point for functionalization at inert C-H bonds through a strategy involving hydrogen-atom transfer.

  15. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985.

  16. A Numerical Study on the Thermal Conductivity of 3D Woven C/C Composites at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigang, Ai; Rujie, He; Yongmao, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data for Carbon/Carbon (C/C) constituent materials are combined with a three dimensional steady state heat transfer finite element analysis to demonstrate the average in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivities (TCs) of C/C composites. The finite element analysis is carried out at two distinct length scales: (a) a micro scale comparable with the diameter of carbon fibres and (b) a meso scale comparable with the carbon fibre yarns. Micro-scale model calculate the TCs at the fibre yarn scale in the three orthogonal directions ( x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the meso-scale model to obtain the global TCs of the 3D C/C composite. The simulation results are quite consistent with the theoretical and experimental counterparts reported in references. Based on the numerical approach, TCs of the 3D C/C composite are calculated from 300 to 2500 K. Particular attention is given in elucidating the variations of the TCs with temperature. The multi-scale models provide an efficient approach to predict the TCs of 3D textile materials, which is helpful for the thermodynamic property analysis and structure design of the C/C composites.

  17. CC趋化因子偶联受体信号途径%CC Chemokine Receptor-coupled Signalling Pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NEW David C.; WONG Yung H.

    2003-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of multiple CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) in a wide range of tissues and cells signifies the functional diversity of CC chemokines. The realization that multiple chemokines activate individual receptors and that some chemokines are functional at several different CCRs, indicates that interplay between a complex network of intracellular pathways is required for the full expression of the physiological function of each ligand. In different cellular environments, chemokines can regulate distinct second messengers or even positively or negatively regulate the same signal transduction pathway. The specific interactions between many signalling molecules have been discerned in an increasing number of cellular systems and this information is being used to explain the physiological actions of chemokines. This review will attempt to summarize recent research by many groups that has revealed numerous subtleties of the CC chemokine-coupled signalling pathways.

  18. Deletion of autophagy inducer RB1CC1 results in degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jingyu; Jia, Lin; Khan, Naheed; Lin, Chengmao; Mitter, Sayak K; Boulton, Michael E; Dunaief, Joshua L; Klionsky, Daniel J; Guan, Jun-Lin; Thompson, Debra A; Zacks, David N

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy regulates cellular homeostasis and response to environmental stress. Within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye, the level of autophagy can change with both age and disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between reduced autophagy and age-related degeneration of the RPE. The gene encoding RB1CC1/FIP200 (RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1), a protein essential for induction of autophagy, was selectively knocked out in the RPE by crossing Best1-Cre mice with mice in which the Rb1cc1 gene was flanked with Lox-P sites (Rb1cc1(flox/flox)). Ex vivo and in vivo analyses, including western blot, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and electroretinography were performed to assess the structure and function of the retina as a function of age. Deletion of Rb1cc1 resulted in multiple autophagy defects within the RPE including decreased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, accumulation of autophagy-targeted precursors, and increased numbers of mitochondria. Age-dependent degeneration of the RPE occurred, with formation of atrophic patches, subretinal migration of activated microglial cells, subRPE deposition of inflammatory and oxidatively damaged proteins, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and occasional foci of choroidal neovascularization. There was secondary loss of photoreceptors overlying the degenerated RPE and reduction in the electroretinogram. These observations are consistent with a critical role of autophagy in the maintenance of normal homeostasis in the aging RPE, and indicate that disruption of autophagy leads to retinal phenotypes associated with age-related degeneration.

  19. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-08-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  20. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-09-29

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  1. KIM-1、CC16在急性肾/肺损伤临床诊断中的意义%The significance of KIM-1 、CC16 in acute kidney injury and acute lung injure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓丽; 周巧玲; 王祺

    2014-01-01

    尿NAG、尿KIM-1、血浆KIM-1均明显升高,进一步证实这些指标可作为诊断AKI早期生物学标志物.ALI时尿CC16、血浆CC16水平显著升高,同时具有高敏感性,是诊断ALI的良好实验室指标.急性肾/肺损伤患者体内尿、血浆KIM-1与CC16水平明显升高,二者具有良好的相关性,对诊断急性肾/肺损伤并判断预后具有重要的价值与临床意义.%Objectives To investigate the change of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and Clara cell secretion protein(CCSWCC16) in the patients with acute kidney injury(AKI) and acute lung injury(ALI),and study the significance of acute kidney/lung injury.Methods A study was conducted in 25 pure AKI patients,15 pure ALI patients,25 AKI and ALI patients,and 23 non-smoking controls (age,race,and gender-matched).ELISA method to detect urinary KIM-1 、plasma KIM-1 、urinary CC16 and plasma CC16; colorimetric method to detect urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG).Results Campa~d with non-smoking control group,the urinary NAG 、urinary KIM-1 、plasma KIM-1 and plasma CC16 values were significantly increased in AKI group(P <0.05) ; the urinary CC16 and plasma CC16 values were significantly increased in ALI group (P <0.05) ;the urinary NAG、urinary KIM-1 、plasma KIM-1 、urinary CC16 and plasma CC16 values were significantly increased in AKI and ALI group(P < 0.05).Correlation analysis showed:In AKI patients,urinary KIM-1 was positive correlated with urinary NAG (r =0.493,P <0.01),while the plasma KIM-1 was no correlated with urinary NAG.In ALI patients,urinary CC16 was negative correlated with oxygenation index,the same as plasma CC16(P <0.01).In AKI and ALI group,urinary KIM-1 、plasma KIM-1were positive associated with urinary CC16 and plasma CC16 respectively (P < 0.05).3.Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed:In AKI,the area under the curve (AUC) of urinary KIM-1 was 0.781 (95 % CI 0.688 ~ 0.875,P < 0.01) ; plasma KIM-1 was 0.988 (95% CI

  2. [Analysis and evaluation of the QUALIFY tool for assessing quality indicators with structured group interviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüngen, Markus; Rath, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Quality indicators are used world-wide to monitor the quality of health care. For these indicators to be effective they also have to meet certain quality criteria. The QUALIFY tool is used for assessing the quality criteria themselves against a scientific background. The present paper evaluates the QUALIFY tool and provides an indication of its further development. The evaluation of the QUALIFY tool was carried out using structured group interviews. Participants of the first focus group were involved in both the development of the tool and in its implementation. The second focus group exclusively consisted of QUALIFY users. There was no essential difference in the rating between the two focus groups. Up till now, QUALIFY has been used for the designation of quality indicators for the German Quality Record for Hospitals, for a pre-selection of indicators for the National Disease Management Guidelines, and for a pharmaceutical drug safety project of the Coalition for Patient Safety. Its wider distribution is hampered by the fact that the actual QUALIFY tool is far too complex and requires a lot of resources. Nevertheless, its cost-effectiveness was rated 'adequate' because the application of inappropriate quality indicators can be very expensive. Our ambition should be to define QUALIFY subsystems of various complexity for different purposes and to enforce anchoring of the tool at an international level. QUALIFY, and thus the assessment of quality indicators, has entered virgin territory. Since quality assessment will be gaining relevance the further evaluation and development of these tools is warranted. In this context group interviews could provide an applicable approach to evaluating acceptance and implementation problems.

  3. Crystal structures of two thiacalix[4]arene derivatives anchoring four thiadiazole groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bang-Tun Zhao; Zhen Zhou; Zhen-Ning Yan

    2009-11-01

    The crystal structures of two thiacalixarene derivatives anchoring thiadiazole functional groups at lower rim, C60H72O4S12N8 (1), C64H80O4S12N8 (2), have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thiacalix[4]arene framework in both 1 and 2 adopts the 1,3-alternate conformation. Compound 1 forms a 1-D chain by weak hydrogen bonding (C-H$\\cdots$N) interactions between two thiadiazole groups in two different molecules. The chains are further connected to form a 2-D network through sulfur-sulfur (S$\\cdots$S) interactions. The lattice water molecules which exist as dimers by forming hydrogen bonds (O-H$\\cdots$O) promote a 3-D supramolecular structure through weak hydrogen bonding (O-H$\\cdots$S) interactions between the lattice water dimers and the 2-D networks. On the other hand, compound 2, based on dimer which is formed by weak hydrogen bonding (C-H$\\cdots$S) interactions, is extended to a 1-D chain through sulfur-sulfur (S$\\cdots$S) interactions. The dimers of lattice methanol molecules linked by hydrogen bonds (O-H$\\cdots$O) act as bridges to link the 1-D chains into a 2-D network through weak hydrogen bonding (C-H$\\cdots$N) interactions.

  4. A Sequence of Qubit-Qudit Pauli Groups as a Nested Structure of Doilies

    CERN Document Server

    Saniga, Metod

    2011-01-01

    Following the spirit of a recent work of one of the authors (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 (2011) 045301), the essential structure of the generalized Pauli group of a qubit-qu$d$it, where $d = 2^{k}$ and an integer $k \\geq 2$, is recast in the language of a finite geometry. A point of such geometry is represented by the maximum set of mutually commuting elements of the group and two distinct points are regarded as collinear if the corresponding sets have exactly $2^{k} - 1$ elements in common. The geometry comprises $2^{k} - 1$ copies of the generalized quadrangle of order two ("the doily") that form $2^{k-1} - 1$ pencils arranged into a remarkable nested configuration. This nested structure reflects the fact that maximum sets of mutually commuting elements are of two different kinds (ordinary and exceptional) and exhibits an intriguing alternating pattern: the subgeometry of the exceptional points of the $(k+2)$-case is found to be isomorphic to the full geometry of the $k$-case. It should be stressed, however...

  5. Multiple unpinned Dirac points in group-Va single-layers with phosphorene structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunhao; Zhou, Di; Chang, Guoqing; Guan, Shan; Chen, Weiguang; Jiang, Yinzhu; Jiang, Jianzhong; Wang, Xue-Sen; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Feng, Yuan Ping; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Lin, Hsin

    2016-06-01

    Emergent Dirac fermion states underlie many intriguing properties of graphene, and the search for them constitutes one strong motivation to explore two-dimensional (2D) allotropes of other elements. Phosphorene, the ultrathin layers of black phosphorous, has been a subject of intense investigations recently, and it was found that other group-Va elements could also form 2D layers with similar puckered lattice structure. Here, by a close examination of their electronic band structure evolution, we discover two types of Dirac fermion states emerging in the low-energy spectrum. One pair of (type-I) Dirac points is sitting on high-symmetry lines, while two pairs of (type-II) Dirac points are located at generic k-points, with different anisotropic dispersions determined by the reduced symmetries at their locations. Such fully-unpinned (type-II) 2D Dirac points are discovered for the first time. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC), we find that each Dirac node is protected by the sublattice symmetry from gap opening, which is in turn ensured by any one of three point group symmetries. The SOC generally gaps the Dirac nodes, and for the type-I case, this drives the system into a quantum spin Hall insulator phase. We suggest possible ways to realise the unpinned Dirac points in strained phosphorene.

  6. A functional renormalization group approach to electronic structure calculations for systems without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A formalism for electronic-structure calculations is presented that is based on the functional renormalization group (FRG). The traditional FRG has been formulated for systems that exhibit a translational symmetry with an associated Fermi surface, which can provide the organization principle for the renormalization group (RG) procedure. We here advance an alternative formulation, where the RG-flow is organized in the energy-domain rather than in k-space. This has the advantage that it can also be applied to inhomogeneous matter lacking a band-structure, such as disordered metals or molecules. The energy-domain FRG ({\\epsilon}FRG) presented here accounts for Fermi-liquid corrections to quasi-particle energies and particle-hole excitations. It goes beyond the state of the art GW-BSE, because in {\\epsilon}FRG the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) is solved in a self-consistent manner. An efficient implementation of the approach that has been tested against exact diagonalization calculations and calculations based on...

  7. Dancing multiplicity states supported by a carboxylated group in dicopper structures bonded to O2

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-01-29

    The present study pretends to assign the correct multiplicity state to dinuclear copper complexes when interacting with free molecular oxygen. Recently, the formation of a bridge butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo dicopper core structure stabilized by the direct interaction of the counterion, a carboxylate group that allows the double bridge linking both metal-centre atoms, was characterized by crystallography. This system was assigned as a diradical singlet with Ms = 0. However, after new calculations it has turned out to be triplet (Ms = 1) despite the stabilization for this latter multiplicity state is not high. Here, the factors that contribute to make this structure display a multiplicity different with respect to the previously expected diradical singlet are described. In the present theoretical study, the roles of the αSp ligand constraints and the counterion are unravelled. On the other hand, the relative stability between the butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo structure and the isomeric bis(μ-oxo) species is also on discussion. Despite the relative stabilities of all these either structural or electronic isomeric species are supposed to depend on the computational method, which is a difficulty to reach a definite conclusion about the nature of the active species, all DFT methods using either pure or not pure DFT functionals here reach the same conclusion, favoring the triplet as the ground state for the butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo dicopper core structure, and the bis(μ-oxo) species when removing the benzoate counterion. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  8. Crystal structure of tarocystatin-papain complex: implications for the inhibition property of group-2 phytocystatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ming-Hung; Liu, Kai-Lun; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Tarocystatin (CeCPI) from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaohsiung no. 1), a group-2 phytocystatin, shares a conserved N-terminal cystatin domain (NtD) with other phytocystatins but contains a C-terminal cystatin-like extension (CtE). The structure of the tarocystatin-papain complex and the domain interaction between NtD and CtE in tarocystatin have not been determined. We resolved the crystal structure of the phytocystatin-papain complex at resolution 2.03 Å. Surprisingly, the structure of the NtD-papain complex in a stoichiometry of 1:1 could be built, with no CtE observed. Only two remnant residues of CtE could be built in the structure of the CtE-papain complex. Therefore, CtE is easily digested by papain. To further characterize the interaction between NtD and CtE, three segments of tarocystatin, including the full-length (FL), NtD and CtE, were used to analyze the domain-domain interaction and the inhibition ability. The results from glutaraldehyde cross-linking and yeast two-hybrid assay indicated the existence of an intrinsic flexibility in the region linking NtD and CtE for most tarocystatin molecules. In the inhibition activity assay, the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused FL showed the highest inhibition ability without residual peptidase activity, and GST-NtD and FL showed almost the same inhibition ability, which was higher than with NtD alone. On the basis of the structures, the linker flexibility and inhibition activity of tarocystatins, we propose that the overhangs from the cystatin domain may enhance the inhibition ability of the cystatin domain against papain.

  9. Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of the Group B Streptococcus Alpha C Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auperin,T.; Bolduc, G.; Baron, M.; Heroux, A.; Filman, D.; Madoff, L.; Hogle, J.

    2005-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis among neonates and an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Invasive diseases due to GBS are attributed to the ability of the pathogen to translocate across human epithelial surfaces. The alpha C protein (ACP) has been identified as an invasin that plays a role in internalization and translocation of GBS across epithelial cells. The soluble N-terminal domain of ACP (NtACP) blocks the internalization of GBS. We determined the 1.86-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of NtACP comprising residues Ser{sup 52} through Leu{sup 225} of the full-length ACP. NtACP has two domains, an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich and a C-terminal three-helix bundle. Structural and topological alignments reveal that the {beta}-sandwich shares structural elements with the type III fibronectin fold (FnIII), but includes structural elaborations that make it unique. We have identified a potential integrin-binding motif consisting of Lys-Thr-Asp{sup 146}, Arg{sup 110}, and Asp{sup 118}. A similar arrangement of charged residues has been described in other invasins. ACP shows a heparin binding activity that requires NtACP. We propose a possible heparin-binding site, including one surface of the three-helix bundle, and nearby portions of the sandwich and repeat domains. We have validated this prediction using assays of the heparin binding and cell-adhesion properties of engineered fragments of ACP. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the highly conserved Gram-positive surface alpha-like protein family, and it will enable the internalization mechanism of GBS to be dissected at the atomic level.

  10. Revising Space Groups from Simulated SHELX·fcf Structure Factors. More Examples of Incorrect Space Groups, an Example of a Chemically-Incorrect Structure and the Special Case of P1 to P(-1) Revisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍锡荣; 谢兆雄

    2003-01-01

    The structure factors of any crystal structure can be simulated from its atomic coordinates (and temperature factors) in a SHELXL-97 run on a dummy hkl in which only the scale factor is refined. The squares of the structure factors are retrieved from the fcf, and such simulated data are used in the revision of the space groups of several incorrectly-refined crystal structures. Two cases, a P1 to P revision and a chemically-incorrect structure that is refined in a correct space group, are discussed.

  11. Thermochemical properties and contribution groups for ketene dimers and related structures from theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Giovanni; Martínez, Ramiro

    2009-07-30

    This research's main goals were to analyze ketene dimers' relative stability and expand group additivity value (GAV) methodology for estimating the thermochemical properties of high-weight ketene polymers (up to tetramers). The CBS-Q multilevel procedure and statistical thermodynamics were used for calculating the thermochemical properties of 20 cyclic structures, such as diketenes, cyclobutane-1,3-diones, cyclobut-2-enones and pyran-4-ones, as well as 57 acyclic base compounds organized into five groups. According to theoretical heat of formation predictions, diketene was found to be thermodynamically favored over cyclobutane-1,3-dione and its enol-tautomeric form (3-hydroxycyclobut-2-enone). This result did not agree with old combustion experiments. 3-Hydroxycyclobut-2-enone was found to be the least stable dimer and its reported experimental detection in solution may have been due to solvent effects. Substituted diketenes had lower stability than substituted cyclobutane-1,3-diones with an increased number of methyl substituents, suggesting that cyclobutane-1,3-dione type dimers are the major products because of thermodynamic control of alkylketene dimerization. Missing GAVs for the ketene dimers and related structures were calculated through linear regression on the 57 acyclic base compounds. Corrections for non next neighbor interactions (such as gauche, eclipses, and internal hydrogen bond) were needed for obtaining a highly accurate and precise regression model. To the best of our knowledge, the hydrogen bond correction for GAV methodology is the first reported in the literature; this correction was correlated to MP2/6-31Gdagger and HF/6-31Gdagger derived geometries to facilitate its application. GAVs assessed by the linear regression model were able to reproduce acyclic compounds' theoretical thermochemical properties and experimental heat of formation for acetylacetone. Ring formation and substituent position corrections were calculated by consecutively

  12. Structural Variety and Adsorptive Properties of Mesoporous Silicas with Immobilized Oligosaccharide Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymchuk, Iryna; Roik, Nadiia; Belyakova, Lyudmila

    2017-04-01

    In this research, we report on the synthesis of mesoporous silicas with various quantities of immobilized oligosaccharide groups and different pore ordering degree. The hydrothermal co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and β-cyclodextrin-containing organosilane in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template was employed. The purpose of this investigation was to show the opportunity of increasing β-cyclodextrin content in silica matrix by changing the molar ratio of initial reagents during organosilane synthesis and to determine whether the enhancing of immobilized groups on the surface influences on model aromatic compound adsorption from water. It was prepared several β-cyclodextrin-organosilanes by modification of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane with oligosaccharide (the molar composition of reaction mixtures were 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1) with using N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole as linking agent. Three types of MCM-41 materials were obtained with 0.018, 0.072, and 0.095 mmol g-1 β-cyclodextrin-group loading according to chemical analysis of silicas. The IR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration were also performed to confirm the presence of functional groups in the silica matrix. Nitrogen sorptometry experiments exhibited the decrease of high surface area (from 812 to 457 m2 g-1) and the average pore diameter (from 1.06 to 0.60 cm3 g-1) of synthesized silicas with increasing of immobilized oligosaccharide groups. The influence of β-cyclodextrin-organosilane presence on the forming of hexagonally arranged porous structure of silicas was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and TEM analyses. As the loading of oligosaccharide groups increases in obtained silicas, the (100) reflex in diffraction patterns is even less intense and broader, denoting the decrease of long-range pore ordering. Adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effect of β-cyclodextrin groups' attendance in silica matrix on benzene uptakes from aqueous solutions. Experimental

  13. Multivariate analysis of chromatographic retention data as a supplementary means for grouping structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoula, S; Zisi, Ch; Sampsonidis, I; Virgiliou, Ch; Theodoridis, G; Gika, H; Nikitas, P; Pappa-Louisi, A

    2015-03-27

    In the present study a series of 45 metabolite standards belonging to four chemically similar metabolite classes (sugars, amino acids, nucleosides and nucleobases, and amines) was subjected to LC analysis on three HILIC columns under 21 different gradient conditions with the aim to explore whether the retention properties of these analytes are determined from the chemical group they belong. Two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA), were used for statistical evaluation of the chromatographic data and extraction similarities between chemically related compounds. The total variance explained by the first two principal components of PCA was found to be about 98%, whereas both statistical analyses indicated that all analytes are successfully grouped in four clusters of chemical structure based on the retention obtained in four or at least three chromatographic runs, which, however should be performed on two different HILIC columns. Moreover, leave-one-out cross-validation of the above retention data set showed that the chemical group in which an analyte belongs can be 95.6% correctly predicted when the analyte is subjected to LC analysis under the same four or three experimental conditions as the all set of analytes was run beforehand. That, in turn, may assist with disambiguation of analyte identification in complex biological extracts.

