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  1. Groups, graphs and random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...

  2. Random walks on reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Benoist, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.

  3. Leader Behaviors, Group Cohesion, and Participation in a Walking Group Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Betty T; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Sand, Sharon L; Reyes, Angela G; Hoston, Bernadine; Richardson, Dawn; Gamboa, Cindy; Rowe, Zachary; Diaz, Goya

    2015-07-01

    Less than half of all U.S. adults meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Leader behaviors and group cohesion have been associated with increased participation or adherence in sports team and exercise class settings. Physical activity interventions in community settings that encompass these factors may enhance intervention adherence. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Community Health Promoter leader behaviors and group cohesion on participation in a walking group intervention among racially/ethnically diverse adults in low to moderate-income communities in Detroit, Michigan. Data for the current study were drawn from the Walk Your Heart to Health (WYHH) data set. WYHH was a multisite cluster RCT with a lagged intervention and outcome measurements at baseline and 4, 8, and 32 weeks. Pooled survey data from both intervention arms were used for the current study. Data were analyzed between August 2013 and October 2014. A total of 603 non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic adults across five cohorts that began the 32-week WYHH intervention between March 2009 and October 2011. The intervention was a 32-week walking group program hosted by community- and faith-based organizations and facilitated by Community Health Promoters. Walking groups met three times per week for 90 minutes per session. To promote participation in or adherence to WYHH, Community Health Promoters used evidence-based strategies to facilitate group cohesion. Group members assumed increasing leadership responsibility for facilitating sessions over time. Participation in WYHH as measured by consistency of attendance. Community Health Promoter leader behaviors were positively associated with participation in WYHH. Social but not task cohesion was significantly associated with consistent participation. Social cohesion may mediate the relationship between leader behaviors and walking group participation. Providing leaders with training to build socially cohesive groups

  4. Walking, sustainability and health: findings from a study of a Walking for Health group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon; Machaczek, Kasia; Pollard, Nick; Allmark, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Not only is it tacitly understood that walking is good for health and well-being but there is also now robust evidence to support this link. There is also growing evidence that regular short walks can be a protective factor for a range of long-term health conditions. Walking in the countryside can bring additional benefits, but access to the countryside brings complexities, especially for people with poorer material resources and from different ethnic communities. Reasons for people taking up walking as a physical activity are reasonably well understood, but factors linked to sustained walking, and therefore sustained benefit, are not. Based on an ethnographic study of a Walking for Health group in Lincolnshire, UK, this paper considers the motivations and rewards of group walks for older people. Nineteen members of the walking group, almost all with long-term conditions, took part in tape-recorded interviews about the personal benefits of walking. The paper provides insights into the links between walking as a sustainable activity and health, and why a combination of personal adaptive capacities, design elements of the walks and relational achievements of the walking group are important to this understanding. The paper concludes with some observations about the need to reframe conventional thinking about adherence to physical activity programmes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Walking for Well-Being: Are Group Walks in Certain Types of Natural Environments Better for Well-Being than Group Walks in Urban Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Warber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708 were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, depression (Major Depressive Inventory, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity.

  6. How nuclear power began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowing, M.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the features of the story of nuclear power, both in nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations, derive from their timing. Usually, in the history of science the precise timing of discovery does not make much difference, but in the case of nuclear fission there was the coincidence that crucial discoveries were made and openly published in the same year, 1939, as the outbreak of the Second World War. It is these events of the 1930s and the early post-war era that are mainly discussed. However, the story began a lot earlier and even in the early 1900s the potential power within the atom had been foreseen by Soddy and Rutherford. In the 1930s Enrico Fermi and his team saw the technological importance of their discoveries and took out a patent on their process to produce artificial radioactivity from slow neutron beams. The need for secrecy because of the war, and the personal trusts and mistrusts run through the story of nuclear power. (UK)

  7. The role of walkers' needs and expectations in supporting maintenance of attendance at walking groups: a longitudinal multi-perspective study of walkers and walk group leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassavou, Aikaterini; Turner, Andrew; French, David P

    2015-01-01

    There is good evidence that when people's needs and expectations regarding behaviour change are met, they are satisfied with that change, and maintain those changes. Despite this, there is a dearth of research on needs and expectations of walkers when initially attending walking groups and whether and how these needs and expectations have been satisfied after a period of attendance. Equally, there is an absence of research on how people who lead these groups understand walkers' needs and walk leaders' actions to address them. The present study was aimed at addressing both of these gaps in the research. Two preliminary thematic analyses were conducted on face-to-face interviews with (a) eight walkers when they joined walking groups, five of whom were interviewed three months later, and (b) eight walk leaders. A multi-perspective analysis building upon these preliminary analyses identified similarities and differences within the themes that emerged from the interviews with walkers and walk leaders. Walkers indicated that their main needs and expectations when joining walking groups were achieving long-term social and health benefits. At the follow up interviews, walkers indicated that satisfaction with meeting similar others within the groups was the main reason for continued attendance. Their main source of dissatisfaction was not feeling integrated in the existing walking groups. Walk leaders often acknowledged the same reasons for walkers joining and maintaining attendance at walking. However, they tended to attribute dissatisfaction and drop out to uncontrollable environmental factors and/or walkers' personalities. Walk leaders reported a lack of efficacy to effectively address walkers' needs. Interventions to increase retention of walkers should train walk leaders with the skills to help them modify the underlying psychological factors affecting walkers' maintenance at walking groups. This should result in greater retention of walkers in walking groups, thereby

  8. The role of walkers' needs and expectations in supporting maintenance of attendance at walking groups: a longitudinal multi-perspective study of walkers and walk group leaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Kassavou

    Full Text Available There is good evidence that when people's needs and expectations regarding behaviour change are met, they are satisfied with that change, and maintain those changes. Despite this, there is a dearth of research on needs and expectations of walkers when initially attending walking groups and whether and how these needs and expectations have been satisfied after a period of attendance. Equally, there is an absence of research on how people who lead these groups understand walkers' needs and walk leaders' actions to address them. The present study was aimed at addressing both of these gaps in the research.Two preliminary thematic analyses were conducted on face-to-face interviews with (a eight walkers when they joined walking groups, five of whom were interviewed three months later, and (b eight walk leaders. A multi-perspective analysis building upon these preliminary analyses identified similarities and differences within the themes that emerged from the interviews with walkers and walk leaders.Walkers indicated that their main needs and expectations when joining walking groups were achieving long-term social and health benefits. At the follow up interviews, walkers indicated that satisfaction with meeting similar others within the groups was the main reason for continued attendance. Their main source of dissatisfaction was not feeling integrated in the existing walking groups. Walk leaders often acknowledged the same reasons for walkers joining and maintaining attendance at walking. However, they tended to attribute dissatisfaction and drop out to uncontrollable environmental factors and/or walkers' personalities. Walk leaders reported a lack of efficacy to effectively address walkers' needs.Interventions to increase retention of walkers should train walk leaders with the skills to help them modify the underlying psychological factors affecting walkers' maintenance at walking groups. This should result in greater retention of walkers in walking

  9. The Social Relations of a Health Walk Group: An Ethnographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon; Pollard, Nick; Allmark, Peter; Machaczek, Kasia; Ramcharan, Paul

    2017-09-01

    It is already well established that regular walks are conducive to health and well-being. This article considers the production of social relations of regular, organized weekly group walks for older people. It is based on an ethnographic study of a Walking for Health group in a rural area of the United Kingdom. Different types of social relations are identified arising from the walk experience. The social relations generated are seen to be shaped by organizational factors that are constitutive of the walks; the resulting culture having implications for the sustainability of the experience. As there appears to be no single uniting theory linking group walk experiences to the production of social relations at this time, the findings are considered against therapeutic landscape, therapeutic mobility, and social capital theorizing. Finally, implications for the continuance of walking schemes for older people and for further research are considered.

  10. Factors affecting walking activity of older people from culturally diverse groups: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Radermacher, Harriet; Sims, Jane; Feldman, Susan; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to investigate the walking habits of older people from diverse cultural backgrounds, and to identify the factors associated with their walking. Three hundred and thirty three people over the age of 60 years were recruited from seven culturally diverse groups from the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. A survey questionnaire recording physical activity, and various factors related to activity, was interviewer-administered in the participants' preferred language. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Forty-seven percent of the participants walked at least 150 min per week, with no significant difference in prevalence between genders or cultural groups. Some cultural differences were found in relation to reasons and locations for walking, and women were more likely than men to report walking in the shopping mall, whilst men were more likely than women to report walking in the park and along walking trails. Those who attained >150 min of walking were more likely to report health and fitness as reasons for walking, to perceive their walking environment as more pleasurable, to use walking trails, and to consider their environment safe and to facilitate social interaction. This study indicates that the continued advocating of walking as a health promoting activity should be central to future campaigns to increase physical activity in this age group. The provision of locations that are accessible, safe, aesthetically pleasing, and encourage social engagement are likely to facilitate older people's participation in walking. For maximum effectiveness, however, strategies may benefit from being tailored to meet specific gender and cultural preferences. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  12. Investigating the relationship between leader behaviours and group cohesion within women's walking groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, W Kerry; Duncan, Mitch

    2011-07-01

    Early research has shown that leadership behaviour is viewed as a crucial factor in successfully developing team cohesion, effectively resulting in greater team satisfaction and more positive team outcomes. However, little is understood if these same factors have an impact on physical activity groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leader behaviours and group cohesiveness within women's physical activity groups. Participants (N = 95) included a sub-sample of adult women who were previously involved in a women's physical activity/walking program. Participants assessed their groups' leader behaviour using items pertaining to enthusiasm, motivation, instruction and availability, and their groups' cohesiveness using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGEQ). Canonical correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of association between the four concepts of group cohesion (ATG-T, ATG-S, GI-T and GI-S) and the four items pertaining to leadership behaviour. A significant multivariate relationship was revealed between group cohesion and leadership behaviour, Wilks' lambda = 0.43, F(16,170) = 5.16, p cohesion. Although a cause-effect relationship cannot be determined, the current study can serve as a valuable template in guiding future research in examining potential mechanisms that may assist with physical activity sustainability. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of Chain Walking by Weak Neighbouring Group Interac-tions in Unsymmetric Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura; Wiedemann, Thomas; Gö ttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Mecking, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study shows how weak attractive interactions of a neighbouring group can strongly promote chain walking and chain transfer. This accounts for the previously observed very different micro-structures obtained

  14. Predicting maintenance of attendance at walking groups: testing constructs from three leading maintenance theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassavou, Aikaterini; Turner, Andrew; Hamborg, Thomas; French, David P

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the processes and factors that account for maintenance, with several theories existing that have not been subject to many empirical tests. The aim of this study was to test how well theoretical constructs derived from the Health Action Process Approach, Rothman's theory of maintenance, and Verplanken's approach to habitual behavior predicted maintenance of attendance at walking groups. 114 participants, who had already attended walking groups in the community for at least 3 months, completed a questionnaire assessing theoretical constructs regarding maintenance. An objective assessment of attendance over the subsequent 3 months was gained. Multilevel modeling was used to predict maintenance, controlling for clustering within walking groups. Recovery self-efficacy predicted maintenance, even after accounting for clustering. Satisfaction with social outcomes, satisfaction with health outcomes, and overall satisfaction predicted maintenance, but only satisfaction with health outcomes significantly predicted maintenance after accounting for clustering. Self-reported habitual behavior did not predict maintenance despite mean previous attendance being 20.7 months. Recovery self-efficacy, and satisfaction with health outcomes of walking group attendance appeared to be important for objectively measured maintenance, whereas self-reported habit appeared not to be important for maintenance at walking groups. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention studies to boost recovery self-efficacy and satisfaction with outcomes of walking group attendance, to assess impact on maintenance.

  15. Random walks on the braid group B3 and magnetic translations in hyperbolic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voituriez, Raphaeel

    2002-01-01

    We study random walks on the three-strand braid group B 3 , and in particular compute the drift, or average topological complexity of a random braid, as well as the probability of trivial entanglement. These results involve the study of magnetic random walks on hyperbolic graphs (hyperbolic Harper-Hofstadter problem), what enables to build a faithful representation of B 3 as generalized magnetic translation operators for the problem of a quantum particle on the hyperbolic plane

  16. Is there evidence that walking groups have health benefits? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andy

    2015-06-01

    To assess the health benefits of outdoor walking groups. Systematic review and meta-analysis of walking group interventions examining differences in commonly used physiological, psychological and well-being outcomes between baseline and intervention end. Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists in English language up to November 2013. Adults, group walking outdoors with outcomes directly attributable to the walking intervention. Forty-two studies were identified involving 1843 participants. There is evidence that walking groups have wide-ranging health benefits. Meta-analysis showed statistically significant reductions in mean difference for systolic blood pressure -3.72 mm Hg (-5.28 to -2.17) and diastolic blood pressure -3.14 mm Hg (-4.15 to -2.13); resting heart rate -2.88 bpm (-4.13 to -1.64); body fat -1.31% (-2.10 to -0.52), body mass index -0.71 kg/m(2) (-1.19 to -0.23), total cholesterol -0.11 mmol/L (-0.22 to -0.01) and statistically significant mean increases in VO(2max) of 2.66 mL/kg/min (1.67-3.65), the SF-36 (physical functioning) score 6.02 (0.51 to 11.53) and a 6 min walk time of 79.6 m (53.37-105.84). A standardised mean difference showed a reduction in depression scores with an effect size of -0.67 (-0.97 to -0.38). The evidence was less clear for other outcomes such as waist circumference fasting glucose, SF-36 (mental health) and serum lipids such as high-density lipids. There were no notable adverse side effects reported in any of the studies. Walking groups are effective and safe with good adherence and wide-ranging health benefits. They could be a promising intervention as an adjunct to other healthcare or as a proactive health-promoting activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Immigrant families' perceptions on walking to school and school breakfast: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busby Katie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant children face an increased risk of being overweight. Little is known about how immigrant families perceive school programs that may help prevent obesity, such as walking to school and school breakfast. Methods Six focus groups (n = 53 were conducted with immigrant parents of school-aged children, two each in three languages: Vietnamese, Spanish, and Somali. A facilitator and translator conducted the focus groups using a script and question guide. Written notes and audio transcripts were recorded in each group. Transcripts were coded for themes by two researchers and findings classified according to an ecological model. Results Participants in each ethnic group held positive beliefs about the benefits of walking and eating breakfast. Barriers to walking to school included fear of children's safety due to stranger abductions, distrust of neighbors, and traffic, and feasibility barriers due to distance to schools, parent work constraints, and large families with multiple children. Barriers to school breakfast participation included concerns children would not eat due to lack of appealing/appropriate foods and missing breakfast due to late bus arrival or lack of reminders. Although some parents acknowledged concerns about child and adult obesity overall, obesity concerns did not seem personally relevant. Conclusion Immigrant parents supported the ideals of walking to school and eating breakfast, but identified barriers to participation in school programs across domains of the ecological model, including community, institution, and built environment factors. Schools and communities serving immigrant families may need to address these barriers in order to engage parents and children in walking and breakfast programs.

  18. Use of formative research and social network theory to develop a group walking intervention: Sumter County on the Move!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Burroughs-Girardi, Ericka; Stoisor-Olsson, Liliana; Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Pekuri, Linda M

    2016-10-01

    Although social support is a frequently cited enabler of physical activity, few studies have examined how to harness social support in interventions. This paper describes community-based formative research to design a walking program for mobilizing naturally occurring social networks to support increases in walking behavior. Focus group methods were used to engage community members in discussions about desired walking program features. The research was conducted with underserved communities in Sumter County, South Carolina. The majority of focus group participants were women (76%) and African American (92%). Several important themes emerged from the focus group results regarding attitudes toward walking, facilitators of and barriers to walking, ideal walking program characteristics, and strategies for encouraging community members to walk. Most noteably, the role of existing social networks as a supportive influence on physical activity was a recurring theme in our formative research and a gap in the existing evidence base. The resulting walking program focused on strategies for mobilizing, supporting and reinforcing existing social networks as mechanisms for increasing walking. Our approach to linking theory, empirical evidence and community-based formative research for the development of a walking intervention offers an example for practitioners developing intervention strategies for a wide range of behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antenatal physical activity: a qualitative study exploring women's experiences and the acceptability of antenatal walking groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Sinéad; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; McInnes, Rhona J

    2016-07-22

    Regular physical activity (PA) can be beneficial to pregnant women, however, many women do not adhere to current PA guidelines during the antenatal period. Patient and public involvement is essential when designing antenatal PA interventions in order to uncover the reasons for non-adherence and non-engagement with the behaviour, as well as determining what type of intervention would be acceptable. The aim of this research was to explore women's experiences of PA during a recent pregnancy, understand the barriers and determinants of antenatal PA and explore the acceptability of antenatal walking groups for further development. Seven focus groups were undertaken with women who had given birth within the past five years. Focus groups were transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Relevant and related behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which could be applied to future interventions, were identified using the BCT taxonomy. Women's opinions and experiences of PA during pregnancy were categorised into biological/physical (including tiredness and morning sickness), psychological (fear of harm to baby and self-confidence) and social/environmental issues (including access to facilities). Although antenatal walking groups did not appear popular, women identified some factors which could encourage attendance (e.g. childcare provision) and some which could discourage attendance (e.g. walking being boring). It was clear that the personality of the walk leader would be extremely important in encouraging women to join a walking group and keep attending. Behaviour change technique categories identified as potential intervention components included social support and comparison of outcomes (e.g. considering pros and cons of behaviour). Women's experiences and views provided a range of considerations for future intervention development, including provision of childcare, involvement of a fun and engaging leader and a range of activities rather than just walking

  20. Developing a culturally-tailored stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors: A focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. Objectives To gain better understanding of (i) Beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) Attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) Barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking program. Design An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64–90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8–11 participants. Methods Focus group audio tapes were transcribed and analyzed using standard content analysis methods. Results Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g., too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring ‘balance’ was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialization while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking program. Conclusions Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. Implications for practice A stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and

  1. Random walks on a fluctuating lattice: A renormalization group approach applied in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levermore, C.D.; Nadler, W.; Stein, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    We study the problem of a random walk on a lattice in which bonds connecting nearest-neighbor sites open and close randomly in time, a situation often encountered in fluctuating media. We present a simple renormalization group technique to solve for the effective diffusive behavior at long times. For one-dimensional lattices we obtain better quantitative agreement with simulation data than earlier effective medium results. Our technique works in principle in any dimension, although the amount of computation required rises with the dimensionality of the lattice

  2. Why might adults belong to outdoor walking groups? A qualitative study using photo-elicitation methods in a population with poor health and physical activity indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andrew; Guell, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Walking groups have multiple health benefits but walking interventions tend to be socially patterned and have the potential to increase health inequity. This poster presented preliminary findings of a qualitative study with a new walking groups in an area of social deprivation

  3. Control of Chain Walking by Weak Neighbouring Group Interac-tions in Unsymmetric Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2017-12-20

    A combined theoretical and experimental study shows how weak attractive interactions of a neighbouring group can strongly promote chain walking and chain transfer. This accounts for the previously observed very different micro-structures obtained in ethylene polymerization by [κ2-N,O-{(2,6-(3\\',5\\'-R2C6H3)2C6H3-N=C(H)-(3,5-X,Y2-2-O-C6H2)}]NiCH3(pyridine)], namely hyperbranched oligomers for remote substituents R = CH3 versus. high molecular weight polyethylene for R = CF3. From a full mechanistic consideration the alkyl olefin complex with the growing chain cis to the salicylaldiminato oxygen donor is identified as the key species. Alternative to ethylene chain growth by insertion in this species, decoordination of the monomer to form a cis ß-agostic complex provides an entry into branching and chain transfer pathways. This release of monomer is promoted and made competitive by a weak η2-coordination of the distal aryl rings to the metal center, operative only for the case of sufficiently electron rich aryls. This concept for controlling chain walking is underlined by catalysts with other weakly coordinating furane and thio-phene motifs, which afford highly branched oligomers with > 120 branches per 1000 carbon atoms.

  4. Is cooperation viable in mobile organisms? Simple Walk Away rule favors the evolution of cooperation in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, C. Athena

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation through partner choice mechanisms is often thought to involve relatively complex cognitive abilities. Using agent-based simulations I model a simple partner choice rule, the ‘Walk Away’ rule, where individuals stay in groups that provide higher returns (by virtue of having more cooperators), and ‘Walk Away’ from groups providing low returns. Implementing this conditional movement rule in a public goods game leads to a number of interesting findings: 1) cooperators have a selective advantage when thresholds are high, corresponding to low tolerance for defectors, 2) high thresholds lead to high initial rates of movement and low final rates of movement (after selection), and 3) as cooperation is selected, the population undergoes a spatial transition from high migration (and a many small and ephemeral groups) to low migration (and large and stable groups). These results suggest that the very simple ‘Walk Away’ rule of leaving uncooperative groups can favor the evolution of cooperation, and that cooperation can evolve in populations in which individuals are able to move in response to local social conditions. A diverse array of organisms are able to leave degraded physical or social environments. The ubiquitous nature of conditional movement suggests that ‘Walk Away’ dynamics may play an important role in the evolution of social behavior in both cognitively complex and cognitively simple organisms. PMID:21666771

  5. A corner transfer matrix renormalization group investigation of the vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, D P; Pinettes, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation (CNRS UMR 8089), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac 95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2003-10-17

    A recently introduced extension of the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method useful for the study of self-avoiding walk-type models is presented in detail and applied to a class of interacting self-avoiding walks due to Bloete and Nienhuis. This model displays two different types of collapse transition depending on model parameters. One is the standard {theta}-point transition. The other is found to give rise to a first-order collapse transition despite being known to be in other respects critical.

  6. Honeybee drones are attracted by groups of consexuals in a walking simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Bastin, Florian; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-04-15

    During the mating season, honeybee males, the drones, gather in congregation areas 10-40 m above ground. When a receptive female, a queen, enters the congregation, drones are attracted to her by queen-produced pheromones and visual cues and attempt to mate with the queen in mid-air. It is still unclear how drones and queens find the congregations. Visual cues on the horizon are most probably used for long-range orientation. For shorter-range orientation, however, attraction by a drone-produced aggregation pheromone has been proposed, yet so far its existence has not been confirmed conclusively. The low accessibility of congregation areas high up in the air is a major hurdle and precise control of experimental conditions often remains unsatisfactory in field studies. Here, we used a locomotion compensator-based walking simulator to investigate drones' innate odor preferences under controlled laboratory conditions. We tested behavioral responses of drones to 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the major queen-produced sexual attractant, and to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP), an artificial blend of 9-ODA and several other queen-derived components. While 9-ODA strongly dominates the odor bouquet of virgin queens, QMP rather resembles the bouquet of mated queens. In our assay, drones were attracted by 9-ODA, but not by QMP. We also investigated the potential attractiveness of male-derived odors by testing drones' orientation responses to the odor bouquet of groups of 10 living drones or workers. Our results demonstrate that honeybee drones are attracted by groups of other drones (but not by workers), which may indicate a role of drone-emitted cues for the formation of congregations.

  7. Moving beyond green: exploring the relationship of environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on emotional well-being following group walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marselle, Melissa R; Irvine, Katherine N; Lorenzo-Arribas, Altea; Warber, Sara L

    2014-12-23

    Against the backdrop of increasing interest in the relationship between Nature and health, this study examined the effect of perceived environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on short-term emotional well-being following outdoor group walks. Participants (n = 127) of a national group walk program completed pre- and post-walk questionnaires for each walk attended (n = 1009) within a 13-week study period. Multilevel linear modelling was used to examine the main and moderation effects. To isolate the environmental from the physical activity elements, analyses controlled for walk duration and perceived intensity. Analyses revealed that perceived restorativeness and perceived walk intensity predicted greater positive affect and happiness following an outdoor group walk. Perceived restorativeness and perceived bird biodiversity predicted post-walk negative affect. Perceived restorativeness moderated the relationship between perceived naturalness and positive affect. Results suggest that restorative quality of an environment may be an important element for enhancing well-being, and that perceived restorativeness and naturalness of an environment may interact to amplify positive affect. These findings highlight the importance of further research on the contribution of environment type and quality on well-being, and the need to control for effects of physical activity in green exercise research.

  8. Moving beyond Green: Exploring the Relationship of Environment Type and Indicators of Perceived Environmental Quality on Emotional Well-Being following Group Walks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Marselle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of increasing interest in the relationship between Nature and health, this study examined the effect of perceived environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on short-term emotional well-being following outdoor group walks. Participants (n = 127 of a national group walk program completed pre- and post-walk questionnaires for each walk attended (n = 1009 within a 13-week study period. Multilevel linear modelling was used to examine the main and moderation effects. To isolate the environmental from the physical activity elements, analyses controlled for walk duration and perceived intensity. Analyses revealed that perceived restorativeness and perceived walk intensity predicted greater positive affect and happiness following an outdoor group walk. Perceived restorativeness and perceived bird biodiversity predicted post-walk negative affect. Perceived restorativeness moderated the relationship between perceived naturalness and positive affect. Results suggest that restorative quality of an environment may be an important element for enhancing well-being, and that perceived restorativeness and naturalness of an environment may interact to amplify positive affect. These findings highlight the importance of further research on the contribution of environment type and quality on well-being, and the need to control for effects of physical activity in green exercise research.

  9. Moving beyond Green: Exploring the Relationship of Environment Type and Indicators of Perceived Environmental Quality on Emotional Well-Being following Group Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marselle, Melissa R.; Irvine, Katherine N.; Lorenzo-Arribas, Altea; Warber, Sara L.

    2014-01-01

    Against the backdrop of increasing interest in the relationship between Nature and health, this study examined the effect of perceived environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on short-term emotional well-being following outdoor group walks. Participants (n = 127) of a national group walk program completed pre- and post-walk questionnaires for each walk attended (n = 1009) within a 13-week study period. Multilevel linear modelling was used to examine the main and moderation effects. To isolate the environmental from the physical activity elements, analyses controlled for walk duration and perceived intensity. Analyses revealed that perceived restorativeness and perceived walk intensity predicted greater positive affect and happiness following an outdoor group walk. Perceived restorativeness and perceived bird biodiversity predicted post-walk negative affect. Perceived restorativeness moderated the relationship between perceived naturalness and positive affect. Results suggest that restorative quality of an environment may be an important element for enhancing well-being, and that perceived restorativeness and naturalness of an environment may interact to amplify positive affect. These findings highlight the importance of further research on the contribution of environment type and quality on well-being, and the need to control for effects of physical activity in green exercise research. PMID:25546275

  10. Place matters: A longitudinal analysis measuring the association between neighbourhood walkability and walking by age group and population center size in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania; Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Kestens, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the influence of walkability on walking behaviour and assessed whether associations varied according to life-stage and population center (PC) size. Walkability scores were obtained for the six-digit postal codes of residential neighbourhoods of 11,200 Canadians, who participated in biennial assessments of the National Population Health Survey from 1994 to 2010. Participants were stratified by age-group. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of cumulative exposure to neighborhood walkability on utilitarian and exercise walking by PC size and life-stage. Associations of neighbourhood walkability with utilitarian and exercise walking varied according to age-group and PC size. Exposure to high walkable neighborhoods was associated with utilitarian walking in younger and older adults in all PC sizes, except for older adults living in a medium PC. Living in a highly walkable neighborhood in a large PC was associated with walking for exercise in younger (OR: 1.42; 95%CI: 1.20-1.67) and older adults (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.51-2.89). Living in highly walkable neighbourhood in a medium PC was associated with walking for exercise in older adults (OR: 1.62; 95%CI: 1.15-2.29). These results emphasize the need to consider the size and nature of every community, and the age-group of a population when implementing strategies to promote walking.

  11. Feasibility and Safety of a Powered Exoskeleton for Assisted Walking for Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: A Single-Group Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Allan J; Fabian, Michelle; Lad, Dipan; Delgado, Andrew D

    2017-07-01

    To examine the feasibility, safety, and secondary benefit potential of exoskeleton-assisted walking with one device for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Single-group longitudinal preliminary study with 8-week baseline, 8-week intervention, and 4-week follow-up. Outpatient MS clinic, tertiary care hospital. Participants (N=13; age range, 38-62y) were mostly women with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores ranging from 5.5 to 7.0. Exoskeleton-assisted walk training. Primary outcomes were accessibility (enrollment/screen pass), tolerability (completion/dropout), learnability (time to event for standing, walking, and sitting with little or no assistance), acceptability (satisfaction on the device subscale of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology version 2), and safety (event rates standardized to person-time exposure in the powered exoskeleton). Secondary outcomes were walking without the device (timed 25-foot walk test and 6-minute walk test distance), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), and health-related quality of life (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement and Information System pain interference and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, and positive affect and well-being). The device was accessible to 11 and tolerated by 5 participants. Learnability was moderate, with 5 to 15 sessions required to walk with minimal assistance. Safety was good; the highest adverse event rate was for skin issues at 151 per 1000 hours' exposure. Acceptability ranged from not very satisfied to very satisfied. Participants who walked routinely improved qualitatively on sitting, standing, or walking posture. Two participants improved and 2 worsened on ≥1 quality of life domain. The pattern of spasticity scores may indicate potential benefit. The device appeared feasible and safe for about a third of our sample, for whom routine exoskeleton-assisted walking may offer secondary benefits. Copyright

  12. Validating the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module for Fijian schools to identify seeing, hearing and walking difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Beth; Hoq, Monsurul; Sharma, Umesh; Marella, Manjula

    2017-09-20

    This study investigated the seeing, hearing and walking questions of the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module and the inter-rater reliability between teachers and parents as proxy respondents. Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study, two-gate design with representative sampling, comparing Module responses to reference standard assessments for 472 primary aged students in Fiji. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the area under the curve and optimal cut-off points. Areas under the curves ranged from 0.823 to 0.889 indicating "good" diagnostic accuracy. Inter-rater reliability between parent and teacher responses was "good" to "excellent". The optimal cut-off determined by the Youden Index was "some difficulty" however a wide spread of impairment levels were found in this category with most children either having none or substantial impairments. The diagnostic accuracy of the Module seeing, hearing and walking questions appears acceptable with either parents or teachers as proxy respondents. For education systems, use of the cut-off "some difficulty" with accompanying clinical assessment may be important to capture children who require services and learning supports and avoid potentially misleading categorization. Given the high proportion of the sample from special schools research is required to further test the Module in mainstream schools. Implications for rehabilitation Identification of children who are at risk of disability in Fiji is important to enable planning, monitoring and evaluating access to quality inclusive education. The UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module appears to be a practical and effective tool that can be used by teachers to identify children at risk of disability. Children identified on the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module as having "some difficulty" or higher levels of difficulty in relation to vision, hearing or walking should be referred for further assessment

  13. Quantum group random walks in strongly correlated 2+1 D spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protogenov, A.P.; Rostovtsev, Yu.V.; Verbus, V.A.

    1994-06-01

    We consider the temporal evolution of strong correlated degrees of freedom in 2+1 D spin systems using the Wilson operator eigenvalues as variables. It is shown that the quantum-group diffusion equation at deformation parameter q being the k-th root of unity has the polynomial solution of degree k. (author). 20 refs, 1 tab

  14. Relation between random walks and quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Falkner, Stefan; Portugal, Renato

    2015-05-01

    Based on studies of four specific networks, we conjecture a general relation between the walk dimensions dw of discrete-time random walks and quantum walks with the (self-inverse) Grover coin. In each case, we find that dw of the quantum walk takes on exactly half the value found for the classical random walk on the same geometry. Since walks on homogeneous lattices satisfy this relation trivially, our results for heterogeneous networks suggest that such a relation holds irrespective of whether translational invariance is maintained or not. To develop our results, we extend the renormalization-group analysis (RG) of the stochastic master equation to one with a unitary propagator. As in the classical case, the solution ρ (x ,t ) in space and time of this quantum-walk equation exhibits a scaling collapse for a variable xdw/t in the weak limit, which defines dw and illuminates fundamental aspects of the walk dynamics, e.g., its mean-square displacement. We confirm the collapse for ρ (x ,t ) in each case with extensive numerical simulation. The exact values for dw themselves demonstrate that RG is a powerful complementary approach to study the asymptotics of quantum walks that weak-limit theorems have not been able to access, such as for systems lacking translational symmetries beyond simple trees.

  15. Before time began the Big Bang and the emerging universe

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe. The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

  16. Time-dependent spectral analysis of interactions within groups of walking pedestrians and vertical structural motion using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, M.; Brownjohn, J. M. W.; Racic, V.; Hester, D.; Quattrone, A.; Gilbert, L.; Beasley, R.

    2018-05-01

    A multi-scale and multi-object interaction phenomena can arise when a group of walking pedestrians crosses a structure capable of exhibiting dynamic response. This is because each pedestrian is an autonomous dynamic system capable of displaying intricate behaviour affected by social, psychological, biomechanical and environmental factors, including adaptations to the structural motion. Despite a wealth of mathematical models attempting to describe and simulate coupled crowd-structure system, their applicability can generally be considered uncertain. This can be assigned to a number of assumptions made in their development and the scarcity or unavailability of data suitable for their validation, in particular those associated with pedestrian-pedestrian and pedestrian-structure interaction. To alleviate this problem, data on behaviour of individual pedestrians within groups of six walkers with different spatial arrangements are gathered simultaneously with data on dynamic structural response of a footbridge, from a series of measurements utilising wireless motion monitors. Unlike in previous studies on coordination of pedestrian behaviour, the collected data can serve as a proxy for pedestrian vertical force, which is of critical importance from the point of view of structural stability. A bivariate analysis framework is proposed and applied to these data, encompassing wavelet transform, synchronisation measures based on Shannon entropy and circular statistics. A topological pedestrian map is contrived showing the strength and directionality of between-subjects interactions. It is found that the coordination in pedestrians' vertical force depends on the spatial collocation within a group, but it is generally weak. The relationship between the bridge and pedestrian behaviour is also analysed, revealing stronger propensity for pedestrians to coordinate their force with the structural motion rather than with each other.

  17. Group II muscle afferents probably contribute to the medium latency soleus stretch reflex during walking in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Ladouceur, Michel; Andersen, Jacob B.

    2001-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine which afferents contribute to the medium latency response of the soleus stretch reflex resulting from an unexpected perturbation during human walking. 2. Fourteen healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.5 km h(-1) with the left ankle...... = 0.007), whereas the short latency component was unchanged (P = 0.653). 7. An ankle block with lidocaine hydrochloride was performed to suppress the cutaneous afferents of the foot and ankle. Neither the short (P = 0.453) nor medium (P = 0.310) latency reflexes were changed. 8. Our results support...

  18. Nine Walks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies of, among others, the Situationists and their theories regarding walks as an artistic method and expression nine master students from “Studio Constructing an Archive”, Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark performed nine walks as part of the exhibition. These walks relate...... to the students’ individual mappings of Behind the Green Door, its structure and content. They highlight a number of motifs found in the exhibition which are of particular interest to the students. The walks represented reflections on the walk as an artistic method and expression. Each walk is an individual...

  19. The trail to Leduc began in the North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2000-06-01

    A milestone event in the history of the petroleum industry in Canada occurred in 1914 with the expedition down the Mackenzie River by Dr. T. O. Bosworth, a British geologist, which rivals in importance two better known events, namely the Dingman No. 1 discovery which began disgorging wet gas at Turner Valley in 1914, and the beginning of the modern era with the discovery of oil at Leduc, Alberta in 1947. The Bosworth expedition was commissioned by two Calgary businessmen to investigate the petroleum potential of northern Alberta and beyond, and to stake the most promising claims. That Dr. Bosworth did not disappoint his sponsors is evident from his 70-page long report which he produced upon his return, indicating excellent exploration prospects in three general regions, namely the Mackenzie River between Old Fort Good Hope and Fort Norman, the Tar Springs District on the Great Slave Lake, and the Tar Sand District on the Athabasca River. Exploration was postponed by the exigencies of World War I, but Imperial Oil drilled on one of Bosworth's claims after the war ended and oil was found in 1920. Because of lack of infrastructure to get the oil to major markets, development was lagging until after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, when Norman Wells was developed with American help, primarily to supply oil to the Pacific Fleet. Imperial drilled, while construction crews built a 1,000-km oil pipeline over the Mackenzie Mountains to a newly constructed refiner in Whitehorse. Despite a total cost to the U.S. taxpayers of $134 million, the Canol project (as it was known) contributed little to the war effort. Total production was 1.98 million barrels of oil, of which 46,000 barrels were spilled along the poorly constructed pipeline. Refined petroleum product output was just 866,670 barrels. The appalling disposal and clean up practices eventually led to having the Whitehorse site declared an environmentally contaminated site in 1998. The Maxwell Tar Pit is

  20. Random walk on random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilário, M.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Sidoravicius, V.; Soares dos Santos, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a random walk in a one-dimensional dynamic random environment consisting of a collection of independent particles performing simple symmetric random walks in a Poisson equilibrium with density ¿¿(0,8). At each step the random walk performs a nearest-neighbour jump, moving to

  1. Ambiência e formação de grupo em programas de caminhada Ambiance and group formation in walking programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Warschauer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato discute os conceitos de ambiência e formação de grupo por intermédio de duas experiências com grupos de caminhada desenvolvidos na Atenção Básica: o programa "Caminhando para a Saúde", em Santo André (SP, e o grupo da Unidade de Saúde Jardim Seckler, em São Paulo (SP. Ambas as experiências trabalham com a concepção de prática corporal, que amplia o conceito de atividade física ao colocar o sujeito no centro das ações, e têm como principal enfoque a promoção da saúde. A análise do processo de implementação desses programas destaca a ambiência e a formação de grupo como fatores fundamentais para a adesão à prática. O conceito de ambiência é composto de três eixos: a confortabilidade, o espaço como forma de produção de subjetividade e como instrumento facilitador de mudanças no processo de trabalho. Os dispositivos grupais promovem ações de cidadania, priorizando a solidariedade, a comunicação e os relacionamentos pessoais. Esses dois conceitos podem estar correlacionados e viabilizar outras maneiras para a implementação e o desenvolvimento de grupos de caminhada.The present report discusses the concepts of ambiance and group formation by means of two experiences with walking groups developed in Primary Care: the program "Walking for Health", in the city of Santo André, state of São Paulo, and the group of the Jardim Seckler Health Unit, in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo. Both experiences were developed using the body practice concept, which goes beyond the concept of physical activity, placing the person at the center of his/her own actions. The experiences' main focus is health promotion. Ambiance and group formation are fundamental factors to adhere to the walking practice. The ambiance concept is formed by three axes: comfortability, space as a way to produce subjectivity and as an instrument that facilitates change in the work process. Group activities promote

  2. [Measurement of functional capacity and health related quality of life in an elderly group following a walking program: pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuño Godes, Jesús; Romea Viñets, Jordi; Guerra Balic, Myriam; Sainz Pardo, Gregorio; Queralt Zueras, Josep

    2011-01-01

    This pre-experimental study analyses the Functional Capacity (FC), Body Mass Index (BMI), Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Health Capital Stock (HCS) of elderly people participating in a Walking program in Granollers (Barcelona). One hundred and seventy-three participants were invited to participate. One hundred and one of them were users of the Municipal Program for Elderly People, and 72 received information by the communication media. One hundred and thirty-one (76.3%) of the participants completed the Program. The intervention consisted of a 6-month program, supervised by a specialist instructor once a week and controlled daily by a pedometer. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was analysed for the FC, and the EuroQoL for the HRQoL. The preferences derived from the EuroQoL scores and the Life Expectancy were used to calculate the FC. The monetary data were obtained using a fixed value. An increase in the average number of steps was observed after the program, especially in men. The results also showed a decrease in the BMI. The participants showed a improvement in overall health perception at the end of the program. The HCS scores confirmed the improvement in the HRQoL in men. The Program was positive for increasing the number of steps and improving physical condition and health. The usefulness of the pedometer as a motivational tool of physical exercise is discussed. Copyright © 2010 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Crowd of individuals walking in opposite directions. A toy model to study the segregation of the group into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsztein, Guillermo H.

    2017-08-01

    Consider a corridor, street or bridge crowded with pedestrians walking in both directions. The individuals do not walk in a completely straight line. They adjust their path to avoid colliding with incoming pedestrians. As a result of these adjustments, the whole group sometimes end up split into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction. While this formation of lanes facilitates the flow and benefits the whole group, it is believed that results from the actions of the individuals acting only on their behalf, without considering others. This phenomenon is an example of self-organization. We analyze a simple model. We assume that individuals move around a two-lane circular track. All of them at the same speed. Half of them in one direction and the rest in the opposite direction. Each time two individuals collide, one of them moves to the other lane. The individual changing lanes is selected randomly. The system self-organizes. Eventually each lane is occupied with individuals moving in only one direction. We show that the time required for the system to self-organize is bounded by a linear function on the number of individuals. This toy model provides an example where global self-organization occurs even though each member of the group acts without considering the rest.

  4. Effects of Nordic walking and walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Kang, Yang Hun; Kim, Je Ho; Uhm, Yo Han; Lee, Yong Seon

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Nordic walking and walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 young adult males, who were divided into a Nordic walking group of 15 subjects and a walking group of 15 subjects. [Methods] To analyze the spatiotemporal parameters and ground reaction force during walking in the two groups, the six-camera Vicon MX motion analysis system was used. The subjects were asked to walk 12 meters using the more comfortable walking method for them between Nordic walking and walking. After they walked 12 meters more than 10 times, their most natural walking patterns were chosen three times and analyzed. To determine the pole for Nordic walking, each subject's height was multiplied by 0.68. We then measured the spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force. [Results] Compared with the walking group, the Nordic walking group showed an increase in cadence, stride length, and step length, and a decrease in stride time, step time, and vertical ground reaction force. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that Nordic walking increases the stride and can be considered as helping patients with diseases affecting their gait. This demonstrates that Nordic walking is more effective in improving functional capabilities by promoting effective energy use and reducing the lower limb load, because the weight of the upper and lower limbs is dispersed during Nordic walking.

  5. Nine walks (photo series / web page)

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    'Nine Walks' is a body of work resulting from my engagement with the Media Arts Research Walking Group at Sheffield Hallam University who are exploring the role of walking in as a social, developmental and production space for the creative arts. / My participation in the walking group is an extension of my investigation of the journey as a creative, conceptual and contemplative space for photography which in turn reflects an interest in the role of the accident, instinct and intuition and the...

  6. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time 55 years old.

  7. Quantum walks on quotient graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-01-01

    A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph Γ is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup

  8. Effectiveness of a Walking Group Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health in Predominantly Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic Urban Neighborhoods: Findings from the Walk Your Heart to Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Bernal, Cristina; Caver, Deanna; DeMajo, Ricardo; Diaz, Gregoria; Gamboa, Cindy; Gaines, Causandra; Hoston, Bernadine; Opperman, Alisha; Reyes, Angela G.; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L.; Woods, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Walk Your Heart to Health" ("WYHH") intervention, one component of the multilevel Community Approaches to Cardiovascular Health: Pathways to Heart Health (CATCH:PATH) intervention designed to promote physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk…

  9. Nordic walking versus walking without poles for rehabilitation with cardiovascular disease: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girold, Sébastien; Rousseau, Jérome; Le Gal, Magalie; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Le Henaff, Jacqueline

    2017-07-01

    With Nordic walking, or walking with poles, one can travel a greater distance and at a higher rate than with walking without poles, but whether the activity is beneficial for patients with cardiovascular disease is unknown. This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether Nordic walking was more effective than walking without poles on walk distance to support rehabilitation training for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patients were recruited in a private specialized rehabilitation centre for cardiovascular diseases. The entire protocol, including patient recruitment, took place over 2 months, from September to October 2013. We divided patients into 2 groups: Nordic Walking Group (NWG, n=21) and Walking Group without poles (WG, n=21). All patients followed the same program over 4 weeks, except for the walk performed with or without poles. The main outcome was walk distance on the 6-min walk test. Secondary outcomes were maximum heart rate during exercise and walk distance and power output on a treadmill stress test. We included 42 patients (35 men; mean age 57.2±11 years and BMI 26.5±4.5kg/m 2 ). At the end of the training period, both groups showed improved walk distance on the 6-min walk test and treatment stress test as well as power on the treadmill stress test (PNordic walking training appeared more efficient than training without poles for increasing walk distance on the 6-min walk test for patients with ACS and PAOD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. The Effects of Walking or Walking-with-Poles Training on Tissue Oxygenation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen G. Collins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomized trial proposed to determine if there were differences in calf muscle StO2 parameters in patients before and after 12 weeks of a traditional walking or walking-with-poles exercise program. Data were collected on 85 patients who were randomized to a traditional walking program ( or walking-with-poles program ( of exercise training. Patients walked for 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Seventy-one patients completed both the baseline and the 12-week follow-up progressive treadmill tests ( traditional walking and walking-with-poles. Using the near-infrared spectroscopy measures, StO2 was measured prior to, during, and after exercise. At baseline, calf muscle oxygenation decreased from % prior to the treadmill test to % at peak exercise. The time elapsed prior to reaching nadir StO2 values increased more in the traditional walking group when compared to the walking-with-poles group. Likewise, absolute walking time increased more in the traditional walking group than in the walking-with-poles group. Tissue oxygenation decline during treadmill testing was less for patients assigned to a 12-week traditional walking program when compared to those assigned to a 12-week walking-with-poles program. In conclusion, the 12-week traditional walking program was superior to walking-with-poles in improving tissue deoxygenation in patients with PAD.

  11. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  12. Toe Walking in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prone to damage and weaken over time. This diagnosis might be more likely if your child initially walked normally before starting to toe walk. Autism. Toe walking has been linked to autism spectrum ...

