WorldWideScience

Sample records for group antigen type

  1. A New Chemical Approach to Human ABO Histo-Blood Group Type 2 Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new chemical approach to synthesizing human ABO histo-blood type 2 antigenic determinants was developed. N-Phthaloyl-protected lactosaminyl thioglycoside derived from lactulose via the Heyns rearrangement was employed to obtain a type 2 core disaccharide. Use of this scheme lowered the overall number of reaction steps. Stereoselective construction of the α-galactosaminide/galactoside found in A- and B-antigens, respectively, was achieved by using a unique di-tert-butylsilylene-directed α-glycosylation method. The proposed synthetic scheme provides an alternative to existing procedures for preparing ABO blood group antigens.

  2. Blood group type antigens in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana H; ra-Luca

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data on blood group (BG) types and types of pancreatic cancers. The aims of this study were to study BG types and BG-antigens in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). METHODS: BG  type  and  tumor  BG-antigen  (glycoprotein) expression  (studied  by  immunohistochemistry  on  tissue microarrays) were analyzed with regard to characteristics of 101 surgically resected pancreatic IPMNs. RESULTS: Non-O  BG  type  predicted  invasive  carcinoma independently from high serum CA19-9 and male gender. BG type A was observed more frequently in women than in men. Chronic pancreatitis was more frequently seen in patients with BG type B or AB. Aberrant tumor expression (with regard to BG type) of loss of A antigen expression type occurred in 15.0% of IPMNs and of loss of B antigen expression type in 62.5% of IPMNs. Intraneoplasm BG-antigen expression was not related to dysplasia grade or invasion. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that in pancreatic IPMN, non-O BG type predicted invasive carcinoma, whereas for intratumor BG-antigen expression no speciifc patterns were detected with regard to the progression of glandular epithelial dysplasia or invasion.

  3. Microbial F-type lectin domains with affinity for blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonal; Khairnar, Aasawari; Bishnoi, Ritika; Ramya, T N C

    2017-09-23

    F-type lectins are fucose binding lectins with characteristic fucose binding and calcium binding motifs. Although they occur with a selective distribution in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most biochemical studies have focused on vertebrate F-type lectins. Recently, using sensitive bioinformatics search techniques on the non-redundant database, we had identified many microbial F-type lectin domains with diverse domain organizations. We report here the biochemical characterization of F-type lectin domains from Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001, Myxococcus hansupus and Leucothrix mucor. We demonstrate that while all these three microbial F-type lectin domains bind to the blood group H antigen epitope on fucosylated glycans, there are fine differences in their glycan binding specificity. Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001 F-type lectin domain binds exclusively to extended H type-2 motif, Myxococcus hansupus F-type lectin domain binds to B, H type-1 and Lewis(b) motifs, and Leucothrix mucor F-type lectin domain binds to a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including A, B, H and Lewis antigens. We believe that these microbial lectins will be useful additions to the glycobiologist's toolbox for labeling, isolating and visualizing glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Properties and type antigen patterns of group B streptococcal isolates from pigs and nutrias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C; Smola, J

    1993-03-01

    All 59 group B streptococcal cultures isolated from pigs and nutrias reacted with group B-specific antiserum and gave a positive CAMP reaction in the zone of staphylococcal beta-lysin. Most of the cultures were pigmented; all cultures hydrolyzed Na hippurate and utilized salicin, maltose, and saccharose but not esculin, mannitol, or inulin. Fifty-three percent of the group B streptococci from pigs and none of those from nutrias were lactose positive. Serotyping revealed that most of the group B streptococci from pigs were of serotype III and most of those from nutrias were of type Ia/c. Protein c was present as c beta antigen. All group B streptococci were susceptible to penicillin and bacitracin (10 U), and most of the porcine cultures were resistant to tetracycline. According to these results, group B streptococci from pigs and nutrias differ from bovine and human group B streptococci and seem to play no role in cross-infections between animals or between animals and humans.

  5. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of a Type 2 Blood Group A Tetrasaccharide and Development of High-throughput Assays Enables a Platform for Screening Blood Group Antigen-cleaving Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, David H; Ernst, Sabrina; Kötzler, Miriam P; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    A facile enzymatic synthesis of the methylumbelliferyl β-glycoside of the type 2 A blood group tetrasaccharide in good yields is reported. Using this compound, we developed highly sensitive fluorescence-based high-throughput assays for both endo-β-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity specific for the oligosaccharide structure of the blood group A antigen. We further demonstrate the potential to use this assay to screen the expressed gene products of metagenomic libraries in the search for efficient blood group antigen-cleaving enzymes.

  6. Allelic frequencies of the HLA-B17 antigen group: comparative analysis by serology, IEF and PCR-SSOP typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J E; Yang, S Y

    1995-11-01

    Current typing technology for class I HLA antigens uses serological and/or isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. DNA typing for the HLA class I antigens can accurately identify the class I genotype of individuals and cell lines. Here, we report correlation of DNA typing results with serological and IEF results for the B17 group. The B17 antigens are relatively common, being carried by almost 9% of Caucasians and 28% of blacks. In this study, five 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop cell lines carrying B17 and 106 individuals in 61 families carrying B17 were DNA typed for B17 using B17-allele-specific amplification and sequence specific oligonucleotide probe hybridization pattern analysis. 38 (55.07%) out of 69 unrelated haplotypes had B*5701, 23 (33.33%) had B*5801, 6 (8.70%) had B*5702, and 2 (2.90%) had B*5802. DNA typing results correlated well with serological and isoelectric focusing results. In general, there was high degree of agreement between all three methods, although heterozygosity for B17 poses a particular problem for serological and IEF methodology. Both B*5701 and B*5801 have the same electrophoretic mobility on IEF gel, corresponding to B17.2, B*5702 corresponds to B17.1, while B*5802 corresponds to B17.3.

  7. Properties and type antigen patterns of group B streptococcal isolates from pigs and nutrias.

    OpenAIRE

    Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C; Smola, J

    1993-01-01

    All 59 group B streptococcal cultures isolated from pigs and nutrias reacted with group B-specific antiserum and gave a positive CAMP reaction in the zone of staphylococcal beta-lysin. Most of the cultures were pigmented; all cultures hydrolyzed Na hippurate and utilized salicin, maltose, and saccharose but not esculin, mannitol, or inulin. Fifty-three percent of the group B streptococci from pigs and none of those from nutrias were lactose positive. Serotyping revealed that most of the group...

  8. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue......The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...

  9. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-08-03

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool.

  10. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  11. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  12. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Vitiazeva

    Full Text Available Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer.In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn. The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes.The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC.Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas appear to be different from

  13. Biofunctionalizing nanofibers with carbohydrate blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Katie; Kannan, Bhuvaneswari; Korchagina, Elena; Popova, Inna; Ryzhov, Ivan; Henry, Stephen; Bovin, Nicolai

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and simple method of biofunctionalising nylon, cellulose acetate, and polyvinyl butyral electrospun nanofibers with blood group glycans was achieved by preparing function-spacer-lipid constructs and simply contacting them to fibers with a piezo inkjet printer. A series of water dispersible amphipathic glycan-spacer constructs were synthesized representing a range ABO and related blood group antigens. After immediate contact of the amphipathic glycan-spacer constructs with nanofiber surfaces they self-assembled and were detectable by enzyme immunoassays with high sensitivity and specificity.

  14. [Blood groups - minuses and pluses. Do the blood group antigens protect us from infectious diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, Marcin

    2015-06-25

    Human blood can be divided into groups, which is a method of blood classification based on the presence or absence of inherited erythrocyte surface antigens that can elicit immune response. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are 341 blood group antigens collected in 35 blood group systems. These antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and function as transmembrane transporters, ion channels, adhesion molecules or receptors for other proteins. The majority of blood group antigens is present also on another types of cells. Due to their localization on the surface of cells, blood group antigens can act as receptors for various pathogens or their toxins, such as protozoa (malaria parasites), bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae) and viruses (Noroviruses, Parvoviruses, HIV). If the presence of group antigen (or its variant which arised due to mutation) is beneficial for the host (e.g. because pathogens are not able to bind to the cells), the blood group may become a selection trait, leading to its dissemination in the population exposed to that pathogen. There are thirteen blood group systems that can be related to pathogen resistance, and it seems that the particular influence was elicit by malaria parasites. It is generally thought that the high incidence of blood groups such as O in the Amazon region, Fy(a-b-) in Africa and Ge(-) in Papua-New Guinea is the result of selective pressure from malaria parasite. This review summarizes the data about relationship between blood groups and resistance to pathogens.

  15. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  16. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  17. Characterization of WbiQ: An {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8), and synthesis of H-type 3 blood group antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettit, Nicholas; Styslinger, Thomas; Mei, Zhen; Han, Weiqing; Zhao, Guohui [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, Peng George, E-mail: Wang.892@osu.edu [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} WbiQ is an {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127. {yields} WbiQ demonstrates strict substrate specificity for the Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc acceptor. {yields} WbiQ was used to synthesize milligram scale of the H-type 3 blood group antigen. -- Abstract: Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8) possesses high human blood group H (O) activity due to its O-antigen repeating unit structure. In this work, the wbiQ gene from E. coli O127:K63(B8) was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified as a fusion protein containing an N-terminal GST affinity tag. Using the GST-WbiQ fusion protein, the wbiQ gene was identified to encode an {alpha}1,2-fucosyltransferase using a radioactivity based assay, thin-layer chromatography assay, as well confirming product formation by using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The fused enzyme (GST-WbiQ) has an optimal pH range from 6.5 to 7.5 and does not require the presence of a divalent metal to be enzymatically active. WbiQ displays strict substrate specificity, displaying activity only towards acceptors that contain Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc-{alpha}-OR linkages; indicating that both the Gal and GalNAc residues are vital for enzymatic activity. In addition, WbiQ was used to prepare the H-type 3 blood group antigen, Fuc-{alpha}1,2-Gal-{beta}1,3-GalNAc-{alpha}-OMe, on a milligram scale.

  18. Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Makroo

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups.

  19. Dd-antigen-antibody system in five caste groups in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, V; Kaur, H

    1991-12-01

    Antigen Dd, a polymorphic antigen found in extracts of certain human dandruff specimens, was investigated in five caste groups of north India. The incidence of antigen Dd-positive type varied from 21.21 per cent in Brahmins to 29.08 per cent in the Jat Sikhs of Punjab. However, a high frequency (45%) was observed in the Sunni Muslims of Kashmir, which differed significantly, when compared with different caste groups of Punjab. Family studies on 44 families indicated its inherited nature, the mode of inheritance being autosomal dominant.

  20. Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Łukasik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Duffy (Fy blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1 and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fya and Fyb, encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fya and Fyb antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fya and/or Fyb on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-, Fy(a-b+ and Fy(a+b+, identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-, frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fyb antigen. Fyx antigen differs from the native Fyb by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally. Tytuł główny Tak

  1. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    -defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... antigens indicates that these structures may be of value as markers of salivary gland tumors....

  2. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well......-defined specificity for T, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and blood group H and A variants hereof. The immature Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigen structures were expressed in the epithelial ductular structures of the tumors, whereas they were almost absent from normal parotid tissue, indicating aberrant glycosylation with accumulation...

  3. Blood Group Antigen Recognition via the Group A Streptococcal M Protein Mediates Host Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M. P.; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; Everest-Dass, Arun; Day, Christopher J.; Dabbs, Rebecca A.; Ve, Thomas; Kobe, Bostjan; Nizet, Victor; Packer, Nicolle H.; Walker, Mark J.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is responsible for over 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. The highly virulent M1T1 GAS clone is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes from streptococcal pharyngitis and invasive disease. The oral epithelial tract is a niche highly abundant in glycosylated structures, particularly those of the ABO(H) blood group antigen family. Using a high-throughput approach, we determined that a strain representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 GAS clone 5448 interacts with numerous, structurally diverse glycans. Preeminent among GAS virulence factors is the surface-expressed M protein. M1 protein showed high affinity for several terminal galactose blood group antigen structures. Deletion mutagenesis shows that M1 protein mediates glycan binding via its B repeat domains. Association of M1T1 GAS with oral epithelial cells varied significantly as a result of phenotypic differences in blood group antigen expression, with significantly higher adherence to those cells expressing H antigen structures compared to cells expressing A, B, or AB antigen structures. These data suggest a novel mechanism for GAS attachment to host cells and propose a link between host blood group antigen expression and M1T1 GAS colonization. PMID:28119471

  4. Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen Frequencies in Patients with Type II Congenital Smell Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stateman, William A.; Henkin, Robert I.; Knöppel, Alexandra; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether there are genetic factors associated with Type II congenital smell loss. STUDY DESIGN The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 99 patients with Type II congenital smell loss. Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, and Jkb was analyzed by blood group serology. Comparisons of expression frequencies of these antigens were made between the patients and a large control group. RESULTS Patients tested for the Duffy b antigen (Fyb haplotype) exhibited a statistically significant 11% decrease in expression frequency compared to the controls. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte antigens (A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, or Jkb). CONCLUSIONS These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. The deviation in expression rate of Duffy b suggests a target gene and chromosome region in which future research into this form of congenital smell loss may reveal a more specific genetic basis for Type II congenital smell loss. PMID:25456515

  5. Expression of cancer-associated simple mucin-type O-glycosylated antigens in parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinaga, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Simple mucin-type O-glycan structures, such as Tn, TF, sialyl-Tn and Tk antigens, are among of the most specific human cancer-associated structures. These antigens are involved in several types of receptor-ligand interactions, and they are potential targets for immunotherapy. In the last few years several simple mucin-type O-glycan antigens were identified in different species belonging to the main two helminth parasite phyla, and sialyl-Tn bearing glycoproteins were detected in Trypanosoma cruzi. These results are of interest to understand new aspects in parasite glycoimmunology and may help identify new biological characteristics of parasites as well of the host-parasite relationship. Considering that different groups reported a negative correlation between certain parasite infections and cancer development, we could hypothesize that simple mucin-type O-glycosylated antigens obtained from parasites could be good potential targets for cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H;

    1991-01-01

    not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  7. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p group erythrocytes were virtually converted to Bombay group-like erythrocytes by the treatment of anti-H lectins extracted from Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis.

  8. Genomic Typing of Red Cell Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Antigen‐Matched  Red  Cells  for  Sickle  Cell  Anemia   Patients  Using  Molecular Typing to Augment Testing: Meghan Delaney, Prashant Gaur, Askale...Antigen‐Matched Red Cells for Sickle Cell  Anemia  Patients  Using Molecular Typing to Augment Testing: AABB (poster) 2009.  Background: Patients with sickle...not used. Delivery of a  healthy female  neonate  was uneventful. The serologic studies showed the mother and baby’s  phenotypes as O and AB

  9. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutekunst, D E; Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1978-01-01

    Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated antiserum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced, but EHV-2 did not cross-fluoresce. Non-infected cell cultures did not fluoresce when stained with the 3 conjugates. EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced in reciprocal indirect fluorescent antibody tests, but no cross-fluorescence was shown with EHV-2. Antigens representing each type of equine herpes virus reacted with their homologous antiserum in the immunodiffusion test. In reciprocal tests, a common line(s) of identity formed with EHV-1 and EHV-3; however, the precipitin line(s) was not common with EHV-2. Antigen prepared from noninfected embryonic mule skin (EMS) cell cultures did not react with any of the antiserums. Specific complement-fixing antibodies were present in antiserums when tested against their homologous antigens. In reciprocal complement fixation tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 crossreacted, but no cross-reactivity was shown with EHV-2. Significant levels of neutralizing antibody were in an antiserum when tested against homologous virus, whereas cross-neutralization was not detectable in reciprocal tests. These studies indicate that each type of equine herpes virus contains specific antigenic components, and EHV-1 and EHV-3 share a common antigen(s) that is not shared with EHV-2.

  10. Identification of group A Streptococcus antigenic determinants upregulated in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Kowthar Y; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G; Chang, Peter; Bast, Darrin J; Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey D; de Azavedo, Joyce C S

    2005-09-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes a range of diseases in humans, from mild noninvasive infections to severe invasive infections. The molecular basis for the varying severity of disease remains unclear. We identified genes expressed during invasive disease using in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT), applied for the first time in a gram-positive organism. Convalescent-phase sera from patients with invasive disease were pooled, adsorbed against antigens derived from in vitro-grown GAS, and used to screen a GAS genomic expression library. A murine model of invasive GAS disease was included as an additional source of sera for screening. Sequencing DNA inserts from clones reactive with both human and mouse sera indicated 16 open reading frames with homology to genes involved in metabolic activity to genes of unknown function. Of these, seven genes were assessed for their differential expression by quantitative real-time PCR both in vivo, utilizing a murine model of invasive GAS disease, and in vitro at different time points of growth. Three gene products-a putative penicillin-binding protein 1A, a putative lipoprotein, and a conserved hypothetical protein homologous to a putative translation initiation inhibitor in Vibrio vulnificus-were upregulated in vivo, suggesting that these genes play a role during invasive disease.

  11. SMIM1 variants rs1175550 and rs143702418 independently modulate Vel blood group antigen expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Mikael K.; Jöud, Magnus; Ajore, Ram; Vege, Sunitha; Ljungdahl, Klara W.; Westhoff, Connie M.; Olsson, Martin L.; Storry, Jill R.; Nilsson, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The Vel blood group antigen is expressed on the red blood cells of most individuals. Recently, we described that homozygosity for inactivating mutations in SMIM1 defines the rare Vel-negative phenotype. Still, Vel-positive individuals show great variability in Vel antigen expression, creating a risk for Vel blood typing errors and transfusion reactions. We fine-mapped the regulatory region located in SMIM1 intron 2 in Swedish blood donors, and observed a strong correlation between expression and rs1175550 as well as with a previously unreported tri-nucleotide insertion (rs143702418; C > CGCA). While the two variants are tightly linked in Caucasians, we separated their effects in African Americans, and found that rs1175550G and to a lesser extent rs143702418C independently increase SMIM1 and Vel antigen expression. Gel shift and luciferase assays indicate that both variants are transcriptionally active, and we identified binding of the transcription factor TAL1 as a potential mediator of the increased expression associated with rs1175550G. Our results provide insight into the regulatory logic of Vel antigen expression, and extend the set of markers for genetic Vel blood group typing. PMID:28084402

  12. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  13. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    . The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...

  14. A new virion precipitation test for oncovirus envelope antigens which detects common antigenic determinants in mammalian type-C viruses and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstein, A D; Zakharova, L G; Zhdanov, V M

    1979-03-15

    A method for the study of oncovirus envelope antigens was developed, bases on the precipitation of intact virions by a double antibody technique. The amount of precipitated virus was then measured as reverse transcriptase activity. The method was designated the virion precipitation test (VPT). It has been used for titration of antibodies to envelope antigens of oncoviruses. The study of envelop antigens of 11 different oncoviruses permitted their differentiation into the following groups: (1) murine type-C viruses: (2) feline type-C viruses; (3) simian type-C viruses; (4) the RD-114/BEV group; (5) Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV); (6) bovine leukemia virus; (7) avian type-C viruses; (8) mouse mammary tumor virus. No common antigenic determinants were detected in the last three groups. Mammalian type-C viruses (RD-114, NIH-MuLV, G-MuLV) had common antigenic determinants in the envelope, as demonstrated with an anti-RD-114 serum. Mammalian type-C viruses also shared antigenic determinants with M-PMV. The relationship of type-C viruses to M-PMV decreased in the following order: RD-114--NIH-MuLV--G-MuLV. It was also shown that the endogenous xenotropic feline RD-114 virus was more closely related to xenotropic NIH-MuLV than to ecotropic G-MuLV. The nature of the common antigenic determinants, as demonstrated by VPT on the surface of mammalian type-C viruses and M-PMV, and their significance for the concept of oncovirus evolution are discussed.

  15. Detection of candidal antigens in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, P; Perheentupa, J; Krohn, K J

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS I) is associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. To characterize the antibody responses in this subgroup of Candida albicans infections, we screened a candidal cDNA expression library with patient sera and found four cDNA clones encoding the immunopositive proteins enolase, heat shock protein 90, pyruvate kinase, and alcohol dehydrogenase. The reactivity to these antigens was studied further by immunoprecipitation assays with in vitro-tran...

  16. A modified PCR-SSP method for the identification of ABO blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, J; Darke, C

    2003-08-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate molecules synthesized by the glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene on chromosome 9. Kidney transplantation across the ABO barrier generally leads to rapid humoral graft rejection due to the presence of naturally occurring antibodies to the A and B antigens. We have developed a method for ABO typing our cadaveric organ donors by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). The method uses 12 primers in eight PCR mixtures and is performed under the same conditions as our routine HLA-A, B, C PCR-SSP typing. The PCR-SSP-based types of 166 regular blood donors and 148 cadaveric organ donors all showed total concordance with their serologically assigned ABO groups. Six individuals possessing the ABO A subgroups (A3, Ax and Aend) all typed as A1 by PCR-SSP, as expected. PCR-SSP is an appropriate method for ABO typing of cadaveric organ donors and, importantly, enables both ABO and HLA typing to be performed on the same DNA material.

  17. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    which represent secondary gene products. They are synthesized in a stepwise fashion from a precursor by the action of different glycosyltransferases. In non-keratinized oral mucosa, a sequential elongation of the carbohydrates is associated with differentiation of epithelial cells, resulting...... in expression of precursors on basal cells and A/B antigens on spinous cells. Reduction or complete deletion of A/B antigen expression in oral carcinomas has been reported, a phenotypic change that is correlated with invasive and metastatic potential of the tumours and with the mortality rates of the patients....... Disappearance of the antigens is ascribed to the absence of A or B transferase gene expression. Several studies have shown that loss of A and B antigen expression is associated with increased cell motility, invasion in matrigel, and tumourigenecity in syngenic animals. In vivo studies of human oral wound...

  18. Radioimmunoassay of Mammalian Type-C Viral Proteins: Interspecies Antigenic Reactivities of the Major Internal Polypeptide*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Wade P.; Scolnick, Edward M.

    1972-01-01

    Mammalian type-C viruses contain a major internal polypeptide of about 30,000 daltons that is characterized by both intraspecies and interspecies antigenic reactivities. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays were used for measurement of this protein; the assay was based upon interspecies reactivities of the protein. As little as 5 ng of the group-specific antigen of murine leukemia virus can be measured by radioimmunoprecipitation assays, thus providing an approximate 10,000-fold increase in sensitivity over the standard immunodiffusion procedure. The type-C viruses that were recently isolated from a woolly monkey and gibbon ape each have an interspecies type-C antigenic reactivity. The primate viruses, however, could be distinguished from the type-C viruses of murine, rat, hamster, and feline origin that were more highly related to each other. The interspecies reactivity of the 30,000-dalton polypeptide is an immunological marker of the mammalian type-C viruses, since even with this sensitive assay other mammalian viruses with RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity did not contain the type-C interspecies antigen. Images PMID:4505653

  19. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  20. The Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigen in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1995-01-01

    on the expression of these structures, could be divided into new diagnostic groups that may later show prognostic significance. Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 77 salivary gland carcinomas of different histological types were studied using immunohistology and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs...... were always stained, whereas poorly differentiated areas in some tumour types expressed T and sialosyl-T antigens and others did not. The accumulation versus lack of expression of the investigated structures in poorly differentiated areas of the tumours may be of prognostic significance....

  1. Altered cell-mediated immunity to group A haemolytic streptococcal antigens in chronic plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B S; Powles, A V; Malkani, A K; Lewis, H; Valdimarsson, H; Fry, L

    1991-07-01

    The proliferative lymphocyte response to sonicated group A, beta-haemolytic streptococci (Strep-A) was measured by thymidine incorporation in 78 patients with psoriasis (guttate, chronic plaque or both). Lymphocytes from 72 of these patients were also cultured with streptokinase/streptodornase (SK/SD), and 20 of the patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were further tested with PPD, Candida albicans and sonicated Streptococcus mutans, a bacterial type not associated clinically with psoriasis. The median stimulation index (SI) of the psoriasis group to the Strep-A preparation was significantly higher than that of a group of 27 non-psoriatic individuals (P less than 0.05). Within this group, only the patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (n = 42) showed a significantly increased proliferative response compared to the non-psoriatic controls (median SI = 123.8 and 31.9, respectively, P less than 0.01). Although the lymphocyte response of the chronic plaque group to SK/SD was also markedly higher than that of the control group, this difference did not reach statistical significance. In addition, these patients did not show significantly increased responses to any of the other antigens tested, including S. mutans. No correlation was observed between the degree of proliferation to Strep-A and disease extent or activity. Similarly, ASO titres, which were raised in 11 out of 23 guttate and three out of nine chronic plaque psoriasis patients tested, did not correlate with the proliferative responses observed.

  2. A "new" primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) defined DP-antigen associated with a private HLA--DR antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P

    1980-01-01

    We have recently described a "new" private HLA-DR antigen, DR"LTM", which has a frequency of approximately 0.6% in Danes. Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) cells directed towards DR"LTM"-associated determinants were generated in vitro by haplotype primings in two unrelated families with DR"LTM" posi......We have recently described a "new" private HLA-DR antigen, DR"LTM", which has a frequency of approximately 0.6% in Danes. Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) cells directed towards DR"LTM"-associated determinants were generated in vitro by haplotype primings in two unrelated families with DR...