  14. Comparison between alkalimetal and group 11 transition metal halide and hydride tetramers: molecular structure and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamdi, Majid; Solà, Miquel; Frenking, Gernot; Poater, Jordi

    2013-08-22

    A comparison between alkalimetal (M = Li, Na, K, and Rb) and group 11 transition metal (M = Cu, Ag, and Au) (MX)4 tetramers with X = H, F, Cl, Br, and I has been carried out by means of the Amsterdam Density Functional software using density functional theory at the BP86/QZ4P level of theory and including relativistic effects through the ZORA approximation. We have obtained that, in the case of alkalimetals, the cubic isomer of Td geometry is more stable than the ring structure with D4h symmetry, whereas in the case of group 11 transition metal tetramers, the isomer with D4h symmetry (or D2d symmetry) is more stable than the Td form. To better understand the results obtained we have made energy decomposition analyses of the tetramerization energies. The results show that in alkalimetal halide and hydride tetramers, the cubic geometry is the most stable because the larger Pauli repulsion energies are compensated by the attractive electrostatic and orbital interaction terms. In the case of group 11 transition metal tetramers, the D4h/D2d geometry is more stable than the Td one due to the reduction of electrostatic stabilization and the dominant effect of the Pauli repulsion.

  15. Crystalline structures and mesomorphic properties of gemini diammonium surfactants with a pendant hydroxyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengbin; Wei, Xilian; Sun, Dezhi; Liu, Jiuqiang; Tang, Xiaojuan

    2011-02-15

    A series of homologous crystals of gemini diammonium surfactants (GDAS) containing one hydroxyl substituted methylene spacer are prepared. The crystal structures of these compounds, namely [C(n)H(2)(n)(+1)-N(+) (CH(3))(2)-CH(2)CH(OH)CH(2)-N(+)(CH(3))(2)-C(n)H(2)(n)(+1)], are determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques, in order to have a better understanding of the structure relation between the solid and the mesophase. The hydroxyl groups enhance the hydrogen bonding interaction between neighboring compounds, and therefore the packing of GDAS in the solid state is arranged to form a herringbone-like mode. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first GDAS crystal with a herringbone-like structure. Their mesomorphic properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and rheological measurement. These compounds have relatively low melting points and form thermotropic mesophases over a broad temperature range, as compared to those without a hydroxyl substituted at the spacer. The rheological behavior of the smectic phases clearly reveals that hydrogen bonds exert a significant effect on the high values of moduli and viscosity. Moreover, the melting point and rheological parameters increase, conforming to the length of alkyl chains.

  16. Structure and assembly of group B streptococcus pilus 2b backbone protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Roberta; Malito, Enrico; Lazzarin, Maddalena; Nuccitelli, Annalisa; Castagnetti, Andrea; Bottomley, Matthew J; Margarit, Immaculada; Maione, Domenico; Rinaudo, C Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of invasive disease in infants. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS uses a sortase C-catalyzed transpeptidation mechanism to generate cell surface pili from backbone and ancillary pilin precursor substrates. The three pilus types identified in GBS contain structural subunits that are highly immunogenic and are promising candidates for the development of a broadly-protective vaccine. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the backbone protein of pilus 2b (BP-2b) at 1.06Å resolution. The structure reveals a classical IgG-like fold typical of the pilin subunits of other Gram-positive bacteria. The crystallized portion of the protein (residues 185-468) encompasses domains D2 and D3 that together confer high stability to the protein due to the presence of an internal isopeptide bond within each domain. The D2+D3 region, lacking the N-terminal D1 domain, was as potent as the entire protein in conferring protection against GBS challenge in a well-established mouse model. By site-directed mutagenesis and complementation studies in GBS knock-out strains we identified the residues and motives essential for assembly of the BP-2b monomers into high-molecular weight complexes, thus providing new insights into pilus 2b polymerization.

  17. Structure and assembly of group B streptococcus pilus 2b backbone protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cozzi

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a major cause of invasive disease in infants. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS uses a sortase C-catalyzed transpeptidation mechanism to generate cell surface pili from backbone and ancillary pilin precursor substrates. The three pilus types identified in GBS contain structural subunits that are highly immunogenic and are promising candidates for the development of a broadly-protective vaccine. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the backbone protein of pilus 2b (BP-2b at 1.06Å resolution. The structure reveals a classical IgG-like fold typical of the pilin subunits of other Gram-positive bacteria. The crystallized portion of the protein (residues 185-468 encompasses domains D2 and D3 that together confer high stability to the protein due to the presence of an internal isopeptide bond within each domain. The D2+D3 region, lacking the N-terminal D1 domain, was as potent as the entire protein in conferring protection against GBS challenge in a well-established mouse model. By site-directed mutagenesis and complementation studies in GBS knock-out strains we identified the residues and motives essential for assembly of the BP-2b monomers into high-molecular weight complexes, thus providing new insights into pilus 2b polymerization.

  18. A new structure of two-dimensional allotropes of group V elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Luo, Weidong

    2016-05-01

    The elemental two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and black phosphorus have attracted considerable attention due to their fascinating physical properties. Structurally they possess the honeycomb or distorted honeycomb lattices, which are composed of six-atom rings. Here we find a new structure of 2D allotropes of group V elements composed of eight-atom rings, which we name as the octagonal tiling (OT) structure. First-principles calculations indicate that these allotropes are dynamically stable and are also thermally stable at temperatures up to 600 K. These allotropes are semiconductors with band gaps ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 eV, thus they are potentially useful in near- and mid-infrared optoelectronic devices. OT-Bi is also a 2D topological insulator (TI) with a band gap of 0.33 eV, which is the largest among the reported elemental 2D TIs, and this gap can be increased further by applying compressive strains.

  19. Structure and magnetism in novel group IV element-based magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Frank [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2013-08-14

    The project is to investigate structure, magnetism and spin dependent states of novel group IV element-based magnetic thin films and heterostructures as a function of composition and epitaxial constraints. The materials systems of interest are Si-compatible epitaxial films and heterostructures of Si/Ge-based magnetic ternary alloys grown by non-equilibrium molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques, specifically doped magnetic semiconductors (DMS) and half-metallic Heusler alloys. Systematic structural, chemical, magnetic, and electrical measurements are carried out, using x-ray microbeam techniques, magnetotunneling spectroscopy and microscopy, and magnetotransport. The work is aimed at elucidating the nature and interplay between structure, chemical order, magnetism, and spin-dependent states in these novel materials, at developing materials and techniques to realize and control fully spin polarized states, and at exploring fundamental processes that stabilize the epitaxial magnetic nanostructures and control the electronic and magnetic states in these complex materials. Combinatorial approach provides the means for the systematic studies, and the complex nature of the work necessitates this approach.

  20. Dilepton production in pp and CC collisions with HADES

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, I; Agodi, C; Balanda, A; Bellia, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S P; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Daz, J; Dohrmann, F; Durán, I; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, Paulo J R; Friese, J; Galatyuk, T; Garzn, J A; Gernhuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Grosse, E; Guber, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Heilmann, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kmpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krcken, R; Kugler, A; Khn, W; Kurepin, A; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lang, S; Lange, S; López, L; Mangiarotti, A; Marn, J; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Mishra, D; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Münch, M; Müntz, C; Naumann, Lutz; Novotny, R; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Pechenov, V; Perez, T; Pietraszko, J; Pleskac, R; Pospsil, V; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Senger, P; Shileev, K A; Simon, R; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Teilab, K; Tlustý, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Veretenkin, I; Wagner, V; Wen, H; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Zanevsky, Y; Zumbruch, P

    2007-01-01

    Dilepton production has been measured with HADES, the "High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer". In pp collisions at 2.2GeV kinetic beam energy, exclusive eta production and the Dalitz decay eta -> gamma e+e- has been reconstructed. The electromagnetic form factor is well in agreement with existing data. In addition, an inclusive e+e- spectrum from the C+C reaction at 2AGeV is presented and compared with a thermal model.

  1. Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 4) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favore...

  2. Genetic differentiation and population structure of five ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-12-01

    The state of Punjab in the North-West part of India has acted as the main passage for all the major human invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It has resulted in the mixing of foreign gene pool into the local populations, which led to an extensive range of genetic diversity and has influenced the genetic structure of populations in Punjab, North-West India. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic structure, relationships, and extent of genetic differentiation in five Indo-European speaking ethnic groups of Punjab. A total of 1021 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris, and Scheduled castes were analyzed for four human-specific Ins/Del polymorphic loci (ACE, APO, PLAT, and D1) and three restriction fragment length polymorphisms ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), and T2 (MspI) using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of the Alu insertion at APO locus was observed to exhibit the highest value (82.6-96.3 %), whereas D1 exhibited the lowest (26.5-45.6 %) among all the ethnic groups. The average heterozygosity among the studied populations ranged from 0.3816 in Banias to 0.4163 in Khatris. The FST values ranged from 0.0418 to 0.0033 for the PLAT and LPL loci, respectively, with an average value being 0.0166. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Banias and Khatris are genetically closest to each other. The Jat Sikhs are genetically close to Brahmins and are distant from the Banias. The Jat Sikhs, Banias, Brahmins, and Khatris are genetically very distant from the Scheduled castes. Overall, Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, high average heterozygosity values, and a small degree of genetic differentiation in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed in the studied population groups indicating that genetic drift might have been small or negligible in shaping

  3. Dwarf galaxy planes: the discovery of symmetric structures in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Kroupa, Pavel; Jerjen, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Both major galaxies in the Local Group (LG) are surrounded by thin planes of mostly co-orbiting satellite galaxies, the vast polar structure (VPOS) around the Milky Way (MW) and the Great Plane of Andromeda (GPoA) around M31. We summarize the current knowledge concerning these structures and compare their relative orientations by re-determining their properties in a common coordinate system. The existence of similar, coherent structures around both major LG galaxies motivates an investigation of the distribution of the more distant non-satellite galaxies in the LG. This results in the discovery of two planes (diameters of 1-2 Mpc) which contain almost all nearby non-satellite galaxies. The two LG planes are surprisingly symmetric. They are inclined by only 20° relative to the galactic disc of M31, are similarly thin (heights of ≈60 kpc) and have near-to-identical offsets from the MW and from M31. They are inclined relative to each other by 35°. Comparing the plane orientations with each other and with additional features reveals indications for an intimate connection between the VPOS and the GPoA. They are both polar with respect to the MW, have similar orbital directions and are inclined by about 45°±7° relative to each other. The Magellanic Stream approximately aligns with the VPOS and the GPoA, but also shares its projected position and line-of-sight velocity trend with a part of the dominating structure of non-satellite dwarf galaxies. In addition, the recent proper motion measurement of M31 indicates a prograde orbit of the MW-M31 system, the VPOS and the GPoA. The alignment with other features such as the Supergalactic Plane and the overdensity in hypervelocity stars are discussed as well. We end with a short summary of the currently proposed scenarios trying to explain the LG galaxy structures as either originating from cosmological structures or from tidal debris of a past galaxy encounter. We emphasize that there currently exists no full detailed

  4. Intergenerational Groups: Rediscovering our Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Anstadt

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergenerational groups are a community-based group concept designed to engage and mobilize often untapped resources of older adults in effective interaction with younger populations. These groups support an atmosphere of synergistic interaction. Members of each generation share reflections on interpersonal strengths and capacities and rediscover emotional and spiritual anchors and bonding. Illustrated here is Community Connections (CC, developed using the phase driven participatory culture-specific intervention model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore & Varjas, 2004 that included self selected local older adults, caregivers, and multicultural exchange students. The program was structured to offer mutual opportunities for activities built around exchanging cultural and life experiences. The goals were: 1 to reduce social isolation due to age, culture, or disability 2 for international students to practice English and learn about local cultural traditions, and 3 to build intergenerational ‘extended family’ relationships.

  5. Transcriptomes of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 in growth transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bickhart Derek M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frankia sp. strains are actinobacteria that form N2-fixing root nodules on angiosperms. Several reference genome sequences are available enabling transcriptome studies in Frankia sp. Genomes from Frankia sp. strains differ markedly in size, a consequence proposed to be associated with a high number of indigenous transposases, more than 200 of which are found in Frankia sp. strain CcI3 used in this study. Because Frankia exhibits a high degree of cell heterogeneity as a consequence of its mycelial growth pattern, its transcriptome is likely to be quite sensitive to culture age. This study focuses on the behavior of the Frankia sp. strain CcI3 transcriptome as a function of nitrogen source and culture age. Results To study global transcription in Frankia sp. CcI3 grown under different conditions, complete transcriptomes were determined using high throughput RNA deep sequencing. Samples varied by time (five days vs. three days and by culture conditions (NH4+ added vs. N2 fixing. Assembly of millions of reads revealed more diversity of gene expression between five-day and three-day old cultures than between three day old cultures differing in nitrogen sources. Heat map analysis organized genes into groups that were expressed or repressed under the various conditions compared to median expression values. Twenty-one SNPs common to all three transcriptome samples were detected indicating culture heterogeneity in this slow-growing organism. Significantly higher expression of transposase ORFs was found in the five-day and N2-fixing cultures, suggesting that N starvation and culture aging provide conditions for on-going genome modification. Transposases have previously been proposed to participate in the creating the large number of gene duplication or deletion in host strains. Subsequent RT-qPCR experiments confirmed predicted elevated transposase expression levels indicated by the mRNA-seq data. Conclusions The overall pattern of

  6. Renormalization-group flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Following an approach of Matarrese and Pietroni, we derive the functional renormalization group (RG) flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures. Perturbative solutions of this RG flow equation are shown to be consistent with standard cosmological perturbation theory. Non-perturbative approximate solutions can be obtained by truncating the a priori infinite set of possible effective actions to a finite subspace. Using for the truncated effective action a form dictated by dissipative fluid dynamics, we derive RG flow equations for the scale dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity of non-interacting dark matter, and we solve them numerically. Physically, the effective viscosity and sound velocity account for the interactions of long-wavelength fluctuations with the spectrum of smaller-scale perturbations. We find that the RG flow exhibits an attractor behaviour in the IR that significantly reduces the dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity on the input ...

  7. A novel reduced-complexity group detection structure in MIMO frequency selective fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper a novel reduced complexity detection method named modified symbol flipping method is introduced and its advantages on reducing the burden of the calculations at the receiver compared to the optimum maximum likelihood detection method on multiple input- multiple output frequency selective fading channels are explained. The initial concept of the symbol flipping method is derived from a preliminary detection scheme named bit flipping which was introduced in [1]. The detection structure employed in this paper is ing, detection, and cancellation. On the detection stage, the proposed method is employed and the results are compared to the group maximum likelihood detection scheme proposed in [2]. Simulation results show that a 6 dB performance gain can be achieved at the expense of a slight increase in complexity in comparison with the conventional symbol flipping scheme. © 2010 Crown.

  8. Representations of cohomological Hall algebras and Donaldson-Thomas theory with classical structure groups

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new class of representations of the cohomological Hall algebras of Kontsevich and Soibelman which we call cohomological Hall modules, or CoHM for short. These representations are constructed from self-dual representations of a quiver with contravariant involution $\\sigma$ and provide a mathematical model for the space of BPS states in orientifold string theory. We use the CoHM to define a generalization of cohomological Donaldson-Thomas theory of quivers which allows the quiver representations to have orthogonal and symplectic structure groups. The associated invariants are called orientifold Donaldson-Thomas invariants. We prove the integrality conjecture for orientifold Donaldson-Thomas invariants of $\\sigma$-symmetric quivers. We also formulate precise conjectures regarding the geometric meaning of these invariants and the freeness of the CoHM of a $\\sigma$-symmetric quiver. We prove the freeness conjecture for disjoint union quivers, loop quivers and the affine Dynkin quiver of type $\\widet...

  9. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF HOME GROUPS AND PEASANT FAMILIES IN THE LOWLANDS OF GUANAJUATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ruiz Rueda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of Vicente Fox in the year 2000 to thepresidency openly imposed the exercise of “a governmentof business men and for business men”, whose impact in thelowlands of Guanajuato was translated into a higher level ofunderstanding of neoliberal farming policies. In front of aneconomical bankrupt of grains production imposed by thosepolicies, the peasants had intensify the migration, mainly inthe US, which originated a varied process of socialstructure, that goes beyond, the one that points out that inthe rural communities only lives women, old people andchildren. It´s precisely this process of social structure,which will be analyzed in this work. To do this, will beaddressed the case of study of a village from theMunicipality of Irapuato, Guanajuato, where would bepossible to identify the different types of social structurearound the families and peasant home groups, taking countthat Guanajuato, and in particular the lowlands, is theregion that most migrants send to US.

  10. The orbit structure of the Gelfand-Zeitlin group on n x n matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Colarusso, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In recent work ([KW1],[KW2]), Kostant and Wallach construct an action of a simply connected Lie group $A$ isomorphic to \\mathbb{C}^{{n\\choose 2}} on gl(n) using a completely integrable system derived from the Poisson analogue of the Gelfand-Zeitlin subalgebra of the enveloping algebra. In [KW1], the authors show that $A$-orbits of dimension {n\\choose 2} form Lagrangian submanifolds of regular adjoint orbits in gl(n). They describe the orbit structure of $A$ on a certain Zariski open subset of regular semisimple elements. In this paper, we describe all $A$-orbits of dimension {n\\choose 2} and thus all polarizations of regular adjoint orbits obtained using Gelfand-Zeitlin theory.