  13. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  14. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    OpenAIRE

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-01-01

    Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure) out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  15. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  16. The effect of simulating weight gain on the energy cost of walking in unimpaired children and children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasschaert, Frank; Jones, Kim; Forward, Malcolm

    2008-12-01

    To examine the effect of simulating weight gain on the energy cost of walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared with unimpaired children. Repeated measures, matched subjects, controlled. University hospital clinical gait and movement analysis laboratory. Children (n=42) with CP and unimpaired children (n=42). Addition of 10% of body mass in weight belt. Energy cost of walking parameters consisting of walking speed, Physiological Cost Index, Total Heart Beat Index, oxygen uptake (VO2), gross oxygen cost, nondimensional net oxygen cost, and net oxygen cost with speed normalized to height were measured by using a breath-by-breath gas analysis system (K4b2) and a light beam timing gate system arranged around a figure 8 track. Two walking trials were performed in random order, with and the other without wearing a weighted belt. Children with CP and their unimpaired counterparts responded in fundamentally different ways to weight gain. The unimpaired population maintained speed and VO2 but the children with CP trended toward a drop in their speed and an increase in their VO2. The oxygen consumption of children with CP showed a greater dependence on mass than the unimpaired group (P=.043). An increase of a relatively small percentage in body mass began to significantly impact the energy cost of walking in children with CP. This result highlights the need for weight control to sustain the level of functional walking in these children.

  17. Walking around to grasp interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents experiences from a study using walk-alongs to provide insight into museum visitors’ experience with interactive features of sound art installations. The overall goal of the study was to learn about the participants’ opinions and feelings about the possibility of interaction...... with the sound installations. The aim was to gain an understanding of the role of the in-teraction, if interaction makes a difference for the understanding of the sound art. 30 walking interviews were carried out at ZKM, Karlsruhe with a total of 57 museum guests, individuals or groups. During the walk......-alongs the research-ers acted as facilitators and partners in the engagement with the sound installa-tions. The study provided good insight into advantages and challenges with the walk-along method, for instance the importance of shared, embodied sensing of space for the understanding of the experience. The common...

  18. Using focus groups in the consumer research phase of a social marketing program to promote moderate-intensity physical activity and walking trail use in Sumter County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. Two phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention's target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. Phase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience. There have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical activity in the target audience in Sumter County, South Carolina.

  19. Quantum walks with infinite hitting times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    Hitting times are the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given starting vertex. The hitting time for a classical random walk on a connected graph will always be finite. We show that, by contrast, quantum walks can have infinite hitting times for some initial states. We seek criteria to determine if a given walk on a graph will have infinite hitting times, and find a sufficient condition, which for discrete time quantum walks is that the degeneracy of the evolution operator be greater than the degree of the graph. The set of initial states which give an infinite hitting time form a subspace. The phenomenon of infinite hitting times is in general a consequence of the symmetry of the graph and its automorphism group. Using the irreducible representations of the automorphism group, we derive conditions such that quantum walks defined on this graph must have infinite hitting times for some initial states. In the case of the discrete walk, if this condition is satisfied the walk will have infinite hitting times for any choice of a coin operator, and we give a class of graphs with infinite hitting times for any choice of coin. Hitting times are not very well defined for continuous time quantum walks, but we show that the idea of infinite hitting-time walks naturally extends to the continuous time case as well

  20. Complementarity and quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendon, Viv; Sanders, Barry C.

    2005-01-01

    We show that quantum walks interpolate between a coherent 'wave walk' and a random walk depending on how strongly the walker's coin state is measured; i.e., the quantum walk exhibits the quintessentially quantum property of complementarity, which is manifested as a tradeoff between knowledge of which path the walker takes vs the sharpness of the interference pattern. A physical implementation of a quantum walk (the quantum quincunx) should thus have an identifiable walker and the capacity to demonstrate the interpolation between wave walk and random walk depending on the strength of measurement

  1. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  2. Comparison of Walking, Muscle Strength, Balance, and Fear of Falling Between Repeated Fall Group, One-time Fall Group, and Nonfall Group of the Elderly Receiving Home Care Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, MiYang; Gu, Mee Ock; Yim, JongEun

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to develop a program to prevent repeated falls by analyzing the difference in gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling according to their fall experience. The study subjects were 110 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who agreed to their participation in this research. The study participants were categorized into a repeated fall group (n = 40), a one-time fall group (n = 15), and a nonfall group (n = 46) of the elderly. Measurements of gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling were taken in each group. With regard to gait, there were significant differences among three groups in gait cycle (F = 3.50, p = .034), speed (F = 13.06, p balance, the nonfall group had significantly greater results than the one-time fall group and repeated fall group in dynamic balance (F = 10.80, p balance (F = 8.20, p = .001). In the case of the fear of falling, the repeated fall group had significantly higher score than other two groups (F = 20.62, p fall risk factors to enhance gait and balance and lower body muscle strength and reduce the fear of falling to prevent repeated incidences of falls in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Randomized random walk on a random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.A.

    1983-06-01

    This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)

  4. And so it all began: A personal tribute to the man behind the scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marialuisa

    2018-01-01

    At the time I began my scientific career as a PhD student under the supervision of Claudio Spitaleri, the Trojan Horse Method was still in its infancy. Like with any new-born idea, it took time and passion and effort to plant the early seeds that would eventually develop into a now well-established method in nuclear astrophysics research. Here, I offer my own recollection of those early years as a personal homage to Claudio's unique mix of human traits that shaped our professional relationship for many years since.

  5. Random walks and diffusion on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Porter, Mason A.; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2017-11-01

    Random walks are ubiquitous in the sciences, and they are interesting from both theoretical and practical perspectives. They are one of the most fundamental types of stochastic processes; can be used to model numerous phenomena, including diffusion, interactions, and opinions among humans and animals; and can be used to extract information about important entities or dense groups of entities in a network. Random walks have been studied for many decades on both regular lattices and (especially in the last couple of decades) on networks with a variety of structures. In the present article, we survey the theory and applications of random walks on networks, restricting ourselves to simple cases of single and non-adaptive random walkers. We distinguish three main types of random walks: discrete-time random walks, node-centric continuous-time random walks, and edge-centric continuous-time random walks. We first briefly survey random walks on a line, and then we consider random walks on various types of networks. We extensively discuss applications of random walks, including ranking of nodes (e.g., PageRank), community detection, respondent-driven sampling, and opinion models such as voter models.

  6. Single and Dual Task Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie de Bruin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the viability and efficacy of integrating cadence-matched, salient music into a walking intervention for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Twenty-two people with PD were randomised to a control (CTRL, n=11 or experimental (MUSIC, n=11 group. MUSIC subjects walked with an individualised music playlist three times a week for the intervention period. Playlists were designed to meet subject's musical preferences. In addition, the tempo of the music closely matched (±10–15 bpm the subject's preferred cadence. CTRL subjects continued with their regular activities during the intervention. The effects of training accompanied by “walking songs” were evaluated using objective measures of gait score. The MUSIC group improved gait velocity, stride time, cadence, and motor symptom severity following the intervention. This is the first study to demonstrate that music listening can be safely implemented amongst PD patients during home exercise.

  7. More Adults Are Walking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.

  8. Quantum walk computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendon, Viv

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer

  9. To Walk or Not to Walk?: The Hierarchy of Walking Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Mariela

    2005-01-01

    The multitude of quality of life problems associated with declining walking rates has impelled researchers from various disciplines to identify factors related to this behavior change. Currently, this body of research is in need of a transdisciplinary, multilevel theoretical model that can help explain how individual, group, regional, and…

  10. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  11. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  12. Walking performance: correlation between energy cost of walking and walking participation. new statistical approach concerning outcome measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Franceschini

    Full Text Available Walking ability, though important for quality of life and participation in social and economic activities, can be adversely affected by neurological disorders, such as Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis or Traumatic Brain Injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the energy cost of walking (CW, in a mixed group of chronic patients with neurological diseases almost 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation wards, can predict the walking performance and any walking restriction on community activities, as indicated by Walking Handicap Scale categories (WHS. One hundred and seven subjects were included in the study, 31 suffering from Stroke, 26 from Spinal Cord Injury and 50 from Multiple Sclerosis. The multivariable binary logistical regression analysis has produced a statistical model with good characteristics of fit and good predictability. This model generated a cut-off value of.40, which enabled us to classify correctly the cases with a percentage of 85.0%. Our research reveal that, in our subjects, CW is the only predictor of the walking performance of in the community, to be compared with the score of WHS. We have been also identifying a cut-off value of CW cost, which makes a distinction between those who can walk in the community and those who cannot do it. In particular, these values could be used to predict the ability to walk in the community when discharged from the rehabilitation units, and to adjust the rehabilitative treatment to improve the performance.

  13. "Four legs instead of two"--perspectives on a Nordic walking-based walking programme among people with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Rhona; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) is growing in popularity among people with arthritis. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of participants with arthritis on a NW-based walking programme including factors contributing to sustained participation in the programme. Three semi-structured focus groups were conducted with a total of 27 participants with various types of arthritis. The groups consisted of participants who completed a NW-based walking programme in the previous 4 years. Only participants who had sustained involvement in the walking group were included. Groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was performed. Participants reported that the walking programme offered numerous benefits. Two distinct themes emerged: (1) "four legs instead of two legs" and (2) "a support group". Theme 1 incorporates the physical, psychological and educational benefits that stem from involvement in a walking group while Theme 2 incorporates the benefits of social support in group-based activity. Several benefits of a NW-based walking programme from the perspectives of individuals with arthritis who engage in group-based walking programmes were identified. The benefits may encourage sustained participation and justify the promotion of NW as an intervention for people with arthritis. Considering how to sustain exercise participation is important to ensure continued benefits from physical activity participation. A community-based Nordic walking-based walking programme for people with arthritis improved exercise knowledge and confidence to exercise. Group exercise is valuable in providing support and motivation to continue exercising.

  14. Aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training improves walking in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, H-J; Mach, H; Werner, C; Hesse, S

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training in subacute stroke survivors compared with Bobath walking training alone. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit. Fifty patients, first-time supratentorial stroke, stroke interval less than six weeks, Barthel Index (0-100) from 50 to 80, able to walk a minimum distance of 12 m with either intermittent help or stand-by while walking, cardiovascular stable, minimum 50 W in the bicycle ergometry, randomly allocated to two groups, A and B. Group A 30 min of treadmill training, harness secured and minimally supported according to patients' needs, and 30 min of physiotherapy, every workday for six weeks, speed and inclination of the treadmill were adjusted to achieve a heart rate of HR: (Hrmax-HRrest)*0.6+HRrest; in group B 60 min of daily physiotherapy for six weeks. Primary outcome variables were the absolute improvement of walking velocity (m/s) and capacity (m), secondary were gross motor function including walking ability (score out of 13) and walking quality (score out of 41), blindly assessed before and after the intervention, and at follow-up three months later. Patients tolerated the aerobic training well with no side-effects, significantly greater improvement of walking velocity and capacity both at study end (p =0.001 versus p =0.002) and at follow-up (p Bobath walking training in moderately affected stroke patients was better than Bobath walking training alone with respect to the improvement of walking velocity and capacity. The treatment approach is recommended in patients meeting the inclusion criteria. A multicentre trial should follow to strengthen the evidence.

  15. High on walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woythal, Bente Martinsen; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia

    2018-01-01

    a leg, and people who live with Parkinson’s disease. The analysis of the data is inspired by Paul Ricoeur’s philosophy of interpretation. Four themes were identified: (a) I feel high in two ways; (b) Walking has to be automatic; (c) Every Monday, I walk with the girls in the park; and (d) I dream...

  16. James Watt's Leicester Walk

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    a poem in which James Watt, inventor of the separate condenser, walks through contemporary Leicester (his route is from Bonners Lane and alongside the canal, taking in the Statue of Liberty on its traffic island near Sage Road). It is derived from the exercise of taking a character for a walk,

  17. More Adults Are Walking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-31

    This podcast is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.  Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/7/2012.

  18. Lévy walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaburdaev, V.; Denisov, S.; Klafter, J.

    2015-04-01

    Random walk is a fundamental concept with applications ranging from quantum physics to econometrics. Remarkably, one specific model of random walks appears to be ubiquitous across many fields as a tool to analyze transport phenomena in which the dispersal process is faster than dictated by Brownian diffusion. The Lévy-walk model combines two key features, the ability to generate anomalously fast diffusion and a finite velocity of a random walker. Recent results in optics, Hamiltonian chaos, cold atom dynamics, biophysics, and behavioral science demonstrate that this particular type of random walk provides significant insight into complex transport phenomena. This review gives a self-consistent introduction to Lévy walks, surveys their existing applications, including latest advances, and outlines further perspectives.

  19. Neuromorphic walking gait control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Hepp, Klaus; Douglas, Rodney J

    2006-03-01

    We present a neuromorphic pattern generator for controlling the walking gaits of four-legged robots which is inspired by central pattern generators found in the nervous system and which is implemented as a very large scale integrated (VLSI) chip. The chip contains oscillator circuits that mimic the output of motor neurons in a strongly simplified way. We show that four coupled oscillators can produce rhythmic patterns with phase relationships that are appropriate to generate all four-legged animal walking gaits. These phase relationships together with frequency and duty cycle of the oscillators determine the walking behavior of a robot driven by the chip, and they depend on a small set of stationary bias voltages. We give analytic expressions for these dependencies. This chip reduces the complex, dynamic inter-leg control problem associated with walking gait generation to the problem of setting a few stationary parameters. It provides a compact and low power solution for walking gait control in robots.

  20. Sensorimotor-Conceptual Integration in Free Walking Enhances Divergent Thinking for Young and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Kuo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that free walking can enhance creative thinking. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether bidirectional body-mind links are essential for the positive effect of free walking on creative thinking. Moreover, it is unknown whether the positive effect can be generalized to older adults. In Experiment 1, we replicated previous findings with two additional groups of young participants. Participants in the rectangular-walking condition walked along a rectangular path while generating unusual uses for chopsticks. Participants in the free-walking group walked freely as they wished, and participants in the free-generation condition generated unconstrained free paths while the participants in the random-experienced condition walked those paths. Only the free-walking group showed better performance in fluency, flexibility, and originality. In Experiment 2, two groups of older adults were randomly assigned to the free-walking and rectangular-walking conditions. The free-walking group showed better performance than the rectangular-walking group. Moreover, older adults in the free-walking group outperformed young adults in the rectangular-walking group in originality and performed comparably in fluency and flexibility. Bidirectional links between proprioceptive-motor kinematics and metaphorical abstract concepts can enhance divergent thinking for both young and older adults.

  1. Walking solitons in quadratic nonlinear media

    OpenAIRE

    Torner Sabata, Lluís; Mazilu, D; Mihalache, Dumitru

    1996-01-01

    We study self-action of light in parametric wave interactions in nonlinear quadratic media. We show the existence of stationary solitons in the presence of Poynting vector beam walk-off or different group velocities between the waves. We discover that the new solitons constitute a two-parameter family, and they exist for different wave intensities and transverse velocities. We discuss the properties of the walking solitons and their experimental implications. Peer Reviewed

  2. Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Larsen, Peter K; Pedersen, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects.......The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects....

  3. Alzheimer random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kasuya, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate a memory-impaired self-avoiding walk on a square lattice in which a random walker marks each of sites visited with a given probability p and makes a random walk avoiding the marked sites. Namely, p = 0 and p = 1 correspond to the simple random walk and the self-avoiding walk, respectively. When p> 0, there is a finite probability that the walker is trapped. We show that the trap time distribution can well be fitted by Stacy's Weibull distribution b(a/b){a+1}/{b}[Γ({a+1}/{b})]-1x^a\\exp(-a/bx^b)} where a and b are fitting parameters depending on p. We also find that the mean trap time diverges at p = 0 as p- α with α = 1.89. In order to produce sufficient number of long walks, we exploit the pivot algorithm and obtain the mean square displacement and its Flory exponent ν(p) as functions of p. We find that the exponent determined for 1000 step walks interpolates both limits ν(0) for the simple random walk and ν(1) for the self-avoiding walk as [ ν(p) - ν(0) ] / [ ν(1) - ν(0) ] = pβ with β = 0.388 when p ≪ 0.1 and β = 0.0822 when p ≫ 0.1. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  4. Can environmental improvement change the population distribution of walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have explored the impact of environmental change on walking using controlled comparisons. Even fewer have examined whose behaviour changes and how. In a natural experimental study of new walking and cycling infrastructure, we explored changes in walking, identified groups who changed in similar ways and assessed whether exposure to the infrastructure was associated with trajectories of walking. 1257 adults completed annual surveys assessing walking, sociodemographic and health characteristics and use of the infrastructure (2010-2012). Residential proximity to the new routes was assessed objectively. We used latent growth curve models to assess change in total walking, walking for recreation and for transport, used simple descriptive analysis and latent class analysis (LCA) to identify groups who changed in similar ways and examined factors associated with group membership using multinomial regression. LCA identified five trajectories, characterised by consistently low levels; consistently high levels; decreases; short-lived increases; and sustained increases. Those with lower levels of education and lower incomes were more likely to show both short-lived and sustained increases in walking for transport. However, those with lower levels of education were less likely to take up walking. Proximity to the intervention was associated with both uptake of and short-lived increases in walking for transport. Environmental improvement encouraged the less active to take up walking for transport, as well as encouraging those who were already active to walk more. Further research should disentangle the role of socioeconomic characteristics in determining use of new environments and changes in walking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Walking to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J N; Hardman, A E

    1997-05-01

    Walking is a rhythmic, dynamic, aerobic activity of large skeletal muscles that confers the multifarious benefits of this with minimal adverse effects. Walking, faster than customary, and regularly in sufficient quantity into the 'training zone' of over 70% of maximal heart rate, develops and sustains physical fitness: the cardiovascular capacity and endurance (stamina) for bodily work and movement in everyday life that also provides reserves for meeting exceptional demands. Muscles of the legs, limb girdle and lower trunk are strengthened and the flexibility of their cardinal joints preserved; posture and carriage may improve. Any amount of walking, and at any pace, expends energy. Hence the potential, long term, of walking for weight control. Dynamic aerobic exercise, as in walking, enhances a multitude of bodily processes that are inherent in skeletal muscle activity, including the metabolism of high density lipoproteins and insulin/glucose dynamics. Walking is also the most common weight-bearing activity, and there are indications at all ages of an increase in related bone strength. The pleasurable and therapeutic, psychological and social dimensions of walking, whilst evident, have been surprisingly little studied. Nor has an economic assessment of the benefits and costs of walking been attempted. Walking is beneficial through engendering improved fitness and/or greater physiological activity and energy turnover. Two main modes of such action are distinguished as: (i) acute, short term effects of the exercise; and (ii) chronic, cumulative adaptations depending on habitual activity over weeks and months. Walking is often included in studies of exercise in relation to disease but it has seldom been specifically tested. There is, nevertheless, growing evidence of gains in the prevention of heart attack and reduction of total death rates, in the treatment of hypertension, intermittent claudication and musculoskeletal disorders, and in rehabilitation after heart

  6. Transit-Related Walking to Work in Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    2015-04-01

    Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.

  7. The Act of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg

    2014-01-01

    ’ of mobility (Jensen 2013:111) such as the urban environment, and the infrastructures. Walking has indeed also a ‘software dimension’ as an embodied performance that trigger the human senses (Jensen 2013) and which is closely related to the habitus and identity of the individual (Halprin 1963). The individual......The ability to walk in an area is, in the existing literature, often explained by the physical structures like building density and the presence of facilities in an area, and it is often termed ‘walkability’ (Patton 2007; Forsyth and Southworth 2008; Krizek, Handy and Forsyth 2009; Johnson 2003......; Frumkin 2002). The term ‘walkability’ focuses on how the physical structures in the urban environment can promote walking, and how this potentially eases issues of public health and liveability in our cities (Krizek et al. 2009). However, the study of walking should not be reduced merely to the ‘hardware...

  8. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; A. Ryttov, T.

    2007-01-01

    Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal and Nonminimal Walking Technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars......, pseudoscalars, vector mesons and other fields predicted by the minimal walking theory. We construct their self-interactions and interactions with standard model fields. Using the Weinberg sum rules, opportunely modified to take into account the walking behavior of the underlying gauge theory, we find...... interesting relations for the spin-one spectrum. We derive the electroweak parameters using the newly constructed effective theory and compare the results with the underlying gauge theory. Our analysis is sufficiently general such that the resulting model can be used to represent a generic walking technicolor...

  9. Walking - Sensing - Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David

    2014-01-01

    Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider ...... set of experiential or ‘felt’ qualities of living with mobile technologies. Moving from reflections on the value of walking with people, the paper outlines some affordances of a smartphone application built to capture place experiences through walking.......Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider...

  10. What Is Walking Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different from regular pneumonia? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Walking pneumonia is an informal term ... be treated with an antibiotic. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. Goldman L, et al., eds. Mycoplasma ...

  11. walk over ℤ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Leroux

    2005-01-01

    walk over ℤ can be described from a coassociative coalgebra. Relationships between this coalgebra and the set of periodic orbits of the classical chaotic system x↦2x mod⁡1, x∈[0,1], are also given.

  12. Two Legged Walking Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a two-legged wirelessly controlled walking robot. This paper describes the construction of the robot, its control electronics, and the solution of the wireless control. The article also includes a description of the application to control the robot. The control electronics of the walking robot are built using the development kit Arduino Mega, which is enhanced with WiFi module allowing the wireless control, a set of ultrasonic sensors for detecting obstacl...

  13. Tomorrow Began Yesterday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sixtiers was prepared by the previous historical period. The period after the World War II comprises a fundamental change of the world order – from a multipolar world to a confrontation of two superpowers and two ideological systems, and, at the same time, formation of a complex of international organizations on a global scale. In this context, the Soviet architecture made a sharp turn from Stalin’s Empire style to an extreme ascetism – the continuation of constructivism of the early XXth century. The Irkutsk architectural school, unlike the main flow of the 1960s, developed the style of Neo-Brutalism. The article draws parallels between Neo-Brutalism of the Irkutsk school and “a severe style” of the Soviet pictorial art of the same period.

  14. How life began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P

    1986-11-01

    Study of the origin of life has become a legitimate scientific inquiry, with an international, multidisciplinary membership and a cogent body of data. Experiments involving plausible early Earth conditions and biogeochemical analyses of carbonaceous meteorites imply a variety of available starting molecules. Biogeological evidence indicates microbial beginnings about 3800 million years (3.8 aeons) ago. By then the known universe had been in existence for perhaps 15 aeons and galaxies abundant for ten. Conditions suitable for the origin of life may require a long prior cosmic evolution. The natural origin of life on the early Earth is now widely agreed upon but not the pathways. The beginnings of catalysis, replication and a functional cell remain moot. Much discussion has centered on the templating role that crystals such as clays and zeolites might have played in prebiotic evolution. Recent discovery of the catalytic and replicative functions of RNA recommend it as the key molecule in the transition from chemical to biological evolution. Copyright © 1986. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. How nonimaging optics began

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Classical optics was traditionally the mapping of point sources by lenses, mirrors and occasionally holograms , i.e. making an image. The subject has had many famous scientists associated with it; Fermat, Huygens, Descartes, Hamilton just to name a few. By the mid 20th Century it was a well-developed field as exemplified by such luminaries as Walter T. Welford, Emil Wolf and many others. The theory of aberrations which addresses the imperfections of the mapping codified the state of the art. Then arose the need to collect energy, not just images. To the author's knowledge it can be traced back to WWII Germany with collection of infra-red radiation (the work by D. E. Williamson, was not published until 1952). The radiation collector, a simple right-circular cone, was a harbinger of things to come.

  16. Biomechanics of stair walking and jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, D J; Voloshin, A S

    1991-01-01

    Physical activities such as stair walking and jumping result in increased dynamic loading on the human musculoskeletal system. Use of light weight, externally attached accelerometers allows for in-vivo monitoring of the shock waves invading the human musculoskeletal system during those activities. Shock waves were measured in four subjects performing stair walking up and down, jumping in place and jumping off a fixed elevation. The results obtained show that walking down a staircase induced shock waves with amplitude of 130% of that observed in walking up stairs and 250% of the shock waves experienced in level gait. The jumping test revealed levels of the shock waves nearly eight times higher than that in level walking. It was also shown that the shock waves invading the human musculoskeletal system may be generated not only by the heel strike, but also by the metatarsal strike. To moderate the risk of degenerative joint disorders four types of viscoelastic insoles were utilized to reduce the impact generated shock waves. The insoles investigated were able to reduce the amplitude of the shock wave by between 9% and 41% depending on the insole type and particular physical activity. The insoles were more effective in the reduction of the heel strike impacts than in the reduction of the metatarsal strike impacts. In all instances, the shock attenuation capacities of the insoles tested were greater in the jumping trials than in the stair walking studies. The insoles were ranked in three groups on the basis of their shock absorbing capacity.

  17. Effects of Walking Direction and Cognitive Challenges on Gait in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Wajda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Declines in walking performance are commonly seen when undergoing a concurrent cognitive task in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of walking direction and simultaneous cognitive task on the spatiotemporal gait parameters in persons with MS compared to healthy controls. Ten persons with MS (Median EDSS, 3.0 and ten healthy controls took part in this pilot study. Participants performed 4 walking trials at their self-selected comfortable pace. These trials included forward walking, forward walking with a cognitive task, backward walking, and backward walking with a cognitive task. Walking performance was indexed with measures of velocity, cadence, and stride length for each testing condition. The MS group walked slower with significantly reduced stride length compared to the control group. The novel observation of this investigation was that walking differences between persons with MS and healthy controls were greater during backward walking, and this effect was further highlighted during backward walking with added cognitive test. This raises the possibility that backward walking tests could be an effective way to examine walking difficulties in individuals with MS with relatively minimal walking impairment.

  18. Walking the Everyday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bissen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, @matthewalking (Bissen, 2013 has published real-time public texts of walks in the city. This text-based Twitter feed has developed a narrative of a particular everyday life and developed a space of interface with others that represents a centering of perspective within an urban landscape. Walking the city provides a spatial, tactile, social, and embodied knowledge of the environment as each of us emerges into a space, orients ourselves, and determines a path that is highly localized, but is in connection with distant spaces and cultures. According to Ben Jacks in “Walking the City: Manhattan Projects,” “for urban dwellers and designers, walking is a fundamental tool for laying claim to, understanding, and shaping a livable city. Walking yields bodily knowing, recovers place memory, creates narrative, prioritizes human scale, and reconnects people to places” (75. @matthewalking’s walks, at times for as long as 5 hours, attempt to center an experience of an urban existence in a spatial narrative of the city that at once prioritizes a connection to place, but also is projected outward into a mediated relationship with others. The project is a series of unbounded walks, or dérives (drift, through the city that are logged on Twitter and traced to create an archive map of a set of particular urban experiences. The dérive concept as outlined in “The Theory of the Dérive,” by Guy Debord is when “one or more persons during a certain period drop their relations, their work and leisure activities, and all their other usual motives for movement and action, and let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there” (62.

  19. Neuromechanical adaptations during a robotic powered exoskeleton assisted walking session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, Arvind; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Garbarini, Erica; Asselin, Pierre; Pilkar, Rakesh; Forrest, Gail F

    2017-04-20

    To evaluate gait parameters and neuromuscular profiles of exoskeleton-assisted walking under Max Assist condition during a single-session for; (i) able bodied (AB) individuals walking assisted with (EXO) and without (non-EXO) a powered exoskeleton, (ii) non-ambulatory SCI individuals walking assisted with a powered exoskeleton. Single-session. Motion analysis laboratory. Four AB individuals and four individuals with SCI. Powered lower extremity exoskeleton. Temporal-spatial parameters, kinematics, walking velocity and electromyography data. AB individuals in exoskeleton showed greater stance time and a significant reduction in walking velocity (P exoskeleton movements, they walked with an increased velocity and lowered stance time to resemble that of slow walking. For SCI individuals, mean percent stance time was higher and walking velocity was lower compared to all AB walking conditions (P exoskeleton and moreover with voluntary control there is a greater temporal-spatial response of the lower limbs. Also, there are neuromuscular phasic adaptions for both AB and SCI groups while walking in the exoskeleton that are inconsistent to non-EXO gait muscle activation.

  20. Walks on SPR neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009.

  1. Walking: Paths of a political and artistic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Martínez Luna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Walking is a practice that involves issues related to body, landscape, nature and city. The article provides a historical overview of some of these practices from English Romanticism to contemporary art. Within this historical framework walking is approached as a political and aesthetic practice that questions the logics of economic efficiency, as well as the parallel processes of privatization of public space. The different modalities of walking (alone, in group, around the city, through natural landscapes come together as different poetics and politics. Walking is to make a public discourse that stablishes a dialectic between traces and presences.

  2. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from...... a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...

  3. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  4. Physiological aspect walking and Nordic walking as adequate kinetic activities.

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠ, Václav

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis on the topic of The Physiological Aspect of Walking and Nordic Walking as an adequate physical activity focuses on chosen physiological changes of an organism during a five-month training cycle. In the theoretical part I describe the physiological changes of organism during a regularly repeated strain, and also the technique of walking, Nordic walking and health benefits of these activities are defined here. The research part of the thesis describes the measurement method...

  5. Analysis of coined quantum walks with renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a framework to analyze quantum algorithms with the renormalization group (RG). To this end, we present a detailed analysis of the real-space RG for discrete-time quantum walks on fractal networks and show how deep insights into the analytic structure as well as generic results about the long-time behavior can be extracted. The RG flow for such a walk on a dual Sierpinski gasket and a Migdal-Kadanoff hierarchical network is obtained explicitly from elementary algebraic manipulations, after transforming the unitary evolution equation into Laplace space. Unlike for classical random walks, we find that the long-time asymptotics for the quantum walk requires consideration of a diverging number of Laplace poles, which we demonstrate exactly for the closed-form solution available for the walk on a one-dimensional loop. In particular, we calculate the probability of the walk to overlap with its starting position, which oscillates with a period that scales as NdwQ/df with system size N . While the largest Jacobian eigenvalue λ1 of the RG flow merely reproduces the fractal dimension, df=log2λ1 , the asymptotic analysis shows that the second Jacobian eigenvalue λ2 becomes essential to determine the dimension of the quantum walk via dwQ=log2√{λ1λ2 } . We trace this fact to delicate cancellations caused by unitarity. We obtain identical relations for other networks, although the details of the RG analysis may exhibit surprisingly distinct features. Thus, our conclusions—which trivially reproduce those for regular lattices with translational invariance with df=d and dwQ=1 —appear to be quite general and likely apply to networks beyond those studied here.

  6. Walking to transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Using a real-life setting, WalkBostons project focused on developing and testing techniques to broaden the scope and range of public participation in transportation planning in a large neighborhood in Boston. The team explored methods of seeking o...

  7. Walking along water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Steep slopes, white peaks and deep valleys make up the Andes. As phenomenologists of landscape have told us, different people have different landscapes. By moving across the terrain, walking along, we might get a sense of how this has been carved out by the movement of wind and water, tectonics...

  8. Study design, intervention, and baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial involving a faith-based healthy eating and physical activity intervention (Walk by Faith) to reduce weight and cancer risk among overweight and obese Appalachian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltic, Ryan D; Weier, Rory C; Katz, Mira L; Kennedy, Stephenie K; Lengerich, Eugene J; Lesko, Samuel M; Reese, David; Roberto, Karen A; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Young, Gregory S; Dignan, Mark B; Paskett, Electra D

    2015-09-01

    Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among Appalachian residents may contribute to increased cancer rates in this region. This manuscript describes the design, components, and participant baseline characteristics of a faith-based study to decrease overweight and obesity among Appalachian residents. A group randomized study design was used to assign 13 churches to an intervention to reduce overweight and obesity (Walk by Faith) and 15 churches to a cancer screening intervention (Ribbons of Faith). Church members with a body mass index (BMI) ?25 were recruited from these churches in Appalachian counties in five states to participate in the study. A standard protocol was used to measure participant characteristics at baseline. The same protocol will be followed to obtain measurements after completion of the active intervention phase (12months) and the sustainability phase (24months). Primary outcome is change in BMI from baseline to 12months. Secondary outcomes include changes in blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, and fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as intervention sustainability. Church members (n=664) from 28 churches enrolled in the study. At baseline 64.3% of the participants were obese (BMI?30), less than half (41.6%) reported regular exercise, and 85.5% reported consuming less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Church members recruited to participate in a faith-based study across the Appalachian region reported high rates of unhealthy behaviors. We have demonstrated the feasibility of developing and recruiting participants to a faith-based intervention aimed at improving diet and increasing exercise among underserved populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  10. Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam

    In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....

  11. Kineziologická charakteristika Nordic Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Title: Functional a physiological characteristics of Nordic Walking Purposes: The aim of the thesis is to describe and summarize current knowledge about Nordic Walking Methods: Literature analysis Key words: Nordic Walking, free bipedal walk, health benefits, functional indicator changes

  12. Treadmill training improves overground walking economy in Parkinson’s disease: A randomized, controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eFERNANDEZ-DEL-OLMO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait disturbances are one of the principal and most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD. In addition, walking economy is impaired in PD patients and could contribute to excess fatigue in this population. An important number of studies have shown that treadmill training can improve kinematic parameters in PD patients. However, the effects of treadmill and overground walking on the walking economy remain unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the walking economy changes in response to a treadmill and an overground training program, as well as the differences in the walking economy during treadmill and overground walking. 22 mild PD patients were randomly assigned to a treadmill or overground training group. The training program consisted of 5 weeks (3 sessions/week. We evaluated the energy expenditure of overground walking, before and after each of the training programs. The energy expenditure of treadmill walking (before the program was also evaluated. The treadmill, but not the overground training program, lead to an improvement in the walking economy (the rate of oxygen consumed per distance, during overground walking at a preferred speed in PD patients. In addition, walking on a treadmill required more energy expenditure compared with overground walking at the same speed. This study provides evidence that in mild PD patients, treadmill training is more beneficial compared with that of walking overground, leading to a greater improvement in the walking economy. This finding is of clinical importance for the therapeutic administration of exercise in Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Walk well: a randomised controlled trial of a walking intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking interventions have been shown to have a positive impact on physical activity (PA) levels, health and wellbeing for adult and older adult populations. There has been very little work carried out to explore the effectiveness of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities. This paper will provide details of the Walk Well intervention, designed for adults with intellectual disabilities, and a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. Methods/design This study will adopt a RCT design, with participants allocated to the walking intervention group or a waiting list control group. The intervention consists of three PA consultations (baseline, six weeks and 12 weeks) and an individualised 12 week walking programme. A range of measures will be completed by participants at baseline, post intervention (three months from baseline) and at follow up (three months post intervention and six months from baseline). All outcome measures will be collected by a researcher who will be blinded to the study groups. The primary outcome will be steps walked per day, measured using accelerometers. Secondary outcome measures will include time spent in PA per day (across various intensity levels), time spent in sedentary behaviour per day, quality of life, self-efficacy and anthropometric measures to monitor weight change. Discussion Since there are currently no published RCTs of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities, this RCT will examine if a walking intervention can successfully increase PA, health and wellbeing of adults with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN50494254 PMID:23816316

  14. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  15. Reliability of the 6-min walk test after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The 6-min walk test is a simple clinical outcome measure, which has been used frequently to assess functional performance in many different patient groups, including patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The 6-min walk test measures the maximal distance a subject is able to walk i...

  16. Influences of the built environment on walking and cycling of latent segments of the aging population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Walking and bicycling are relatively easy ways to be physically active for the growing group of older adults. The built environment may facilitate or restrict their participation in walking and bicycling trips. The aim of this study is to describe various aspects of participation in walking and

  17. Influences of built environment on walking and cycling by latent segments of aging population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Walking and bicycling are relatively easy ways for the growing group of older adults to be physically active. The built environment may facilitate or restrict participation in walking and bicycling trips. A study was done to describe aspects of participation in walking and bicycling activities and

  18. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  19. Effects of intensive therapy using gait trainer or floor walking exercises early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Airaksinen, Olavi; Huuskonen, Pirjo; Jäkälä, Pekka; Juhakoski, Mika; Sandell, Kaisa; Tarkka, Ina M; Sivenius, Juhani

    2009-02-01

    To analyse the effects of gait therapy for patients after acute stroke in a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-six patients with a mean of 8 days post-stroke participated in: (i) gait trainer exercise; (ii) walking training over ground; or (iii) conventional treatment. Patients in the gait trainer exercise and walking groups practiced gait for 15 sessions over 3 weeks and received additional physiotherapy. Functional Ambulatory Category and several secondary outcome measures assessing gait and mobility were administered before and after rehabilitation and at 6-month follow-up. Patients also evaluated their own effort. Walking ability improved more with intensive walk training compared with conventional treatment; median Functional Ambulatory Category was zero in all patients at the start of the study, but it was 3 in both walk-training groups and 0.5 in the conventional treatment group at the end of the therapy. Median Functional Ambulatory Category was 4 in both walk-training groups and 2.5 in conventional treatment group at 6-month follow-up. Mean accomplished walking distance was not different between the gait trainer exercise and over ground walking groups. Borg scale indicated more effort in over ground walking. Secondary outcomes also indicated improvements. Exercise therapy with walking training improved gait function irrespective of the method used, but the time and effort required to achieve the results favour the gait trainer exercise. Early intensive gait training resulted in better walking ability than did conventional treatment.

  20. Ways of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Bødker, Mads; Chamberlain, Alan

    2016-01-01

    It seems logical to argue that mobile computing technologies are intended for use "on-the-go." However, on closer inspection, the use of mobile technologies pose a number of challenges for users who are mobile, particularly moving around on foot. In engaging with such mobile technologies and thei......It seems logical to argue that mobile computing technologies are intended for use "on-the-go." However, on closer inspection, the use of mobile technologies pose a number of challenges for users who are mobile, particularly moving around on foot. In engaging with such mobile technologies...... and their envisaged development, we argue that interaction designers must increasingly consider a multitude of perspectives that relate to walking in order to frame design problems appropriately. In this paper, we consider a number of perspectives on walking, and we discuss how these may inspire the design of mobile...... technologies. Drawing on insights from non-representational theory, we develop a partial vocabulary with which to engage with qualities of pedestrian mobility, and we outline how taking more mindful approaches to walking may enrich and inform the design space of handheld technologies....

  1. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33 and Asian (n = 23 elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  2. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  3. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone ... second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. ..... Using functional loading to influence.

  4. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus D Ortega

    Full Text Available Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy.To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults.15 older adults (69 ± 3 years who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s. We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study.Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016 and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237. We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461 and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001.Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  5. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions.1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged <30 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership, employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues with commuter walking.Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49% were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers.A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within

  6. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breyer Marie-Kathrin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer; secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD. Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2 while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day compared to baseline (all: p Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality in COPD. In addition, Nordic Walking has proven to positively impact the daily physical activity pattern of COPD patients under short- and long-term observation. Clinical trial registration Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial - ISRCTN31525632

  7. Rugged Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed walking-beam robot simpler and more rugged than articulated-leg walkers. Requires less data processing, and uses power more efficiently. Includes pair of tripods, one nested in other. Inner tripod holds power supplies, communication equipment, computers, instrumentation, sampling arms, and articulated sensor turrets. Outer tripod holds mast on which antennas for communication with remote control site and video cameras for viewing local and distant terrain mounted. Propels itself by raising, translating, and lowering tripods in alternation. Steers itself by rotating raised tripod on turntable.

  8. Random walk loop soup

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Gregory F.; Ferreras, José A. Trujillo

    2004-01-01

    The Brownian loop soup introduced in Lawler and Werner (2004) is a Poissonian realization from a sigma-finite measure on unrooted loops. This measure satisfies both conformal invariance and a restriction property. In this paper, we define a random walk loop soup and show that it converges to the Brownian loop soup. In fact, we give a strong approximation result making use of the strong approximation result of Koml\\'os, Major, and Tusn\\'ady. To make the paper self-contained, we include a proof...

  9. A mathematical nature walk

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, John A

    2009-01-01

    How heavy is that cloud? Why can you see farther in rain than in fog? Why are the droplets on that spider web spaced apart so evenly? If you have ever asked questions like these while outdoors, and wondered how you might figure out the answers, this is a book for you. An entertaining and informative collection of fascinating puzzles from the natural world around us, A Mathematical Nature Walk will delight anyone who loves nature or math or both. John Adam presents ninety-six questions about many common natural phenomena--and a few uncommon ones--and then shows how to answer them using mostly b

  10. Physical implementation of quantum walks

    CERN Document Server

    Manouchehri, Kia

    2013-01-01

    Given the extensive application of random walks in virtually every science related discipline, we may be at the threshold of yet another problem solving paradigm with the advent of quantum walks. Over the past decade, quantum walks have been explored for their non-intuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to radically new quantum algorithms. This growing interest has been paralleled by a flurry of research into how one can implement quantum walks in laboratories. This book presents numerous proposals as well as actual experiments for such a physical realization, underpinned by a wide range of

  11. Quantum walks with entangled coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas-Andraca, S E; Ball, J L; Burnett, K; Bose, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a mathematical formalism for the description of un- restricted quantum walks with entangled coins and one walker. The numerical behaviour of such walks is examined when using a Bell state as the initial coin state, with two different coin operators, two different shift operators, and one walker. We compare and contrast the performance of these quantum walks with that of a classical random walk consisting of one walker and two maximally correlated coins as well as quantum walks with coins sharing different degrees of entanglement. We illustrate that the behaviour of our walk with entangled coins can be very different in comparison to the usual quantum walk with a single coin. We also demonstrate that simply by changing the shift operator, we can generate widely different distributions. We also compare the behaviour of quantum walks with maximally entangled coins with that of quantum walks with non-entangled coins. Finally, we show that the use of different shift operators on two and three qubit coins leads to different position probability distributions in one- and two-dimensional graphs

  12. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Esliger, Dale W; Taylor, Ian M; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation) and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues) with commuter walking. Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49%) were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers. A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within the workplace and organisational level travel policies may be required in order to promote commuter walking.

  13. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  14. The quantum Levy walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, Manuel O; Nizama, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quantum Levy walk to study transport and decoherence in a quantum random model. We have derived from second-order perturbation theory the quantum master equation for a Levy-like particle that moves along a lattice through scale-free hopping while interacting with a thermal bath of oscillators. The general evolution of the quantum Levy particle has been solved for different preparations of the system. We examine the evolution of the quantum purity, the localized correlation and the probability to be in a lattice site, all of them leading to important conclusions concerning quantum irreversibility and decoherence features. We prove that the quantum thermal mean-square displacement is finite under a constraint that is different when compared to the classical Weierstrass random walk. We prove that when the mean-square displacement is infinite the density of state has a complex null-set inside the Brillouin zone. We show the existence of a critical behavior in the continuous eigenenergy which is related to its non-differentiability and self-affine characteristics. In general, our approach allows us to study analytically quantum fluctuations and decoherence in a long-range hopping model.

  15. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (peconomy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  16. Two-color walking Peregrine solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Fabio; Chen, Shihua; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2017-09-15

    We study the extreme localization of light, evolving upon a non-zero background, in two-color parametric wave interaction in nonlinear quadratic media. We report the existence of quadratic Peregrine solitary waves, in the presence of significant group-velocity mismatch between the waves (or Poynting vector beam walk-off), in the regime of cascading second-harmonic generation. This finding opens a novel path for the experimental demonstration of extreme rogue waves in ultrafast quadratic nonlinear optics.

  17. Kinematic control of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, F; Ivanenko, Y P; Zago, M

    2002-10-01

    The planar law of inter-segmental co-ordination we described may emerge from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle contraction intervenes at variable times to re-excite the intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. The hypothesis that a law of coordinative control results from a minimal active tuning of the passive inertial and viscoelastic coupling among limb segments is congruent with the idea that movement has evolved according to minimum energy criteria (1, 8). It is known that multi-segment motion of mammals locomotion is controlled by a network of coupled oscillators (CPGs, see 18, 33, 37). Flexible combination of unit oscillators gives rise to different forms of locomotion. Inter-oscillator coupling can be modified by changing the synaptic strength (or polarity) of the relative spinal connections. As a result, unit oscillators can be coupled in phase, out of phase, or with a variable phase, giving rise to different behaviors, such as speed increments or reversal of gait direction (from forward to backward). Supra-spinal centers may drive or modulate functional sets of coordinating interneurons to generate different walking modes (or gaits). Although it is often assumed that CPGs control patterns of muscle activity, an equally plausible hypothesis is that they control patterns of limb segment motion instead (22). According to this kinematic view, each unit oscillator would directly control a limb segment, alternately generating forward and backward oscillations of the segment. Inter-segmental coordination would be achieved by coupling unit oscillators with a variable phase. Inter-segmental kinematic phase plays the role of global control variable previously postulated for the network of central oscillators. In fact, inter-segmental phase shifts systematically with increasing speed both in man (4) and cat (38). Because this phase-shift is correlated with the net mechanical power

  18. Walking Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can continue your walking program. Don’t let a cane or walker stop you It’s OK to use your cane or walker if you already have one. These can improve your balance and help take the load off painful joints. Aim for the right pace Try to walk as fast as you ...

  19. Quantum walks and search algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Portugal, Renato

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses an interesting area of quantum computation called quantum walks, which play an important role in building quantum algorithms, in particular search algorithms. Quantum walks are the quantum analogue of classical random walks. It is known that quantum computers have great power for searching unsorted databases. This power extends to many kinds of searches, particularly to the problem of finding a specific location in a spatial layout, which can be modeled by a graph. The goal is to find a specific node knowing that the particle uses the edges to jump from one node to the next. This book is self-contained with main topics that include: Grover's algorithm, describing its geometrical interpretation and evolution by means of the spectral decomposition of the evolution operater Analytical solutions of quantum walks on important graphs like line, cycles, two-dimensional lattices, and hypercubes using Fourier transforms Quantum walks on generic graphs, describing methods to calculate the limiting d...