  3. Frequencies of red blood cell major blood group antigens and phenotypes in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Ma, C; Sun, X; Guan, X; Zhang, X; Saldanha, J; Chen, L; Wang, D

    2016-08-01

    Alloantibodies directed to red blood cell (RBC) antigens play an important role in alloimmune-mediated haemolytic transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. The frequencies and phenotypes of RBC antigens are different in populations from different geographic areas and races. However, the data on major blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China are still very limited; thus, we aimed to investigate them in this study. A total of 1412 unrelated voluntary Chinese Han blood donors were randomly recruited. All donors were typed for blood group antigens: D, C, c, E, e, C(w) , Jk(a) , Jk(b) ,M, N, S, s, Le(a) , Le(b) , K, k. Kp(a) , Kp(b) , Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Lu(a) , Lu(b) , P1 and Di(a) using serological technology. Calculations of antigen and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages and for allele frequencies under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amongst the Rh antigens, D was the most common (98.94%) followed by e (92.28%), C (88.81%), c (58.43%), E (50.78%) and C(w) (0.07%) with DCe/DCe (R1 R1 , 40.72%) being the most common phenotype. In the Kell blood group system, k was present in 100% of the donors and a rare phenotype, Kp (a+b+), was found in 0.28% of the donors. For the Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, Jk (a+b+) and Fy (a+b-) were the most common phenotypes (44.05% and 84.35%, respectively). In the MNS blood group system, M+N+S-s+ (45.54%) was the most common, whereas M+N-S-s- and M-N+S-s- were not found. The rare Lu (a-b-) and Lu (a+b+) phenotypes were identified in 0.43% and 1.13% of the donors, respectively. Le(a) and Le(b) were seen in 17.92% and 63.03% of donors, respectively. The frequency of Di(a) was 4.75%, which was higher than in the Chinese population in Taiwan region or the Caucasian and Black populations (P frequencies of 24 blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China. The data can be helpful in creating a donor database for

  4. Role of the Lewis and ABO Blood Group Antigens in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hosein; Badiee, Zahra; Shakibayi, Hosein; Moghimi-Roudi, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor for chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. Some findings show increased frequencies of these diseases in individuals with type O blood and in secretors (expressing Le(b) antigen), but other studies have not found any relationship between blood groups and this infection. Given that H. pylori infection and gastric cancer are common in Iran, the assessment of the pathogenesis of this infection in relation to these blood groups could be valuable. In a cross-sectional study, we determined the ABO and Lewis blood groups of participants using the tube method and evaluated the level of anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study included 171 Iranian blood donors from Mashhad, Iran, during 2010. The significance of the differences in the frequencies of the Lewis and ABO phenotypes between individuals infected with and without H. Pylori infection were tested using the Chi-square test. A P-value ABO blood group was O (33.9%), and the most common Lewis blood group was Le(a-b+) (54.7%). The frequencies of the ABO, Lewis, and secretion phenotypes were not significantly different between the infected and uninfected subjects. We did not find any significant relationship between the Lewis, ABO, and secretion phenotypes and H. pylori infection.

  5. Association of Alport's syndrome with HLA-DR2 antigen in a group of unrelated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Donadi

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A few family studies have evaluated HLA antigens in Alport's syndrome; however, there are no large population studies. In the present report, we studied 40 unrelated white patients with Alport's syndrome seen at the Unit of Renal Transplantation, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were typed using a complement-dependent microlymphocytotoxicity assay. A control white population (N = 403 from the same geographical area was also typed for HLA antigens. Although the frequencies of HLA-A and -B antigens of patients were not statistically different from controls, the frequency of HLA-DR2 antigen observed in patients (65% was significantly increased in relation to controls (26%; P<0.001. The relative risk and etiologic fraction for HLA-DR2 antigen were 5.2 and 0.525, respectively. Although few immunological abnormalities have been shown in Alport's syndrome, in this report we emphasize the association of HLA molecules and Alport's syndrome. Besides the well-known inherited molecular defects encoded by type IV collagen genes in Alport's syndrome, the major histocompatibility alleles may be in linkage disequilibrium with these defective collagen genes

  6. Multiplex real-time PCR for identification of canine parvovirus antigenic types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chandra, Mudit; Dwivedi, P N; Narang, Deepti

    2016-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important disease causing gastroenteritis and/or haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs. There are four antigenic types of CPV reported worldwide viz. CPV 2, CPV 2a, CPV 2b and CPV 2c. The diagnosis of CPV with the identification of the antigen type responsible remains problematic. In the present study, identification as well as antigenic typing of CPV was done using a de novo multiplex real time PCR to combat the problem of antigenic type identification. From the study it could be concluded that the here developed multiplex real time PCR assay could be used for rapid detection of CPV as well as typing of its three antigenic types.

  7. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  8. Prevalence of Principal Rh Blood Group Antigens in Blood Donors at the Blood Bank of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundrajukuppam, Deepthi Krishna; Vijaya, Sreedhar Babu Kinnera; Rajendran, Arun; Sarella, Jothibai Dorairaj

    2016-05-01

    Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. Due to its immunogenicity along with A, B antigens, Rh D antigen testing was made mandatory in pre-transfusion testing. Presently there are more than 50 antigens in Rh blood group system but major ones are D, C, E, c, and e. Very few reports are available regarding their prevalence in India and no reports are available from Andhra Pradesh. To study the prevalence of principal Rh blood group antigens like D, C, E, c & e in the voluntary blood donors attending our blood bank. A prospective cross-sectional non interventional study was carried out on 1000 healthy blood donors from August 2013 to July 2014 at our blood bank. Donors were grouped and typed for ABO and Rh major antigens using monoclonal blood grouping reagents as per the manufacturer's instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Comparison of categorical data between antigen positive and negative individuals was done using Chi-square test. Descriptive statistics for the categorical variables were performed by computing the frequencies (percentages) in each category. Incidence was given in proportion with 95% confidence interval. A total of 1000 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. Among Rh antigens, e was the most common antigen (98.4%), followed by D-94.1%, C-88%, c-54.9% and E-18.8% with DCe/DCe (R1R1) (43.4%) being the most common phenotype and the least common phenotype is r'r' (0.1%). Database for antigen frequency to at least Rh blood group system in local donors helps to provide antigen negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies, minimize alloimmunization rate, and thereby improve blood safety.

  9. Phosphorylation of the Goodpasture antigen by type A protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revert, F; Penadés, J R; Plana, M; Bernal, D; Johansson, C; Itarte, E; Cervera, J; Wieslander, J; Quinones, S; Saus, J

    1995-06-02

    Collagen IV is the major component of basement membranes. The human alpha 3 chain of collagen IV contains an antigenic domain called the Goodpasture antigen that is the target for the circulating immunopathogenic antibodies present in patients with Goodpasture syndrome. Characteristically, the gene region encoding the Goodpasture antigen generates multiple alternative products that retain the antigen amino-terminal region with a five-residue motif (KRGDS). The serine therein appears to be the major in vitro cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site in the isolated antigen and can be phosphorylated in vitro by two protein kinases of approximately 50 and 41 kDa associated with human kidney plasma membrane, suggesting that it can also be phosphorylated in vivo. Consistent with this, the Goodpasture antigen is isolated from human kidney in phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms and only the non-phosphorylated form is susceptible to phosphorylation in vitro. Since this motif is exclusive to the human alpha 3(IV) chain and includes the RGD cell adhesion motif, its phosphorylation might play a role in pathogenesis and influence cell attachment to basement membrane.

  10. Structure of ganglioside with CAD blood group antigen activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, B.K.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.P.; van Kuik, G.A.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Marcus, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    The novel erythrocyte ganglioside which carries the blood group Cad determinant has been isolated, and its structure has been determined. The ganglioside contained Glu:Gal:GalNAc:GlcNAc in a molar ratio of 1.00:1.94:0.93:0.95. The ganglioside binds Helix pomatia lectin and its chromatographic mobility is similar to G/sub D3/. After treatment with ..beta..-hexosaminidase (human placenta HexA) the product migrated with sialosylparagloboside (SPG), no longer binds Helix lectin, and binds a human anti-SPG antibody. Treatment of this material with neuraminidase (V. cholera) yielded a product with the mobility of paragloboside that bound monoclonal antibody 1B2. NMR analysis revealed that the terminal GalNAc is linked ..beta..1-4 to Gal, and confirms the structure proposed previously: GalNAc..beta..1-4(NeuAc..cap alpha..2-3)Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc..beta..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-Cer. This structure is consistent with the previous demonstration that a compound with the same chromatographic mobility as the Cad ganglioside could be synthesized by enzymatic transfer of GalNAc to sialosylparagloboside.

  11. Neurofibromatosis type 2 tumor suppressor protein, NF2, induces proteasome-mediated degradation of JC virus T-antigen in human glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Beltrami

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 protein (NF2 has been shown to act as tumor suppressor primarily through its functions as a cytoskeletal scaffold. However, NF2 can also be found in the nucleus, where its role is less clear. Previously, our group has identified JC virus (JCV tumor antigen (T-antigen as a nuclear binding partner for NF2 in tumors derived from JCV T-antigen transgenic mice. The association of NF2 with T-antigen in neuronal origin tumors suggests a potential role for NF2 in regulating the expression of the JCV T-antigen. Here, we report that NF2 suppresses T-antigen protein expression in U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells, which subsequently reduces T-antigen-mediated regulation of the JCV promoter. When T-antigen mRNA was quantified, it was determined that increasing expression of NF2 correlated with an accumulation of T-antigen mRNA; however, a decrease in T-antigen at the protein level was observed. NF2 was found to promote degradation of ubiquitin bound T-antigen protein via a proteasome dependent pathway concomitant with the accumulation of the JCV early mRNA encoding T-antigen. The interaction between T-antigen and NF2 maps to the FERM domain of NF2, which has been shown previously to be responsible for its tumor suppressor activity. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed a ternary complex among NF2, T-antigen, and the tumor suppressor protein, p53 within a glioblastoma cell line. Further, these proteins were detected in various degrees in patient tumor tissue, suggesting that these associations may occur in vivo. Collectively, these results demonstrate that NF2 negatively regulates JCV T-antigen expression by proteasome-mediated degradation, and suggest a novel role for NF2 as a suppressor of JCV T-antigen-induced cell cycle regulation.

  12. Purification of the group-specific antigen of bluetongue virus by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübschle, O J; Yang, C

    1983-03-01

    A method for the purification of the precipitating antigen of bluetongue virus (BTV) is described. The results obtained indicate that the precipitating antigen is identical with a core protein of BTV having a molecular weight of 39,000 (P7). So far all bluetongue virus serotypes have been shown to possess this protein. It is evident therefore that a group-specific reaction could be based on the presence of antibodies against this core protein. The purification of this protein by chromatofocusing proved relatively easy to perform and immunodiffusion tests revealed a group-specific reaction.

  13. Phenotypic H-Antigen Typing by Mass Spectrometry Combined with Genetic Typing of H Antigens, O Antigens, and Toxins by Whole-Genome Sequencing Enhances Identification of Escherichia coli Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Keding; Chui, Huixia; Domish, Larissa; Sloan, Angela; Hernandez, Drexler; McCorrister, Stuart; Robinson, Alyssia; Walker, Matthew; Peterson, Lorea A M; Majcher, Miles; Ratnam, Sam; Haldane, David J M; Bekal, Sadjia; Wylie, John; Chui, Linda; Tyler, Shaun; Xu, Bianli; Reimer, Aleisha; Nadon, Celine; Knox, J David; Wang, Gehua

    2016-08-01

    Mass spectrometry-based phenotypic H-antigen typing (MS-H) combined with whole-genome-sequencing-based genetic identification of H antigens, O antigens, and toxins (WGS-HOT) was used to type 60 clinical Escherichia coli isolates, 43 of which were previously identified as nonmotile, H type undetermined, or O rough by serotyping or having shown discordant MS-H and serotyping results. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed that MS-H was able to provide more accurate data regarding H antigen expression than serotyping. Further, enhanced and more confident O antigen identification resulted from gene cluster based typing in combination with conventional typing based on the gene pair comprising wzx and wzy and that comprising wzm and wzt The O antigen was identified in 94.6% of the isolates when the two genetic O typing approaches (gene pair and gene cluster) were used in conjunction, in comparison to 78.6% when the gene pair database was used alone. In addition, 98.2% of the isolates showed the existence of genes for various toxins and/or virulence factors, among which verotoxins (Shiga toxin 1 and/or Shiga toxin 2) were 100% concordant with conventional PCR based testing results. With more applications of mass spectrometry and whole-genome sequencing in clinical microbiology laboratories, this combined phenotypic and genetic typing platform (MS-H plus WGS-HOT) should be ideal for pathogenic E. coli typing.

  14. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Tar Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diego blood group antigen, Di(a, is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a, in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+ red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Materials and Methods: Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Results: Di(a antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a in serum. Conclusion: The prevalence of Di(a antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+ red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  15. Convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of Shigella boydii type 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Santra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of Shigella boydii type 9 has been achieved in excellent yield using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation strategy. TEMPO-mediated selective oxidation of the primary alcohol of the tetrasaccharide derivative 8 to the carboxylic group followed by deprotection of the functional groups furnished target tetrasaccharide 1 as its 4-methoxyphenyl glycoside in high yield.

  16. Hardy-Type Inequalities on H-Type Groups and Anisotropic Heisenberg Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyang JIN

    2008-01-01

    The author obtains some weighted Hardy-type inequalities on H-type groups and anisotropic Heisenberg groups.These inequalities generalize some recent results due to N.Garofalo,E.Lanconelli,I.Kombe and P.Niu et al.

  17. Expression of blood group antigens A and B in pancreas of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENKA GEORGIEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of blood group antigens (BGA A and B in tissues of different vertebrates is still controversial. There are few investigations on vertebrate pancreas and no obvious explanation of their tissue expression. The aim of the present study is to follow and compare the pancreatic expression of BGA A and B in representatives of five vertebrate classes. The biotin-streptavidin-proxidase labeling system was used for immunohistochemical detection of BGA by monoclonal antibodies to human A and B antigens. The present study reveals specific immunoreactivity in acinar and epithelial cells of pancreatic efferent ducts in species free-living vertebrates. The immunoperoxidase staining shows antigenic heterogeneity in the cellular localization. The number of positive cells and the intensity of expression vary in different species. Endothelial cells are positive only in the pancreas of Emys orbicularis. The lack of BGA A and B in some species suggests that the expression of these antigens is dependent not only on the evolutionary level of the species, but mainly on some genetic control mechanisms. The production of BGA A and B and the variability in their cellular localization probably reflect the stage of cell differentiation and the mechanisms of pancreatic secretor function. The presence of histo BGA in endodermal acinar pancreatic cells confirms the assumption for the high antigenic stability and conservatism of these molecules in vertebrate histogenesis and evolution.

  18. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...... for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  19. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H;

    1991-01-01

    for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can......Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...

  20. Black holes and groups of type 7

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sergio Ferrara; Alessio Marrani

    2012-06-01

    We report some results on the relation between extremal black holes in locally supersymmetric theories of gravity and groups of type 7, appearing as generalized electric-magnetic duality symmetries in such theories. Some basics on the covariant approach to the stratification of the relevant symplectic representation are reviewed, along with a connection between special Kähler geometry and a ‘generalization’ of groups of type 7.

  1. Goodpasture antigen of the glomerular basement membrane: localization to noncollagenous regions of type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieslander, J; Barr, J F; Butkowski, R J; Edwards, S J; Bygren, P; Heinegård, D; Hudson, B G

    1984-01-01

    The glomerular basement membrane antigen in Goodpasture syndrome is a collagenase-resistant molecule with a monomer molecular weight of about 26,000. Type IV collagen isolated from glomerular basement membrane contains collagenase-resistant sequences within its structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and chemical analysis were used to demonstrate that the collagenase-resistant sequences of type IV collagen contain Goodpasture antigen. Images PMID:6328527

  2. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  3. Identification and Characterization of Peptide Mimics of Blood Group A Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoming TANG; Lin WANG; Lihua HU; Yirong LI; Tianpen CUI; Juan XIONG; Lifang DOU

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate peptide mimics of carbohydrate blood group A antigen, a phage display 12-met peptide library was screened with a monoclonal antibody against blood group A antigen, NaM87-1F6. The antibody-binding properties of the selected phage peptides were evaluated by phage ELISA and phage capture assay. The peptides were co-expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins. RBC agglutination inhibition assay was performed to assess the natural blood group A antigen-mimicking ability of the fusion proteins. The results showed that seven phage clones selected bound to NaM87-1F6 specifically, among which, 6 clones bore the same peptide sequence, EYWYCGMNRTGC and another harbored a different one QIWYERTLPFrF. The two peptides were successfully expressed at the N terminal of GST protein. Both of the fusion proteins inhibited the RBC agglutination mediated by anti-A serum in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that the fusion proteins based on the selected peptides could mimic the blood group A an- tigen and might be used as anti-A antibody-adsorbing materials when immunoabsorption was applied in ABO incompatible transplantation.

  4. Blood group antigen studies using CdTe quantum dots and flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Filho PE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paulo E Cabral Filho,1 Maria IA Pereira,1 Heloise P Fernandes,2 Andre A de Thomaz,3 Carlos L Cesar,3 Beate S Santos,4 Maria L Barjas-Castro,2 Adriana Fontes1 1Departamento de Biofísica e Radiobiologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, 2Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Sangue, Campinas, São Paulo, 3Departamento de Eletrônica Quântica, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, 4Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil Abstract: New methods of analysis involving semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs] as fluorescent probes have been highlighted in life science. QDs present some advantages when compared to organic dyes, such as size-tunable emission spectra, broad absorption bands, and principally exceptional resistance to photobleaching. Methods applying QDs can be simple, not laborious, and can present high sensibility, allowing biomolecule identification and quantification with high specificity. In this context, the aim of this work was to apply dual-color CdTe QDs to quantify red blood cell (RBC antigen expression on cell surface by flow cytometric analysis. QDs were conjugated to anti-A or anti-B monoclonal antibodies, as well as to the anti-H (Ulex europaeus I lectin, to investigate RBCs of A1, B, A1B, O, A2, and Aweak donors. Bioconjugates were capable of distinguishing the different expressions of RBC antigens, both by labeling efficiency and by flow cytometry histogram profile. Furthermore, results showed that RBCs from Aweak donors present fewer amounts of A antigens and higher amounts of H, when compared to A1 RBCs. In the A group, the amount of A antigens decreased as A1 > A3 > AX = Ael, while H antigens were AX = Ael > A1. Bioconjugates presented stability and remained active for at least 6 months. In conclusion

  5. Typing for HLA-D/DR associated DP-antigens with the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P

    1980-01-01

    A total of 74 healthy unrelated random individuals and 36 patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) were typed for HLA-D antigens with the homozygous typing cell technique and typed for HLA-D/DR associated DP-antigens with the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique. All patients and some...... of the controls were also HLA-DR typed with a limited battery of anti-DR sera. Selected PLT-cells, specific for the HLA-D/DR antigens D/DRw1-8 and the local specificity D"H" were used. The results of the PLT-experiments were evaluated with the Normalized Median Response (NMR) method and the further procedure...

  6. Spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) do not respond to thymus-independent type 2 antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennello, Anthony; Taylor, Justin; Matlack, Robin; Karp, Jonathan; Riggs, James

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the immune system of spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) has been limited. Originally grouped with Mus, Acomys has recently been placed closer to Meriones (gerbils). This study compared immunity in Acomys, Mus, and Meriones. Lymphocytes from all rodents examined proliferated in response to mitogen and superantigen stimulation. Only Mus T cells responded to anti-CD3 stimulation. Acomys, like Meriones, and Mus that express xid, did not respond to thymus-independent type 2 antigens. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that T cell-specific MAbs did not bind Acomys or Meriones lymphocytes. The B cell-specific anti-CD45R (B220) MAb detected all rodent B cells and revealed the absence of a CD45R(lo) subset in the peritoneal cavity of Acomys and Meriones. Bone marrow from Acomys and Meriones failed to reconstitute B cell function in SCID mice. Thus, in terms of immunity, Acomys appears to be more similar to Meriones than Mus.

  7. Antigenic variation and resistance to neutralization in poliovirus type 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Diamond; B.A. Jameson; J. Bonin; M. Kohara; S. Abe; H. Itoh; T. Komatsu; M. Arita; S. Kuge; A. Nomoto; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. Crainic; E. Wimmer

    1985-01-01

    textabstractMutations have been identified in variants of poliovirus, type 1 (Mahoney) on the basis of their resistance to neutralization by individual monoclonal antibodies. The phenotypes of these variants were defined in terms of antibody binding; the pattern of epitopes expressed or able to be e

  8. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in body fluids, using specific antibody-coated staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksanong, M; Dajani, A S

    1977-01-01

    Protein A-rich staphylococci coated with Haemophilus influenzae type b antiserum agglutinate specifically with homologous bacterial cells or with cell-free supernatant fluids of cultures of the organism. Antibody-coated staphylococci were used to detect soluble antigens in body fluids of patients infected with H. influenzae type b. Cerebrospinal fluid from 36 cases of meningitis caused by this orgainsm showed positive coagglutination tests in 86% of patients prior to initiation of therapy. Antigens could be detected in 46% of sterile cerebrospinal fluid specimens obtained from the same cases 1 to 10 days after therapy. Soluble antigens were also detectable in sera (58%) and urine specimens (67%) of patients with H. influenzae type b septicemia, when such specimens were tested within 10 days of onset of illness. No antigen could be detected in body fluids beyond 10 days. The coagglutination test was positive in 57% of all body fluids examined; contercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) was positive in only 27%. All specimens positive by CCIE were also positive by coagglutination. No false-positive reactions were noted by either test in body fluids from controls. The coagglutination test is simple, specific, and more sensitive than the CCIE method and could be a valuable tool for detecting antigens in body fluids of patients with various infections.

  9. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...... and 7 homogeneous leukoplakias) were also examined. The distribution of Lex, Ley, H type 2 chain, and N-acetyllactosamine, all type 2 chain carbohydrate structures, was investigated by immunohistological staining using monoclonal antibodies with selected specificity. The histological pattern...

  10. Definitions of histocompatibility typing terms: Harmonization of Histocompatibility Typing Terms Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eduardo; Heslop, Helen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Taves, Cynthia; Wagenknecht, Dawn R; Eisenbrey, A Bradley; Fischer, Gottfried; Poulton, Kay; Wacker, Kara; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Noreen, Harriet; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2011-12-01

    Histocompatibility testing for stem cell and solid organ transplantation has become increasingly complex as newly discovered human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are described. HLA typing assignments reported by laboratories are used by physicians and donor registries for matching donors and recipients. To communicate effectively, a common language for histocompatibility terms should be established. In early 2010, representatives from clinical, registry, and histocompatibility organizations joined together as the Harmonization of Histocompatibility Typing Terms Working Group to define a consensual language for laboratories, physicians and registries to communicate histocompatibility typing information. The Working Group defined terms for HLA typing resolution, HLA matching and a format for reporting HLA assignments. In addition, definitions of verification typing and extended typing were addressed. The original draft of the Definitions of Histocompatibility Typing Terms was disseminated to colleagues from each organization to gain feedback and create a collaborative document. Commentary gathered during this 90-day review period were discussed and implemented for preparation of this report. Histocompatibility testing continues to evolve thus, the definitions agreed upon today, likely will require refinement and perhaps additional terminology in the future.

  11. Partial characterization of n-butanol-solubilized rejection-type antigens of syngeneic murine colon tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N; Kikuchi, K

    1985-04-01

    Previous investigation of the transplantation immunity of 2 cultured murine colon lines of BALB/c origin, C-C36 and C-C26, showed these tumor lines to be immunogenic against individual tumors and to have possibly cross-reactive, tumor-rejection-type antigens. For characterization of the molecular features of tumor-rejection antigens expressed on the colon tumor cells, n-butanol was used for the extraction of rejection-type antigens from tumor cells and immunogenic molecules were analyzed on transplantation immunity. The data demonstrated that extraction of the rejection-type antigens from C-C36 and C-C26 surface membrane without cellular lysis was possible with n-butanol treatment of these cells, and immunogenic activities of these extracts from C-C36 and C-C26 cells were more potent than those of nonionic detergent Nonidet P40 extracts in the tumor-rejection assays. The extracts were partially characterized by chromatographic separation on Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and lectin-affinity chromatography. It was suggested that the C-C36 antigens responsible for tumor-rejection activity against the same tumor cells had a molecular weight range of approximately 150,000 to 250,000 (fraction II) in the presence of 5 mM EDTA and had been eluted into unbound fractions to lens culinaris lectin on affinity chromatography. Moreover, immunization of mice with antigens from the same fractions (fraction II) of n-butanol extracts of C-C26 tumor on the gel filtration could induce the resistance against challenged C-C36 as well as against challenged C-C26 tumor growth. These results may indicate that solubilized tumor-rejection-type antigens found in C-C36 and C-C26 colon tumors have a size similar to that of the molecules and that cross-reacting, rejection-type antigens between these cells are the products of the same gene clusters or somatic derivatives of a single gene.

  12. Isolation and purification of a type-specific antigen from Chlamydia trachomatis propagated in cell culture utilizing molecular shift chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, J T; Rota, T R; MacDonald, A B

    1980-05-01

    Various techniques have been utilized for antigen solubilization, isolation, and purification. This report is the first to describe the isolation and purification of a type-specific antigen from Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A grown in cell culture. The type-specific antigen was prepared from Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A organisms grown in baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21). The extraction process employed a combination of both pH change and Triton X-100 solubilization. The soluble extract was radioiodinated and subjected to ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The fractions eluted were tested for type specificity utilizing the IgG prepared from exhaustively cross-absorbed hyperimmune sera from rabbits immunized with homologous organisms. Molecular shift chromatography was employed for analysis. Small samples of the isolated antigen were later used as markers for preparation of larger quantities necessary for antigenic characterization. The purified type-specific antigen has a m.w. of 30,000 to 32,000.

  13. HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M

    1987-09-01

    HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection?

  14. Expression of Lewisb blood group antigen in Helicobacterpylori does not interfere with bacterial adhesion property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Yuan Zheng; Jiesong Hua; Han-Chung Ng; Khay-Guan Yeoh; Ho Bow

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The finding that some Helicobacterpyloristrains expressLewis b (Leb) blood group antigen casts a doubt on the roleof Leb of human gastric epithelium being a receptor for-H.pylori. The aim of this study was to determine if expressionof Leb in H. Pyloriinterferes with bacterial adhesion property.METHODS: Bacterial adhesion to immobilized Leb onmicrotitre plate was performed in 63-H. Pyloristrains obtainedfrom Singapore using in vitro adherence assay. Expression ofLewis blood group antigens was determined by ELISA assay.RESULTS: Among 63 H. Pyloristrains, 28 expressed Lebantigen. In vitro adhesion assay showed that 78.6 % (22/28) of Leb-positive and 74.3 % (26/35) of Leb-negative-H.pyloriisolates were positive for adhesion to immobilized Lebcoated on microtitre plate (P=0.772). In addition, blockingof H. Pylori Leb by prior incubation with anti-Leb monoclonalantibody did not alter thebinding of the bacteria to solid-phase coated Leb.CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that expressionof Leb in H. Pyloridoes not interfere with the bacterialadhesion property. This result supports the notion that Lebpresent on human gastric epithelial cells is capable of beinga receptor for H.pylori.

  15. Allele frequency of ABO blood group antigen and the risk of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Kapoor, Akhil; Kalwar, Ashok; Narayan, Satya; Singhal, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Akhender; Mewara, Abhishek; Bardia, Megh Raj

    2014-01-01

    ABO blood group and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus have been reported by many studies, but there is no discipline that had provided association with the genotype and gene frequency by population statics. We conducted a case-control study on 480 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and 480 noncancer patients. ABO blood group was determined by presence of antigen with the help of monoclonal antibody. Chi-square test and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by statistical methods, and gene frequencies were calculated by Hardy-Weinberg model. We observed significant associations between ABO genotype and squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. OR (95% CIs) was 1.69 (1.31-2.19) for presence of B antigen allele relative to its absence (P ABO and Rh genotype is identified by this study. Sex and anatomical site of cancer also present with statistically significant relative association. However, larger randomised trials are required to establish the hypothesis.