  11. Compressive sensing of foot-gait signals by enhancing group block-sparse structure on the first-order difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Jeevan K; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2016-08-01

    A new technique for improving the signal reconstruction performance for compressive sensing of gait signals is proposed. The algorithm is based on the minimization of a pseudo-norm which promotes group-block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal. Signal blocks in foot gait signals occur as groups, and the locations of the group are estimated based on the regularization promoting block-sparse structure. The group locations are used for minimizing the pseudonorm for promoting group-block-sparse structure. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique yields upto 0.76dB improvement in the reconstruction performance for foot-gait signals relative to the algorithms promoting block-sparse structure.

  12. Crystal structure characterization as well as theoretical study of spectroscopic properties of novel Schiff bases containing pyrazole group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Ren, Tiegang; Zhang, Jinglai; Li, Guihui; Li, Weijie; Yang, Lirong

    2012-09-01

    A series of novel Schiff bases containing pyrazole group were synthesized using 1-aryl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone and phenylenediamine as the starting materials. All as-synthesized Schiff bases were characterized by means of NMR, FT-IR, and MS; and the molecular geometries of two Schiff bases as typical examples were determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the meantime, the ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectra and fluorescent spectra of various as-synthesized products were also measured. Moreover, the B3LYP/6-1G(d,p) method was used for the optimization of the ground state geometry of the Schiff bases; and the spectroscopic properties of the products were computed and compared with corresponding experimental data based on cc-pVTZ basis set of TD-B3LYP method. It has been found that all as-synthesized Schiff bases show a remarkable absorption peak in a wavelength range of 270-370 nm; and their maximum emission peaks are around 344 nm and 332 nm, respectively.

  13. Grouped retinae and tapetal cups in some Teleostian fish: occurrence, structure, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Mike; Kreysing, Moritz; Mack, Andreas; Engelmann, Jacob; Karl, Anett; Makarov, Felix; Guck, Jochen; Kolle, Mathias; Wolburg, Hartwig; Pusch, Roland; von der Emde, Gerhard; Schuster, Stefan; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a summary and critical review of what is known about the 'grouped retina', a peculiar type of retinal organization in fish in which groups of photoreceptor cell inner and outer segments are arranged in spatially separated bundles. In most but not all cases, these bundles are embedded in light-reflective cups that are formed by the retinal pigment epithelial cells. These cups constitute a specialized type of retinal tapetum (i.e., they are biological 'mirrors' that cause eye shine) and appear to be optimized for different purposes in different fishes. Generally, the large retinal pigment epithelial cells are filled with light-reflecting photonic crystals that consist of guanine, uric acid, or pteridine depending on species, and which ensure that the incoming light becomes directed onto the photoreceptor outer segments. This structural specialization has so far been found in representatives of 17 fish families; of note, not all members of a given family must possess a grouped retina, and the 17 families are not all closely related to each other. In many cases (e.g., in Osteoglossomorpha and Aulopiformes) the inner surface of the cup is formed by three to four layers of strikingly regularly shaped and spaced guanine platelets acting as an optical multilayer. It has been estimated that this provides an up to 10fold increase of the incident light intensity. In certain deep-sea fish (many Aulopiformes and the Polymixidae), small groups of rods are embedded in such 'parabolic mirrors'; most likely, this is an adaptation to the extremely low light intensities available in their habitat. Some of these fishes additionally possess similar tapetal cups that surround individual cones and, very likely, also serve as amplifiers of the weak incident light. In the Osteoglossomorpha, however, that inhabit the turbid water of rivers or streams, the structure of the cups is more complex and undergoes adaptation-dependent changes. At dim daylight, probably

  14. Structural model of in-group dynamic of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko O.V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine structural model of in-group dynamic of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness. Material: in the research 6 years old boys (n=48, 7 years old (n=45, 8 years old (n=60, 9 years’ age (n=47 and10 years’ age (n=40 participated. We carried out analysis of factorial model of schoolchildren’s motor fitness. Results: we received information for taking decisions in monitoring of physical education. This information is also necessary for working out of effective programs of children’s and adolescents’ physical training. We determined model of motor fitness and specified informative tests for pedagogic control in every age group. In factorial model of boys’ motor fitness the following factor is the most significant: for 6 years - complex development of motor skills; for 7 years - also complex development of motor skills; for 8 years - strength and coordination; for 9 years - complex development of motor skills; for 10 years - complex development of motor skills. Conclusions: In factorial model of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness the most significant are backbone and shoulder joints’ mobility, complex manifestation of motor skills, motor coordination. The most informative tests for assessment of different age boys’ motor fitness have been determined.

  15. Numerical renormalization group for impurity quantum phase transitions: structure of critical fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Jung [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Bulla, Ralf [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Vojta, Matthias [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-11-02

    The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the particle-hole symmetric soft-gap Anderson model. The model displays two stable phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. In contrast, the quantum phase transitions turn out to be described by interacting fixed points, and their excitations cannot be described in terms of free particles. We show that the structure of the many-body spectrum of these critical fixed points can be understood using renormalized perturbation theory close to certain values of the bath exponents which play the role of critical dimensions. Contact is made with perturbative renormalization group calculations for the soft-gap Anderson and Kondo models. A complete description of the quantum critical many-particle spectra is achieved using suitable marginal operators; technically this can be understood as epsilon-expansion for full many-body spectra.

  16. Numerical renormalization group for impurity quantum phase transitions: structure of critical fixed points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Bulla, Ralf; Vojta, Matthias

    2005-11-01

    The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the particle-hole symmetric soft-gap Anderson model. The model displays two stable phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. In contrast, the quantum phase transitions turn out to be described by interacting fixed points, and their excitations cannot be described in terms of free particles. We show that the structure of the many-body spectrum of these critical fixed points can be understood using renormalized perturbation theory close to certain values of the bath exponents which play the role of critical dimensions. Contact is made with perturbative renormalization group calculations for the soft-gap Anderson and Kondo models. A complete description of the quantum critical many-particle spectra is achieved using suitable marginal operators; technically this can be understood as epsilon-expansion for full many-body spectra.

  17. Accurate variational electronic structure calculations with the density matrix renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) has become increasingly important for ab initio quantum chemistry. The underlying matrix product state (MPS) ansatz is a low-rank decomposition of the full configuration interaction tensor. The virtual dimension of the MPS controls the size of the corner of the many-body Hilbert space that can be reached. Whereas the MPS ansatz will only yield an efficient description for noncritical one-dimensional systems, it can still be used as a variational ansatz for other finite-size systems. Rather large virtual dimensions are then required. The two most important aspects to reduce the corresponding computational cost are a proper choice and ordering of the active space orbitals, and the exploitation of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. By taking care of both aspects, DMRG becomes an efficient replacement for exact diagonalization in quantum chemistry. DMRG and Hartree-Fock theory have an analogous structure. The former can be interpreted a...

  18. Algebraic and group structure for bipartite anisotropic Ising model on a non-local basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is considered a basic physical resource for modern quantum applications as Quantum Information and Quantum Computation. Interactions based on specific physical systems able to generate and sustain entanglement are subject to deep research to get understanding and control on it. Atoms, ions or quantum dots are considered key pieces in quantum applications because they are elements in the development toward a scalable spin-based quantum computer through universal and basic quantum operations. Ising model is a type of interaction generating entanglement in quantum systems based on matter. In this work, a general bipartite anisotropic Ising model including an inhomogeneous magnetic field is analyzed in a non-local basis. This model summarizes several particular models presented in literature. When evolution is expressed in the Bell basis, it shows a regular block structure suggesting a SU(2) decomposition. Then, their algebraic properties are analyzed in terms of a set of physical parameters which define their group structure. In particular, finite products of pulses in this interaction are analyzed in terms of SU(4) covering. Thus, evolution denotes remarkable properties, in particular those related potentially with entanglement and control, which give a fruitful arena for further quantum developments and generalization.

  19. Synthesis, Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Thioamide Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘法谦; 秦永其; 许良忠; 陆路德; 杨绪杰; 汪信

    2005-01-01

    Two compounds 2-benzoyl-N-phenyl-2-( 1,2,4-triazol- 1-yl)thioacetamide (1) and 2-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-N-phenyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)thioacetamide (2) were synthesized from substituted acetophenone, triazole and phenyl isothiocyanate by several step reactions. The structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c, a =0.8806(2) nm, b= 1.2097(2) nm, c= 1.4809(3) nm, β=105.88°, Z=4, V=1.5173(6) nm3, Dc= 1.411 Mg/m3, μ=0.22 mm-1, F(000)=672, final R1=0.040 and Rw=0.103. There is obvious potentially weak C—H…N intermolecular interaction in the crystal, which stabilizes the structure. The results of biological test show that the two compounds have antifungal and plant growth regulating activities.

  20. Phosphodiesterase activity is regulated by CC2D1A that is implicated in non-syndromic intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Altawashi, Azza

    2013-07-04

    Background: Cyclic adenosine 3?5?-monophosphate (cAMP) is a key regulator of many cellular processes, including in the neuronal system, and its activity is tuned by Phosphodiesterase (PDE) activation. Further, the CC2D1A protein, consisting of N-Terminal containing four DM14 domains and C-terminal containing C2 domain, was shown to regulate the cAMP-PKA pathway. A human deletion mutation lacking the fourth DM14 and the adjacent C2 domain results in Non Syndromic Intellectual Disability (NSID) also referred to as Non Syndromic Mental Retardation (NSMR). Findings. Here we demonstrate that in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEF) CC2D1A co-localizes with PDE4D in the cytosol before cAMP stimulation and on the periphery after stimulation, and that the movement to the periphery requires the full-length CC2D1A. In CC2D1A mouse mutant cells, the absence of three of the four DM14 domains abolishes migration of the complex to the periphery and causes constitutive phosphorylation of PDE4D Serine 126 (Sssup126esup) via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) resulting in PDE4D hyperactivity. Suppressing PDE4D activity with Rolipram in turn restores the down-stream phosphorylation of the "cAMP response element-binding protein" (CREB) that is defective in mouse mutant cells. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CC2D1A is a novel regulator of PDE4D. CC2D1A interacts directly with PDE4D regulating its activity and thereby fine-tuning cAMP-dependent downstream signaling. Based on our in vitro evidence we propose a model which links CC2D1A structure and function to cAMP homeostasis thereby affecting CREB phosphorylation. We speculate that CC2D1A and/or PDE4D may be promising targets for therapeutic interventions in many disorders with impaired PDE4D function such as NSID. 2013 Al-Tawashi and Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Group structure of Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tardin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans present a group structure of great complexity and display a wide behavioral plasticity. Many efforts have been made to understand the group structures of the various species, however, this type of information is still lacking for some species. Therefore, our objectives were to 1 characterize the structure of the Sotalia guianensis groups in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and 2 investigate how both behavior and season influence the group structure of this population. This species is considered "data deficient" by the IUCN. We conducted 28 boat trips using group focal procedures, and a total of 1,314 groups were observed. Of these groups, 1,268 (94.4% contained calves, the largest percentage ever reported for the species. Groups with calves were larger than those without them, suggesting a strategy to protect these individuals with underdeveloped physiology. The mean group sizes reached 17.6 ± 18.3 individuals. Within these groups, we observed that both behavior (H = 112.5, d.f. = 2, P < 0.05 and season (number of simulations: 10,000; sample size of fall-winter = 544; sample size of spring-summer = 684; P < 0.05, demonstrated a statistically significant influence. The most common degree of cohesion was mixed, and cohesion also varied with behavior (χ2 = 10.1, P < 0.05 and season (χ2 = 31.0, P < 0.05. This paper contributes towards understanding the highly variable nature of S. guianensis group dynamics. These data may be important in understanding the structure of groups in a site that is being increasingly impacted by different human activities. Moreover, this area contains the largest aggregation ever observed for this species and may therefore represent an important source of genetic diversity for the species as a whole.

  2. Lindel\\"{o}f principle for domains in $\\CC^2$ of finite type

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Baili

    2010-01-01

    Recall the Lindel\\"{o}f principle for the unit disc in $\\CC$. In this paper we will show some results about the Lindel\\"{o}f principle with admissible convergence for domains in $\\CC^2$ of finite type.

  3. Analysis specifications for the CC3 biosphere model biotrac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szekely, J.G.; Wojciechowski, L.C.; Stephens, M.E.; Halliday, H.A.

    1994-12-01

    The CC3 (Canadian Concept, generation 3) model BIOTRAC (Biosphere Transport and Consequences) describes the movement in the biosphere of releases from an underground disposal vault, and the consequent radiological dose to a reference individual. Concentrations of toxic substances in different parts of the biosphere are also calculated. BIOTRAC was created specifically for the postclosure analyses of the Environmental Impact Statement that AECL is preparing on the concept for disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste. The model relies on certain assumptions and constraints on the system, which are described by Davis et al. Accordingly, great care must be exercised if BIOTRAC is used for any other purpose.

  4. Corrosion-Control (CC) Program: SIMA Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    r 0- %Aa £ -o 0 I- - o I c LL C--7 -. 42 4ZZ o - * I~ - I q : CLIL -tto - iPR 0 0 ’oo p . * _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __O...000’ L1 I >~ Ur :-n -Z L-a a -~ aB-47- 14:0 .00 4, 06 z -: 4. I p p PKQ* I ~__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ 12 1 * 0 k)- z z - t.-0 I r: -~ 0 Itoz...supply support.) Approximately 1/3 of the time will be classroom training; 2/3 hands-on shop training in the SIMA CC Shop. The major traini ..g source

  5. Photoshop CC top 100 simplified tips and tricks

    CERN Document Server

    Sholik, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Take your Photoshop skill set to the next level with these essential techniques If you're already familiar with Photoshop basics and are ready to learn some new tips, tricks, and techniques, then this is the book for you! Full-color, step-by-step instructions take you beyond the essentials and show you how to make the most of the newest features of Photoshop CC (Creative Cloud). Beautiful photos will inspire you to experiment with Photoshop's features, and numbered instructions make the techniques easy to learn. Encourages you to expand your skill set with creative, or

  6. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of California: a contribution from group velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luccio, F.; Persaud, P.; Clayton, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion measurements from local and regional earthquakes are used to interpret the lithospheric structure in the Gulf of California region. We compute group velocity maps for Rayleigh waves from 10 to 150 s using earthquakes recorded by broad-band stations of the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs in Baja California and Mexico mainland, UNM in Mexico, BOR, DPP and GOR in southern California and TUC in Arizona. The study area is gridded in 120 longitude cells by 180 latitude cells, with an equal spacing of 10 × 10 km. Assuming that each gridpoint is laterally homogeneous, for each period the tomographic maps are inverted to produce a 3-D lithospheric shear wave velocity model for the region. Near the Gulf of California rift axis, we found three prominent low shear wave velocity regions, which are associated with mantle upwelling near the Cerro Prieto volcanic field, the Ballenas Transform Fault and the East Pacific Rise. Upwelling of the mantle at lithospheric and asthenospheric depths characterizes most of the Gulf. This more detailed finding is new when compared to previous surface wave studies in the region. A low-velocity zone in northcentral Baja at ˜28ºN which extends east-south-eastwards is interpreted as an asthenospheric window. In addition, we also identify a well-defined high-velocity zone in the upper mantle beneath central-western Baja California, which correlates with the previously interpreted location of the stalled Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates. We interpret locations of the fossil slab and slab window in light of the distribution of unique post-subduction volcanic rocks in the Gulf of California and Baja California. We also observe a high-velocity anomaly at 50-km depth extending down to ˜130 km near the southwestern Baja coastline and beneath Baja, which may represent another remnant of the Farallon slab.

  7. Fully Oxidized and Mixed-Valent Polyoxomolybdates Structured by Bisphosphonates with Pendant Pyridine Groups: Synthesis, Structure and Photochromic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Oms

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic-inorganic polyoxometalates (POMs were synthesized in water by the reaction of a MoVI precursor with bisphosphonate ligands functionalized by pyridine groups. The fully oxidized POM [(MoVI3O82(O(O3PC(O(C3H6NH2CH2C5H4NHPO32]4− has been isolated as water insoluble pure Na salt (NaMo6(Ale-4Py2 or mixed Na/K salt (NaKMo6(Ale-4Py2 and their structure solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The mixed-valent complex [(MoV2O4(MoVI2O62{O3PC(O(C3H6N(CH2C5H4N2(MoVIO3PO3}2]8− was obtained as an ammonium salt (NH4Mo6(AlePy2Mo2, in the presence of a reducing agent (hydrazine. 31P NMR spectroscopic studies in aqueous media have allowed determining the pH stability domain of NH4Mo6(AlePy2Mo2. NaMo6(Ale-4Py2 and NaKMo6(Ale-4Py2 exhibit remarkable solid-state photochromic properties in ambient conditions. Under UV excitation, they develop a very fast color-change from white to deep purple and proved to be the fastest photochromic organoammonium/POM systems. The coloration kinetics has been fully quantified for both salts and is discussed in light of the hydrogen-bonding networks.

  8. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  9. Network evaluation: principles, structures and outcomes of the German working group of Health Promoting Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Christiane; Milz, Simone; Meier, Sabine

    2010-03-01

    With more than 60 participating universities, the German working group of Health Promoting Universities (German HPU network) is the largest and most active network of universities as healthy settings. This study aims at evaluating processes and effects of the German HPU network and at supporting the future development of the network. The evaluation was based on the multi faceted network assessment instrument developed by Broesskamp-Stone (7). We used a document analysis, two expert interviews and a survey among members (n = 33) to collect relevant data for the assessment. The analysis showed that the visions of the network can be regarded as fulfilled in most aspects. The members of the network received network support through trustful and mutual relationships. The network ranked high on general network principles like implementation of mutual relationships, sharing of information, risks and resources, equal access to resources, responsibility and consensus orientation. However, a high degree of centralization was found as a negative indicator. Other critical aspects of the network's structures and processes have been the regional predominance of universities from the northern and middle part of Germany, the low representation of students in the network, and the low proportion of members that could successfully implement health promotion into the guiding principles of their university. Overall, the evaluation has shown that the network has worked effectively, has developed meaningful processes and structures and has formulated practical guidelines. Since its 12 years of existence the German HPU network has been able to adapt and to adequately respond to changing contextual conditions regarding health promotion at universities in Germany. The network should develop strategies to counteract the critical aspects and detected imbalances in order to further increase its impact on universities as healthy settings.