  20. walk around Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that this country develops through two types of events: either through a jubilee or through a catastrophe.It seems that Irkutsk Airport will be built only after the next crash. At least the interest to this problem returns regularly after sad events, and this occurs almost half a century (a jubilee, too! – the Council of Ministers decided to relocate the Airport away from the city as long ago as 1962. The Airport does not relate to the topic of this issue, but an attentive reader understands that it is our Carthage, and that the Airport should be relocated. The Romans coped with it faster and more effectively.Back to Irkutsk’s jubilee, we should say that we will do without blare of trumpets. We will just make an unpretentious walk around the city in its summer 350. Each our route covers new (some of them have been completed by the jubilee and old buildings, some of them real monuments. All these buildings are integrated into public spaces of different quality and age.We will also touch on the problems, for old houses, especially the wooden ones often provoke a greedy developer to demolish or to burn them down. Thus a primitive thrift estimates an output of additional square meters. Not to mention how attractive it is to seize public spaces without demolition or without reallocation of the dwellers. Or, rather, the one who is to preserve, to cherish and to improve such houses for the good of the citizens never speaks about this sensitive issue. So we have to do it.Walking is a no-hurry genre, unlike the preparation for the celebration. Walking around the city you like is a pleasant and cognitive process. It will acquaint the architects with the works of their predecessors and colleagues. We hope that such a walk may be interesting for Irkutsk citizens and visitors, too. Isn’t it interesting to learn “at first hand” the intimate details of the restoration of the Trubetskoys’ estate

  1. Walking for art's sake

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.

  2. Walking for art's sake

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

      The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.

  3. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  4. Disorder and decoherence in coined quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong; Qin Hao; Tang Bao; Xue Peng

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to provide a review on quantum walks. Starting form a basic idea of discrete-time quantum walks, we will review the impact of disorder and decoherence on the properties of quantum walks. The evolution of the standard quantum walks is deterministic and disorder introduces randomness to the whole system and change interference pattern leading to the localization effect. Whereas, decoherence plays the role of transmitting quantum walks to classical random walks. (topical review - quantum information)

  5. Walking drawings and walking ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jimmy; Mackey, Anna H; Stott, N Susan; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    To investigate whether drawings of the self walking by children with cerebral palsy (CP) were associated with walking ability and illness perceptions. This was an exploratory study in 52 children with CP (M:F = 28:24), mean age 11.1 years (range 5-18), who were attending tertiary level outpatient clinics. Children were asked to draw a picture of themselves walking. Drawing size and content was used to investigate associations with clinical walk tests and children's own perceptions of their CP assessed using a CP version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Larger drawings of the self were associated with less distance traveled, higher emotional responses to CP, and lower perceptions of pain or discomfort, independent of age. A larger self-to-overall drawing height ratio was related to walking less distance. Drawings of the self confined within buildings and the absence of other figures were also associated with reduced walking ability. Drawing size and content can reflect walking ability, as well as symptom perceptions and distress. Drawings may be useful for clinicians to use with children with cerebral palsy to aid discussion about their condition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Women with fibromyalgia walk with an altered muscle synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrynowski, Michael R; Tiidus, Peter M; Galea, Victoria

    2005-11-01

    Most individuals can use different movement and muscle recruitment patterns to perform a stated task but often only one pattern is selected which optimizes an unknown global objective given the individual's neuromusculoskeletal characteristics. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS), characterized by their chronic pain, reduced physical work capacity and muscular fatigue, could exhibit a different control signature compared to asymptomatic control volunteers (CV). To test this proposal, 22 women with FS, and 11 CV, were assessed in a gait analysis laboratory. Each subject walked repeatedly at self-selected slow, comfortable, and fast walking speeds. The gait analysis provided, for each walk, each subject's stride time, length, and velocity, and ground reaction force, and lower extremity joint kinematics, moments and powers. The data were then anthropometrically scaled and velocity normalized to reduce the influence of subject mass, leg length, and walking speed on the measured gait outcomes. Similarities and differences in the two groups' scaled and normalized gait patterns were then determined. Results show that FS and CV walk with externally similar stride lengths, times, and velocities, and joint angles and ground reaction forces but they use internally different muscle recruitment patterns. Specifically, FS preferentially power gait using their hip flexors instead of their ankle plantarflexors. Interestingly, CV use a similar muscle fatiguing recruitment pattern to walk fast which parallels the common complaint of fatigue reported by FS walking at comfortable speed.

  7. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164

  8. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; St George, Sara M; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N; Coulon, Sandra M; Griffin, Sarah F; Wandersman, Abe; Forthofer, Melinda; Gadson, Barney; Brown, Porschia V

    2013-03-05

    This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the "5 Ps" to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents' homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers.

  9. On your feet: protocol for a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of pole walking and regular walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Juliette O; Brown, Wendy J; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2014-04-17

    Physical activity is associated with better physical and mental health in older adults. Pole walking is a form of walking which may have additional health benefits in older adults, because of the addition of hand held poles, and consequent upper limb involvement. However, few studies have examined the potential additional effects of pole walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults compared with walking. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of a pole walking program with the effects of a walking program, on physical and psychosocial wellbeing, in older adults in assisted living facilities. Sixty men and women from assisted living communities over 65 years will be recruited from senior retirement facilities and randomized into a group based, pole walking program, or walking program. The pole walking group will use the Exerstrider method of pole walking. Total duration of the programs is 12 weeks, with three sessions per week, building from 20 minute to 30 minute sessions.The primary outcome is physical function, as measured by items from the Seniors Fitness Test and hand grip strength. Secondary outcomes include, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, joint pain, and quality of life. All outcomes will be assessed before and after the programs, using valid and reliable measures. The study will add to the evidence base for the effects of pole walking, compared with walking, on physical and psychosocial health and physical function, in healthy older adults. This will improve understanding about the feasibility of pole walking programs and its specific benefits in this population. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001127897.

  10. Increased joint loads during walking--a consequence of pain relief in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjaer, T

    2006-01-01

    Joint pain is a primary symptom in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the effect of pain and pain relief on the knee joint mechanics of walking is not clear. In this study, the effects of local knee joint analgesia on knee joint loads during walking were studied in a group of knee osteoarthritis....... Although the patients walked with less compressive knee joint forces compared to the reference group, the effects of pain relief may accelerate the degenerative changes....

  11. Effects of downhill walking training on aerobic and neuromuscular fitness of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Coelho Rabello de Lima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n5p539   Eccentric exercise training using low intensity-high volume approach has been performed to improve maximal muscle strength and power. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of short-term downhill walking and level walking training on lower limb strength and maximal oxygen uptake of active individuals. Eighteen young adults were divided into level walking group (n = 9 or downhill walking training group (n = 9. Both groups performed a four-week training program. The level walking group performed seven level walking sessions per week, while the downhill walking group walked downhill (-16% in the same weekly frequency. One week before and one week after the training protocol, maximal oxygen uptake, muscle-bone cross-sectional area and isometric peak torque of knee extensors and plantar flexors were assessed for both groups. A significant group vs. time interaction was found only for cross sectional area of plantar flexors (PF, showing increases for the downhill walking group (112.6 ± 28.9 cm2 vs. 115.9 ± 29 cm2 but not for the level walking group (94.9 ± 23.3 cm2vs. 94.6 ± 228 cm2. Maximal oxygen uptake remained unaltered after training for both groups and IPT was increased after training for both groups. It was concluded that short-term downhill walking training does not seem to be efficient in promoting improvements in cardiorrespiratory fitness of young adults. However, it seems to promote gains in some variables related to neuromuscular fitness

  12. Random walks, random fields, and disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Černý, Jiří; Kotecký, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the mathematics that lies at the intersection of probability theory, statistical physics, combinatorics and computer science, this volume collects together lecture notes on recent developments in the area. The common ground of these subjects is perhaps best described by the three terms in the title: Random Walks, Random Fields and Disordered Systems. The specific topics covered include a study of Branching Brownian Motion from the perspective of disordered (spin-glass) systems, a detailed analysis of weakly self-avoiding random walks in four spatial dimensions via methods of field theory and the renormalization group, a study of phase transitions in disordered discrete structures using a rigorous version of the cavity method, a survey of recent work on interacting polymers in the ballisticity regime and, finally, a treatise on two-dimensional loop-soup models and their connection to conformally invariant systems and the Gaussian Free Field. The notes are aimed at early graduate students with a mod...

  13. Cardiorespiratory Responses to Pool Floor Walking in People Poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Brenda; Fujii, Takuto; Lim, Hyosok; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos; Jung, Taeyou

    2018-03-01

    To compare cardiorespiratory responses between pool floor walking and overground walking (OW) in people poststroke. Cross-sectional study. University-based therapeutic exercise facility. Participants (N=28) were comprised of 14 community-dwelling individuals poststroke (5.57±3.57y poststroke) and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy adults (mean age, 58.00±15.51y; male/female ratio, 9:5). Not applicable. A telemetric metabolic system was used to collect cardiorespiratory variables, including oxygen consumption (V˙o 2 ), energy expenditure (EE), and expired volume per unit time (V˙e), during 6-minute walking sessions in chest-depth water and on land at a matched speed, determined by average of maximum walking speed in water. Individuals poststroke elicited no significant differences in cardiorespiratory responses between pool floor walking and OW. However, healthy controls showed significant increases in mean V˙o 2 values by 94%, EE values by 109%, and V˙e values by 94% (all Pstroke group did not. Our results indicate that people poststroke, unlike healthy adults, do not increase EE while walking in water compared with on land. Unlike stationary walking on an aquatic treadmill, forward locomotion during pool floor walking at faster speeds may have increased drag force, which requires greater EE from healthy adults. Without demanding excessive EE, walking in water may offer a naturally supportive environment for gait training in the early stages of rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Building the repertoire of measures of walking in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Michelle; Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen

    2017-01-01

    performance as measured with the FMS-RS was more strongly consistent with other clinical measures supporting its concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was good for both the FMS-RS and the 2MWT. Therefore, these measures have the potential to be used in clinical practice and research. Implications...... with Rett syndrome (median 18.4 years, range 2.4-60.9 years) were assessed for clinical severity, gross motor skills, and mobility. To measure walking capacity, 27 of this group completed a 2MWT twice on two different assessment days. To assess walking performance, the FMS-RS was administered to the total......BACKGROUND: The repertoire of measures of walking in Rett syndrome is limited. This study aimed to determine measurement properties of a modified two-minute walk test (2MWT) and a modified Rett syndrome-specific functional mobility scale (FMS-RS) in Rett syndrome. METHODS: Forty-two girls and women...

  15. Modeling spatial segregation and travel cost influences on utilitarian walking: Towards policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Brown, Daniel G; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2015-05-01

    We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various segregation and pricing scenarios while allowing for interactions between travel choice and place and for behavioral feedbacks. Results suggest that in addition to income differences in the perceived cost of time, the concentration of mixed land use (differential density of residences and businesses) are important determinants of income differences in walking (high income walk less), whereas safety from crime and income segregation on their own do not have large influences on income differences in walking. We also show the difficulty in altering walking behaviors for higher income groups who are insensitive to price and how adding to the cost of driving could increase the income differential in walking particularly in the context of segregation by income and land use. We show that strategies to decrease positive attitudes towards driving can interact synergistically with shifting cost structures to favor walking in increasing the percent of walking trips. Agent-based models, with their ability to capture dynamic processes and incorporate empirical data, are powerful tools to explore the influence on health behavior from multiple factors and test policy interventions.

  16. Big power from walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, Patrin K.; Madawala, Udaya K.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric Elastomer Generators (DEG) offer an opportunity to capture the energy otherwise wasted from human motion. By integrating a DEG into the heel of standard footwear, it is possible to harness this energy to power portable devices. DEGs require substantial auxiliary systems which are commonly large, heavy and inefficient. A unique challenge for these low power generators is the combination of high voltage and low current. A void exists in the semiconductor market for devices that can meet these requirements. Until these become available, existing devices must be used in an innovative way to produce an effective DEG system. Existing systems such as the Bi-Directional Flyback (BDFB) and Self Priming Circuit (SPC) are an excellent example of this. The BDFB allows full charging and discharging of the DEG, improving power gained. The SPC allows fully passive voltage boosting, removing the priming source and simplifying the electronics. This paper outlines the drawbacks and benefits of active and passive electronic solutions for maximizing power from walking.

  17. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  18. Quantum snake walk on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmanis, Ansis

    2011-01-01

    I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

  19. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients' Affected Side Lower Extremity's Walking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity's walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability.

  20. Analysis of absorbing times of quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Hirotada; Imai, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Quantum walks are expected to provide useful algorithmic tools for quantum computation. This paper introduces absorbing probability and time of quantum walks and gives both numerical simulation results and theoretical analyses on Hadamard walks on the line and symmetric walks on the hypercube from the viewpoint of absorbing probability and time

  1. Effects of a 6-month exercise program pilot study on walking economy, peak physiological characteristics, and walking performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther RG

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert G Crowther1, Anthony S Leicht1, Warwick L Spinks1, Kunwarjit Sangla2, Frank Quigley2, Jonathan Golledge2,31Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; 2Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; 3The Vascular Biology Unit, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract : The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-month exercise program on submaximal walking economy in individuals with peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication (PAD-IC. Participants (n = 16 were randomly allocated to either a control PAD-IC group (CPAD-IC, n = 6 which received standard medical therapy, or a treatment PAD-IC group (TPAD-IC; n = 10 which took part in a supervised exercise program. During a graded treadmill test, physiological responses, including oxygen consumption, were assessed to calculate walking economy during submaximal and maximal walking performance. Differences between groups at baseline and post-intervention were analyzed via Kruskal–Wallis tests. At baseline, CPAD-IC and TPAD-IC groups demonstrated similar walking performance and physiological responses. Postintervention, TPAD-IC patients demonstrated significantly lower oxygen consumption during the graded exercise test, and greater maximal walking performance compared to CPAD-IC. These preliminary results indicate that 6 months of regular exercise improves both submaximal walking economy and maximal walking performance, without significant changes in maximal walking economy. Enhanced walking economy may contribute to physiological efficiency, which in turn may improve walking performance as demonstrated by PAD-IC patients following regular exercise programs.Keywords: vascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, walking economy

  2. Random walk through fractal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze random walk through fractal environments, embedded in three-dimensional, permeable space. Particles travel freely and are scattered off into random directions when they hit the fractal. The statistical distribution of the flight increments (i.e., of the displacements between two consecutive hittings) is analytically derived from a common, practical definition of fractal dimension, and it turns out to approximate quite well a power-law in the case where the dimension D F of the fractal is less than 2, there is though, always a finite rate of unaffected escape. Random walks through fractal sets with D F ≤2 can thus be considered as defective Levy walks. The distribution of jump increments for D F >2 is decaying exponentially. The diffusive behavior of the random walk is analyzed in the frame of continuous time random walk, which we generalize to include the case of defective distributions of walk increments. It is shown that the particles undergo anomalous, enhanced diffusion for D F F >2 is normal for large times, enhanced though for small and intermediate times. In particular, it follows that fractals generated by a particular class of self-organized criticality models give rise to enhanced diffusion. The analytical results are illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations

  3. Functional roles of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2005-02-01

    To clarify the functional roles of lower-limb joint moments and their contribution to support and propulsion tasks while walking in water compared with that on land. Sixteen healthy, young subjects walked on land and in water at several different speeds with and without additional loads. Walking in water is a major rehabilitation therapy for patients with orthopedic disorders. However, the functional role of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water is still unclear. Kinematics, electromyographic activities in biceps femoris and gluteus maximums, and ground reaction forces were measured under the following conditions: walking on land and in water at a self-determined pace, slow walking on land, and fast walking in water with or without additional loads (8 kg). The hip, knee, and ankle joint moments were calculated by inverse dynamics. The contribution of the walking speed increased the hip extension moment, and the additional weight increased the ankle plantar flexion and knee extension moment. The major functional role was different in each lower-limb joint muscle. That of the muscle group in the ankle is to support the body against gravity, and that of the muscle group involved in hip extension is to contribute to propulsion. In addition, walking in water not only reduced the joint moments but also completely changed the inter-joint coordination. It is of value for clinicians to be aware that the greater the viscosity of water produces a greater load on the hip joint when fast walking in water.

  4. Random Walks on Homeo( S 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicet, Dominique

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study random walks {g_n=f_{n-1}\\ldots f_0} on the group Homeo ( S 1) of the homeomorphisms of the circle, where the homeomorphisms f k are chosen randomly, independently, with respect to a same probability measure {ν}. We prove that under the only condition that there is no probability measure invariant by {ν}-almost every homeomorphism, the random walk almost surely contracts small intervals. It generalizes what has been known on this subject until now, since various conditions on {ν} were imposed in order to get the phenomenon of contractions. Moreover, we obtain the surprising fact that the rate of contraction is exponential, even in the lack of assumptions of smoothness on the f k 's. We deduce various dynamical consequences on the random walk ( g n ): finiteness of ergodic stationary measures, distribution of the trajectories, asymptotic law of the evaluations, etc. The proof of the main result is based on a modification of the Ávila-Viana's invariance principle, working for continuous cocycles on a space fibred in circles.

  5. [Why is it important to achieve the goals of treatment of hypertension…. About a case that began as ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauza-Sosa, Julio César; Romero-Figueroa, José Antonio; Sierra-Galán, Lilia Mercedes; Ferez-Santander, Sergio Mario

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is one of the most common conditions seen in primary care of cardiovascular disease and whose consequences; depending on the "target organ" affecting produce ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease or chronic kidney disease. In the pathogenesis of HAS are several physiopathological mechanisms involved; of which currently, to name the most important and frequent play a role in increasing adrenaline levels, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and recently, much the participation of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia mentioned. These processes lead to an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, coupled with hypersensitivity sodium trigger one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension. SAH is currently defined as finding numbers of older blood pressure 140/90mm Hg. This is one of the diseases that most affect the world population prevalences found in age and gender groups 45 to 55% in men between 45 and 70 years and 45 to 65% in women of the same age group. In 2013 most recent clinical guidelines for treatment and the recommended goals, which has managed to reduce its complications and mortality were published; among which include vascular diseases such as ischemic heart and brain and kidney. In this paper a case that exemplifies the secondary complications in late diagnosis, damage to "target organ" by long-term exposure and inadequate compliance with therapeutic goals discussed. Copyright © 2015 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Neighborhood Design for Walking and Biking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.; Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi; Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Zick, Cathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neighborhood designs often relate to physical activity and to BMI. Purpose Does neighborhood walkability/bikeability relate to BMI and obesity risk and does moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) account for some of the relationship? Methods Census 2000 provided walkability/bikeability measures—block group proportions of workers who walk or bike to work, housing age, and population density—and National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003–2006) provided MVPA accelerometer measures. Regression analyses (2011–2012) adjusted for geographic clustering and multiple control variables. Results Greater density and older housing were associated with lower male BMI in bivariate analyses, but there were no density and housing age effects in multivariate models. For women, greater proportions of neighborhood workers who walk to work (M=0.02) and more MVPA was associated with lower BMI and lower obesity risk. For men, greater proportions of workers who bike to work (M=0.004) and more MVPA was associated with lower BMI and obesity risk. For both effects, MVPA partially mediated the relationships between walkability/bikeability and BMI. If such associations are causal, doubling walk and bike-to-work proportions (to 0.04 and 0.008) would have –0.3 and –0.33 effects on the average BMIs of adult women and men living in the neighborhood. This equates to 1.5 lbs for a 64” woman and 2.3 lbs for a 69” man. Conclusions Although walking/biking to work is rare in the U.S., greater proportions of such workers in neighborhoods relate to lower weight and higher MVPA. Bikeability merits greater attention as a modifiable activity-friendliness factor, particularly for men. PMID:23415119

  7. Does Dog Walking Predict Physical Activity Participation: Results From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) identify characteristics associated with dog owners who walk their dog, (2) describe the frequency and duration of walking the dog, and (3) determine whether dog owners who walk their dog participate in more physical activity than dog owners who do not walk their dog and non-dog owners. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study setting was nationwide. Adults (n = 4010) participating in the 2005 ConsumerStyles mail-panel survey were the study subjects. Measures used were demographic, physical activity, dog ownership, and dog walking questions from the 2005 ConsumerStyles mail-panel survey. Chi-square tests and analyses of variance were conducted to examine participant characteristics associated with dog walking and to describe the frequency and duration of dog walking. Analysis of covariance was used to determine whether dog owners who walk their dog participate in more physical activity than dog owners who do not walk their dog and non-dog owners. Among dog owners, 42% reported some dog walking in a typical week. Dog owners walked their dog an average 4.3 ± 0.1 times and 128.8 ± 5.6 minutes per week. There were no significant differences in weekly minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity across the dog-ownership and dog walking groups. Most dog owners did not walk their dog. Dog owners were not more active than non-dog owners, except when considering the activity obtained via dog walking. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Mohd Firdaus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  9. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Mohamad Ali, Mohd; Salleh Abustan, Muhamad; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Abustan, Ismail; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Gotoh, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS) for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  10. Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Thomas, Simone; Elsner, Bernhard

    2017-08-17

    Treadmill training, with or without body weight support using a harness, is used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2014. To determine if treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, improve walking ability, quality of life, activities of daily living, dependency or death, and institutionalisation or death, compared with other physiotherapy gait-training interventions after stroke. The secondary objective was to determine the safety and acceptability of this method of gait training. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 14 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (the Cochrane Library 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 14 February 2017), CINAHL (1982 to 14 February 2017), AMED (1985 to 14 February 2017) and SPORTDiscus (1949 to 14 February 2017). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and ongoing trials and research registers, screened reference lists, and contacted trialists to identify further trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled and cross-over trials of treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, for the treatment of walking after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and methodological quality. The primary outcomes investigated were walking speed, endurance, and dependency. We included 56 trials with 3105 participants in this updated review. The average age of the participants was 60 years, and the studies were carried out in both inpatient and outpatient settings. All participants had at least some walking difficulties and many could not walk without assistance. Overall, the use of treadmill training did not increase the chances of walking

  11. Efficacy of walking exercise in promoting cognitive-psychosocial functions in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-melanoma cancer among men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been the core therapy for men with advanced prostate cancer. It is only in recent years that clinicians began to recognize the cognitive-psychosocial side effects from ADT, which significantly compromise the quality of life of prostate cancer survivors. The objectives of the study are to determine the efficacy of a simple and accessible home-based, walking exercise program in promoting cognitive and psychosocial functions of men with prostate cancer receiving ADT. Methods A 6-month prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted to compare the Exercise Group with the Control Group. Twenty men with prostate cancer starting ADT will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of the two groups: the Exercise Group will receive instructions in setting up an individualized 6-month home-based, walking exercise program, while the Control Group will receive standard medical advice from the attending physician. The primary outcomes will be psychosocial and cognitive functions. Cognitive functions including memory, attention, working memory, and executive function will be assessed using a battery of neurocognitive tests at baseline and 6 months. Psychosocial functions including depression, anxiety and self-esteem will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Discussion The significance of the cognitive-psychosocial side effects of ADT in men with prostate cancer has only been recently recognized, and the management remains unclear. This study addresses this issue by designing a simple and accessible home-based, exercise program that may potentially have significant impact on reducing the cognitive and psychosocial side effects of ADT, and ultimately

  12. The structure of walking activity in people after stroke compared with older adults without disability: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Margaret A; Rudolph, Katherine S; Reisman, Darcy S

    2012-09-01

    People with stroke have reduced walking activity. It is not known whether this deficit is due to a reduction in all aspects of walking activity or only in specific areas. Understanding specific walking activity deficits is necessary for the development of interventions that maximize improvements in activity after stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine walking activity in people poststroke compared with older adults without disability. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Fifty-four participants poststroke and 18 older adults without disability wore a step activity monitor for 3 days. The descriptors of walking activity calculated included steps per day (SPD), bouts per day (BPD), steps per bout (SPB), total time walking per day (TTW), percentage of time walking per day (PTW), and frequency of short, medium, and long walking bouts. Individuals classified as household and limited community ambulators (n=29) did not differ on any measure and were grouped (HHA-LCA group) for comparison with unlimited community ambulators (UCA group) (n=22) and with older adults without disability (n=14). The SPD, TTW, PTW, and BPD measurements were greatest in older adults and lowest in the HHA-LCA group. Seventy-two percent to 74% of all walking bouts were short, and this finding did not differ across groups. Walking in all categories (short, medium, and long) was lowest in the HHA-LCA group, greater in the UCA group, and greatest in older adults without disability. Three days of walking activity were captured. The specific descriptors of walking activity presented provide insight into walking deficits after stroke that cannot be ascertained by looking at steps per day alone. The deficits that were revealed could be addressed through appropriate exercise prescription, underscoring the need to analyze the structure of walking activity.

  13. Identification of walking human model using agent-based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar; Racic, Vitomir

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of walking people with large vibrating structures, such as footbridges and floors, in the vertical direction is an important yet challenging phenomenon to describe mathematically. Several different models have been proposed in the literature to simulate interaction of stationary people with vibrating structures. However, the research on moving (walking) human models, explicitly identified for vibration serviceability assessment of civil structures, is still sparse. In this study, the results of a comprehensive set of FRF-based modal tests were used, in which, over a hundred test subjects walked in different group sizes and walking patterns on a test structure. An agent-based model was used to simulate discrete traffic-structure interactions. The occupied structure modal parameters found in tests were used to identify the parameters of the walking individual's single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) mass-spring-damper model using 'reverse engineering' methodology. The analysis of the results suggested that the normal distribution with the average of μ = 2.85Hz and standard deviation of σ = 0.34Hz can describe human SDOF model natural frequency. Similarly, the normal distribution with μ = 0.295 and σ = 0.047 can describe the human model damping ratio. Compared to the previous studies, the agent-based modelling methodology proposed in this paper offers significant flexibility in simulating multi-pedestrian walking traffics, external forces and simulating different mechanisms of human-structure and human-environment interaction at the same time.

  14. Older Ethnic Minority Women's Perceptions of Stroke Prevention and Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivy; Bharmal, Nazleen; Choi, Sarah; Araiza, Daniel; Moore, Mignon R; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    To inform the development of a tailored behavioral stroke risk reduction intervention for ethnic minority seniors, we sought to explore gender differences in perceptions of stroke prevention and physical activity (walking). In collaboration with community-based organizations, we conducted 12 mixed-gender focus groups of African American, Latino, Chinese, and Korean seniors aged 60 years and older with a history of hypertension (89 women and 42 men). Transcripts were coded and recurring topics compared by gender. Women expressed beliefs that differed from men in 4 topic areas: 1) stroke-related interest, 2) barriers to walking, 3) facilitators to walking, and 4) health behavior change attitudes. Compared with men, women were more interested in their role in response to a stroke and post-stroke care. Women described walking as an acceptable form of exercise, but cited neighborhood safety and pain as walking barriers. Fear of nursing home placement and weight loss were identified as walking facilitators. Women were more prone than men to express active/control attitudes toward health behavior change. Older ethnic minority women, a high-risk population for stroke, may be more receptive to behavioral interventions that address the gender-specific themes identified by this study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii and treadmill walking exercise on balance and walking for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yo-Soon; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii on balance and walking for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty stroke patients with stroke were randomly divided into two exercise program groups: virtual reality training (n=20) and treadmill (n=20). The subjects underwent their 40-minute exercise program three times a week for eight weeks. Their balance and walking were measured before and after the complete program. We measured the left/right weight-bearing and the anterior/posterior weight-bearing for balance, as well as stance phase, swing phase, and cadence for walking. [Results] For balance, both groups showed significant differences in the left/right and anterior/posterior weight-bearing, with significant post-program differences between the groups. For walking, there were significant differences in the stance phase, swing phase, and cadence of the virtual reality training group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that virtual reality training providing visual feedback may enable stroke patients to directly adjust their incorrect weight center and shift visually. Virtual reality training may be appropriate for patients who need improved balance and walking ability by inducing their interest for them to perform planned exercises on a consistent basis.

  16. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  17. Gender differences in walking (for leisure, transport and in total) across adult life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Tessa M; Wagnild, Janelle M

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this systematic review was to examine gender differences in walking for leisure, transport and in total in adults living in high-income countries, and to assess whether gender differences in walking practices change across the life-course. A systematic literature search was conducted of publications dated 1995 to 2015. Papers providing quantitative data on participation in walking of both men and women aged at least 18 years in a high-income country were screened for the quality of the data on gender differences in walking. Data were extracted and results were synthesised using forest plots and narrative summary. Thirty-six studies were included in the review: 18 reported on walking for leisure, 16 on walking for transport (in total, or for particular purposes), and 14 on total walking. Most (33) studies provided data comparing the proportion of men and women who walked (at all or for a minimum duration) over a defined period, usually one week. There was consistent evidence that more women than men walk for leisure, although effect sizes were small. However, this effect varies by age: more younger women than younger men walk for leisure, but the gender difference diminishes with age and appears to reverse in the oldest age groups. Taking all ages together, there was no consistent gender difference in walking for transport or in total walking, although the small number of studies reporting on walking to undertake errands suggested that more women than men walk for this purpose. While there is little evidence that levels of total walking consistently vary by gender, our findings suggest that there are consistent gender differences in participation in walking for some purposes, including for leisure, and that there are gender differences in the impact of age on walking. We conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of how walking fits into the lives of women and men across the life-course, especially in relation to gender

  18. Walking adaptability therapy after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Celine; Roerdink, Melvyn; van Ooijen, Marielle W; Meskers, Carel G; Janssen, Thomas W; Beek, Peter J

    2016-08-26

    Walking in everyday life requires the ability to adapt walking to the environment. This adaptability is often impaired after stroke, and this might contribute to the increased fall risk after stroke. To improve safe community ambulation, walking adaptability training might be beneficial after stroke. This study is designed to compare the effects of two interventions for improving walking speed and walking adaptability: treadmill-based C-Mill therapy (therapy with augmented reality) and the overground FALLS program (a conventional therapy program). We hypothesize that C-Mill therapy will result in better outcomes than the FALLS program, owing to its expected greater amount of walking practice. This is a single-center parallel group randomized controlled trial with pre-intervention, post-intervention, retention, and follow-up tests. Forty persons after stroke (≥3 months) with deficits in walking or balance will be included. Participants will be randomly allocated to either C-Mill therapy or the overground FALLS program for 5 weeks. Both interventions will incorporate practice of walking adaptability and will be matched in terms of frequency, duration, and therapist attention. Walking speed, as determined by the 10 Meter Walking Test, will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures will pertain to walking adaptability (10 Meter Walking Test with context or cognitive dual-task and Interactive Walkway assessments). Furthermore, commonly used clinical measures to determine walking ability (Timed Up-and-Go test), walking independence (Functional Ambulation Category), balance (Berg Balance Scale), and balance confidence (Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale) will be used, as well as a complementary set of walking-related assessments. The amount of walking practice (the number of steps taken per session) will be registered using the treadmill's inbuilt step counter (C-Mill therapy) and video recordings (FALLS program). This process measure will

  19. Energetic consequences of human sociality: walking speed choices among friendly dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Wagnild

    Full Text Available Research has shown that individuals have an optimal walking speed-a speed which minimizes energy expenditure for a given distance. Because the optimal walking speed varies with mass and lower limb length, it also varies with sex, with males in any given population tending to have faster optimal walking speeds. This potentially creates an energetic dilemma for mixed-sex walking groups. Here we examine speed choices made by individuals of varying stature, mass, and sex walking together. Individuals (N = 22 walked around a track alone, with a significant other (with and without holding hands, and with friends of the same and opposite sex while their speeds were recorded every 100 m. Our findings show that males walk at a significantly slower pace to match the females' paces (p = 0.009, when the female is their romantic partner. The paces of friends of either same or mixed sex walking together did not significantly change (p>0.05. Thus significant pace adjustment appears to be limited to romantic partners. These findings have implications for both mobility and reproductive strategies of groups. Because the male carries the energetic burden by adjusting his pace (slowing down 7%, the female is spared the potentially increased caloric cost required to walk together. In energetically demanding environments, we will expect to find gender segregation in group composition, particularly when travelling longer distances.

  20. Pedestrian Walking Behavior Revealed through a Random Walk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies method of continuous-time random walks for pedestrian flow simulation. In the model, pedestrians can walk forward or backward and turn left or right if there is no block. Velocities of pedestrian flow moving forward or diffusing are dominated by coefficients. The waiting time preceding each jump is assumed to follow an exponential distribution. To solve the model, a second-order two-dimensional partial differential equation, a high-order compact scheme with the alternating direction implicit method, is employed. In the numerical experiments, the walking domain of the first one is two-dimensional with two entrances and one exit, and that of the second one is two-dimensional with one entrance and one exit. The flows in both scenarios are one way. Numerical results show that the model can be used for pedestrian flow simulation.

  1. Can early physical therapy positively affect the onset of independent walking in infants with Down syndrome? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Bruno; Sommella, Nadia; Ciardi, Gianluca; Raiano, Enza; Scala, Iris; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Servodio Iammarrone, Clemente

    2018-02-19

    The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill. A retrospective study was carried out on a cohort of 86 children with Down Syndrome. The knowledge of the exact age of walking onset and information about comorobities and rehabilitation practised since birth were the eligibility criteria. The average age at which walking began in the sample was 26 months (Standard Deviation = 9.66). Some patient characteristics proved to be related negatively to the walking onset: gender male, trisomy 21, improved joint ligamentous laxity. When practised, early physical therapy was able to contrast the delay in walking. NDT-Bobath is a well-known and valid instrument for a child with Down syndrome to attain his highest possible psychomotor functioning level. This study pointed out for the first time ever its capability to contrast the delay on walking onset, which can influences positively the development of the following motor and cognitive skills.

  2. Mechanical design of walking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo

    2007-01-15

    The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control.

  3. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol; Campbell, Niyah; Nagar, Iaysha; Connolly, Luke; Krustrup, Peter; Hubball, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable form of exercise for older adults. Health and cognitive benefits to playing walking football were not found.

  4. A randomized trial of functional electrical stimulation for walking in incomplete spinal cord injury: Effects on walking competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Naaz; Masani, Kei; Catharine Craven, B; Giangregorio, Lora M; Hitzig, Sander L; Richards, Kieva; Popovic, Milos R

    2014-09-01

    Multi-channel surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) for walking has been used to improve voluntary walking and balance in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). To investigate short- and long-term benefits of 16 weeks of thrice-weekly FES-assisted walking program, while ambulating on a body weight support treadmill and harness system, versus a non-FES exercise program, on improvements in gait and balance in individuals with chronic incomplete traumatic SCI, in a randomized controlled trial design. Individuals with traumatic and chronic (≥18 months) motor incomplete SCI (level C2 to T12, American Spinal Cord Injury Association Impairment Scale C or D) were recruited from an outpatient SCI rehabilitation hospital, and randomized to FES-assisted walking therapy (intervention group) or aerobic and resistance training program (control group). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, and after 4, 6, and 12 months. Gait, balance, spasticity, and functional measures were collected. Spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) mobility sub-score improved over time in the intervention group compared with the control group (baseline/12 months: 17.27/21.33 vs. 19.09/17.36, respectively). On all other outcome measures the intervention and control groups had similar improvements. Irrespective of group allocation walking speed, endurance, and balance during ambulation all improved upon completion of therapy, and majority of participants retained these gains at long-term follow-ups. Task-oriented training improves walking ability in individuals with incomplete SCI, even in the chronic stage. Further randomized controlled trials, involving a large number of participants are needed, to verify if FES-assisted treadmill training is superior to aerobic and strength training.

  5. The generic Gröbner walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Fukuda, Komei

    2005-01-01

    perturbation of this line. This usually involves both time and space demanding arithmetic of integers much larger than the input numbers. In this paper we show how the explicit line may be replaced by a formal line using Robbiano's characterization of group orders on . This gives rise to the generic Gröbner...... walk involving only Gröbner basis conversion over facets and computations with marked polynomials. The infinite precision integer arithmetic is replaced by term order comparisons between (small) integral vectors. This makes it possible to compute with infinitesimal numbers and perturbations...

  6. Quantum walks based on an interferometric analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, Mark; Bergou, Janos; Feldman, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    There are presently two models for quantum walks on graphs. The ''coined'' walk uses discrete-time steps, and contains, besides the particle making the walk, a second quantum system, the coin, that determines the direction in which the particle will move. The continuous walk operates with continuous time. Here a third model for quantum walks is proposed, which is based on an analogy to optical interferometers. It is a discrete-time model, and the unitary operator that advances the walk one step depends only on the local structure of the graph on which the walk is taking place. This type of walk also allows us to introduce elements, such as phase shifters, that have no counterpart in classical random walks. Several examples are discussed

  7. FDG-PET imaging of lower extremity muscular activity during level walking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Naoyuki; Iwaya, Tsutomu; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Itoh, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed muscular activity of the lower extremities during level walking using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG). We examined 17 healthy male subjects; 11 were assigned to a walking group and 6 to a resting group. After 18 F-FDG injection, the walking group subjects walked at a free speed for 15 min. A whole-body image was then obtained by a PET camera, and the standardized uptake ratio (SUR) was computed for each muscle. The SUR for each muscle of the walking group was compared with that for the corresponding muscles in the resting group. The level of muscular activity of all the muscles we examined were higher during level walking than when resting. The activity of the lower leg muscles was higher than that of the thigh muscles during level walking. The muscular activity of the soleus was highest among all the muscles examined. Among the gluteal muscles, the muscular activity of the gluteus minimus was higher than that of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. The concurrent validity of measuring muscular activity of the lower extremity during level walking by the PET method using 18 F-FDG was demonstrated. (author)

  8. Who walks? Factors associated with walking behavior in disabled older women with and without self-reported walking difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsick, E M; Guralnik, J M; Fried, L P

    1999-06-01

    To determine how severity of walking difficulty and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related factors influence walking behavior in disabled older women. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data from the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS). An urban community encompassing 12 contiguous zip code areas in the eastern portion of Baltimore City and part of Baltimore County, Maryland. A total of 920 moderately to severely disabled community-resident women, aged 65 years and older, identified from an age-stratified random sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Walking behavior was defined as minutes walked for exercise and total blocks walked per week. Independent variables included self-reported walking difficulty, sociodemographic factors, psychological status (depression, mastery, anxiety, and cognition), and health-related factors (falls and fear of falling, fatigue, vision and balance problems, weight, smoking, and cane use). Walking at least 8 blocks per week was strongly negatively related to severity of walking difficulty. Independent of difficulty level, older age, black race, fatigue, obesity, and cane use were also negatively associated with walking; living alone and high mastery had a positive association with walking. Even among functionally limited women, sociocultural, psychological, and health-related factors were independently associated with walking behavior. Thus, programs aimed at improving walking ability need to address these factors in addition to walking difficulties to maximize participation and compliance.

  9. Walking the history of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nick

    2007-12-01

    The history of healthcare is complex, confusing and contested. In Walking London's medical history the story of how health services developed from medieval times to the present day is told through seven walks. The book also aims to help preserve our legacy, as increasingly former healthcare buildings are converted to other uses, and to enhance understanding of the current challenges we face in trying to improve healthcare in the 21st century. Each walk has a theme, ranging from the way hospitals merge or move and the development of primary care to how key healthcare trades became professions and the competition between the church, Crown and City for control of healthcare. While recognising the contributions of the 'great men of medicine', the book takes as much interest in the six ambulance stations built by the London County Council (1915) as the grandest teaching hospitals.

  10. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however......, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable...

  11. Walking to the Beat of Their Own Drum: How Children and Adults Meet Timing Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simone V.

    2015-01-01

    Walking requires adapting to meet task constraints. Between 5- and 7-years old, children’s walking approximates adult walking without constraints. To examine how children and adults adapt to meet timing constraints, 57 5- to 7-year olds and 20 adults walked to slow and fast audio metronome paces. Both children and adults modified their walking. However, at the slow pace, children had more trouble matching the metronome compared to adults. The youngest children’s walking patterns deviated most from the slow metronome pace, and practice improved their performance. Five-year olds were the only group that did not display carryover effects to the metronome paces. Findings are discussed in relation to what contributes to the development of adaptation in children. PMID:26011538

  12. Walking to the beat of their own drum: how children and adults meet timing constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone V Gill

    Full Text Available Walking requires adapting to meet task constraints. Between 5- and 7-years old, children's walking approximates adult walking without constraints. To examine how children and adults adapt to meet timing constraints, 57 5- to 7-year olds and 20 adults walked to slow and fast audio metronome paces. Both children and adults modified their walking. However, at the slow pace, children had more trouble matching the metronome compared to adults. The youngest children's walking patterns deviated most from the slow metronome pace, and practice improved their performance. Five-year olds were the only group that did not display carryover effects to the metronome paces. Findings are discussed in relation to what contributes to the development of adaptation in children.

  13. Pedagogies of the Walking Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Peters

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the trope of the zombie and the recent upsurge in popular culture surrounding the figure of the zombie described as the “walking dead”. We investigate this trope and figure as a means of analyzing the “pedagogy of the walking dead” with particular attention to the crisis of education in the era of neoliberal capitalism. In particular we examine the professionalization and responsibilization of teachers in the new regulative environment and ask whether there is any room left for the project of critical education.

  14. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  15. Walk Score(TM), Perceived Neighborhood Walkability, and walking in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckel, Peter; Milczarski, William

    2015-03-01

    To investigate both the Walk Score(TM) and a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability ("Perceived Neighborhood Walkability") as estimators of transport and recreational walking among Americans. The study is based upon a survey of a nationally-representative sample of 1224 American adults. The survey gauged walking for both transport and recreation and included a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability and each respondent's Walk Score(TM). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses were performed on the data. The Walk Score(TM) is associated with walking for transport, but not recreational walking nor total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability is associated with transport, recreational and total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability captures the experiential nature of walking more than the Walk Score(TM).

  16. [Effects and the associated factors of the 2016 China Motivational Healthy Walking Program among occupational population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W; Zhao, Y F; Yang, X Z; Li, Y C; Li, Z X; Wang, L H

    2018-05-06

    Objective: To examine the effects and associated factors of the China Motivational Healthy Walking Program among occupational population. Methods: The 2016 China Motivational Healthy Walking Program recruited 29 224 participants from 139 demonstration areas for comprehensive prevention and control of chronic and non-communicable disease at national level and 70 at provincial level. Intervention on walking was carried out by adopting group and individual motivating measures. Walking steps were recorded by electronic pedometer. We used percent of days achieving 10 000 steps (P10 000), percent of days fulfilling continuous walking (PCW), and proportion of valid walking (PVW) steps to reflect walking quantity, pattern and quality of participants. Motivation intensity was measured by summing up scores of each motivating activity. Questionnaire-based online survey collected information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors and chronic diseases. This study finally included 12 368 individuals in the analysis. Multilevel logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of group and individual motivating measures on walking activity and corresponding associated factors. Results: Age of the study sample was (41.2±8.99) years, and 58.17% (7 194) of them were female. After 100-day intervention, the P10 000, PCW and PVW of all participants were 93.89%±14.42%,92.01%±15.97% and 81.00%±7.45%, respectively. The mean P10 000 and PCW increased with rising group-motivated scores, self-motivated scores and individual-activity scores ( Pmotivated scores and self-motivated scores (both Pmotivated scores and self-motivated scores tended to have more likelihood of high-level of P10 000 and PCW. Age, sex, smoking status, education attainment and alcohol drinking were associated with P10 000 and PCW ( PMotivational Healthy Walking Program had positive effect on promoting healthy walking among occupational population. Group-motivated and self-motivated activities

  17. Adults' Daily Walking for Travel and Leisure: Interaction Between Attitude Toward Walking and the Neighborhood Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2017-09-01

    Studies on how the interaction of psychological and environmental characteristics influences walking are limited, and the results are inconsistent. Our aim is to examine how the attitude toward walking and neighborhood environments interacts to influence walking. Cross-sectional phone and mail survey. Participants randomly sampled from 6 study sites including Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Manhattan, and Bronx Counties in New York City, and Forsyth and Davidson Counties in North Carolina. The final sample consisted of 2621 persons from 2011 to 2012. Total minutes of walking for travel or leisure, attitude toward walking, and perceptions of the neighborhood environments were self-reported. Street Smart (SS) Walk Score (a measure of walkability derived from a variety of geographic data) was obtained for each residential location. Linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Attitude toward walking was positively associated with walking for both purposes. Walking for travel was significantly associated with SS Walk Score, whereas walking for leisure was not. The SS Walk Score and selected perceived environment characteristics were associated with walking in people with a very positive attitude toward walking but were not associated with walking in people with a less positive attitude. Attitudes toward walking and neighborhood environments interact to affect walking behavior.

  18. Effect of ankle-foot orthoses on walking efficiency and gait in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehm, M.A.; Harlaar, J.; Schwartz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of ankle-foot orthoses on walking efficiency and gait in a heterogeneous group of children with cerebral palsy, using barefoot walking as the control condition. Design: A retrospective study. Methods: Barefoot and ankle-foot orthosis data for 172 children with

  19. How newspapers began to blog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    of technologists (project managers, computer programers, information architects, etc.) that are increasingly integral to how legacy media organizations operate in a new and ever more convergent media environment under circumstances of great economic uncertainty, and discuss the wider implications for how we......In this article, I examine how ‘old’ media organizations develop ‘new’ media technologies by analyzing processes of technological innovation in two Danish newspaper companies that integrated blogs into their websites in very different ways in 2007. Drawing on concepts from science and technology...... studies and sociology and building on previous research on blogging by news media organizations, I analyze how the three different communities involved in the development process – journalists and managers, but also the often-overlooked community of technologists – articulated different versions of what...

  20. When the atomic age began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    2 December 1942, just twenty-five years ago, is the date most often proclaimed as marking the beginning of the atomic age. On that day Enrico Fermi's atomic 'pile' went critical - man had achieved the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. This achievement is an outstanding example of how modern science can work. It had been predicted in theory, calculated in advance and finally realised through the work of large teams of scientists, headed by some of the most imaginative personalities of our century. The military aspects of man-made nuclear chain reaction still dominate our world today. However, within this quarter of a century, nuclear energy has also become significant as a source of power for peaceful purposes. By the end of another quarter of a century it will, according to the best forecasts we can make today, produce a major part of the electricity in the world. The control of nuclear fission was initiated by Fermi and his collaborators. It had a tremendous impact on politics, on concepts of warfare and finally on scientific progress for man's welfare. Fifteen years afterwards the International Atomic Energy Agency was created to promote the peaceful uses of the new technology and to assist in winning the advantages it offered for improving health and prosperity. Another of its great objects is to ensure, as far as possible, that nuclear materials intended for peaceful purposes shall not be diverted to military ends. The hope of the world must be that this, one day, will include all nuclear materials

  1. The effects of free-living interval-walking training on glycemic control, body composition, and physical fitness in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H; Nielsen, Jens S; Thomsen, Carsten; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control. Subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a control (n = 8), continuous-walking (n = 12), or interval-walking group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed five sessions per week (60 min/session) and were controlled with an accelerometer and a heart-rate monitor. Continuous walkers performed all training at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO(2)max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA(1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]). Training adherence was high (89 ± 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO(2)max increased 16.1 ± 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P Body mass and adiposity (fat mass and visceral fat) decreased in the interval-walking group only (P interval-walking group. The continuous walkers showed no changes in glycemic control. Free-living walking training is feasible in type 2 diabetic patients. Continuous walking offsets the deterioration in glycemia seen in the control group, and interval walking is superior to energy expenditure-matched continuous walking for improving physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.