  16. Relationship between systemic inflammation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to Candida antigen in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt D Pence

    Full Text Available Research has shown that aging is associated with increased systemic inflammation as well as a reduction in the strength of immune responses. However, little evidence exists linking the decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults with other health parameters. We sought to examine the relationship between cell-mediated immunity as measured in vivo by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to candida antigen and demographic and physiological variables in older (65-80 y.o. adults. Candida antigen response was not related to gender or obesity, or to a number of other physiological variables including fitness and body composition. However, positive responders had significantly lower serum C-reactive protein levels (CRP, p4.75 mg•L(-1. Therefore, positive responses to candida antigen in older adults appears to be related to lower levels of systemic inflammation.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of antigen-specific CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, P A; Roderiquez, G L; Peden, K W; Norcross, M A

    1998-11-01

    The effect of macrophage (M)-tropic and T cell line (T)-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on antigen-specific CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) has been studied using a CD4 CTL line specific for a peptide from influenza B virus hemagglutinin. In the absence of antigen presentation, the production of CC chemokines was low. Both the M-tropic HIV-1 strain (HIV-1AD) and the T-tropic HIV-1 strain (HIV-1LAI) established productive infections in the CD4 CTLs, decreasing antigen-specific cytotoxicity. Peptide presented to the CD4 CTLs increased their secretion of RANTES and MIP-1beta, suppressed M-tropic HIV-1 replication, downmodulated CCR5 expression, and preserved CTL recognition. The suppression of M-tropic HIV-1 replication and downmodulation of the CCR5 receptor likely resulted from CC chemokine secretion since antibodies to CC chemokines restored M-tropic HIV-1 replication. Antigen presentation did not protect CD4 CTLs from T-tropic HIV-1 infection or preserve their CTL recognition. Thus, these CD4 CTLs do not make suppressor factors that inhibit the T-tropic HIV-1LAI isolate. The results indicate that these CD4 CTLs can either harbor or suppress M-tropic HIV-1 infection, depending on whether antigen is present. CD4 CTLs might therefore provide some protection in the early stages of HIV-1 infection when M-tropic isolates are present.

  18. Maternal ABO and rhesus blood group phenotypes and hepatitis B surface antigen carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, T T; Sahota, D S; Chung, M-K; Cheung, T K W; Cheng, Y K Y; Leung, T Y

    2014-11-01

    In view of a persistently high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in our obstetric population, we examined the association between HBsAg carriage with maternal ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood group phenotypes determined at routine antenatal screening. In a retrospective study, the antenatal screening results of women booked for confinement between 1998 and 2011 in our hospital were examined for the relationship between HBsAg carriage with the ABO and rhesus blood groups, taking into account also the effects of advanced maternal age (≥ 35 years) and parity status (nulliparous or multiparous), and year of birth before or following the availability of the hepatitis B vaccine (1984). HBsAg carriage was found in 9.9%, 9.6%, 9.1% and 10.2% (P = 0.037) for group-A (n = 20 581 or 26.1%), -B (n = 20 744 or 26.4%), -AB (n = 5138 or 6.5%) and -O (n = 32 242 or 41.0%) among the 78705 women in the study cohort. Rhesus negativity was found in 0.6%, and HBsAg carriage was 12.3% and 9.8%, respectively, for the Rh-negative and Rh-positive women (P = 0.071). Carriage rate between group-O and non-O was influenced by nulliparity, age ≥ 35 years and Rh-positive status. Regression analysis indicated that group-B (P = 0.044, aOR = 1.062, 95% CI 1.002-1.127) and group-AB (P = 0.016, aOR = 1.134, 95% CI 1.024-1.256) were associated with HBsAg carriage. Blood groups-B and -AB are associated with increased hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in our population, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the implications of this on the sequelae of HBV infection.

  19. BGMUT: NCBI dbRBC database of allelic variations of genes encoding antigens of blood group systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Blumenfeld, Olga O

    2012-01-01

    Analogous to human leukocyte antigens, blood group antigens are surface markers on the erythrocyte cell membrane whose structures differ among individuals and which can be serologically identified. The Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database (BGMUT) is an online repository of allelic variations in genes that determine the antigens of various human blood group systems. The database is manually curated with allelic information collated from scientific literature and from direct submissions from research laboratories. Currently, the database documents sequence variations of a total of 1251 alleles of all 40 gene loci that together are known to affect antigens of 30 human blood group systems. When available, information on the geographic or ethnic prevalence of an allele is also provided. The BGMUT website also has general information on the human blood group systems and the genes responsible for them. BGMUT is a part of the dbRBC resource of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA, and is available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gv/rbc/xslcgi.fcgi?cmd=bgmut. The database should be of use to members of the transfusion medicine community, those interested in studies of genetic variation and related topics such as human migrations, and students as well as members of the general public.

  20. A mutant chaperone converts a wild-type protein into a tumor-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schietinger, Andrea; Philip, Mary; Yoshida, Barbara A; Azadi, Parastoo; Liu, Hui; Meredith, Stephen C; Schreiber, Hans

    2006-10-13

    Monoclonal antibodies have become important therapeutic agents against certain cancers. Many tumor-specific antigens are mutant proteins that are predominantly intracellular and thus not readily accessible to monoclonal antibodies. We found that a wild-type transmembrane protein could be transformed into a tumor-specific antigen. A somatic mutation in the chaperone gene Cosmc abolished function of a glycosyltransferase, disrupting O-glycan Core 1 synthesis and creating a tumor-specific glycopeptidic neo-epitope consisting of a monosaccharide and a specific wild-type protein sequence. This epitope induced a high-affinity, highly specific, syngeneic monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity. Such tumor-specific glycopeptidic neo-epitopes represent potential targets for monoclonal antibody therapy.

  1. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica type III secretion system effector proteins as carriers for heterologous vaccine antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid; Hensel, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines.

  2. Inhibition of histo-blood group antigen binding as a novel strategy to block norovirus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Fu Zhang

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are the most important viral pathogens that cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis. NoVs recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs as receptors or attachment factors. The elucidation of crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of a number of human NoVs representing different HBGA binding patterns opens a new strategy for the development of antiviral compounds against NoVs through rational drug design and computer-aided virtual screening methods. In this study, docking simulations and virtual screening were used to identify hit compounds targeting the A and B antigens binding sites on the surface of the capsid P protein of a GII.4 NoV (VA387. Following validation by re-docking of the A and B ligands, these structural models and AutoDock suite of programs were used to screen a large drug-like compound library (derived from ZINC library for inhibitors blocking GII.4 binding to HBGAs. After screening >2 million compounds using multistage protocol, 160 hit compounds with best predicted binding affinities and representing a number of distinct chemical classes have been selected for subsequent experimental validation. Twenty of the 160 compounds were found to be able to block the VA387 P dimers binding to the A and/or B HBGAs at an IC50<40.0 µM, with top 5 compounds blocking the HBGA binding at an IC50<10.0 µM in both oligosaccharide- and saliva-based blocking assays. Interestingly, 4 of the top-5 compounds shared the basic structure of cyclopenta [a] dimethyl phenanthren, indicating a promising structural template for further improvement by rational design.

  3. Using a genomic assay for the detection of SNPs of Knops blood group antigens leads to the identification of two caucasians homozygous for the SNP associated with the knops SL3 antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. A.; Sprogoe, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Case Studies: The antigens of the Knops (Kn) blood group system are associated with SNPs located on exon 29 and (to lesser extent) on exon 26 of the complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene. Because of a lack of proper typing antibodies, serologic detection of Kn antigens is not feasible. We...... was homozygous for 4801 A>G (p.1601Gly) associated with Sl2+ (the rest were all homozygous for 4801 A). The Sl2+ donor was also Mc(a-b+). With regard to Sl3, we found 9 out of 105 (8.6%) donors to be heterozygous for 4828 T>A, and 96 of 105 (91.4%) to be homozygous for 4828 T (p.1610Ser). These numbers yields...

  4. HUMAN PLATELET ANTIGEN-1 (ZW) TYPING OF FETUSES BY ANALYSIS OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION-AMPLIFIED GENOMIC DNA FROM AMNIOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIMSEK, S; CHRISTIAENS, GCLM; KANHAI, HHH; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; BLEEKER, PMM; VLEKKE, ABJ; GOLDSCHMEDING, R; VONDEMBORNE, AEGK

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal typing for the human platelet antigens-l (HPA) permits identification of a fetus at risk for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAITP) in cases of HPA-1 incompatibility in which the father is heterozygous for the HPA-la antigen. Diagnostic cordocentesis and phenotyping of the fetal plate

  5. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C

    1995-01-01

    Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16. To elucid......Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16...

  6. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal multiple bonds between Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin and Lewis b ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, P; Shi, Q; Magalhaes, A; Reis, C A; Bugaytsova, J; Borén, T; Leckband, D; Martins, M C L

    2014-12-01

    The strength of binding between the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) and its cognate glycan receptor, the Lewis b blood group antigen (Le(b)), was measured by means of atomic force microscopy. High-resolution measurements of rupture forces between single receptor-ligand pairs were performed between the purified BabA and immobilized Le(b) structures on self-assembled monolayers. Dynamic force spectroscopy revealed two similar but statistically different bond populations. These findings suggest that the BabA may form different adhesive attachments to the gastric mucosa in ways that enhance the efficiency and stability of bacterial adhesion.

  7. The dendritic cell-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN is a receptor for Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens and recognizes the glycan antigen Lewis x.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Die, van I.M.; Vliet, van SJ; Nyame, AK; Cummings, RD; Bank, CM; Appelmelk, B.J.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.; Kooijk, van Y.

    2003-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEAs) are crucially involved in modulating the host immune response to infection by S. mansoni. We report that human dendritic cells bind SEAs through the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN). Monoclonal antibodies agai

  8. A novel multilocus sequence typing scheme for the opportunistic pathogen Propionibacterium acnes and characterization of type I cell surface-associated antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Andrew; Gao, Anna; Barnard, Emma; Fink, Colin; Murray, Philip I; Dowson, Chris G; Nagy, Istvan; Lambert, Peter A; Patrick, Sheila

    2011-07-01

    We have developed a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme and database (http://pubmlst.org/pacnes/) for Propionibacterium acnes based on the analysis of seven core housekeeping genes. The scheme, which was validated against previously described antibody, single locus and random amplification of polymorphic DNA typing methods, displayed excellent resolution and differentiated 123 isolates into 37 sequence types (STs). An overall clonal population structure was detected with six eBURST groups representing the major clades I, II and III, along with two singletons. Two highly successful and global clonal lineages, ST6 (type IA) and ST10 (type IB(1)), representing 64 % of this current MLST isolate collection were identified. The ST6 clone and closely related single locus variants, which comprise a large clonal complex CC6, dominated isolates from patients with acne, and were also significantly associated with ophthalmic infections. Our data therefore support an association between acne and P. acnes strains from the type IA cluster and highlight the role of a widely disseminated clonal genotype in this condition. Characterization of type I cell surface-associated antigens that are not detected in ST10 or strains of type II and III identified two dermatan-sulphate-binding proteins with putative phase/antigenic variation signatures. We propose that the expression of these proteins by type IA organisms contributes to their role in the pathophysiology of acne and helps explain the recurrent nature of the disease. The MLST scheme and database described in this study should provide a valuable platform for future epidemiological and evolutionary studies of P. acnes.

  9. AgdbNet – antigen sequence database software for bacterial typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiden Martin CJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial typing schemes based on the sequences of genes encoding surface antigens require databases that provide a uniform, curated, and widely accepted nomenclature of the variants identified. Due to the differences in typing schemes, imposed by the diversity of genes targeted, creating these databases has typically required the writing of one-off code to link the database to a web interface. Here we describe agdbNet, widely applicable web database software that facilitates simultaneous BLAST querying of multiple loci using either nucleotide or peptide sequences. Results Databases are described by XML files that are parsed by a Perl CGI script. Each database can have any number of loci, which may be defined by nucleotide and/or peptide sequences. The software is currently in use on at least five public databases for the typing of Neisseria meningitidis, Campylobacter jejuni and Streptococcus equi and can be set up to query internal isolate tables or suitably-configured external isolate databases, such as those used for multilocus sequence typing. The style of the resulting website can be fully configured by modifying stylesheets and through the use of customised header and footer files that surround the output of the script. Conclusion The software provides a rapid means of setting up customised Internet antigen sequence databases. The flexible configuration options enable typing schemes with differing requirements to be accommodated.

  10. Contribution of the trifluoroacetyl group in the thermodynamics of antigen-antibody binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masayuki; Saito, Minoru; Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the binding of the 7C8 antibody to the chloramphenicol phosphonate antigens-one containing a trifluoroacetyl group (CP-F) and the other containing an acetyl group (CP-H)-by using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The thermodynamic difference due to the substitution of F by H was evaluated using free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We have previously shown that another antibody, namely, 6D9, binds more weakly to CP-H than to CP-F, mainly due to the different hydration free energies of the dissociated state and not due to the unfavorable hydrophobic interactions with the antibody in the bound state. Unlike in the binding of the trifluoroacetyl group with 6D9, in its binding with 7C8, it is exposed to the solvent, as seen in the crystal structure of the complex of 7C8 with CP-F. The thermodynamic analysis performed in this study showed that the binding affinity of 7C8 for CP-H is similar to that for CP-F, but this binding to CP-H is accompanied with less favorable enthalpy and more favorable entropy changes. The free energy calculations indicated that, upon the substitution of F by H, enthalpy and entropy changes in the associated and dissociated states were decreased, but the magnitude of enthalpy and entropy changes in the dissociated state was larger than that in the associated state. The differences in binding free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes determined by the free energy calculations for the substitution of F by H are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect. PMID:25568761

  12. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs. The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV, anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL and malaria parasite (MP antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50, O negative (1/66, B negative (1/91, AB positive (2/377 blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rh-negative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  13. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash

    2014-11-19

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  14. Crosstalk between ABO and Forssman (FORS) blood group systems: FORS1 antigen synthesis by ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A and B alleles at the ABO genetic locus specify A and B glycosyltransferases that catalyze the biosynthesis of A and B oligosaccharide antigens, respectively, of blood group ABO system which is important in transfusion and transplantation medicine. GBGT1 gene encodes Forssman glycolipid synthase (FS), another glycosyltransferase that produces Forssman antigen (FORS1). Humans are considered to be Forssman antigen-negative species without functional FS. However, rare individuals exhibiting Apae phenotype carry a dominant active GBGT1 gene and express Forssman antigen on RBCs. Accordingly, FORS system was recognized as the 31st blood group system. Mouse ABO gene encodes a cis-AB transferase capable of producing both A and B antigens. This murine enzyme contains the same GlyGlyAla tripeptide sequence as FSs at the position important for the determination of sugar specificity. We, therefore, transfected the expression construct into appropriate recipient cells and examined whether mouse cis-AB transferase may also exhibit FS activity. The result was positive, confirming the crosstalk between the ABO and FORS systems. Further experiments have revealed that the introduction of this tripeptide sequence to human A transferase conferred some, although weak, FS activity, suggesting that it is also involved in the recognition/binding of acceptor substrates, in addition to donor nucleotide-sugars. PMID:28134301

  15. Incorporation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels into the prognostic grouping system of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Heita; Kotake, Kenjiro; Hosaka, Miki; Hirata, Akira; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Fujita, Shin; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the significance of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on disease-free survival (DFS) in colon cancer and propose a new prognostic grouping system. A multiinstitutional retrospective cohort of 7296 colon cancer patients who underwent R0 surgery between 1997 and 2006 was analyzed. We stratified preoperative serum CEA values into three categories (C-stages): C0 (normal CEA), C1A (up to double the cutoff value), and C1B (more than double the cutoff value) and stratified each TNM stage by C-stage. Multivariate analyses using Cox regression models were used to analyze the significance of C-stage on 5-year DFS. CEA level was an independent factor affecting DFS; the 5-year DFS of patients with C0 and C1, as well as those with C1A and C1B, differed significantly (C0 84.6%, C1 69.8%, C1A 72.7%, and C1B 66.4%, P TNM staging system may facilitate decision making regarding the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients.

  16. [Rapid antigen detection tests for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Levy, C; Chalumeau, M; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most frequently identified bacterium in children with acute pharyngitis. Clinical signs and symptoms cannot distinguish accurately between viral and GAS pharyngitis. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) can identify GAS by an immunologic reaction within a few minutes. Compared to throat culture, most RADTs have a high specificity (around 95 %), allowing antibiotic prescribing on the basis of a positive RADT result. Similarly, the negative predictive value of RADTs seems sufficiently high (around 95 %) to ensure against the presence of GAS in case of a negative RADT result. Among several factors affecting RADT sensitivity, the training and expertise of the person performing the test and the quality of the throat swab specimen seem to be key determinants. Available evidence suggests that clinical prediction rules for the triage of children who should undergo GAS testing are not sufficiently accurate. Implementing RADTs into clinical practice has an important impact on antibiotic prescription rates, for a reduction of about 30 %. French guidelines that recommend using RADTs in all children above 3 years of age presenting with pharyngitis without backup culture of negative tests seem relevant in this context.

  17. Solitary expression of CD7 among T-cell antigens in acute myeloid leukemia: identification of a group of patients with similar T-cell receptor beta and delta rearrangements and course of disease suggestive of poor prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A W; Hokland, M; Jørgensen, H

    1991-01-01

    to the French-American-British type M4, and four were under the age of 40. Despite intensive chemotherapy, four never obtained a complete remission and the fifth died of relapse after an allogenic bone marrow transplantation. While 12 randomly selected T-cell antigen negative AML patients showed only few....... These data suggest that the solitary presence of CD7 among T-cell antigens in otherwise clearcut AML cases identifies a group of patients with similarities in antigen receptor gene configuration as well as outcome. Udgivelsesdato: 1991-Sep-1...

  18. Human Leukocyte Antigen Profile in the Zaboli Ethnic Group Living in the South-East Region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ali Khazaei

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The human leukocyte antigen has become a key component in investigating the genetic relationships between populations. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of HLA class I and II alleles among Zaboli ethnic group of South-east Iran to establish a database for further investigations on ancestry and the genetic factors contributing to complex diseases in this region.Unrelated individuals from the Southeast geographic location throughout Iran were serologically typed using standard microcytotoxicity assays with commercial and local trays. The ethnic background of each individual was self-defined. HLA profiles were determined in 41 Zaboli populations. The most frequent class I alleles of the Zaboli ethnic group being the following: HLA-A1 (34.1%, -A2 (58.5%, -A11 (29.3%, -A24 (23.9%, -B5 (70.7%, -B16 (26.8%, and -Cw4 (24.4%. The class II alleles more frequently observed in this group were HLA-DR1 (26.8%, -DR2 (26.8%, -DR3 (31.7%, -DR4 (29.3%, -DR7 (24.4%, -DR8 (22%, -DR11 (48.8%, -DRw52 (73.2%, -DRw53 (53.7%, -DQ1 (53.7%, -DQ2 (31.7%, and -DQ3 (29.3%. This report utilized a first study of HLA class I and II typed individuals, from widely dispersed areas of Iran. This will help in studies related to disease associations and cadaver organ allocation programmes.

  19. Appropriate clinical use of human leukocyte antigen typing for coeliac disease: an Australasian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Din, J A; Cameron, D J S; Daveson, A J; Day, A S; Dellsperger, P; Hogan, C; Newnham, E D; Shepherd, S J; Steele, R H; Wienholt, L; Varney, M D

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing emerge as a remarkably popular test for the diagnostic work-up of coeliac disease with high patient acceptance. Although limited in its positive predictive value for coeliac disease, the strong disease association with specific HLA genes imparts exceptional negative predictive value to HLA typing, enabling a negative result to exclude coeliac disease confidently. In response to mounting evidence that the clinical use and interpretation of HLA typing often deviates from best practice, this article outlines an evidence-based approach to guide clinically appropriate use of HLA typing, and establishes a reporting template for pathology providers to improve communication of results. PMID:25827511

  20. New approaches with different types of circulating cathodic antigen for the diagnosis of patients with low Schistosoma mansoni load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Grenfell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is a debilitating and sometimes fatal disease. Accurate diagnosis plays a key role in patient management and infection control. However, currently available parasitological methods are laborious and lack sensitivity. The selection of target antigen candidates has turned out to be a promising tool for the development of more sensitive diagnostic methods. In our previous investigations, the use of crude antigens led to false-positive results. Recently, focus has been given to highly purified Schistosoma mansoni antigens, especially to circulating antigens. METHOD: Thus, our main goal was to test different types of circulating cathodic antigen glycoprotein (CCA, as "crude antigen," the protein chain of recombinant CCA and two individual peptides. These schistosome proteins/peptides were tested in a new diagnostic method employing immunomagnetic separation based on the improvement of antigen-antibody binding. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Use of recombinant CCA as a diagnostic antigen allowed us to develop a diagnostic assay with high sensitivity and specificity with no false-negative results. Interestingly, the "crude antigen" worked as a good marker for control of cure after praziquantel treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our new diagnostic method was superior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosing low endemicity patients.

  1. Stem Cell Physics. Laser Manipulation of Blood Types: Laser-Stripping-Away of Red Blood Cell Surface Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-03-01

    A novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine[2] is proposed. The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multilaser beams with the flowing blood thin films can lead to a conversion of blood types A, B, and AB into O type.[3] The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation),[4] upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, La Jolla, CA.

  2. Rapid antigen group A streptococcus test to diagnose pharyngitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharyngitis management guidelines include estimates of the test characteristics of rapid antigen streptococcus tests (RAST using a non-systematic approach. OBJECTIVE: To examine the sensitivity and specificity, and sources of variability, of RAST for diagnosing group A streptococcal (GAS pharyngitis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus, SciELO, CINAHL, guidelines, 2000-2012. STUDY SELECTION: Culture as reference standard, all languages. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Study characteristics, quality. MAIN OUTCOME(S AND MEASURE(S: Sensitivity, specificity. RESULTS: We included 59 studies encompassing 55,766 patients. Forty three studies (18,464 patients fulfilled the higher quality definition (at least 50 patients, prospective data collection, and no significant biases and 16 (35,634 patients did not. For the higher quality immunochromatographic methods in children (10,325 patients, heterogeneity was high for sensitivity (inconsistency [I(2] 88% and specificity (I(2 86%. For enzyme immunoassay in children (342 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 79-92% and the pooled specificity was 92% (95% CI, 88-95%. For the higher quality immunochromatographic methods in the adult population (1,216 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 91% (95% CI, 87 to 94% and the pooled specificity was 93% (95% CI, 92 to 95%; however, heterogeneity was modest for sensitivity (I(2 61% and specificity (I(2 72%. For enzyme immunoassay in the adult population (333 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 81-91% and the pooled specificity was 97% (95% CI, 96 to 99%; however, heterogeneity was high for sensitivity and specificity (both, I(2 88%. CONCLUSIONS: RAST immunochromatographic methods appear to be very sensitive and highly specific to diagnose group A streptococcal pharyngitis among adults but not in children. We could not identify sources of variability among higher quality studies. The

  3. Weighted Rellich Inequality on H-Type Groups and Nonisotropic Heisenberg Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yazhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a sharp weighted Rellich inequality associated with a class of Greiner-type vector fields on H-type groups. We also obtain some weighted Hardy- and Rellich-type inequalities on nonisotropic Heisenberg groups. As an application, we get a Rellich-Sobolev-type inequality on Heisenberg groups.

  4. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  5. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  6. Some Weighted Hardy-Type Inequalities on Anisotropic Heisenberg Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove some weighted Hardy type inequalities associated with a class of nonisotropic Greiner-type vector fields on anisotropic Heisenberg groups. As an application, we get some new Hardy type inequalities on anisotropic Heisenberg groups which generalize a result of Yongyang Jin and Yazhou Han.

  7. [Stability of the structure and antigenic determinants of adenovirus type 1 native hexon to proteases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, E K; Khil'ko, S N; Grigor'ev, V G; Diachenko, N S; Vantsak, N P

    1986-08-01

    Hexon capsomers of human adenovirus type 1 (h1) labeled by iodine 125 were digested in a native state (trimers) by trypsin, chymotrypsin or papain, and the resulting hydrolysates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. In each case, a discrete and temporally stable pattern of relatively large fragments was revealed. The degree of hexon polypeptide hydrolysis was maximal for papain, intermediate for chymotrypsin and minimal for trypsin, the largest fragments in the digest being 32, 40 and 80 kD, respectively. At room temperature, all the electrophoretically discernible hexon proteolytical fragments were held together in structures resembling intact hexon trimers and could be regarded as "hexon cores", of which papain hexon cores were the most stable during SDS-PAGE. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis revealed a complete absence of native hexon antigenicity in thermodenaturated fragments of hexon protease digests, while native trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain hexon cores could be precipitated by hexon-specific antibodies. The immunoprecipitated material contained all of the hexon fragments found in appropriate hexon cores and retained the structure of the original cores. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain hexon cores were shown to possess at least part of native Ad h1 hexon antigenic determinants of each of the following specificities: species-specific (epsilon), cross-reactive with hexon of human adenoviruses (h3 and h6), simian adenovirus (sim 16), bovine adenoviruses (bos 3 and bos 7) and avian adenovirus (Aviadenovirus gal 1 or CELO). Thus, the full spectrum of known hexon antigenic determinants (species-specific to intergenus-crossreactive) is at least portly stable against protease attack of native hexon capsomers.