  10. Conformational influence of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group: crystal structures of DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, M.; Usman, N.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have crystallized three double-helical DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes and determined their structures by X-ray crystallography at resolutions between 2 and 2.25 A. The two self-complementary duplexes [r(G)d(CGTATACGC)]2 and [d(GCGT)r(A)d(TACGC)]2, as well as the Okazaki fragment d(GGGTATACGC).r(GCG)d(TATACCC), were found to adopt A-type conformations. The crystal structures are non-isomorphous, and the crystallographic environments for the three chimeras are different. A number of intramolecular interactions of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl groups contribute to the stabilization of the A-conformation. Hydrogen bonds between 2'-hydroxyls and 5'-oxygens or phosphate oxygens, in addition to the previously observed hydrogen bonds to 1'-oxygens of adjacent riboses and deoxyriboses, are observed in the DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes. The crystalline chimeric duplexes do not show a transition between the DNA A- and B-conformations. CD spectra suggest that the Okazaki fragment assumes an A-conformation in solution as well. In this molecule the three RNA residues may therefore lock the complete decamer in the A-conformation. Crystals of an all-DNA strand with the same sequence as the self-complementary chimeras show a morphology which is different from those of the chimera crystals. Moreover, the oligonucleotide does not match any of the sequence characteristics of DNAs usually adopting the A-conformation in the crystalline state (e.g., octamers with short alternating stretches of purines and pyrimidines). In DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes, it is therefore possible that a single RNA residue can drive the conformational equilibrium toward the A-conformation.

  11. Solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation and isolated-molecule and cluster electronic structure calculations in organic molecular solids: The relationship between structure and methyl group and t-butyl group rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianlong, E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.

  12. Architectural Visualization of C/C++ Source Code for Program Comprehension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, T; Epperly, T W; Quinlan, D; Saebjornsen, A; Vuduc, R

    2006-09-01

    Structural and behavioral visualization of large-scale legacy systems to aid program comprehension is still a major challenge. The challenge is even greater when applications are implemented in flexible and expressive languages such as C and C++. In this paper, we consider visualization of static and dynamic aspects of large-scale scientific C/C++ applications. For our investigation, we reuse and integrate specialized analysis and visualization tools. Furthermore, we present a novel layout algorithm that permits a compressive architectural view of a large-scale software system. Our layout is unique in that it allows traditional program visualizations, i.e., graph structures, to be seen in relation to the application's file structure.

  13. Aza-macrocyclic complexes of the Group 1 cations - synthesis, structures and density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, John; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Pugh, David; Reid, Gillian; Bhakhoa, Hanusha; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Rhyman, Lydia

    2015-08-21

    The Group 1 complexes, [M(Me6[18]aneN6)][BAr(F)] (M = Li-Cs; Me6[18]aneN6 = 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexamethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadecane; BAr(F) = tetrakis{3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl}borate), are obtained in high yield by reaction of the macrocycle with M[BAr(F)] in anhydrous CH2Cl2 solution, and characterised spectroscopically ((1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, (7)Li, (23)Na, and (133)Cs NMR), by microanalysis and, for M = Li, K, and Rb, by single crystal X-ray analysis. The structures show N6-coordination to the metal ion; the small ionic radius for Li(+) leads to a puckered conformation. In contrast, the K(+) ion fits well into the N6 plane, with the [BAr(F)](-) anions above and below, leading to two K(+) species in the asymmetric unit (a hexagonal planar [K(Me6[18]aneN6)](+) cation and a '[K(Me6[18]aneN6)(κ(1)-BAr(F))2](-) anion', with long axial KF interactions). The Rb(+) ion sits above the N6 plane, with two long axial RbF interactions in one cation and two long, mutually cis RbF interactions in the other. The unusual sandwich cations, [M(Me3tacn)2](+) (M = Na, K; distorted octahedral, N6 donor set) and half-sandwich cations [Li(Me3tacn)(thf)](+) (distorted tetrahedron, N3O donor set), [Li(Me4cyclen)(OH2)](+), and [Na(Me4cyclen)(thf)](+) (both distorted square pyramids with N4O donor sets) were also prepared (Me3tacn = 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, Me4cyclen = 1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, using the BP86 and B3LYP functionals, show that the accessibility of the [M(Me3tacn)2](+) sandwich cations depends strongly on the M(+) ionic radius, such that it is sufficiently large to avoid steric clashing between the Me groups of the two rings, and small enough to avoid very acute N-M-N chelate angles. The calculations also show that coordination to the Group 1 cation involves significant donation of electron density from the p-orbitals on the N atoms of the macrocycle, rather than purely

  14. Human-modified habitats change patterns of population genetic structure and group relatedness in Peter's tent-roosting bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagot, Maria; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Although coloniality is widespread among mammals, it is still not clear what factors influence composition of social groups. As animals need to adapt to multiple habitat and environmental conditions throughout their range, variation in group composition should be influenced by adaptive adjustment to different ecological factors. Relevant to anthropogenic disturbance, increased habitat modification by humans can alter species' presence, density, and population structure. Therefore, it is important to understand the consequences of changes to landscape composition, in particular how habitat modification affects social structure of group-forming organisms. Here, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different habitat characteristics at different scales affect structure of social groups. By dividing analyses by age and sex, we determined that genetic structure was greater for adult females than adult males or offspring. Habitat variables explained 80% of the variation in group relatedness (mainly influenced by female relatedness) with roost characteristics contributing the most explained variation. This suggests that females using roosts of specific characteristics exhibit higher relatedness and seem to be philopatric. These females mate with more males than do more labile female groups. Results describe ecological and microevolutionary processes, which affect relatedness and social structure; findings are highly relevant to species distributions in both natural and human-modified environments.

  15. A NOVEL APPROACH TO FIND OPTIMIZED NEUTRON ENERGY GROUP STRUCTURE IN MOX THERMAL LATTICES USING SWARM INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AKBARI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy group structure has a significant effect on the results of multigroup transport calculations. It is known that UO2–PUO2 (MOX is a recently developed fuel which consumes recycled plutonium. For such fuel which contains various resonant nuclides, the selection of energy group structure is more crucial comparing to the UO2 fuels. In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy of the integral results in MOX thermal lattices calculated by WIMSD-5B code, a swarm intelligence method is employed to optimize the energy group structure of WIMS library. In this process, the NJOY code system is used to generate the 69 group cross sections of WIMS code for the specified energy structure. In addition, the multiplication factor and spectral indices are compared against the results of continuous energy MCNP-4C code for evaluating the energy group structure. Calculations performed in four different types of H2O moderated UO2–PuO2 (MOX lattices show that the optimized energy structure obtains more accurate results in comparison with the WIMS original structure.

  16. A Novel Approach to Find Optimized Neutron Energy Group Structure in MOX Thermal Lattices Using Swarm Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, M.; Khoshahval, F.; Minucheha, A.; Zolfaghari, A. [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Energy group structure has a significant effect on the results of multigroup transport calculations. It is known that UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} (MOX) is a recently developed fuel which consumes recycled plutonium. For such fuel which contains various resonant nuclides, the selection of energy group structure is more crucial comparing to the UO{sub 2} fuels. In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy of the integral results in MOX thermal lattices calculated by WIMSD-5B code, a swarm intelligence method is employed to optimize the energy group structure of WIMS library. In this process, the NJOY code system is used to generate the 69 group cross sections of WIMS code for the specified energy structure. In addition, the multiplication factor and spectral indices are compared against the results of continuous energy MCNP-4C code for evaluating the energy group structure. Calculations performed in four different types of H{sub 2}O moderated UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} (MOX) lattices show that the optimized energy structure obtains more accurate results in comparison with the WIMS original structure.

  17. Hydrogen exchange study on the hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine residues in proteins and structure refinement using NOE restraints with polar side-chain groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Jee, JunGoo; Ono, Akira M; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2011-11-02

    We recently developed new NMR methods for monitoring the hydrogen exchange rates of tyrosine hydroxyl (Tyr-OH) and cysteine sulfhydryl (Cys-SH) groups in proteins. These methods facilitate the identification of slowly exchanging polar side-chain protons in proteins, which serve as sources of NOE restraints for protein structure refinement. Here, we have extended the methods for monitoring the hydrogen exchange rates of the OH groups of serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) residues in an 18.2 kDa protein, EPPIb, and thus demonstrated the usefulness of NOE restraints with slowly exchanging OH protons for refining the protein structure. The slowly exchanging Ser/Thr-OH groups were readily identified by monitoring the (13)C(β)-NMR signals in an H(2)O/D(2)O (1:1) mixture, for the protein containing Ser/Thr residues with (13)C, (2)H-double labels at their β carbons. Under these circumstances, the OH groups exist in equilibrium between the protonated and deuterated isotopomers, and the (13)C(β) peaks of the two species are resolved when their exchange rate is slower than the time scale of the isotope shift effect. In the case of EPPIb dissolved in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) at 40 °C, one Ser and four Thr residues were found to have slowly exchanging hydroxyl groups (k(ex) OH groups in hand, we could collect additional NOE restraints for EPPIb, thereby making a unique and important contribution toward defining the spatial positions of the OH protons, and thus the hydrogen-bonding acceptor atoms.

  18. Renormalization-group flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Stefan; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2017-01-01

    Following an approach of Matarrese and Pietroni, we derive the functional renormalization group (RG) flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures. Perturbative solutions of this RG flow equation are shown to be consistent with standard cosmological perturbation theory. Non-perturbative approximate solutions can be obtained by truncating the a priori infinite set of possible effective actions to a finite subspace. Using for the truncated effective action a form dictated by dissipative fluid dynamics, we derive RG flow equations for the scale dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity of non-interacting dark matter, and we solve them numerically. Physically, the effective viscosity and sound velocity account for the interactions of long-wavelength fluctuations with the spectrum of smaller-scale perturbations. We find that the RG flow exhibits an attractor behaviour in the IR that significantly reduces the dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity on the input values at the UV scale. This allows for a self-contained computation of matter and velocity power spectra for which the sensitivity to UV modes is under control.

  19. Group theory for magnetic structure determination: Recent developments and quadrupolar ordering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: sikora@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Pytlik, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Bialas, F. [Nowy Sacz School of Busines-National Louis University, 33-300 Nowy Sacz (Poland); Malinowski, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2007-09-13

    In this paper, the recent developments in practical applications of symmetry analysis are described. The theoretical basis shortly described in Section 1 has been implemented in several computer applications, one of which is the program 'MODY-win', developed by the authors of the paper. The program calculates the so-called basis vectors of irreducible representations of a given symmetry group, which can be used for calculation of possible ordering modes. Its practical application is demonstrated on some examples, presenting the recent aspects of using the symmetry analysis to description of various types of ordering encountered in solids. The scalar-type ordering (occupation probability) is discussed shortly for occupation of interstitial sites by hydrogen atoms in inter-metallic compounds. The description of vector ordering is demonstrated on the magnetic ordering modes, with special attention focused on the freedom that is left in the structure after imposing all the symmetry constraints. In practice, the final ordering mode usually contains some free parameters that cannot be determined from the symmetry itself. The last application presented in the paper is the description of quadrupolar ordering, recently found in some compounds of 4f (5f) elements. For the latter case, an additional advantage is demonstrated by calculation of possible displacements of neighboring atoms after the establishment of non-zero quadrupolar order parameter on the central atom.

  20. The Magellanic Satellites Survey: Searching for Hierarchical Structure Formation within the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtol, Keith; Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS)

    2017-01-01

    A generic prediction of galaxy formation in the standard cosmological model with cold dark matter is the hierarchical assembly of structure on mass scales ranging from ultra-faint galaxies to galaxy clusters. In the Local Group, dozens of galaxies have been found orbiting the Milky Way and Andromeda. The question of whether the largest Milky Way satellites, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, brought in their own entourage of satellites has been a long standing puzzle, and has garnered renewed interest following the recent discovery of more than a dozen ultra-faint galaxy candidates in the southern hemisphere. The on-going Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS) aims to complete an annulus of contiguous deep optical imaging with Blanco/DECam around the periphery of the Magellanic Clouds, enabling a systematic search for ultra-faint galaxies and other low-surface-brightness stellar substructures associated with the Magellanic system. I will report on the progress of MagLiteS and discuss science highlights from the first observing season, including a new ultra-faint galaxy candidate located ~11 kpc from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  1. The Potamophylax nigricornis group (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: resolution of phylogenetic species by fine structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Applying the phylogenetic species concept and the sexual selection theory we have reviewed some natal aspects of incipient species and their accelerated evolution. How can we recognise early stages of divergence? Which selection pressures are at work during speciation? Which pathways accelerate the speed of speciation? Which kinds of trait variabilities makes difficult to find initial split criteria? Elaborating the principles of Fine Structure Analysis (FSA and the morphological Initial Split Criteria (ISP it was discovered that the European spring dwelling caddisfly Potamophylax nigricornis doesn’tbelong to a single species. It represents an entire species group with seventeen peripatric species evolving on the southernperipheries of the distributional area. Four new species subgroups have been erected: Potamophylax nigricornis new species subgroup, P. elegantulus new species subgroup, P. horgos new species subgroup, P. simas new species subgroup. Eleven new species have been described: Potamophylax apados sp. nov., P. fules sp. nov., P. fureses sp. nov., P. hasas sp. novov., P. horgos sp. nov., P. kethas sp. nov., P. lemezes sp. nov., P. peremes sp. nov., P. simas sp. nov., P. tuskes sp. nov., P. ureges sp. nov. One Potamophylax sp. nov. has been differentiated and three new species status have been documented:Potamophylax elegantulus (Klapálek stat. n., P. mista (Navás stat. nov., P. testaceus (Zetterstedt stat. nov.

  2. The epidemiology of observed temperament: Factor structure and demographic group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Stifter, Cynthia A; Gottfredson, Nisha C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of observational indicators of children's temperament that were collected across the first three years of life in the Family Life Project (N=1205) sample. A four-factor model (activity level, fear, anger, regulation), which corresponded broadly to Rothbart's distinction between reactivity and regulation, provided an acceptable fit the observed data. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that a majority of the observational indicators exhibited comparable measurement properties for male vs. female, black vs. white, and poor vs. not-poor children, which improved the generalizability of these results. Unadjusted demographic group comparisons revealed small to moderate sized differences (Cohen ds=|.23-.42|) in temperamental reactivity and moderate to large sized differences (Cohen ds=-.64--.97) in regulation. Collectively, demographic variables explained more of the variation in regulation (R(2)=.25) than in reactivity (R(2)=.02-.06). Follow-up analyses demonstrated that race differences were substantially diminished in magnitude and better accounted for by poverty. These results help to validate the distinction between temperamental reactivity and regulation using observational indicators.

  3. Impact of migration on the multi-strategy selection in finite group-structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Aizhi; Sun, Changyin

    2016-01-01

    For large quantities of spatial models, the multi-strategy selection under weak selection is the sum of two competition terms: the pairwise competition and the competition of multiple strategies with equal frequency. Two parameters σ1 and σ2 quantify the dependence of the multi-strategy selection on these two terms, respectively. Unlike previous studies, we here do not require large populations for calculating σ1 and σ2, and perform the first quantitative analysis of the effect of migration on them in group-structured populations of any finite sizes. The Moran and the Wright-Fisher process have the following common findings. Compared with well-mixed populations, migration causes σ1 to change with the mutation probability from a decreasing curve to an inverted U-shaped curve and maintains the increase of σ2. Migration (probability and range) leads to a significant change of σ1 but a negligible one of σ2. The way that migration changes σ1 is qualitatively similar to its influence on the single parameter characterizing the two-strategy selection. The Moran process is more effective in increasing σ1 for most migration probabilities and the Wright-Fisher process is always more effective in increasing σ2. Finally, our findings are used to study the evolution of cooperation under direct reciprocity. PMID:27767074

  4. Synthesis, supramolecular structures and luminescent properties of quinacridone derivatives bearing carbazole groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO GuoLi; FAN Yan; HUO Cheng; BIAN Hang; SONG WeiFeng; ZHANG JingYing; WANG Yue

    2009-01-01

    The syntheses of three carbazyl-containing quinacridone derivatives, N,N'-di((N-carbazyl)-n-butyl)quinacridone (DCBQA), N,N'-di((N-carbazyl)-n-hexyl)quinacridone (DCHQA) and N,N'-di((N-carbazyl)-n-octyl)quinacridone (DCOQA), are reported, and the photoluminescent (PL) characteristics are pre-sented. The single crystal X-ray structures of DCBQA, DCHQA and DCOQA are investigated. The crystal of DCBQA is characterized by intermolecular TT···TT interactions between quinacridone cores and car-bezole moieties resulting in the formation of DCBQA molecule layer, in which every quinacridone core is surrounded by four cerbazole groups. In DCHQA crystal, molecules assemble into two kinds of ori-ented columns based on intermolecular TT···TT interactions between quinacridone cores. The DCOQA crystal displays intermolecular CH···TT and hydrogen bonding interactions feature. In DCOQA solid, every quinacridone core is sandwiched by two alkyl chains from two adjacent DCOQA molecules and simultaneously linked together.with two other quinacridone cores by hydrogen bonding interactions. The PL spectra of the three compounds in solution exhibit concentration-dependent properties and their PL quantum causes decrease with the increasing concentration.

  5. The Group Objective Structured Clinical Experience: building communication skills in the clinical reasoning context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopasek, Lyuba; Kelly, Kevin V; Bylund, Carma L; Wenderoth, Suzanne; Storey-Johnson, Carol

    2014-07-01

    Students are rarely taught communication skills in the context of clinical reasoning training. The purpose of this project was to combine the teaching of communication skills using SPs with clinical reasoning exercises in a Group Objective Structured Clinical Experience (GOSCE) to study feasibility of the approach, the effect on learners' self-efficacy and attitude toward learning communication skills, and the effect of providing multiple sources of immediate, collaborative feedback. GOSCE sessions were piloted in Pediatrics and Medicine clerkships with students assessing their own performance and receiving formative feedback on communication skills from peers, standardized patients (SPs), and faculty. The sessions were evaluated using a retrospective pre/post-training questionnaire rating changes in self-efficacy and attitudes, and the value of the feedback. Results indicate a positive impact on attitudes toward learning communication skills and self-efficacy regarding communication in the clinical setting. Also, learners considered feedback by peers, SPs, and faculty valuable in each GOSCE. The GOSCE is an efficient and learner-centered method to attend to multiple goals of teaching communication skills, clinical reasoning, self-assessment, and giving feedback in a formative setting. The GOSCE is a low-resource, feasible strategy for experiential learning in communication skills and clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Novel Selective Reduction of the C-C Triple Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel reduction system is reported here in which the compounds with terminal C-C triple bond and disubstituted C-C triple bond react with NaBH4/Pd(PPh3)4 in a base condition and only terminal C-C triple bond is reduced.