  2. More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.

  3. Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included

  4. Minnesota Walk-In Access Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Minnesota Walk-In Access site (WIA) GIS data represents areas of private land that have been made open to the public for the purpose of walk-in (foot travel)...

  5. Beam Walking in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhead, Geoffrey D.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental test on beam walking (for balance), administered to 189 minimally brain injured and 226 educable mentally retarded (EMR) 8- to 13-year-old children, yielded results such as reliability estimates for the mean of three trials were high and there was greater performance reliability for EMR children. (MC)

  6. Successful Statewide Walking Program Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Bianca Maria; Hongu, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    Statewide Extension walking programs are making an effort to increase physical activity levels in America. An investigation of all 20 of these programs revealed that 14 use websites as marketing and educational tools, which could prove useful as the popularity of Internet communities continues to grow. Website usability information and an analysis…

  7. Constraining walking and custodial technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We show how to constrain the physical spectrum of walking technicolor models via precision measurements and modified Weinberg sum rules. We also study models possessing a custodial symmetry for the S parameter at the effective Lagrangian level-custodial technicolor-and argue that these models...

  8. Thermophoresis as persistent random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyukhin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    In a simple model of a continuous random walk a particle moves in one dimension with the velocity fluctuating between +v and -v. If v is associated with the thermal velocity of a Brownian particle and allowed to be position dependent, the model accounts readily for the particle's drift along the temperature gradient and recovers basic results of the conventional thermophoresis theory.

  9. Can a motivational intervention overcome an unsupportive environment for walking--findings from the Step-by-Step Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merom, Dafna; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Cerin, Ester; Kassis, Mazen; Brown, Wendy; Smith, Ben J; Rissel, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Interventions to promote walking have rarely examined how their effects varied by the attributes of the physical environment. The purpose of this study is to examine whether perceptions of environmental walkability predicted change in walking behavior following an individual-based intervention to promote walking and whether the intervention buffered the effects of unsupportive environment for walking. Inactive adults (aged 30-65 years, 85% women) who completed a 3-month randomized control trial comparing the effect of a single mail-out of a theoretically based self-help walking program (WP, n = 102); the same program plus a pedometer (WPP, n = 105); and a "no-treatment" control group (C, n = 107). Measures included change in self-reported walking time for all purposes and in the proportion of people reporting regular walking (i.e., > or =150 min/week and > or =5 sessions/wk). Perceptions of environmental esthetics, safety from crime, proximity to destinations, access to walking facilities, traffic, streetlights, connectivity, and hilliness were assessed at baseline and dichotomized into "low" or "high" by the median score. Covariates were social support, self-efficacy, intention to change behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics. Adjusting for baseline walking, significant covariates, and study groups, walking time at follow-up was lower if streetlights or esthetics were perceived to be "low" (-24% and -22%, respectively) compared with "high" (p environmental barriers for walking can be overcome by motivational aids.

  10. Treadmill walking with body weight support

    OpenAIRE

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitating walking in patients post-stroke with safe, task-specific, intensive training of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has been proposed as an effective method to meet these challenges and may therefore have benefits over training overground walking. However, walking characteristics should not be aggravated during BWSTT or require a long familiarisation time compared to overground walking. Objectives: To investi...

  11. Body weight-supported treadmill training vs. overground walking training for persons with chronic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Miller, Stephanie A; Kalpathi Parameswaran, Anu; Colburn, Dawn; Ertel, Tara; Harmeyer, Amanda; Tucker, Lindsay; Schmid, Arlene A

    2014-09-01

    To compare the effects of body weight-supported treadmill training and overground walking training when matched for task and dose (duration/frequency/intensity) on improving walking function, activity, and participation after stroke. Single-blind, pilot randomized controlled trial with three-month follow-up. University and community settings. A convenience sample of participants (N = 20) at least six months post-stroke and able to walk independently were recruited. Thirty-minute walking interventions (body weight-supported treadmill training or overground walking training) were administered five times a week for two weeks. Intensity was monitored with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale at five-minute increments to maintain a moderate training intensity. Walking speed (comfortable/fast 10-meter walk), walking endurance (6-minute walk), spatiotemporal symmetry, and the ICF Measure of Participation and ACTivity were assessed before, immediately after, and three months following the intervention. The overground walking training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comfortable walking speed compared with the body weight-supported treadmill training group immediately (change of 0.11 m/s vs. 0.06 m/s, respectively; p = 0.047) and three months (change of 0.14 m/s vs. 0.08 m/s, respectively; p = 0.029) after training. Only the overground walking training group significantly improved comfortable walking speed (p = 0.001), aspects of gait symmetry (p = 0.032), and activity (p = 0.003) immediately after training. Gains were maintained at the three-month follow-up (p training was more beneficial than body weight-supported treadmill training at improving self-selected walking speed for the participants in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithms using gait phase information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Shing; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Ho, Yu-Jen

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a walking pattern classification and a walking distance estimation algorithm using gait phase information. A gait phase information retrieval algorithm was developed to analyze the duration of the phases in a gait cycle (i.e., stance, push-off, swing, and heel-strike phases). Based on the gait phase information, a decision tree based on the relations between gait phases was constructed for classifying three different walking patterns (level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs). Gait phase information was also used for developing a walking distance estimation algorithm. The walking distance estimation algorithm consists of the processes of step count and step length estimation. The proposed walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithm have been validated by a series of experiments. The accuracy of the proposed walking pattern classification was 98.87%, 95.45%, and 95.00% for level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed walking distance estimation algorithm was 96.42% over a walking distance.

  13. KidsWalk-to-School: A Guide To Promote Walking to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.

    This guide encourages people to create safe walking and biking routes to school, promoting four issues: physically active travel, safe and walkable routes to school, crime prevention, and health environments. The chapters include: "KidsWalk-to-School: A Guide to Promote Walking to School" (Is there a solution? Why is walking to school important?…

  14. The use of random walk in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.

    1984-01-01

    Ferromagnetic spin systems and gauge theories where the gauge group is topologically a sphere, e.g. Z 2 , U(1) and SU(2) are related to the theory of random walk and random surfaces respectively. I survey some applications of this theme to the phi 4 field theories. (orig.)

  15. Development of independent walking in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    Surprisingly, despite millions of years of bipedal walking evolution, the gravity-related pendulum mechanism of walking does not seem to be implemented at the onset of independent walking, requiring each toddler to develop it. We discuss the precursor of the mature locomotor pattern in infants as an

  16. A reduced order model of a quadruped walking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Akihito; Furusho, Junji; Naganuma, Nobuyuki

    1990-01-01

    Trot walking has recently been studied by several groups because of its stability and realizability. In the trot, diagonally opposed legs form pairs. While one pair of legs provides support, the other pair of legs swings forward in preparation for the next step. In this paper, we propose a reduced order model for the trot walking. The reduced order model is derived by using two dominant modes of the closed loop system in which the local feedback at each joint is implemented. It is shown by numerical examples that the obtained reduced order model can well approximate the original higher order model. (author)

  17. The influence of gait speed on the stability of walking among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Han, Shuyan; Lv, Changsheng; Zhang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Walking speed is a basic factor to consider when walking exercises are prescribed as part of a training programme. Although associations between walking speed, step length and falling risk have been identified, the relationship between spontaneous walking pattern and falling risk remains unclear. The present study, therefore, examined the stability of spontaneous walking at normal, fast and slow speed among elderly (67.5±3.23) and young (21.4±1.31) individuals. In all, 55 participants undertook a test that involved walking on a plantar pressure platform. Foot-ground contact data were used to calculate walking speed, step length, pressure impulse along the plantar-impulse principal axis and pressure record of time series along the plantar-impulse principal axis. A forward dynamics method was used to calculate acceleration, velocity and displacement of the centre of mass in the vertical direction. The results showed that when the elderly walked at different speeds, their average step length was smaller than that observed among the young (p=0.000), whereas their anterior/posterior variability and lateral variability had no significant difference. When walking was performed at normal or slow speed, no significant between-group difference in cadence was found. When walking at a fast speed, the elderly increased their stride length moderately and their cadence greatly (p=0.012). In summary, the present study found no correlation between fast walking speed and instability among the elderly, which indicates that healthy elderly individuals might safely perform fast-speed walking exercises. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Walking Beliefs in Women With Fibromyalgia: Clinical Profile and Impact on Walking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Pastor, María-Ángeles; López-Roig, Sofía; Velasco, Lilian; Lledo, Ana

    2017-10-01

    Although exercise is essential for the treatment of fibromyalgia, adherence is low. Walking, as a form of physical exercise, has significant advantages. The aim of this article is to describe, in 920 women with fibromyalgia, the prevalence of certain walking beliefs and analyze their effects both on the walking behavior itself and on the associated symptoms when patients walk according to a clinically recommended way. The results highlight the high prevalence of beliefs related to pain and fatigue as walking-inhibitors. In the whole sample, beliefs are associated with an increased perception that comorbidity prevents walking, and with higher levels of pain and fatigue. In patients who walk regularly, beliefs are only associated with the perception that comorbidity prevents them from walking. It is necessary to promote walking according to the established way (including breaks to prevent fatigue) and to implement interventions on the most prevalent beliefs that inhibit walking.

  19. Prevalence of Walking-Related Motor Fatigue in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: Decline in Walking Distance Induced by the 6-Minute Walk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Carmela; Severijns, Deborah; Doležalová, Vendula; Baert, Ilse; Dalgas, Ulrik; Romberg, Anders; Bethoux, Francois; Gebara, Benoit; Santoyo Medina, Carmen; Maamâgi, Heigo; Rasova, Kamila; Maertens de Noordhout, Benoît; Knuts, Kathy; Skjerbaek, Anders; Jensen, Ellen; Wagner, Joanne M; Feys, Peter

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the individual occurrence of walking-related motor fatigue in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), according to disability level and disease phenotype.Study design This was a cross-sectional, multinational study.Participants They were 208 PwMS from 11 centers with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores up to 6.5. The percentage change in distance walked (distance walked index, DWI) was calculated between minute 6 and 1 (DWI(6-1)) of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Its magnitude was used to classify participants into 4 subgroups: (1) DWI(6-1)[≥5%], (2) DWI(6-1)[5%; -5%], (3) DWI(6-1)[-5%; > -15%], and (4) DWI(6-1)[≤-15%]. The latter group was labeled as having walking-related motor fatigue. PwMS were stratified into 5 subgroups based on the EDSS (0-2.5, 3-4, 4.5-5.5, 6, 6.5) and 3 subgroups based on MS phenotype (relapsing remitting [RR], primary progressive [PP], and secondary progressive [SP]). The DWI6-1was ≥5% in 16 PwMS (7.7%), between 5% and -5% in 70 PwMS (33.6%), between -5% and -15% in 58 PwMS (24%), and ≤-15% in 64 PwMS (30.8%). The prevalence of walking-related motor fatigue (DWI(6-1)[≤-15%]) was significantly higher among the progressive phenotype (PP = 50% and SP = 39%; RR = 15.6%) and PwMS with higher disability level (EDSS 4.5-5.5 = 48.3%, 6 = 46.3% and 6.5 = 51.5%, compared with EDSS 0-2.5 = 7.8% and 3-4 = 16.7%;P< .05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that EDSS, but not MS phenotype, explained a significant part of the variance in DWI(6-1)(R(2)= 0.086;P< .001). More than one-third of PwMS showed walking-related motor fatigue during the 6MWT, with its prevalence greatest in more disabled persons (up to 51%) and in those with progressive MS phenotype (up to 50%). Identification of walking-related motor fatigue may lead to better-tailored interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Virtual Reality Training with Cognitive Load Improves Walking Function in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ki Hun; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Lee, Wan Hee

    2015-08-01

    Virtual reality training is considered as an effective intervention method of stroke patients, and the virtual reality system for therapeutic rehabilitation has emphasized the cognitive factors to improve walking function. The purpose of current study was to investigate the effect of virtual reality training with cognitive load (VRTCL) on walking function of chronic stroke. Chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to the VRTCL group (11 patients, including 5 men; mean age, 60.0 years; post-stroke duration, 273.9 days) or control group (11 patients, including 2 men; mean age, 58.6 years; post-stroke duration, 263.9 days). All subjects participated in the standard rehabilitation program that consisted of physical and occupational therapies. In addition, VRTCL group participated in the VRTCL for 4 weeks (30 min per day and five times a week), while those in the control group participated in virtual reality treadmill training. Walking function under single (walking alone) and dual task (walking with cognitive tasks) conditions was assessed using an electrical walkway system. After the 4-week intervention, under both single and dual task conditions, significant improvement on walking function was observed in VRTCL and control groups (P < 0.05). In addition, in the dual task condition, greater improvement on walking function was observed in the VRTCL group, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated the efficacy of VRTCL on the walking function under the dual task condition. Therefore, we suggest that VRTCL may be an effective method for the achievement of independent walking in chronic stroke patients.

  1. Evaluation of the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking (Dogs PAW) Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Ogata, Niwako; Cheng, Ching-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance, promotion of innovative population-level strategies that focus on incorporating moderate-intensity lifestyle PAs are needed. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking intervention, a 3-month, social cognitive theory (SCT), e-mail-based PA intervention. In a longitudinal, repeated-measures design, 49 dog owners were randomly assigned to a control (n = 25) or intervention group (n = 24). The intervention group received e-mail messages (twice weekly for 4 weeks and weekly for 8 weeks) designed to influence SCT constructs of self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and expectancies, and social support. At baseline and every 3 months through 1 year, participants completed self-reported questionnaires of individual, interpersonal, and PA variables. Linear mixed models were used to assess for significant differences in weekly minutes of dog walking and theoretical constructs between groups (intervention and control) across time. To test self-efficacy as a mediator of social support for dog walking, tests for mediation were conducted using the bootstrapping technique. With the exception of Month 9, participants in the intervention group accumulated significantly more weekly minutes of dog walking than the control group. On average, the intervention group accumulated 58.4 more minutes (SD = 18.1) of weekly dog walking than the control group (p dog walking. Results indicate that a simple SCT-based e-mail intervention is effective in increasing and maintaining an increase in dog walking among dog owners at 12-month follow-up. In light of these findings, it may be advantageous to design dog walking interventions that focus on increasing self-efficacy for dog walking by fostering social support.

  2. Neighbourhood walkability, daily steps and utilitarian walking in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Ross, Nancy A; Joseph, Lawrence; Harper, Sam; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2015-11-24

    To estimate the associations of neighbourhood walkability (based on Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived measures of street connectivity, land use mix, and population density and the Walk Score) with self-reported utilitarian walking and accelerometer-assessed daily steps in Canadian adults. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). Home neighbourhoods (500 m polygonal street network buffers around the centroid of the participant's postal code) located in Atlantic Canada, Québec, Ontario, the Prairies and British Columbia. 5605 individuals participated in the survey. 3727 adults (≥18 years) completed a computer-assisted interview and attended a mobile clinic assessment. Analyses were based on those who had complete exposure, outcome and covariate data (n=2949). GIS-derived walkability (based on land use mix, street connectivity and population density); Walk Score. Self-reported utilitarian walking; accelerometer-assessed daily steps. No important relationship was observed between neighbourhood walkability and daily steps. Participants who reported more utilitarian walking, however, accumulated more steps (walkability and odds of walking ≥1 h/week for utilitarian purposes (eg, Q4 vs Q1 of GIS-derived walkability: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.11; Q3 vs Q1: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.76; Q2 vs Q1: OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.39) independent of age, sex, body mass index, married/common law status, annual household income, having children in the household, immigrant status, mood disorder, perceived health, ever smoker and season. Contrary to expectations, living in more walkable Canadian neighbourhoods was not associated with more total walking. Utilitarian walking and daily steps were, however, correlated and walkability demonstrated a positive graded relationship with utilitarian walking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  3. Effects of physical guidance on short-term learning of walking on a narrow beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Antoinette; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Physical guidance is often used in rehabilitation when teaching patients to re-learn movements. However, the effects of guidance on motor learning of complex skills, such as walking balance, are not clear. We tested four groups of healthy subjects that practiced walking on a narrow (1.27 cm) or wide (2.5 cm) treadmill-mounted balance beam, with or without physical guidance. Assistance was given by springs attached to a hip belt that applied restoring forces towards beam center. Subjects were evaluated while walking unassisted before and after training by calculating the number of times subjects stepped off of the beam per minute of successful walking on the beam (Failures per Minute). Subjects in Unassisted groups had greater performance improvements in walking balance from pre to post compared to subjects in Assisted groups. During training, Unassisted groups had more Failures per Minute than Assisted groups. Performance improvements were smaller in Narrow Beam groups than in Wide Beam groups. The Unassisted-Wide and Assisted-Narrow groups had similar Failures per Minute during training, but the Unassisted-Wide group had much greater performance gains after training. These results suggest that physical assistance can hinder motor learning of walking balance, assistance appears less detrimental for more difficult tasks, and task-specific dynamics are important to learning independent of error experience. PMID:19674900

  4. Effects of physical guidance on short-term learning of walking on a narrow beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Antoinette; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-11-01

    Physical guidance is often used in rehabilitation when teaching patients to re-learn movements. However, the effects of guidance on motor learning of complex skills, such as walking balance, are not clear. We tested four groups of healthy subjects that practiced walking on a narrow (1.27 cm) or wide (2.5 cm) treadmill-mounted balance beam, with or without physical guidance. Assistance was given by springs attached to a hip belt that applied restoring forces towards beam center. Subjects were evaluated while walking unassisted before and after training by calculating the number of times subjects stepped off of the beam per minute of successful walking on the beam (Failures per Minute). Subjects in Unassisted groups had greater performance improvements in walking balance from pre to post compared to subjects in Assisted groups. During training, Unassisted groups had more Failures per Minute than Assisted groups. Performance improvements were smaller in Narrow Beam groups than in Wide Beam groups. The Unassisted-Wide and Assisted-Narrow groups had similar Failures per Minute during training, but the Unassisted-Wide group had much greater performance gains after training. These results suggest that physical assistance can hinder motor learning of walking balance, assistance appears less detrimental for more difficult tasks, and task-specific dynamics are important to learning independent of error experience.

  5. Equivalence of Szegedy's and coined quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2017-09-01

    Szegedy's quantum walk is a quantization of a classical random walk or Markov chain, where the walk occurs on the edges of the bipartite double cover of the original graph. To search, one can simply quantize a Markov chain with absorbing vertices. Recently, Santos proposed two alternative search algorithms that instead utilize the sign-flip oracle in Grover's algorithm rather than absorbing vertices. In this paper, we show that these two algorithms are exactly equivalent to two algorithms involving coined quantum walks, which are walks on the vertices of the original graph with an internal degree of freedom. The first scheme is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with one walk step per query of Grover's oracle, and the second is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with two walk steps per query of Grover's oracle. These equivalences lie outside the previously known equivalence of Szegedy's quantum walk with absorbing vertices and the coined quantum walk with the negative identity operator as the coin for marked vertices, whose precise relationships we also investigate.

  6. Using Focus Groups in the Consumer Research Phase of a Social Marketing Program to Promote Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity and Walking Trail Use in Sumter County, South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer researc...

  7. Rhythmic walking interactions with auditory feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    of interactions based on varying the temporal characteristics of the output, using the sound of human walking as the input. The system either provides a direct synthesis of a walking sound based on the detected amplitude envelope of the user's footstep sounds, or provides a continuous synthetic walking sound...... as a stimulus for the walking human, either with a fixed tempo or a tempo adapting to the human gait. In a pilot experiment, the different interaction modes are studied with respect to their effect on the walking tempo and the experience of the subjects. The results tentatively outline different user profiles......Walking is a natural rhythmic activity that has become of interest as a means of interacting with software systems such as computer games. Therefore, designing multimodal walking interactions calls for further examination. This exploratory study presents a system capable of different kinds...

  8. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  9. Hypotensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Rodriguez1, Valter Silva2, Jonato Prestes3, Roberta Luksevicius Rica4, Andrey Jorge Serra5, Danilo Sales Bocalini6, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior71São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Physical Education of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; 3Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil; 4Department of Physical Education, Arbos College, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education and Laboratory of Rehabilitation Science, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 6Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 7School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women.Methods: Twenty-three untrained (n = 12 and trained (n = 11 normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions.Results: No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute. No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm] was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women. Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs

  10. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  11. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  12. Random walk through fractal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze random walk through fractal environments, embedded in 3-dimensional, permeable space. Particles travel freely and are scattered off into random directions when they hit the fractal. The statistical distribution of the flight increments (i.e. of the displacements between two consecutive hittings) is analytically derived from a common, practical definition of fractal dimension, and it turns out to approximate quite well a power-law in the case where the dimension D of the fractal is ...

  13. Object Study Walk. BLOK P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Huse

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available I would like to take you for a walk, around the housing complex Blok P in the centre of Nuuk, Greenland. I encourage you to move and listen, to smell and touch. In the presence of your evoked senses, linger for a moment; turn your face towards the past. Let us explore urban nostalgia, not as an either/or reactionary, speculative, radical, or future-oriented but as the organizing narrative of our shared journey.

  14. Displacement policy favoring the walk in the towns. Actions of european towns; Politiques de deplacement favorisant la marche a pied en ville. Actions de villes europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallar, J.P.; Wagenaar, D.

    2003-07-01

    Many towns in Europe began policies favoring the walk. By an evaluation of the actions realized, this study presents the results in four main topics: the planning, the organization, the communication and public information, the evaluation of the initiatives and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  15. Spin lattices of walking droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Pedro; Pucci, Giuseppe; Goujon, Alexis; Dunkel, Jorn; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the spontaneous emergence of collective behavior in spin lattice of droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath. The bottom topography consists of relatively deep circular wells that encourage the walking droplets to follow circular trajectories centered at the lattice sites, in one direction or the other. Wave-mediated interactions between neighboring drops are enabled through a thin fluid layer between the wells. The sense of rotation of the walking droplets may thus become globally coupled. When the coupling is sufficiently strong, interactions with neighboring droplets may result in switches in spin that lead to preferred global arrangements, including correlated (all drops rotating in the same direction) or anti-correlated (neighboring drops rotating in opposite directions) states. Analogies with ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism are drawn. Different spatial arrangements are presented in 1D and 2D lattices to illustrate the effects of topological frustration. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  16. Walking performance and muscle strength in the later stage poststroke: a nonlinear relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristiane; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Willén, Carin

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the relation between muscle strength in the lower extremities and walking performance (speed and distance) in subjects in the later stage poststroke and to compare this with normative data. A cross-sectional observational study. University hospital department. Subjects poststroke (n=41; 31 men, 10 women) with a mean age of 59±5.8 years and a time from stroke onset of 52±36 months were evaluated. An urban sample (n=144) of 40- to 79-year-olds (69 men, 75 women) formed the healthy reference group. Not applicable. Muscle strength in the lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer and combined into a strength index. Values for the 30-meter walk test for self-selected and maximum speed and the 6-minute walk test were measured. A nonlinear regression model was used. The average strength index was 730±309 in the subjects after stroke compared with 1112±362 in the healthy group. A nonlinear relation between walking performance and muscle strength was evident. The model explained 37% of the variance in self-selected speed in the stroke group and 20% in the healthy group, and 63% and 38%, respectively, in the maximum walking speed. For the 6-minute walk test, the model explained 44% of the variance in the stroke group. Subjects in the later stage poststroke were weaker than the healthy reference group, and their weakness was associated with walking performance. At the same strength index, subjects walked at lower speeds and shorter distances after stroke, indicating that there are multiple impairments that affect walking ability. Treatments focused on increasing muscle strength thus continue to hold promise. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia de Faria Santarém, G; de Cleva, R; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Bernhard, Aline Biaseto; Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andrea; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients. The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m) showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002) than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m). The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m) also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014) than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m). There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM), FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL), trunk (FFM_TR) and lower limbs (FFM_LL). Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.

  18. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    OpenAIRE

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2012-01-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of $k$ paths ($k$ is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, $k$ loop--erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped in a fashion a $k$--leg watermelon. For large distance $r$ between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as $r^{-\

  19. Knee flexor strength and balance control impairment may explain declines during prolonged walking in women with mild multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramari, Cintia; Moraes, Andréa G; Tauil, Carlos B; von Glehn, Felipe; Motl, Robert; de David, Ana C

    2018-02-01

    Physiological factors such as muscle weakness and balance could explain declines in walking distance by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize levels and examine associations among decline in walking distance, balance and muscular strength in women with mild MS. Participants included 28 women with mild relapsing-remitting MS and 21 women without MS. We executed the 6-min walk test (6MWT) to verify declines in walking distance. Isokinetic knee flexion (KF) and extension (KE) muscle strength was measured using a dynamometer. Balance was quantified using a force platform, with eyes open and closed, on a rigid and foam surface. The MS patients presented declines in walking, lower KF muscle strength, and worse balance than controls. KF strength and balance correlated with walking in the MS group. The KF strength explained differences between groups in walking. The KF strength and balance presented as predictors of walking slowing down in the 6MWT, in mild MS. Women with mild MS have strength impairment of knee flexor muscles and balance control impairment that may explain walking related motor fatigability during prolonged walking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Shared and task-specific muscle synergies of Nordic walking and conventional walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, G; Zoppirolli, C; Bortolan, L; Schena, F; Pellegrini, B

    2018-03-01

    Nordic walking is a form of walking that includes a poling action, and therefore an additional subtask, with respect to conventional walking. The aim of this study was to assess whether Nordic walking required a task-specific muscle coordination with respect to conventional walking. We compared the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 15 upper- and lower-limb muscles of 9 Nordic walking instructors, while executing Nordic walking and conventional walking at 1.3 ms -1 on a treadmill. Non-negative matrix factorization method was applied to identify muscle synergies, representing the spatial and temporal organization of muscle coordination. The number of muscle synergies was not different between Nordic walking (5.2 ± 0.4) and conventional walking (5.0 ± 0.7, P = .423). Five muscle synergies accounted for 91.2 ± 1.1% and 92.9 ± 1.2% of total EMG variance in Nordic walking and conventional walking, respectively. Similarity and cross-reconstruction analyses showed that 4 muscle synergies, mainly involving lower-limb and trunk muscles, are shared between Nordic walking and conventional walking. One synergy acting during upper limb propulsion is specific to Nordic walking, modifying the spatial organization and the magnitude of activation of upper limb muscles compared to conventional walking. The inclusion of the poling action in Nordic walking does not increase the complexity of movement control and does not change the coordination of lower limb muscles. This makes Nordic walking a physical activity suitable also for people with low motor skill. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2011-04-04

    There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity), socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education) and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas). In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage) and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  2. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  3. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Using wireless technology in clinical practice: does feedback of daily walking activity improve walking outcomes of individuals receiving rehabilitation post-stroke? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Regaining independent ambulation is the top priority for individuals recovering from stroke. Thus, physical rehabilitation post-stroke should focus on improving walking function and endurance. However, the amount of walking completed by individuals with stroke attending rehabilitation is far below that required for independent community ambulation. There has been increased interest in accelerometer-based monitoring of walking post-stroke. Walking monitoring could be integrated within the goal-setting process for those with ambulation goals in rehabilitation. The feedback from these devices can be downloaded to a computer to produce reports. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of accelerometer-based feedback of daily walking activity during rehabilitation on the frequency and duration of walking post-stroke. Methods Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: feedback or no feedback. Participants will wear accelerometers daily during in- and out-patient rehabilitation and, for participants in the feedback group, the participants’ treating physiotherapist will receive regular reports of walking activity. The primary outcome measures are the amount of daily walking completed, as measured using the accelerometers, and spatio-temporal characteristics of walking (e.g. walking speed). We will also examine goal attainment, satisfaction with progress towards goals, stroke self-efficacy, and community-integration. Discussion Increased walking activity during rehabilitation is expected to improve walking function and community re-integration following discharge. In addition, a focus on altering walking behaviour within the rehabilitation setting may lead to altered behaviour and increased activity patterns after discharge. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01521234 PMID:23865593

  5. Home-based walking during pregnancy affects mood and birth outcomes among sedentary women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Chie; Sato, Chifumi

    2016-10-01

    We examined the effects of home-based walking on sedentary Japanese women's pregnancy outcomes and mood. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, involving 118 women aged 22-36 years. Participants were randomly assigned to walking intervention (n = 60) or control (n = 58) groups. The walking group was instructed to walk briskly for 30 min, three times weekly from 30 weeks' gestation until delivery. Both groups counted their daily steps using pedometers. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were assessed, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, and we used the intention-to-treat principle. Groups showed no differences regarding pregnancy or delivery outcomes. The walking group exhibited decreased scores on the depression-dejection and confusion subscales of the Profile of Mood States. Five of the 54 women in the intervention group who remained in the study (9.2%) completed 100% of the prescribed walking program; 32 (59.3%) women completed 80% or more. Unsupervised walking improves sedentary pregnant women's mood, indicating that regular walking during pregnancy should be promoted in this group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Walk-Startup of a Two-Legged Walking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Krklješ, Damir; Borovac, Branislav

    There is a growing interest towards humanoid robots. One of their most important characteristic is the two-legged motion - walk. Starting and stopping of humanoid robots introduce substantial delays. In this paper, the goal is to explore the possibility of using a short unbalanced state of the biped robot to quickly gain speed and achieve the steady state velocity during a period shorter than half of the single support phase. The proposed method is verified by simulation. Maintainig a steady state, balanced gait is not considered in this paper.

  7. Walking and non-walking space in an equivalent virtual reality task: Sexual dimorphism and aging decline of spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascón, Laura; Castillo, Joaquín; León, Irene; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2018-07-16

    Spatial memory enables us to locate places and objects in space, to determine our position and manage spatial relationships in our environment. Our operations are displayed in a space that sometimes is inaccessible. In this case, the impossibility of movement within the context forces individuals to rely on the information gathered from limited viewpoints. This study investigates the use of walking and non-walking spaces using two equivalent virtual reality tasks in which displacement is only permitted in one of them. One hundred and fifty participants were divided into three age groups: 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 year-old subjects. The starting position changed pseudo-randomly and two difficulty levels were set, with one and three positions to be found. Results provided evidence for 70-79 year-old people impairment of their spatial abilities compared with 50-59 and 60-69 year-old groups. In both difficulty conditions, participants made more errors in the non-walking space than in the walking space. All participants showed an improvement in the last trials of the task. Moreover, sexual dimorphism was registered in the high level of difficulty, in which men outperformed women. This study supports the idea that aging impairs the organization of spatial representations of the environment, and that this aspect is more noticeable in conditions where displacement is limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Technology-related distracted walking behaviours in Manhattan's most dangerous intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Use of mobile devices has been cited as a distraction while driving, and more recently, among pedestrians crossing urban streets. In 2010, over half of New York City traffic fatalities were pedestrians. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of distracted walking due to pedestrians' use of headphones, mobile phones, or both. Data were gathered by direct observations at the 10 intersections in Manhattan with the highest frequency of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. More than 1 in 4 of the >3500 pedestrians observed were distracted by mobile electronic devices while crossing during the 'walk' (28.8%) and 'don't walk' (26.3%) signals. Poisson regression analyses established there was a significant difference in individuals talking on a mobile device during the 'walk' signal versus the 'don't walk' signal; however, no other significant differences in other distracted walking behaviours were observed. This study contributes to the emerging literature on distracted walking behaviour by pedestrians in busy urban areas and can help to inform pedestrian-focused safety efforts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Neighborhood Walkability and Walking for Transport Among South Asians in the MASALA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth A; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    The neighborhood built environment can have a strong influence on physical activity levels, particularly walking for transport. In examining racial/ethnic differences in physical activity, one important and understudied group is South Asians. This study aims to describe the association between neighborhood walkability and walking for transport among South Asian men and women in the United States in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using the baseline dataset of the MASALA study (N = 906). Mean age was 55 years old and 54% of the sample was male. Weekly minutes spent walking for transport was assessed using a questionnaire adapted from the Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Neighborhood walkability was measured using Walk Score, a composite index of walkability. After adjusting for covariates, with each 10-point increase in Walk Score, South Asian American men engaged in 13 additional minutes per week of walking for transport (P = .008). No association was observed between walkability and walking for transport in South Asian American women. Results provide new evidence for how the effects of environmental influences on walking for transport may vary between South Asian men and women.

  10. Task difficulty has no effect on haptic anchoring during tandem walking in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andréia Abud da Silva; Santos, Luciana Oliveira Dos; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2018-02-14

    This study assessed the contribution of the "anchor system's" haptic information to balance control during walking at two levels of difficulty. Seventeen young adults and seventeen older adults performed 20 randomized trials of tandem walking in a straight line, on level ground and on a slightly-raised balance beam, both with and without the use of the anchors. The anchor consists of two flexible cables, whose ends participants hold in each hand, to which weights (125 g) are attached at the opposing ends, and which rest on the ground. As the participants walk, they pull on the cables, dragging the anchors. Spatiotemporal gait variables (step speed and single- and double-support duration) were processed using retro-reflective markers on anatomical sites. An accelerometer positioned in the cervical region registered trunk acceleration. Walking on the balance beam increased single- and double-support duration and reduced step speed in older adults, which suggests that this condition was more difficult than walking on the level ground. The anchors reduced trunk acceleration in the frontal plane, but the level of difficulty of the walking task showed no effect. Thus, varying the difficulty of the task had no influence on the way in which participants used the anchor system while tandem walking. The older adults exhibited more difficulty in walking on the balance beam as compared to the younger adults; however, the effect of the anchor system was similar in both groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Routine physiotherapy does not induce a cardiorespiratory training effect post-stroke, regardless of walking ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuys, Suzanne; Brauer, Sandra; Ada, Louise

    2006-12-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is increasingly being recognized as an impairment requiring physiotherapy intervention after stroke. The present study seeks to investigate if routine physiotherapy treatment is capable of inducing a cardiorespiratory training effect and if stroke patients attending physiotherapy who are unable to walk experience less cardiorespiratory stress during physiotherapy when compared to those who are able to walk. A descriptive, observational study, with heart rate monitoring and video-recording of physiotherapy rehabilitation, was conducted. Thirty consecutive stroke patients from a geriatric and rehabilitation unit of a tertiary metropolitan hospital, admitted for rehabilitation, and requiring physiotherapy were included in the study. The main measures of the study were duration (time) and intensity (percentage of heart rate reserve) of standing and walking activities during physiotherapy rehabilitation for non-walking and walking stroke patients. Stroke patients spent an average of 21 minutes participating in standing and walking activities that were capable of inducing a cardiorespiratory training effect. Stroke patients who were able to walk spent longer in these activities during physiotherapy rehabilitation than non-walking stroke patients (p physiotherapy rehabilitation had insufficient duration and intensity to result in a cardiorespiratory training effect in our group of stroke patients.

  12. "Step by Step". A feasibility study of a lunchtime walking intervention designed to increase walking, improve mental well-being and work performance in sedentary employees: Rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Loughren, Elizabeth A; Duda, Joan L; Fox, Kenneth R; Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie

    2010-09-27

    Following an extensive recruitment campaign, a 16-week lunchtime intervention to increase walking was implemented with insufficiently physically active University employees to examine programme feasibility and the effects of the programme in increasing walking behaviour, and in improving well-being and work performance. A feasibility study in which participants were randomised to an immediate treatment or a delayed treatment control (to start at 10 weeks) group. For the first ten weeks of the intervention, participants took part in three facilitator-led group walks per week each of thirty minutes duration and were challenged to accumulate another sixty minutes of walking during the weekends. In the second phase of the intervention, the organised group walks ceased to be offered and participants were encouraged to self-organise their walks. Motivational principles were employed using contemporary motivational theory. Outcome measures (including self-reported walking, step counts, cardiovascular fitness, general and work-related well-being and work performance) were assessed at baseline, at the end of the 16-week intervention and (for some) four months after the end of the intervention. Process and outcome assessments were also taken throughout, and following, the intervention. The results of the intervention will determine the feasibility of implementing a lunchtime walking programme to increase walking behaviour, well-being and performance in sedentary employees. If successful, there is scope to implement definitive trials across a range of worksites with the aim of improving both employee and organisational health. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81504663.

  13. Interindividual differences in H reflex modulation during normal walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Alkjaer, T

    2002-01-01

    was greater for the S group. The hip joint moment was similar for the groups. The EMG activity in the vastus lateralis and anterior tibial muscles was greater prior to heel strike for the S group. These data indicate that human walking exhibits at least two different motor patterns as evaluated by gating...... of afferent input to the spinal cord, by EMG activity and by walking mechanics. Increasing H reflex excitability during the swing phase appears to protect the subject against unexpected perturbations around heel strike by a facilitated stretch reflex in the triceps surae muscle. Alternatively, in subjects...... with a suppressed H reflex in the swing phase the knee joint extensors seem to form the primary protection around heel strike....

  14. The effects of error augmentation on learning to walk on a narrow balance beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Antoinette; Ferris, Daniel P

    2010-10-01

    Error augmentation during training has been proposed as a means to facilitate motor learning due to the human nervous system's reliance on performance errors to shape motor commands. We studied the effects of error augmentation on short-term learning of walking on a balance beam to determine whether it had beneficial effects on motor performance. Four groups of able-bodied subjects walked on a treadmill-mounted balance beam (2.5-cm wide) before and after 30 min of training. During training, two groups walked on the beam with a destabilization device that augmented error (Medium and High Destabilization groups). A third group walked on a narrower beam (1.27-cm) to augment error (Narrow). The fourth group practiced walking on the 2.5-cm balance beam (Wide). Subjects in the Wide group had significantly greater improvements after training than the error augmentation groups. The High Destabilization group had significantly less performance gains than the Narrow group in spite of similar failures per minute during training. In a follow-up experiment, a fifth group of subjects (Assisted) practiced with a device that greatly reduced catastrophic errors (i.e., stepping off the beam) but maintained similar pelvic movement variability. Performance gains were significantly greater in the Wide group than the Assisted group, indicating that catastrophic errors were important for short-term learning. We conclude that increasing errors during practice via destabilization and a narrower balance beam did not improve short-term learning of beam walking. In addition, the presence of qualitatively catastrophic errors seems to improve short-term learning of walking balance.

  15. System overview and walking dynamics of a passive dynamic walking robot with flat feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “passive dynamic walking robot” refers to the robot that can walk down a shallow slope stably without any actuation and control which shows a limit cycle during walking. By adding actuation at some joints, the passive dynamic walking robot can walk stably on level ground and exhibit more versatile gaits than fully passive robot, namely, the “limit cycle walker.” In this article, we present the mechanical structures and control system design for a passive dynamic walking robot with series elastic actuators at hip joint and ankle joints. We built a walking model that consisted of an upper body, knee joints, and flat feet and derived its walking dynamics that involve double stance phases in a walking cycle based on virtual power principle. The instant just before impact was chosen as the start of one step to reduce the number of independent state variables. A numerical simulation was implemented by using MATLAB, in which the proposed passive dynamic walking model could walk stably down a shallow slope, which proves that the derived walking dynamics are correct. A physical passive robot prototype was built finally, and the experiment results show that by only simple control scheme the passive dynamic robot could walk stably on level ground.

  16. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients’ depression, sleep, and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder. PMID:26357429

  17. Quantum walk on a chimera graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu; Sun, Xiangxiang; Wu, Jizhou; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Arshed, Nigum; Sanders, Barry C.

    2018-05-01

    We analyse a continuous-time quantum walk on a chimera graph, which is a graph of choice for designing quantum annealers, and we discover beautiful quantum walk features such as localization that starkly distinguishes classical from quantum behaviour. Motivated by technological thrusts, we study continuous-time quantum walk on enhanced variants of the chimera graph and on diminished chimera graph with a random removal of vertices. We explain the quantum walk by constructing a generating set for a suitable subgroup of graph isomorphisms and corresponding symmetry operators that commute with the quantum walk Hamiltonian; the Hamiltonian and these symmetry operators provide a complete set of labels for the spectrum and the stationary states. Our quantum walk characterization of the chimera graph and its variants yields valuable insights into graphs used for designing quantum-annealers.

  18. Full revivals in 2D quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanak, M; Jex, I; Kollar, B; Kiss, T

    2010-01-01

    Recurrence of a random walk is described by the Polya number. For quantum walks, recurrence is understood as the return of the walker to the origin, rather than the full revival of its quantum state. Localization for two-dimensional quantum walks is known to exist in the sense of non-vanishing probability distribution in the asymptotic limit. We show, on the example of the 2D Grover walk, that one can exploit the effect of localization to construct stationary solutions. Moreover, we find full revivals of a quantum state with a period of two steps. We prove that there cannot be longer cycles for a four-state quantum walk. Stationary states and revivals result from interference, which has no counterpart in classical random walks.

  19. Can psychology walk the walk of open science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bradford W

    2018-01-01

    An "open science movement" is gaining traction across many disciplines within the research enterprise but is also precipitating consternation among those who worry that too much disruption may be hampering professional productivity. Despite this disruption, proponents of open data collaboration have argued that some of the biggest problems of the 21st century need to be solved with the help of many people and that data sharing will be the necessary engine to make that happen. In the United States, a national strategic plan for data sharing encouraged the federally funded scientific agencies to (a) publish open data for community use in discoverable, machine-readable, and useful ways; (b) work with public and civil society organizations to set priorities for data to be shared; (c) support innovation and feedback on open data solutions; and (d) continue efforts to release and enhance high-priority data sets funded by taxpayer dollars. One of the more visible open data projects in the psychological sciences is the presidentially announced "Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies" (BRAIN) initiative. Lessons learned from initiatives such as these are instructive both from the perspective of open science within psychology and from the perspective of understanding the psychology of open science. Recommendations for creating better pathways to "walk the walk" in open science include (a) nurturing innovation and agile learning, (b) thinking outside the paradigm, (c) creating simplicity from complexity, and (d) participating in continuous learning evidence platforms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Self-paced versus fixed speed walking and the effect of virtual reality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloot, Lizeth H; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Krogt, Marjolein M

    2015-10-01

    While feedback-controlled treadmills with a virtual reality could potentially offer advantages for clinical gait analysis and training, the effect of self-paced walking and the virtual environment on the gait pattern of children and different patient groups remains unknown. This study examined the effect of self-paced (SP) versus fixed speed (FS) walking and of walking with and without a virtual reality (VR) in 11 typically developing (TD) children and nine children with cerebral palsy (CP). We found that subjects walked in SP mode with twice as much between-stride walking speed variability (pinteraction effects between SP and group (TD versus CP) were found for five out of 33 parameters. This suggests that children with CP might need more time to familiarize to SP walking, however, these differences were generally too small to be clinically relevant. The VR environment did not affect the kinematic or kinetic parameters, but walking with VR was rated as more similar to overground walking by both groups (p=0.02). The results of this study indicate that both SP and FS walking, with and without VR, can be used interchangeably for treadmill-based clinical gait analysis in children with and without CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum Walks for Computer Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Quantum computation, one of the latest joint ventures between physics and the theory of computation, is a scientific field whose main goals include the development of hardware and algorithms based on the quantum mechanical properties of those physical systems used to implement such algorithms. Solving difficult tasks (for example, the Satisfiability Problem and other NP-complete problems) requires the development of sophisticated algorithms, many of which employ stochastic processes as their mathematical basis. Discrete random walks are a popular choice among those stochastic processes. Inspir

  2. Lively quantum walks on cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, Przemysław; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Ostaszewski, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a family of quantum walks on cycles parametrized by their liveliness, defined by the ability to execute a long-range move. We investigate the behaviour of the probability distribution and time-averaged probability distribution. We show that the liveliness parameter, controlling the magnitude of the additional long-range move, has a direct impact on the periodicity of the limiting distribution. We also show that the introduced model provides a method for network exploration which is robust against trapping. (paper)

  3. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T

    2015-12-01

    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  4. Thermodynamics and entanglements of walks under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J; Orlandini, E; Tesi, M C; Whittington, S G

    2009-01-01

    We use rigorous arguments and Monte Carlo simulations to study the thermodynamics and the topological properties of self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice subjected to an external force f. The walks are anchored at one or both endpoints to an impenetrable plane at Z = 0 and the force is applied in the Z-direction. If a force is applied to the free endpoint of an anchored walk, then a model of pulled walks is obtained. If the walk is confined to a slab and a force is applied to the top bounding plane, then a model of stretched walks is obtained. For both models we prove the existence of the limiting free energy for any value of the force and we show that, for compressive forces, the thermodynamic properties of the two models differ substantially. For pulled walks we prove the existence of a phase transition that, by numerical simulation, we estimate to be second order and located at f = 0. By using a pattern theorem for large positive forces we show that almost all sufficiently long stretched walks are knotted. We examine the entanglement complexity of stretched and pulled walks; our numerical results show a sharp reduction with increasing pulling and stretching forces. Finally, we also examine models of pulled and stretched loops. We prove the existence of limiting free energies in these models and consider the knot probability numerically as a function of the applied pulling or stretching force

  5. Motor modules in robot-aided walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizzi Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that locomotion is achieved by means of rhythm generating networks (central pattern generators and muscle activation generating networks. This modular organization can be partly identified from the analysis of the muscular activity by means of factorization algorithms. The activity of rhythm generating networks is described by activation signals whilst the muscle intervention generating network is represented by motor modules (muscle synergies. In this study, we extend the analysis of modular organization of walking to the case of robot-aided locomotion, at varying speed and body weight support level. Methods Non Negative Matrix Factorization was applied on surface electromyographic signals of 8 lower limb muscles of healthy subjects walking in gait robotic trainer at different walking velocities (1 to 3km/h and levels of body weight support (0 to 30%. Results The muscular activity of volunteers could be described by low dimensionality (4 modules, as for overground walking. Moreover, the activation signals during robot-aided walking were bursts of activation timed at specific phases of the gait cycle, underlying an impulsive controller, as also observed in overground walking. This modular organization was consistent across the investigated speeds, body weight support level, and subjects. Conclusions These results indicate that walking in a Lokomat robotic trainer is achieved by similar motor modules and activation signals as overground walking and thus supports the use of robotic training for re-establishing natural walking patterns.