  8. M-Type Phospholipase A2 Receptor as Target Antigen in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Laurence H.; Bonegio, Ramon G.B.; Lambeau, Gérard; Beck, David M.; Powell, David W.; Cummins, Timothy D.; Klein, Jon B.; Salant, David J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic membranous nephropathy, a common form of the nephrotic syndrome, is an antibody-mediated autoimmune glomerular disease. Serologic diagnosis has been elusive because the target antigen is unknown. METHODS We performed Western blotting of protein extracts from normal human glomeruli with serum samples from patients with idiopathic or secondary membranous nephropathy or other proteinuric or autoimmune diseases and from normal controls. We used mass spectrometry to analyze the reactive protein bands and confirmed the identity and location of the target antigen with a monospecific antibody. RESULTS Serum samples from 26 of 37 patients (70%) with idiopathic but not secondary membranous nephropathy specifically identified a 185-kD glycoprotein in non-reduced glomerular extract. Mass spectrometry of the reactive protein band detected the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R). Reactive serum specimens recognized recombinant PLA2R and bound the same 185-kD glomerular protein as did the monospecific anti-PLA2R antibody. Anti-PLA2R autoantibodies in serum samples from patients with membranous nephropathy were mainly IgG4, the predominant immunoglobulin subclass in glomerular deposits. PLA2R was expressed in podocytes in normal human glomeruli and colocalized with IgG4 in immune deposits in glomeruli of patients with membranous nephropathy. IgG eluted from such deposits in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, but not in those with lupus membranous or IgA nephropathy, recognized PLA2R. CONCLUSIONS A majority of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy have antibodies against a conformation-dependent epitope in PLA2R. PLA2R is present in normal podocytes and in immune deposits in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, indicating that PLA2R is a major antigen in this disease. PMID:19571279

  9. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C;

    1995-01-01

    . To elucidate the structural relationship between BoLA-A16 and blood group antigen M', immunoprecipitation experiments on red and white cell lysates isolated from M'-A16 positive and negative cattle were carried out. These results showed that M(r) 44,000 and M(r) 12000 polypeptides can be precipitated from both......Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16...... red and white cells isolated from M'-A16 positive animals, whereas no bands were seen in M'-A16 negative animals in precipitations with the same antibody. Precipitation with a crossreacting human beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) specific antibody confirmed a class-I-like structure associated with beta...

  10. Performance Characteristics and Validation of Next-Generation Sequencing for Human Leucocyte Antigen Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Eric T; Montgomery, Maureen; Petraroia, Rosanne; Crawford, John; Schmitz, John L

    2016-09-01

    High-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching reduces graft-versus-host disease and improves overall patient survival after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Sanger sequencing has been the gold standard for HLA typing since 1996. However, given the increasing number of new HLA alleles identified and the complexity of the HLA genes, clinical HLA typing by Sanger sequencing requires several rounds of additional testing to provide allele-level resolution. Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) is routinely used in molecular genetics, few clinical HLA laboratories use the technology. The performance characteristics of NGS HLA typing using TruSight HLA were determined using Sanger sequencing as the reference method. In total, 211 samples were analyzed with an overall accuracy of 99.8% (2954/2961) and 46 samples were analyzed for precision with 100% (368/368) reproducibility. Most discordant alleles were because of technical error rather than assay performance. More important, the ambiguity rate was 3.5% (103/2961). Seventy-four percentage of the ambiguities were within the DRB1 and DRB4 loci. HLA typing by NGS saves approximately $6000 per run when compared to Sanger sequencing. Thus, TruSight HLA assay enables high-throughput HLA typing with an accuracy, precision, ambiguity rate, and cost savings that should facilitate adoption of NGS technology in clinical HLA laboratories.

  11. Multi-antigenic DNA immunization using herpes simplex virus type 2 genomic fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ralph P; Dong, Lichun; Jerome, Sarah; Herber, Renee; Roberts, Lee K; Payne, Lendon G

    2008-01-01

    A novel DNA vaccine was generated using genomic fragments of a pathogen as the source of both the antigen coding and regulatory regions. The constructs, termed subgenomic vaccines (SGVs), incorporated genomic DNA sequences up to 45 kbp that encompass 15-20 different genes. The SGVs were developed to generate vaccines capable of expressing multiple genes from a single construct, which could be of great benefit for commercialization. The unique feature of the SGVs is that genes are expressed from their native promoters rather than heterologous promoters typical of DNA vaccines. SGVs composed of genomic fragments from the DS-DNA virus Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) induced HSV-2 specific immune responses following particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED) in mice and these responses protected animals from lethal infectious challenge. A second generation SGV (SGV-H2), intended as an HSV-2 therapeutic vaccine, was generated that had five HSV-2 genes and was capable of generating multi-antigenic responses in naïve mice, and enhancing responses in infected animals. When compared with standard single plasmid vaccines, immunization with the SGV-H2 was found to be at least as effective as single plasmids or plasmid mixtures. The activity of the SGV-H2 could be greatly enhanced by co-delivering plasmids expressing E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) or cholera toxin CT as adjuvants as has been found previously for standard single-gene DNA vaccines.

  12. Two highly antigenic sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björling, E; Boucher, C A; Samuelsson, A; Wolfs, T F; Utter, G; Norrby, E; Chiodi, F

    1993-01-01

    Antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) are found in the serum of the majority of infected individuals, and inhibition of RT polymerase activity by HIV-1-positive sera can be demonstrated in vitro. The binding sites of human antibodies on the protein have not yet been identified. We synthesized overlapping peptides covering the entire RT protein of HIV-1 and used them in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to map the reactivities of HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibody-positive sera. Two highly antigenic regions were identified by both HIV serotypes. One region was found in the central part of the RT protein (amino acids 261 to 280) and another was found at the carboxy terminus in the RNase H portion of RT (amino acids 517 to 536). Comparison of the serological results with the crystal structure of the RT revealed that the antigenic region in the RNase H portion is located at the surface of the protein. The other antibody-binding site (amino acids 261 to 280) was located in the "thumb" region of the polymerase domain of RT. Polyclonal antibodies to either of the antibody-binding sites do not affect the polymerase activity of the RT protein. PMID:7681439

  13. New Approaches with Different Types of Circulating Cathodic Antigen for the Diagnosis of Patients with Low Schistosoma mansoni Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Rafaella; Harn, Donald A.; Tundup, Smanla; Da'dara, Akram; Siqueira, Liliane; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis mansoni is a debilitating and sometimes fatal disease. Accurate diagnosis plays a key role in patient management and infection control. However, currently available parasitological methods are laborious and lack sensitivity. The selection of target antigen candidates has turned out to be a promising tool for the development of more sensitive diagnostic methods. In our previous investigations, the use of crude antigens led to false-positive results. Recently, focus has been given to highly purified Schistosoma mansoni antigens, especially to circulating antigens. Method Thus, our main goal was to test different types of circulating cathodic antigen glycoprotein (CCA), as “crude antigen,” the protein chain of recombinant CCA and two individual peptides. These schistosome proteins/peptides were tested in a new diagnostic method employing immunomagnetic separation based on the improvement of antigen–antibody binding. Principal Findings Use of recombinant CCA as a diagnostic antigen allowed us to develop a diagnostic assay with high sensitivity and specificity with no false-negative results. Interestingly, the “crude antigen” worked as a good marker for control of cure after praziquantel treatment. Conclusions/Significance Our new diagnostic method was superior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosing low endemicity patients. PMID:23469295

  14. Both group 4 capsule and lipopolysaccharide O-antigen contribute to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli resistance to human α-defensin 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny-Lee Thomassin

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC are food-borne pathogens that colonize the small intestine and colon, respectively. To cause disease, these pathogens must overcome the action of different host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs secreted into these distinct niches. We have shown previously that EHEC expresses high levels of the OmpT protease to inactivate the human cathelicidin LL-37, an AMP present in the colon. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms used by EPEC to resist human α-defensin 5 (HD-5, the most abundant AMP in the small intestine. Quantitative PCR was used to measure transcript levels of various EPEC surface structures. High transcript levels of gfcA, a gene required for group 4 capsule (G4C production, were observed in EPEC, but not in EHEC. The unencapsulated EPEC ∆gfcA and EHEC wild-type strains were more susceptible to HD-5 than EPEC wild-type. Since the G4C is composed of the same sugar repeats as the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen, an -antigen ligase (waaL deletion mutant was generated in EPEC to assess its role in HD-5 resistance. The ∆waaL EPEC strain was more susceptible to HD-5 than both the wild-type and ∆gfcA strains. The ∆gfcA∆waaL EPEC strain was not significantly more susceptible to HD-5 than the ∆waaL strain, suggesting that the absence of -antigen influences G4C formation. To determine whether the G4C and -antigen interact with HD-5, total polysaccharide was purified from wild-type EPEC and added to the ∆gfcA∆waaL strain in the presence of HD-5. The addition of exogenous polysaccharide protected the susceptible strain against HD-5 killing in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that HD-5 binds to the polysaccharides present on the surface of EPEC. Altogether, these findings indicate that EPEC relies on both the G4C and the -antigen to resist the bactericidal activity of HD-5.

  15. Histo-blood group antigens act as attachment factors of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus infection in a virus strain-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Nyström

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit Hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, a calicivirus of the Lagovirus genus, and responsible for rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD, kills rabbits between 48 to 72 hours post infection with mortality rates as high as 50-90%. Caliciviruses, including noroviruses and RHDV, have been shown to bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGA and human non-secretor individuals lacking ABH antigens in epithelia have been found to be resistant to norovirus infection. RHDV virus-like particles have previously been shown to bind the H type 2 and A antigens. In this study we present a comprehensive assessment of the strain-specific binding patterns of different RHDV isolates to HBGAs. We characterized the HBGA expression in the duodenum of wild and domestic rabbits by mass spectrometry and relative quantification of A, B and H type 2 expression. A detailed binding analysis of a range of RHDV strains, to synthetic sugars and human red blood cells, as well as to rabbit duodenum, a likely gastrointestinal site for viral entrance was performed. Enzymatic cleavage of HBGA epitopes confirmed binding specificity. Binding was observed to blood group B, A and H type 2 epitopes in a strain-dependent manner with slight differences in specificity for A, B or H epitopes allowing RHDV strains to preferentially recognize different subgroups of animals. Strains related to the earliest described RHDV outbreak were not able to bind A, whereas all other genotypes have acquired A binding. In an experimental infection study, rabbits lacking the correct HBGA ligands were resistant to lethal RHDV infection at low challenge doses. Similarly, survivors of outbreaks in wild populations showed increased frequency of weak binding phenotypes, indicating selection for host resistance depending on the strain circulating in the population. HBGAs thus act as attachment factors facilitating infection, while their polymorphism of expression could contribute to generate genetic resistance to RHDV at the

  16. Tumor-derived exosomes confer antigen-specific immunosuppression in a murine delayed-type hypersensitivity model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Yang

    Full Text Available Exosomes are endosome-derived small membrane vesicles that are secreted by most cell types including tumor cells. Tumor-derived exosomes usually contain tumor antigens and have been used as a source of tumor antigens to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. However, many reports also suggest that tumor-derived exosomes can facilitate tumor immune evasion through different mechanisms, most of which are antigen-independent. In the present study we used a mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH and demonstrated that local administration of tumor-derived exosomes carrying the model antigen chicken ovalbumin (OVA resulted in the suppression of DTH response in an antigen-specific manner. Analysis of exosome trafficking demonstrated that following local injection, tumor-derived exosomes were internalized by CD11c+ cells and transported to the draining LN. Exosome-mediated DTH suppression is associated with increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 and IL-4 in the draining LN. The tumor-derived exosomes examined were also found to inhibit DC maturation. Taken together, our results suggest a role for tumor-derived exosomes in inducing tumor antigen-specific immunosuppression, possibly by modulating the function of APCs.

  17. The experience of two European preimplantation genetic diagnosis centres on human leukocyte antigen typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Hilde; De Rycke, Martine; De Man, Caroline; De Hauwere, Kim; Fiorentino, Francesco; Kahraman, Semra; Pennings, Guido; Verpoest, Willem; Devroey, Paul; Liebaers, Inge

    2009-03-01

    Two European centres report on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing of preimplantation embryos for haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation: 'UZ Brussel' in Brussels and 'Genoma' in Rome. Both centres have 6 years' experience with technical and clinical aspects of this type of genetic analysis on single blastomeres. Both centres apply a similar technique for preimplantation HLA typing using short tandem repeats linked to the HLA locus in multiplex PCR for haplotyping. At present, a conclusive HLA diagnosis could be assured in 92.8% and 90.3% of the embryos at UZ Brussel and at Genoma, respectively. The implantation rates were 32.4% and 28.2%, respectively, and the birth rates per cycle were 9.4% and 18.6%, respectively. The HLA programme at UZ Brussel and at Genoma resulted in the birth of 9 babies and 3 successful HSC transplantations, and 42 babies and 7 successful HSC transplantations, respectively, so far. Drastic embryo selection for preimplantation HLA typing (in theory 1/4 for HLA, 1/8 for HLA in combination with sexing for X-linked recessive diseases, 3/16 for HLA in combination with autosomal recessive disorders) resulted overall in the birth of 51 babies (15.9% live birth rate per started cycle) in two European centres.

  18. Characterization of Blood Culture Isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Possessing Lancefield's Group A Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Claudia M.; Haase, Gerhard; Schnitzler, Norbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Lütticken, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    For three human blood culture isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci with Lancefield's serogroup A antigen, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes confirmed biochemical identification as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Genes encoding M or M-like proteins, which are considered to be major virulence determinants in streptococci, were detected in all of these strains. Our data clearly demonstrate that for beta-hemolytic streptococci, the species assignment should not be base...

  19. Expression of VP7, a Bluetongue virus group specific antigen by viral vectors: analysis of the induced immune responses and evaluation of protective potential in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Bouet-Cararo

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV is an economically important Orbivirus transmitted by biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. The need for new vaccines has been highlighted by the occurrence of repeated outbreaks caused by different BTV serotypes since 1998. The major group-reactive antigen of BTV, VP7, is conserved in the 26 serotypes described so far, and its role in the induction of protective immunity has been proposed. Viral-based vectors as antigen delivery systems display considerable promise as veterinary vaccine candidates. In this paper we have evaluated the capacity of the BTV-2 serotype VP7 core protein expressed by either a non-replicative canine adenovirus type 2 (Cav-VP7 R0 or a leporipoxvirus (SG33-VP7, to induce immune responses in sheep. Humoral responses were elicited against VP7 in almost all animals that received the recombinant vectors. Both Cav-VP7 R0 and SG33-VP7 stimulated an antigen-specific CD4+ response and Cav-VP7 R0 stimulated substantial proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Encouraged by the results obtained with the Cav-VP7 R0 vaccine vector, immunized animals were challenged with either the homologous BTV-2 or the heterologous BTV-8 serotype and viral burden in plasma was followed by real-time RT-PCR. The immune responses triggered by Cav-VP7 R0 were insufficient to afford protective immunity against BTV infection, despite partial protection obtained against homologous challenge. This work underscores the need to further characterize the role of BTV proteins in cross-protective immunity.

  20. Expression of VP7, a Bluetongue Virus Group Specific Antigen by Viral Vectors: Analysis of the Induced Immune Responses and Evaluation of Protective Potential in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Contreras, Vanessa; Caruso, Agathe; Top, Sokunthea; Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Relmy, Anthony; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Dubois, Eric; Thiery, Richard; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Richardson, Jennifer; Foucras, Gilles; Meyer, Gilles; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important Orbivirus transmitted by biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. The need for new vaccines has been highlighted by the occurrence of repeated outbreaks caused by different BTV serotypes since 1998. The major group-reactive antigen of BTV, VP7, is conserved in the 26 serotypes described so far, and its role in the induction of protective immunity has been proposed. Viral-based vectors as antigen delivery systems display considerable promise as veterinary vaccine candidates. In this paper we have evaluated the capacity of the BTV-2 serotype VP7 core protein expressed by either a non-replicative canine adenovirus type 2 (Cav-VP7 R0) or a leporipoxvirus (SG33-VP7), to induce immune responses in sheep. Humoral responses were elicited against VP7 in almost all animals that received the recombinant vectors. Both Cav-VP7 R0 and SG33-VP7 stimulated an antigen-specific CD4+ response and Cav-VP7 R0 stimulated substantial proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Encouraged by the results obtained with the Cav-VP7 R0 vaccine vector, immunized animals were challenged with either the homologous BTV-2 or the heterologous BTV-8 serotype and viral burden in plasma was followed by real-time RT-PCR. The immune responses triggered by Cav-VP7 R0 were insufficient to afford protective immunity against BTV infection, despite partial protection obtained against homologous challenge. This work underscores the need to further characterize the role of BTV proteins in cross-protective immunity. PMID:25364822

  1. Characterization of Blood Culture Isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Possessing Lancefield's Group A Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Claudia M.; Haase, Gerhard; Schnitzler, Norbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Lütticken, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    For three human blood culture isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci with Lancefield's serogroup A antigen, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes confirmed biochemical identification as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Genes encoding M or M-like proteins, which are considered to be major virulence determinants in streptococci, were detected in all of these strains. Our data clearly demonstrate that for beta-hemolytic streptococci, the species assignment should not be based on the results of serogrouping alone. PMID:10565964

  2. Preparation and testing of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b/Hepatitis B surface antigen conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, So Jung; Woo, Joo Sung; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kothari, Sudeep; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-03-24

    The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg. When conjugation was performed without the ADH spacer the induction of an anti-PRP response was equivalent to that seen by conjugate with the ADH spacer, however, a negligible anti-HBsAg response was induced. For comparison, PRP was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and Vi polysaccharide purified from Salmonella Typhi conjugated to HBsAg both using an ADH spacer. The PRPAH-DT conjugate induced strong anti-PRP and anti-DT responses, the Vi-AHHBsAg conjugate induced a good anti-HBsAg response but not as strong as that induced by the PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate. This study demonstrated that in mice it was possible to induce robust antibody responses to both polysaccharide and carrier protein provided the conjugate has certain physico-chemical properties. A PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate with the capacity to induce anti-PRP and anti-HBsAg responses could be incorporated into a multivalent pediatric vaccine and simplify formulation of such a vaccine.

  3. SOME LIOUVILLE TYPE THEOREMS FOR THE P-SUB-LAPLACIAN ON THE GROUP OF HEISENBERG TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zixia; Niu Pengcheng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we prove some Liouville type results for the p-sub-Laplacian on the group of Heisenberg type. A strong maximum principle and a Hopf type principle concerning p-sub-Laplacian are established.

  4. Use of molecularly cloned avian leukosis virus to study antigenic variation following infection of meat-type chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecularly cloned strain of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) termed R5-4 was used to study antigenic variation following infection of meat-type chickens. Chickens were inoculated with R5-4 virus at either 8 days of embryonation or at 1 week of age. Each chicken was housed in a separate is...

  5. Patterns of human genetic variation inferred from comparative analysis of allelic mutations in blood group antigen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Blumenfeld, Olga O

    2011-03-01

    Comparative analysis of allelic variation of a gene sheds light on the pattern and process of its diversification at the population level. Gene families for which a large number of allelic forms have been verified by sequencing provide a useful resource for such studies. In this regard, human blood group-encoding genes are unique in that differences of cell surface traits among individuals and populations can be readily detected by serological screening, and correlation between the variant cell surface phenotype and the genotype is, in most cases, unequivocal. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of allelic forms, compiled in the Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation database, of ABO, RHD/CE, GYPA/B/E and FUT1/2 gene families that encode the ABO, RH, MNS, and H/h blood group system antigens, respectively. These genes are excellent illustrative examples showing distinct mutational patterns among the alleles, and leading to speculation on how their origin may have been driven by recurrent but different molecular mechanisms. We illustrate how alignment of alleles of a gene may provide an additional insight into the DNA variation process and its pathways, and how this approach may serve to catalog alleles of a gene, simplifying the task and content of mutation databases.

  6. Antigen-specific regulatory T cells and low dose of IL-2 in treatment of type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh N. Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play an important role in preventing effector T-cell (Teff targeting of self-antigens that can lead to tissue destruction in autoimmune settings, including type 1 diabetes (T1D. Autoimmunity is caused in part by an imbalance between Teff and Tregs. Early attempts to treat with immunosuppressive agents have led to serious side effects, thus requiring a more targeted approach. Low-dose IL-2 (LD IL-2 can provide immuno-regulation with few side effects by preferentially acting on Tregs to drive tolerance. The concept of LD IL-2 as a therapeutic approach is supported by data in mouse models where autoimmunity is cured and further strengthened by success in human clinical studies in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV induced vasculitis, chronic graft vs host disease (GVHD and Alopecia areata (AA. Treatment will require identification of a safe therapeutic window, which is a difficult task given that patients are reported to have deficient or defective IL-2 production or signalling and have experienced mild activation of NK cells and eosinophils with LD IL-2 therapy. In T1D, a LD IL-2 clinical trial concluded that Tregs can be safely expanded in humans; however, the study was not designed to address efficacy. Antigen-specific therapies have also aimed at regulation of the autoimmune response, but have been filled with disappointment despite an extensive list of diverse islet antigens tested in humans. This approach could be enhanced through the addition of LD IL-2 to the antigenic treatment regimen to improve the frequency and function of antigen-specific Tregs, without global immunosuppression. Here we will discuss the use of LD IL-2 and islet antigen to enhance antigen-specific Tregs in T1D and focus on what is known about their immunological impact, their safety and potential efficacy, and need for better methods to identify therapeutic effectiveness.

  7. A Poisson type formula for Hardy classes on Heisenberg's group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopushansky O.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hardy type class of complex functions with infinite many variables defined on the Schrodinger irreducible unitary orbit of reduced Heisenberg group, generated by the Gauss density, is investigated. A Poisson integral type formula for their analytic extensions on an open ball is established. Taylor coefficients for analytic extensions are described by the associatedsymmetric Fock space.

  8. IMPROVED GAGLIARDO-NIRENBERG INEQUALITIES ON HEISENBERG TYPE GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Guangzhou

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the idea of M.Ledoux who brings out the connection between Sobolev embeddings and heat kernel bounds,we prove an analogous result for Kohn's sub-Laplacian on the Heisenberg type groups.The main result includes features of an inequality of either Sobolev or Galiardo-Nirenberg type.

  9. A CARLEMAN ESTIMATE ON GROUPS OF HEISENBERG TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Junqiang; Niu Pengcheng

    2006-01-01

    A Pohozaev-Rellich type identity for the p-sub-Laplacian on groups of Heisenberg type, G, is given. A Carleman estimate for the sub-Laplacian on G is established and, as a consequence, a unique continuation result is proved.

  10. Further development of a recombinant feline herpesvirus type 1 vector expressing feline calicivirus immunogenic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, N; Fujita, K; Damiani, A; Sato, E; Kurosawa, K; Miyazawa, T; Ishiguro, S; Mochizuki, M; Maeda, K; Mikami, T

    1998-06-01

    We previously reported the attenuation of thymidine kinase (TK) deficient mutant (C7301dlTK) of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) in cats and the construction of a recombinant FHV-1 (C7301dlTK-Cap) inserted a precursor capsid gene of feline calcivirus (FCV) into the TK deletion locus of the C7301dlTK. In this study, we constructed a further improved recombinant FHV-1 (dlTK(gCp)-Cap) carrying a putative FHV-1 gC promoter sequence upstream of the FCV precursor capsid gene of the C7301dlTK-Cap. Growth kinetics of the dlTK(gCp)-Cap in cell cultures was similar to those of C7301dlTK and C7301dlTK-Cap. A strong expression of FCV immunogenic antigen by dlTK(gCp)-Cap was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In addition, one vaccination with dlTK(gCp)-Cap protected cats more effective against subsequent virulent FCV challenge than that with C7301dlTK-Cap.

  11. Exceptional groups of Lie type and flag-transitive triplanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A triplane is a ( v, k, 3)-symmetric design. Let G be a subgroup of the full automorphism group of a triplane D. In this paper we prove that if G is flag-transitive and point-primitive, then the socle of G cannot be a simple exceptional group of Lie type.

  12. Quantifying cell binding kinetics mediated by surface-bound blood type B antigen to immobilized antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI BaoXia; CHEN Juan; LONG Mian

    2008-01-01

    Cell adhesion is crucial to many biological processes, such as inflammatory responses, tumor metastasis and thrombosis formation. Recently a commercial surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based BIAcore biosensor has been extended to determine cell binding mediated by surface-bound biomolecular interactions. How such cell binding is quantitatively governed by kinetic rates and regulating factors, however, has been poorly understood. Here we developed a novel assay to determine the binding kinetics of surface-bound biomolecular interactions using a commercial BIAcore 3000 biosensor. Human red blood cells (RBCs) presenting blood group B antigen and CM5 chip bearing immobilized anti-B monoclonal antibody (mAb) were used to obtain the time courses of response unit, or sensorgrams, when flowing RBCs over the chip surface. A cellular kinetic model was proposed to correlate the sensorgrams with kinetic rates. Impacts of regulating factors, such as cell concentration,flow duration and rate, antibody-presenting level, as well as Ph value and osmotic pressure of suspending medium were tested systematically, which imparted the confidence that the approach can be applied to kinetic measurements of cell adhesion mediated by surface-bound biomolecular interactions.These results provided a new insight into quantifying cell binding using a commercial SPR-based BIAcore biosensor.