  7. SUPERSPACE-GROUP APPROACH TO THE MODULATED STRUCTURE OF THE INORGANIC MISFIT LAYER COMPOUND (LAS)1.14NBS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1991-01-01

    The structure of the inorganic misfit layer compound (LaS)1.14NbS2 is reanalysed in the superspace-group formalism, using the recent single-crystal x-ray diffraction data obtained by Meerschaut, Rabu and Rouxel. Structure refinements make it possible to determine the values of the modulation functio

  8. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X4: Fluid dynamics and structure mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. L

    2006-03-15

    The document chronicles, and draws summary conclusions from, the activities of the X4 R+D Support Group from the start of the project on January 1, 2000 to the time of the Technical Review Meeting in Mol: 27-29 June, 2005. The objectives to be accomplished were set out in a Baseline document. These were: to define the lower target flow configuration, within the geometric constraints imposed by the physical boundary conditions (geometrical confinement, lead- bismuth eutectic (LBE) inventory, pump capacities, target heat exchanger (THX) power, etc.); to identify, and evaluate, optimum target window design to minimise thermal loads and pressure drops, and to avoid hot-spots and flow instabilities; to demonstrate reliable cooling of the lower target enclosure (LTE); to demonstrate the structural integrity of the lower section of the Iiquid-metal container LMC) and its internal components, and that of the LTE; to provide best-estimate safety margins on target coolability and structural integrity under operational flow conditions; to investigate, quantify, and make recommendations regarding, abnormal target operation including possible accident scenarios). The time-scale set for MEGAPIE was always such that much of the design work needed to be carried out at the same time as the R+D support. Often, the target design was changing faster than the time required to perform the detailed computer simulations. As a consequence, many of the simulations reported or referenced in this document do not refer to the very latest target design, and in many respects the results and conclusions must be regarded as generic in nature. Nonetheless, very valuable work has been carried out by the various organisations, and better understanding of the expected temperature distributions and stress levels in the operating MEGAPIE target has been gained, and direct feed-back to the design team on various aspects of the design details has taken place as a consequence of this work. As the design

  9. 新版GMP与Simatic WinCC%The New Version of GMP and Simatic WinCC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鸿祥

    2011-01-01

    介绍新版GMP发布的背景及对制药行业自动化系统提出的新要求。GMP认证规范以及Simatic WinCC对于FDA 21 CFR Part 11法规的遵从情况。%This essay maily describe the background of new released GMP and fresh demand on automation system of pharmaceutical industry.The certification specifications of GMP and compliance response FDA 21 CFR Part 11 for Simatic WinCC are introduced in detail.

  10. CC-Link组织、通信协议与技术应用%CC-Link Technical Organization, Communication Protocol and Technical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉敏; 周学良

    2015-01-01

    CC-Link是Control & Communication Link的简称,是一种可以同时高速处理控制和通信数据的现场网络系統,可以提供高效能、一体化的工厂和过程自动化控制.CC-Link协会(CC-Link Partner Association:CLPA)是一个非盈利性机构(NPO),由众多开发"CC-Link"产品的制造商会员組成,它建立的目的是在全球推广CC-Link,始初由三菱电机发布的CC-Link现场总线技术规范,作为一个开放的工业标准,已经全国工业过程测量、控制和自动化标准化技术委员会秘书处转化的标准包括CC-Link GB/T 19760.1—.3;CC-Link/LT GB/T 19760.4;CC-Link Safety GB/Z 29496.1—.3.CC-Link现场总线技术关键特色是RAS(可靠性、可用性、可维护性)功能,以及非常高的抗干扰标准,这使得它很难让常规工厂事故中断网络运行.CLPA提供的另一个关键网络技术是基于以太网的工业网络CC-Link IE(正在转化中),是标准的工业以太网,有控制层网络和现场层网络两种主要的提供形式.具备多厂商设备使用环境,高性能的网络,广泛应用在钢铁、烟草、印刷、楼宇、汽车装配线等机电控制系统.%CC-Link is the abbreviation of Control & Communication Link. It is a kind of field control network which can process control and communication data at the same time with a high speed. CC-Link Association (CC-Link Partner Association: CLPA) is a non-profit organization (NPO) developed by many "CC-Link" products manufacturer members, whose purpose is to promote CC-Link technology all around the world. The speciifcation of CC-Link ifeldbus technology is ifrstly published by Mitsubishi Electric. As an open industrial standard, many specifications have been transformed as Chinese national standards by SAC/TC124,including CC-Link GB/T 19760.1~.3, CC-Link/LT GB/T 19760.4, and CC-Link Safety GB/Z 29496.1~.3. The key characteristics of CC-Link ifeldbus technology is RAS (reliability, availability and maintainability) and a high

  11. Renormalization-group running cosmologies and the generalized second law

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, R

    2007-01-01

    We explore some thermodynamical consequences of accelerated universes driven by a running cosmological constant (CC) from the renormalization group (RG). Application of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics to a framework where the running of the CC goes at the expense of energy transfer between vacuum and matter, strongly restricts the mass spectrum of a (hypothetical) theory controlling the CC running. We find that quantum effects driving the running of the CC should be dominated by a trans-planckian mass field, in marked contrast with the GUT-scale upper mass bo obtained by analyzing density perturbations for the running CC. The model shows compliance with the holographic principle.

  12. NSF/ESF Workshop on Smart Structures and Advanced Sensors, Santorini Island, Greece, June 26-28, 2005: Structural Actuation and Adaptation Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Tomizuka, Masayoshi; Bergman, Lawrence; Carpenter, Bernie; Salzano, Carmine; Bairrao, rogerio; Deraemaker, Arnaud; Magonette, Georges; Rodellar, Jose; Kadirkamanathan, Visaken

    2005-01-01

    This document is a result of discussions that took place during the workshop. It describes current state of research and development (R&D) in the areas of structural actuation and adaptation in the context of smart structures and advanced sensors (SS&AS), and provides an outlook to guide future R&D efforts to develop technologies needed to build SS&AS. The discussions took place among the members of the Structural Actuation and Adaptation Working Group, as well as in general sessions including all four working groups. Participants included members of academia, industry, and government from the US and Europe, and representatives from China, Japan, and Korea.

  13. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong T.; Ho, Cuong T.; Trinh, Quan H.; Trinh, Duc A.; Luu, Minh T. N.; Tran, Hai S.; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L.; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  14. Expression of CC Chemokine Ligand 20 and CC Chemokine Receptor 6 mRNA in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳; 李家文

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore the possible role of CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and its receptor CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the expression levels of mRNA of them in psoriatic lesions were investigated. The skin biopsies were collected from skin lesions in 35 cases of psoriasis vulgaris and 18 normal controls. RT-PCR was used to semi-quantitatively analyze the mRNA expression of CCL20 and CCR6 in the psoriatic lesions and the normal skin tissues.The results showed that the mRNA of CCL20 and CCR6 was present in every specimen. The expression levels of CCL20 mRNA in skin lesions were 1. 1397±0. 0521, which were greatly higher than those in normal controls (0.8681±0.0308) (P<0. 001). The expression levels of CCR6 mRNA in skin lesions were 1.1103±0.0538, significantly higher than in the controls (0.9131±0.0433, P<0. 001). These findings indicate that up-regulated expression of CCL20 and CCR6 mRNA might be related to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  15. Group composition and network structure in school classes : a multilevel application of the p* model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, MJ

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of social networks of students within school classes and examines differences in network structure between classes. In order to examine the network structure within school classes, we focused in particular on the principle of homophily, i.e. the tendency that peopl

  16. Depletion of phosphatidylglycerol head-group induces changes in oxygen evolution and protein secondary structures of photosystemⅡ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The techniques of oxygen electrode polarography and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to explore the roles of polar head-group of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) molecules in the functional and structural aspects of photosystemⅡ(PSⅡ) through enzymatic approach. It was shown that the depletion of PG by treatment of phospholipase C (PLC) on PSⅡ particles caused the inhibition of oxygen evolving activity in PSⅡ. This effect also gave rise to changes in the protein secondary structures of PSⅡ, that is, an increase in α-helical conformation which is compensated by the loss of β-strand structures. It revealed that the head-group of PG molecules plays an important structural role in the maintenance of normal structure of PSⅡ proteins, which is required to maintain the appropriate physiological activity of the PSⅡ complex such as the oxygen evolving activity. It is suggested that there most probably exist hydrogen-bonding interactions between PG molecules and PSⅡ proteins.

  17. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  18. Improved hybrid genome assemblies of 2 strains of Bacteroides xylanisolvens SD-CC-1b and SD-CC-2a using Illumina and 454 sequencing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteroides xlyanisolvens strains (SD_CC_1b, SD_CC_2a) isolated from human feces were able to grow on crystalline cellulose. Cellulolytic properties are not common in Bacteroides species. Here, we report improved genome sequences of both the B. xlyanisolvens strains....

  19. Summary of the working group 3: Electron beams from electromagnetic structures, including dielectric and laser-driven structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensch, Walter; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In this lively working group a diverse set of topics was discussed, spanning from novel methods in RF-cavity production via investigations of high-gradient breakdown and upcoming accelerator test facilities to new acceleration concepts. Because the talks were not divided into topics a broad range of expertise was always present during all presentations in seminar room "Sala Bonaparte 2". While the topics covered were broadly distributed, the report on the demonstration of high-gradient dielectric wakefield acceleration by the UCLA group was certainly considered as a highlight of this working group.

  20. Microstructure characteristic and formation mechanism of crackfree TaC coating on C/C composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-dong; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Bai-yun

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure characteristic and formation mechanism of the crackfree and ablation-resistant TaC coating deposited on the C/C composite by Chemical Vapour Deposition(CVD) were investigated, using the reaction system of TaCl5-C3H6-H2-Ar. The results show that the nanosized pore structure formed in the TaC coating interior during CVD process is the main factor to reduce the hardness, elastic modulus, linear expansibility and inner thermal stress. Then crackfree coatings can be prepared and their thermal shock resistance can be enhanced. To obtain the dense and homogeneous matrix surface is necessary for the crackfree and low stress coating. The TaC coating structure that distributes from the dense matrix towards loose coating surface will result in the thick crackfree coating with good thermal shock resistance.

  1. Peculiarities of Crystal Structure of the Cubic System Compounds with T 4 and T 5 Space Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, M. L.; Poplavnoi, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    We study symmetry peculiarities of crystalline compounds of a cubic system with the space groups T 4 and T 5 caused by the absence of point Wyckoff-sets in the unit cells of these groups. Due to the high multiplicity of the available Wyckoff positions, such compounds possess unit cells of complex composition. In these compounds, pseudosymmetry is realized with high probability when some group of atoms is located in positions close to the positions of higher-symmetry groups. We provide examples of crystalline compounds showing predicted specific structural features.

  2. Stratification of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genomes by gene-directed copy number alteration (CNA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, H-J; Steinbeck, F; Maruschke, M; Koczan, D; Ziems, B; Hakenberg, O W

    2017-01-01

    Tumorigenic processes are understood to be driven by epi-/genetic and genomic alterations from single point mutations to chromosomal alterations such as insertions and deletions of nucleotides up to gains and losses of large chromosomal fragments including products of chromosomal rearrangements e.g. fusion genes and proteins. Overall comparisons of copy number alterations (CNAs) presented in 48 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genomes resulted in ratios of gene losses versus gene gains between 26 ccRCC Fuhrman malignancy grades G1 (ratio 1.25) and 20 G3 (ratio 0.58). Gene losses and gains of 15762 CNA genes were mapped to 795 chromosomal cytoband loci including 280 KEGG pathways. CNAs were classified according to their contribution to Fuhrman tumour gradings G1 and G3. Gene gains and losses turned out to be highly structured processes in ccRCC genomes enabling the subclassification and stratification of ccRCC tumours in a genome-wide manner. CNAs of ccRCC seem to start with common tumour related gene losses flanked by CNAs specifying Fuhrman grade G1 losses and CNA gains favouring grade G3 tumours. The appearance of recurrent CNA signatures implies the presence of causal mechanisms most likely implicated in the pathogenesis and disease-outcome of ccRCC tumours distinguishing lower from higher malignant tumours. The diagnostic quality of initial 201 genes (108 genes supporting G1 and 93 genes G3 phenotypes) has been successfully validated on published Swiss data (GSE19949) leading to a restricted CNA gene set of 171 CNA genes of which 85 genes favour Fuhrman grade G1 and 86 genes Fuhrman grade G3. Regarding these gene sets overall survival decreased with the number of G3 related gene losses plus G3 related gene gains. CNA gene sets presented define an entry to a gene-directed and pathway-related functional understanding of ongoing copy number alterations within and between individual ccRCC tumours leading to CNA genes of prognostic and predictive value.

  3. Optimization of labelling PSMA-HBED-CC peptide with {sup 68}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Lais F.; Dias, Luis A.P.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: lais_alcarde@hotmail.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Early detection of metastases or recurrent prostate cancer (PC) lesions is of clinical relevance in terms of clinical staging, prognosis and therapy management. When PC is not treated, it is potentially lethal. Clinical methods for diagnosis of PC include the dosage of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and the rectal touch. Unfortunately, these initial procedures are not specific for PC detection. The level of PSA, in about 20 to 30% of the cases is high, due to benign pathologies, that result in false positive and unneeded biopsy. The prostatic specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein and differs from the PSA that is a free protein in blood. High levels of PSMA are observed in almost all prostatic pathologies and low levels were observed in brain, kidneys, salivary glands and small intestine. This fact stimulated the development of PSMA inhibitor molecules that could be used as a vector for imaging tumor agents and that could perfuse in the tumor microvasculature. Recent studies suggest that the chelator HBED-CC contributes intrinsically for the labelling of the PSMA inhibitor peptide based in urea - Glu-urea-Lys (Ahx) – to the pharmacophore group. This work describes the study of labelling conditions of PSMA-HBED-CC with {sup 68}Ga and determined the ideal conditions to obtaining the high radiochemical purity (≥ 95%) and stability, without final purification, and stimulates the in vitro and in vivo evaluation to determine the potential of the radiopharmaceutical for clinical application. (author)

  4. Cyclic Trinuclear Gold(I) Clusters with N,N and Unusual C,C Mixed-Ligand Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Doris Y; Chiarella, Gina M; Fackler, John P

    2016-11-21

    Three crystalline trinuclear gold(I) clusters, [Au3f2y] (1), [Au3fy2] (2), and [Au3y3] (3), where f = N,N'-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)methanimidamidate and y = dimethylendiphenylphosphinate, exhibit bridges from the N,N-formamidinate and/or from the ylide anion ligand whose P-methylene groups chelate in an unusual fashion, where the chelate CPC unit is perpendicular to the trigonal plane of the metal atoms. Assemblies 1 and 2 are the first gold(I) trinuclear clusters featuring mixed-ligand bridges from different N,N and C,C donors; 3 is a previously unknown homoleptic ylide anion cyclic trinuclear assembly. Formamidinate bridges in 1 and 2 connect gold(I) atoms at aurophilic distances of 3.084(2) and 3.0543(4) Å, whereas an out-of-plane (perpendicular) P-ylide anion bite produces Au(I)-Au(I) distances of as large as 3.900(2) Å in 3. The crystal space groups for 1 and 2 are triclinic P1̅ and that for 3 is monoclinic P21/c, with Z = 2 for 1 and 2 and Z = 4 for 3. Compounds are synthesized under Schlenk conditions at -20 °C in toluene by reacting the proper ratios of the gold(I) formamidinate [Au2f2] with the phosphorus ylide [Hy] under basic conditions (KOH), followed by extraction with ether. This synthesis also produces a dinuclear cation, [Au2f(Hy)2](+), previously reported by our group. A neutral mixed-ligand dinuclear complex, [Au2fy], was not observed. Under UV light, 1 and 2 display a bright-green luminescence at room temperature and in frozen methyltetrahydrofuran solutions under liquid nitrogen, with microsecond lifetimes. All three complexes 1-3 are characterized by their X-ray crystal structures, (1)H NMR, IR, UV-visible, and luminescence spectroscopies, and elemental analysis.

  5. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-05-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions.

  6. Abrogation of CC chemokine receptor 9 ameliorates ventricular remodeling in mice after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yijie; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yuting; Tang, Yanhong; Wang, Teng; Hu, Dan; Huang, Congxin

    2016-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), which is a unique receptor for CC chemokine ligand (CCL25), is mainly expressed on lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages. CCR9 mediates the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells and participates in the pathological progression of inflammatory diseases. However, the role of CCR9 in the pathological process of myocardial infarction (MI) remains unexplored; inflammation plays a key role in this process. Here, we used CCR9 knockout mice to determine the functional significance of CCR9 in regulating post-MI cardiac remodeling and its underlying mechanism. MI was induced by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in CCR9 knockout mice and their CCR9+/+ littermates. Our results showed that the CCR9 expression levels were up-regulated in the hearts of the MI mice. Abrogation of CCR9 improved the post-MI survival rate and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and decreased the infarct size. In addition, the CCR9 knockout mice exhibited attenuated inflammation, apoptosis, structural and electrical remodeling compared with the CCR9+/+ MI mice. Mechanistically, CCR9 mainly regulated the pathological response by interfering with the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, the data reveal that CCR9 serves as a novel modulator of pathological progression following MI through NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

  7. Influence of landscape structure on the functional groups of an aphidophagous guild: Active-searching predators, furtive predators and parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Éléonore Maisonhaute

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of studies focusing on the effect of agricultural landscapes demonstrate that many arthropod species are influenced by landscape structure. In particular, non–crop areas and landscape diversity are often associated with a higher abundance and diversity of natural enemies in fields. Numerous studies focused on the influence of landscape structure on ground beetles, spiders and ladybeetles but few on other natural enemies or different functional groups. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the influence of landscape structure on the functional groups, i.e., active-searching predators, furtive predators and parasitoids of aphidophagous guilds. Natural enemies were sampled on milkweed infested with aphids, growing along the borders of ditches adjacent to cornfields. The sampling occurred weekly from June to September in 2006 and 2007, in the region of Lanaudičre (Quebec, Canada. The landscapes within a radius 200 and 500 m around each site were analyzed. The abundance, richness and species composition (based on functional groups of natural enemies were related to landscape structure. The results indicated that landscape structure explained up to 21.6% of the variation in natural enemy assemblage and confirm the positive effects of non-crop areas and landscape diversity. A lower influence of landscape structure on species composition was observed (6.4 to 8.8% and varied greatly among the functional groups. Coccinellidae and furtive predators were the group most influenced by landscape structure. In conclusion, the influence of landscape varied greatly among the different species of the same functional group.

  8. Mirrors fabricated with slightly oxidized C/C composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Xu, Liang; Ding, Jiaoteng; Xie, Yongjie; Ma, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    Up to now, traditional materials, such as glass, metal and SiC ceramic, gradually begin to be unsatisfied development of the future mirrors. Designable carbon fiber reinforced composites became optimized material for large aperture lightweight mirrors. Carbon/carbon composites exhibit low thermal expansion and no moisture-absorption expansion problem, therefore, they get particular attention in the space reflector field. Ni was always employed as optical layer in the mirror, however, the coating behaved poor bond with substrate and often peeled off during optical processing. In order to solve this problem, slight oxidation was carried on the C/C composites before Ni plated. The Ni coating exhibited stronger coherence and better finish performance. Finally, a 100mm diameter plane mirror was successful fabricated.

  9. New Results on RZ Leo and CC Scl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Gaensicke, Boris T.; Toloza, Odette; Dai, Zhibin; HST GO12870 Team

    2017-01-01

    Using HST COS ultraviolet spectra in time-tag mode and a long K2 observation, we have determined a spin period for the white in RZ Leo of 220 seconds, thus confirming this cataclysmic variable as a new member of the Intermediate Polar class of systems. The ultraviolet light curve of CC Scl at quiescence created from its COS spectral observations is dominated by its spin period of 195 seconds (that has only been previously observed during one of its outbursts). Spectra formed from the high and low sections of its light curve shows a temperature difference of several thousand degrees.PS and ASM acknowledge support from NASA grant HST-GO13807 and from NSF grant AST-1514737.