  6. Locally Perturbed Random Walks with Unbounded Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Paulin, Daniel; Szász, Domokos

    2010-01-01

    In \\cite{SzT}, D. Sz\\'asz and A. Telcs have shown that for the diffusively scaled, simple symmetric random walk, weak convergence to the Brownian motion holds even in the case of local impurities if $d \\ge 2$. The extension of their result to finite range random walks is straightforward. Here, however, we are interested in the situation when the random walk has unbounded range. Concretely we generalize the statement of \\cite{SzT} to unbounded random walks whose jump distribution belongs to th...

  7. Efficient quantum circuit implementation of quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, B. L.; Wang, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum walks, being the quantum analog of classical random walks, are expected to provide a fruitful source of quantum algorithms. A few such algorithms have already been developed, including the 'glued trees' algorithm, which provides an exponential speedup over classical methods, relative to a particular quantum oracle. Here, we discuss the possibility of a quantum walk algorithm yielding such an exponential speedup over possible classical algorithms, without the use of an oracle. We provide examples of some highly symmetric graphs on which efficient quantum circuits implementing quantum walks can be constructed and discuss potential applications to quantum search for marked vertices along these graphs.

  8. Assessing Walking Strategies Using Insole Pressure Sensors for Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Organero, Mario; Parker, Jack; Powell, Lauren; Mawson, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Insole pressure sensors capture the different forces exercised over the different parts of the sole when performing tasks standing up such as walking. Using data analysis and machine learning techniques, common patterns and strategies from different users to achieve different tasks can be automatically extracted. In this paper, we present the results obtained for the automatic detection of different strategies used by stroke survivors when walking as integrated into an Information Communication Technology (ICT) enhanced Personalised Self-Management Rehabilitation System (PSMrS) for stroke rehabilitation. Fourteen stroke survivors and 10 healthy controls have participated in the experiment by walking six times a distance from chair to chair of approximately 10 m long. The Rivermead Mobility Index was used to assess the functional ability of each individual in the stroke survivor group. Several walking strategies are studied based on data gathered from insole pressure sensors and patterns found in stroke survivor patients are compared with average patterns found in healthy control users. A mechanism to automatically estimate a mobility index based on the similarity of the pressure patterns to a stereotyped stride is also used. Both data gathered from stroke survivors and healthy controls are used to evaluate the proposed mechanisms. The output of trained algorithms is applied to the PSMrS system to provide feedback on gait quality enabling stroke survivors to self-manage their rehabilitation.

  9. Assessing Walking Strategies Using Insole Pressure Sensors for Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Munoz-Organero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Insole pressure sensors capture the different forces exercised over the different parts of the sole when performing tasks standing up such as walking. Using data analysis and machine learning techniques, common patterns and strategies from different users to achieve different tasks can be automatically extracted. In this paper, we present the results obtained for the automatic detection of different strategies used by stroke survivors when walking as integrated into an Information Communication Technology (ICT enhanced Personalised Self-Management Rehabilitation System (PSMrS for stroke rehabilitation. Fourteen stroke survivors and 10 healthy controls have participated in the experiment by walking six times a distance from chair to chair of approximately 10 m long. The Rivermead Mobility Index was used to assess the functional ability of each individual in the stroke survivor group. Several walking strategies are studied based on data gathered from insole pressure sensors and patterns found in stroke survivor patients are compared with average patterns found in healthy control users. A mechanism to automatically estimate a mobility index based on the similarity of the pressure patterns to a stereotyped stride is also used. Both data gathered from stroke survivors and healthy controls are used to evaluate the proposed mechanisms. The output of trained algorithms is applied to the PSMrS system to provide feedback on gait quality enabling stroke survivors to self-manage their rehabilitation.

  10. Characteristics associated with US Walk to School programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelon Brian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Participation in Walk to School (WTS programs has grown substantially in the US since its inception; however, no attempt has been made to systematically describe program use or factors associated with implementation of environment/policy changes. Objective Describe the characteristics of schools' WTS programs by level of implementation. Methods Representatives from 450 schools from 42 states completed a survey about their WTS program's infrastructure and activities, and perceived impact on walking to school. Level of implementation was determined from a single question to which respondents reported participation in WTS Day only (low, WTS Day and additional programs (medium, or making policy/environmental change (high. Results The final model showed number of community groups involved was positively associated with higher level of implementation (OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.44, 2.18, as was funding (OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.26, 1.92, years of participation (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.23, 1.70, and use of a walkability assessment (OR = 3.22, 95%CI = 1.84, 5.64. Implementation level was modestly associated with increased walking (r = 0.18. Conclusion Strong community involvement, some funding, repeat participation, and environmental audits are associated with progms that adopt environmental/policy change, and seem to facilitate walking to school.

  11. The effectiveness of body weight-supported gait training and floor walking in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Tarkka, Ina M; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani

    2005-08-01

    To compare body weight-supported exercise on a gait trainer with walking exercise overground. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation hospital. Forty-five ambulatory patients with chronic stroke. Patients were randomized to 3 groups: (1) gait trainer exercise with functional electric stimulation (GTstim), (2) gait trainer exercise without stimulation (GT), and (3) walking overground (WALK). All patients practiced gait for 15 sessions during 3 weeks (each session, 20 min), and they received additional physiotherapy 55 minutes daily. Ten-meter walk test (10MWT), six-minute walk test (6MWT), lower-limb spasticity and muscle force, postural sway tests, Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), and FIM instrument scores were recorded before, during, and after the rehabilitation and at 6 months follow-up. The mean walking distance using the gait trainer was 6900+/-1200 m in the GTstim group and 6500+/-1700 m in GT group. In the WALK group, the distance was 4800+/-2800 m, which was less than the walking distance obtained in the GTstim group (P=.027). The body-weight support was individually reduced from 30% to 9% of the body weight over the course of the program. In the pooled 45 patients, the 10MWT (Pgait after the intensive rehabilitation program. Patients' motor performance remained improved at the follow-up.

  12. Association of regular walking and body mass index on metabolic syndrome among an elderly Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonyoung; Kim, Dong-Il

    2018-06-01

    Aging is associated with increased body fat and lower lean body mass, which leads to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the association of regular participation in walking and body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome and its 5 criteria in elderly Koreans. A total of 3554 (male = 1581, female = 1973) elderly subjects (age ≥ 65 years), who participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Participation in walking activity, BMI, metabolic syndrome and its 5 criteria; waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels, were measured. Subjects were categorized into four groups based on the duration and regularity of their walks and BMI. In the regular walking (≥30 min of continuous walking a day, on ≥5 days a week) and normal weight (BMI metabolic syndrome was 4.36 times higher (Odds ratio [OR]: 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37-5.63) in the non-regular walking and overweight group than that of the regular walking and normal weight group after controlling for the influence of age, sex, and smoking status. Moreover, The BMI (β = 0.328, R 2  = 0.152) were more contributing factors than Regular walking (β = -0.011) for metabolic syndrome. In conclusions, regular participation in walking activity and implementing weight control may reduce the incidence rate of metabolic syndrome in elderly Koreans, with weight management serving as the greater influences of the two. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Spatial search by quantum walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Andrew M.; Goldstone, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Grover's quantum search algorithm provides a way to speed up combinatorial search, but is not directly applicable to searching a physical database. Nevertheless, Aaronson and Ambainis showed that a database of N items laid out in d spatial dimensions can be searched in time of order √(N) for d>2, and in time of order √(N) poly(log N) for d=2. We consider an alternative search algorithm based on a continuous-time quantum walk on a graph. The case of the complete graph gives the continuous-time search algorithm of Farhi and Gutmann, and other previously known results can be used to show that √(N) speedup can also be achieved on the hypercube. We show that full √(N) speedup can be achieved on a d-dimensional periodic lattice for d>4. In d=4, the quantum walk search algorithm takes time of order √(N) poly(log N), and in d<4, the algorithm does not provide substantial speedup

  14. Interlimb coordination during forward walking is largely preserved in backward walking in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyns, P.; Molenaers, G.; Desloovere, K.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Limb kinematics in backward walking (BW) are essentially those of forward walking (FW) in reverse. It has been argued that subcortical mechanisms could underlie both walking modes. METHODS: Therefore, we tested whether participants with supraspinal/cortical deficits (i.e. cerebral palsy)

  15. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Schipperijn, Jasper; Conway, Terry L; Frank, Lawrence D; Chapman, Jim E; Glanz, Karen; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2015-03-01

    To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time. Residential density was positively related to walking. Increasing walking in youth could be effective in increasing total physical activity. Built environment findings suggest potential for increasing walking in youth through improving neighborhood walkability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Barriers and motivators for owners walking their dog: results from qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutt, Hayley E; Giles-Corti, Billie; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew W; Burke, Valerie

    2008-08-01

    This qualitative research explored the relationship between dog ownership and dog-related, social environmental and physical environmental factors associated with walking with a dog. Seven focus groups with dog owners (n=51) were conducted. A pre-determined discussion guide was used and transcripts were analysed as group data, using content analysis to identify common themes. Many of the physical environmental barriers and facilitators that influenced dog owners to walk were similar to those found in the literature for general walking. However, a number of key motivators for walking, specific to dog owners, were identified. Dog owners reported that their dog was a strong source of motivation, companionship and social support that encouraged them to walk with their dog. The availability and accessibility of public open space (POS) for dogs and the provision of dog-related infrastructure within POS were also important environmental factors that affected whether owners walked with their dog. Results from this qualitative study were used to develop the Dogs and Physical Activity (DAPA) tool which is now being used to measure the walking behaviour of dog owners.

  17. Does moderate-to-high intensity Nordic walking improve functional capacity and pain in fibromyalgia? A prospective randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Nordeman, Lena; Cider, ?sa; Jonsson, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate-to-high intensity Nordic walking (NW) on functional capacity and pain in fibromyalgia (FM). Methods A total of 67 women with FM were recruited to the study and randomized either to moderate-to-high intensity Nordic Walking (n = 34, age 48 ? 7.8 years) or to a control group engaging in supervised low-intensity walking (LIW, n = 33, age 50 ? 7.6 years). Primary outcomes were the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and t...

  18. Walking Ahead: The Headed Social Force Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Farina

    Full Text Available Human motion models are finding an increasing number of novel applications in many different fields, such as building design, computer graphics and robot motion planning. The Social Force Model is one of the most popular alternatives to describe the motion of pedestrians. By resorting to a physical analogy, individuals are assimilated to point-wise particles subject to social forces which drive their dynamics. Such a model implicitly assumes that humans move isotropically. On the contrary, empirical evidence shows that people do have a preferred direction of motion, walking forward most of the time. Lateral motions are observed only in specific circumstances, such as when navigating in overcrowded environments or avoiding unexpected obstacles. In this paper, the Headed Social Force Model is introduced in order to improve the realism of the trajectories generated by the classical Social Force Model. The key feature of the proposed approach is the inclusion of the pedestrians' heading into the dynamic model used to describe the motion of each individual. The force and torque representing the model inputs are computed as suitable functions of the force terms resulting from the traditional Social Force Model. Moreover, a new force contribution is introduced in order to model the behavior of people walking together as a single group. The proposed model features high versatility, being able to reproduce both the unicycle-like trajectories typical of people moving in open spaces and the point-wise motion patterns occurring in high density scenarios. Extensive numerical simulations show an increased regularity of the resulting trajectories and confirm a general improvement of the model realism.

  19. Risk of falls in older people during fast-walking--the TASCOG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisaya, M L; Blizzard, L; McGinley, J L; Srikanth, V K

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between fast-walking and falls in older people. Individuals aged 60-86 years were randomly selected from the electoral roll (n=176). Gait speed, step length, cadence and a walk ratio were recorded during preferred- and fast-walking using an instrumented walkway. Falls were recorded prospectively over 12 months. Log multinomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk of single and multiple falls associated with gait variables during fast-walking and change between preferred- and fast-walking. Covariates included age, sex, mood, physical activity, sensorimotor and cognitive measures. The risk of multiple falls was increased for those with a smaller walk ratio (shorter steps, faster cadence) during fast-walking (RR 0.92, CI 0.87, 0.97) and greater reduction in the walk ratio (smaller increase in step length, larger increase in cadence) when changing to fast-walking (RR 0.73, CI 0.63, 0.85). These gait patterns were associated with poorer physiological and cognitive function (prisk of multiple falls was also seen for those in the fastest quarter of gait speed (p=0.01) at fast-walking. A trend for better reaction time, balance, memory and physical activity for higher categories of gait speed was stronger for fallers than non-fallers (prisk of multiple falls. There may be two distinct groups at risk--the frail person with short shuffling steps, and the healthy person exposed to greater risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the metabolic energy cost of overground and treadmill walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Gayda, Mathieu; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Bherer, Louis; Bosquet, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    We assessed whether the metabolic energy cost of walking was higher when measured overground or on a treadmill in a population of healthy older adults. We also assessed the association between the two testing modes. Participants (n = 20, 14 men and 6 women aged between 65 and 83 years of age) were randomly divided into two groups. Half of them went through the overground-treadmill sequence while the other half did the opposite order. A familiarization visit was held for each participant prior to the actual testing. For both modes of testing, five walking speeds were experimented (0.67, 0.89, 1.11, 1.33 and 1.67 m s(-1)). Oxygen uptake was monitored for all walking speeds. We found a significant difference between treadmill and track metabolic energy cost of walking, whatever the walking speed. The results show that walking on the treadmill requires more metabolic energy than walking overground for all experimental speeds (P < 0.05). The association between both measures was low to moderate (0.17 < ICC < 0.65), and the standard error of measurement represented 6.9-15.7% of the average value. These data indicate that metabolic energy cost of walking results from a treadmill test does not necessarily apply in daily overground activities. Interventions aiming at reducing the metabolic energy cost of walking should be assessed with the same mode as it was proposed during the intervention. If the treadmill mode is necessary for any purposes, functional overground walking tests should be implemented to obtain a more complete and specific evaluation.

  1. Walking execution is not affected by divided attention in patients with multiple sclerosis with no disability, but there is a motor planning impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans; Santos, Luciano Teixeira Dos; Sabino, Pollyane Galinari; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2013-08-01

    We analysed the cognitive influence on walking in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in the absence of clinical disability. A case-control study was conducted with 12 MS patients with no disability and 12 matched healthy controls. Subjects were referred for completion a timed walk test of 10 m and a 3D-kinematic analysis. Participants were instructed to walk at a comfortable speed in a dual-task (arithmetic task) condition, and motor planning was measured by mental chronometry. Scores of walking speed and cadence showed no statistically significant differences between the groups in the three conditions. The dual-task condition showed an increase in the double support duration in both groups. Motor imagery analysis showed statistically significant differences between real and imagined walking in patients. MS patients with no disability did not show any influence of divided attention on walking execution. However, motor planning was overestimated as compared with real walking.

  2. Human-like Walking with Compliant Legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.C.; de Geus, Wouter; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach to robotic bipedal walking. Based on the bipedal spring-mass model, which is known to closely describe human-like walking behavior, a robot has been designed that approaches the ideal model as closely as possible. The compliance of the springs is controllable by

  3. Rhythmic walking interaction with auditory feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maculewicz, Justyna; Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We present an interactive auditory display for walking with sinusoidal tones or ecological, physically-based synthetic walking sounds. The feedback is either step-based or rhythmic, with constant or adaptive tempo. In a tempo-following experiment, we investigate different interaction modes...

  4. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and youth…

  5. Non-Markovian decoherent quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Peng; Zhang Yong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantum walks act in obviously different ways from their classical counterparts, but decoherence will lessen and close this gap between them. To understand this process, it is necessary to investigate the evolution of quantum walks under different decoherence situations. In this article, we study a non-Markovian decoherent quantum walk on a line. In a short time regime, the behavior of the walk deviates from both ideal quantum walks and classical random walks. The position variance as a measure of the quantum walk collapses and revives for a short time, and tends to have a linear relation with time. That is, the walker's behavior shows a diffusive spread over a long time limit, which is caused by non-Markovian dephasing affecting the quantum correlations between the quantum walker and his coin. We also study both quantum discord and measurement-induced disturbance as measures of the quantum correlations, and observe both collapse and revival in the short time regime, and the tendency to be zero in the long time limit. Therefore, quantum walks with non-Markovian decoherence tend to have diffusive spreading behavior over long time limits, while in the short time regime they oscillate between ballistic and diffusive spreading behavior, and the quantum correlation collapses and revives due to the memory effect

  6. Cognitive Resource Demands of Redirected Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerd; Lubas, Paul; Steinicke, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Redirected walking allows users to walk through a large-scale immersive virtual environment (IVE) while physically remaining in a reasonably small workspace. Therefore, manipulations are applied to virtual camera motions so that the user's self-motion in the virtual world differs from movements in the real world. Previous work found that the human perceptual system tolerates a certain amount of inconsistency between proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensation in IVEs, and even compensates for slight discrepancies with recalibrated motor commands. Experiments showed that users are not able to detect an inconsistency if their physical path is bent with a radius of at least 22 meters during virtual straightforward movements. If redirected walking is applied in a smaller workspace, manipulations become noticeable, but users are still able to move through a potentially infinitely large virtual world by walking. For this semi-natural form of locomotion, the question arises if such manipulations impose cognitive demands on the user, which may compete with other tasks in IVEs for finite cognitive resources. In this article we present an experiment in which we analyze the mutual influence between redirected walking and verbal as well as spatial working memory tasks using a dual-tasking method. The results show an influence of redirected walking on verbal as well as spatial working memory tasks, and we also found an effect of cognitive tasks on walking behavior. We discuss the implications and provide guidelines for using redirected walking in virtual reality laboratories.

  7. Random Walks with Anti-Correlated Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dirk; Noga, John

    2005-01-01

    We conjecture the expected value of random walks with anti-correlated steps to be exactly 1. We support this conjecture with 2 plausibility arguments and experimental data. The experimental analysis includes the computation of the expected values of random walks for steps up to 22. The result shows the expected value asymptotically converging to 1.

  8. Brownian Optimal Stopping and Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberton, D.

    2002-01-01

    One way to compute the value function of an optimal stopping problem along Brownian paths consists of approximating Brownian motion by a random walk. We derive error estimates for this type of approximation under various assumptions on the distribution of the approximating random walk

  9. Hopeless love and other lattice walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, Koos; Swart, David; Séquin, Carlo H.; Fenyvesi, Kristóf

    The Hopeless Love theme arose from observations about chess bishops and their walks on the chessboard. In chess, there are two types of bishops: one confined to the white squares and the other to the black squares. If two bishops of opposite type fall in love, then they can walk around each other,

  10. Identifying particular places through experimental walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schultz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental walking can be used to identify particular places, design strategies and spatial visions for urban landscapes. Walking designers can explore sites and, in particular, their temporal dynamics and atmospheric particularities – both essential elements in making particular places. This article illustrates the benefits of this method, using the changing German city of Freiburg as an example.

  11. The environmental benefits of bicycling and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Bicycling and walking are the two major non-fuel-consuming, non-polluting : forms of transportation in the United States. Millions of Americans ride : bicycles and/or walk for a wide variety of purposes --- commuting to work, as : part of their job, ...

  12. On reflexivity of random walks in a random environment on a metric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozikov, U.A.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, we consider random walks in random environments on a countable metric space when jumps of the walks of the fractions are finite. The transfer probabilities of the random walk from x is an element of G (where G is the considering metric space) are defined by vector p(x) is an element of R k , k>1, where {p(x), x is an element of G} is the set of independent and indentically distributed random vectors. For the random walk, a sufficient condition of nonreflexivity is obtained. Examples for metric spaces Z d free groups and free product of finite numbers cyclic groups of the second order and some other metric spaces are considered. (author)

  13. A gait stability investigation into FES-assisted paraplegic walking based on the walker tipping index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Dong; Bai, Yanru; Liu, Xiuyun; Qi, Hongzhi; Cheng, Longlong; Wan, Baikun; Hu, Yong; Wong, Yatwa; Luk, Keith D K; Leong, John C Y

    2009-12-01

    The gait outcome measures used in clinical trials of paraplegic locomotor training determine the effectiveness of improved walking function assisted by the functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. Focused on kinematic, kinetic or physiological changes of paraplegic patients, traditional methods cannot quantify the walking stability or identify the unstable factors of gait in real time. Up until now, the published studies on dynamic gait stability for the effective use of FES have been limited. In this paper, the walker tipping index (WTI) was used to analyze and process gait stability in FES-assisted paraplegic walking. The main instrument was a specialized walker dynamometer system based on a multi-channel strain-gauge bridge network fixed on the frame of the walker. This system collected force information for the handle reaction vector between the patient's upper extremities and the walker during the walking process; the information was then converted into walker tipping index data, which is an evaluation indicator of the patient's walking stability. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of WTI in gait analysis, a preliminary clinical trial was conducted with seven paraplegic patients who were undergoing FES-assisted walking training and seven normal control subjects. The gait stability levels were quantified for these patients under different stimulation patterns and controls under normal walking with knee-immobilization through WTI analysis. The results showed that the walking stability in the FES-assisted paraplegic group was worse than that in the control subject group, with the primary concern being in the anterior-posterior plane. This new technique is practical for distinguishing useful gait information from the viewpoint of stability, and may be further applied in FES-assisted paraplegic walking rehabilitation.

  14. A gait stability investigation into FES-assisted paraplegic walking based on the walker tipping index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Dong; Bai, Yanru; Liu, Xiuyun; Qi, Hongzhi; Cheng, Longlong; Wan, Baikun; Hu, Yong; Wong, Yatwa; Luk, Keith D. K.; Leong, John C. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The gait outcome measures used in clinical trials of paraplegic locomotor training determine the effectiveness of improved walking function assisted by the functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. Focused on kinematic, kinetic or physiological changes of paraplegic patients, traditional methods cannot quantify the walking stability or identify the unstable factors of gait in real time. Up until now, the published studies on dynamic gait stability for the effective use of FES have been limited. In this paper, the walker tipping index (WTI) was used to analyze and process gait stability in FES-assisted paraplegic walking. The main instrument was a specialized walker dynamometer system based on a multi-channel strain-gauge bridge network fixed on the frame of the walker. This system collected force information for the handle reaction vector between the patient's upper extremities and the walker during the walking process; the information was then converted into walker tipping index data, which is an evaluation indicator of the patient's walking stability. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of WTI in gait analysis, a preliminary clinical trial was conducted with seven paraplegic patients who were undergoing FES-assisted walking training and seven normal control subjects. The gait stability levels were quantified for these patients under different stimulation patterns and controls under normal walking with knee-immobilization through WTI analysis. The results showed that the walking stability in the FES-assisted paraplegic group was worse than that in the control subject group, with the primary concern being in the anterior-posterior plane. This new technique is practical for distinguishing useful gait information from the viewpoint of stability, and may be further applied in FES-assisted paraplegic walking rehabilitation.

  15. Walking in Place Through Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Immersive virtual reality (IVR) is seemingly on the verge of entering the homes of consumers. Enabling users to walk through virtual worlds in a limited physical space presents a challenge. With an outset in a taxonomy of virtual travel techniques, we argue that Walking-in-Place (WIP) techniques...... constitute a promising approach to virtual walking in relation to consumer IVR. Subsequently we review existing approaches to WIP locomotion and highlight the need for a more explicit focus on the perceived naturalness of WIP techniques; i.e., the degree to which WIP locomotion feels like real walking....... Finally, we summarize work we have performed in order to produce more natural WIP locomotion and present unexplored topics which need to be address if WIP techniques are to provide perceptually natural walking experiences....

  16. Quantum walk with one variable absorbing boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feiran; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Ruifeng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli

    2017-01-01

    Quantum walks constitute a promising ingredient in the research on quantum algorithms; consequently, exploring different types of quantum walks is of great significance for quantum information and quantum computation. In this study, we investigate the progress of quantum walks with a variable absorbing boundary and provide an analytical solution for the escape probability (the probability of a walker that is not absorbed by the boundary). We simulate the behavior of escape probability under different conditions, including the reflection coefficient, boundary location, and initial state. Moreover, it is also meaningful to extend our research to the situation of continuous-time and high-dimensional quantum walks. - Highlights: • A novel scheme about quantum walk with variable boundary is proposed. • The analytical results of the survival probability from the absorbing boundary. • The behavior of survival probability under different boundary conditions. • The influence of different initial coin states on the survival probability.

  17. Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471

  18. Exploring topological phases with quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takuya; Rudner, Mark S.; Berg, Erez; Demler, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The quantum walk was originally proposed as a quantum-mechanical analog of the classical random walk, and has since become a powerful tool in quantum information science. In this paper, we show that discrete-time quantum walks provide a versatile platform for studying topological phases, which are currently the subject of intense theoretical and experimental investigations. In particular, we demonstrate that recent experimental realizations of quantum walks with cold atoms, photons, and ions simulate a nontrivial one-dimensional topological phase. With simple modifications, the quantum walk can be engineered to realize all of the topological phases, which have been classified in one and two dimensions. We further discuss the existence of robust edge modes at phase boundaries, which provide experimental signatures for the nontrivial topological character of the system.

  19. Effects of walking and strength training on walking capacity in individuals with claudication: meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Souza Miranda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the past few years, several clinical trials have been performed to analyze the effects of exercise training on walking ability in patients with intermittent claudication (IC. However, it remains unclear which type of physical exercise provides the maximum benefits in terms of walking ability. OBJECTIVE: To analyze, by means of a meta-analysis, the effects of walking and strength training on the walking capacity in patients with IC. METHODS: Papers analyzing the effects of walking and strength training programs in patients with IC were browsed on the Medline, Lilacs, and Cochrane databases. Randomized clinical trials scoring >4 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale and assessing claudication distance (CD and total walking distance (TWD were included in the review. RESULTS: Walking and strength training yielded increases in CD and TWD (P < 0.05. However, walking training yielded greater increases than strength training (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Walking and strength training improve walking capacity in patients with IC. However, greater improvements in TWD are obtained with walking training.

  20. Biomechanical parameters in lower limbs during natural walking and Nordic walking at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Alicja K; Żurek, Grzegorz; Garrard, Ian; Wierzbicka-Damska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) is a sport that has a number of benefits as a rehabilitation method. It is performed with specially designed poles and has been often recommended as a physical activity that helps reduce the load to limbs. However, some studies have suggested that these findings might be erroneous. The aim of this paper was to compare the kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW) at both low and high walking speeds. The study used a registration system, BTS Smart software and Kistler platform. Eleven subjects walked along a 15-metre path at low (below 2 m⋅s-1) and high (over 2 m⋅s-1) walking speeds. The Davis model was employed for calculations of kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs. With constant speed, the support given by Nordic Walking poles does not make the stroke longer and there is no change in pelvic rotation either. The only change observed was much bigger pelvic anteversion in the sagittal plane during fast NW. There were no changes in forces, power and muscle torques in lower limbs. The study found no differences in kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW). Higher speeds generate greater ground reaction forces and muscle torques in lower limbs. Gait parameters depend on walking speed rather than on walking style.

  1. Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...... phase was doubled when walking on high heels. The knee joint angle showed that high-heeled walking caused the subjects to flex the knee joint significantly more in the first half of the stance phase. In the frontal plane a significant increase was observed in the knee joint abductor moment and the hip...

  2. Chemical Continuous Time Random Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, T.; Dentz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional methods for modeling solute transport through heterogeneous media employ Eulerian schemes to solve for solute concentration. More recently, Lagrangian methods have removed the need for spatial discretization through the use of Monte Carlo implementations of Langevin equations for solute particle motions. While there have been recent advances in modeling chemically reactive transport with recourse to Lagrangian methods, these remain less developed than their Eulerian counterparts, and many open problems such as efficient convergence and reconstruction of the concentration field remain. We explore a different avenue and consider the question: In heterogeneous chemically reactive systems, is it possible to describe the evolution of macroscopic reactant concentrations without explicitly resolving the spatial transport? Traditional Kinetic Monte Carlo methods, such as the Gillespie algorithm, model chemical reactions as random walks in particle number space, without the introduction of spatial coordinates. The inter-reaction times are exponentially distributed under the assumption that the system is well mixed. In real systems, transport limitations lead to incomplete mixing and decreased reaction efficiency. We introduce an arbitrary inter-reaction time distribution, which may account for the impact of incomplete mixing. This process defines an inhomogeneous continuous time random walk in particle number space, from which we derive a generalized chemical Master equation and formulate a generalized Gillespie algorithm. We then determine the modified chemical rate laws for different inter-reaction time distributions. We trace Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics back to finite-mean delay times, and predict time-nonlocal macroscopic reaction kinetics as a consequence of broadly distributed delays. Non-Markovian kinetics exhibit weak ergodicity breaking and show key features of reactions under local non-equilibrium.

  3. Urban form relationships with walk trip frequency and distance among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lawrence; Kerr, Jacqueline; Chapman, Jim; Sallis, James

    2007-01-01

    To assess the relationship among objectively measured urban form variables, age, and walking in youth. Cross-sectional analyses of travel diary data mapped against urban form characteristics within a 1-km buffer of participant's place of residence. Setting. Youth in the Atlanta, Georgia region with selection stratified by income, household size, and residential density. A total of 3161 5- to 20-year-olds who completed 2-day travel diaries. Diaries of those under 15 years were completed by a parent or legal guardian. Walking distances were calculated from a 2-day travel diary. Residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and commercial and recreation space were assessed within a 1-km network distance around residences. Analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed for each urban form variable by age groups controlling for the demographic variables. All variables were then entered simultaneously into an analysis of the whole sample. All five urban form variables tested were related to walking. Recreation space was the only variables associated with walking across the four different age groups. All the urban form variables were related to walking in the 12 to 15 years age cohort. For this group, the odds of walking were 3. 7 times greater for those in highest- versus lowest-density tertile and 2.6 times greater for those with at least one commercial and 2.5 times greater for those with at least one recreational destination within 1 km from home. In the analysis of the full sample, number of cars, recreation space, and residential density were most strongly related to walking. Access to recreation or open space was the most important urban form variable related to walking for all age groups. Children aged 12 to 15 years old may be particularly influenced by urban form.

  4. Do walking strategies to increase physical activity reduce reported sitting in workplaces: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Nicola W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions designed to increase workplace physical activity may not automatically reduce high volumes of sitting, a behaviour independently linked to chronic diseases such as obesity and type II diabetes. This study compared the impact two different walking strategies had on step counts and reported sitting times. Methods Participants were white-collar university employees (n = 179; age 41.3 ± 10.1 years; 141 women, who volunteered and undertook a standardised ten-week intervention at three sites. Pre-intervention step counts (Yamax SW-200 and self-reported sitting times were measured over five consecutive workdays. Using pre-intervention step counts, employees at each site were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 60; maintain normal behaviour, a route-based walking group (n = 60; at least 10 minutes sustained walking each workday or an incidental walking group (n = 59; walking in workday tasks. Workday step counts and reported sitting times were re-assessed at the beginning, mid- and endpoint of intervention and group mean± SD steps/day and reported sitting times for pre-intervention and intervention measurement points compared using a mixed factorial ANOVA; paired sample-t-tests were used for follow-up, simple effect analyses. Results A significant interactive effect (F = 3.5; p t = 3.9, p t = 2.5, p Conclusion Compared to controls, both route and incidental walking increased physical activity in white-collar employees. Our data suggests that workplace walking, particularly through incidental movement, also has the potential to decrease employee sitting times, but there is a need for on-going research using concurrent and objective measures of sitting, standing and walking.

  5. The Evaluation of Effectiviness of Conventional Corset on Walking Potential in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    İnanır, Ahmet; Habiboğlu, Abdulkadir; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; İnanır, Sema

    2011-01-01

    Objective: It has been aimed whether the corset changes the potential to exercise in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Material and Methods: In this study, classified according to body mass index (BMI), 51 patients diagnosed Rehabilitation clinic with fibromyalgia and tested in walking 6 minutes with and without the corset were compared in their test results. Findings: In their walking test scores with/without the corset of the Groups 1, 2 and 3 fibromyalgia patients were identified statis...

  6. Evaluation of the implementation of a whole-workplace walking programme using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Chalkley, Anna E; Esliger, Dale W; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-05-18

    Promoting walking for the journey to/from work and during the working day is one potential approach to increase physical activity in adults. Walking Works was a practice-led, whole-workplace walking programme delivered by employees (walking champions). This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of Walking Works using the RE-AIM framework and provide recommendations for future delivery of whole-workplace walking programmes. Two cross sectional surveys were conducted; 1544 (28%) employees completed the baseline survey and 918 employees (21%) completed the follow-up survey. Effectiveness was assessed using baseline and follow-up data; reach, implementation and maintenance were assessed using follow-up data only. For categorical data, Chi square tests were conducted to assess differences between surveys or groups. Continuous data were analysed to test for significant differences using a Mann-Whitney U test. Telephone interviews were conducted with the lead organisation co-ordinator, eight walking champions and three business representatives at follow-up. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed to identify key themes related to adoption, implementation and maintenance. Adoption: Five workplaces participated in Walking Works. Reach: 480 (52.3%) employees were aware of activities and 221 (24.1%) participated. A variety of walking activities were delivered. Some programme components were not delivered as planned which was partly due to barriers in using walking champions to deliver activities. These included the walking champions' capacity, skills, support needs, ability to engage senior management, and the number and type of activities they could deliver. Other barriers included lack of management support, difficulties communicating information about activities and challenges embedding the programme into normal business activities. Effectiveness: No significant changes in walking to/from work or walking during the working day were observed. Maintenance

  7. Evaluation of the implementation of a whole-workplace walking programme using the RE-AIM framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting walking for the journey to/from work and during the working day is one potential approach to increase physical activity in adults. Walking Works was a practice-led, whole-workplace walking programme delivered by employees (walking champions. This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of Walking Works using the RE-AIM framework and provide recommendations for future delivery of whole-workplace walking programmes. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were conducted; 1544 (28% employees completed the baseline survey and 918 employees (21% completed the follow-up survey. Effectiveness was assessed using baseline and follow-up data; reach, implementation and maintenance were assessed using follow-up data only. For categorical data, Chi square tests were conducted to assess differences between surveys or groups. Continuous data were analysed to test for significant differences using a Mann-Whitney U test. Telephone interviews were conducted with the lead organisation co-ordinator, eight walking champions and three business representatives at follow-up. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed to identify key themes related to adoption, implementation and maintenance. Results Adoption: Five workplaces participated in Walking Works. Reach: 480 (52.3% employees were aware of activities and 221 (24.1% participated. Implementation: A variety of walking activities were delivered. Some programme components were not delivered as planned which was partly due to barriers in using walking champions to deliver activities. These included the walking champions’ capacity, skills, support needs, ability to engage senior management, and the number and type of activities they could deliver. Other barriers included lack of management support, difficulties communicating information about activities and challenges embedding the programme into normal business activities. Effectiveness: No significant changes in walking to

  8. Neighborhood preference, walkability and walking in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Carlson, Jordan A; O'Mara, Stephanie; Sallis, James F; Patrick, Kevin; Frank, Lawrence D; Godbole, Suneeta V

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether self-selection moderated the effects of walkability on walking in overweight and obese men. 240 overweight and obese men completed measures on importance of walkability when choosing a neighborhood (selection) and preference for walkable features in general (preference). IPAQ measured walking. A walkbility index was derived from geographic information systems (GIS). Walkability was associated with walking for transportation (p = .027) and neighborhood selection was associated with walking for transportation (p = .002) and total walking (p = .001). Preference was associated with leisure walking (p = .045) and preference moderated the relationship between walkability and total walking (p = .059). Walkability and self-selection are both important to walking behavior.

  9. The "Interval Walking in Colorectal Cancer" (I-WALK-CRC) study: Design, methods and recruitment results of a randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banck-Petersen, Anna; Olsen, Cecilie K; Djurhuus, Sissal S; Herrstedt, Anita; Thorsen-Streit, Sarah; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Østerlind, Kell; Osterkamp, Jens; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Vistisen, Kirsten; Mosgaard, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K; Højman, Pernille; Christensen, Jesper F

    2018-03-01

    Low physical activity level is associated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). To increase physical activity, technology-based platforms are emerging and provide intriguing opportunities to prescribe and monitor active lifestyle interventions. The "Interval Walking in Colorectal Cancer"(I-WALK-CRC) study explores the feasibility and efficacy a home-based interval-walking intervention delivered by a smart-phone application in order to improve cardio-metabolic health profile among CRC survivors. The aim of the present report is to describe the design, methods and recruitment results of the I-WALK-CRC study.Methods/Results: The I-WALK-CRC study is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a home-based interval walking intervention compared to a waiting-list control group for physiological and patient-reported outcomes. Patients who had completed surgery for local stage disease and patients who had completed surgery and any adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced stage disease were eligible for inclusion. Between October 1st , 2015, and February 1st , 2017, 136 inquiries were recorded; 83 patients were eligible for enrollment, and 42 patients accepted participation. Age and employment status were associated with participation, as participants were significantly younger (60.5 vs 70.8 years, P CRC survivors was feasible but we aim to better the recruitment rate in future studies. Further, the study clearly favored younger participants. The I-WALK-CRC study will provide important information regarding feasibility and efficacy of a home-based walking exercise program in CRC survivors.

  10. Walking With Death, Walking With Science, Walking With Living: Philosophical Praxis and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Gray

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the consequences of acknowledging that we are the dead walking with the dead. I argue that if we take the view that life frames death, rather than the view that death frames life, then we must refigure our living as ethical creatures. Using Aristotle's notion that we become virtuous by practising virtue, I argue that happiness, thought of in terms of ethical living, should temper our attitude to death as the inevitable end we must all encounter. Acknowledgement of our dying and our death enhances the ethical imperative to live virtuously and to promote human flourishing. I adopt a Buddhist reading of death and dying to interpret the Aristotelian perspective.

  11. Walking With Death, Walking With Science, Walking With Living: Philosophical Praxis and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Gray

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the consequences of acknowledging that we are the dead walking with the dead. I argue that if we take the view that life frames death, rather than the view that death frames life, then we must refigure our living as ethical creatures. Using Aristotle's notion that we become virtuous by practising virtue, I argue that happiness, thought of in terms of ethical living, should temper our attitude to death as the inevitable end we must all encounter. Acknowledgement of our dying and our death enhances the ethical imperative to live virtuously and to promote human flourishing. I adopt a Buddhist reading of death and dying to interpret the Aristotelian perspective.

  12. Efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loke, T.; Wang, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    A major advantage in using Szegedy’s formalism over discrete-time and continuous-time quantum walks lies in its ability to define a unitary quantum walk by quantizing a Markov chain on a directed or weighted graph. In this paper, we present a general scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks that correspond to classical Markov chains possessing transformational symmetry in the columns of the transition matrix. In particular, the transformational symmetry criteria do not necessarily depend on the sparsity of the transition matrix, so this scheme can be applied to non-sparse Markov chains. Two classes of Markov chains that are amenable to this construction are cyclic permutations and complete bipartite graphs, for which we provide explicit efficient quantum circuit implementations. We also prove that our scheme can be applied to Markov chains formed by a tensor product. We also briefly discuss the implementation of Markov chains based on weighted interdependent networks. In addition, we apply this scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits simulating the Szegedy walks used in the quantum Pagerank algorithm for some classes of non-trivial graphs, providing a necessary tool for experimental demonstration of the quantum Pagerank algorithm. - Highlights: • A general theoretical framework for implementing Szegedy walks using quantum circuits. • Explicit efficient quantum circuit implementation of the Szegedy walk for several classes of graphs. • Efficient implementation of Szegedy walks for quantum page-ranking of a certain class of graphs.

  13. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Walking training with cueing of cadence improves walking speed and stride length after stroke more than walking training alone: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucas R; de Oliveira, Camila Quel; Ada, Louise; Michaelsen, Stella M; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2015-01-01

    After stroke, is walking training with cueing of cadence superior to walking training alone in improving walking speed, stride length, cadence and symmetry? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised or controlled trials. Adults who have had a stroke. Walking training with cueing of cadence. Four walking outcomes were of interest: walking speed, stride length, cadence and symmetry. This review included seven trials involving 211 participants. Because one trial caused substantial statistical heterogeneity, meta-analyses were conducted with and without this trial. Walking training with cueing of cadence improved walking speed by 0.23 m/s (95% CI 0.18 to 0.27, I(2)=0%), stride length by 0.21 m (95% CI 0.14 to 0.28, I(2)=18%), cadence by 19 steps/minute (95% CI 14 to 23, I(2)=40%), and symmetry by 15% (95% CI 3 to 26, random effects) more than walking training alone. This review provides evidence that walking training with cueing of cadence improves walking speed and stride length more than walking training alone. It may also produce benefits in terms of cadence and symmetry of walking. The evidence appears strong enough to recommend the addition of 30 minutes of cueing of cadence to walking training, four times a week for 4 weeks, in order to improve walking in moderately disabled individuals with stroke. PROSPERO (CRD42013005873). Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. People With Chronic Neck Pain Walk With a Stiffer Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Deborah; Gizzi, Leonardo; Parsa, Hesam; Dieterich, Angela; Petzke, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, case-control design. Objective To evaluate spine kinematics and gait characteristics in people with nonspecific chronic neck pain. Background People with chronic neck pain present with a number of sensorimotor and biomechanical alterations, yet little is known about the influence of neck pain on gait and motions of the spine during gait. Methods People with chronic nonspecific neck pain and age- and sex-matched asymptomatic controls walked on a treadmill at 3 different speeds (self-selected, 3 km/h, and 5 km/h), either with their head in a neutral position or rotated 30°. Tridimensional motion capture was employed to quantify body kinematics. Neck and trunk rotations were derived from the difference between the transverse plane component of the head and thorax and thorax and pelvis angles to provide an indication of neck and trunk rotation during gait. Results Overall, the patient group showed shorter stride length compared to the control group (Pneck pain showed smaller trunk rotations (Pneck pain walk with reduced trunk rotation, especially when challenged by walking with their head positioned in rotation. Reduced rotation of the trunk during gait may have long-term consequences on spinal health. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(4):268-277. Epub 3 Feb 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6768.

  16. Increasing Walking in the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport: The Walk to Fly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Frederick, Ginny M; Paul, Prabasaj; Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M

    2017-07-01

    To test the effectiveness of a point-of-decision intervention to prompt walking, versus motorized transport, in a large metropolitan airport. We installed point-of-decision prompt signage at 4 locations in the airport transportation mall at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (Atlanta, GA) at the connecting corridor between airport concourses. Six ceiling-mounted infrared sensors counted travelers entering and exiting the study location. We collected traveler counts from June 2013 to May 2016 when construction was present and absent (preintervention period: June 2013-September 2014; postintervention period: September 2014-May 2016). We used a model that incorporated weekly walking variation to estimate the intervention effect on walking. There was an 11.0% to 16.7% relative increase in walking in the absence of airport construction where 580 to 810 more travelers per day chose to walk. Through May 2016, travelers completed 390 000 additional walking trips. The Walk to Fly study demonstrated a significant and sustained increase in the number of airport travelers choosing to walk. Providing signage about options to walk in busy locations where reasonable walking options are available may improve population levels of physical activity and therefore improve public health.

  17. Walking modality, but not task difficulty, influences the control of dual-task walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrightson, J G; Smeeton, N J

    2017-10-01

    During dual-task gait, changes in the stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) are suggested to represent the allocation of cognitive control to walking [1]. However, contrasting effects have been reported for overground and treadmill walking, which may be due to differences in the relative difficulty of the dual task. Here we compared the effect of overground and treadmill dual-task walking on STV in 18 healthy adults. Participants walked overground and on a treadmill for 120s during single-task (walking only) and dual-task (walking whilst performing serial subtractions in sevens) conditions. Dual-task effects on STV, cognitive task (serial subtraction) performance and perceived task difficulty were compared between walking modalities. STV was increased during overground dual-task walking, but was unchanged during treadmill dual-task walking. There were no differences in cognitive task performance or perceived task difficulty. These results show that gait is controlled differently during overground and treadmill dual-task walking. However, these differences are not solely due to differences in task difficulty, and may instead represent modality dependent control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Walking Renaissance: A Longitudinal Analysis of Walking Travel in the Greater Los Angeles Area, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Joh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting walking travel is considered important for reducing automobile use and improving public health. Recent U.S. transportation policy has incentivized investments in alternative, more sustainable transportation modes such as walking, bicycling and transit in auto-oriented cities such as Los Angeles. Although many past studies have analyzed changes in walking travel across the U.S., there is little clarity on the drivers of change. We address this gap by conducting a longitudinal analysis of walking travel in the greater Los Angeles area from 2001 to 2009. We use travel diary and household data from regional and national surveys to analyze changes in walking trip shares and rates across our study area. Results show that walking has significantly increased across most of Los Angeles, and that increases in walking trips generally correspond with increases in population, employment, and transit service densities. Estimates from fixed-effects regression analysis generally suggest a positive association between population density and walking, and that higher increases in transit stop density are correlated with increased walking trips to and from transit stops. These findings illustrate how regional planning efforts to pursue a coordinated land use-transit planning strategy can help promote walking in auto-oriented or vehicle adopting cities.