  13. ASSOCIATION OF ABO BLOOD GROUPS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are no confirmatory studies have been available in In dia to know the Association of ABO blood groups with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. We studied ABO blood groups association w ith Gender and age of onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The study results showing that Blood Group O fallowed by B and A showing the posi tive association with Type2 Diabetes melllitus. In Males Blood group O (20% fallowed by B (16.9% and A and AB. In Females Blood group O (22.85% fallowed by A group (11.42% and B and AB having association with Type2 Diabetes mellitus. The association as per age of onset of Type 2 DM with ABO blood Groups showing that the age of onset of Type2 DM in 41 - 50 yrs (34.28%. It is commonly associated with Blood group O (18.09%, and in the age of onset of Type 2 DM in 30 - 40yrs (33.33% is commly assoc iated wit h blood group O and B (10.47% equally and in 51 - 60yrs (26.66% with with blood group O (11.42% and in the age of onset of DM above 60yrs (5.71% with blood group O (2.85%. PATIENTS AND METHODOLOGY: It was a prospective study conducted in 105 patients wi th Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Prior consent taken from the study subjects to obtain the information about age of completed years, gender, age of onset of Diabetes and family history of known Diabetes. The age of onset of Diabetes above 30yrs were taken for study. Exclusion criteria were patients with Psychiatric illness, acute illness, age less than 30yrs old and history of diabetic ketoacidosis. Blood samples were collected from them with consent. The samples were tested for ABO blood groups. The Control sa mples are randomly selected. Patient recruitment lasted for 1 month from 1.1.2015 to 31.1.2015

  14. A reexamination of the O1 lipopolysaccharide antigen group of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, A; Kusecek, B; Pluschke, G; Morelli, G; Kamke, M; Jann, B; Jann, K; Achtman, M

    1986-01-01

    A total of 64 Escherichia coli strains of the O1 serogroup were tested for the migration pattern of their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. O1:K1 and O1:K51 strains of the OMP5 outer membrane protein pattern possessed LPS with a doublet pattern (O1A1) or the lowermost band of the O1A1 doublet (O1A2). O1:K1 strains of the OMP9 pattern possessed LPS referred to as O1A, which corresponded to the uppermost band of the O1A1 doublet pattern. A few O1:K? strains possessed LPS of different migration patterns (O1B and O1C). O1A and O1A1 LPS were indistinguishable by chemical techniques, and both reacted with each of 10 different monoclonal antibodies tested. However, O1A1 had an additional epitope within the additional band in each doublet, as demonstrated by adsorption experiments with hyperimmune rabbit sera followed by Western blotting. Furthermore, purified polysaccharide from O1A bacteria was incapable of inhibition in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed with O1A1 LPS as antigen and adsorbed, specific anti-O1A1 antibodies, whereas O1A1 polysaccharide inhibited this reaction. O1B and O1C LPS differed in all respects tested, including chemical composition, from O1A and O1A1 LPS. Images PMID:2426197

  15. A reexamination of the O1 lipopolysaccharide antigen group of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, A; Kusecek, B; Pluschke, G; Morelli, G; Kamke, M; Jann, B; Jann, K; Achtman, M

    1986-08-01

    A total of 64 Escherichia coli strains of the O1 serogroup were tested for the migration pattern of their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. O1:K1 and O1:K51 strains of the OMP5 outer membrane protein pattern possessed LPS with a doublet pattern (O1A1) or the lowermost band of the O1A1 doublet (O1A2). O1:K1 strains of the OMP9 pattern possessed LPS referred to as O1A, which corresponded to the uppermost band of the O1A1 doublet pattern. A few O1:K? strains possessed LPS of different migration patterns (O1B and O1C). O1A and O1A1 LPS were indistinguishable by chemical techniques, and both reacted with each of 10 different monoclonal antibodies tested. However, O1A1 had an additional epitope within the additional band in each doublet, as demonstrated by adsorption experiments with hyperimmune rabbit sera followed by Western blotting. Furthermore, purified polysaccharide from O1A bacteria was incapable of inhibition in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed with O1A1 LPS as antigen and adsorbed, specific anti-O1A1 antibodies, whereas O1A1 polysaccharide inhibited this reaction. O1B and O1C LPS differed in all respects tested, including chemical composition, from O1A and O1A1 LPS.

  16. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Gene Variants in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with or without Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Kiani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 gene variants are associated with several autoimmune diseases particularly type 1 diabetes. Due to the lack of consistent data for this association with type 2 diabetes (T2D, this study explored the possible influence of CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms at -1722 (T/C, -318 (C/T, and +49 (G/A positions for susceptibility to T2D in relation with neuropathy. One hundred and eleven unrelated patients with T2D [49 patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN and 62 patients without PDN] and 100 healthy ethnic- and gender-matched controls were included in this study. The dimorphisms at -1722 (C/T, -318 (C/T and +49 (A/G for CTLA-4 gene were determined using ARMS-PCR. The CTLA-4 (+49 G/G and (+49 A/A genotypes were found to be positively and negatively associated with T2D, respectively (p=0.03. The -318 C/T and T/T genotypes were more frequent in patients than controls and -318 C/C genotype was shown to be protective for T2D (p=0.003. ACT and GTT Haplotypes were less and more frequent in controls and patients, respectively (p=3.86×10-7 and p=2.29×10-5. Genotypes distribution among T2D patients with and without DPN compared to healthy controls showed significantly lower frequencies for -318 C/C and +49 A/A genotypes and significantly higher frequencies for -318 C/T and T/T genotypes as well. Our findings indicate that CTLA-4 (+49 A/G and (-318 C/T genotypes could be considered as genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility or protection for T2D.

  17. Impact of poor glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus on serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Hasan Anıl; Akarsu, Murat; Canat, Lutfi; Ülker, Volkan; Alkan, İlter; Ozkuvancı, Unsal

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of poor glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in men. We performed a prospective analysis of 215 consecutive patients affected by erectile dysfunction (ED). ED was evaluated using the IIEF-5 questionnaire and the poor glycemic control (PGC) of T2DM was assessed according to the HbA1c criteria (International Diabetes Federation). Patients were divided into PGC group (HbA1c ≥ 7%) and control group (CG) (HbA1c < 6%). Correlations between serum HbA1c levels and various variables were evaluated and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify variables for PGC. We compared 110 cases to 105 controls men ranging from 44 to 81 years of age, lower PSA concentrations were observed in men with PGC (PGC mean PSA: 0.9 ng/dl, CG mean PSA: 2.1 ng/dl, p < 0.001). Also mean prostate volume was 60% was smaller among men with PGC compared with men with CG (PGC mean prostate volume: 26 ml, CG prostate volume: 43 ml, p < 0.001). A strong negative correlation was found between serum HbA1c levels and serum PSA (p < 0.001 and r = -0.665) concentrations in men with PGC. We also found at the multivariate logistic regression model that PSA, prostate volume and peak systolic velocity were independent predictors of PGC. Our results suggest that there is significant impact of PGC on serum PSA levels in T2DM. Poor glycemic control of type 2 diabetes was associated with lower serum PSA levels and smaller prostate volumes.

  18. Influences of Task Type on Interaction under Group Work Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓萍

    2005-01-01

    Interaction between learners under group work setting is considered to be signifieantly influenced by task types. The present empirical study was designed to explore interaction characteristics under convergent tasks and divergent tasks from three aspects: language production, meaning negotiation and attention to form while performing different types of tasks. The results reveal that there was significant statistical difference in the total language production between two types of tasks. In terms of the occurrence of meaning negotiation and the extent to which students paid attention to language form, there were no significant difference between the two task types.

  19. Molecular typing of human platelet and neutrophil antigens (HPA and HNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuisen, Barbera; Porcelijn, Leendert; Ellen van der Schoot, C; de Haas, Masja

    2014-04-01

    Genotyping is an important tool in the diagnosis of disorders involving allo-immunisation to antigens present on the membranes of platelets and neutrophils. To date 28 human platelet antigens (HPAs) have been indentified on six polymorphic glycoproteins on the surface of platelets. Antibodies against HPAs play a role in foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and refractoriness to donor platelets. The 11 human neutrophil antigens (HNAs) described to date have been indentified on five polymorphic proteins on the surface of granulocytes. Antibodies to HNAs are implicated with foetal and neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (FNAIN), autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). In this report, we will review the molecular basis and techniques currently available for the genotyping of human platelet and neutrophil antigens.

  20. A simple and safe method for single HLA-antigen-typing by a solid phase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker-Shahin, B; Giannitsis, D J

    1991-01-01

    A rapid solid phase assay for detection of single HLA-antigens on platelets was developed. The platelets were attached to the surface of polystyrene microtitre plate wells by means of a sodium carbonate buffer and centrifugation. Uncovered areas were blocked by a gelatin blocking buffer. After incubation with commercially available anti-HLA-sera the bound anti-HLA-specific antibodies directed against HLA-antigens present on the platelets were made visible by anti-IgG-coated indicator red cells and a brief centrifugation. A positive result, meaning the presence of an HLA-antigen, was indicated by a slight red cell adherence over the reaction surface. In the absence of the HLA-antigen no binding occurred and the indicator red cells formed a small red disc-like pellet.

  1. The anti-HBsAg (human type B hepatitis, surface antigen) and anti-HBeAg (human type B hepatitis, e antigen) C18 dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Kadsura matsudai and Schizandra arisanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Der; Huang, Ray-Ling; Kuo, Li-Ming Yang; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Ong, Chi-Wi; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2003-11-01

    The C(18) dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans including three novel schizanrin F (1), G (2), H (3), along with the known kadsurarin (4), were isolated from Kadsura matsudai. A new C(19) homolignan named schiarisanrin E (5), together with the known C(18) lignans, gomisin B (6), G (7) and (+)-gomisin K(3) (8) were obtained from Schizandra arisanensis. Gomisin B, G and (+)-gomisin K(3) showed moderate to strong activity for antihepatitis in anti-HBsAg (human type B hepatitis, surface antigen) and/or anti-HBeAg (human type B hepatitis, e antigen) tests. The structural elucidations of new compounds 1-3 and 5 were based on two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques including COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY and CD spectra. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies for these isolated lignans are also discussed.

  2. Gender, Group Composition, and Task Type in Small Task Groups Using Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender effects on computer-mediated communication, undergraduate psychology students were put in small groups (males, females, or mixed) and were assigned feminine content (decision making) and masculine content (intellective) task types. Groups of females, regardless of task, sent more words per e-mail message, were more satisfied…

  3. Distribution of ABO and rhesus (D blood group antigens among blood donors at a tertiary care teaching hospital blood bank in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood group systems are important for transfusion of blood and its components, organ transplantation, genetic studies and in medico-legal issues. Despite the long list of several other blood groups discovered so far, the knowledge and distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood group are essential for effective management of blood bank inventory. Methods: We retrospectively studied the distribution of ABO and Rh blood group antigens in donors presenting to our tertiary care teaching hospital blood bank in south India during the period January 2007 to August 2014. Blood group was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique. Results: A total of 49,110 donor samples were tested during the study period for ABO grouping and Rh-D typing. Out of these 96.9% were males. The frequency of O, B, A, AB and Bombay blood groups were 41.7%, 32.2% 20%, 6.1% and 0.03% respectively. Rh (D positive and negative blood groups were seen in 92.8% and 7.2% respectively. The allele frequencies of the I A , IB and IO alleles were 0.1398, 0.2148 and 0.6454 respectively. In case of Rh-D group, the calculated gene frequencies for ID and Id were 0.7321 and 0.2679 respectively. Conclusion: Knowledge of blood group systems as documented in the present study helps in efficient management of blood bank and transfusion services in emergencies.

  4. Biosynthetic basis of incompatible histo-blood group A antigen expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, L; Leitao, D; Sobrinho-Simoes, M

    1993-01-01

    , we have screened 31 cases of gastric tumors of phenotype O for the expression of blood group A gene-defined glycosyltransferase by immunohistology on frozen sections using newly developed monoclonal antibodies to the transferases. Three cases were positive, and transferase expression was confirmed...

  5. Epidermal Langerhans cells rapidly capture and present antigens from C-type lectin-targeting antibodies deposited in the dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacher, Vincent; Tripp, Christoph H; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Haid, Bernhard; Ebner, Susanne; Del Frari, Barbara; Koch, Franz; Park, Chae Gyu; Steinman, Ralph M; Idoyaga, Juliana; Romani, Nikolaus

    2010-03-01

    Antigen-presenting cells can capture antigens that are deposited in the skin, including vaccines given subcutaneously. These include different dendritic cells (DCs) such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), dermal DCs, and dermal langerin+ DCs. To evaluate access of dermal antigens to skin DCs, we used mAb to two C-type lectin endocytic receptors, DEC-205/CD205 and langerin/CD207. When applied to murine and human skin explant cultures, these mAbs were efficiently taken up by epidermal LCs. In addition, anti-DEC-205 targeted langerin+ CD103+ and langerin- CD103- mouse dermal DCs. Unexpectedly, intradermal injection of either mAb, but not isotype control, resulted in strong and rapid labeling of LCs in situ, implying that large molecules can diffuse through the basement membrane into the epidermis. Epidermal LCs targeted in vivo by ovalbumin-coupled anti-DEC-205 potently presented antigen to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro. However, to our surprise, LCs targeted through langerin were unable to trigger T-cell proliferation. Thus, epidermal LCs have a major function in uptake of lectin-binding antibodies under standard vaccination conditions.

  6. Antigen-specific immune-suppressor factor in herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of UV B-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelian, L.; Yasumoto, S.; Smith, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    UV B-irradiation (280 to 320 nm) of mice at the site of cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) induced suppressor T-cell circuits that decreased HSV-2-induced proliferative responses of HSV-2-immune lymph node cells. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that splenocytes from UV B-irradiated HSV-2-infected animals contain L3T4+ cells that suppress proliferative responses in vivo, consistent with suppressor inducer cells. However, following in vitro culture of the splenocytes with HSV-2 antigen, the proliferation of immune lymph node cells was inhibited by Lyt2+ suppressor T cells, consistent with antigen-induced suppressor effector cells. Antigen-specific and nonspecific suppressor factors were fractionated from supernatants of HSV-2-stimulated spleen cells by molecular-sieve chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the Sephadex fraction that contained the antigen-specific suppressor factor, in the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, defined a 115-kilodalton protein consisting of two disulfide-bound components with molecular sizes of 70 and 52 kilodaltons. The implications of these results with respect to the regulation of HSV-induced cell-mediated immunity following UV B-irradiation are discussed.

  7. HETEROGENEOUS GROUPS TYPES OF LEARNERS IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Sazhina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the reasons for the develo pment   of   children's   typology   of   heterogeneous groups in the educational organization. The results of research devoted to this problem. Clarifying the concept  of  "typology",  "heterogeneity",  "heterog eneous group", "talent". In this article, as the heter ogeneous groups of children treated group of gifted children, children with disabilities, migrant children, children with low levels of socio-psychological adaptation. In these heterogeneous groups, homogeneous in composition, and types of subgroup allocated homogeneity.  Types endowments allocated  accor ding to two criteria: "latitude displays in various kinds of activity" and "activity and ensure its sphere of the psyche." Children with disabilities are allocated according  to  the criterion "features organic display". Migrant students are divided into two groups: bili ngual children and children inofons. The characteri stic of children with low levels of socio -psychological adaptation. These groups of children in need, especially in social rehabilitation and adaptation, and integration into society. Provides statistics of the Krasnodar Territory of children in need of social rehabilitation and adaptation.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen & its subtypes in high risk group subjects & voluntary blood donors in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavia, A J; Banker, D D

    1991-09-01

    HBsAg positive subjects belonging to high risk groups and voluntary blood donors were analysed for prevalence of HBsAg among various groups of subjects for ascertaining the carrier status among the voluntary blood donors, HBsAg subtype distribution, and association of HBsAg with blood groups and caste or religion. The prevalence of HBsAg varied from 2.02 per cent in voluntary blood donors to 58.38 per cent in patients of acute viral hepatitis. 70.5 per cent subjects had subtype 'ay' while 23.9 per cent of the subjects had subtype 'ad'. We also found compound 'ady' subtype in 5.6 per cent of our subjects. HBsAg/adr, a subtype not usually prevalent in India, was found in 30 of the 90 'ad' sera. Co-occurrence of HBsAg and anti-HBs was noted in 9 subjects. Homotypic anti-HBs was found to occur together mainly in voluntary blood donors, while heterotypic anti-HBs was found to occur together mainly multi-transfused patients. There was no significant correlation between HBsAg and blood group antigens and a relatively higher incidence of HBsAg among the Jain community was observed.

  9. SOME SHARP RELLICH TYPE INEQUALITIES ON NILPOTENT GROUPS AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baosheng LIAN

    2013-01-01

    We prove some Rellich type inequalities for the sub-Laplacian on Carnot nilpotent groups.Using the same method,we obtain some analogous inequalities for the Heisenberg-Greiner operators.In most cases,the constants we obtained are optimal.

  10. Structural group auditing of a UMLS semantic type's extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying Helen; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Halper, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Each UMLS concept is assigned one or more of the semantic types (STs) from the Semantic Network. Due to the size and complexity of the UMLS, errors are unavoidable. We present two auditing methodologies for groups of semantically similar concepts. The straightforward procedure starts with the extent of an ST, which is the group of all concepts assigned this ST. We divide the extent into groups of concepts that have been assigned exactly the same set of STs. An algorithm finds subgroups of suspicious concepts. The human auditor is presented with these subgroups, which purportedly exhibit the same semantics, and thus she will notice different concepts with wrong or missing ST assignments. The dynamic procedure detects concepts which become suspicious in the course of the auditing process. Both procedures are applied to two semantic types. The results are compared with a comprehensive manual audit and show a very high error recall with a much higher precision.

  11. Histo-blood group antigens in human fetal thymus and in thymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Francis, D

    1996-01-01

    -y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x) of the ABO-histo-blood group system was investigated in 19 normal fetal thymuses (gestational age 16 to 39 weeks) and in 19 thymomas in order to study possible tumor-associated changes in the glycosylation pattern. The material was investigated by immunochemical stainings...... of formalin-fixed paraffin-imbedded tissue using monoclonal antibodies with defined specificity. In fetal thymus the epithelial cells of the medulla and the Hassal's bodies strongly expressed elongated carbohydrate structures (Le-y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x). In a few cases the cortical epithelial cells weakly...

  12. A unique variant of streptococcal group O-antigen (C-polysaccharide) that lacks phosphocholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    to the previously characterized forms of C-polysaccharide, which all contain one or two choline residues per repeat. The following structure of the repeating unit of the SK598 polysaccharide was established: where AAT is 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-d-galactose. This structure is identical to the double......Streptococcus mitis strain SK598, which represents a subgroup of biovar 1, possesses a unique variant of the C-polysaccharide found in the cell wall of all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and in some strains of S. mitis. This new variant lacks the choline methyl groups in contrast...... choline-substituted form of C-polysaccharide, except that it is substituted with ethanolamine instead of choline. This extends the number of recognized C-polysaccharide variants to four....

  13. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is distinct from the N-CAM related group of surface antigens BSP-2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faissner, A; Kruse, J; Goridis, C

    1984-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and the group of N-CAM related molecules, BSP-2 and D2 antigen, are immunochemically distinct molecular species. The two groups of surface molecules are also functionally distinct entities, since inhibition of Ca2+-independent adhesion among early post...

  14. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Lucas Pereira; de Campos, Edemilson Antunes

    2014-01-01

    to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups. ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique. four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study. the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  15. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pereira de Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups.METHOD: ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique.RESULTS: four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study.CONCLUSION: the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  16. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Bifidobacterium longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1 and GII.4 strains to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E.coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders and one non-HBGA expressing E.coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E.coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E.coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission.

  17. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane.

  18. Genotyping of Indian antigenic, vaccine, and field Brucella spp. using multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Rajeswari; Krithiga, Natesan; Shankaranarayana, Padmashree B; Jegadesan, Sankarasubramanian; Udayakumar S, Vishnu; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Saikia, Girin Kumar; Sharma, Narendra Kumar; Chauhan, Harshad; Chandel, Bharat Singh; Jeyaprakash, Rajendhran; Rahman, Habibur

    2016-03-31

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases that affects multiple livestock species and causes great economic losses. The highly conserved genomes of Brucella, with > 90% homology among species, makes it important to study the genetic diversity circulating in the country. A total of 26 Brucella spp. (4 reference strains and 22 field isolates) and 1 B. melitensis draft genome sequence from India (B. melitensis Bm IND1) were included for sequence typing. The field isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed by both conventional and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting bcsp 31Brucella genus-specific marker. Brucella speciation and biotyping was done by Bruce ladder, probe qPCR, and AMOS PCRs, respectively, and genotyping was done by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The MLST typing of 27 Brucella spp. revealed five distinct sequence types (STs); the B. abortus S99 reference strain and 21 B. abortus field isolates belonged to ST1. On the other hand, the vaccine strain B. abortus S19 was genotyped as ST5. Similarly, B. melitensis 16M reference strain and one B. melitensis field isolate were grouped into ST7. Another B. melitensis field isolate belonged to ST8 (draft genome sequence from India), and only B. suis 1330 reference strain was found to be ST14. The sequences revealed genetic similarity of the Indian strains to the global reference and field strains. The study highlights the usefulness of MLST for typing of field isolates and validation of reference strains used for diagnosis and vaccination against brucellosis.

  19. Gc types in one Indian group and one Mestizo Mexican group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisker, R; Pérez-Briceño, R; Ramirez, E; Aizpuru, E

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of Gc types was investigated in an Indian group residing in Cuetzalan, Puebla, and in a Mestizo group from Mexico City. Gc1 and Gc2 gene frequencies were 0.862 and 0.138 in Cuetzalan, and 0.858 and 0.142 in Mexico City. These figures are similar to those obtained by other authors in one Northeastern Mexican City. A literature review showed that there appears to be a pattern of high Gc2 frequency in most Brazilian Indians (above 0.3) in contrast to a low frequency (below 0.2) in most other Amerindian groups studied.

  20. Prevalence of human leukocyte antigen DQA1 and DQB1 alleles in Kuwaiti Arab children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M Z; Shaltout, A; Alsaeid, K; Qabazard, M; Dorman, J

    1999-12-01

    The prevalence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1 and DQA1 alleles has been determined in 78 Kuwaiti Arab children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and in 57 normal healthy controls with similar ethnic background. The typing of HLA-DQ alleles was carried out using an allele-specific DNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) SSP method. DR typing was also performed in 212 control subjects using PCR-SSP (sequence specific primer) method. A significantly higher frequency of DQB1*0201 allele was found in IDDM cases compared to the controls (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of DQB1 alleles *0302, *0501, and *0602 between IDDM cases and the controls. In contrast, DQB1 alleles *0301, *0402, *0502, *0602, and *0603 were represented at a somewhat higher frequency in controls compared to the IDDM cohort. The frequency of DQA1 allele *0301, which encode for an Arg at codon 52, was significantly higher in the IDDM patients compared to the controls (p<0.001). The frequency of DQA1 allele *0302 was also higher in IDDM cases than controls (p = 0.034) but the difference was less pronounced than DQA1*0301. Amongst the Arg52 alleles, no significant difference was detected in the frequency of *0401 between IDDM cases and the controls and the allele *0501 was detected only in controls. For non-Arg52 alleles *0103, *0104, and *0201, the differences in the two groups were not significant, with the exception of allele *0104 (p = 0.024). DR3 was the most common type in the Kuwaiti general population (28%) and DRB1*0301 was detected in 41% of the individuals with DR3 specificity. Analysis of HLA-DQBI/DQA1 haplotypes from IDDM cases and controls revealed a significantly high frequency of haplotype DQA1*0301/DQB1*0201 between Kuwaiti IDDM cases (49/78, 63%) and the controls (8/57, 14%).

  1. Danish children born with glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies at birth had an increased risk to develop type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eising, Stefanie; Nilsson, Anita; Carstensen, Bendix

    2011-01-01

    A large, population-based case-control cohort was used to test the hypothesis that glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) at birth predict type 1 diabetes....

  2. Two types of nanoparticle-based bio-barcode amplification assays to detect HIV-1 p24 antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huahuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 p24 antigen is a major viral component of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 which can be used to identify persons in the early stage of infection and transmission of HIV-1 from infected mothers to infants. The detection of p24 is usually accomplished by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with low detection sensitivity. Here we report the use of two bio-barcode amplification (BCA assays combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR and gel electrophoresis to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. Method A pair of anti-p24 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were used in BCA assays to capture HIV-1 p24 antigen in a sandwich format and allowed for the quantitative measurement of captured p24 using PCR and gel electrophoresis. The first 1 G12 mAb was coated on microplate wells or magnetic microparticles (MMPs to capture free p24 antigens. Captured p24 in turn captured 1D4 mAb coated gold nanoparticle probes (GNPs containing double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. One strand of the oligonucleotides was covalently immobilized whereas the unbound complimentary bio-barcode DNA strand could be released upon heating. The released bio-barcode DNA was amplified by PCR, electrophoresed in agarose gel and quantified. Results The in-house ELISA assay was found to quantify p24 antigen with a limit of detection (LOD of 1,000 pg/ml and a linear range between 3,000 and 100,000 pg/ml. In contrast, the BCA-based microplate method yielded an LOD of 1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 1 to 10,000 pg/ml. The BCA-based MMP method yielded an LOD of 0.1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 0.1 to 1,000 pg/ml. Conclusions When combined with PCR and simple gel electrophoresis, BCA-based microplate and MMPs assays can be used to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. These methods are 3–4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than our in-house ELISA-based assay and may provide a useful approach to detect p24 in patients newly infected

  3. Human-leukocyte antigen typing in Javanese patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Savitri Ernawati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a common oral disorder that despite extensive researches, the etiology of this phenomenon is still unknown. Because this phenomenon has been observed more often in families than in individual cases, genetic influence has been investigated in most researches. Purpose: The aim of study was to evaluate the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA and RAS in Javanese more precisely. Method: The analysis of HLA-A, and HLA-B in 85 Javanese RAS patients and 71 healthy control subjects, were performed by using the standard NIH microlymhocytotoxicity technique. Immunohistochemistry was performed for identification of HLA-DR and HLA- DQ antigen using monoclonal antibodies anti HLA-DR and DQ. Result: Our result revealed a close association between HLA-A9 and HLA-B35 RAS subject. A significant increase in the frequency of some antigens such as HLA-A9 (72,94%, p < 0,05;RR = 2,21, HLA-A24 (65,82%; RR = 1,24 and HLA-B35 in subjects with RAS was observed. Analysis with Immunohistochemistry HLA-DR, HLA-DQ is expressed on the surface of epithelial cells membrane of oral mucosa and macrophages in both major and minor RAS patients. Conclusion: HLA antigens are involved in susceptibility to RAS and the phenotypes were difference with other previous studies. HLA- linked genetic factors may play a role in the development of RAS.Latar belakang: Stomatitis aftosa rekuren (SAR merupakan salah satu gangguan di rongga mulut yang paling sering terjadi. Fenomenapenyakit ini masih belum jelas dan masih membutuhkanpenelitian yang lebih lanjut. Faktor keturunan lebih sering daripada kasus individual. Pengaruh faktor genetik telah diteliti oleh beberapapeneliti. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui adanya kaitan HLA dengan SARpada suku jawa secara lebih tepat. Metode: Analisis HLA-A, HLA-Bpada 85penderita RAS dan 71 penderita kontrol yang berasal dari suku Jawa dihitung dengan menggunakan teknik NIH Micro

  4. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination elicits IgG anti-AB blood group antibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Type I diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Wolfram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis: Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We adressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP vaccine (PPV Pneumovax®23 could have such an effect in patients with with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I, an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role.Methods: Anti-PnP IgM and IgG responses were determined by ELISA and the Diamed-ID Micro Typing System was used to screen anti-A/B antibody titer before and after Pneumovax®23 immunization in 28 healthy individuals and 16 patients with DM I. In addition, surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology using the Biacore® device and a synthetic blood group A/B trisaccharide as the antigen was applied to investigate IgM and IgG anti-A/B antibodies and to measure antibody binding dynamics. Results: All healthy individuals and DM I patients responded with anti-PnP IgM and IgG antibody production four to six weeks after Pneumovax®23 (Pn23 immunization, while no increase in blood group anti-A/B antibody titer was observed when measured by the Diamed-ID Micro Typing System. Interestingly, isotype-specific testing by SPR-technology revealed an increase in blood group anti-A/B IgG, but not IgM, following Pn23 immunization in both patients and controls. No change in binding characteristics of blood group anti-A/B antibodies could be detected following Pn23 vaccination, supporting the assumption of an increase in IgG antibody titer with no or very little affinity maturation.Conclusion: The study provides evidence for epitope sharing

  5. Role of the Group B antigen of Streptococcus agalactiae: a peptidoglycan-anchored polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Caliot

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS is a leading cause of infections in neonates and an emerging pathogen in adults. The Lancefield Group B carbohydrate (GBC is a peptidoglycan-anchored antigen that defines this species as a Group B Streptococcus. Despite earlier immunological and biochemical characterizations, the function of this abundant glycopolymer has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we inactivated the gene gbcO encoding a putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate:lipid phosphate transferase thought to catalyze the first step of GBC synthesis. Indeed, the gbcO mutant was unable to synthesize the GBC polymer, and displayed an important growth defect in vitro. Electron microscopy study of the GBC-depleted strain of S. agalactiae revealed a series of growth-related abnormalities: random placement of septa, defective cell division and separation processes, and aberrant cell morphology. Furthermore, vancomycin labeling and peptidoglycan structure analysis demonstrated that, in the absence of GBC, cells failed to initiate normal PG synthesis and cannot complete polymerization of the murein sacculus. Finally, the subcellular localization of the PG hydrolase PcsB, which has a critical role in cell division of streptococci, was altered in the gbcO mutant. Collectively, these findings show that GBC is an essential component of the cell wall of S. agalactiae whose function is reminiscent of that of conventional wall teichoic acids found in Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, our findings raise the possibility that GBC-like molecules play a major role in the growth of most if not all beta-hemolytic streptococci.