  10. The role of CC chemokine receptor 5 in antiviral immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andreasen, Susanne Ørding

    2002-01-01

    The CC chemokine receptor CCR5 is an important coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and there is a major thrust to develop anti-CCR5-based therapies for HIV-1. However, it is not known whether CCR5 is critical for a normal antiviral T-cell response. This study investigated the immune...... response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice lacking CCR5 (CCR5(-/-) mice). This infection is a classical model for studying antiviral immunity, and influx of CCR5-expressing CD8(+) T cells and macrophages is essential for both virus control and associated immunopathology. Results showed...... influence of CCR5 was found, not even when viral peptide was used as local trigger instead of live virus. Finally, long-term CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune surveillance was efficiently sustained in CCR5(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results indicate that expression of CCR5 is not critical for T cell...

  11. Do structured arrangements for multidisciplinary peer group supervision make a difference for allied health professional outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pim Kuipers,1,2 Susan Pager,1 Karen Bell,3 Fiona Hall,4 Melissa Kendall2,5,6 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Community Science, School of Human Services, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 3Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Queensland, Australia; 4Allied Health Professions Office of Queensland, Health Service and Innovation Division, Queensland, Australia; 5Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 6Transitional Rehabilitation Programme, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Peer group supervision, particularly in multidisciplinary formats, presents a potential means of providing professional support, and specifically clinical supervision, for allied health professionals. Debate exists regarding the extent to which the activities of these groups should be formalized. Results drawn from an evaluation of a large-scale peer group supervision initiative are described. Analysis of 192 responses from professionals involved in peer groups indicates that participants in groups that used formal documentation – which adopted the tools provided in training, and particularly those that used formal evaluation of their groups – rated their groups as having better processes and greater impact. Interestingly, multidisciplinary peer groups were rated as having similar impacts, processes, and purposes as the more homogenous single-discipline groups. It is concluded that the implementation of formal arrangements enhances the processes and outcomes of peer groups implemented for professional support and clinical supervision. Multidisciplinary membership of such groups is perceived as equally beneficial as single-discipline groups. Keywords: allied health, professional supervision, clinical supervision, professional support, multidisciplinary

  12. Population genetic structure analysis and forensic evaluation of Xinjiang Uigur ethnic group on genomic deletion and insertion polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ting; Shen, Chun-Mei; Liu, Yao-Shun; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Guo, Yu-Xin; Dong, Qian; Wang, Xin-Xin; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The Uigur ethnic minority is the largest ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, and valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversities and forensic parameters of 30 insertion-deletion loci in Uigur ethnic group from Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of China and to analyze the genetic relationships between Xinjiang Uigur group and other previously published groups based on population data of these loci. All the tested loci were conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.3750 to 0.5515; and 0.4057 to 0.5037, respectively. The combined power of discrimination and probability of exclusion in the group were 0.99999999999940 and 0.9963, respectively. We analyzed the D A distance, interpopulation differentiations and population structure, conducted principal component analysis and neighbor-joining tree based on our studied group and 21 reference groups. The present results indicated that the studied Xinjiang Uigur group (represented our samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region) had a close relationships with Urumchi Uigur (represented previously reported samples from Urumchi of Xinjiang) and Kazak groups. The present study may provide novel biological information for the study of population genetics, and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Xinjiang Uigur group and other groups.

  13. 基于CC-link总线的自动化生产线分布式控制技术%Discrete Control Technology Based on CC-link for Automatic Assembly Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 杨培生

    2013-01-01

    为适应产业转型升级对网络化自动化生产线提出的迫切需求,解决传统分布式控制(DCS)存在的通信速率低、故障率高的问题,利用一套6单元小型加工装配自动化生产线,开展了基于CC-link现场总线的新型分布式控制技术的研究,阐述了设备软、硬件设计和CC-link总线数据链接过程.这种结合工作流程和通信方式特点构建的过程控制级采用CC-link总线、过程监控级采用RS485/422串行总线的两层分布式控制网络,可实现手动、自动控制和上位机远程监控.使用效果表明该控制技术具有可靠性高、适应性强、成本较低的特点.%In order to meet the urgent demand for network-based automatic production lines resulting from transformation and upgrading of industrial structure,and for effective solution on the problem of low communication rate and high failure of traditional Discrete Control System(DCS),a new discrete control technology based on CC-link Field Bus was studied through using a set of 6-unit small-scale automated assembly and storage line,and the design process of software,hardware of the equipment and CC-link Bus data link was elaborated.The functions of manual,automatic control as well as remote supervision on upper machine could be implemented by the two-layer distributed control network composed of process control level based on CC-link Bus with characteristics of working flow and communication method structure and process monitor level based on RS485/422 serial Bus.Practice effect shows that the control technology bears the characteristics of high reliability,strong adaptability and lower cost.

  14. Bayesian population structure analysis reveals presence of phylogeographically specific sublineages within previously ill-defined T group of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Guihui; Sun, Qun; Rastogi, Nalin

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic structure, and evolutionary history have been studied for years by several genotyping approaches, but delineation of a few sublineages remains controversial and needs better characterization. This is particularly the case of T group within lineage 4 (L4) which was first described using spoligotyping to pool together a number of strains with ill-defined signatures. Although T strains were not traditionally considered as a real phylogenetic group, they did contain a few phylogenetically meaningful sublineages as shown using SNPs. We therefore decided to investigate if this observation could be corroborated using other robust genetic markers. We consequently made a first assessment of genetic structure using 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs data extracted from the SITVIT2 database (n = 607 clinical isolates collected in Russia, Albania, Turkey, Iraq, Brazil and China). Combining Minimum Spanning Trees and Bayesian population structure analyses (using STRUCTURE and TESS softwares), we distinctly identified eight tentative phylogenetic groups (T1-T8) with a remarkable correlation with geographical origin. We further compared the present structure observed with other L4 sublineages (n = 416 clinical isolates belonging to LAM, Haarlem, X, S sublineages), and showed that 5 out of 8 T groups seemed phylogeographically well-defined as opposed to the remaining 3 groups that partially mixed with other L4 isolates. These results provide with novel evidence about phylogeographically specificity of a proportion of ill-defined T group of M. tuberculosis. The genetic structure observed will now be further validated on an enlarged worldwide dataset using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). PMID:28166309

  15. Bayesian population structure analysis reveals presence of phylogeographically specific sublineages within previously ill-defined T group of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Guihui; Sun, Qun; Rastogi, Nalin

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic structure, and evolutionary history have been studied for years by several genotyping approaches, but delineation of a few sublineages remains controversial and needs better characterization. This is particularly the case of T group within lineage 4 (L4) which was first described using spoligotyping to pool together a number of strains with ill-defined signatures. Although T strains were not traditionally considered as a real phylogenetic group, they did contain a few phylogenetically meaningful sublineages as shown using SNPs. We therefore decided to investigate if this observation could be corroborated using other robust genetic markers. We consequently made a first assessment of genetic structure using 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs data extracted from the SITVIT2 database (n = 607 clinical isolates collected in Russia, Albania, Turkey, Iraq, Brazil and China). Combining Minimum Spanning Trees and Bayesian population structure analyses (using STRUCTURE and TESS softwares), we distinctly identified eight tentative phylogenetic groups (T1-T8) with a remarkable correlation with geographical origin. We further compared the present structure observed with other L4 sublineages (n = 416 clinical isolates belonging to LAM, Haarlem, X, S sublineages), and showed that 5 out of 8 T groups seemed phylogeographically well-defined as opposed to the remaining 3 groups that partially mixed with other L4 isolates. These results provide with novel evidence about phylogeographically specificity of a proportion of ill-defined T group of M. tuberculosis. The genetic structure observed will now be further validated on an enlarged worldwide dataset using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS).

  16. Social Loafing on Group Projects: Structural Antecedents and Effect on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Praveen; O'Brien, Connie L.

    2008-01-01

    To respond to the expectations of the industry and business school accreditation bodies, marketing faculty have been making extensive use of group projects in their curricula. A common problem with the use of student groups, however, is that of social loafing. In this study, we identify some easy-to-implement project set-up factors and examine…

  17. Xeroderma pigmentosum group F caused by a defect in a structure-specific DNA repair endonuclease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sijbers (Anneke); W.L. de Laat (Wouter); R.A. Ariza (Rafael); M. Biggerstaff (Maureen); Y-F. Wei; J.G. Moggs (Jonathan); K.C. Carter (Kenneth); B.K. Shell (Brenda); E. Evans (Elizabeth); M.C. de Jong (Mariska); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); J.D. de Rooij (Johan); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.D. Wood (Richard)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide excision repair, which is defective in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), involves incision of a DNA strand on each side of a lesion. We isolated a human gene homologous to yeast Rad1 and found that it corrects the repair defects of XP group F as well as rodent groups 4 and 11. Causa

  18. Molecular early main group metal hydrides : synthetic challenge, structures and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, Sjoerd

    2012-01-01

    Within the general area of early main group metal chemistry, the controlled synthesis of well-defined metal hydride complexes is a rapidly developing research field. As group 1 and 2 metal complexes are generally highly dynamic and lattice energies for their [MH](infinity) and [MH2](infinity) salts

  19. Molecular early main group metal hydrides : synthetic challenge, structures and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, Sjoerd

    2012-01-01

    Within the general area of early main group metal chemistry, the controlled synthesis of well-defined metal hydride complexes is a rapidly developing research field. As group 1 and 2 metal complexes are generally highly dynamic and lattice energies for their [MH](infinity) and [MH2](infinity) salts

  20. Interactions between odorant functional group and hydrocarbon structure influence activity in glomerular response modules in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett A; Farahbod, Haleh; Leon, Michael

    2005-03-07

    To investigate the effect of odorant hydrocarbon structure on spatial representations in the olfactory bulb systematically, we exposed rats to odorant chemicals possessing one of four different oxygen-containing functional groups on one of five different hydrocarbon backbones. We also used several hydrocarbon odorants lacking other functional groups. Hydrocarbon structural categories included straight-chained, branched, double-bonded, alicyclic, and aromatic features. Activity throughout the entire glomerular layer was measured as uptake of [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose and was mapped into anatomically standardized data matrices for statistical comparisons across different animals. Patterns evoked by straight-chained aliphatic odorants confirmed an association of activity in particular glomerular response modules with particular functional groups. However, the amount of activity in these same modules also was affected significantly by differences in hydrocarbon structure. Thus, the molecular features recognized by receptors projecting to these response modules appear to involve both functional group and hydrocarbon structural elements. In addition, particular benzyl and cyclohexyl odorants evoked activity in dorsal modules previously associated with the ketone functional group, which represents an exception to the rule of one feature per response module that had emerged from our previous studies. These dorsal modules also responded to nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds involving pyridine and pyrazine rings. The unexpected overlap in modular responses to ketones and odorants seemingly unrelated to ketones may reflect some covert shared molecular feature, the existence of odorant sensory neurons with multiple specificities, or a mosaic of sensory neuron projections to these particular modules.

  1. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Langen, Carolyn D.; Tonya White; Arfan Ikram, M.; Vernooij, Meike W.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationshi...

  2. Structural phase diagrams for the surface of a solid - A total-energy, renormalization-group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, J.; Lee, D. H.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Xiong, J. J.

    1983-11-01

    Total-energy calculations based on microscopic electronic structure are combined with position-space renormalization-group calculations to predict the structural phase transitions of the Si(100) surface as a function of temperature. It is found that two distinct families of reconstructed geometries can exist on the surface, with independent phase transitions occurring within each. Two critical temperatures representing order-disorder transitions are calculated.

  3. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter-over-groups

  4. Generation of (3 + d)-dimensional superspace groups for describing the symmetry of modulated crystalline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Harold T; Campbell, Branton J; van Smaalen, Sander

    2011-01-01

    A complete table of (3 + 1)D, (3 + 2)D and (3 + 3)D superspace groups (SSGs) has been enumerated that corrects omissions and duplicate entries in previous tables of superspace groups and Bravais classes. The theoretical methods employed are not new, though the implementation is both novel and robust. The paper also describes conventions for assigning a unique one-line symbol for each group in the table. Finally, a new online data repository is introduced that delivers more complete information about each SSG than has been presented previously.

  5. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  6. Construction of Eukaryotic Expression Vector of Human CC10 Gene and Expression of CC10 Protein in Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A mammalian expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-hCC10 was constructed and identified, then CC10 protein expression in A549 lung cancer cell line was detected. A 273 bp cDNA fragment was amplified from the total RNA of normal lung tissue by using RT-PCR and cloned into expression plasmid cDNA3.1, and the recombinant plasmid was identified by employing double digestion restriction enzymes HindⅢ and BamH Ⅰ and the cDNA sequence was assayed by the Sanger dideoxymediated chain termination method. The segment was then transfected into the A549 lung cancer cell line. The protein expression of CC10 was detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot.Our results showed that the cDNA fragment included the entire coding region (273 bp). The recombinant eukaryotic cell expression vector of pcDNA3.1-hCC10 was successfully constructed, and the sequence of the insert was identical to the published sequence. A549 cells line transfected with the pcDNA3.1-hCC10 expressed high level of CC10 protein. The recombinant plasmid cDNA3. 1hCC10 may serve as an effective tool for the study of tumorogenesis and tumor treatment.

  7. MSP430和CC3000的智能手机控制系统%Smartphone ControI System Based on MSP430 and CC3000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董金荣; 陈国林; 池上升

    2015-01-01

    A smartphone control system is designed in the paper which consists of wireless router,smartphone,CC3000 Wi-Fi module, MSP430 MCU and its peripheral circuits.Using the CC3000 features of simple link,the system can quickly build the connection with the smartphone,and it can indirectly control the MCU and its peripheral circuits.The experimental results show that the CC3000 and smartphone can be connected stably,and can control MCU and its peripheral circuits in real-time.%设计了一种智能手机控制系统。该系统由无线路由器、智能手机、CC3000 Wi Fi模块、MSP430单片机及其外围电路组成。利用CC3000简单连接的特性,可以快速建立 CC3000与智能手机的连接,达到智能手机间接控制单片机及其外围电路的目的。实验结果表明,CC3000和智能手机能够稳定地连接,并且可以实时控制单片机及其外围电路。

  8. Comparative study of problem based learning versus structured group discussion in teaching pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveesh M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: PBL and SGD are effective small group methods for teaching undergraduate medical students. However learning outcome with PBL is better than SGD. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1877-1880

  9. Incentive structure in team-based learning: graded versus ungraded Group Application exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Deardorff

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The use of ungraded Group Application exercises appears to be a successful modification of TBL, making it more “student-friendly” while maintaining the goals of active learning and development of teamwork skills.

  10. The Perceived Structure of American Ethnic Groups: The Use of Multidimensional Scaling in Stereotype Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Sandra G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A methodology for stereotype research, including an experimental paradigm and an analytic method, is presented. The paradigm involves the collection of three different types of similarities data concerning ethnic groups and rating-scale adjectives. (Author/DEP)

  11. MPS/CAS Partner Group on Interfacial and Amorphous Structures in Advanced Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hui; Fritz Aldinger

    2004-01-01

    @@ The scientific work of the Partner Group is aiming to comprehend the fundamental properties of internal interfaces that play a key role in the microstructure development and in the thermal, mechanical, and functional properties of ceramics.

  12. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn D Langen

    Full Text Available Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1 middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2 patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only

  13. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Carolyn D; White, Tonya; Ikram, M Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only fractional anisotropy

  14. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of ex...

  15. Business groups in agriculture. Impact of ownership structures on performance: The case of Russia's agroholdings

    OpenAIRE

    Matyukha, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    [Objective and hypotheses] Due to the absence of legal and structural backings with neither an existing law clearly identifying the phenomena, nor publically available transparent consolidated financial reporting within the integrated structures in Russia’s agricultural sector, it is a widely accepted fact that even qualitative data, portraying the picture of the agroholding subsidiaries and/or affiliates, are scarce, e.g. WANDEL (2011). Notwithstanding the previous research challenges, the c...

  16. Jubilite: A 4-,8-connected Cubic Structural Pattern in Space Group Pm3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Castro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the course of investigating structural modifications of the 3-,4-connected net known as the Pt3O4 structure-type (waserite, a novel 4-,8-connected structure-type was discovered. This lattice is generated by replacing the 3-connected trigonal planar vertices of the Pt3O4 structure-type with 4-connected tetrahedral vertices, to achieve a structure which possesses a generic empirical formula of JK6L8. In such a topological modification, the four 3-fold axes of the parent cubic, Pm3n, Pt3O4 structure-type are retained. Thus the 4-connected tetrahedral vertices are oriented so as to preserve cubic symmetry in the resulting Pm3, JK6L8 (jubilite lattice. The unit cell contains a single 8-connected cubecentered vertex, six 4-connected distorted square planar vertices and eight 4-connected distorted tetrahedral vertices. It is a Wellsean structure with a Wells point symbol given by (4166484(42826(43838 and a Schläfli symbol of (53/4, 4.2667. This latter index reveals a decrease in the lattice’s polygonality and concomitant increase in the connectivity through the transformation from waserite to jubilite. The topology of the parent waserite lattice (Pt3O4 corresponds to that of the Catalan structures with the Wells point symbol (843(834, which has the Schläfli symbol (8, 3.4285. Finally, it can be seen that a sequence of structure-types starting with waserite (Pt3O4 and moving to jubilite (JK6L8 and finally to fluorite (CaF2 represents a continuous crystallographic structural transformation in which the symmetry and topology undergo concomitant changes from one structure-type (waserite to the other structure-types. The topology of the fluorite lattice, represented by the Wells point symbol (424(462, and the Schläfli symbol (4, 51/3, indicates a discontinuous topological transformation from the intermediate jubilite lattice; like the discontinuous topological transformation from Pt3O4 to JK6L8; in which the

  17. Iron-Catalyzed C-C Cross-Couplings Using Organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2016-08-01

    Over the last decades, iron-catalyzed cross-couplings have emerged as an important tool for the formation of C-C bonds. A wide variety of alkenyl, aryl, and alkyl (pseudo)halides have been coupled to organometallic reagents, the most currently used being Grignard reagents. Particular attention has been devoted to the development of iron catalysts for the functionalization of alkyl halides that are generally challenging substrates in classical cross-couplings. The high functional group tolerance of iron-catalyzed cross-couplings has encouraged organic chemists to use them in the synthesis of bioactive compounds. Even if some points remain obscure, numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the mechanism of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling and several hypotheses have been proposed.