  19. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED BACKWARD TREADMILL TRAINING ON WALKING SPEED IN CHILDREN WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada El Sayed Abd Allah Ayoub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of the ambulating children with spastic diplegia were able to walk with flexed hips, knees and ankles this gait pattern is known as crouch gait. The most needed functional achievement of diplegic children habilitation is to be able to walk appropriately. The development of an independent and efficient walking is one of the main objectives for children with cerebral palsy especially those with spastic diplegia. Method: Twenty children with spastic diplegia enrolled in this study, they were classified into two groups of equal number, eligibility to our study were ages ranged from seven to ten years, were able to ambulate, They had gait problems and abnormal gait kinematics. The control group (A received selected physical therapy program based on neurodevelopmental approach for such cases, while the study group (B received partial body weight supported backward treadmill training in addition to regular exercise program. Gait pattern was assessed using the Biodex Gait Trainer II for each group pre and post three months of the treatment program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in walking speed in the study group (P<0.05 with significant difference when comparing post treatment results between groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings suggested that partial body weight supported backward treadmill training can be included as a supplementary therapeutic modality to improve walking speed and functional abilities of children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  20. Walking on an Oscillating Treadmill: Two Paths to Functional Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate and characterize locomotor responses produced by healthy adults when introduced to a novel walking condition. Subjects were classified into two groups according to how their stride times were affected by the perturbation. Our data suggest that a person's choice of adaptation strategy is influenced by the relationship between his unique, natural stride frequency and the external frequency imposed by the motion base. Our data suggest that a person's stride time response while walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill is influenced by the relationship between his unique, natural stride frequency and the imposed external frequency of the motion base. This relationship may be useful for checking the efficacy of gait training and rehabilitation programs. Preselecting and manipulating a person's EST could be one way to draw him out of his preferred "entrainment well" during therapy or training.

  1. Beam walking can detect differences in walking balance proficiency across a range of sensorimotor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Ting, Lena H

    2015-02-01

    The ability to quantify differences in walking balance proficiency is critical to curbing the rising health and financial costs of falls. Current laboratory-based approaches typically focus on successful recovery of balance while clinical instruments often pose little difficulty for all but the most impaired patients. Rarely do they test motor behaviors of sufficient difficulty to evoke failures in balance control limiting their ability to quantify balance proficiency. Our objective was to test whether a simple beam-walking task could quantify differences in walking balance proficiency across a range of sensorimotor abilities. Ten experts, ten novices, and five individuals with transtibial limb loss performed six walking trials across three different width beams. Walking balance proficiency was quantified as the ratio of distance walked to total possible distance. Balance proficiency was not significantly different between cohorts on the wide-beam, but clear differences between cohorts on the mid and narrow-beams were identified. Experts walked a greater distance than novices on the mid-beam (average of 3.63±0.04m verus 2.70±0.21m out of 3.66m; p=0.009), and novices walked further than amputees (1.52±0.20m; p=0.03). Amputees were unable to walk on the narrow-beam, while experts walked further (3.07±0.14m) than novices (1.55±0.26m; p=0.0005). A simple beam-walking task and an easily collected measure of distance traveled detected differences in walking balance proficiency across sensorimotor abilities. This approach provides a means to safely study and evaluate successes and failures in walking balance in the clinic or lab. It may prove useful in identifying mechanisms underlying falls versus fall recoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell phones change the way we walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Eric M; Muratori, Lisa M

    2012-04-01

    Cell phone use among pedestrians leads to increased cognitive distraction, reduced situation awareness and increases in unsafe behavior. Performing a dual-task, such as talking or texting with a cell phone while walking, may interfere with working memory and result in walking errors. At baseline, thirty-three participants visually located a target 8m ahead; then vision was occluded and they were instructed to walk to the remembered target. One week later participants were assigned to either walk, walk while talking on a cell phone, or walk while texting on a cell phone toward the target with vision occluded. Duration and final location of the heel were noted. Linear distance traveled, lateral angular deviation from the start line, and gait velocity were derived. Changes from baseline to testing were analyzed with paired t-tests. Participants engaged in cell phone use presented with significant reductions in gait velocity (texting: 33% reduction, p=0.01; talking: 16% reduction, p=0.02). Moreover, participants who were texting while walking demonstrated a 61% increase in lateral deviation (p=0.04) and 13% increase in linear distance traveled (p=0.03). These results suggest that the dual-task of walking while using a cell phone impacts executive function and working memory and influences gait to such a degree that it may compromise safety. Importantly, comparison of the two cell phone conditions demonstrates texting creates a significantly greater interference effect on walking than talking on a cell phone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Urban walking: Perspectives of locals and tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban planners and architects have done extensive research on walk ability: what it means and how it correlates with urban design and quality of life of the locals, however, it has been hitherto neglected from the aspect of tourism studies. Many cities worldwide are or tend to be walkable as this leads to more sustainable and prosperous communities. In addition, walking-friendly environments greatly cater for leisure and tourism, as in many cities, walking is an integral part of tourist experience. Therefore, tourism industry can be of tremendous help for the city authorities in understanding walkers' needs and experiences. Taking into account both the locals and tourists, this research sought to: (1 determine the most frequently utilized modes of transportation in Novi Sad in Serbia and Koper in Slovenia; (2 assess thier reasons for walking and perception of the quality of pedestrian infrastructure; and (3 evaluate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire designed for the purpose of this study. The results show that the great majority of respondents walk in these two cities. The locals walk primarily to achieve physical fitness, whereas tourists walk primarily to explore the urban spaces. This makes more space for tourism as it combines a competitive supply able to meet visitors' expectations with a positive contribution to the sustainable development of cities and well-being of their residents. Furthermore, this study contributes to emphasizing walking as a sustainable form of mobility in urban environment and can be the impetus for profiling Novi Sad and Koper as walking-friendly cities.

  4. The effect of three different types of walking aids on spatio-temporal gait parameters in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härdi, Irene; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Gschwind, Yves J; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-04-01

    Gait and balance impairments lead to falls and injuries in older people. Walking aids are meant to increase gait safety and prevent falls, yet little is known about how their use alters gait parameters. This study aimed to quantify gait in older adults during walking without and with different walking aids and to compare gait parameters to matched controls. This retrospective study included 65 older (≥60 years) community dwellers who used a cane, crutch or walker and 195 independently mobile-matched controls. Spatio-temporal gait parameters were measured with an electronic walkway system during normal walking. When walking unaided or aided, walking aid users had significantly worse gait than matched controls. Significant differences between the walking aid groups were found for stride time variability (cane vs. walker) in walking unaided only. Gait performances significantly improved when assessed with vs. without the walking aid for the cane (increased stride time and length, decreased cadence and stride length variability), crutch (increased stride time and length, decreased cadence, stride length variability and double support) and walker (increased gait speed and stride length, decreased base of support and double support) users. Gait in older adults who use a walking aid is more irregular and unstable than gait in independently mobile older adults. Walking aid users have better gait when using their walking aid than when walking without it. The changes in gait were different for the different types of walking aids used. These study results may help better understand gait in older adults and differentiate between pathological gait changes and compensatory gait changes due to the use of a walking aid.

  5. Elements of random walk and diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    Presents an important and unique introduction to random walk theory Random walk is a stochastic process that has proven to be a useful model in understanding discrete-state discrete-time processes across a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines. Elements of Random Walk and Diffusion Processes provides an interdisciplinary approach by including numerous practical examples and exercises with real-world applications in operations research, economics, engineering, and physics. Featuring an introduction to powerful and general techniques that are used in the application of physical and dynamic

  6. Iterated random walks with shape prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    the parametric probability density function. Then, random walks is performed iteratively aligning the prior with the current segmentation in every iteration. We tested the proposed approach with natural and medical images and compared it with the latest techniques with random walks and shape priors......We propose a new framework for image segmentation using random walks where a distance shape prior is combined with a region term. The shape prior is weighted by a confidence map to reduce the influence of the prior in high gradient areas and the region term is computed with k-means to estimate....... The experiments suggest that this method gives promising results for medical and natural images....

  7. Minimum toe clearance events in divided attention treadmill walking in older and young adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiranayagam, Braveena K; Lai, Daniel T H; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-07-12

    Falls in older adults during walking frequently occur while performing a concurrent task; that is, dividing attention to respond to other demands in the environment. A particularly hazardous fall-related event is tripping due to toe-ground contact during the swing phase of the gait cycle. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effects of divided attention on tripping risk by investigating the gait cycle event Minimum Toe Clearance (MTC). Fifteen older adults (mean 73.1 years) and 15 young controls (mean 26.1 years) performed three walking tasks on motorized treadmill: (i) at preferred walking speed (preferred walking), (ii) while carrying a glass of water at a comfortable walking speed (dual task walking), and (iii) speed-matched control walking without the glass of water (control walking). Position-time coordinates of the toe were acquired using a 3 dimensional motion capture system (Optotrak NDI, Canada). When MTC was present, toe height at MTC (MTC_Height) and MTC timing (MTC_Time) were calculated. The proportion of non-MTC gait cycles was computed and for non-MTC gait cycles, toe-height was extracted at the mean MTC_Time. Both groups maintained mean MTC_Height across all three conditions. Despite greater MTC_Height SD in preferred gait, the older group reduced their variability to match the young group in dual task walking. Compared to preferred speed walking, both groups attained MTC earlier in dual task and control conditions. The older group's MTC_Time SD was greater across all conditions; in dual task walking, however, they approximated the young group's SD. Non-MTC gait cycles were more frequent in the older group across walking conditions (for example, in preferred walking: young - 2.9 %; older - 18.7 %). In response to increased attention demands older adults preserve MTC_Height but exercise greater control of the critical MTC event by reducing variability in both MTC_Height and MTC_Time. A further adaptive locomotor control strategy to reduce

  8. Storytelling in community intervention research: lessons learned from the walk your heart to health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBron, Alana M; Schulz, Amy J; Bernal, Cristina; Gamboa, Cindy; Wright, Conja; Sand, Sharon; Valerio, Melissa; Caver, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Contextually and culturally congruent interventions are urgently needed to reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequities in physical activity and cardiovascular disease. To examine a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process that incorporated storytelling into a physical activity intervention, and consider implications for reducing health inequities. We used a CBPR process to incorporate storytelling in an existing walking group intervention. Stories conveyed social support and problem-solving intervention themes designed to maintain increases in physical activity over time, and were adapted to the walking group context, group dynamics, challenges, and traditions. After describing of the CBPR process used to adapt stories to walking group sites, we discuss challenges and lessons learned regarding the adaptation and implementation of stories to convey key intervention themes. A CBPR approach to incorporating storytelling to convey intervention themes offers an innovative and flexible strategy to promote health toward the elimination of health inequities.

  9. Nordic Walking and chronic low back pain: design of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartvigsen Jan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism. Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether there is a difference in compliance between persons receiving supervised Nordic Walking and persons doing unsupervised Nordic Walking. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with low back pain for at least eight weeks and referred to a specialized secondary sector outpatient back pain clinic are included in the study. After completion of the standard back centre treatment patients are randomized into one of three groups: A Nordic Walking twice a week for eight weeks under supervision of a specially trained instructor; B Unsupervised Nordic Walking for eight weeks after one training session with an instructor; C A one hour motivational talk including advice to stay active. Outcome measures are pain, function, overall health, cardiovascular ability and

  10. A Study of Effect of Walking Pole on the Walking Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 麻樹; 下平, 佳江; 佐藤, 健

    2010-01-01

    So-called metabolic syndrome is one of the medical problems in our country, because many of people have difficulty at lack of exercises. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare suggest healthy life by exercise and moderate foods. Walking is one of the effective exercises to keep health in everyday life. Walking with poles, the exercise method of cross country skiing, is noticed as the effective exercise nowadays. Some studies show the effect of the pole walking exercise from view points of c...

  11. Natural Walking in Virtual Reality: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Steinicke, Franke

    2018-01-01

    Recent technological developments have finally brought virtual reality (VR) out of the laboratory and into the hands of developers and consumers. However, a number of challenges remain. Virtual travel is one of the most common and universal tasks performed inside virtual environments, yet enabling...... users to navigate virtual environments is not a trivial challenge—especially if the user is walking. In this article, we initially provide an overview of the numerous virtual travel techniques that have been proposed prior to the commercialization of VR. Then we turn to the mode of travel...... that is the most difficult to facilitate, that is, walking. The challenge of providing users with natural walking experiences in VR can be divided into two separate, albeit related, challenges: (1) enabling unconstrained walking in virtual worlds that are larger than the tracked physical space and (2) providing...

  12. The random walk model of intrafraction movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, H; Reiner, M; Kantz, S; Belka, C; Söhn, M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intrafraction movement as a stochastic process driven by random external forces. The hypothetically proposed three-dimensional random walk model has significant impact on optimal PTV margins and offers a quantitatively correct explanation of experimental findings. Properties of the random walk are calculated from first principles, in particular fraction-average population density distributions for displacements along the principal axes. When substituted into the established optimal margin recipes these fraction-average distributions yield safety margins about 30% smaller as compared to the suggested values from end-of-fraction Gaussian fits. Stylized facts of a random walk are identified in clinical data, such as the increase of the standard deviation of displacements with the square root of time. Least squares errors in the comparison to experimental results are reduced by about 50% when accounting for non-Gaussian corrections from the random walk model. (paper)

  13. The random walk model of intrafraction movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhausen, H; Reiner, M; Kantz, S; Belka, C; Söhn, M

    2013-04-07

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intrafraction movement as a stochastic process driven by random external forces. The hypothetically proposed three-dimensional random walk model has significant impact on optimal PTV margins and offers a quantitatively correct explanation of experimental findings. Properties of the random walk are calculated from first principles, in particular fraction-average population density distributions for displacements along the principal axes. When substituted into the established optimal margin recipes these fraction-average distributions yield safety margins about 30% smaller as compared to the suggested values from end-of-fraction gaussian fits. Stylized facts of a random walk are identified in clinical data, such as the increase of the standard deviation of displacements with the square root of time. Least squares errors in the comparison to experimental results are reduced by about 50% when accounting for non-gaussian corrections from the random walk model.

  14. Database of Standardized Questionnaires About Walking & Bicycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items related to walking and biking. The items come from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires.

  15. Measuring Oscillating Walking Paths with a LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the analysis of different walking paths registered using a Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR laser range sensor in order to measure oscillating trajectories during unsupervised walking. The estimate of the gait and trajectory parameters were obtained with a terrestrial LIDAR placed 100 mm above the ground with the scanning plane parallel to the floor to measure the trajectory of the legs without attaching any markers or modifying the floor. Three different large walking experiments were performed to test the proposed measurement system with straight and oscillating trajectories. The main advantages of the proposed system are the possibility to measure several steps and obtain average gait parameters and the minimum infrastructure required. This measurement system enables the development of new ambulatory applications based on the analysis of the gait and the trajectory during a walk.

  16. Random walk with memory enhancement and decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-Jie; Zou, Xian-Wu; Huang, Sheng-You; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Zhun-Zhi

    2002-04-01

    A model of random walk with memory enhancement and decay was presented on the basis of the characteristics of the biological intelligent walks. In this model, the movement of the walker is determined by the difference between the remaining information at the jumping-out site and jumping-in site. The amount of the memory information si(t) at a site i is enhanced with the increment of visiting times to that site, and decays with time t by the rate e-βt, where β is the memory decay exponent. When β=0, there exists a transition from Brownian motion (BM) to the compact growth of walking trajectory with the density of information energy u increasing. But for β>0, this transition does not appear and the walk with memory enhancement and decay can be considered as the BM of the mass center of the cluster composed of remembered sites in the late stage.

  17. Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuiman Matthew W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition

  18. Enhanced spinal excitation from ankle flexors to knee extensors during walking in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achache, V.; Mazevet, D.; Iglesias, C.

    2010-01-01

    : The spinal, presumed group II, excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors is particularly enhanced during post-stroke walking probably due to plastic adaptations in the descending control. SIGNIFICANCE: This adaptation may help to stabilize the knee in early stance when the patients have recover......OBJECTIVES: It is still unclear to what an extent altered reflex activity contributes to gait deficit following stroke. Spinal group I and group II excitations from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors were investigated during post-stroke walking. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied...... ankle dorsiflexor functions....

  19. The influence of regular walking at different times of day on blood lipids and inflammatory markers in sedentary patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao-Qing; Zhao, Di; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Ze-Mu; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Huan; Zhang, Ding-Guo; Yang, Zhi-Jian; Wang, Lian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To examine the influence of walking at different times of day on lipids and inflammatory markers in sedentary patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 330 patients recruited from Nanjing between September 2011 and November 2012 were randomly assigned to a control group (n=110), morning (n=110) or evening walking group (n=110). Both the walking groups were asked to walk 30 min/day or more on at least 5 days/week either in the morning or evening for 12 weeks. Lipids and inflammatory markers were measured before and after exercise intervention. Compared with baseline, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were improved in all groups. Significances were shown in the changes of fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, TC, triglycerides, LDL-C, lipoprotein(a) between groups. The evening walking group had a larger decrease in fibrinogen (0.16 ± 0.19 g/L, Pwalking program successfully resulted in a favorable change in lipids and inflammatory markers. Patients in the evening walking group gained more benefits than those walking in the morning walking group. NCT01887093. © 2013.

  20. Quantum random walks using quantum accelerator modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.-Y.; Burnett, K.; D'Arcy, M. B.; Gardiner, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the use of high-order quantum accelerator modes to achieve an atom optical realization of a biased quantum random walk. We first discuss how one can create coexistent quantum accelerator modes, and hence how momentum transfer that depends on the atoms' internal state can be achieved. When combined with microwave driving of the transition between the states, a different type of atomic beam splitter results. This permits the realization of a biased quantum random walk through quantum accelerator modes

  1. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...

  2. Simulation of random walks in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    The numerical simulation of random walks is considered using the Monte Carlo method previously proposed. The algorithm is tested and then generalised to generate Edwards random walks. The renormalised masses of the Edwards model are calculated and the results are compared with those obtained from a simple perturbation theory calculation for small values of the bare coupling constant. The efficiency of this algorithm is discussed and compared with an alternative approach. (author)

  3. A Walk in the Semantic Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....

  4. Many random walks are faster than one

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alon, N.; Avin, Ch.; Koucký, Michal; Kozma, G.; Lotker, Z.; Tuttle, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2011), s. 481-502 ISSN 0963-5483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA ČR GA201/05/0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : multiple random walks * parallel random walks Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2011 http://journals.cambridge.org/ action /displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8280727

  5. Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Catherine; Stassijns, Gaetane; Cornelis, Wim; D'Août, Kristiaan

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m. tibialis anterior and the m. gastrocnemius medialis. Data show that the effect of indigenous footwear on the measured variables, compared to barefoot walking, is relatively small and consistent between substrates (even though subjects walked faster on the natural substrate). Walking barefoot, compared to shod walking yields higher impact accelerations, but the differences are small and only significant for the artificial substrate. The main rotations of the ankle joint are mostly similar between conditions. Only the shod condition shows a faster ankle rotation over the rapid eversion motion on the natural substrate. Maximal dorsiflexion in late stance differs between the footwear conditions on an artificial substrate, with the shod condition involving a less dorsiflexed ankle, and the plantar flexion at toe-off is more extreme when shod. Overall the activity pattern of the external foot muscles is similar. The indigenous footwear studied (Kolhapuri) seems to alter foot biomechanics only in a subtle way. While offering some degree of protection, walking in this type of footwear resembles barefoot gait and this type of indigenous footwear might be considered "minimal". © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tempered stable laws as random walk limits

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.

  7. More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-31

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.  Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/7/2012.

  8. Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…

  9. Validity of activity trackers, smartphones, and phone applications to measure steps in various walking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchsmann, C; Knaier, R; Eymann, J; Hintermann, J; Infanger, D; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A

    2018-02-20

    To examine the validity of popular smartphone accelerometer applications and a consumer activity wristband compared to a widely used research accelerometer while assessing the impact of the phone's position on the accuracy of step detection. Twenty volunteers from 2 different age groups (Group A: 18-25 years, n = 10; Group B 45-70 years, n = 10) were equipped with 3 iPhone SE smartphones (placed in pants pocket, shoulder bag, and backpack), 1 Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge (pants pocket), 1 Garmin Vivofit 2 wristband, and 2 ActiGraph wGTX+ devices (worn at wrist and hip) while walking on a treadmill (1.6, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.0 km/h) and completing a walking course. All smartphones included 6 accelerometer applications. Video observation was used as gold standard. Validity was evaluated by comparing each device with the gold standard using mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE). The MAPE of the iPhone SE (all positions) and the Garmin Vivofit was small (Samsung Galaxy and hip-worn ActiGraph showed small MAPE only for treadmill walking at 4.8 and 6.0 km/h and for free walking. The wrist-worn ActiGraph showed high MAPE (17-47) for all walking conditions. The iPhone SE and the Garmin Vivofit 2 are accurate tools for step counting in different age groups and during various walking conditions, even during slow walking. The phone's position does not impact the accuracy of step detection, which substantially improves the versatility for physical activity assessment in clinical and research settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Design with the feet: walking methods and participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille; Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of walking methods and their relation to participatory design (PD). The paper includes a study of walking methods found in the literature and an empirical study of transect walks in a PD project. From this analysis, we identify central attributes of, and challenges...... to, PD walks. Walking with people in the context of design is a natural activity for the participatory designer, who acknowledges the importance of immersion and relationships in design. However, the various intentions of walking approaches indicate an underacknowledged awareness of walking methods...

  11. Ant-inspired density estimation via random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Cameron; Su, Hsin-Hao; Lynch, Nancy A

    2017-10-03

    Many ant species use distributed population density estimation in applications ranging from quorum sensing, to task allocation, to appraisal of enemy colony strength. It has been shown that ants estimate local population density by tracking encounter rates: The higher the density, the more often the ants bump into each other. We study distributed density estimation from a theoretical perspective. We prove that a group of anonymous agents randomly walking on a grid are able to estimate their density within a small multiplicative error in few steps by measuring their rates of encounter with other agents. Despite dependencies inherent in the fact that nearby agents may collide repeatedly (and, worse, cannot recognize when this happens), our bound nearly matches what would be required to estimate density by independently sampling grid locations. From a biological perspective, our work helps shed light on how ants and other social insects can obtain relatively accurate density estimates via encounter rates. From a technical perspective, our analysis provides tools for understanding complex dependencies in the collision probabilities of multiple random walks. We bound the strength of these dependencies using local mixing properties of the underlying graph. Our results extend beyond the grid to more general graphs, and we discuss applications to size estimation for social networks, density estimation for robot swarms, and random walk-based sampling for sensor networks.

  12. Feedback and Feedforward Control During Walking in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Corkery, Marie B; Donohoe, Amy; Grogan, Maddison; Wu, Yi-Ning

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Recurrent ankle sprains associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI) occur not only in challenging sports but also in daily walking. Understanding whether and how CAI alters feedback and feedforward controls during walking may be important for developing interventions for CAI prevention or treatment. Objective To understand whether CAI is associated with changes in feedback and feedforward control when individuals with CAI are subjected to experimental perturbation during walking. Methods Twelve subjects with CAI and 12 control subjects walked on a treadmill while adapting to external loading that generated inversion perturbation at the ankle joint. Ankle kinematics around heel contact during and after the adaptation were compared between the 2 groups. Results Both healthy and CAI groups showed an increase in eversion around heel contact in early adaptation to the external loading. However, the CAI group adapted back toward the baseline, while the healthy controls showed further increase in eversion in late adaptation. When the external loading was removed in the postadaptation period, healthy controls showed an aftereffect consisting of an increase in eversion around heel contact, but the CAI group showed no aftereffect. Conclusion The results provide preliminary evidence that CAI may alter individuals' feedback and feedforward control during walking. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):775-783. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6403.

  13. Brisk walking can promote functional recovery in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, Charles Sèbiyo; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether regular brisk walking can promote functional recovery in community-dwelling stroke patients. A total of 44 chronic stroke patients, recruited in Belgium and Benin, respectively European high-income and African low-income countries. This longitudinal, single-cohort, observational study with 1 intervention period and 4 time-points of assessments (2 baseline, 1 post-intervention and 1 follow-up) was structured in 3 periods: pre-intervention period (1 month), intervention period (3 months) and follow-up period (3 month). Intervention consisted of a 3 times/week group-based brisk walking programme. Primary outcome measures were ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Secondary outcome measures were the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). All outcome measures were stable during the pre-intervention period (p ≥ 0.16). They all improved significantly after intervention (p ≤ 0.01), except the HADS (p = 0.058). However, during the follow-up period, SIAS (p = 0.002) and BBS (p = 0.001) decreased, while ACTIVLIM-Stroke, 6MWT and HADS showed no significant change (p ≥ 0.13). This study suggests regular brisk walking as an effective approach to promote functional recovery in chronic stroke survivors. However, further studies are required before generalizing these results to the whole stroke population.

  14. Social aggregation in pea aphids: experiment and random walk modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Nilsen

    Full Text Available From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control.

  15. Step by step: The feasibility of a 16-week workplace lunchtime walking intervention for physically inactive employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Loughren, Elizabeth; Duda, Joan; Fox, Kenneth Richard

    2014-09-01

    A 16-week lunchtime walking intervention was designed to increase physical activity in physically inactive University employees. The program was delivered and monitored twice over 7 months to examine feasibility across different seasons. Seventy-five participants (n = 69 females, n = 6 males; mean age = 47.68) were randomly allocated into a Winter (February start) or Spring group (May start). Participants were asked to complete 3 weekday lunchtime walks and 2 weekend walks. Weeks 1 to 10 were led by walk leaders (group phase) while the participants self-organized their walks during weeks 11 to 16 (independent phase). Yamax pedometers recorded daily step counts and walk group leaders recorded participant attendance in the group phase. Acceptability was assessed via a satisfaction survey and 2 focus groups with participants. A participant pool representative by ethnicity, but not gender was recruited using a range of strategies. The program demonstrated good retention across both groups (73%). The intervention was acceptable to participants. More steps were accumulated in the group-led versus the independent phase. The intervention is feasible in this workplace setting across different seasonal periods. In the future, researchers should examine if the findings can be replicated in a definitive trial and generalize to other workplace settings.

  16. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  17. Interval-walking training for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H.

    Formål: To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetes patients, and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training (IWT) versus continuous-walking training (CWT) upon self reported health, physical fitness, body composition and glycemic control. Metoder...... alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: Self-reported health, Physical fitness (VO2max), body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, continuous glucose monitoring...... [CGM]). Resultater: Training adherence was high (89 + 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable between training groups. Nine and four of the subjects reported “Improved Health” in the IWT and CWT group, respectively. VO2max increased 16.1 + 3.7% in the IWT group (P

  18. Process evaluation of the Walk Well study: a cluster-randomised controlled trial of a community based walking programme for adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay Matthews

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking interventions can be effective in encouraging sedentary populations to become more active; however, limited research has explored the effectiveness of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities. This process evaluation explored the delivery of a community based walking intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods Walk Well was a single-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of a 12-week physical activity consultation-led walking intervention. 102 participants were randomised to the Walk Well intervention or a waiting list control group. Participants in the intervention group received three physical activity consultations with a walking advisor at baseline, 6 & 12-weeks. They were encouraged to use a pedometer to set goals and monitor their daily step count. Primary outcome was change in daily step count at 12-weeks. Process evaluation measures included qualitative interviews with key stakeholders (n = 6 and quantifiable data collected as part of the intervention. Additional process data were extracted from a sub-set of qualitative interviews with participants and carers (n = 20. Data were analysed for process information related to context, recruitment and retention, reach, implementation, and fidelity. Results Walk Well was not effective in significantly increasing levels of physical activity. The process evaluation did, however, highlight several important areas for consideration in future studies, including: a successful recruitment and retention strategy reaching a representative sample of adults with intellectual disabilities in the community; feasible and (for most enjoyable methods of engaging adults with intellectual disabilities in activities to support behaviour change; potential need for greater intervention duration and frequency of contact; advantages and disadvantages of using pedometers as a behaviour change tool; the need for strategies which engage

  19. Walking to Work: The Roles of Neighborhood Walkability and Socioeconomic Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cheryl M; Lian, Min; Struthers, Jim; Kammrath, Anna

    2015-06-16

    There are few studies that aimed to find a relationship between transportation-related physical activity and neighborhood socioeconomic condition using a composite deprivation index. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic deprivation with percentage of adults walking to work. A walkability index and a socioeconomic deprivation index were created at block group-level. The outcome variable, percentage of adults who walk to work was dichotomized as walkability and socioeconomic deprivation with walking to work. Individuals in the most walkable neighborhoods are almost 5 times more likely to walk to work than individuals in the least walkable neighborhoods (OR = 4.90, 95% CI = 2.80-8.59). After adjusting for neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighborhoods are almost 3 times more likely to walk to work than individuals in the least walkable neighborhoods (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.62-5.49). Walkability (as measured by the walkability index) is a very strong indicator of walking to work even after controlling for neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage.

  20. Dynamic optimization of walker-assisted FES-activated paraplegic walking: simulation and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoukar, Vahab; Erfanian, Abbas

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a musculoskeletal model of walker-assisted FES-activated paraplegic walking for the generation of muscle stimulation patterns and characterization of the causal relationships between muscle excitations, multi-joint movement, and handle reaction force (HRF). The model consists of the lower extremities, trunk, hands, and a walker. The simulation of walking is performed using particle swarm optimization to minimize the tracking errors from the desired trajectories for the lower extremity joints, to reduce the stimulations of the muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle joints, and to minimize the HRF. The results of the simulation studies using data recorded from healthy subjects performing walker-assisted walking indicate that the model-generated muscle stimulation patterns are in agreement with the EMG patterns that have been reported in the literature. The experimental results on two paraplegic subjects demonstrate that the proposed methodology can improve walking performance, reduce HRF, and increase walking speed when compared to the conventional FES-activated paraplegic walking. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect on lower spine muscle activation of walking on a narrow beam in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel

    2011-02-01

    To what extent do people behave in immersive virtual environments as they would in similar situations in a physical environment? There are many ways to address this question, ranging from questionnaires, behavioral studies, and the use of physiological measures. Here, we compare the onsets of muscle activity using surface electromyography (EMG) while participants were walking under three different conditions: on a normal floor surface, on a narrow ribbon along the floor, and on a narrow platform raised off the floor. The same situation was rendered in an immersive virtual environment (IVE) Cave-like system, and 12 participants did the three types of walking in a counter-balanced within-groups design. The mean number of EMG activity onsets per unit time followed the same pattern in the virtual environment as in the physical environment-significantly higher for walking on the platform compared to walking on the floor. Even though participants knew that they were in fact really walking at floor level in the virtual environment condition, the visual illusion of walking on a raised platform was sufficient to influence their behavior in a measurable way. This opens up the door for this technique to be used in gait and posture related scenarios including rehabilitation.

  2. Walking and talking: an investigation of cognitive-motor dual tasking in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, F; Rochester, L; Paul, L; Rafferty, D; O'Leary, C P; Evans, J J

    2009-10-01

    Deficits in motor functioning, including walking, and in cognitive functions, including attention, are known to be prevalent in multiple sclerosis (MS), though little attention has been paid to how impairments in these areas of functioning interact. This study investigated the effects of performing a concurrent cognitive task when walking in people with MS. Level of task demand was manipulated to investigate whether this affected level of dual-task decrement. Eighteen participants with MS and 18 healthy controls took part. Participants completed walking and cognitive tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. Compared to healthy controls, MS participants showed greater decrements in performance under dual-task conditions in cognitive task performance, walking speed and swing time variability. In the MS group, the degree of decrement under dual-task conditions was related to levels of fatigue, a measure of general cognitive functioning and self-reported everyday cognitive errors, but not to measures of disease severity or duration. Difficulty with walking and talking in MS may be a result of a divided attention deficit or of overloading of the working memory system, and further investigation is needed. We suggest that difficulty with walking and talking in MS may lead to practical problems in everyday life, including potentially increasing the risk of falls. Clinical tools to assess cognitive-motor dual-tasking ability are needed.

  3. A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Philippe; Derave, Wim; Galle, Samuel; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple pneumatic exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion with different actuation timings. We found that the exoskeleton can reduce metabolic cost by 0.18±0.06 W kg−1 or 6±2% (standard error of the mean) (p = 0.019) below the cost of walking without exoskeleton if actuation starts just before opposite leg heel contact. Conclusions/Significance The optimum timing that we found concurs with the prediction from a mathematical model of walking. While the present exoskeleton was not ambulant, measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking. This demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions. PMID:23418524

  4. Path-sum solution of the Weyl quantum walk in 3 + 1 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, G. M.; Mosco, N.; Perinotti, P.; Tosini, A.

    2017-10-01

    We consider the Weyl quantum walk in 3+1 dimensions, that is a discrete-time walk describing a particle with two internal degrees of freedom moving on a Cayley graph of the group , which in an appropriate regime evolves according to Weyl's equation. The Weyl quantum walk was recently derived as the unique unitary evolution on a Cayley graph of that is homogeneous and isotropic. The general solution of the quantum walk evolution is provided here in the position representation, by the analytical expression of the propagator, i.e. transition amplitude from a node of the graph to another node in a finite number of steps. The quantum nature of the walk manifests itself in the interference of the paths on the graph joining the given nodes. The solution is based on the binary encoding of the admissible paths on the graph and on the semigroup structure of the walk transition matrices. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  5. Body weight supported treadmill training versus traditional training in patients dependent on walking assistance after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, Ellen; Jahnsen, Reidun; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik; Strand, Liv Inger

    2012-01-01

    Treadmill training with body weight support (TTBWS) for relearning walking ability after brain damage is an approach under current investigation. Efficiency of this method beyond traditional training is lacking evidence, especially in patients needing walking assistance after stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate change in walking and transfer abilities, comparing TTBWS with traditional walking training. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty patients referred for multi-disciplinary primary rehabilitation were assigned into one of two intervention groups, one received 30 sessions of TTBWS plus traditional training, the other traditional training alone. Daily training was 1 hr. Outcome measures were Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC), Walking, Functional Independence Measure (FIM); shorter transfer and stairs, 10 m and 6-min walk tests. Substantial improvements in walking and transfer were shown within both groups after 5 and 11 weeks of intervention. Overall no statistical significant differences were found between the groups, but 12 of 17 physical measures tended to show improvements in favour of the treadmill approach. Both training strategies provided significant improvements in the tested activities, suggesting that similar outcomes can be obtained in the two modalities by systematic, intensive and goal directed training.

  6. Factors associated with the 6-minute walk test in nursing home residents and community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballer, Vicent-Benavent; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Segura-Orti, Eva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main objective of this study was to determine the contributions and extent to which certain physical measurements explain performance in the 6-minute walk test in healthy older adults living in a geriatric nursing home and for older adults dwelling in the community. [Subjects] The subjects were 122 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment who were independent in their daily activities. [Methods] The 6-minute walk test, age, body mass index, walking speed, chair stand test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go test, rectus femoris cross-sectional area, Short Physical Performance Battery, and hand-grip strength were examined. [Results] Strong significant associations were found between mobility, lower-limb function, balance, and the 6-minute walk test. A stepwise multiple regression on the entire sample showed that lower-limb function was a significant and independent predictor for the 6-minute walk test. Additionally, lower-limb function was a strong predictor for the 6-minute walk test in our nursing home group, whereas mobility was found to be the best predictor in our community-dwelling group. [Conclusion] Better lower-limb function, balance, and mobility result in a higher distance covered by healthy older adults. Lower-limb function and mobility appeared to best determine walking performance in the nursing home and community-dwelling groups, respectively. PMID:26696740

  7. Group theory and lattice gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1988-09-01

    Lattice gauge theory, formulated in terms of invariant integrals over group elements on lattice bonds, benefits from many group theoretical notions. Gauge invariance provides an enormous symmetry and powerful constraints on expectation values. Strong coupling expansions require invariant integrals over polynomials in group elements, all of which can be evaluated by symmetry considerations. Numerical simulations involve random walks over the group. These walks automatically generate the invariant group measure, avoiding explicit parameterization. A recently proposed overrelaxation algorithm is particularly efficient at exploring the group manifold. These and other applications of group theory to lattice gauge fields are reviewed in this talk. 17 refs

  8. Can an aversive, extinction-resistant memory trigger impairments in walking adaptability? An experimental study using adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Filipe Mello; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Neves, Laura Tartari; Martins, Lucas Athaydes; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Izquierdo, Iván; Xavier, Léder Leal; Hollands, Kristen; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca

    2018-02-05

    Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber. In the second, rats (n=20) were assessed in a neutral room using the ladder rung walking test before and tree days after inducing an extinction-resistance memory. In addition, the elevated plus-maze test was used to control the influence of the anxiety-like status on gait adaptability. Our results revealed the shock group exhibited worse walking adaptability (lower skilled walking score), when compared to the sham group. Moreover, the immobility time in the ladder rung walking test was similar to the controls, suggesting that gait adaptability performance was not a consequence of the fear generalization. No anxiety-like behavior was observed in the plus maze test. Finally, correlation coefficients also showed the skilled walking performance score was positively correlated with the number of gait cycles and trial time in the ladder rung walking test and the total crossings in the plus maze. Overall, these preliminary findings provide evidence to hypothesize an aversive, extinction-resistant experience might change the emotional load, affecting the ability to adapt walking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of jumping skill training on walking balance for children with mental retardation and Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Y; Chang, J J

    1997-08-01

    In the present study, we hypothesized that the enhancements obtained from the practice of jumping activity could be transferred to improve the walking balance in children with mental retardation (MR) and Down's syndrome (DS). Fourteen children with the diagnosis of MR or DS, aged 3 to 6 years, were recruited from a day care institution. They were ambulant but without jumping ability. Sixty-one non-handicapped children was used to serve as a normative comparison group. Before the training program, the performances of walking balance, jump skills and jumping distances were assessed individually by one physical therapist. The balance sub-test in the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) was administered to assess the walking balance. Motor Skill Inventory (MSI) was used to assess the qualitative levels of jumping skills. A jumping skill training lesson that included horizontal jumps and vertical jumps was designed and integrated into the educational program. The recruited children received 3 sessions of training per-week for 6 weeks. A post-training test and a follow-up test were administered to the handicapped children. In BOTMP scores, statistical differences exited between the pre-training and post-training tests in the tested items of floor walk and beam walk. However, no significant difference was found in the items of floor stand, beam stand and floor heel-toe walk. MSI scales revealed there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training tests. There was no significant difference between the scores of post-training test and the follow-up test. The results implicated that the jumping activity might effectively evoke the automatic and dynamic postural control. Moreover, the significant improvements of the floor walk and beam walk performances might be due to the transferred effects via the practice of dynamic jumping activity. Furthermore, implications and suggestions are discussed.

  10. Metabolic cost and mechanics of walking in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Renée S; McFall, Kristen; Perry, Stephen D; Tiidus, Peter M

    2013-10-18

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is characterized by the presence of widespread pain, fatigue, muscle weakness and reduced work capacity. Previous research has demonstrated that women with fibromyalgia have altered walking (gait) patterns, which may be a consequence of muscular pain. This altered gait is characterized by greater reliance on hip flexors rather than ankle plantar flexors and resembles gait patterns seen in normal individuals walking at higher speeds, suggesting that gait of individuals with fibromyalgia may be less efficient.This study compared rates of energy expenditure of 6 females with FS relative to 6 normal, age and weight matched controls, at various walking speeds on a motorized treadmill. Metabolic measurements including V02 (ml/kg/min), respirations, heart rate and calculated energy expenditures as well as the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion scale ratings were determined at baseline and for 10 min while walking at each of 2, 4 and 5 km/hour on 1% grade. Kinematic recordings of limb and body movements while treadmill walking and separate measurements of ground reaction forces while walking over ground were also determined. In addition, all subjects completed the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (1.0). Gait analysis results were similar to previous reports of altered gait patterns in FS females. Despite noticeable differences in gait patterns, no significant differences (p > 0.05) existed between the FS and control subjects on any metabolic measures at any walking speed. Total number of steps taken was also similar between groups. Ratings on the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion, the RAND and self-reported levels of pain indicated significantly greater (p gait patterns and greater perceptions of effort and pain did not significantly increase the metabolic costs of walking in women with FS and hence, increased sensations of fatigue in FS women may not be related to alteration in metabolic cost of ambulation.

  11. Kinematic evaluation of virtual walking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirio, Gabriel; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Marchal, Maud; Pettré, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Virtual walking, a fundamental task in Virtual Reality (VR), is greatly influenced by the locomotion interface being used, by the specificities of input and output devices, and by the way the virtual environment is represented. No matter how virtual walking is controlled, the generation of realistic virtual trajectories is absolutely required for some applications, especially those dedicated to the study of walking behaviors in VR, navigation through virtual places for architecture, rehabilitation and training. Previous studies focused on evaluating the realism of locomotion trajectories have mostly considered the result of the locomotion task (efficiency, accuracy) and its subjective perception (presence, cybersickness). Few focused on the locomotion trajectory itself, but in situation of geometrically constrained task. In this paper, we study the realism of unconstrained trajectories produced during virtual walking by addressing the following question: did the user reach his destination by virtually walking along a trajectory he would have followed in similar real conditions? To this end, we propose a comprehensive evaluation framework consisting on a set of trajectographical criteria and a locomotion model to generate reference trajectories. We consider a simple locomotion task where users walk between two oriented points in space. The travel path is analyzed both geometrically and temporally in comparison to simulated reference trajectories. In addition, we demonstrate the framework over a user study which considered an initial set of common and frequent virtual walking conditions, namely different input devices, output display devices, control laws, and visualization modalities. The study provides insight into the relative contributions of each condition to the overall realism of the resulting virtual trajectories.

  12. Walking on fractals: diffusion and self-avoiding walks on percolation clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blavatska, V; Janke, W

    2009-01-01

    We consider random walks (RWs) and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on disordered lattices directly at the percolation threshold. Applying numerical simulations, we study the scaling behavior of the models on the incipient percolation cluster in space dimensions d = 2, 3, 4. Our analysis yields estimates of universal exponents, governing the scaling laws for configurational properties of RWs and SAWs

  13. Human H-reflexes are smaller in difficult beam walking than in normal treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, M; Yang, J F; Prochazka, A

    1990-01-01

    Hoffman (H) reflexes were elicited from the soleus (SOL) muscle while subjects walked on a treadmill and on a narrow beam (3.5 cm wide, raised 34 cm from the floor). The speed of walking on the treadmill was selected for each subject to match the background activation level of their SOL muscle during beam walking. The normal reciprocal activation pattern of the tibialis anterior and SOL muscles in treadmill walking was replaced by a pattern dominated by co-contraction on the beam. In addition, the step cycle duration was more variable and the time spent in the swing phase was reduced on the beam. The H-reflexes were highly modulated in both tasks, the amplitude being high in the stance phase and low in the swing phase. The H-reflex amplitude was on average 40% lower during beam walking than treadmill walking. The relationship between the H-reflex amplitude and the SOL EMG level was quantified by a regression line relating the two variables. The slope of this line was on average 41% lower in beam walking than treadmill walking. The lower H-reflex gain observed in this study and the high level of fusimotor drive observed in cats performing similar tasks suggest that the two mechanisms which control the excitability of this reflex pathway (i.e. fusimotor action and control of transmission at the muscle spindle to moto-neuron synapse) may be controlled independently.

  14. Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p < 0.001). Longer ground contact times, shorter flight times, longer midstance sub-phase and shorter propulsive sub-phase during stance were related to a better race walking economy (moderate effect, p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, the fastest race walkers were more economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.

  15. Walking and child pedestrian injury: a systematic review of built environment correlates of safe walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; To, Teresa; Howard, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The child active transportation literature has focused on walking, with little attention to risk associated with increased traffic exposure. This paper reviews the literature related to built environment correlates of walking and pedestrian injury in children together, to broaden the current conceptualization of walkability to include injury prevention. Two independent searches were conducted focused on walking in children and child pedestrian injury within nine electronic databases until March, 2012. Studies were included which: 1) were quantitative 2) set in motorized countries 3) were either urban or suburban 4) investigated specific built environment risk factors 5) had outcomes of either walking in children and/or child pedestrian roadway collisions (ages 0-12). Built environment features were categorized according to those related to density, land use diversity or roadway design. Results were cross-tabulated to identify how built environment features associate with walking and injury. Fifty walking and 35 child pedestrian injury studies were identified. Only traffic calming and presence of playgrounds/recreation areas were consistently associated with more walking and less pedestrian injury. Several built environment features were associated with more walking, but with increased injury. Many features had inconsistent results or had not been investigated for either outcome. The findings emphasise the importance of incorporating safety into the conversation about creating more walkable cities.

  16. Toe clearance and velocity profiles of young and elderly during walking on sloped surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begg Rezaul K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most falls in older adults are reported during locomotion and tripping has been identified as a major cause of falls. Challenging environments (e.g., walking on slopes are potential interventions for maintaining balance and gait skills. The aims of this study were: 1 to investigate whether or not distributions of two important gait variables [minimum toe clearance (MTC and foot velocity at MTC (VelMTC] and locomotor control strategies are altered during walking on sloped surfaces, and 2 if altered, are they maintained at two groups (young and elderly female groups. Methods MTC and VelMTC data during walking on a treadmill at sloped surfaces (+3°, 0° and -3° were analysed for 9 young (Y and 8 elderly (E female subjects. Results MTC distributions were found to be positively skewed whereas VelMTC distributions were negatively skewed for both groups on all slopes. Median MTC values increased (Y = 33%, E = 7% at negative slope but decreased (Y = 25%, E = 15% while walking on the positive slope surface compared to their MTC values at the flat surface (0°. Analysis of VelMTC distributions also indicated significantly (p th percentile (Q1 values in the elderly at all slopes. Conclusion The young displayed a strong positive correlation between MTC median changes and IQR (interquartile range changes due to walking on both slopes; however, such correlation was weak in the older adults suggesting differences in control strategies being employed to minimize the risk of tripping.

  17. Effect of retro and forward walking on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, function, and mobility in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-12

    Walking, a closed kinetic chain (CKC) activity, is widely used in knee rehabilitation as it allows early weight bearing and movement. It has been suggested that retro-walking may provide additional benefits beyond those experienced by forward-walking. The present study will investigate the effect of retro- and forward-walking on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, function, balance and mobility in knee Osteoarthritis (OA) subjects. Sixty-nine participants with knee OA will be recruited from the outpatient department in this randomized controlled trial. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups; retro walking, forward walking or control group. The training program will be 3 days/week for 6 weeks. In addition, all the participants will receive a standard physiotherapy training program. An independent assessor blinded to group assignment will measure quadriceps muscle strength, knee pain intensity, functional disability, and mobility at baseline and 6 weeks after training. The results of this study will enhance our understanding on the therapeutic effects of walking (retro- or forward-walking) in knee OA. The findings from this study will help determine whether retro- or forward-walking or both are effective in the rehabilitation of subjects with knee OA. Controlled Trials ISRCTN12850845, Registered 26 January 2015.