  6. Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series of type C

    CERN Document Server

    Beineke, Jennifer; Frechette, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    We develop the theory of Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series for root systems of type C. For an arbitrary root system of rank r and a positive integer n, these are Dirichlet series in r complex variables with analytic continuation and functional equations isomorphic to the associated Weyl group. In type C, they conjecturally arise from the Fourier-Whittaker coefficients of minimal parabolic Eisenstein series on an n-fold metaplectic cover of SO(2r+1). For any odd n, we construct an infinite family of Dirichlet series conjecturally satisfying the above analytic properties. The coefficients of these series are exponential sums built from Gelfand-Tsetlin bases of certain highest weight representations. Previous attempts to define such series by Brubaker, Bump, and Friedberg in [6] and [7] required n to be sufficiently large, so that coefficients could be described by Weyl group orbits. We demonstrate that our construction agrees with that of [6] and [7] in the case where both series are defined, and hence inher...

  7. The non-collagenous domains of the alpha 3 and 4 chains of type IV collagen and their relationship to the Goodpasture antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savige, J A; Gallicchio, M

    1991-01-01

    The Goodpasture antigen is the target recognized by anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies in anti-GBM disease or Goodpasture's syndrome. This structure is present in all normal GBM, but when serum containing anti-GBM antibodies is used to examine renal tissue from most males with classical Alport's syndrome, the Goodpasture antigen appears to be missing. The nature of the Goodpasture antigen is uncertain although it has been putatively and controversially localized to the non-collagenous domain of a novel type IV collagen chain (alpha 3) by one group, and a short peptide sequence has been published (M2). We have performed several experiments to determine whether M2 represents the Goodpasture antigen and we have also studied the corresponding sequence of the alpha 4 chain of type IV collagen (M3). Firstly, we demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific priming oligonucleotides that mRNAs corresponding to M2 and M3 were found within the kidney and that the published sequences were correct. When heterologous antibodies were raised against M2 and M3 these bound specifically to GBM in an ELISA based on collagenase-digested basement membrane and this binding could be inhibited by incubation with collagenase-digested GBM but not with ovalbumin. On further examination of the target molecules using Western blots, the anti-M2 antibody bound to a single high molecular weight band of collagen-digested GBM in contrast to the anti-M3 antibody that bound to the same bands as Goodpasture serum. We then established ELISAs for anti-M2 and anti-M3 activity using the peptides M2 and M3. While rabbit anti-M2 and M3 antibodies bound specifically to their respective peptides in these ELISAs, there was no binding of three high titre Goodpasture's syndrome sera or two sera from Alport's syndrome patients with inhibitable anti-GBM antibody post-renal transplant. We have shown that the sequences of M2 and M3 correspond to proteins present within

  8. Isomorphism classes and automorphism groups of algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(苏育才); ZHAO; Kaiming(赵开明)

    2002-01-01

    In one of our recent papers, the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type A[D] = A F[D] were defined and studied, where A is a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of any characteristic, and F[D] is the polynomial algebra of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. In the present paper, a class of the above associative and Lie algebras A[D] with F being a field of characteristic 0, D consisting of locally finite but not locally nilpotent derivations of A, are studied. The isomorphism classes and automorphism groups of these associative and Lie algebras are determined.

  9. Expansion in finite simple groups of Lie type

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2015-01-01

    Expander graphs are an important tool in theoretical computer science, geometric group theory, probability, and number theory. Furthermore, the techniques used to rigorously establish the expansion property of a graph draw from such diverse areas of mathematics as representation theory, algebraic geometry, and arithmetic combinatorics. This text focuses on the latter topic in the important case of Cayley graphs on finite groups of Lie type, developing tools such as Kazhdan's property (T), quasirandomness, product estimates, escape from subvarieties, and the Balog-Szemerédi-Gowers lemma. Applications to the affine sieve of Bourgain, Gamburd, and Sarnak are also given. The material is largely self-contained, with additional sections on the general theory of expanders, spectral theory, Lie theory, and the Lang-Weil bound, as well as numerous exercises and other optional material.

  10. Equivariant degenerations of spherical modules for groups of type A

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, Stavros Argyrios

    2010-01-01

    Let G be a complex reductive algebraic group. Fix a Borel subgroup B of G, with unipotent radical U, and a maximal torus T in B with character group X(T). Let S be a submonoid of X(T) generated by finitely many dominant weights. V. Alexeev and M. Brion introduced a moduli scheme M_S which classifies pairs (X,f) where X is an affine G-variety and f is a T-equivariant isomorphism between the categorical quotient of X by U and the toric variety determined by S. In this paper, we prove that M_S is isomorphic to an affine space when S is the weight monoid of a spherical G-module with G of type A.

  11. The analysis of crystallographic symmetry types in finite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Atikah Mohd; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Adam, Nooraishikin; Zamri, Siti Norziahidayu Amzee

    2014-06-01

    Undeniably, it is human nature to prefer objects which are considered beautiful. Most consider beautiful as perfection, hence they try to create objects which are perfectly balance in shape and patterns. This creates a whole different kind of art, the kind that requires an object to be symmetrical. This leads to the study of symmetrical objects and pattern. Even mathematicians and ethnomathematicians are very interested with the essence of symmetry. One of these studies were conducted on the Malay traditional triaxial weaving culture. The patterns derived from this technique are symmetrical and this allows for further research. In this paper, the 17 symmetry types in a plane, known as the wallpaper groups, are studied and discussed. The wallpaper groups will then be applied to the triaxial patterns of food cover in Malaysia.

  12. Radically altered T cell receptor signaling in glycopeptide-specific T cell hybridoma induced by antigen with minimal differences in the glycan group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Nielsen, M; Gad, Monika;

    2001-01-01

    A T cell hybridoma raised against the synthetic glycopeptide T(72)(Tn) was used to study whether the initial TCR signaling events are markedly different when the hybridoma is stimulated with glycopeptides closely related to the cognate glycopeptide antigen. T(72)(Tn) has an alpha-D-GalNAc group O...

  13. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  14. PROBLEMS OF TEAM FUNCTIONING AS SPECIAL TYPE OF SOCIAL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. VASILYEV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article examines the question about correlation of concepts "team" and "team". A comparison of their characteristics reveals that they are extremely close to each other. Identified problems in the functioning of the team as a special type of social group. The features of leadership in the team, in particular, the possibility and feasibility of a divided leadership. Divided leadership implies that at different stages of achieving the team purpose leadership position is given to those team members who are most competent in solving a particular task, but the final decisions are made by joint efforts of the group. The presence of a clearly defined leader in the team is imperative. On the other hand, many teams are able to function effectively using only one type of influence ‒ vertical, when a mutual influence on each other have a leader and his associate, boss and employee. The presence of horizontal influence that occurs in the process of interaction between team members (excluding leader among themselves, it is necessary to perform tasks that require synchronous operation of several (or all team members. In the end, formulated the following conclusion: the presence of vertical interactions is a necessary condition for the existence of the team.

  15. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is distinct from the N-CAM related group of surface antigens BSP-2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faissner, A; Kruse, J; Goridis, C

    1984-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and the group of N-CAM related molecules, BSP-2 and D2 antigen, are immunochemically distinct molecular species. The two groups of surface molecules are also functionally distinct entities, since inhibition of Ca2+-independent adhesion among early post-natal m......-natal mouse cerebellar cells by Fab fragments of both antibodies are at least additive, when compared with equal concentrations of the individual antibodies....

  16. EFFECT OF PLANT LECTINS ON HUMAN BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON PLANT FOODS AND JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkata Raman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Different plant lectins have been studied for lectin binding activity on ABO blood group system individually to study their suitability for consumption. 45% of plants were found to show blood group agglutination activity against A, B, AB and O groups. These results showed more suitability for consumption of investigated plants and their products to entire human population. Data also alarming human to be more careful about the plant lectins reacting with blood groups as the similar reactions may possibly happen at mucosal surface of the gut. In fact, chemical composition on RBC may similar with mucosal cell surfaces of human gastrointestinal tract. In our investigation results reveal that 27 percent of plant extracts showed activity against A, 38 percent of plant extracts for B, 45 percent plant extracts on AB and 45 percent of plants on O group blood populations of human beings. Further, O blood group humans have shown more significant activity (10 different plants than A, B and AB. Hence, these double blind placebo studies are very promising and would give better results for suitability and digestibility of foods taking either as staple foods or juices, and also several health benefits for controlling the diet intake, based on the blood group type.

  17. Genotyping of coeliac-specific human leucocyte antigen in children with type 1 diabetes: does this screening method make sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Elisabeth; Loinger, Martina; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Edlinger, Michael; Steichen, Elisabeth; Meraner, Dagmar; Loacker, Lorin; Weigel, Guenter; Müller, Thomas; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Hofer, Sabine E

    2017-07-01

    Due to a high linkage disequilibrium of diabetes and coeliac-specific human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes, the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D) is much higher than in the general population. Recently, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) revised new screening guidelines in which genotyping for coeliac-specific HLA alleles is recommended for high-risk patients as patients with T1D. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of coeliac-specific HLA genotypes in paediatric patients with T1D. HLA genotyping was performed on paediatric patients with T1D, recruited at the Medical University Hospital of Innsbruck and Graz. The test was done by PCR. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM-SPSS V.20. In 121 paediatric patients with T1D (52% male), mean age 13.3 (SD 3.9) years, mean age at diabetes diagnosis 7.4 (SD 3.8) and mean diabetes duration of 5.9 (SD 3.3) years, HLA genotyping was conducted. Ninety-two per cent showed positive HLA DQ2 and/or HLA DQ8 genotypes. Thirty-four per cent carried HLA DQ2, 33% were HLA DQ2+DQ8 positive and 25% of the patients showed positive results for HLA DQ8 alone. Only 8% had no coeliac-specific HLA markers. Four (3%) patients were diagnosed with CD. The majority of paediatric patients with T1D has positive coeliac-specific HLA genotypes DQ2 and/or DQ8. Therefore, genotyping for coeliac-specific HLA alleles as a first-line test in patients with T1D as recommended in the ESPGHAN guidelines does not seem reasonable. Screening for coeliac-specific antibodies needs to be performed on a regular basis for patients with T1D. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Evaluation of 'cattle' and 'Indian Bison' type antigens of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis for diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease using 'indigenous ELISA' and AGPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahangchopi, Donna; Singh, Ran Vir; Singh, Shoor Vir; Das, Paritosh; Sharma, Deepak; Sardana, Tarun; Kumar, Naveen; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Gupta, Saurabh

    2014-12-01

    Two antigens ('cattle' type and 'Indian Bison' type) of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis were evaluated for diagnosis of Johne's disease (JD) in a gaushala (cattle herd). Of the 160 cows of Sahiwal and Hariana breeds screened, 81 (50.6%) tested positive in ELISA and 66 (41.8%) in AGPT test. Using the two antigens, 33.5% tested positive in both the tests while 41.1% tested negative. Exclusively, only 8.2% tested positive in ELISA while 17.1% tested positive in AGPT. Two antigens together detected 58.9% prevalence of MAP in the gaushala. Individually, indigenous ELISA using antigen from native source of MAP proved superior to AGPT in the diagnosis of JD in cows.

  19. Spectrum and inoculum size effect of a rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie F Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of the accuracy of a diagnostic test is critical to whether clinicians can rely on its result. We aimed to assess whether the performance of a rapid antigen detection test (RADT for group A streptococcus (GAS is affected by the clinical spectrum and/or bacterial inoculum size. METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from 785 children with pharyngitis in an office-based, prospective, multicenter study (2009-2010. We analysed the effect of clinical spectrum (i.e., the McIsaac score and its components and inoculum size (light or heavy GAS growth on the accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values of a RADT, with laboratory throat culture as the reference test. We also evaluated the accuracy of a McIsaac-score-based decision rule. RESULTS: GAS prevalence was 36% (95CI: 33%-40%. The inoculum was heavy for 85% of cases (81%-89%. We found a significant spectrum effect on sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and positive predictive value (p<0.05 but not negative predictive value, which was stable at about 92%. RADT sensitivity was greater for children with heavy than light inoculum (95% vs. 40%, p<0.001. After stratification by inoculum size, the spectrum effect on RADT sensitivity was significant only in patients with light inoculum, on univariate and multivariate analysis. The McIsaac-score-based decision rule had 99% (97%-100% sensitivity and 52% (48%-57% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in RADT sensitivity only occur in patients with light inocula. Because the spectrum effect does not affect the negative predictive value of the test, clinicians who want to rule out GAS can rely on negative RADT results regardless of clinical features if they accept that about 10% of children with negative RADT results will have a positive throat culture. However, such a policy is more acceptable in populations with very low incidence of complications of GAS infection.

  20. Second cohomology for finite groups of Lie type

    CERN Document Server

    Boe, Brian D; Brons, Theresa; Carlson, Jon F; Chastkofsky, Leonard; Drupieski, Christopher M; Johnson, Niles; Nakano, Daniel K; Li, Wenjing; Luu, Phong Thanh; Macedo, Tiago; Ngo, Nham Vo; Samples, Brandon L; Talian, Andrew J; Townsley, Lisa; Wyser, Benjamin J

    2011-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple, simply-connected algebraic group defined over $\\mathbb{F}_p$. Given a power $q = p^r$ of $p$, let $G(\\mathbb{F}_q) \\subset G$ be the subgroup of $\\mathbb{F}_q$-rational points. Let $L(\\lambda)$ be the simple rational $G$-module of highest weight $\\lambda$. In this paper we establish sufficient criteria for the restriction map in second cohomology $H^2(G,L(\\lambda)) \\rightarrow H^2(G(\\mathbb{F}_q),L(\\lambda))$ to be an isomorphism. In particular, the restriction map is an isomorphism under very mild conditions on $p$ and $q$ provided $\\lambda$ is less than or equal to a fundamental dominant weight. Even when the restriction map is not an isomorphism, we are often able to describe $H^2(G(\\mathbb{F}_q),L(\\lambda))$ in terms of rational cohomology for $G$. We apply our techniques to compute $H^2(G(\\mathbb{F}_q),L(\\lambda))$ in a wide range of cases, and obtain new examples of nonzero second cohomology for finite groups of Lie type.

  1. Countermeasures of Blood of Patients with ABO Disease Weakened Blood Group Antigens%血液病患者ABO血型抗原减弱及其输血对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes of decreased blood ABO in patients with blood group antigens and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures of blood transfusion. Methods The diagnosis and treatment of 30 cases in our hospital were col ected and the weakening of the ABO blood group antigen blood disease patients as the observation group, 30 cases of blood group antigen expression of the normal patients were selected as control group, summarize the cause of weakening of the ABO blood group antigen and puts forward the corresponding Countermeasures of blood transfusion. Results The results showed that, the observation group with 10 patients with red blood cel s and antiserum reaction and reverse typing discrepancies, including 7 cases of type A and type B in 3 cases, 2 patients were type, the rest 18 patients al type O. At the same time, the observation group in 2 patients with non hemolytic in hemolytic cases, accounting for 6.67%of the total, the control group had 4 cases, accounting for 13.33%of the total, two groups of patients increased hemoglobin close degree. Conclusion The patients with blood diseases mainly concentrated in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute and chronic non lymphocytic leukemia, by entering the same blood type has good clinical ef ect in the treatment of such patients, can ef ectively promote the functional recovery of the antigen, and promote the rehabilitation of patients.%目的分析血液病患者ABO血型抗原减弱的原因并提出相应的输血对策。方法收集我院诊治的30例ABO血型抗原减弱的血液病患者设为观察组,另选同期的30例血型抗原正常表达患者设为对照组,总结ABO血型抗原减弱的原因并提出相应的输血对策。结果研究结果显示,观察组中有10例患者红细胞与抗血清反应中出现与反定型不符,包括7例A型和3例B型,有2例患者为正定型,其余18例患者全部为O型。同时,观察组中有2例患者在溶血性情况中出

  2. ST2 Requires Th2-, but Not Th17-, Type Airway Inflammation in Epicutaneously Antigen-Sensitized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The IL-33/ST2 pathway is crucial for Th2-cytokine-mediated eosinophilic, rather than Th17-cytokine-mediated neutrophilic, airway inflammation in mice that had been epicutaneously sensitized with antigens and then challenged with antigen.

  3. Advances in Blood Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  4. Counter-immunoelectro-osmophoresis for the detection of infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbi-group) antigen and antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, P J; Petric, M; Hewitt, C M; Szymanski, M T; Tam, J S

    1976-03-01

    A moderatley sensitive, rapid, and economical test scheme for the detection of infantile gastroenteritis virus (IGV) in stool or antibody in serum has been developed and evaluated. The test scheme with minor modifications was an adaptation of a counter-immunoelectro-osmophoresis system we once used for the detection of hepatitis B antigen. Large numbers of stool samples may be screened during half a working day for the presence of IGV using reference antiserum to IGV prepared in guinea-pigs. Serological studies of a diagnostic but not epidemiological nature may also be performed with equal facility by this same test scheme using highly purified IGV antigen derived from stool.

  5. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouseI-Aq in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336 PMID:26779996

  6. A sandwich-type immunosensor using Pd-Pt nanocrystals as labels for sensitive detection of human tissue polypeptide antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoguang; Wei, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dan; Ma, Hongmin; Guo, Aiping; Du, Bin

    2014-02-01

    A sandwich-type immunosensor was developed for the detection of human tissue polypeptide antigen (hTPA). In this work, a graphene sheet (GS) was synthesized to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and Pd-Pt bimetallic nanocrystals were used as secondary-antibody (Ab2) labels for the fabrication of the immunosensor. The amperometric response of the immunosensor for catalyzing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was recorded. And electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the fabrication process of the immunosensor. The anti-human tissue polypeptide antigen primary antibody (Ab1) was immobilized onto the GS modified GCE via cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS). With Ab1 immobilized onto the GS modified GCE and Ab2 linked on Pd-Pt bimetallic nanocrystals, the immunosensor demonstrated a wide linear range (0.0050-15 ng ml-1), a low detection limit (1.2 pg ml-1), good reproducibility, good selectivity and acceptable stability. This design strategy may provide many potential applications in the detection of other cancer biomarkers.

  7. Thymic Self-Antigen Expression for the Design of a Negative/Tolerogenic Self-Vaccine against Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Alami Chentoufi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Before being able to react against infectious non-self-antigens, the immune system has to be educated in the recognition and tolerance of neuroendocrine proteins, and this critical process essentially takes place in the thymus. The development of the autoimmune diabetogenic response results from a thymus dysfunction in programming central self-tolerance to pancreatic insulin-secreting islet β cells, leading to the breakdown of immune homeostasis with an enrichment of islet β cell reactive effector T cells and a deficiency of β cell-specific natural regulatory T cells (nTreg in the peripheral T-lymphocyte repertoire. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2 is the dominant member of the insulin family expressed during fetal life by the thymic epithelium under the control of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene/protein. Based on the close homology and cross-tolerance between insulin, the primary T1D autoantigen, and IGF-2, the dominant self-antigen of the insulin family, a novel type of vaccination, so-called “negative/tolerogenic self-vaccination”, is currently developed for prevention and cure of T1D. If this approach were found to be effective for reprogramming immunological tolerance in T1D, it could pave the way for the design of negative self-vaccines against autoimmune endocrine diseases, as well as other organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

  8. Isothermal rolling circle amplification of virus genomes for rapid antigen detection and typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasino, Michael D; Cha, Jennifer N

    2015-08-01

    In this work, isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) of the multi-kilobase genome of engineered filamentous bacteriophage is used to report the presence and identification of specific protein analytes in solution. First, bacteriophages were chosen as sensing platforms because peptides or antibodies that bind medically relevant targets can be isolated through phage display or expressed as fusions to their p3 and p8 coat proteins. Second, the circular, single-stranded genome contained within the phage serves as a natural large DNA template for a RCA reaction to rapidly generate exponential amounts of double stranded DNA in a single isothermal step that can be easily detected using low-cost fluorescent nucleic acid stains. Amplifying the entire phage genome also provides high detection sensitivities. Furthermore, since the sequence of the viral DNA can be easily modified with multiple restriction enzyme sites, a simple DNA digest can be applied to detect and identify multiple antigens simultaneously. The methods developed here will lead to protein sensors that are highly scalable to produce, can be run without complex biological equipment and do not require the use of multiple antibodies or high-cost fluorescent DNA probes or nucleotides.

  9. Antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAVORETTO Silvana Regina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog, 3 (Desmodus rotundus, 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis, 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela, 6 (Lasiurus cinereus and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies. Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus. These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species.

  10. On silicon group elements ejected by supernovae type IA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Soma; Timmes, F. X. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Brown, Edward F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Calder, Alan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Townsley, Dean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Athanassiadou, Themis [Swiss National Supercomputing Centre, Via Trevano 131, 6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Chamulak, David A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Hawley, Wendy [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille cedex 13 F-13388 (France); Jack, Dennis, E-mail: somad@asu.edu [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apartado Postal 144, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that the peak brightness of a Type Ia supernova is affected by the electron fraction Y {sub e} at the time of the explosion. The electron fraction is set by the aboriginal composition of the white dwarf and the reactions that occur during the pre-explosive convective burning. To date, determining the makeup of the white dwarf progenitor has relied on indirect proxies, such as the average metallicity of the host stellar population. In this paper, we present analytical calculations supporting the idea that the electron fraction of the progenitor systematically influences the nucleosynthesis of silicon group ejecta in Type Ia supernovae. In particular, we suggest the abundances generated in quasi-nuclear statistical equilibrium are preserved during the subsequent freeze-out. This allows potential recovery of Y {sub e} at explosion from the abundances recovered from an observed spectra. We show that measurement of {sup 28}Si, {sup 32}S, {sup 40}Ca, and {sup 54}Fe abundances can be used to construct Y {sub e} in the silicon-rich regions of the supernovae. If these four abundances are determined exactly, they are sufficient to recover Y {sub e} to 6%. This is because these isotopes dominate the composition of silicon-rich material and iron-rich material in quasi-nuclear statistical equilibrium. Analytical analysis shows the {sup 28}Si abundance is insensitive to Y {sub e}, the {sup 32}S abundance has a nearly linear trend with Y {sub e}, and the {sup 40}Ca abundance has a nearly quadratic trend with Y {sub e}. We verify these trends with post-processing of one-dimensional models and show that these trends are reflected in the model's synthetic spectra.

  11. A novel paper-based assay for the simultaneous determination of Rh typing and forward and reverse ABO blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiphung, Julaluk; Talalak, Kwanrutai; Hongwarittorrn, Irin; Pupinyo, Naricha; Thirabowonkitphithan, Pannawich; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-05-15

    We propose a new, paper-based analytical device (PAD) for blood typing that allows for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups on the same device. The device was successfully fabricated by using a combination of wax printing and wax dipping methods. A 1:2 blood dilution was used for forward grouping, whereas whole blood could be used for reverse grouping. A 30% cell suspension of A-cells or B-cells was used for haemagglutination on the reverse grouping side. The total assay time was 10 min. The ratio between the distance of red blood cell movement and plasma separation is the criterion for agglutination and indicates the presence of the corresponding antigen or antibody. The proposed PAD has excellent reproducibility in that the same blood groups, namely A, AB, and O, were reported by using different PADs that were fabricated on the same day (n=10). The accuracy for detecting blood group A (n=12), B (n=13), AB (n=9), O (n=14), and Rh (n=48) typing were 92%, 85%, 89%, 93%, and 96%, respectively, in comparison with the conventional slide test method. The haematocrit of the sample affects the accuracy of the results, and appropriate dilution is suggested before typing. In conclusion, this study proposes a novel method that is straightforward, time-saving, and inexpensive for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups, which is promising for use in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Histo-blood group ABO antigen in oral potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma--genotypic and phenotypic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Bennett, Erik Paul; Reibel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    to establish the ABO genotype. Total and patchy loss of A/B antigen expression was found in 24/32 carcinomas, 6/7 leukoplakias with severe dysplasia, 12/17 leukoplakias with mild and moderate dysplasia, and 6/17 leukoplakias without dysplasia. Specific A/B allele loss was found in 8/24 cases with carcinoma...

  13. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for analysis of protein antigens in a meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Lawrence W; Mehl, John T; Loughney, John W; Mach, Anna; Rustandi, Richard R; Ha, Sha; Zhang, Lan; Przysiecki, Craig T; Dieter, Lance; Hoang, Van M

    2015-01-01

    The development of a multivalent outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine where each strain contributes multiple key protein antigens presents numerous analytical challenges. One major difficulty is the ability to accurately and specifically quantitate each antigen, especially during early development and process optimization when immunoreagents are limited or unavailable. To overcome this problem, quantitative mass spectrometry methods can be used. In place of traditional mass assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), quantitative LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) can be used during early-phase process development to measure key protein components in complex vaccines in the absence of specific immunoreagents. Multiplexed, label-free quantitative mass spectrometry methods using protein extraction by either detergent or 2-phase solvent were developed to quantitate levels of several meningococcal serogroup B protein antigens in an OMV vaccine candidate. Precision was demonstrated to be less than 15% RSD for the 2-phase extraction and less than 10% RSD for the detergent extraction method. Accuracy was 70 to 130% for the method using a 2-phase extraction and 90-110% for detergent extraction. The viability of MS-based protein quantification as a vaccine characterization method was demonstrated and advantages over traditional quantitative methods were evaluated. Implementation of these MS-based quantification methods can help to decrease the development time for complex vaccines and can provide orthogonal confirmation of results from existing antigen quantification techniques.