  18. Structural and functional analysis of laninamivir and its octanoate prodrug reveals group specific mechanisms for influenza NA inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Vavricka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1 led to record sales of neuraminidase (NA inhibitors, which has contributed significantly to the recent increase in oseltamivir-resistant viruses. Therefore, development and careful evaluation of novel NA inhibitors is of great interest. Recently, a highly potent NA inhibitor, laninamivir, has been approved for use in Japan. Laninamivir is effective using a single inhaled dose via its octanoate prodrug (CS-8958 and has been demonstrated to be effective against oseltamivir-resistant NA in vitro. However, effectiveness of laninamivir octanoate prodrug against oseltamivir-resistant influenza infection in adults has not been demonstrated. NA is classified into 2 groups based upon phylogenetic analysis and it is becoming clear that each group has some distinct structural features. Recently, we found that pH1N1 N1 NA (p09N1 is an atypical group 1 NA with some group 2-like features in its active site (lack of a 150-cavity. Furthermore, it has been reported that certain oseltamivir-resistant substitutions in the NA active site are group 1 specific. In order to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of laninamivir, we utilized recombinant N5 (typical group 1, p09N1 (atypical group 1 and N2 from the 1957 pandemic H2N2 (p57N2 (typical group 2 to carry out in vitro inhibition assays. We found that laninamivir and its octanoate prodrug display group specific preferences to different influenza NAs and provide the structural basis of their specific action based upon their novel complex crystal structures. Our results indicate that laninamivir and zanamivir are more effective against group 1 NA with a 150-cavity than group 2 NA with no 150-cavity. Furthermore, we have found that the laninamivir octanoate prodrug has a unique binding mode in p09N1 that is different from that of group 2 p57N2, but with some similarities to NA-oseltamivir binding, which provides additional insight into group specific differences of

  19. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, C.D.; White, T.; Ikram, M.A.; Vernooij, M.W.; Niessen, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significan

  20. Latar as the Central Point of Houses Group Unit: Identifiability for Spatial Structure in Kasongan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yoyok Wahyu Subroto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The massive spatial expansion of the city into the rural area in recent decades has caused such problems as related to the spatial exploitation in villages surrounding. This raises a question of whether the open space change into land coverage building may have a spatial structure implication on settlement growth and evolution process in the villages surrounding. This paper reports a case study of Kasongan village in Bantul regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia in between 1973-2010 in which the problem refers to the discussion of spatial structure is rarely addressed especially in village’s settlement growth and evolution analysis. The bound axis which consists of 4 (four quadrants and one intersection refers to the reference axes in a Cartesian Coordinate System (CCS is used to analyze the setting of the houses group unit around 4 areas/ quadrants. Through such spatial process analysis by means spatial structure approach, the continuity of latar (yard, in the central of houses group unit is detected. There is finding from this research that the latar which exists in ‘the central point’ of houses group unit in Kasongan during 4 decades significantly becomes the prominent factor of the basic spatial structure. It composes the houses group unit in Kasongan.

  1. Analysis of admixture and genetic structure of two Native American groups of Southern Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.

  2. Perfluorinated carbon-chain copolymers with functional groups and cation exchange membranes based on them: synthesis, structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Yu E.; Smirnov, S. A.; Popkov, Yu M.; Timashev, Sergei F.

    1990-06-01

    The review is devoted to perfluorinated polymers with sulphonic and carboxylic acid groups and to cation exchange membranes based on them. The synthesis is described of copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene with perfluorovinyl ethers containing functional groups by radical copolymerisation in an organic medium and in aqueous emulsions. Special features of the copolymerisation and approaches to obtaining copolymers with set characteristics are discussed. Data are presented on the structure and physicochemical properties of the polymeric films. Attempts to form membranes from the polymers obtained, the means of strengthening them and methods for chemical modification are described. Data are correlated on the influence of structure and polymer composition and the nature of the functional groups on the electrochemical characteristics of membranes. Special features of the functioning of perfluorinated membranes in the process for making chlorine and alkali by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution are considered. The bibliography has 104 references.

  3. Crystal structure of the bacterial ribosomal decoding site complexed with amikacin containing the gamma-amino-alpha-hydroxybutyryl (haba) group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Jiro; François, Boris; Russell, Rupert J M; Murray, James B; Westhof, Eric

    2006-08-01

    Amikacin is the 4,6-linked aminoglycoside modified at position N1 of the 2-deoxystreptamine ring (ring II) by the L-haba group. In the present study, the crystal structure of a complex between oligonucleotide containing the bacterial ribosomal A site and amikacin has been solved at 2.7 A resolution. Amikacin specifically binds to the A site in practically the same way as its parent compound kanamycin. In addition, the L-haba group interacts with the upper side of the A site through two direct contacts, O2*...H-N4(C1496) and N4*-H...O6(G1497). The present crystal structure shows how the introduction of the L-haba group on ring II of aminoglycoside is an effective mutation for obtaining a higher affinity to the bacterial A site.

  4. Myelin-specific proteins: a structurally diverse group of membrane-interacting molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huijong; Myllykoski, Matti; Ruskamo, Salla; Wang, Chaozhan; Kursula, Petri

    2013-01-01

    The myelin sheath is a multilayered membrane in the nervous system, which has unique biochemical properties. Myelin carries a set of specific high-abundance proteins, the structure and function of which are still poorly understood. The proteins of the myelin sheath are involved in a number of neurological diseases, including autoimmune diseases and inherited neuropathies. In this review, we briefly discuss the structural properties and functions of selected myelin-specific proteins (P0, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, myelin-associated glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein, P2, proteolipid protein, peripheral myelin protein of 22 kDa, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and periaxin); such properties include, for example, interactions with lipid bilayers and the presence of large intrinsically disordered regions in some myelin proteins. A detailed understanding of myelin protein structure and function at the molecular level will be required to fully grasp their physiological roles in the myelin sheath.

  5. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  6. On the structure of artinian-by-(finite rank modules over generalized soluble groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Chupordia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a ring and G a group. An R-module A is said to be artinian-by-(finite rank, if $\\mathrm{Tor}_R(A$ is artinian and $A/\\mathrm{Tor}_R(A$ has finite R-rank. In this paper modules A over a group ring ${\\mathbb{Z}}_{p^{\\infty}}G$ such that $A/C_A(H$ is artinian-by-(finite rank (as an ${\\mathbb{Z}}_{p^{\\infty}}$-module for every proper subgroup H are investigated.

  7. Effect of salt stress on the physiology of Frankia sp strain CcI6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rediet Oshone; Samira R Mansour; Louis S Tisa

    2013-11-01

    Actinorhizal plants are able to overcome saline soils and reclaim land. Frankia sp strain CcI6 was isolated from nodules of Casuarina cunninghamiana found in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of Frankia sp. strain CcI6 revealed that the strain is closely related to Frankia sp. strain CcI3. The strain displays an elevated level of NaCl tolerance. Vesicle production and nitrogenase activity were also influenced by NaCl.

  8. Evaluation of CC2 as a Decontaminant in Various Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Formulations Against Sulphur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate CC2 (N, N' -dichloro-bis [2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl] urea) in various hydrophilic and lipophilic formulations as a personnel decontaminant for sulphur mustard (SM). Methods Twenty percent of CC2 was prepared as a suspension or ointment with various chemical agents and its stability was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated in mice by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM (LD50 =8.1 mg/kg dermally) and decontaminating it after 2 min with 200 mg of the formulation.Studies were also carried out with 10% and 20% CC2 in acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose,and the suspensions were stored in polyethylene containers. The stability of the suspensions was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM in mice and 12 LD50 of SM in rats (LD50 = 2.4 mg/kg dermally), and decontaminating it with the formulations. LD50 by different routes and primary skin irritation test of CC2 were also carried out. Results CC2 reacted with peanut oil and neem oil, and was unstable in povidone iodine and Fuller's earth. Good stability was achieved with petroleum jelly, honey, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, calamine lotion, acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Though CC2 was stable in lipophilic formulations, it did not protect the animals. The hydrophilic formulations particularly acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose gave very good protection and was stable in the polyethylene containers for a period of 1 year. The efficacy of 20% CC2 was better than 10% CC2. The oral and dermal LD50 of CC2 was found to be above 5.0 g/kg. CC2 was also found to be nonirritant.Conclusion Twenty percent of CC2 in hydroxypropyl cellulose is better with respect to stability, efficacy and ease of decontamination. CC2 is also a safe chemical.

  9. Application of Aquaculture Monitoring System Based on CC2530

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Liu, X. Q.

    In order to improve the intelligent level of aquaculture technology, this paper puts forward a remote wireless monitoring system based on ZigBee technology, GPRS technology and Android mobile phone platform. The system is composed of wireless sensor network (WSN), GPRS module, PC server, and Android client. The WSN was set up by CC2530 chips based on ZigBee protocol, to realize the collection of water quality parameters such as the water level, temperature, PH and dissolved oxygen. The GPRS module realizes remote communication between WSN and PC server. Android client communicates with server to monitor the level of water quality. The PID (proportion, integration, differentiation) control is adopted in the control part, the control commands from the android mobile phone is sent to the server, the server again send it to the lower machine to control the water level regulating valve and increasing oxygen pump. After practical testing to the system in Liyang, Jiangsu province, China, temperature measurement accuracy reaches 0.5°C, PH measurement accuracy reaches 0.3, water level control precision can be controlled within ± 3cm, dissolved oxygen control precision can be controlled within ±0.3 mg/L, all the indexes can meet the requirements, this system is very suitable for aquaculture.

  10. Long-term-stability of relationship structure in family groups of common marmosets, and its link to proactive prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Christa; Burkart, Judith M

    2017-05-01

    Cooperatively breeding, group-living common marmosets show differentiated relationships, where more strongly bonded dyads within a group engage more in affiliative interactions than less strongly bonded ones. Intriguingly, recent results suggest that strong bonds do not only occur between breeding partners but between individuals from any sex or status, and that strong-bond partners exhibit correlated oxytocin fluctuations (dyadic oxytocin synchrony, OTS) over a period of six weeks. To date, it is unclear whether such relationships are stable over time and whether they are also reflected in higher partner-specific proactive prosociality. To assess the long-term stability of the relationship structure of common marmoset family groups, we investigated whether hormonal and behavioral markers of group structure (dyadic OTS, dyadic affiliation, and individual group integration) in common marmoset families remained stable over a period of six months. We collected baseline urinary OT and social behavior of 36 dyads from three family groups in a non-reproductive period (period A), and again six months later, around the birth of new infants (period B). Patterns of dyadic OTS, dyadic affiliation, and individual group integration were consistent between the two study periods. Oxytocin data from a fourth group (10 dyads), collected in two non-reproductive periods separated by a period of more than five years, could replicate this finding. Furthermore, OTS was also correlated with proactive prosociality that was assessed experimentally for 38 dyads during an earlier study. These results suggest that differentiated relationships are stable over time, even between group members other than the breeding pair, and that more strongly bonded partners also show higher levels of proactive prosociality. Future studies are necessary to identify whether these relationships have an adaptive function, perhaps with regard to positive consequences on cooperativeness.

  11. Structure-Activity Relationship of Curcumin: Role of the Methoxy Group in Anti-inflammatory and Anticolitis Effects of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixia; Du, Zheyuan; Wang, Weicang; Song, Mingyue; Sanidad, Katherine; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Zheng, Jennifer; Tian, Li; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Guodong

    2017-06-07

    Curcumin, a dietary compound from turmeric, has beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Most previous studies have focused on the structure-activity relationship of the thiol-reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups of curcumin, so little is known about the roles of methoxy groups in biological activities of curcumin. Here we synthesized a series of curcumin analogues with different substitution groups (R = H-, Br-, Cl-, F-, NO2-, CH3-, and OH-) to replace the methoxy group and evaluated their biological effects in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin, Cur-OH, and Cur-Br (25 μM) suppressed 74.91 ± 0.88, 77.75 ± 0.89, and 71.75 ± 0.90% of LPS-induced NO production, respectively (P 0.05). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, the Cur-Br analogue also showed a beneficial effect the same as curcumin (P effect in the animal model (P > 0.05). Together, the analogues have dramatically different effects on inflammation, supporting that the substitution group on the methoxy position plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin. The methoxy group is a potential structural candidate for modification to design curcumin-based drugs for inflammatory diseases.

  12. Electronic structure and nonlinear optical properties of model push-pull polyenes with modified indanone groups: a theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymusiak; Zielinski; Domagalska; Wilk

    2000-05-01

    Several model polyenes with modified indanone groups were studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-31G*, ab initio HF/3-21G* and semiempirical AM1 methods. We investigated the effect of several substituents upon the relationship between the structure, spatial distribution of the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied pi-MOs, a concept of the global softness and the global hardness as well as both linear and nonlinear polarizabilities for the set of pi-electron chromophores represented by the short-chain model polyene (butadiene) carrying out p-methoxyphenyl group on the one end and several modified indanone groups on the opposite end of the molecule. As probing endocyclic groups used to modify the structure of indanone the following substituents: > CH2; > C=O; > SO2, > C=CH(NO2) and > C=C(CN)2 were selected. The cubic relationship between the polarizability and the global softness was found. The highest polarizabilities (alpha, beta, gamma) are predicted for the derivatives with > C=C(CN)2 group. It was found that the value of beta depends mainly on the difference between dipole moments in the excited and ground states of the molecules. In the case of > SO2 group the results of AMI calculations significantly deviate from relationships found for other derivatives. Experimental IR and Raman spectra of newly synthesized indandione derivative of cinnamaldehyde were compared with computed ones.

  13. Group 3 metal stilbene complexes: Synthesis, reactivity, and electronic structure studies

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, W.; Abukhalil, PM; Khan, SI; Diaconescu, PL

    2014-01-01

    Group 3 metal (E)-stilbene complexes supported by a ferrocene diamide ligand were synthesized and characterized. Reactivity studies showed that they behave similar to analogous naphthalene complexes. Experimental and computational results indicated that the double bond was reduced and not a phenyl ring, in contrast to a previously reported uranium (E)-stilbene complex. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  14. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide determinant of blood group Cad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.-P.; Fournet, B.; Montreuil, J.; Halbeek, H. van

    1983-01-01

    Glycophorin A and B from Cad erythrocyte membranes are the carriers of the blood group Cad determinants. They are characterized by a significant increase in molecular mass, as compared to the corresponding glycophorins from control erythrocytes (Cartron, J.-P., and Blanchard, D. (1982) Biochem. J.

  15. Psychosocial Problems among Truant Youths: A Multi-Group, Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Wareham, Jennifer; Belenko, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Truant youths represent a critical group needing problem-oriented research and involvement in effective services. The limited number of studies on the psychosocial functioning of truant youths have focused on one or a few problem areas, rather than examining comorbid problem behaviors. The present study addresses the need to examine the…

  16. Enhancement of Former Drug Abusers' Career Development through Structured Group Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Efforts were made to facilitate career development of former drug abusers. Treatment consisted of a modified form of Daane's vocational exploration group (VEG). Subjects had significantly greater maturity of career attitudes and competencies than controls and greater clarity of career plans. Results indicate the VEG enhanced career-development…

  17. A novel triculture system (CC3 for simultaneous enzyme production and hydrolysis of common grasses through submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Vineeth Leo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The perennial grasses are considered as a rich source of lignocellulosic biomass, making it a second generation alternative energy source and can diminish the use of fossil fuels. In this work, four perennial grasses Saccharum arundinaceum, Panicum antidotale, Thysanolaena latifolia and Neyraudia reynaudiana were selected to verify their potential as a substrate to produce hydrolytic enzymes and to evaluate them as second generation energy biomass. Here, cellulase and hemi-cellulase producing three endophytic bacteria (Burkholderia cepacia BPS-GB3, Alcaligenes faecalis BPS-GB5 and Enterobacter hormaechei BPS-GB8 recovered from N. reynaudiana and S. arundinaceum were selected to develop a triculture (CC3 consortium. During 12 days of submerged cultivation, a 55-70% loss in dry weight was observed and the maximum activity of β-glucosidase (5.36 to 12.34 IU and Xylanase (4.33 to 10.91 IU were observed on 2nd and 6th day respectively, whereas FPase (0.26 to 0.53 IU and CMCase (2.31 to 4.65 IU showed maximum activity on 4th day. Around 15-30% more enzyme activity was produced in CC3 as compared to monoculture (CC1 and coculture (CC2 treatments, suggested synergetic interaction among the selected three bacterial strains. Further, the biomass was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The FTIR analysis provides important insights into the reduction of cellulose and hemicellulose moieties in CC3 treated biomass and SEM studies shed light into the disruption of surface structure leading to access of cellulose or hemicelluloses microtubules. The hydrolytic potential of the CC3 system was further enhanced due to reduction in lignin as evidenced by 1-4% lignin reduction in biomass compositional analysis. Additionally, laccase gene was detected from A. faecalis and E. hormaechei which further shows the laccase production potential of the isolates. To our knowledge, first time we develop an

  18. A Sliding-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Chemical Group Grated Structure by Shadow Mask Reactive Ion Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wanyu; Gu, Guang Qin; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Lei; Cheng, Gang; Du, Zu-Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-08-25

    The sliding-mode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) with grated structure has important applications in energy harvest and active sensors; however its concavo-convex structure leads to large frictional resistance and abrasion. Here, we developed a S-TENG with a chemical group grated structure (S-TENG-CGG), in which the triboelectric layer's triboelectric potential has a positive-negative alternating charged structure. The triboelectric layer of the S-TENG-CGG was fabricated through a reactive ion etching process with a metal shadow mask with grated structure. In the etched region, the nylon film, originally positively charged as in friction with stainless steel, gained opposite triboelectric potential and became negatively charged because of the change of surface functional groups. The output signals of the S-TENG-CGG are alternating and the frequency is determined by both the segment numbers and the moving speed. The applications of the S-TENG-CGG in the charging capacitor and driving calculator are demonstrated. In the S-TENG-CGG, since there is no concavo-convex structure, the frictional resistance and abrasion are largely reduced, which enhances its performances in better stability and longer working time.