  18. Establishing the Range of Perceptually Natural Visual Walking Speeds for Virtual Walking-In-Place Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    to virtual motion. This paper describes two within-subjects studies performed with the intention of establishing the range of perceptually natural walking speeds for WIP locomotion. In both studies, subjects performed a series of virtual walks while exposed to visual gains (optic flow multipliers) ranging...... from 1.0 to 3.0. Thus, the slowest speed was equal to an estimate of the subjects normal walking speed, while the highest speed was three times greater. The perceived naturalness of the visual speed was assessed using self-reports. The first study compared four different types of movement, namely...... proportional to the degree of underestimation of the virtual speeds for both treadmill-mediated virtual walking and WIP locomotion. Combined, the results constitute a first attempt at establishing a set of guidelines specifying what virtual walking speeds WIP gestures should produce in order to facilitate...

  19. Walking economy during cued versus non-cued self-selected treadmill walking in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Paul M; McIsaac, Tara L; Garber, Carol Ewing

    2014-01-01

    Gait impairments related to Parkinson's disease (PD) include variable step length and decreased walking velocity, which may result in poorer walking economy. Auditory cueing is a common method used to improve gait mechanics in PD that has been shown to worsen walking economy at set treadmill walking speeds. It is unknown if auditory cueing has the same effects on walking economy at self-selected treadmill walking speeds. To determine if auditory cueing will affect walking economy at self-selected treadmill walking speeds and at speeds slightly faster and slower than self-selected. Twenty-two participants with moderate PD performed three, 6-minute bouts of treadmill walking at three speeds (self-selected and ± 0.22 m·sec-1). One session used cueing and the other without cueing. Energy expenditure was measured and walking economy was calculated (energy expenditure/power). Poorer walking economy and higher energy expenditure occurred during cued walking at a self-selected and a slightly faster walking speed, but there was no apparent difference at the slightly slower speed. These results suggest that potential gait benefits of auditory cueing may come at an energy cost and poorer walking economy for persons with PD at least at some treadmill walking speeds.

  20. Talk the Walk: Does Socio-Cognitive Resource Reallocation Facilitate the Development of Walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Ronny; Orr, Edna

    2016-01-01

    Walking is of interest to psychology, robotics, zoology, neuroscience and medicine. Human's ability to walk on two feet is considered to be one of the defining characteristics of hominoid evolution. Evolutionary science propses that it emerged in response to limited environmental resources; yet the processes supporting its emergence are not fully understood. Developmental psychology research suggests that walking elicits cognitive advancements. We postulate that the relationship between cognitive development and walking is a bi-directional one; and further suggest that the initiation of novel capacities, such as walking, is related to internal socio-cognitive resource reallocation. We shed light on these notions by exploring infants' cognitive and socio-communicative outputs prospectively from 6-18 months of age. Structured bi/tri weekly evaluations of symbolic and verbal development were employed in an urban cohort (N = 9) for 12 months, during the transition from crawling to walking. Results show links between preemptive cognitive changes in socio-communicative output, symbolic-cognitive tool-use processes, and the age of emergence of walking. Plots of use rates of lower symbolic play levels before and after emergence of new skills illustrate reductions in use of previously attained key behaviors prior to emergence of higher symbolic play, language and walking. Further, individual differences in age of walking initiation were strongly related to the degree of reductions in complexity of object-use (r = .832, p developments, form an integrated adaptable composite, which possibly enables proactive internal resource reallocation, designed to support the emergence of new developmental milestones, such as walking.

  1. Dog ownership, dog walking, and leisure-time walking among Taiwanese metropolitan and nonmetropolitan older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yung; Huang, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2018-04-04

    This study examined the prevalence of dog ownership and dog walking and its association with leisure-time walking among metropolitan and nonmetropolitan older adults. A telephone-based cross-sectional survey targeting Taiwanese older adults was conducted in November 2016. Data related to dog ownership, time spent dog walking (categorized as non-dog owner, non-dog walkers, and dog walkers), and sociodemographic variables were obtained from 1074 older adults. Adjusted binary logistic regression was then performed. In this sample, 12% of Taiwanese older adults owned a dog and 31% of them walked their dogs for an average of 232.13 min over 5.9 days/week (standard deviation = 2.03). Older adults living in nonmetropolitan areas were more likely to own a dog (14.7% vs. 9.1%) but less likely to walk their dog (25.9% vs. 39.6%) than were those living in metropolitan areas. Compared with non-dog owners, only older adults living in nonmetropolitan areas who were dog walkers achieved 150 min of leisure-time walking (odds ratio: 3.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-8.77), after adjustment for potential confounders. Older Taiwanese adults living in nonmetropolitan areas who owned and walked their dogs were more likely to achieve health-enhancing levels of leisure-time walking. Tailored physical activity interventions for promoting dog walking should be developed for older adults who are dog owners living in nonmetropolitan areas and who do not engage in dog walking.

  2. "Step by Step". A feasibility study of a lunchtime walking intervention designed to increase walking, improve mental well-being and work performance in sedentary employees: Rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kenneth R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following an extensive recruitment campaign, a 16-week lunchtime intervention to increase walking was implemented with insufficiently physically active University employees to examine programme feasibility and the effects of the programme in increasing walking behaviour, and in improving well-being and work performance. Methods/design A feasibility study in which participants were randomised to an immediate treatment or a delayed treatment control (to start at 10 weeks group. For the first ten weeks of the intervention, participants took part in three facilitator-led group walks per week each of thirty minutes duration and were challenged to accumulate another sixty minutes of walking during the weekends. In the second phase of the intervention, the organised group walks ceased to be offered and participants were encouraged to self-organise their walks. Motivational principles were employed using contemporary motivational theory. Outcome measures (including self-reported walking, step counts, cardiovascular fitness, general and work-related well-being and work performance were assessed at baseline, at the end of the 16-week intervention and (for some four months after the end of the intervention. Process and outcome assessments were also taken throughout, and following, the intervention. Discussion The results of the intervention will determine the feasibility of implementing a lunchtime walking programme to increase walking behaviour, well-being and performance in sedentary employees. If successful, there is scope to implement definitive trials across a range of worksites with the aim of improving both employee and organisational health. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81504663.

  3. Scaling Argument of Anisotropic Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bingzhen; Jin Guojun; Wang Feifeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analytically discuss the scaling properties of the average square end-to-end distance (R 2 ) for anisotropic random walk in D-dimensional space (D≥2), and the returning probability P n (r 0 ) for the walker into a certain neighborhood of the origin. We will not only give the calculating formula for (R 2 ) and P n (r 0 ), but also point out that if there is a symmetric axis for the distribution of the probability density of a single step displacement, we always obtain (R p erpendicular n 2 )∼n, where perpendicular refers to the projections of the displacement perpendicular to each symmetric axes of the walk; in D-dimensional space with D symmetric axes perpendicular to each other, we always have (R n 2 )∼n and the random walk will be like a purely random motion; if the number of inter-perpendicular symmetric axis is smaller than the dimensions of the space, we must have (R n 2 )∼n 2 for very large n and the walk will be like a ballistic motion. It is worth while to point out that unlike the isotropic random walk in one and two dimensions, which is certain to return into the neighborhood of the origin, generally there is only a nonzero probability for the anisotropic random walker in two dimensions to return to the neighborhood.

  4. Learning to walk changes infants' social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W

    2011-02-01

    The onset of crawling marks a motor, cognitive and social milestone. The present study investigated whether independent walking marks a second milestone for social behaviors. In Experiment 1, the social and exploratory behaviors of crawling infants were observed while crawling and in a baby-walker, resulting in no differences based on posture. In Experiment 2, the social behaviors of independently walking infants were compared to age-matched crawling infants in a baby-walker. Independently walking infants spent significantly more time interacting with the toys and with their mothers, and also made more vocalizations and more directed gestures compared to infants in the walker. Experiment 3 tracked infants' social behaviors longitudinally across the transition from crawling and walking. Even when controlled for age, the transition to independent walking marked increased interaction time with mothers, as well as more sophisticated interactions, including directing mothers' attention to particular objects. The results suggest a developmental progression linking social interactions with milestones in locomotor development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Can collective searches profit from Levy walk strategies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M C; Da Luz, M G E [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba-PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Raposo, E P [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife-PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Viswanathan, G M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio-AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: luz@fisica.ufpr.br

    2009-10-30

    We address the problem of collective searching in which a group of walkers, guided by a leader, looks for randomly located target sites. In such a process, the necessity to maintain the group aggregated imposes a constraint in the foraging dynamics. We discuss four different models for the system collective behavior, with the leader and followers performing Gaussian as well as truncated Levy walks. In environments with low density of targets we show that Levy foraging is advantageous for the whole group, when compared with Gaussian strategy. Furthermore, certain extra rules must be incorporated in the individuals' dynamics, so that a compromise between the trend to keep the group together and the global efficiency of search is met. The exact character of these rules depends on specific details of the foraging process, such as regeneration of target sites and energy costs.

  6. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response.

  7. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  8. Impact of a Pilot Videogame-Based Physical Activity Program on Walking Speed in Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, H; Hubbard, E; Cooper, B A; Dowling, G

    2017-11-10

    The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) on walking speed in adults with schizophrenia. In this randomized controlled trial, 28 participants played either an active videogame for 30 min (intervention group) or played a sedentary videogame for 30 min (control group), once a week for 6 weeks. Walking speed was measured objectively with the Short Physical Performance Battery at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. The intervention group (n = 13) showed an average improvement in walking speed of 0.08 m/s and the control group (n = 15) showed an average improvement in walking speed of 0.03 m/s. Although the change in walking speed was not statistically significant, the intervention group had between a small and substantial clinically meaningful change. The results suggest a videogame based physical activity program provides clinically meaningful improvement in walking speed, an important indicator of health status.

  9. Nordic Walking as an Exercise Intervention to Reduce Pain in Women With Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Arthralgia: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Jo; Richardson, Alison; Hopkinson, Jane; Fenlon, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Women taking aromatase inhibitors as treatment for breast cancer commonly experience joint pain and stiffness (aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia [AIAA]), which can cause problems with adherence. There is evidence that exercise might be helpful, and Nordic walking could reduce joint pain compared to normal walking. To determine the feasibility of a trial of Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for women with AIAA. A feasibility study was carried out in a sample of women with AIAA using a randomized control design. Women were randomized to exercise (six-week supervised group Nordic walking training once per week with an increasing independent element, followed by six weeks 4 × 30 minutes/week independent Nordic walking); or enhanced usual care. Data were collected on recruitment, retention, exercise adherence, safety, and acceptability. The Brief Pain Inventory, GP Physical Activity Questionnaire, and biopsychosocial measures were completed at baseline, six and 12 weeks. Forty of 159 eligible women were recruited and attrition was 10%. There was no increased lymphedema and no long-term or serious injury. Adherence was >90% for weekly supervised group Nordic walking, and during independent Nordic walking, >80% women managed one to two Nordic walking sessions per week. From baseline to study end point, overall activity levels increased and pain reduced in both the intervention and control groups. Our findings indicate that women with AIAA are prepared to take up Nordic walking, complete a six-week supervised course and maintain increased activity levels over a 12-week period with no adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 30 min of treadmill walking at self-selected speed does not increase gait variability in independent elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Kunzler, Marcos R; Bobbert, Maarten F; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2018-06-01

    Walking is one of the preferred exercises among elderly, but could a prolonged walking increase gait variability, a risk factor for a fall in the elderly? Here we determine whether 30 min of treadmill walking increases coefficient of variation of gait in elderly. Because gait responses to exercise depend on fitness level, we included 15 sedentary and 15 active elderly. Sedentary participants preferred a lower gait speed and made smaller steps than the actives. Step length coefficient of variation decreased ~16.9% by the end of the exercise in both the groups. Stride length coefficient of variation decreased ~9% after 10 minutes of walking, and sedentary elderly showed a slightly larger step width coefficient of variation (~2%) at 10 min than active elderly. Active elderly showed higher walk ratio (step length/cadence) than sedentary in all times of walking, but the times did not differ in both the groups. In conclusion, treadmill gait kinematics differ between sedentary and active elderly, but changes over time are similar in sedentary and active elderly. As a practical implication, 30 min of walking might be a good strategy of exercise for elderly, independently of the fitness level, because it did not increase variability in step and stride kinematics, which is considered a risk of fall in this population.

  11. Modeling, simulation and optimization of bipedal walking

    CERN Document Server

    Berns, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The model-based investigation of motions of anthropomorphic systems is an important interdisciplinary research topic involving specialists from many fields such as Robotics, Biomechanics, Physiology, Orthopedics, Psychology, Neurosciences, Sports, Computer Graphics and Applied Mathematics. This book presents a study of basic locomotion forms such as walking and running is of particular interest due to the high demand on dynamic coordination, actuator efficiency and balance control. Mathematical models and numerical simulation and optimization techniques are explained, in combination with experimental data, which can help to better understand the basic underlying mechanisms of these motions and to improve them. Example topics treated in this book are Modeling techniques for anthropomorphic bipedal walking systems Optimized walking motions for different objective functions Identification of objective functions from measurements Simulation and optimization approaches for humanoid robots Biologically inspired con...

  12. Universal quantum computation by discontinuous quantum walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, Michael S.; Feder, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum walks are the quantum-mechanical analog of random walks, in which a quantum ''walker'' evolves between initial and final states by traversing the edges of a graph, either in discrete steps from node to node or via continuous evolution under the Hamiltonian furnished by the adjacency matrix of the graph. We present a hybrid scheme for universal quantum computation in which a quantum walker takes discrete steps of continuous evolution. This ''discontinuous'' quantum walk employs perfect quantum-state transfer between two nodes of specific subgraphs chosen to implement a universal gate set, thereby ensuring unitary evolution without requiring the introduction of an ancillary coin space. The run time is linear in the number of simulated qubits and gates. The scheme allows multiple runs of the algorithm to be executed almost simultaneously by starting walkers one time step apart.

  13. Mesoscopic description of random walks on combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Iomin, Alexander; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner

    2015-12-01

    Combs are a simple caricature of various types of natural branched structures, which belong to the category of loopless graphs and consist of a backbone and branches. We study continuous time random walks on combs and present a generic method to obtain their transport properties. The random walk along the branches may be biased, and we account for the effect of the branches by renormalizing the waiting time probability distribution function for the motion along the backbone. We analyze the overall diffusion properties along the backbone and find normal diffusion, anomalous diffusion, and stochastic localization (diffusion failure), respectively, depending on the characteristics of the continuous time random walk along the branches, and compare our analytical results with stochastic simulations.

  14. Random walks and polygons in tight confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Ziegler, U

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the effect of confinement on the topology and geometry of tightly confined random walks and polygons. Here the walks and polygons are confined in a sphere of radius R ≥ 1/2 and the polygons are equilateral with n edges of unit length. We illustrate numerically that for a fixed length of random polygons the knotting probability increases to one as the radius decreases to 1/2. We also demonstrate that for random polygons (walks) the curvature increases to πn (π(n – 1)) as the radius approaches 1/2 and that the torsion decreases to ≈ πn/3 (≈ π(n – 1)/3). In addition we show the effect of length and confinement on the average crossing number of a random polygon

  15. Movement Behavior of High-Heeled Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter Christian; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2012-01-01

    The human locomotor system is flexible and enables humans to move without falling even under less than optimal conditions. Walking with high-heeled shoes constitutes an unstable condition and here we ask how the nervous system controls the ankle joint in this situation? We investigated the movement...... behavior of high-heeled and barefooted walking in eleven female subjects. The movement variability was quantified by calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn) in the ankle joint angle and the standard deviation (SD) of the stride time intervals. Electromyography (EMG) of the soleus (SO) and tibialis...... anterior (TA) muscles and the soleus Hoffmann (H-) reflex were measured at 4.0 km/h on a motor driven treadmill to reveal the underlying motor strategies in each walking condition. The ApEn of the ankle joint angle was significantly higher (p...

  16. Random walks of oriented particles on fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, René; Prehl, Janett; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Herrmann, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Random walks of point particles on fractals exhibit subdiffusive behavior, where the anomalous diffusion exponent is smaller than one, and the corresponding random walk dimension is larger than two. This is due to the limited space available in fractal structures. Here, we endow the particles with an orientation and analyze their dynamics on fractal structures. In particular, we focus on the dynamical consequences of the interactions between the local surrounding fractal structure and the particle orientation, which are modeled using an appropriate move class. These interactions can lead to particles becoming temporarily or permanently stuck in parts of the structure. A surprising finding is that the random walk dimension is not affected by the orientation while the diffusion constant shows a variety of interesting and surprising features. (paper)

  17. Quantum random-walk search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenvi, Neil; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Kempe, Julia

    2003-01-01

    Quantum random walks on graphs have been shown to display many interesting properties, including exponentially fast hitting times when compared with their classical counterparts. However, it is still unclear how to use these novel properties to gain an algorithmic speedup over classical algorithms. In this paper, we present a quantum search algorithm based on the quantum random-walk architecture that provides such a speedup. It will be shown that this algorithm performs an oracle search on a database of N items with O(√(N)) calls to the oracle, yielding a speedup similar to other quantum search algorithms. It appears that the quantum random-walk formulation has considerable flexibility, presenting interesting opportunities for development of other, possibly novel quantum algorithms

  18. Do you remember proposing marriage to the Pepsi machine? False recollections from a campus walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G; Philbin, Morgan M; Harrison, Liza G

    2006-10-01

    During a campus walk, participants were given familiar or bizarre action statements (e.g., "Check the Pepsi machine for change" vs. "Propose marriage to the Pepsi machine") with instructions either to perform the actions or imagine performing the actions (Group 1) or to watch the experimenter perform the actions or imagine the experimenter performing the actions (Group 2). One day later, some actions were repeated, along with new actions, on a second walk. Two weeks later, the participants took a recognition test for actions presented during the first walk, and they specified whether a recognized action was imagined or performed. Imagining themselves or the experimenter performing familiar or bizarre actions just once led to false recollections of performance for both types of actions. This study extends previous research on imagination inflation by demonstrating that these false performance recollections can occur in a natural, real-life setting following just one imagining.

  19. Work out by Walking: A Pilot Exercise Program for Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Battaglini, Claudio L; Ludwig, Kelsey

    2016-09-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well documented, yet annual health care costs related to physical inactivity are well within the billions. Furthermore, individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) are more likely to lead sedentary lives, exercise less than the general population, and die prematurely from preventable causes. Previous research examining the effects of exercise on individuals with SSDs has been encouraging yet limited in creating accessible and sustainable interventions. The current pilot study developed and evaluated the impact of Work out by Walking (WOW), a multicomponent group walking intervention on the health of 16 individuals with SSDs. Results indicated improvements in indicators of physical health, activity level, social support, and mental health and a high level of program satisfaction. Future research should examine multicomponent group walking programs for individuals with SSDs in larger samples and with the inclusion of a comparison condition.

  20. The effect of spasticity, sense and walking aids in falls of people after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyuer, Ferhan; Oztürk, Ahmet

    2007-05-15

    To study the effects of spasticity, sensory impairment, and type of walking aid on falls in community dwellers with chronic stroke. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Instrument, Joint Position Sense Evaluation (JPS), the Rivermead motor assessment scale (RMA), Ashworth Scale, Tinetti Assessment Tool were used to assess 100 cases. Fifty-three of the cases were grouped as nonfallers, 36 as one-time fallers and 11 as repeat fallers. These 3 groups were found to be different from each other in respect to FIM, Tinetti test and RMA (p cane, 41.9% high cane). According to Ordinal logistic regression analysis, it was found that the possibility of fall increased (p fall of the individuals with stroke decreased (p falls, spasticity is also an indicator for chronic stroke patients, as is motor impairment, functional situation, impairment of balance and walking. Sensory impairment, using a walking aid and the type were found to be ineffective.

  1. Effect of walking versus resistance exercise on pain and function in older adults with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishti Sanat Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Knee osteoarthritis (OA is an important cause of pain and functional limitation in older people. Several short-term studies state that walking and resistance exercise reduce pain and disability and improve physical fitness in people with knee OA. Aims: To compare the effect of walking and resistance exercise on pain and function in older adults with knee OA. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the physiotherapy department of General Hospital. Twenty one males and females in the age range of 60-75 years, diagnosed with knee OA by the orthopedic department according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria were randomly allocated into three groups. Conventional physiotherapy treatment remained common for all the groups. Group A subjects additionally walked at a self-paced speed. Group B subjects received resistance exercise for hip and knee muscles. Group C subjects received conventional physiotherapy treatment alone. Intervention was given 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Pain intensity at rest and during activity was assessed using visual analog scale (VAS and physical function was assessed by Western Ontario McMasters Arthritic Index (WOMAC. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: There was a significant difference in VAS at rest within group A and group B. The difference in VAS during activity and WOMAC scores was significant within each group. Mean difference in VAS during activity revealed a significant difference between group B and group A and between group B and group C. The mean difference in WOMAC scores was significant between group A and group C. Mean difference in VAS at rest showed no difference between the groups. Conclusion: Resistance exercises are more effective in reducing pain during activity and walking is more effective in improving physical function in older adults with knee OA.

  2. [Objective evaluation of arterial intermittent claudication by the walking tolerance test. Comparative study of physiological walking and walking on a conveyor belt (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, J Y; Franco, A; Morzol, B; Beani, J C

    1980-01-01

    Two methods are used to evaluate the walking distance: physiological walking along a standard path (0% - 6 mk/h) and walking on a tread mill (10% - 3 km/h). In both tests, four data are checked: -- initial trouble distance, -- cramp or walking-distance, -- localisation of pain, -- recovery time. These tests are dependable for the diagnosis of arterial claudication, reproducible and well tolerated. Their results have been compared: there is no correlation between the initial trouble distance and the cramp distance. However there is a correlation between the cramp distance by physiological walking and on treadmill. Recovery time, if long, is a criteria of gravity. Interests of both methods are discussed.

  3. Trying-out a walking help

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    that constitute the trial as a joint activity in which the impaired participant becomes a competent participant and independent walker. The analysis is based on video recordings from a case study in which a person with brain injury is trying out a new type of walking help. The trial is understood as a situated...... learning process in which the participants prepare, enact and assess the performance of the technology supported walking. The paper distinguishes two iterative phases in which the impaired person is constituted as an independent walker: the adjustment and assessment of a body-device relation and, further...

  4. Path probabilities of continuous time random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eule, Stephan; Friedrich, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Employing the path integral formulation of a broad class of anomalous diffusion processes, we derive the exact relations for the path probability densities of these processes. In particular, we obtain a closed analytical solution for the path probability distribution of a Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) process. This solution is given in terms of its waiting time distribution and short time propagator of the corresponding random walk as a solution of a Dyson equation. Applying our analytical solution we derive generalized Feynman–Kac formulae. (paper)

  5. Topics in random walks in random environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sznitman, A.-S.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last twenty-five years random motions in random media have been intensively investigated and some new general methods and paradigms have by now emerged. Random walks in random environment constitute one of the canonical models of the field. However in dimension bigger than one they are still poorly understood and many of the basic issues remain to this day unresolved. The present series of lectures attempt to give an account of the progresses which have been made over the last few years, especially in the study of multi-dimensional random walks in random environment with ballistic behavior. (author)

  6. Neighborhood Walking and Social Capital: The Correlation between Walking Experience and Individual Perception of Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heechul Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between people’s actual walking experience and their social capital levels in order to examine the possibility of restoring weakened social functions of streets and public spaces in a walking-friendly urban environment. Based on the survey data of 591 residents of Seoul, we empirically analyzed the relationship between walking experience for various purposes and individual perceptions of social capital using one-way ANOVA and OLS regression models. As a result of the analysis, we found that the levels of neighborly trust and networking of people who experienced leisure walking were higher than those of people who did not, while there was no difference in the level of social capital according to walking experiences for other purposes. This result is significant in that it shows the basis for the restoration of the social function of neighborhoods through social capital formation of people as an effect of walking. Hence, it is important to create a walking environment that supports leisure activities.

  7. Walk Score® and Transit Score® and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Moore, Kari A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multi-city and diverse population-based sample of adults. Methods Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD; Chicago IL; Forsyth County NC; Los Angeles CA; New York NY; and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010–2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a “walker’s paradise,” lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Conclusions Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. PMID:23867022

  8. Consumer preference in ranking walking function utilizing the walking index for spinal cord injury II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M; Ditunno, P; Ditunno, J F; Marino, R J; Scivoletto, G; Lam, T; Loffree, J; Tamburella, F; Leiby, B

    2011-12-01

    Blinded rank ordering. To determine consumer preference in walking function utilizing the walking Index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)from the Canada, the Italy and the United States of America. In all, 42 consumers with incomplete SCI (25 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar) from Canada (12/42), Italy (14/42) and the United States of America (16/42) ranked the 20 levels of the WISCI II scale by their individual preference for walking. Subjects were blinded to the original ranking of the WISCI II scale by clinical scientists. Photographs of each WISCI II level used in a previous pilot study were randomly shuffled and rank ordered. Percentile, conjoint/cluster and graphic analyses were performed. All three analyses illustrated consumer ranking followed a bimodal distribution. Ranking for two levels with physical assistance and two levels with a walker were bimodal with a difference of five to six ranks between consumer subgroups (quartile analysis). The larger cluster (N=20) showed preference for walking with assistance over the smaller cluster (N=12), whose preference was walking without assistance and more devices. In all, 64% (27/42) of consumers ranked WISCI II level with no devices or braces and 1 person assistance higher than multiple levels of the WISCI II requiring no assistance. These results were unexpected, as the hypothesis was that consumers would rank independent walking higher than walking with assistance. Consumer preference for walking function should be considered in addition to objective measures in designing SCI trials that use significant improvement in walking function as an outcome measure.

  9. The restoration of walking stereotype with robotic device in patients after knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Koneva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of the reconstruction of the external robotic walking (RRH on the device "Lokomat" in patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA in the early postoperative period (priori. The patients were divided into two groups: the study group (n=112 in patients whose priori to train walk on robotic device (EDM and control group (n = 80, where the restoration was carried out in an active stereotype motoring instructor-led exercise therapy without use of mechanized equipment. Comparative analysis of the test results revealed more efficient recovery stereotype walk from the main group. In the analysis of the main group in the dynamics dinamoplantgrafii showed improvement in economic structure step, restoring the symmetry of the load while walking between the lower limbs, improved suspension function of the operated limb. According to the analysis parameter of the trajectory of migration center under the feet, we noted an increase in the effective axial load on the operated leg in the main group 1161.29 267.49 g/cm2 compared with the control group 460.28 52.42 g/cm2 (p ≤ 0,05. In the main group also showed a decrease of anxiety and increasing motivation. Conducted an X-ray - control the implanted joint in the long-term (12 months after surgery did not show any signs of instability in the case of prosthetic components. Thus, conducting robotic training walk in patients in the early postoperative period is an effective and safe method of rehabilitation.

  10. Aircast walking boot and below-knee walking cast for avulsion fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal: a comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Mohammad Kamran; Punwar, Shahid; Boulind, Caroline; Bannister, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Acute avulsion fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal are common and are treated in a variety of ways. The aims of this study were to compare pain, functional outcome, and time taken off work after treatment with a walking boot or a short-leg cast. Of 39 patients with acute avulsion fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal, 23 were treated with a short-leg cast and 16 with a walking boot, according to the preference of the consultant present at outpatient clinic. Functional outcome was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle Questionnaire (VAS FA), pain, and other complaints on presentation and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after injury. The VAS FA scores were compared between the 2 groups by a paired Student t test. The mean time to return to the level of pain and function before injury was approximately 9 weeks after treatment in the walking boot group and 12 weeks with a short-leg cast. Patients with walking boots reported less pain between 3 and 12 weeks than did those with short-leg casts after 6 (P = .06), 9 (P = .020), and 12 weeks (P = .33). Function was significantly better with Aircast walking boots after 3 (P = .006), 6 (P = .002), and 9 weeks (P = .002) but not after 12 weeks (P = .09). Patients returned to their preinjury level of driving after 6 weeks with walking boots and 12 weeks with short-leg casts (P = .006). Employed patients took a mean of 35.8 days off work (range, 28-42 days), fewer with boots (31.5 days) than with short-leg casts (39.2 days). The walking boot was better treatment than a short-leg cast for avulsion fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal. Patients had an improved combined level of pain and function 3 weeks earlier, at 9 weeks post injury, when managed in a walking boot. Level II, prospective comparative series.

  11. Relationship between quantum walks and relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekar, C. M.; Banerjee, Subhashish; Srikanth, R.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum walk models have been used as an algorithmic tool for quantum computation and to describe various physical processes. This article revisits the relationship between relativistic quantum mechanics and the quantum walks. We show the similarities of the mathematical structure of the decoupled and coupled forms of the discrete-time quantum walk to that of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, respectively. In the latter case, the coin emerges as an analog of the spinor degree of freedom. Discrete-time quantum walk as a coupled form of the continuous-time quantum walk is also shown by transforming the decoupled form of the discrete-time quantum walk to the Schroedinger form. By showing the coin to be a means to make the walk reversible and that the Dirac-like structure is a consequence of the coin use, our work suggests that the relativistic causal structure is a consequence of conservation of information. However, decoherence (modeled by projective measurements on position space) generates entropy that increases with time, making the walk irreversible and thereby producing an arrow of time. The Lieb-Robinson bound is used to highlight the causal structure of the quantum walk to put in perspective the relativistic structure of the quantum walk, the maximum speed of walk propagation, and earlier findings related to the finite spread of the walk probability distribution. We also present a two-dimensional quantum walk model on a two-state system to which the study can be extended.

  12. Quantum Walks on the Line with Phase Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Marcos; Nakanishi, Masaki; Yamashita, Shigeru; Nakashima, Yasuhiko

    In this paper, a study on discrete-time coined quantum walks on the line is presented. Clear mathematical foundations are still lacking for this quantum walk model. As a step toward this objective, the following question is being addressed: Given a graph, what is the probability that a quantum walk arrives at a given vertex after some number of steps? This is a very natural question, and for random walks it can be answered by several different combinatorial arguments. For quantum walks this is a highly non-trivial task. Furthermore, this was only achieved before for one specific coin operator (Hadamard operator) for walks on the line. Even considering only walks on lines, generalizing these computations to a general SU(2) coin operator is a complex task. The main contribution is a closed-form formula for the amplitudes of the state of the walk (which includes the question above) for a general symmetric SU(2) operator for walks on the line. To this end, a coin operator with parameters that alters the phase of the state of the walk is defined. Then, closed-form solutions are computed by means of Fourier analysis and asymptotic approximation methods. We also present some basic properties of the walk which can be deducted using weak convergence theorems for quantum walks. In particular, the support of the induced probability distribution of the walk is calculated. Then, it is shown how changing the parameters in the coin operator affects the resulting probability distribution.

  13. Talk the Walk: Does Socio-Cognitive Resource Reallocation Facilitate the Development of Walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Geva

    Full Text Available Walking is of interest to psychology, robotics, zoology, neuroscience and medicine. Human's ability to walk on two feet is considered to be one of the defining characteristics of hominoid evolution. Evolutionary science propses that it emerged in response to limited environmental resources; yet the processes supporting its emergence are not fully understood. Developmental psychology research suggests that walking elicits cognitive advancements. We postulate that the relationship between cognitive development and walking is a bi-directional one; and further suggest that the initiation of novel capacities, such as walking, is related to internal socio-cognitive resource reallocation. We shed light on these notions by exploring infants' cognitive and socio-communicative outputs prospectively from 6-18 months of age. Structured bi/tri weekly evaluations of symbolic and verbal development were employed in an urban cohort (N = 9 for 12 months, during the transition from crawling to walking. Results show links between preemptive cognitive changes in socio-communicative output, symbolic-cognitive tool-use processes, and the age of emergence of walking. Plots of use rates of lower symbolic play levels before and after emergence of new skills illustrate reductions in use of previously attained key behaviors prior to emergence of higher symbolic play, language and walking. Further, individual differences in age of walking initiation were strongly related to the degree of reductions in complexity of object-use (r = .832, p < .005, along with increases, counter to the general reduction trend, in skills that serve recruitment of external resources [socio-communication bids before speech (r = -.696, p < .01, and speech bids before walking; r = .729, p < .01]. Integration of these proactive changes using a computational approach yielded an even stronger link, underscoring internal resource reallocation as a facilitator of walking initiation (r = .901, p<0

  14. Home-based walking improves cardiopulmonary function and health-related QOL in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, N; Nakatani, T; Morita, N; Saeki, K; Kurumatani, N

    2007-12-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a home-based walking program on physical fitness and QOL among community residents. Subjects (n = 200, mean age: 64.2 years, range: 42 - 75 years) who participated in the 32-week trial were randomly allocated to one of two groups: an exercise (E) group and a control (C) group. The E group was instructed to increase the number of steps a day that they walked and to perform aerobic walking at a target heart rate for 20 minutes or more daily, 2 or more days a week. The C group was told to continue their normal level of activity. Outcome measures were the 3-minute shuttle stamina walk test (SSWT), 30-second chair-stand test (CS-30), and SF-36. Increases in SSWT values were significantly greater in the E group than in the C group (men 24.1 m vs. 6.3 m; women 8.8 m vs. 2.4 m), as were increases in CS-30 values (men 5.9 vs. 2.6; women 4.5 vs. - 0.1). On the SF-36, the scores in the E group for vitality and mental health increased significantly. Home-based walking is considered to be an effective and feasible method to improve physical fitness and QOL among community residents.

  15. Musical motor feedback (MMF) in walking hemiparetic stroke patients: randomized trials of gait improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Michael; Mauritz, Karl-Heinz

    2003-11-01

    To demonstrate the effect of rhythmical auditory stimulation in a musical context for gait therapy in hemiparetic stroke patients, when the stimulation is played back measure by measure initiated by the patient's heel-strikes (musical motor feedback). Does this type of musical feedback improve walking more than a less specific gait therapy? The randomized controlled trial considered 23 registered stroke patients. Two groups were created by randomization: the control group received 15 sessions of conventional gait therapy and the test group received 15 therapy sessions with musical motor feedback. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Median post-stroke interval was 44 days and the patients were able to walk without technical aids with a speed of approximately 0.71 m/s. Gait velocity, step duration, gait symmetry, stride length and foot rollover path length (heel-on-toe-off distance). The test group showed more mean improvement than the control group: stride length increased by 18% versus 0%, symmetry deviation decreased by 58% versus 20%, walking speed increased by 27% versus 4% and rollover path length increased by 28% versus 11%. Musical motor feedback improves the stroke patient's walk in selected parameters more than conventional gait therapy. A fixed memory in the patient's mind about the song and its timing may stimulate the improvement of gait even without the presence of an external pacemaker.

  16. Comparison of walking overground and in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN in individuals with and without transtibial amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates Deanna H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to increased interest in treadmill gait training, recent research has focused on the similarities and differences between treadmill and overground walking. Most of these studies have tested healthy, young subjects rather than impaired populations that might benefit from such training. These studies also do not include optic flow, which may change how the individuals integrate sensory information when walking on a treadmill. This study compared overground walking to treadmill walking in a computer assisted virtual reality environment (CAREN in individuals with and without transtibial amputations (TTA. Methods Seven individuals with traumatic TTA and 27 unimpaired controls participated. Subjects walked overground and on a treadmill in a CAREN at a normalized speed. The CAREN applied optic flow at the same speed that the subject walked. Temporal-spatial parameters, full body kinematics, and kinematic variability were collected during all trials. Results Both subject groups decreased step time and control subjects decreased step length when walking in the CAREN. Differences in lower extremity kinematics were small (○ and did not exceed the minimal detectable change values for these measures. Control subjects exhibited decreased transverse and frontal plane range of motion of the pelvis and trunk when walking in the CAREN, while patients with TTA did not. Both groups exhibited increased step width variability during treadmill walking in the CAREN, but only minor changes in kinematic variability. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that treadmill training in a virtual environment should be similar enough to overground that changes should carry over. Caution should be made when comparing step width variability and step time results from studies utilizing a treadmill to those overground.

  17. Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Ana Paula Dias Vilas; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Sakano, Eulália; Conti, Patricia Blau Margosian; Toro, Adyléia Dalbo Contrera; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB) have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT) and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB) children and adolescents. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB) and 69 boys (44 NB and 25 MB). Variables were analyzed during the 6MWT: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, distance walked in six minutes and modified Borg scale. All the variables studied were statistically different between groups NB and MB, with the exception of school performance and HR in 6MWT. MB affects physical performance and not the academic performance, we noticed a changed pattern in the 6MWT in the MB group. Since the MBs in our study were classified as non-severe, other studies comparing the academic performance variables and 6MWT are needed to better understand the process of physical and academic performances in MB children.

  19. A smartphone-based system for automated detection of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Walking is the most effective mode of travel to access transit: transit hubs with higher residential and employment densities have higher : ridership levels because they serve areas where a large population is within a short walk of transit service. ...

  20. Take a Walk (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Regular physical activity is important for maintaining good health. One activity that's easy and readily available to most people is walking. In this podcast, Dr. Emily Ussery discusses the health benefits of walking.

  1. Efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-07-01

    A major advantage in using Szegedy's formalism over discrete-time and continuous-time quantum walks lies in its ability to define a unitary quantum walk by quantizing a Markov chain on a directed or weighted graph. In this paper, we present a general scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks that correspond to classical Markov chains possessing transformational symmetry in the columns of the transition matrix. In particular, the transformational symmetry criteria do not necessarily depend on the sparsity of the transition matrix, so this scheme can be applied to non-sparse Markov chains. Two classes of Markov chains that are amenable to this construction are cyclic permutations and complete bipartite graphs, for which we provide explicit efficient quantum circuit implementations. We also prove that our scheme can be applied to Markov chains formed by a tensor product. We also briefly discuss the implementation of Markov chains based on weighted interdependent networks. In addition, we apply this scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits simulating the Szegedy walks used in the quantum Pagerank algorithm for some classes of non-trivial graphs, providing a necessary tool for experimental demonstration of the quantum Pagerank algorithm.

  2. Random walk centrality for temporal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Luis E C; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Nodes can be ranked according to their relative importance within a network. Ranking algorithms based on random walks are particularly useful because they connect topological and diffusive properties of the network. Previous methods based on random walks, for example the PageRank, have focused on static structures. However, several realistic networks are indeed dynamic, meaning that their structure changes in time. In this paper, we propose a centrality measure for temporal networks based on random walks under periodic boundary conditions that we call TempoRank. It is known that, in static networks, the stationary density of the random walk is proportional to the degree or the strength of a node. In contrast, we find that, in temporal networks, the stationary density is proportional to the in-strength of the so-called effective network, a weighted and directed network explicitly constructed from the original sequence of transition matrices. The stationary density also depends on the sojourn probability q, which regulates the tendency of the walker to stay in the node, and on the temporal resolution of the data. We apply our method to human interaction networks and show that although it is important for a node to be connected to another node with many random walkers (one of the principles of the PageRank) at the right moment, this effect is negligible in practice when the time order of link activation is included. (paper)

  3. Random walk centrality for temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luis E. C.; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Nodes can be ranked according to their relative importance within a network. Ranking algorithms based on random walks are particularly useful because they connect topological and diffusive properties of the network. Previous methods based on random walks, for example the PageRank, have focused on static structures. However, several realistic networks are indeed dynamic, meaning that their structure changes in time. In this paper, we propose a centrality measure for temporal networks based on random walks under periodic boundary conditions that we call TempoRank. It is known that, in static networks, the stationary density of the random walk is proportional to the degree or the strength of a node. In contrast, we find that, in temporal networks, the stationary density is proportional to the in-strength of the so-called effective network, a weighted and directed network explicitly constructed from the original sequence of transition matrices. The stationary density also depends on the sojourn probability q, which regulates the tendency of the walker to stay in the node, and on the temporal resolution of the data. We apply our method to human interaction networks and show that although it is important for a node to be connected to another node with many random walkers (one of the principles of the PageRank) at the right moment, this effect is negligible in practice when the time order of link activation is included.

  4. Garden walking for depression: a research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Hanson, Claire; McCaffrey, William

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of garden walking and reflective journaling on adults who are 65 years old and older with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depression. Four themes emerged from the interview data collected from each participant.

  5. Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…

  6. Walking-Beam Solar-Cell Conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled walking-beam conveyor moves cells between work stations in automated assembly line. Conveyor has arm at each work station. In unison arms pick up all solar cells and advance them one station; then beam retracks to be in position for next step. Microprocessor sets beam stroke, speed, and position.

  7. Assessment of a Solar System Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

  8. Random walk term weighting for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weights...

  9. Infrared dynamics of Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    We study the gauge sector of Minimal Walking Technicolor, which is an SU(2) gauge theory with nf=2 flavors of Wilson fermions in the adjoint representation. Numerical simulations are performed on lattices Nt x Ns^3, with Ns ranging from 8 to 16 and Nt=2Ns, at fixed \\beta=2.25, and varying...

  10. Mesonic spectroscopy of Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the structure and the novel emerging features of the mesonic non-singlet spectrum of the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) theory. Precision measurements in the nonsinglet pseudoscalar and vector channels are compared to the expectations for an IR-conformal field theory and a QCD...

  11. Analysis, Control and Design of Walking Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis five research questions are discussed that are related to the development of two-legged (bipedal) walking robots. The research questions are categorized in three main topics: analysis, control and actuation and design. The research questions are: - How can we analyze the behavior of a

  12. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  13. Sound design and perception in walking interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visell, Yon; Fontana, Federico; Giordano, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    of walking, and the design, engineering, and evaluation of interfaces that utilize them. Much of this expertise has accumulated in recent years, although many questions remain to be explored. We highlight past work and current research directions in this multidisciplinary area of investigation, and point...

  14. The Physics of a Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-01-01

    The physics of walking is explored, using a toy as a concrete example and a "toy model" applied to it. Besides using Newton's second law, the problem is also discussed from the thermodynamical perspective. Once the steady state (constant velocity) is achieved, we show that the internal energy of the toy is dissipated as heat in the…

  15. Adaptive Nonlinear Tracking for Robotic Walking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolinský, Kamil; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2012), s. 28-35 ISSN 2223-7038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Adaptive control * Kalman filter * walking robots Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://lib.physcon.ru/doc?id=9e51935aa5bc

  16. Walking Training with Foot Drop Stimulator Controlled by a Tilt Sensor to Improve Walking Outcomes: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study in Patients with Stroke in Subacute Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Morone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot drop is a quite common problem in nervous system disorders. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES has showed to be an alternative approach to correct foot drop improving walking ability in patients with stroke. In this study, twenty patients with stroke in subacute phase were enrolled and randomly divided in two groups: one group performing the NMES (i.e. Walkaide Group, WG and the Control Group (CG performing conventional neuromotor rehabilitation. Both groups underwent the same amount of treatment time. Significant improvements of walking speed were recorded for WG (% than for CG (%, as well as in terms of locomotion (Functional Ambulation Classification score: . In terms of mobility and force, ameliorations were recorded, even if not significant (Rivermead Mobility Index: ; Manual Muscle Test: . Similar changes between groups were observed for independence in activities of daily living, neurological assessments, and spasticity reduction. These results highlight the potential efficacy for patients affected by a droop foot of a walking training performed with a neurostimulator in subacute phase.

  17. Pilates exercise training vs. physical therapy for improving walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Rosenblum, Uri; Frid, Lior; Achiron, Anat

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the effects of a Pilates exercise programme on walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis and compare this exercise approach to conventional physical therapy sessions. Randomized controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Forty-five people with multiple sclerosis, 29 females, mean age (SD) was 43.2 (11.6) years; mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (S.D) was 4.3 (1.3). Participants received 12 weekly training sessions of either Pilates ( n=22) or standardized physical therapy ( n=23) in an outpatient basis. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking and posturography parameters during static stance. Functional tests included the Time Up and Go Test, 2 and 6-minute walk test, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and the Four Square Step Test. In addition, the following self-report forms included the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. At the termination, both groups had significantly increased their walking speed ( P=0.021) and mean step length ( P=0.023). According to the 2-minute and 6-minute walking tests, both groups at the end of the intervention program had increased their walking speed. Mean (SD) increase in the Pilates and physical therapy groups were 39.1 (78.3) and 25.3 (67.2) meters, respectively. There was no effect of group X time in all instrumented and clinical balance and gait measures. Pilates is a possible treatment option for people with multiple sclerosis in order to improve their walking and balance capabilities. However, this approach does not have any significant advantage over standardized physical therapy.

  18. Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Expósito i Amagat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6 Review to  Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6

  19. Searching via walking: How to find a marked clique of a complete graph using quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, Mark; Reitzner, Daniel; Buzek, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We show how a quantum walk can be used to find a marked edge or a marked complete subgraph of a complete graph. We employ a version of a quantum walk, the scattering walk, which lends itself to experimental implementation. The edges are marked by adding elements to them that impart a specific phase shift to the particle as it enters or leaves the edge. If the complete graph has N vertices and the subgraph has K vertices, the particle becomes localized on the subgraph in O(N/K) steps. This leads to a quantum search that is quadratically faster than a corresponding classical search. We show how to implement the quantum walk using a quantum circuit and a quantum oracle, which allows us to specify the resources needed for a quantitative comparison of the efficiency of classical and quantum searches--the number of oracle calls.

  20. Continuous-time quantum walks on star graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs. It is shown that quantum central limit theorem for a continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs for N-fold star power graph, which are invariant under the quantum component of adjacency matrix, converges to continuous-time quantum walk on K 2 graphs (complete graph with two vertices) and the probability of observing walk tends to the uniform distribution.