  14. Storage-related changes in erythrocyte band 3: not a case for the Diego blood group antigens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Klaarenbeek, J.M.; Luten, M.; Bos, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Removal of erythrocytes from the circulation is mediated by the immune system. Changes in structure and function of band 3, a major membrane protein of the erythrocyte, trigger the binding of antibodies to a band 3-derived neoantigen, senescent cell antigen, on erythrocytes aged in vivo. This

  15. SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF CELIAC DISEASE AND HLA II ANTIGENS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Hennesy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied incidenceof immunological markers of celiac disease in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1 and their correlation with clinical peculiarities and polymorphous alleles of HLA. It was shown that incidence of celiac markers is higher in DM1 children than in general population and makes up 7.4%. Patients who were seropositive with celiac antigens had gastrointestinal symptoms and iron deficiency more often. The occurrence rate of other autoimmune disorders in seropositive patients was 24%, with high count of autoantibodies towards transglutaminase (AbTT — 50%. More than 78% of seroposetive patients possessed haplotypes DQ2 and|or DQ8 HLA. The occurrence rate was identical. In patients with high AbTT occurrence of HLA genotypes with DQ2 and/or DQ8 rose up to 100%.

  16. Fetal antigen 2: an amniotic protein identified as the aminopropeptide of the alpha 1 chain of human procollagen type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teisner, B; Rasmussen, H B; Højrup, P

    1992-01-01

    -PAGE analysis gave an M(r) = 27 kDa under reducing and non-reducing conditions for both forms, whereas the exact M(r) determined by mass spectrometry was 14,343 +/- 3 Da. FA2 was N-terminally blocked and after tryptic digestion the amino acid composition and sequences of the peptides showed identity...... with the aminopropeptide of the alpha 1 chain of human procollagen type I as determined by nucleotide sequences. After oxidative procedures normally employed for radio-iodination (iodogen and chloramine-T), FA2 lost its immunoreactivity. An antigen which cross-reacted with polyclonal rabbit anti-human FA2 was demonstrated...... in fetal calf serum. Gel filtration with analysis of fractions by inhibition ELISA showed that the bovine homologue was present in the same molecular forms as those in human amniotic fluid, and immunohistochemical analysis with anti-human FA2 showed that its distribution in bovine skin was identical...

  17. Kunitz-type protease inhibitors group B from Solanum palustre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speransky, Anna S; Cimaglia, Fabio; Krinitsina, Anastasya A; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Fasano, Pasqua; Bogacheva, Anna M; Valueva, Tatiana A; Halterman, Dennis; Shevelev, Alexei B; Santino, Angelo

    2007-11-01

    Five Kunitz protease inhibitor group B genes were isolated from the genome of the diploid non-tuber-forming potato species Solanum palustre. Three of five new genes share 99% identity to the published KPI-B genes from various cultivated potato accessions, while others exhibit 96% identity. Spls-KPI-B2 and Spls-KPI-B4 proteins contain unique substitutions of the most conserved residues usually involved to trypsin and chymotrypsin-specific binding sites of Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI)-B, respectively. To test the inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin by Spls-KPI proteins, five of them were produced in E. coli purified using a Ni-sepharose resin and ion-exchange chromatography. All recombinant Spls-KPI-B inhibited trypsin; K(i) values ranged from 84.8 (Spls-KPI-B4), 345.5 (Spls-KPI-B1), and 1310.6 nM (Spls-KPI-B2) to 3883.5 (Spls-KPI-B5) and 8370 nM (Spls-KPI-B3). In addition, Spls-KPI-B1 and Spls-KPI-B4 inhibited chymotrypsin. These data suggest that regardless of substitutions of key active-center residues both Spls-KPI-B4 and Spls-KPI-B1 are functional trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors.

  18. Histamine release-neutralization assay for sera of patients with atopic dermatitis and/or cholinergic urticaria is useful to screen type I hypersensitivity against sweat antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Hajime; Ishii, Kaori; Yanase, Yuhki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hide, Michihiro

    2012-10-01

    We previously reported that about 80 % of patients with atopic dermatitis and 60 % with cholinergic urticaria revealed type I allergy against sweat, by means of skin test against autologous sweat and/or histamine-release test for peripheral blood basophils with semi-purified sweat antigen. In this study, we developed an assay for sera to neutralize histamine-releasing activity of semi-purified sweat antigen. The semi-purified sweat antigen was pre-incubated with serially diluted sera for 30 min at 37 °C and was subjected to histamine-release activity. Histamine release-neutralization (HRN) activities were calculated by measuring the amount of histamine release from basophils in the presence or absence of semi-purified sweat antigen. Of 62 subjects, 39 showed positive histamine release (≥5 %) from their basophils in response to semi-purified sweat antigen, and sera of 34 out of 39 subjects (87.2 %) were also positive in HRN activity (≥10 %). The specificity of the HRN assay was 0.522. Moreover, HRN activities in sera were largely correlated with degrees of histamine release from peripheral blood basophils of the same donors in response to sweat antigen. To identify the substance that neutralizes histamine-release activity, we removed IgE and IgG from the sera of HRN (+) subjects by column chromatography. The HRN activities in 30 out of 42 sera were largely reduced by the removal of IgG. On the other hand, sera of four subjects lost HRN activity by the removal of IgE, suggesting that the majority of HRN (+) subjects have serum IgG against the sweat antigen as well as IgE bound to peripheral basophils. Thus, the HRN assay maybe useful for the screening of type I allergy against sweat antigen.

  19. Type I Interferons as Regulators of Human Antigen Presenting Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gessani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs are pleiotropic cytokines, initially described for their antiviral activity. These cytokines exhibit a long record of clinical use in patients with some types of cancer, viral infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. It is now well established that IFN action mostly relies on their ability to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses. Work in recent years has begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which type I IFNs modify the immune response, and this is now recognized to be due to effects on multiple cell types, including monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs, NK cells, T and B lymphocytes. An ensemble of results from both animal models and in vitro studies emphasized the key role of type I IFNs in the development and function of DCs, suggesting the existence of a natural alliance between these cytokines and DCs in linking innate to adaptive immunity. The identification of IFN signatures in DCs and their dysregulation under pathological conditions will therefore be pivotal to decipher the complexity of this DC-IFN interaction and to better exploit the therapeutic potential of these cells.

  20. Alveolar epithelial type II cells induce T cell tolerance to specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Bernice; Hansen, Søren; Evans, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The lungs face the immunologic challenge of rapidly eliminating inhaled pathogens while maintaining tolerance to innocuous Ags. A break in this immune homeostasis may result in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as allergies or asthma. The observation that alveolar epithelial type II cells (Ty...

  1. Oral delivery of the Sj23LHD-GST antigen by Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system protects against Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and oral vaccine delivery system would be benefit for prevention of this disease. Although attenuated salmonella has been used as an antigen expression vector for oral vaccine development, the membrane-bound vacuoles in which bacteria reside hinders the presentation of expressed heterologous antigens to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. The present work used an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain VNP20009 to secretory expression of Sj23LHDGST bivalent antigen from Schistosoma japonicum and tested the protective efficacy against S. japonicum infection in orally immunized mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoters (nirB or pagC were used to express the antigen (Sj23LHDGST and the Salmonella type III or α-hemolysin secretion system was employed to secrete it. The immunoblotting analysis and fluorescent microscopy revealed that the antigen was effectively expressed and delivered to the cytosol of macrophages in vitro. Among recombinant vaccine strains, an engineered VNP20009 which expressed the antigen by nirB promoter and secreted it through type III secretion system (nirB-sopE(1-104-Sj23LHD-GST efficiently protected against S. japonicum infection in a mouse model. This strain elicited a predominantly IgG(2a antibody response and a markedly increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this strain caused T cell activation as evidenced by significantly increased expression of CD44 and CD69. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral delivery of antigen by nirB-driven Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system is a novel, safe, inexpensive, efficient and convenient approach for schistosome vaccine development.

  2. Freshwater fish trypanosomes: definition of two types, host control by antibodies and lack of antigenic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overath, P; Haag, J; Mameza, M G; Lischke, A

    1999-12-01

    Haemoflagellates of the genus Trypanosoma are prevalent in freshwater fishes and are transmitted by leeches as vectors. As demonstrated by sequence comparisons of nuclear small subunit rRNA genes, trypanosomes isolated from several fish species at different localities can be divided into at least 2 closely related types, designated Type A and Type B. A clone derived from a Type A isolate from carp (Cyprinus carpio) was used to study the anti-parasite immune response in specified pathogen-free outbred carp. Infection leads to an initial rise in parasitaemia in the blood followed by a sharp decline in all fish (acute phase). Thereafter, in some carp, parasites become undetectable both in the blood and in internal organs while, in others, low numbers can be found in the blood for up to 1 year (chronic phase). Fish that have controlled an acute infection with the clone are not only protected against an homologous challenge infection, but also against the infection with parasite lines derived from carp in the chronic phase of infection. Passive immunization experiments with IgM purified from serum of recovered carp indicate that the infection is controlled by antibodies. The anti-parasite antibody level in recovered carp remains high for many months although the parasitaemia is controlled at very low levels and the half life of IgM, t1/2 = 22.5 days, is comparatively short. The effective control of trypanosomes in laboratory infections is in contrast to the high prevalence in natural and farmed freshwater fish populations.

  3. Association of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 with immune response, mastitis, and production and type traits in Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, R; Hernandez, A; Mallard, B A

    2007-02-01

    Data collected from 328 Canadian Holsteins in a research herd at the University of Guelph were used to study associations among expression of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 alleles, immune response, mastitis resistance via somatic cell counts (SCC), and clinical mastitis, as well as to extend these results to production and type traits. Accordingly, groups of cows were evaluated in vivo for both the antibody-mediated immune response (AMIR) and the cell-mediated immune response (CMIR), which generally predominate in responses to extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. Of note was that associations between BoLA DRB3.2 alleles and immune responses tended to be in the opposite sign for the 2 AMIR and CMIR traits examined. For example, alleles DRB3.2*3 and *24 were associated with higher AMIR but lower CMIR, whereas allele *22 was associated with lower AMIR but higher CMIR. This finding is in agreement with the hypothesis that both traits are genetically independent and represent opposing type 1 and type 2 immune responses. Additionally, BoLA DRB3.2*3 and *11 were associated with lower SCC, whereas alleles *22 and *23 were associated with higher SCC. Finally, allele DRB3.2*3 was also associated with less clinical mastitis, whereas allele *8 was associated with higher mastitis risk. Allele *3 was of particular relevance because it was associated with increased antibodies, as well as reduced mastitis and SCC. This could be due to an indirect relationship between the ability to produce a high antibody response and enhanced defense against intrammamary infections caused by extracellular pathogens. Consequently, the BoLA DRB3.2*3 allele should be investigated further as a candidate for resistance to some types of intramammary infections, the important caveat being its association with lower CMIR, particularly with one of the test antigens used to evaluate delayed-type hypersensitivity. The results of associations between BoLA DRB3.2 and production

  4. Proteaselike sequence in hepatitis B virus core antigen is not required for e antigen generation and may not be part of an aspartic acid-type protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassal, M; Galle, P R; Schaller, H

    1989-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) C gene directs the synthesis of two major gene products: HBV core antigen (HBcAg[p21c]), which forms the nucleocapsid, and HBV e antigen (HBeAg [p17e]), a secreted antigen that is produced by several processing events during its maturation. These proteins contain an amino acid sequence similar to the active-site residues of aspartic acid and retroviral proteases. On the basis of this sequence similarity, which is highly conserved among mammalian hepadnaviruses, a model has been put forward according to which processing to HBeAg is due to self-cleavage of p21c involving the proteaselike sequence. Using site-directed mutagenesis in conjunction with transient expression of HBV proteins in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, we tested this hypothesis. Our results with HBV mutants in which one or two of the conserved amino acids have been replaced by others suggest strongly that processing to HBeAg does not depend on the presence of an intact proteaselike sequence in the core protein. Attempts to detect an influence of this sequence on the processing of HBV P gene products into enzymatically active viral polymerase also gave no conclusive evidence for the existence of an HBV protease. Mutations replacing the putatively essential aspartic acid showed little effect on polymerase activity. Additional substitution of the likewise conserved threonine residue by alanine, in contrast, almost abolished the activity of the polymerase. We conclude that an HBV protease, if it exists, is functionally different from aspartic acid and retroviral proteases. Images PMID:2657101

  5. Simple mucin-type Tn and sialosyl-Tn carbohydrate antigens in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoplastic transformation is associated frequently with changes in the glycosylation process. Simple mucin-type glycosylation in cancer cells has been found to be characterized by incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation, leading to the exposure of the structures Tn and sialosyl...... adenoma, when the malignant component was an adenocarcinoma. In contrast, acinic cell carcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas expressed only minimal amounts of Tn and sialosyl-Tn, and the staining was seen only in relation to the luminal membrane and mucin of a few glandular structures. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Funções biológicas dos antígenos eritrocitários Biological functions of blood group antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Bonifácio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os antígenos de grupos sanguíneos eritrocitários são estruturas macromoleculares localizadas na superfície extracelular da membrana eritrocitária. Com o desenvolvimento de estudos moleculares, mais de 250 antígenos são conhecidos e estão organizados em 29 sistemas de grupos sanguíneos reconhecidos pela Sociedade Internacional de Transfusão Sanguínea (ISBT. Estudos têm revelado que os antígenos de grupo sanguíneo estão expressos na membrana eritrocitária com ampla diversidade estrutural, incluindo epítopos de carboidratos em glicoproteínas e/ou glicolipídios e em proteínas inseridas na membrana via um domínio, via domínios de multipassagem ou ligados a glicosilfosfatidinositol. Além das diversidades estruturais, muitas funções importantes têm sido associadas aos antígenos eritrocitários recentemente identificadas, podendo ser esquematicamente divididas em: estruturais, transportadores, receptores e moléculas de adesão, enzimas, proteínas controladoras do complemento e outras. Esta revisão tem como foco as funções potenciais das moléculas que expressam os antígenos eritrocitários.Erythrocyte blood group antigens are macromolecules structures located on the extracellular surface of the red blood cell membrane. The development of molecular studies allowed the recognition of more than 250 antigens by the International Society for Blood Transfusion (ISBT. These studies have also shown that blood group antigens are carried on red blood cell membrane of wide structural diversity, including carbohydrate epitopes on glycoproteins and/or glycolipids and on proteins inserted within the membrane via single or multi-pass transmembrane domains, or via glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkages. In addition, to their structural diversity, many important functions associated with blood group antigens have been recently identified and can be didactically divided into: structural proteins, transporters, receptors and adhesion

  7. The porcine circovirus type 1 capsid gene promoter improves antigen expression and immunogenicity in a HIV-1 plasmid vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Marieta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the promising avenues for development of vaccines against Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other human pathogens is the use of plasmid-based DNA vaccines. However, relatively large doses of plasmid must be injected for a relatively weak response. We investigated whether genome elements from Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1, an apathogenic small ssDNA-containing virus, had useful expression-enhancing properties that could allow dose-sparing in a plasmid vaccine. Results The linearised PCV-1 genome inserted 5' of the CMV promoter in the well-characterised HIV-1 plasmid vaccine pTHgrttnC increased expression of the polyantigen up to 2-fold, and elicited 3-fold higher CTL responses in mice at 10-fold lower doses than unmodified pTHgrttnC. The PCV-1 capsid gene promoter (Pcap alone was equally effective. Enhancing activity was traced to a putative composite host transcription factor binding site and a "Conserved Late Element" transcription-enhancing sequence previously unidentified in circoviruses. Conclusions We identified a novel PCV-1 genome-derived enhancer sequence that significantly increased antigen expression from plasmids in in vitro assays, and improved immunogenicity in mice of the HIV-1 subtype C vaccine plasmid, pTHgrttnC. This should allow significant dose sparing of, or increased responses to, this and other plasmid-based vaccines. We also report investigations of the potential of other circovirus-derived sequences to be similarly used.

  8. Application of three type collagen antigens of cysticercus cellulosae in immunodiagnosis%猪囊尾蚴三种类型胶原蛋白抗原在免疫诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向卫; 王凯慧; 张晓丽; 张唯哲; 王光岳

    2001-01-01

    目的检测猪囊尾蚴胶原蛋白的抗原性。方法经不同盐浓度抽提出Ⅰ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ三型胶原蛋白,其中Ⅲ、Ⅴ型是首次从猪囊尾蚴抽提出来的,用间接ELISA法检测其抗原性。结果Ⅰ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ型胶原蛋白测35例脑囊虫病患者IgG抗体的阳性率分别为88.6%(31/35)、82.8%(29/35)、97.1%(34/35),30例正常人均为阴性。结论猪囊尾蚴胶原蛋白具有很强的抗原性,是一组有望成为囊虫病免疫诊断用的新抗原蛋白。%Objective To detect antigenicity of collagen of cysticarcus cellulosae.Methods Three type collagens(Ⅰ,Ⅲ,Ⅴ)were extracted through different concentration of sodium solusion.The Ⅲ,Ⅴ type collagens were extracted from cysticercus for first time.The antigenicity of them was tested by indirect-ELISA.Results The positive rate of IgG in the serum of 35 cysticercosis patients was taken on different results,measured by the three type collagens,which were Ⅰ 88.6%(31/35),Ⅲ 82.8%(29/35),Ⅴ 97.1%(34/35) respectively.In contrast,the control group was negative in all.Conclusion The collagens of cysticercus cellulosae possess the intensive antigenicity,it will be a group of prospective antigens in cysticercosis immunodiagnosis.

  9. Molecular typing of HLA class II antigens in a São Paulo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we show data obtained from a normal population with a racially mixed profile typical of the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo. Data were generated with polymerase chain reaction using sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP for HLA-DRB and polymerase chain reaction followed by hybridization with sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSO for HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 loci. HLA-DRB, DQA1, DQB1 and haplotype frequencies as well as common linkage disequilibria were found. This population was also shown to be in genetic equilibrium according to the Hardy-Weinberg law. HLA-DR typing of a normal sample from the city of Porto Velho, State of Rondonia, highlighted the importance of different sets of HLA profiles found in other regions of the country. This database provides essential information for screening studies of disease associations, forensic analyses and transplants.

  10. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000-2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc] with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000-05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010-14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44-91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and

  11. PROBLEMS OF TEAM FUNCTIONING AS SPECIAL TYPE OF SOCIAL GROUP

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. VASILYEV

    2016-01-01

    In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article...

  12. An improved Hardy type inequality on Heisenberg group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ying-Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivated by the work of Ghoussoub and Moradifam, we prove some improved Hardy inequalities on the Heisenberg group ℍ n via Bessel function. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000: Primary 26D10

  13. Validation of Serological Antibody Profiles Against Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Antigens as Markers for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Piña, Dolores Azucena; Pedroza-Saavedra, Adolfo; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Maldonado-Gama, Minerva; Chihu-Amparan, Lilia; Rodriguez-Ocampo, Angelica Nallelhy; Orozco-Fararoni, Emilia; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent neoplasia among women worldwide. Cancer prevention programs around the world have used the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear as the primary diagnostic test to reduce the burden of CC. Nevertheless, such programs have not been effective in developing countries, thus leading to research on alternative tests for CC screening. During the virus life cycle and in the process toward malignancy, different human papillomavirus (HPV) proteins are expressed, and they induce a host humoral immune response that can be used as a potential marker for different stages of the disease. We present a new Slot blot assay to detect serum antibodies against HPV16 E4, E7, and VLPs-L1 antigens. The system was validated with sera from a female population (n = 485) aged 18 to 64 years referred to the dysplasia clinic at the General Hospital in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. To evaluate the clinical performance of the serological markers, the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values and receiver-operating characteristic curves (for antibodies alone or in combination) were calculated in groups of lesions of increasing severity. The results showed high prevalence of anti-E4 (73%) and anti-E7 (80%) antibodies in the CC group. Seropositivity to 1, 2, or 3 antigens showed associations of increasing magnitude with CC (odds ratio [OR] = 12.6, 19.9, and 58.5, respectively). The highest association with CC was observed when the analysis was restricted to only anti-E4+E7 antibodies (OR = 187.7). The best clinical performance to discriminate CC from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 to 3 was the one for the combination of anti-E4 and/or anti-E7 antibodies, which displayed high sensitivity (93.3%) and moderate specificity (64.1%), followed by anti-E4 and anti-E7 antibodies (73.3% and 80%; 89.6% and 66%, respectively). In addition, the sensitivity of anti-E4 and/or anti-E7 antibodies is high at any time of sexual activity

  14. Validation of Serological Antibody Profiles Against Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Antigens as Markers for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Piña, Dolores Azucena; Pedroza-Saavedra, Adolfo; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Maldonado-Gama, Minerva; Chihu-Amparan, Lilia; Rodriguez-Ocampo, Angelica Nallelhy; Orozco-Fararoni, Emilia; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent neoplasia among women worldwide. Cancer prevention programs around the world have used the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear as the primary diagnostic test to reduce the burden of CC. Nevertheless, such programs have not been effective in developing countries, thus leading to research on alternative tests for CC screening. During the virus life cycle and in the process toward malignancy, different human papillomavirus (HPV) proteins are expressed, and they induce a host humoral immune response that can be used as a potential marker for different stages of the disease. We present a new Slot blot assay to detect serum antibodies against HPV16 E4, E7, and VLPs-L1 antigens. The system was validated with sera from a female population (n = 485) aged 18 to 64 years referred to the dysplasia clinic at the General Hospital in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. To evaluate the clinical performance of the serological markers, the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values and receiver-operating characteristic curves (for antibodies alone or in combination) were calculated in groups of lesions of increasing severity. The results showed high prevalence of anti-E4 (73%) and anti-E7 (80%) antibodies in the CC group. Seropositivity to 1, 2, or 3 antigens showed associations of increasing magnitude with CC (odds ratio [OR] = 12.6, 19.9, and 58.5, respectively). The highest association with CC was observed when the analysis was restricted to only anti-E4+E7 antibodies (OR = 187.7). The best clinical performance to discriminate CC from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 to 3 was the one for the combination of anti-E4 and/or anti-E7 antibodies, which displayed high sensitivity (93.3%) and moderate specificity (64.1%), followed by anti-E4 and anti-E7 antibodies (73.3% and 80%; 89.6% and 66%, respectively). In addition, the sensitivity of anti-E4 and/or anti-E7 antibodies is high at any time of sexual activity (TSA

  15. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor); (LBNL)

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for the determination of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 mRNA in primary tumor tissue of breast cancer patients: comparison to antigen quantification by ELISA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, J.C.; Holzscheiter, L.; Kotzsch, M.; Luther, T.; Kiechle-Bahat, M.; Sweep, F.C.; Span, P.N.; Schmitt, M.; Magdolen, V.

    2008-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) play a key role in tumor-associated processes such as the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, tissue remodeling, cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. High antigen levels of uPA an

  17. A region of the N-terminal domain of meningococcal factor H-binding protein that elicits bactericidal antibody across antigenic variant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Peter T; LoPasso, Carla; Angiolillo, Antonella; Felici, Franco; Granoff, Dan

    2009-05-01

    Meningococcal factor H-binding protein (fHbp) is a promising vaccine antigen. Previous studies described three fHbp antigenic variant groups and identified amino acid residues between 100 and 255 as important targets of variant-specific bactericidal antibodies. We investigated residues affecting expression of an epitope recognized by a murine IgG2a anti-fHbp mAb, designated JAR 4, which cross-reacted with fHbps in variant group 1 or 2 (95% of strains), and elicited human complement-mediated, cooperative bactericidal activity with other non-bactericidal anti-fHbp mAbs with epitopes involving residues between 121 and 216. From filamentous bacteriophage libraries containing random peptides that were recognized by JAR 4, we identified a consensus tripeptide, DHK that matched residues 25-27 in the N-terminal domain of fHbp. Since DHK was present in both JAR 4-reactive and non-reactive fHbps, the tripeptide was necessary but not sufficient for reactivity. Based on site-directed mutagenesis studies, the JAR 4 epitope could either be knocked out of a reactive variant 1 fHbp, or introduced into a non-reactive variant 3 protein. Collectively, the data indicated that the JAR 4 epitope was discontinuous and involved DHK residues beginning at position 25; YGN residues beginning at position 57; and a KDN tripeptide that was present in variant 3 proteins beginning at position 67 that negatively affected expression of the epitope. Thus, the region of fHbp encompassing residues 25-59 in the N-terminal domain is important for eliciting antibodies that can cooperate with other anti-fHbp antibodies for cross-reactive bactericidal activity against strains expressing fHbp from different antigenic variant groups.

  18. Molecular anatomy and number of antigen specific CD8 T cells required to cause type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B A Oldstone

    Full Text Available We quantified CD8 T cells needed to cause type 1 diabetes and studied the anatomy of the CD8 T cell/beta (β cell interaction at the immunologic synapse. We used a transgenic model, in situ tetramer staining to distinguish antigen specific CD8 T cells from total T cells infiltrating islets and a variety of viral mutants selected for functional deletion(s of various CD8 T cell epitopes. Twenty percent of CD8 T cells in the spleen were specific for all immunodominant and subdominant viral glycoprotein (GP epitopes. CTLs to the immunodominant LCMV GP33-41 epitope accounted for 63% of the total (12.5% of tetramers. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated only 1 to 2% of total infiltrating CD8 T cells were specific for GP33 CD8 T cell epitope, yet diabetes occurred in 94% of mice. The immunologic synapse between GP33 CD8 CTL and β cell contained LFA-1 and perforin. Silencing both immunodominant epitopes (GP33, GP276-286 in the infecting virus led to a four-fold reduction in viral specific CD8 CTL responses, negligible lymphocyte infiltration into islets and absence of diabetes.

  19. Virus-Like Particles of Chimeric Recombinant Porcine Circovirus Type 2 as Antigen Vehicle Carrying Foreign Epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs of chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 were generated by replacing the nuclear localization signal (NLS; at 1–39 aa of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap with classical swine fever virus (CSFV T-cell epitope (1446–1460 aa, CSFV B-cell epitope (693–716 aa and CSFV T-cell epitope conjugated with B-cell epitope. The recombinant proteins were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and detected by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The abilities to form PCV2 VLPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogenicities of the three recombinant proteins were evaluated in mice. Our Results indicated that Cap protein NLS deletion or substitution with CSFV epitopes did not affect the VLPs assembly. Three chimeric Cap proteins could form VLPs and induce efficient humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 and CSFV in mice. Results show that PCV2 VLPs can be used as an efficient antigen carrier for delivery of foreign epitopes, and a potential novel vaccine.