  19. Basic features of a group selection system modification aimed to sustian regular-uneven-aged stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Efremov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed modification of group selection system is aimed to successfully combine its elements with biological peculiarities (such as sympodial growth, distinct heliotropism and crown growth plasticity, heavy seeds and difficult dissemination, etc. of shade-intolerant and mid-tolerant tree species, stands of which may bemanaged under the same system. Principles, on which the modification is based, are: (i application of well founded extended rotations in order to increase the proportion of tree groups above 90-100 years age in the stand, where upon the height increment and crown side spread by most of the main tree species in Bulgary drop to considerably lower level, and (ii optimum systematic spatial positioning of openings in the stand canopy (and tree groups respectively over the stand area, so that new gaps createdby consecutive selection cuttings adjoin to a minimum number of middle aged (40-80 y. age tree groups. Such clumps of vigorous trees with high growth rates, heliotropism and plasticity carry certain risks of spoiling the target regular-unevenaged stand structure. Factors of significance are discussed by determining the rotationage, size of gaps opened in the stand canopy, selection cutting cycle, a regular uneveaged stand structure design and the minimum area that enables realisation of full selection system cycle. Definitions and determination of selection system elementsin their mutual connections are presented in consecutive steps when designing a particular application of group selection system for exemplary pure stand of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. By the proposed group selection system modification the amount of combinations of various factors having impact upon processes inthe tree groups are diminished compared to that by random spatial arrangement of the gaps over the stand area. Silvicultural activities aimed to maintain a stable unevenaged stand structures are thus getting more predictable, easier to schedule and

  20. Basic features of a group selection system modification aimed to sustian regular-uneven-aged stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Efremov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Proposed modification of group selection system is aimed to successfully combine its elements with biological peculiarities (such as sympodial growth, distinct heliotropism and crown growth plasticity, heavy seeds and difficult dissemination, etc. of shade-intolerant and mid-tolerant tree species, stands of which may be managed under the same system. Principles, on which the modification is based, are: (i application of well founded extended rotations in order to increase the proportion of tree groups above 90-100 years age in the stand, where upon the height increment and crown side spread by most of the main tree species in Bulgary drop to considerably lower level, and (ii optimum systematic spatial positioning of openings in the stand canopy (and tree groups respectively over the stand area, so that new gaps created by consecutive selection cuttings adjoin to a minimum number of middle aged (40-80 y. age tree groups. Such clumps of vigorous trees with high growth rates, heliotropism and plasticity carry certain risks of spoiling the target regular-unevenaged stand structure. Factors of significance are discussed by determining the rotation age, size of gaps opened in the stand canopy, selection cutting cycle, a regularuneven- aged stand structure design and the minimum area that enables realisation of full selection system cycle. Definitions and determination of selection system elements in their mutual connections are presented in consecutive steps when designing a particular application of group selection system for exemplary pure stand of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. By the proposed group selection system modification the amount of combinations of various factors having impact upon processes in the tree groups are diminished compared to that by random spatial arrangement of the gaps over the stand area. Silvicultural activities aimed to maintain a stable unevenaged stand structures are thus getting more predictable, easier to schedule

  1. Immunological role of C4 CC chemokine-1 from snakehead murrel Channa striatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we have reported a cDNA sequence of C4 CC chemokine identified from snakehead murrel (also known as striped murrel) Channa striatus (named as CsCC-Chem-1) normalized cDNA library constructed by Genome Sequencing FLX™ Technology (GS-FLX™). CsCC-Chem-1 is 641 base pairs (bp) long that contain 438 bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 146 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15 kDa. The polypeptide contains a small cytokine domain at 30-88. The domain carries the CC motif at Cys(33)-Cys(34). In addition, CsCC-Chem-1 consists of another two cysteine residues at C(59) and C(73), which, together with C(33) and C(34), make CsCC-Chem-1 as a C4-CC chemokine. CsCC-Chem-1 also contains a 'TCCT' motif at 32-35 as CC signature motif; this new motif may represent new characteristic features, which may lead to some unknown function that needs to be further focused on. Phylogenitically, CsCC-Chem-1 clustered together with CC-Chem-1 from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus and European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Significantly (P<0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in spleen and is up-regulated upon fungus (Aphanomyces invadans), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and virus (poly I:C) infection at various time points. The gene expression results indicate the influence of CsCC-Chem-1 in the immune system of murrel. Overall, the gene expression study showed that the CsCC-Chem-1 is a capable gene to increase the cellular response against various microbial infections. Further, we cloned the coding sequence of CsCC-Chem-1 in pMAL vector and purified the recombinant protein to study the functional properties. The cell proliferation activity of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein showed a significant metabolic activity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the chemotaxis assay showed the capability of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein which can induce the migration of spleen leukocytes in C. striatus. However, this remains to be verified

  2. Structuring collaboration scripts for mastership skills: Optimizing online group play on classroom dilemmas in teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Geerts, Walter; Slootmaker, Aad; Kuipers, Derek; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Serious games can facilitate workplace learning, for instance when collaboration on solving professional problems is involved. The optimal structure in collaboration scripts for such games has appeared to be a key success factor. Free collaboration does not systematically produce effective learning,

  3. Group V adsorbate structures on vicinal Ge(001) surfaces determined from the optical spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Patterson, C. H.; McGilp, J. F.

    2017-06-01

    Vicinal Ge(001) is the standard substrate for the fabrication of high-performance solar cells by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy, where growth of the III-V material on single domain Ge surfaces, with a single dimer orientation, minimizes the formation of anti-phase domain defects. Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy has proved to be a powerful and sensitive optical probe of such anisotropic surface structures, but moving beyond fingerprinting to atomic structure determination from the optical spectra has been held back by the high computational cost. It is shown that an empirical, local-orbital-based hybrid density functional theory approach produces very good agreement between the theory and the experiment for (2 × 1)-As and (2 × 1)-Sb structures grown on vicinal Ge(001). These results, when taken together with previous work on Si interfaces, show that this computationally efficient approach is likely to prove to be an important general technique for determining the structure of anisotropic semiconductor surfaces and interfaces by comparing the experimental and calculated optical spectrum.

  4. Hands on Group Work Paper Model for Teaching DNA Structure, Central Dogma and Recombinant DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, Melek; Nakiboglu Tezer, Mahmure

    2009-01-01

    Understanding life on a molecular level is greatly enhanced when students are given the opportunity to visualize the molecules. Especially understanding DNA structure and function is essential for understanding key concepts of molecular biology such as DNA, central dogma and the manipulation of DNA. Researches have shown that undergraduate…

  5. Genomic structures and population histories of linguistically distinct tribal groups of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, S; Roy, S; Basu, A; Banerjee, R; Vishwanathan, H; Usha Rani, M V; Sil, S K; Mitra, M; Majumder, P P

    2001-09-01

    There are various conflicting hypotheses regarding the origins of the tribal groups of India, who belong to three major language groups--Austro-Asiatic, Dravidian and Tibeto-Burman. To test some of the major hypotheses we designed a genetic study in which we sampled tribal populations belonging to all the three language groups. We used a set of autosomal DNA markers, mtDNA restriction-site polymorphisms (RSPs) and mtDNA hypervariable segment-1 (HVS-1) sequence polymorphisms in this study. Using the unlinked autosomal markers we found that there is a fair correspondence between linguistic and genomic affinities among the Indian tribal groups. We reconstructed mtDNA RSP haplotypes and found that there is extensive haplotype sharing among all tribal populations. However, there is very little sharing of mtDNA HVS-1 sequences across populations, and none across language groups. Haplogroup M is ubiquitous, and the subcluster U2i of haplogroup U occurs in a high frequency. Our analyses of haplogroup and HVS-1 sequence data provides evidence in support of the hypothesis that the Austro-Asiatic speakers are the most ancient inhabitants of India. Our data also support the earlier finding that some of the western Eurasian haplogroups found in India may have been present in India prior to the entry of Aryan speakers. However, we do not find compelling evidence to support the theory that haplogroup M was brought into India on an "out of Africa" wave of migration through a southern exit route from Ethiopia. On the contrary, our data raise the possibility that this haplogroup arose in India and was later carried to East Africa from India.

  6. Cloning and Expression Profiling of CcCBF Genes in Cinnamomum camphora%香樟CcCBFs基因的克隆及表达模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇鹏; 张力维; 张佳佳; 陈慧茹; 曹玥华; 杜丽

    2016-01-01

    CBF转录因子又称为DREB1,在增强植物抵御非生物胁迫(低温 、干旱和盐胁迫)方面具有重要的作用.利用同源克隆的方法结合RACE PCR技术,从香樟中获得2个CBF类似基因的cDNA全长序列,命名为CcCBFa和CcCBFb,其cDNA序列全长分别为909和941 bp,分别包含一个714和729 bp的开放阅读框,编码237和242个氨基酸;gNDA序列分析结果显示,CcC BFa和CcCB Fb基因均不含有内含子.一系列生物信息学分析表明,CcCBFa和CcCBFb基因属于DREB家族的CBF/DREB1亚家族,将所获得香樟CBF基因cDNA全长序列提交到NCBI(登录号:KJ958932和KJ958933).此外,实时定量PCR结果表明,CcCBFa和CcCBFb基因在香樟不同器官中的表达量存在一定差异,并且均能被低温、干旱、盐以及ABA强烈诱导.这些结果表明,CcCBFa和CcCBFb可能在香樟应对低温、干旱和盐等非生物胁迫时发挥重要作用,并且可能与ABA信号通路有关.%As an important transcription factor , C-repeat binding factor ( CBF ) , also called dehydration-responsive element binding factor 1( DREB1) , plays a key role in enhancing plant tolerance to abotic environmental stresses such as low tem -perature , drought and salinity .Two novel CBF-like genes designated as CcCBFa and CcCBFb were successfully isolated from Cinnamomum camphora, and the full length cDNA sequences were 909 and 941 bp, respectively .Their open reading frames (ORF) were 714 and 729 bp, respectively, encoding 237 and 242 amino acids.There was no intron in the coding regions of the two genes .By an array of bioinformatics analysis , two genes were classified into the CBF/DREB1 subfamily , and their full-length cDNA sequences were submitted to the NCBI with accession numbers of KJ 958932 and KJ958933.By qPCR, CcCBFa and CcCBFb could be dramatically induced by low temperature , drought and salinity, as well as ABA, and the expression level of the two genes had specific expression differences in different organs of C

  7. Conversor CC/CC com dois estÃgios para aplicaÃÃo em sistemas fotovoltaicos autÃnomos de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Everton Uchoa Reis

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta o estudo de um conversor CC/CC com dois estÃgios para aplicaÃÃo no desenvolvimento de sistemas autÃnomos de energia elÃtrica. O conversor sob estudo consiste basicamente da associaÃÃo de dois conversores CC/CC, em que entre eles à inserido um banco de baterias para dar continuidade ao fornecimento de energia em perÃodos em que nÃo hà radiaÃÃo solar. Todos os conversores utilizados para a composiÃÃo do sistema sÃo do tipo boost utilizando a cÃlula de comutaÃÃo ...

  8. The Town Effect: Dynamic Interaction between a Group of Structures and Waves in the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2010-11-01

    In a conventional approach, the mechanical behaviour of a structure subjected to seismic or blast waves is treated separately from its surroundings, and in many cases, the dynamic coupling effect between multiple structures and the waves propagating in the ground is disregarded. However, if many structures are built densely in a developed urban area, this dynamic interaction may not become negligible. The first purpose of this contribution is to briefly show the effect of multiple interactions between waves and surface buildings in a town. The analysis is based on a recently developed, fully coupled, rigorous mathematical study, and for simplicity, each building in the town is represented by a rigid foundation, a mass at the top and an elastic spring that connects the foundation and mass. The buildings stand at regular spatial intervals on a linear elastic half-space and are subjected to two-dimensional anti-plane vibrations. It is found that the buildings in this model significantly interact with each other through the elastic ground, and the resonant (eigen) frequencies of the collective system (buildings or town) become lower than that of a single building with the same rigid foundation. This phenomenon may be called the “town effect” or “city effect.” Then, second, it is shown that the actual, unique structural damage pattern caused by the 1976 Friuli, Italy, earthquake may better be explained by this “town effect,” rather than by investigating the seismic performance of each damaged building individually. The results suggest that it may also be possible to evaluate the physical characteristics of incident seismic/blast waves “inversely” from the damage patterns induced to structures by the waves.

  9. 基于CC2430实现ZigBee通信%A Design for ZigBee Wireless Communication Based on CC2430 RF transceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 胡荣强

    2008-01-01

    本文在简要介绍ZigBee技术的基础与CC2430芯片之后,讨论了使用CC2430为RF收发器的ZigBee节点的硬件组成.并从ZigBee通信协议及协议栈的构架等方面阐述了ZigBee无线通信网络的实现.

  10. Non-Watson Crick base pairs might stabilize RNA structural motifs in ribozymes – A comparative study of group-I intron structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandrasekhar; R Malathi

    2003-09-01

    In recent decades studies on RNA structure and function have gained significance due to discoveries on diversified functions of RNA. A common element for RNA secondary structure formed by series of non-Watson/Watson Crick base pairs, internal loops and pseudoknots have been the highlighting feature of recent structural determination of RNAs. The recent crystal structure of group-I introns has demonstrated that these might constitute RNA structural motifs in ribozymes, playing a crucial role in their enzymatic activity. To understand the functional significance of these non-canonical base pairs in catalytic RNA, we analysed the sequences of group-I introns from nuclear genes. The results suggest that they might form the building blocks of folded RNA motifs which are crucial to the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The conservation of these, as observed from divergent organisms, argues for the presence of non-canonical base pairs as an important requisite for the structure and enzymatic property of ribozymes by enabling them to carry out functions such as replication, polymerase activity etc. in primordial conditions in the absence of proteins.

  11. Structurally defined allyl compounds of main group metals: coordination and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Crispin; Okuda, Jun

    2013-05-10

    Organometallic allyl compounds are important as allylation reagents in organic synthesis, as polymerization catalysts, and as volatile metal precursors in material science. Whereas the allyl chemistry of synthetically relevant transition metals such as palladium and of the lanthanoids is well-established, that of main group metals has been lagging behind. Recent progress on allyl complexes of Groups 1, 2, and 12-16 now provides a more complete picture. This is based on a fundamental understanding of metal-allyl bonding interactions in solution and in the solid state. Furthermore, reactivity trends have been rationalized and new types of allyl-specific reactivity patterns have been uncovered. Key features include 1) the exploitation of the different types of metal-allyl bonding (highly ionic to predominantly covalent), 2) the use of synergistic effects in heterobimetallic compounds, and 3) the adjustment of Lewis acidity by variation of the charge of allyl compounds.

  12. Growth, morphology, and structural properties of group-III-nitride nanocolumns and nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J. [ISOM and Dpt. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cerutti, L. [ISOM and Dpt. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centre d' Electronique et de Micro-Optoelectronique de Montpellier (CEM2), Universite Montpellier II, UMR CNRS 5507, Case 067, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Trampert, A.; Jahn, U. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Sanchez, G.; Griol, A.; Sanchez, B. [Nanophotonics Technology Centre, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    The growth conditions to achieve group-III-nitride nanocolumns and nanocolumnar heterostructures by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The evolution of the nanocolumnar morphology with the growth conditions is determined for (Ga,Al)N and (In,Ga)N nanocolumns. The mechanisms behind the nanocolumnar growth under high N-rich conditions are clarified in the sense that no seeding or catalysts are required, as it is the case in the vapour-liquid-solid model that applies to most nanocolumns grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition, either with group-III nitrides, II-VI or III-V compounds. Some examples of nanocolumnar heterostructures are given, like quantum disks and cylindrical nanocavities. Preliminary results on the growth of arrays of ordered GaN nanocolumns are reported. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. New Groups Study Science's Effect on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the chief aims of the Council for Science and Society in London and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna. Indicates that both groups are planning to function as a multinational interdisciplinary organization. (CC)

  14. Geometry of mixed states and degeneracy structure of geometric phases for multi-level quantum systems. A unitary group approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolessi, E; Morandi, G; Mukunda, N

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the geometric aspects of unitary evolution of general states for a multilevel quantum system by exploiting the structure of coadjoint orbits in the unitary group Lie algebra. Using the same method in the case of SU(3) we study the effect of degeneracies on geometric phases for three-level systems. This is shown to lead to a highly nontrivial generalization of the result for two-level systems in which degeneracy results in a "monopole" structure in parameter space. The rich structures that arise are related to the geometry of adjoint orbits in SU(3). The limiting case of a two-level degeneracy in a three-level system is shown to lead to the known monopole structure.

  15. Rotation of Guanine Amino Groups in G-Quadruplexes: A Probe for Local Structure and Ligand Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Michael; Winnerdy, Fernaldo Richtia; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2017-08-22

    Nucleic acids are dynamic molecules whose functions may depend on their conformational fluctuations and local motions. In particular, amino groups are dynamic components of nucleic acids that participate in the formation of various secondary structures such as G-quadruplexes. Here, we present a cost-efficient NMR method to quantify the rotational dynamics of guanine amino groups in G-quadruplex nucleic acids. An isolated spectrum of amino protons from a specific tetrad-bound guanine can be extracted from the nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy spectrum based on the close proximity between the intra-residue imino and amino protons. We apply the method in different structural contexts of G-quadruplexes and their complexes. Our results highlight the role of stacking and hydrogen-bond interactions in restraining amino-group rotation. The measurement of the rotation rate of individual amino groups could give insight into the dynamic processes occurring at specific locations within G-quadruplex nucleic acids, providing valuable probes for local structure, dynamics, and ligand binding. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. FLAMEnGO 2.0: an enhanced fuzzy logic algorithm for structure-based assignment of methyl group resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Fa-An; Kim, Jonggul; Xia, Youlin; Milligan, Michael; Rowe, Nancy; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2014-08-01

    We present an enhanced version of the FLAMEnGO (Fuzzy Logic Assignment of Methyl Group) software, a structure-based method to assign methyl group resonances in large proteins. FLAMEnGO utilizes a fuzzy logic algorithm coupled with Monte Carlo sampling to obtain a probability-based assignment of the methyl group resonances. As an input, FLAMEnGO requires either the protein X-ray structure or an NMR structural ensemble including data such as methyl-methyl NOESY, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE), methine-methyl TOCSY data. Version 2.0 of this software (FLAMEnGO 2.0) has a user-friendly graphic interface and presents improved modules that enable the input of partial assignments and additional NMR restraints. We tested the performance of FLAMEnGO 2.0 on maltose binding protein (MBP) as well as the C-subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-C). FLAMEnGO 2.0 can be used as a standalone method or to assist in the completion of partial resonance assignments and can be downloaded at www.chem.umn.edu/groups/veglia/forms/flamengo2-form.html.

  17. M&A, tax avoidance and group structures : a tax-based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Belz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents three seperate papers. The first two of these analyse tax-induced consequences of mergers and acquisitions, where the target firm is in the focus. It is analysed whether a tax advantage can be generated at the target firm, following an acquisition. If this is the case, acquisitions are favoured by the tax system and specifically those acquirers are favoured that are able to generate the highest tax advantages. The third paper analyses the adjustment of group str...

  18. Group theoretic structures in the estimation of an unknown unitary transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiribella, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a series of general results about the optimal estimation of physical transformations in a given symmetry group. In particular, it is shown how the different symmetries of the problem determine different properties of the optimal estimation strategy. The paper also contains a discussion about the role of entanglement between the representation and multiplicity spaces and about the optimality of square-root measurements.

  19. The Structure of Reduced Sudoku Grids and the Sudoku Symmetry Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân K. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Sudoku grid is a constrained Latin square. In this paper a reduced Sudoku grid is described, the properties of which differ, through necessity, from that of a reduced Latin square. The Sudoku symmetry group is presented and applied to determine a mathematical relationship between the number of reduced Sudoku grids and the total number of Sudoku grids for any size. This relationship simplifies the enumeration of Sudoku grids and an example of the use of this method is given.

  20. The structural basis for promoter -35 element recognition by the group IV sigma factors.

    OpenAIRE

    William J Lane; Darst, Seth A.

    2006-01-01

    The control of bacterial transcription initiation depends on a primary sigma factor for housekeeping functions, as well as alternative sigma factors that control regulons in response to environmental stresses. The largest and most diverse subgroup of alternative sigma factors, the group IV extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, directs the transcription of genes that regulate a wide variety of responses, including envelope stress and pathogenesis. We determined the 2.3-A resolution crystal ...