  1. Dilemma Produced by Infinity of a Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We report a dilemma produced by the infinity of a random walk moving along a two-dimensional space sidestep. For this random walk, our investigation shows that using a different model can lead to a different diffusion coefficient of the random walk, which is produced by the infinity of the random walk. The result obtained by us in the present work can serve as a warning to us when we build the models to investigate the corresponding scientific problems. (paper)

  2. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  3. Trunk motion visual feedback during walking improves dynamic balance in older adults: Assessor blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Eric; Ma, Lei; Meetam, Tippawan; Thompson, Elizabeth; Rathore, Roshita; Dean, Victoria; Jeka, John

    2018-05-01

    Virtual reality and augmented feedback have become more prevalent as training methods to improve balance. Few reports exist on the benefits of providing trunk motion visual feedback (VFB) during treadmill walking, and most of those reports only describe within session changes. To determine whether trunk motion VFB treadmill walking would improve over-ground balance for older adults with self-reported balance problems. 40 adults (75.8 years (SD 6.5)) with self-reported balance difficulties or a history of falling were randomized to a control or experimental group. Everyone walked on a treadmill at a comfortable speed 3×/week for 4 weeks in 2 min bouts separated by a seated rest. The control group was instructed to look at a stationary bulls-eye target while the experimental group also saw a moving cursor superimposed on the stationary bulls-eye that represented VFB of their walking trunk motion. The experimental group was instructed to keep the cursor in the center of the bulls-eye. Somatosensory (monofilaments and joint position testing) and vestibular function (canal specific clinical head impulses) was evaluated prior to intervention. Balance and mobility were tested before and after the intervention using Berg Balance Test, BESTest, mini-BESTest, and Six Minute Walk. There were no significant differences between groups before the intervention. The experimental group significantly improved on the BESTest (p = 0.031) and the mini-BEST (p = 0.019). The control group did not improve significantly on any measure. Individuals with more profound sensory impairments had a larger improvement on dynamic balance subtests of the BESTest. Older adults with self-reported balance problems improve their dynamic balance after training using trunk motion VFB treadmill walking. Individuals with worse sensory function may benefit more from trunk motion VFB during walking than individuals with intact sensory function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Nordic Walking (NW owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W. Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2 performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2 were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill.

  5. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Bacchi, Elisabetta; Figard-Fabre, Hélène; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W). Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2) performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill.

  6. A botanical compound, Padma 28, increases walking distance in stable intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabaek, H; Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H

    1993-01-01

    and by measurements of the pain-free and the maximal walking distance on a treadmill. The ankle pressure index (ankle systolic pressure/arm systolic pressure) was calculated. The group randomized to active treatment received two tablets bid containing 340 mg of a dried herbal mixture composed according to an ancient...

  7. Rhythm perturbations in acoustically paced treadmill walking after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van Kordelaar, Joost; Elich, Peter; Konijnenbelt, Manin; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J

    2009-09-01

    In rehabilitation, acoustic rhythms are often used to improve gait after stroke. Acoustic cueing may enhance gait coordination by creating a stable coupling between heel strikes and metronome beats and provide a means to train the adaptability of gait coordination to environmental changes, as required in everyday life ambulation. To examine the stability and adaptability of auditory-motor synchronization in acoustically paced treadmill walking in stroke patients. Eleven stroke patients and 10 healthy controls walked on a treadmill at preferred speed and cadence under no metronome, single-metronome (pacing only paretic or nonparetic steps), and double-metronome (pacing both footfalls) conditions. The stability of auditory-motor synchronization was quantified by the variability of the phase relation between footfalls and beats. In a separate session, the acoustic rhythms were perturbed and adaptations to restore auditory-motor synchronization were quantified. For both groups, auditory-motor synchronization was more stable for double-metronome than single-metronome conditions, with stroke patients exhibiting an overall weaker coupling of footfalls to metronome beats than controls. The recovery characteristics following rhythm perturbations corroborated the stability findings and further revealed that stroke patients had difficulty in accelerating their steps and instead preferred a slower-step response to restore synchronization. In gait rehabilitation practice, the use of acoustic rhythms may be more effective when both footfalls are paced. In addition, rhythm perturbations during acoustically paced treadmill walking may not only be employed to evaluate the stability of auditory-motor synchronization but also have promising implications for evaluation and training of gait adaptations in neurorehabilitation practice.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: More People Walk to Better Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems such as snow, rocks, trash, and fallen tree limbs. Promote walking paths with signs that are easy to read, and route maps that the public can easily find and use. Employers can Create and support walking programs for employees. Identify walking paths around or near the work place ...

  9. Preferred step frequency minimizes veering during natural human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uematsu, Azusa; Inoue, Koh; Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Yuki; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    In the absence of visual information, humans cannot maintain a straight walking path. We examined the hypothesis that step frequency during walking affects the magnitude of veering in healthy adults. Subject walked at a preferred (1.77 +/- 0.18 Hz), low (0.8 x preferred, 1.41 +/- 0.15 Hz), and high

  10. Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

  11. Quantum random walks and their convergence to Evans–Hudson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamical semigroup; Evans–Hudson flow; quantum random walk. 1. Introduction. The aim of this article is to investigate convergence of random walks on von Neumann algebra to Evans–Hudson flows. Here the random walks and Evans–Hudson flows are gene- ralizations of classical Markov chains and Markov ...

  12. The use of relative coupling intervals in horses during walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo

    Walking speed varies between over-ground trials and a speed-independent gait-parameter does not exist for use in horses. We introduce relative (R) lateral (L) and diagonal (D) coupling intervals (CI) and hypothesize that both are independent of walking speed. Four horses were walked over 8 Kistler...

  13. Modeling Framework and Software Tools for Walking Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duindam, V.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Groen, F.N.J.

    2005-01-01

    In research on passive dynamic walking, the aim is to study and design robots that walk naturally, i.e., with little or no control effort. McGeer [1] and others (e.g. [2, 3]) have shown that, indeed, robots can walk down a shallow slope with no actuation, only powered by gravity. In this work, we

  14. Walking with Students To Increase Satisfaction and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Carol s.

    1999-01-01

    Describes "walking office hours," an activity in which students (n=64) in introductory health topics and human resources management classes each took a one-half hour walk with the professor around the campus. In both classes students unanimously reported higher "comfort levels" with the instructor following the walk. (DB)

  15. Quantum walk on the line as an interference phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Peter L.; Roldan, Eugenio; Sipe, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the coined quantum walk on a line can be understood as an interference phenomenon, can be classically implemented, and indeed already has been. The walk is essentially two independent walks associated with the different coin sides, coupled only at initiation. There is a simple analogy between the evolution of walker positions and the propagation of light in a dispersive optical fiber

  16. The Walking Classroom: Active Learning Is Just Steps Away!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kelly Mancini

    2016-01-01

    Walking is a viable and valuable form of exercise for young children that has both physical and mental health benefits. There is much evidence showing that school-age children are not getting the recommended 60 minutes of daily exercise. A school-wide walking program can be a great way to encourage walking in and out of school, can be aligned with…

  17. Effects of physical guidance on short-term learning of walking on a narrow beam

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo, Antoinette; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Physical guidance is often used in rehabilitation when teaching patients to re-learn movements. However, the effects of guidance on motor learning of complex skills, such as walking balance, are not clear. We tested four groups of healthy subjects that practiced walking on a narrow (1.27 cm) or wide (2.5 cm) treadmill-mounted balance beam, with or without physical guidance. Assistance was given by springs attached to a hip belt that applied restoring forces towards beam center. Subjects were ...

  18. A Passive Dynamic Walking Model Based on Knee-Bend Behaviour: Stability and Adaptability for Walking down Steep Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang An

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a passive dynamic walking model based on knee-bend behaviour, which is inspired by the way human beings walk. The length and mass parameters of human beings are used in the walking model. The knee-bend mechanism of the stance leg is designed in the phase between knee-strike and heel-strike. q* which is the angular difference of the stance leg between the two events, knee-strike and knee-bend, is adjusted in order to find a stable walking motion. The results show that the stable periodic walking motion on a slope of r <0.4 can be found by adjusting q*. Furthermore, with a particular q* in the range of 0.12walk down more steps before falling down on an arbitrary slope. The walking motion is more stable and adaptable than the conventional walking motion, especially for steep slopes.

  19. Comparison of energy expenditure between aquatic and overground treadmill walking in people post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Taeyou; Ozaki, Yoshi; Lai, Byron; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the cardiorespiratory responses between aquatic treadmill walking (ATW) and overground treadmill walking (OTW) in people with hemiparesis post-stroke. Eight participants post-stroke aged 58.5 ± 11.4 years and eight healthy adult controls aged 56.1 ± 8.6 years participated in a cross-sectional comparative study. Participants completed three 8-minute walking sessions separated by at least 72-hour rest. On the first visit, participants identified their comfortable walking speed on an aquatic and overground treadmill. The second and third visit consisted of either ATW or OTW at a matched speed. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2 ), minute ventilation (VE) and energy expenditure (EE) were measured at rest and during walking in both exercise modes. Mean steady-state cardiorespiratory responses during ATW showed a significant decrease compared with OTW at a matched speed. During ATW, mean VO2 values decreased by 39% in the stroke group and 21% in the control group, mean VCO2 values decreased by 42% in the stroke group and 30% in the control group, and mean EE decreased by 40% in the stroke group and 25% in the control group. Mean steady-state VE values and resting cardiorespiratory response values showed no significant change between the two conditions. This study demonstrated a decreased metabolic cost when ATW at matched speeds to that of OTW. Reduced metabolic cost during ATW may allow for longer durations of treadmill-induced gait training compared with OTW for improved outcomes. This knowledge may aid clinicians when prescribing aquatic treadmill exercise for people post-stroke with goals of improving gait and functional mobility. However, decreased metabolic cost during ATW suggests that to improve cardiovascular fitness, ATW may not be a time-efficient method of cardiovascular exercise for healthy adults and people post-stroke. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Walking on four limbs: A systematic review of Nordic Walking in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombieri, Federica; Schena, Federico; Pellegrini, Barbara; Barone, Paolo; Tinazzi, Michele; Erro, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Nordic Walking is a relatively high intensity activity that is becoming increasingly popular. It involves marching using poles adapted from cross-country skiing poles in order to activate upper body muscles that would not be used during normal walking. Several studies have been performed using this technique in Parkinson disease patients with contradictory results. Thus, we reviewed here all studies using this technique in Parkinson disease patients and further performed a meta-analysis of RCTs where Nordic Walking was evaluated against standard medical care or other types of physical exercise. Nine studies including four RCTs were reviewed for a total of 127 patients who were assigned to the Nordic Walking program. The majority of studies reported beneficial effects of Nordic Walking on either motor or non-motor variables, but many limitations were observed that hamper drawing definitive conclusions and it is largely unclear whether the benefits persist over time. It would appear that little baseline disability is the strongest predictor of response. The meta-analysis of the 4 RCTs yielded a statistically significant reduction of the UPDRS-3 score, but its value of less than 1 point does not appear to be clinically meaningful. Well-designed, large RCTs should be performed both against standard medical care and other types of physical exercise to definitively address whether Nordic Walking can be beneficial in PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Walking With’: A Rhythmanalysis of London’s East End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will be looking at the practice of walking through the lens of rhythmanalysis. The method is brought to attention by Lefebvre’s last book Rhythmanalysis (2004 in which he suggests a way of interrelating space and time; a phenomenological inquiry hinged on the concrete experience of lived life. My interest in the nuance of walking was initially evoked by the structural film Fergus Walking which was made by the film maker William Raban in 1978. I will explore the potential of using structural films in sensitising us to the temporal-spatial relationship of things. The main body of the paper centres around two themes: Firstly I address the primacy of movement as a mode of engaging with the world. It is through ‘muscular consciousness’ (Bachelard 1964: 11 that walking becomes a form of experiential knowing, feeling, connecting and protesting. Secondly, I examine the practices of walking in relation to the radical transformations of the Docklands’ landscape since the beginning of the 1980s. I propose that the contesting interests of different groups can be explored by analysing the rhythmic interactions of their activities. The transition and recomposition of an economy from locally based industrial activities to globalised financial services were manifested in the syncopation of regeneration rhythms to the living rhythms of the Docklands. The fast changing urban landscapes were negotiated through alternative ways of navigating the streets, hence engendering a different set of rhythms.

  2. Identification of the Causative Disease of Intermittent Claudication through Walking Motion Analysis: Feature Analysis and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuyou Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent claudication is a walking symptom. Patients with intermittent claudication experience lower limb pain after walking for a short time. However, rest relieves the pain and allows the patient to walk again. Unfortunately, this symptom predominantly arises from not 1 but 2 different diseases: LSS (lumber spinal canal stenosis and PAD (peripheral arterial disease. Patients with LSS can be subdivided by the affected vertebra into 2 main groups: L4 and L5. It is clinically very important to determine whether patients with intermittent claudication suffer from PAD, L4, or L5. This paper presents a novel SVM- (support vector machine- based methodology for such discrimination/differentiation using minimally required data, simple walking motion data in the sagittal plane. We constructed a simple walking measurement system that is easy to set up and calibrate and suitable for use by nonspecialists in small spaces. We analyzed the obtained gait patterns and derived input parameters for SVM that are also visually detectable and medically meaningful/consistent differentiation features. We present a differentiation methodology utilizing an SVM classifier. Leave-one-out cross-validation of differentiation/classification by this method yielded a total accuracy of 83%.

  3. On the pertinence to Physics of random walks induced by random dynamical systems: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritis, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Let be an abstract space and a denumerable (finite or infinite) alphabet. Suppose that is a family of functions such that for all we have and a family of transformations . The pair (( S_a)_a , ( p_a)_a ) is termed an iterated function system with place dependent probabilities. Such systems can be thought as generalisations of random dynamical systems. As a matter of fact, suppose we start from a given ; we pick then randomly, with probability p_a (x) , the transformation S_a and evolve to S_a (x) . We are interested in the behaviour of the system when the iteration continues indefinitely. Random walks of the above type are omnipresent in both classical and quantum Physics. To give a small sample of occurrences we mention: random walks on the affine group, random walks on Penrose lattices, random walks on partially directed lattices, evolution of density matrices induced by repeated quantum measurements, quantum channels, quantum random walks, etc. In this article, we review some basic properties of such systems and provide with a pathfinder in the extensive bibliography (both on mathematical and physical sides) where the main results have been originally published. (paper)

  4. Targeting paretic propulsion to improve poststroke walking function: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Louis N; Reisman, Darcy S; Kesar, Trisha M; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A

    2014-05-01

    To determine the feasibility and safety of implementing a 12-week locomotor intervention targeting paretic propulsion deficits during walking through the joining of 2 independent interventions, walking at maximal speed on a treadmill and functional electrical stimulation of the paretic ankle musculature (FastFES); to determine the effects of FastFES training on individual subjects; and to determine the influence of baseline impairment severity on treatment outcomes. Single group pre-post preliminary study investigating a novel locomotor intervention. Research laboratory. Individuals (N=13) with locomotor deficits after stroke. FastFES training was provided for 12 weeks at a frequency of 3 sessions per week and 30 minutes per session. Measures of gait mechanics, functional balance, short- and long-distance walking function, and self-perceived participation were collected at baseline, posttraining, and 3-month follow-up evaluations. Changes after treatment were assessed using pairwise comparisons and compared with known minimal clinically important differences or minimal detectable changes. Correlation analyses were run to determine the correlation between baseline clinical and biomechanical performance versus improvements in walking speed. Twelve of the 13 subjects that were recruited completed the training. Improvements in paretic propulsion were accompanied by improvements in functional balance, walking function, and self-perceived participation (each Pstudy of this promising locomotor intervention for persons poststroke. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A cross-sectional survey of the relationship between walking, biking, and the built environment for adults aged over 70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Paul Y; Baker, Mitzi A; Cha, Stephan; Targonski, Paul V

    2012-01-01

    Determine the relationship between walkability scores (using the Walk Score(®)) and activity levels (both bicycle and walking) in adults aged between 70 and 85 years in Rochester, Minnesota. This was a self-reported cross-sectional survey in adults aged over 70 years living in Rochester, Minnesota. Analysis used t-tests or chi-square analysis as appropriate. The primary endpoint was bicycle use or walking. The predictor variables were the Walk Score(®) as determined by their address, Charlson index, Duke Activity Status Index (DASI), and a 12-item short-form survey (SF-12) scores. Secondary analysis used an outcome of functional status (using the DASI) and walkability scores. Fifty-three individuals completed the surveys (48% return rate). The average age in the overall cohort was 77.02 years. Eighty-nine percent of individuals could walk at least a block and 15.1% rode their bicycles. The Walk Scores(®) did not differ between those who walked (38.9 ± 27.4) and those that did not (40.0 ± 36.08; P = 0.93). In a similar fashion, the Walk Scores(®) were not different for those who biked (36.38 ± 27.68) and those that did not (39.44 ± 28.49; P = 0.78). There was no relationship between Walk Scores(®) and DASI; however, a decreased DASI score was associated with increased age and comorbid illness (Charlson Score). In this small pilot survey, there was no difference in Walk Scores(®) between those older adults who walked or biked, compared to those that did not. The Walk Scores(®) were low in both groups, which may indicate the lack of accessibility for all older adults living in Rochester, Minnesota. The functional status seemed to be more related to age or comorbid conditions than the built environment.

  6. The Efficacy of a Walking Intervention Using Social Media to Increase Physical Activity: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Aubrianne E; Klos, Lori A; Brondino, Michael J; Harley, Amy E; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-06-16

    Facebook may be a useful tool to provide a social support group to encourage increases in physical activity. This study examines the efficacy of a Facebook social support group to increase steps/day in young women. Female college freshmen (N = 63) were randomized to one of two 8-week interventions: a Facebook Social Support Group (n = 32) or a Standard Walking Intervention (n = 31). Participants in both groups received weekly step goals and tracked steps/day with a pedometer. Women in the Facebook Social Support Group were also enrolled in a Facebook group and asked to post information about their steps/day and provide feedback to one another. Women in both intervention arms significantly increased steps/day pre- to postintervention (F(8,425) = 94.43, P Facebook Social Support Group increased steps/day significantly more (F(1,138) = 11.34, P Facebook to offer a social support group to increase physical activity in young women. Women in the Facebook Social Support Group increased walking by approximately 1.5 miles/day more than women in the Standard Walking Intervention which, if maintained, could have a profound impact on their future health.

  7. Does acupuncture ameliorate motor impairment after stroke? An assessment using the CatWalk gait system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Sun, Ning; Yang, Jing-Wen; Zheng, Yang; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The effect of acupuncture on gait deficits after stroke is uncertain. This animal study was designed to determine whether acupuncture improves gait impairment following experimentally induced ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. After 7 days' of acupuncture treatment, assessment of gait changes using the CatWalk automated gait analysis system was performed. Comparison of the CatWalk gait parameters among the groups showed that gait function was impaired after ischemic stroke and acupuncture treatment was effective in improving a variety of gait parameters including intensity, stance and swing time, swing speed and stride length at postoperative day 8. This study demonstrates a beneficial effect of acupuncture on gait impairment in rats following ischemic stroke. Further studies aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture at different stages during stroke using the CatWalk system are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-Walking Training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latosik Ewelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity.

  9. Human growth hormone stabilizes walking and improves strength in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if daily low-dose treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (somatropine) can stabilize or improve muscle strength and walking capability in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy. The patient was treated with daily injections of somatropine, except...... for a 6-month pause, over a period of 4.5 years. Efficacy was assessed by repeated muscle dynamometry tests and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT). Strength improved in most muscle groups on treatment, deteriorated in the 6-month off treatment, and improved again when treatment was resumed. The 6MWT stabilized...... during the initial 18-month treatment period, then deteriorated in the 6 months off treatment and improved to pre-trial levels when treatment was resumed. The findings suggest that supplementation with somatropine, within physiological ranges, may improve muscle strength and stabilize walking capability...

  10. Walking behaviours from the 1965–2003 American Heritage Time Use Study (AHTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Heritage Time Use Study (AHTUS represents a harmonised historical data file of time use by adults, amalgamating surveys collected in 1965–66, 1975–76, 1985, 1992–94, and 2003. The objectives of time-use studies have ranged from evaluating household and other unpaid production of goods and services, to monitoring of media use, to comparing lifestyles of more and less privileged social groups, or to tracking broad shifts in social behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process and utility of identifying and compiling data from the AHTUS to describe a range of walking behaviours collected using time-use survey methods over almost 40 years in the USA. Methods This is a secondary data analysis of an existing amalgamated data set. Noting source survey-specific limitations in comparability of design, we determined age-standardized participation (and associated durations in any walking, walking for exercise, walking for transport, walking the dog, sports/exercise (excluding walking, and all physical activity for those survey years for which sufficient relevant data details were available. Results Data processing revealed inconsistencies in instrument administration, coding various types of walking and in prompting other sport/exercise across surveys. Thus for the entire period, application of inferential statistics to determine trend for a range of walking behaviours could not be done with confidence. Focusing on the two most comparable survey years, 1985 and 2003, it appears that walking for exercise in America has increased in popularity on any given day (from 2.9 to 5.4% of adults and accumulated duration amongst those who walk for exercise (from 30 to 45 mins/day. Dog walking has decreased in popularity over the same time period (from 9.4 to 2.6%. Associated duration amongst dog walkers was stable at 30 mins/day. Conclusion The noted and sometimes substantial differences in methods between the

  11. Walking can be more effective than balance training in fall prevention among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Osuka, Yosuke; Jung, Songee; Rafael, Figueroa; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Aiba, Tatsuya; Kim, Teaho; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of walking on falls among community-dwelling older adults while accounting for exposures. A total of 90 older adults, ranging in age from 65 to 79 years, were allocated into either the walking (brisk walking, n = 50) or the balance (balance and strength training, n = 40) group to participate in a 3-month supervised and 13-month unsupervised fall-prevention program held from 2012 to 2014 in Japan. Falls and trips that occurred during the 16-month period were monitored with a monthly fall calendar. The risk of falls and trips was evaluated by person-year, physically active person-day and person-step. The walking group showed a significant reduction in the fall risk when evaluated by the falls per physically active person-day (rate ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.77) and falls per person-step (rate ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.85) compared with the balance group. In contrast, the number of trips significantly increased with walking, even when evaluated as trips per physically active person-day (rate ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.00). The present findings suggest that walking among community-dwelling older adults can be more effective for fall prevention than balance training. However, because walking can induce more trips, walking should not be recommended for older adults who are susceptible to falling or frailty. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Alterations in walking knee joint stiffness in individuals with knee osteoarthritis and self-reported knee instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Jonathan A; Gorman, Shannon; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Farrokhi, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Increased walking knee joint stiffness has been reported in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) as a compensatory strategy to improve knee joint stability. However, presence of episodic self-reported knee instability in a large subgroup of patients with knee OA may be a sign of inadequate walking knee joint stiffness. The objective of this work was to evaluate the differences in walking knee joint stiffness in patients with knee OA with and without self-reported instability and examine the relationship between walking knee joint stiffness with quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity, and varus knee malalignment. Overground biomechanical data at a self-selected gait velocity was collected for 35 individuals with knee OA without self-reported instability (stable group) and 17 individuals with knee OA and episodic self-reported instability (unstable group). Knee joint stiffness was calculated during the weight-acceptance phase of gait as the change in the external knee joint moment divided by the change in the knee flexion angle. The unstable group walked with lower knee joint stiffness (p=0.01), mainly due to smaller heel-contact knee flexion angles (pknee flexion excursions (pknee stable counterparts. No significant relationships were observed between walking knee joint stiffness and quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity or varus knee malalignment. Reduced walking knee joint stiffness appears to be associated with episodic knee instability and independent of quadriceps muscle weakness, knee joint laxity or varus malalignment. Further investigations of the temporal relationship between self-reported knee joint instability and walking knee joint stiffness are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nordic Walking May Safely Increase the Intensity of Exercise Training in Healthy Subjects and in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejczak, Andrzej; Josiak, Krystian; Węgrzynowska-Teodorczyk, Kinga; Rudzińska, Eliza; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Piepoli, Massimo F; Woźniewski, Marek; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) improves the exercise capacity and quality of life, and may also reduce mortality and hospitalizations. The greatest benefits are achieved through high-intensity aerobic exercises resulting in a stronger cardiorespiratory response. Nordic walking (NW), a walking technique using two poles and mimicking the movements performed while cross-country skiing, is associated with the involvement of more muscle groups than in the case of classic walking, and should therefore make it possible to increase exercise intensity, resulting in more effective training for patients with HF. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and safety of the NW technique, and to compare the effort intensity while walking with and without the NW technique in both healthy subjects and in patients with chronic HF. The study involved 12 healthy individuals (aged 30 ± 10 years, 5 men) and 12 men with stable chronic systolic HF (aged 63 ± 11 years, all categorized in New York Heart Association class II, median LVEF 30%, median peak VO(2) 18.25 mL/kg/min). All the participants completed two randomly assigned submaximal walking tests (one with NW poles and one without) conducted on a level treadmill for 6 min at a constant speed of 5 km/h. Walking with the NW technique was feasible, safe and well tolerated in all subjects. In both the control group and the chronic HF group, walking with the NW technique increased peak VO(2), RER, VE, PET CO(2), HR and SBP over walking without the poles; and the fatigue grade according to the abridged Borg scale was higher. Dyspnea did not increase significantly with the NW technique. The NW technique can increase the intensity of aerobic training in a safe and well-tolerated way in both healthy individuals and in patients with chronic HF.

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Walking with and without Nordic Pole on Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Muscle Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Je-Myung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Ha-Roo; Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity.

  15. Effects of Buddhism walking meditation on depression, functional fitness, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in depressed elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhinkit, Susaree; Suppapitiporn, Siriluck; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Suksom, Daroonwan

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the novel Buddhism-based walking meditation (BWM) and the traditional walking exercise (TWE) on depression, functional fitness, and vascular reactivity. This was a randomized exercise intervention study. The study was conducted in a university hospital setting. Forty-five elderly participants aged 60-90 years with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomly allocated to the sedentary control, TWE, and BWM groups. The BWM program was based on aerobic walking exercise incorporating the Buddhist meditations performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Depression score, functional fitness, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation as measured by the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were the outcome measures used. Muscle strength, flexibility, agility, dynamic balance, and cardiorespiratory endurance increased in both exercise groups (p<0.05). Depression score decreased (p<0.05) only in the BWM group. FMD improved (p<0.05) in both exercise groups. Significant reduction in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were found in both exercise groups, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cortisol, and interleukin-6 concentrations decreased only in the BWM group. Buddhist walking meditation was effective in reducing depression, improving functional fitness and vascular reactivity, and appears to confer greater overall improvements than the traditional walking program.

  16. A comparison of at-home walking and 10-meter walking test parameters of individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Katsuhito; Hori, Hideaki; Muramatsu, Ken

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in gait parameters of at-home walking and the 10-meter walking test results of individuals with hemiparesis. [Subjects] A total of 14 hemiparetic stroke recovery patients participated in this study. Inclusion criteria were: living at home, the ability to walk independently, and demonstrated low extremity on recovery stages III-V on the Brunnstrom Approach. The average age of the subjects was 66 years. [Methods] We used video surveillance and the inked footprint technique to record usual walking speed and maximum speed patterns both in subjects' homes and during the 10-meter walking test. From these methods, walking speed, stride length, and step rate were calculated. [Results] While both usual and maximum walking speeds of the 10-meter walking test correlated with stride length and step rate, at-home walking speeds only significantly correlated with stride length. [Conclusion] Walking patterns of the 10-meter walking test are quantifiably distinct from those demonstrated in patients' homes, and this difference is mainly characterized by stride length. In order to enhance in-home walking ability, exercises that improve length of stride rather than step rate should be recommended.

  17. Influence of the swing ankle angle on walking stability for a passive dynamic walking robot with flat feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhe Zang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high walking stability for a passive dynamic walking robot is not easy. In this article, we aim to investigate whether the walking performance for a passive dynamic walking robot can be improved by just simply changing the swing ankle angle before impact. To validate this idea, a passive bipedal walking model with two straight legs, two flat feet, a hip joint, and two ankle joints was built in this study. The walking dynamics that contains double stance phase was derived. By numerical simulation of the walking in MATLAB, we found that the walking performance can be adjusted effectively by only simply changing the swing ankle angle before impact. A bigger swing ankle angle in a reasonable range will lead to a higher walking stability and a lower initial walking speed of the next step. A bigger swing ankle angle before impact leads to a bigger amount of energy lost during impact for the quasi-passive dynamic walking robot which will influence the walking stability of the next step.

  18. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r-ν log r with ν = (k2 - 1) / 2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k (1 + 1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν˜ =k2 / 2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems.

  19. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V.S.; Priezzhev, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r −ν logr with ν=(k 2 −1)/2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k(1+1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν -tilde= k 2 /2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems

  20. About the walking machine motion stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lapshin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of legs as propulsive devices of the machine will increase its capability to cross rough and deformable terrain as compared with wheeled and trucked machines. Today it is already possible to speak about design of statically stable walking robots to be used in the certain areas of application. The most promising areas of their application are exploration and emergency-rescue operations in extremely complicated situations (e.g. in the zone of destruction after earthquakes, technogenic catastrophe, etc..In such dangerous situations there is a possibility for the walking machine to be overturned either because of loosing a support to one or several legs or due to significant displacement of the leg support points, which are caused by deformation or destruction of the terrain in the points of the legs support. Therefore, it is necessary to design motion control algorithms that enable teaching the motion control system of a walking robot: How to decrease the possibility of the robot overturning? How to stop the robot as quickly as possible keeping its static stability? What must be done if static stability is lost? Note that the loss of static stability does not inevitably result in the robot falling down. How to fall down better (with minimal robot destruction in inevitable case?This work investigates the first abovementioned problems, i.e. preventing a walking machine from overturning in dangerous situations. For this purpose it suggests to use a special cautious (safe gait, which allows the machine to remain statically stable if it suddenly looses support to its any leg. The natural price for the increased safety to prevent from overturning is the reduced capabilities of robot kinematics and, as a consequence, its capability to cross rough terrain. It is also suggested to reconsider the general definition of a walking machine static stability margin in order to obtain an adequate estimation of the robot overturning possibility

  1. A Trial of Financial and Social Incentives to Increase Older Adults' Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Kristin A; Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Karlawish, Jason; Glanz, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Despite evidence that regular physical activity confers health benefits, physical activity rates among older adults remain low. Both personal and social goals may enhance older adults' motivation to become active. This study tested the effects of financial incentives, donations to charity, and the combined effects of both interventions on older adults' uptake and retention of increased levels of walking. RCT comparing three interventions to control. Data collection occurred from 2012 to 2013. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2016. Ninety-four adults aged ≥65 years from Philadelphia-area retirement communities. All participants received digital pedometers, walking goals of a 50% increase in daily steps, and weekly feedback on goal attainment. Participants were randomized to one of four groups: (1) Control: received weekly feedback only; (2) Financial Incentives: received payment of $20 each week walking goals were met; (3) Social Goals: received donation of $20 to a charity of choice each week walking goals were met; and (4) Combined: received $20 each week walking goals were met that could be received by participant, donated to a charity of choice, or divided between the participant and charity. Mean proportion of days walking goals were met during the 16-week intervention and 4-week follow-up period. After adjusting for baseline walking, the proportion of days step goals were met during the 16-week intervention period was higher in all intervention groups versus controls (relative risk, 3.71; 95% CI=1.37, 10.01). During the 4-week follow up period, the proportion of days step goals were met did not differ in intervention groups compared to control (relative risk, 2.91; 95% CI=0.62, 13.64). Incentive schemes that use donations to a charity of choice, personal financial incentives, or a combination of the two can each increase older adults' initial uptake of increased levels of walking. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01643538. Copyright

  2. Fermionic entanglement via quantum walks in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexey A.; Fedichkin, Leonid E.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum walks are fundamentally different from random walks due to the quantum superposition property of quantum objects. Quantum walk process was found to be very useful for quantum information and quantum computation applications. In this paper we demonstrate how to use quantum walks as a tool to generate high-dimensional two-particle fermionic entanglement. The generated entanglement can survive longer in the presence of depolorazing noise due to the periodicity of quantum walk dynamics. The possibility to create two distinguishable qudits in a system of tunnel-coupled semiconductor quantum dots is discussed.

  3. Modulation of walking speed by changing optic flow in persons with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamontagne Anouk

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking speed, which is often reduced after stroke, can be influenced by the perception of optic flow (OF speed. The present study aims to: 1 compare the modulation of walking speed in response to OF speed changes between persons with stroke and healthy controls and 2 investigate whether virtual environments (VE manipulating OF speed can be used to promote volitional changes in walking speed post stroke. Methods Twelve persons with stroke and 12 healthy individuals walked on a self-paced treadmill while viewing a virtual corridor in a helmet-mounted display. Two experiments were carried out on the same day. In experiment 1, the speed of an expanding OF was varied sinusoidally at 0.017 Hz (sine duration = 60 s, from 0 to 2 times the subject's comfortable walking speed, for a total duration of 5 minutes. In experiment 2, subjects were exposed to expanding OFs at discrete speeds that ranged from 0.25 to 2 times their comfortable speed. Each test trial was paired with a control trial performed at comfortable speed with matching OF. For each of the test trials, subjects were instructed to walk the distance within the same time as during the immediately preceding control trial. VEs were controlled by the CAREN-2 system (Motek. Instantaneous changes in gait speed (experiment 1 and the ratio of speed changes in the test trial over the control trial (experiment 2 were contrasted between the two groups of subjects. Results When OF speed was changing continuously (experiment 1, an out-of-phase modulation was observed in the gait speed of healthy subjects, such that slower OFs induced faster walking speeds, and vice versa. Persons with stroke displayed weaker (p 0.05, T-test. Conclusion Stroke affects the modulation of gait speed in response to changes in the perception of movement through different OF speeds. Nevertheless, the preservation of even a modest modulation enabled the persons with stroke to increase walking speed when

  4. Inverse relationship between changes of maximal aerobic capacity and changes in walking economy after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano H; Carter, Stephen J; Singh, Harshvardhan; Hunter, Gary R

    2018-05-16

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the relationships between maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2max ) and walking economy during non-graded and graded walking among overweight women and (2) examine potential differences in [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy before and after weight loss. One-hundred and twenty-four premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 30 kg/m 2 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) diet only; (b) diet and aerobic exercise training; and (c) diet and resistance exercise training. All were furnished with standard, very-low calorie diet to reduce BMI to < 25 kg/m 2 . [Formula: see text]O 2max was measured using a modified-Bruce protocol while walking economy (1-net [Formula: see text]O 2 ) was obtained during fixed-speed (4.8 k·h -1 ), steady-state treadmill walking at 0% grade and 2.5% grade. Assessments were conducted before and after achieving target BMI. Prior to weight loss, [Formula: see text]O 2max was inversely related (P < 0.05) with non-graded and graded walking economy (r = - 0.28 to - 0.35). Similar results were also observed following weight loss (r = - 0.22 to - 0.28). Additionally, we also detected a significant inverse relationship (P < 0.05) between the changes (∆, after weight loss) in ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max , adjusted for fat-free mass, with non-graded and graded ∆walking economy (r = - 0.37 to - 0.41). Our results demonstrate [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy are inversely related (cross-sectional) before and after weight loss. Importantly though, ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max and ∆walking economy were also found to be inversely related, suggesting a strong synchrony between maximal aerobic capacity and metabolic cost of exercise.

  5. Talking the talk, walking the walk: examining the effect of neighbourhood walkability and social connectedness on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Glover, Troy D

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have considered the joint effects of social and physical environments on physical activity (PA). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the compounding effects of neighbourhood walkability and social connectedness on PA. Data were collected from adults (n = 380) in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Perceptions of neighbourhood social connectedness and walkability were measured via survey. Minutes of neighbourhood PA for recreation and transportation were captured with a detailed 7-day log booklet. Four groups were created (e.g. high walkability/low social connectedness) and two factorial ANOVAs examined group differences in minutes of recreational and transport-related PA. There were significant differences across the four walkability/social connectedness groups for both recreational (F = 11.36, P walkability and social connectedness displayed the greatest levels of both recreational (130.6 min) and transport-related PA (24.5 min). The high walkability/low social connectedness group had greater transport-related PA than the two low walkability groups, while the high social connectedness/low walkability group had greater recreational PA than the two low social connectedness groups. These findings underscore the relationship between physical and social dimensions of urban form and their association with health behaviours. PA promotion efforts should take into account both physical (e.g. land-use planning) and social (e.g. walking group) environments.

  6. Increasing walking in patients with intermittent claudication: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with intermittent claudication are at increased risk of death from heart attack and stroke compared to matched controls. Surgery for intermittent claudication is for symptom management and does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Increasing physical activity can reduce claudication symptoms and may improve cardiovascular health. This paper presents the pilot study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to test whether a brief psychological intervention leads to increased physical activity, improvement in quality of life, and a reduction in the demand for surgery, for patients with intermittent claudication. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 60 patients newly diagnosed with intermittent claudication, who will be randomised into two groups. The control group will receive usual care, and the treatment group will receive usual care and a brief 2-session psychological intervention to modify illness and walking beliefs and develop a walking action plan. The primary outcome will be walking, measured by pedometer. Secondary outcomes will include quality of life and uptake of surgery for symptom management. Participants will be followed up after (a 4 months, (b 1 year and (c 2 years. Discussion This study will assess the acceptability and efficacy of a brief psychological intervention to increase walking in patients with intermittent claudication, both in terms of the initiation, and maintenance of behaviour change. This is a pilot study, and the results will inform the design of a larger multi-centre trial. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28051878

  7. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. METHODS:Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. RESULTS:In general, no differences were found between speed......-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant...... correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. CONCLUSION:In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest...

  8. Monte Carlo Study of Four-Dimensional Self-avoiding Walks of up to One Billion Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisby, Nathan

    2018-04-01

    We study self-avoiding walks on the four-dimensional hypercubic lattice via Monte Carlo simulations of walks with up to one billion steps. We study the expected logarithmic corrections to scaling, and find convincing evidence in support the scaling form predicted by the renormalization group, with an estimate for the power of the logarithmic factor of 0.2516(14), which is consistent with the predicted value of 1/4. We also characterize the behaviour of the pivot algorithm for sampling four dimensional self-avoiding walks, and conjecture that the probability of a pivot move being successful for an N-step walk is O([ log N ]^{-1/4}).

  9. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  10. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mu-Jie, E-mail: mjhuang@chem.utoronto.ca; Kapral, Raymond, E-mail: rkapral@chem.utoronto.ca [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2015-06-28

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  11. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments

  13. Eye movements of patients with tunnel vision while walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Martín, Fernando; Peli, Eli

    2006-12-01

    To determine how severe peripheral field loss (PFL) affects the dispersion of eye movements relative to the head in patients walking in real environments. This information should help to define the visual field and clearance requirements for head-mounted mobility visual aids. Eye positions relative to the head were recorded in five patients with retinitis pigmentosa who had less than 15 degrees of visual field and in three normally sighted people, each walking in varied environments for more than 30 minutes. The eye-position recorder was made portable by modifying a head-mounted system (ISCAN, Burlington, MA). Custom data processing was implemented, to reject unreliable data. Sample standard deviations of eye position (dispersion) were compared across subject groups and environments. The patients with PFL exhibited narrower horizontal eye-position dispersions than did the normally sighted subjects (9.4 degrees vs. 14.2 degrees , P vision information. Their horizontal scanning was actually reduced, possibly because of lack of peripheral stimulation. The results suggest that a field of view as wide as 40 degrees may be needed for closed (immersive) head-mounted mobility aids, whereas a much narrower display, perhaps as narrow as 20 degrees , may be sufficient with an open design.

  14. Variability in energy cost and walking gait during race walking in competitive race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, J; Fougeron, B; Legros, P

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variability of energy cost (Cw) and race walking gait after a 3-h walk at the competition pace in race walkers of the same performance level. Nine competitive race walkers were studied. In the same week, after a first test of VO2max determination, each subject completed two submaximal treadmill walks (6 min length, 0% grade, 12 km X h(-1) speed) before and after a 3-h overground test completed at the individual competition speed of the race walker. During the two submaximal tests, subjects were filmed between the 2nd and the 4th min, and physiological parameters were recorded between the 4th and the 6th min. Results showed two trends. On the one hand, we observed a significant and systematic increase in energy cost of walking (mean deltaCw = 8.4%), whereas no variation in the gait kinematics prescribed by the rules of race walking was recorded. On the other hand, this increase in metabolic energy demand was accompanied by variations of different magnitude and direction of stride length, of the excursion of the heel and of the maximal ankle flexion at toe-off among the race walkers. These results indicated that competitive race walkers are able to maintain their walking gait with exercise duration apart from a systematic increase in energy cost. Moreover, in this form of locomotion the effect of fatigue on the gait variability seems to be an individual function of the race walk constraints and the constraints of the performer.

  15. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  16. Lower limb joint moment during walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2003-11-04

    Walking in water is a widely used rehabilitation method for patients with orthopedic disorders or arthritis, based on the belief that the reduction of weight in water makes it a safer medium and prevents secondary injuries of the lower-limb joints. To our knowledge, however, no experimental data on lower-limb joint moment during walking in water is available. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint moments of the ankle, knee, and hip during walking in water in comparison with those on land. Eight healthy volunteers walked on land and in water at a speed comfortable for them. A video-motion analysis system and waterproof force platform were used to obtain kinematic data and to calculate the joint moments. The hip joint moment was shown to be an extension moment almost throughout the stance phase during walking in water, while it changed from an extension- to flexion-direction during walking on land. The knee joint moment had two extension peaks during walking on land, whereas it had only one extension peak, a late one, during walking in water. The ankle joint moment during walking in water was considerably reduced but in the same direction, plantarflexion, as that during walking on land. The joint moments of the hip, knee, and ankle were not merely reduced during walking in water; rather, inter-joint coordination was totally changed.

  17. Cardiovascular Responses Associated with Daily Walking in Subacute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Prajapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of regaining independent ambulation after stroke, the amount of daily walking completed during in-patient rehabilitation is low. The purpose of this study is to determine if (1 walking-related heart rate responses reached the minimum intensity necessary for therapeutic aerobic exercise (40%–60% heart rate reserve or (2 heart rate responses during bouts of walking revealed excessive workload that may limit walking (>80% heart rate reserve. Eight individuals with subacute stroke attending in-patient rehabilitation were recruited. Participants wore heart rate monitors and accelerometers during a typical rehabilitation day. Walking-related changes in heart rate and walking bout duration were determined. Patients did not meet the minimum cumulative requirements of walking intensity (>40% heart rate reserve and duration (>10 minutes continuously necessary for cardiorespiratory benefit. Only one patient exceeded 80% heart rate reserve. The absence of significant increases in heart rate associated with walking reveals that patients chose to walk at speeds well below a level that has meaningful cardiorespiratory health benefits. Additionally, cardiorespiratory workload is unlikely to limit participation in walking. Measurement of heart rate and walking during in-patient rehabilitation may be a useful approach to encourage patients to increase the overall physical activity and to help facilitate recovery.

  18. Effect of uphill and downhill walking on walking performance in geriatric patients using a wheeled walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Schwenk, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Weyrich, Michael; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Becker, Clemens

    2017-08-01

    Wheeled walkers are recommended to improve walking performance in older persons and to encourage and assist participation in daily life. Nevertheless, using a wheeled walker can cause serious problems in the natural environment. This study aimed to compare uphill and downhill walking with walking level in geriatric patients using a wheeled walker. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of using a wheeled walker with respect to dual tasking when walking level. A total of 20 geriatric patients (median age 84.5 years) walked 10 m at their habitual pace along a level surface, uphill and downhill, with and without a standard wheeled walker. Gait speed, stride length and cadence were assessed by wearable sensors and the walk ratio was calculated. When using a wheeled walker while walking level the walk ratio improved (0.58 m/[steps/min] versus 0.57 m/[steps/min], p = 0.023) but gait speed decreased (1.07 m/s versus 1.12 m/s, p = 0.020) when compared to not using a wheeled walker. With respect to the walk ratio, uphill and downhill walking with a wheeled walker decreased walking performance when compared to level walking (0.54 m/[steps/min] versus 0.58 m/[steps/min], p = 0.023 and 0.55 m/[steps/min] versus 0.58 m/[steps/min], p = 0.001, respectively). At the same time, gait speed decreased (0.079 m/s versus 1.07 m/s, p walker improved the quality of level walking but the performance of uphill and downhill walking was worse compared to walking level when using a wheeled walker.

  19. Comparison of the effects of Korean mindfulness-based stress reduction, walking, and patient education in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Young; Lee, Haejung; Park, Jina

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Korean mindfulness-based stress reduction (K-MBSR), walking, and patient education regarding diabetes mellitus (DM) on stress response, glycemic control, and vascular inflammation in patients with diabetes mellitus. A cluster randomized trial including 56 adults with diabetes mellitus (K-MBSR group = 21, walking group = 18, patient education group = 17) was conducted between 13 July and 14 September 2012. The questionnaire included the Diabetes Distress Scale and Perceived Stress Response Inventory. Fasting blood samples were used to measure levels of cortisol, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of K-MBSR, walking, and patient education on stress, glycemic control, or vascular inflammation. However, in the K-MBSR and walking groups, significant reductions in the levels of serum cortisol and PAI-1 were observed. A significant reduction in psychological responses to stress was observed in the walking and patient education groups. Longitudinal studies could provide better insight into the impact of K-MBSR, walking, and patient education on health outcomes in adults with diabetes mellitus. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Stride rate and walking intensity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Leslie; Hewitt, Allan; Rowe, David A; Sutherland, Rona

    2014-04-01

    The study investigated (a) walking intensity (stride rate and energy expenditure) under three speed instructions; (b) associations between stride rate, age, height, and walking intensity; and (c) synchronization between stride rate and music tempo during overground walking in a population of healthy older adults. Twenty-nine participants completed 3 treadmill-walking trials and 3 overground-walking trials at 3 self-selected speeds. Treadmill VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry. Stride rate and music tempo were recorded during overground-walking trials. Mean stride rate exceeded minimum thresholds for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) under slow (111.41 ± 11.93), medium (118.17 ± 11.43), and fast (123.79 ± 11.61) instructions. A multilevel model showed that stride rate, age, and height have a significant effect (p Music can be a useful way to guide walking cadence.