  20. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing.

  1. Weyl Type Non-Associative Algebras Using Additive Groups I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seul Hee Choi; Ki-Bong Nam

    2007-01-01

    A Weyl type algebra is defined in the book [4].A Weyl type non-associative algebra WPm,n,8 and its restricted subalgebra WPm,n,sr are defined in various papers (see [1,3,11,12]).Several authors find all the derivations of an associative (a Lie,anon-associative) algebra (see [1,2,4,6,11,12]).We define the non-associative simplealgebra WPA.ngn,A.m,A.s B and the semi-Lie algebra WP A.ngn,A.m,A.sB[,],where B={1,(6)1,(6)2,(6)12,(6)1/2,(6)2/2}.We prove that the algebra is simple and find all its non-associative algebra derivations.

  2. Homing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs in head kidney and spleen – salmon head kidney hosts diverse APC types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Borisov Iliev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes and spleen are major organs where mammalian APCs initiate and orchestrate Ag-specific immune responses. Unlike mammals, teleosts lack lymph nodes and an interesting question is whether alternative organs may serve as sites for antigen presentation in teleosts. In the current study, fluorescent ovalbumin (Ova and CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs injected intra-abdominally were detected in significant numbers of salmon head kidney (HK MHCII+ cells over a period of 2 weeks while in spleen the percentage of these was transient and declined from day 1 post injection. In vitro studies further shed light on the properties of the diverse MHCII+ cell types found in HK. The ultrastructure of a subpopulation of MHCII+ cells with a high capacity to endocytose and process Ova indicated that these were able to perform constitutive macropinocytosis. Upon stimulation with CpG ODNs these cells upregulated CD86 and gave very high levels of TNF mRNA indicating that these are professional APCs, related to macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. A subpopulation of HK granulocytes expressed high levels of surface MHCII and upon CpG stimulation upregulated most of the tested APC marker genes. Although these granulocytes expressed TNF weakly, they had relatively high basal levels of IL-1β mRNA and the CpG stimulation upregulated IL-1β, along with its signaling and decoy receptors, to the highest levels as compared to other HK cell types. Interestingly, the high expression of IL-1β mRNA in the granulocytes correlated with a high autophagy flux as demonstrated by LC3-II conversion. Autophagy has recently been found to be implicated in IL-1β processing and secretion and the presented data suggests that granulocytes of salmon, and perhaps other teleost species, may serve as a valuable model to study the involvement of autophagy in regulation of the vertebrate immune response.

  3. CisAB01血型分子机制及红细胞表面抗原表达的研究%Study of molecular mechanism and antigen expression of CisAB01 blood group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓刚; 许德义; 梁伟; 贺云蕾; 黄丹丹; 郭雯玉; 张日

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the molecular mechanism of CisAB01 subtype in the ABO blood group system,and to investigate the expression of A and B antigens in red blood cells (RBCs).Methods For 5 unrelated individuals with the CisAB phenotype,the molecular basis for the blood type was studied with serological assay,DNA sequencing and haplotype analysis.Bioinformatics analysis was carried out to investigate the changes in structure and function of relevant enzymes.Expression of A and B antigens in RBCs of CisAB01 was detected by flow cytometry.Results All of the 5 samples were found to have a CisAB01 subtype.The underlying mutations,467C>T and 803G>C in exon 7,have resulted in replacement of amino acid P156L and G268A.The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of A antigen in CisAB01 cases was 135,while the control group was 172.The B antigens in CisAB01 cases (MFI =38) showed significant decrease in MFI compared with the control group (MFI=164).Conclusion 803G>C mutation of the ABO gene probably underlies the CisAB01 subtype.Fluorescence intensity of A antigens in CisAB01 subtype cases is slightly lower than the normal type,while the B antigen was significantly lower.%目的 研究ABO血型系统CisAB01亚型的分子机制,并探讨该亚型红细胞表面A和B抗原的表达情况.方法 对5例ABO血型正反定型不符的无偿献血者或患者,通过血清学技术、ABO基因直接测序及TA克隆单体型分析对该血型进行相关研究.应用相关生物学软件对突变位点引起的酶结构和功能变化进行分析,并采用流式细胞术分析红细胞表面A和B抗原的表达情况,同时取正常AB型血的献血者80名作为对照.结果 发现5例CisAB01亚型,该亚型ABO基因第7外显子467C>T、803G>C突变,分别引起多肽链P156L和G268A替换.5例标本红细胞表面A抗原平均荧光强度(mean fluorescenceintensity,MFI)为135,对照组A抗原MFI则为172;5例标本红细胞表面B抗原MFI为38,对照组B抗原MFI则为164.

  4. Human Platelet Antigen Genotyping and Expression of CD109 (Human Platelet Antigen 15 mRNA in Various Human Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mee Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CD109 gene encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein found in a subset of platelets and endothelial cell, and human platelet antigen (HPA 15 is found on CD109. We evaluated the HPA genotype and/or the CD109 mRNA expression on two peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, two peripheral bloods (PB, 12 granulocyte products, natural killer (NK-92, B-lymphocyte (CO88BV59-1, K-562 leukemia cell line, human embryonic stem cell (hESC, and human fibroblasts (HF. HPA genotyping was performed by SNaPshot assay and CD109 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR with SYBR green and melting curve analysis. Genotype HPA-15a/-15a was found in PBSC#1 and two granulocyte products, and HPA-15a/-15b was found in PBSC#2, eight granulocyte products, NK-92, K-562, hESC, and HF, and HPA-15b/-15b was found in two granulocyte products. CD109 mRNA expression was highly increased in HF and increased in CD34+ and CD34− PBSCs and some granulocyte products, compared to the PB. However, the increase of expression level varied among the PBSC and granulocyte products. The CD109 mRNA expression of NK-92, K-562, hESC, and CO 88BV59-1 was not detected. HPA genotype was evaluated in various cells and the expression of CD109, which contains HPA 15, was different among cell lines and high in HF and PBSCs.

  5. Protection of mice against Japanese encephalitis virus group II strain infections by combinations of monoclonal antibodies to different antigenic domains on glycoprotein E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of at least three hemagglutination- inhibition-positive (HAI and virus-specific (Hs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to glycoprotein E (gpE of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV fully protected (100% mice against JEV strain 733913 infections (group 1. However, these representative epitopes are reported to have been lost on JEV group II strains. In the present study, therefore, the protective effect of various combinations of anti-gpE MAbs representing antigenic epitopes other than Hs was studied on mice infections with JEV group II strains: JEV strains 641686 and 691004. MAbs used in the protective experiments were characterized as HAI-negative virus-specific (NHs and HAI-positive flavivirus cross-reactive (Hx. Additionally, one of the Hs MAbs (MAb Hs-3 was included in the experiments. Mice were first administered single MAbs or their combinations intraperitoneally and 24 h later, infected with the virus intracerebrally. Protection rates of 70-75% were obtained with a combination of four MAbs: MAbs NHs-1, Hx-1, Hx-3 and Hs-3. However, protection rates of only 20-40% were obtained with three MAbs but none was observed with single or two MAbs. There was, however, a substantial increase in mice survival. The protective effect of several combinations of anti-gpE MAbs representing different antigenic epitopes might be due to the enhancement of binding within the same group and also between different MAb groups. The present results indicate that NHs and Hx epitopes should be incorporated with three Hs epitopes in a JEV vaccine that would have an added advantage, particularly in the flaviviral endemic areas with JEV strain variations.

  6. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Rodrigo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. Methods We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. Results HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031. HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 – 294.670. DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027–0.223, p = 0.00001. Conclusion Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the

  7. The 15 SCR flexible extracellular domains of human complement receptor type 2 can mediate multiple ligand and antigen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hannah E; Asokan, Rengasamy; Holers, V Michael; Perkins, Stephen J

    2006-10-01

    Complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) is a cell surface protein that links the innate and adaptive immune response during the activation of B cells. The extracellular portion of CR2 comprises 15 or 16 short complement regulator (SCR) domains, for which the overall arrangement in solution is unknown. This was determined by constrained scattering and ultracentrifugation modelling. The radius of gyration of CR2 SCR 1-15 was determined to be 11.5 nm by both X-ray and neutron scattering, and that of its cross-section was 1.8 nm. The distance distribution function P(r) showed that the overall length of CR2 SCR 1-15 was 38 nm. Sedimentation equilibrium curve fits gave a mean molecular weight of 135,000 (+/- 13,000) Da, in agreement with a fully glycosylated structure. Velocity experiments using the g*(s) derivative method gave a sedimentation coefficient of 4.2 (+/- 0.1) S. In order to construct a model of CR2 SCR 1-15 for constrained fitting, homology models for the 15 SCR domains were combined with randomised linker peptides generated by molecular dynamics simulations. Using an automated procedure, the analysis of 15,000 possible CR2 SCR 1-15 models showed that only those models in which the 15 SCR domains were flexible but partially folded back accounted for the scattering and sedimentation data. The best-fit CR2 models provided a visual explanation for the versatile interaction of CR2 with four ligands C3d, CD23, gp350 and IFN-alpha. The flexible location of CR2 SCR 1-2 is likely to facilitate interactions of C3d-antigen complexes with the B cell receptor.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen binding to classical and El Tor cholera toxin B-pentamers by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Francesca; Reina, José J; Potenza, Donatella; Heggelund, Julie E; Mackenzie, Alasdair; Krengel, Ute; Bernardi, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease responsible for the deaths of thousands, possibly even hundreds of thousands of people every year, and its impact is predicted to further increase with climate change. It has been known for decades that blood group O individuals suffer more severe symptoms of cholera compared with individuals with other blood groups (A, B and AB). The observed blood group dependence is likely to be caused by the major virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, the cholera toxin (CT). Here, we investigate the binding of ABH blood group determinants to both classical and El Tor CTB-pentamers using saturation transfer difference NMR and show that all three blood group determinants bind to both toxin variants. Although the details of the interactions differ, we see no large differences between the two toxin genotypes and observe very similar binding constants. We also show that the blood group determinants bind to a site distinct from that of the primary receptor, GM1. Transferred NOESY data confirm that the conformations of the blood group determinants in complex with both toxin variants are similar to those of reported X-ray and solution structures. Taken together, this detailed analysis provides a framework for the interpretation of the epidemiological data linking the severity of cholera infection and an individual's blood group, and brings us one step closer to understanding the molecular basis of cholera blood group dependence.

  9. Distribution of phylogenetic groups, sequence type ST131, and virulence-associated traits among Escherichia coli isolates from men with pyelonephritis or cystitis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinha, T; Johnson, J R; Andrew, S D; Kong, F; Anderson, P; Gilbert, G L

    2013-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI), which are mostly caused by Escherichia coli, are an important public health problem worldwide. Although men experience diverse UTI syndromes, there have been relatively few molecular-epidemiological studies of UTI pathogenesis in men. We studied the distribution of 22 E. coli virulence factor (VF) genes, major phylogenetic groups, sequence type ST131, and UTI-associated O antigens among 101 pyelonephritis, 153 cystitis and 135 fecal healthy control E. coli isolates from men aged 30-70 years in a regional area of NSW, Australia. Overall, the studied traits exhibited a prevalence gradient across these groups, highest in pyelonephritis, intermediate in cystitis, and lowest among fecal isolates. Differences in virulence gene prevalence between cystitis and pyelonephritis isolates were limited to eight genes. The UTI-associated O antigens were also distributed widely, but types O6, O25 and O75 were significantly associated with pyelonephritis. The ST131 clonal group, which accounted for 13% of isolates overall (22% of group B2 isolates), likewise exhibited a significant descending prevalence gradient from pyelonephritis (36%), through cystitis (8%), to fecal (0%) isolates. These findings contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of UTIs in men and identify specific VF genes and O types, and a prominent clonal group (ST131), as being important in UTI pathogenesis in this population. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  10. No evidence for a direct effect of von Willebrand factor's ABH blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated. OBJEC

  11. Crystallography of a Lewis-binding norovirus, elucidation of strain-specificity to the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs as host susceptible factors in a strain-specific manner. The crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of two A/B/H-binding noroviruses, the prototype Norwalk virus (GI.1 and a predominant GII.4 strain (VA387, have been elucidated. In this study we determined the crystal structures of the P domain protein of the first Lewis-binding norovirus (VA207, GII.9 that has a distinct binding property from those of Norwalk virus and VA387. Co-crystallization of the VA207 P dimer with Le(y or sialyl Le(x tetrasaccharides showed that VA207 interacts with these antigens through a common site found on the VA387 P protein which is highly conserved among most GII noroviruses. However, the HBGA-binding site of VA207 targeted at the Lewis antigens through the α-1, 3 fucose (the Lewis epitope as major and the β-N-acetyl glucosamine of the precursor as minor interacting sites. This completely differs from the binding mode of VA387 and Norwalk virus that target at the secretor epitopes. Binding pocket of VA207 is formed by seven amino acids, of which five residues build up the core structure that is essential for the basic binding function, while the other two are involved in strain-specificity. Our results elucidate for the first time the genetic and structural basis of strain-specificity by a direct comparison of two genetically related noroviruses in their interaction with different HBGAs. The results provide insight into the complex interaction between the diverse noroviruses and the polymorphic HBGAs and highlight the role of human HBGA as a critical factor in norovirus evolution.

  12. Effect of Different Types of Small-Group Activities on Students' Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Krista K.; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Teaching reform efforts in chemistry education often involve engaging students in small-group activities of different types. This study focused on the analysis of how activity type affected the nature of group conversations. In particular, we analyzed the small-group conversations of students enrolled in a chemistry course for nonscience majors.…

  13. The role of flow cytometry in celiac disease screening using human leukocyte antigen in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Miren Vicuña; Urmeneta, Jose Manuel Zozaya; Brito, Helena León; De Esteban, Juan Pablo Martínez; Martínez, Carlos Prieto; Llenas, Lluis Forga; Urtasun, Erkuden Aranburu; Pericas, Francisco Sala; Musgo, Ramón Angós; Gutierrez, Maria Rosario Mercado; Sarrasqueta, Mercedes Palacios

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) have an increased risk of celiac disease (CD). Since CD can be seronegative, more sensible tests for detection are needed. In seronegative patients, CD diagnosis may be difficult because of a lack of specificity. Flow cytometry analysis of lymphocyte populations can be useful in this situation. We aimed to study the prevalence of CD in adult DM1 using human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility-based screening. A secondary goal was to study the role of flow cytometry as a complementary tool in these patients. Methods We selected 200 patients with DM1, of whom 190 (95%) had HLA DQ2, DQ8 or both. Of these, 136 agreed to participate and provided epidemiological data. All patients underwent blood tests and gastroscopy. Results Sixteen patients had a histology consistent with CD. After ruling out other diagnoses, 6 patients were diagnosed with CD, 2 of whom had negative antibodies. All were DQ2.5 homozygous, with a CD prevalence of 9.8% in this group. In the flow cytometry analysis of duodenal biopsy samples, when we compared all non-CD with CD patients, we found that the γ/δ intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) percentage was significantly higher and the CD3 negative IEL percentage significantly lower in the CD group. We found similar results when we compared only those with histological lesions. Conclusions Screening of CD in patients with DM1 by HLA detects only 1% of seronegative patients with CD. DQ2.5 homozygous patients are at most risk of developing CD. The study of lymphocyte populations in the duodenal biopsy by flow cytometry discriminates patients with CD from those without CD with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:28243038

  14. Creatinine clearance, urinary excretion of glomerular basement membrane antigens and renal histology in congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, N P

    1977-04-01

    The endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary excretion rate of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens were followed from 2 to 19 months in fifteen patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNF). The quantitative examination of renal morphology was made on fourteen of these patients. Creatinine clearance increased during the first few months of life and thereafter gradually decreased. The urinary excretion rate of GBM antigens rose during the course of the disease. The creatinine clearance did not correlate significantly with glomerular fibrosis but it did correlate with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The urinary excretion of GBM antigens correlated significantly with glomerular and interstitial fibrosis and with tubular atrophy. It is concluded that there is a clear progress in the disease and the renal histological changes probably are caused by accumulation of GBM material in glomeruli.

  15. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1 Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Montero-Barrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1 recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1−/− mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1−/− macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1−/− mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1−/− mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1−/− macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  16. The macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL1) recognizes Taenia crassiceps antigens, triggers intracellular signaling, and is critical for resistance to this infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1(-/-) mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1(-/-) macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1(-/-) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1(-/-) mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1(-/-) macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  17. Diversification strategies in family and non-family groups: main differences according non-family group type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández Trasobares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the interest for the study of ownership structure as a determinant of diversification arises. However, there is a lack of researches that analyze the influence of the nature of the ultimate owner in the level and type of diversification. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the diversification strategies used by the main Spanish business groups whose parent company is listed on the stock markets, and to study the differences between family and non-family business groups, considering in these last, the type of ultimate owner. In the study a sample of ninety-nine listed companies is used, where companies that constitute the business group are identified. In the paper are used as econometric methodologies the binomial logistic models and panel data models. The results show that family nature of business group positively influences in specialization and related diversification and negatively on unrelated diversification. Family groups differ most form those non-family groups where there is not a reference shareholder than can exercise effective control and ownership dispersion is higher, the groups referred as “non effective control”. The research allows further analysis of differences between family and non-family groups, considering the nature of the ultimate owner for non-family groups.

  18. Automorphism groups of causal symmetric spaces of Cayley type and bounded symmetric domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soji; Kaneyuki

    2005-01-01

    Symmetric spaces of Cayley type are a higher dimensional analogue of a onesheeted hyperboloid in R3. They form an important class of causal symmetric spaces. To a symmetric space of Cayley type M, one can associate a bounded symmetric domain of tube type D. We determine the full causal automorphism group of M. This clarifies the relation between the causal automorphism group and the holomorphic automorphism group of D.

  19. A group-specific inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteinases selectively inhibits both proteolytic degradation and presentation of the antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine by guinea pig accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    of antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. The proteinase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanylalanine-diazomethyl-ketone, which selectively inhibits cysteine proteinases, was used to block this set of enzymes in cultured cells. We demonstrate that the selective inhibition of the cysteine proteinases...... inhibitor. Another inhibitor, pepstatin A, which selectively blocks aspartic proteinases, did not block the presentation of dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. The results identify cysteine proteinases, probably lysosomal, as one of the groups of enzymes involved in antigen processing....

  20. High levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA antigen precede the development of type 2 diabetes in a longitudinal population study. The Northern Sweden MONICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jan-Håkan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired fibrinolysis is found in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, associated with components of the metabolic syndrome. There are no data concerning fibrinolysis in subjects with normal glucose tolerance that convert to diabetes. Methods We studied the activities of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and the levels of tPA antigen (a marker of endothelial dysfunction in 551 subjects with normal glucose tolerance in 1990 in relation to incident diabetes during nine years of follow-up. Results Subjects with diabetes at follow-up (n = 15 had significantly lower baseline tPA activity and higher PAI-1 activity and tPA antigen than non-converters. The risk of diabetes increased linearly across quartiles of PAI-activity (p = 0.007 and tPA antigen (p p = 0.026. The risk of diabetes with low tPA activity or high PAI-1 activity persisted after adjustment for age and sex but diminished to a non-significant level after further adjustments. The odds ratio of diabetes for high tPA antigen was 10.4 (95% confidence interval 2.7–40 adjusted for age and sex. After further adjustment for diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, insulin, triglycerides, fasting and post load glucose the odds ratio was 6.5 (1.3–33, p = 0.024. Conclusions Impaired fibrinolysis and endothelial dysfunction are evident in subjects with normal glucose tolerance who later develop diabetes. High tPA antigen is predictive of future diabetes independent from the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Human leucocyte antigens class II allele and haplotype association with Type 1 Diabetes in Madeira Island (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, H; Lemos, A; Couto, A R; Parreira, B; Soares, M; Dutra, I; Bruges-Armas, J; Brehm, A; Abreu, S

    2017-08-20

    This study confirms for Madeira Island (Portugal) population the Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) susceptible and protective Human leucocyte antigens (HLA) markers previously reported in other populations and adds some local specificities. Among the strongest T1D HLA associations, stands out, as susceptible, the alleles DRB1*04:05 (OR = 7.3), DQB1*03:02 (OR = 6.1) and DQA1*03:03 (OR = 4.5), as well as the haplotypes DRB1*04:05-DQA1*03:03-DQB1*03:02 (OR = 100.9) and DRB1*04:04-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 (OR = 22.1), and DQB1*06:02 (OR = 0.07) and DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 (OR = 0.04) as protective. HLA-DQA1 positive for Arginine at position 52 (Arg52) (OR = 15.2) and HLA-DQB1 negative for Aspartic acid at the position 57 (Asp57) (OR = 9.0) alleles appear to be important genetic markers for T1D susceptibility, with higher odds ratio values than any single allele and than most of the haplotypes. Genotypes generated by the association of markers Arg52 DQA1 positive and Asp57 DQB1 negative increase T1D susceptibility much more than one would expected by a simple additive effect of those markers separately (OR = 26.9). This study also confirms an increased risk for DRB1*04/DRB1*03 heterozygote genotypes (OR = 16.8) and also a DRB1*04-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 haplotype susceptibility dependent on the DRB1*04 allele (DRB1*04:01, OR = 7.9; DRB1*04:02, OR = 3.2; DRB1*04:04, OR = 22.1). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Meningococcal Antigen Typing System Development and Application to the Evaluation of Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine and Possible Use for Other Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Domnich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the 4-component meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB has required new assays for the reliable evaluation of the expression and cross-reactivity of those specific antigen variants that are predicted to be targeted by bactericidal antibodies elicited by the vaccine in different isolates. Existing laboratory techniques, such as multilocus sequence typing, are poorly suited to this purpose, since they do not provide information on the contribution of single vaccine components and therefore cannot be applied to estimate the potential coverage of the multicomponent vaccine. The hSBA, the only correlate of protection against invasive meningococcal disease accepted thus far, cannot conveniently be used to test large number of strains. To overcome these issues, the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS has been specifically developed in order to predict 4CMenB coverage of individual meningococcus serogroup B strains. To date, MATS has proved advantageous for several reasons, including its ability to assess both qualitative and quantitative aspects of surface antigens of single strains in a highly reproducible, rapid, and resource-saving manner, while its shortcomings include a possible underestimation of 4CMenB coverage and the use of pooled sera to calculate the positive bactericidal threshold. This paper provides an overview of MATS development and its field application.

  3. Meningococcal Antigen Typing System Development and Application to the Evaluation of Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine and Possible Use for Other Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnich, Alexander; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Boccadifuoco, Giuseppe; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Panatto, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Development of the 4-component meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) has required new assays for the reliable evaluation of the expression and cross-reactivity of those specific antigen variants that are predicted to be targeted by bactericidal antibodies elicited by the vaccine in different isolates. Existing laboratory techniques, such as multilocus sequence typing, are poorly suited to this purpose, since they do not provide information on the contribution of single vaccine components and therefore cannot be applied to estimate the potential coverage of the multicomponent vaccine. The hSBA, the only correlate of protection against invasive meningococcal disease accepted thus far, cannot conveniently be used to test large number of strains. To overcome these issues, the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) has been specifically developed in order to predict 4CMenB coverage of individual meningococcus serogroup B strains. To date, MATS has proved advantageous for several reasons, including its ability to assess both qualitative and quantitative aspects of surface antigens of single strains in a highly reproducible, rapid, and resource-saving manner, while its shortcomings include a possible underestimation of 4CMenB coverage and the use of pooled sera to calculate the positive bactericidal threshold. This paper provides an overview of MATS development and its field application.

  4. Immune Response in Calves Vaccinated with Type Three Secretion System Antigens and Shiga Toxin 2B Subunit of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorelli, Luisina; Garbaccio, Sergio; Vilte, Daniel A.; Albanese, Adriana A.; Mejías, María P.; Palermo, Marina S.; Mercado, Elsa C.; Ibarra, Cristina E.; Cataldi, Angel A.

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants are the primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic properties of a candidate vaccine consisting on the recombinant proteins of E. coli O157:H7 IntiminC280, the carboxy-terminal fraction of Intimin γ, EspB and the fusion protein between the B subunit of Stx2 and Brucella Lumazine Synthase (BLS)(BLS-Stx2B), in Holstein Fresian calves.To accomplish this goal we vaccinated calves with two doses of different vaccine formulations: 2 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB), 3 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, BLS-Stx2B), BLS-Stx2B alone and a control non-vaccinated group. All antigens were expressed as recombinant proteins in E. coli. Specific IgG titres increased in vaccinated calves and the inclusion of BLS-Stx2B in the formulation seems to have a stimulatory effect on the humoral response to IntiminC280 and EspB after the booster. The neutralizing activity of antibodies against these two antigens was assessed in Red Blood Cell lysis assays and adherence to Hep-2 cells as a correlate of T3SS activity. Both sera from animals vaccinated with 2 or 3 antigens inhibited both virulence properties. Serological response to Stx2 was observed in animals vaccinated only with BLS-Stx2B and with 3 antigens and neutralization of Stx2 cytotoxicity was also observed in both groups. In conclusion, immunization of calves with BLS-Stx2B, IntiminC280 and EspB elicited a potent humoral response able to neutralize Shiga toxin 2 cytotoxity and the T3SS virulence properties in vitro. These results suggest that this formulation is a good candidate vaccine to reduce STEC shedding in cattle and needs to be further assessed in vivo. PMID:28046078

  5. Effect of polymorphism in insulin locus and HLA on type 1 diabetes in four ethnic groups in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, G; Brautbar, C; Vardi, P; Sharon, N; Weintrob, N; Zung, A; Israel, S

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a possible association of the insulin (INS) gene with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in patients and controls from four ethnic groups in Israel. We analyzed the distribution of -23HphI single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T/A alleles that correspond to INS variable number of tandem repeat short class I alleles (26-63 repeats) and class III alleles (141-209 repeats), respectively. The -23HphI T/T genotype was found to be positively associated with T1D in three Jewish groups (Yemenites: 93.9% patients vs 68.8% controls, P = 0.0002; Ashkenazi: 80.6% vs 50.8%, P INS gene in Israeli Arabs studied (70.6% vs 66.7%). Variable incidence of T1D among different ethnicities in Israel is largely attributed to heterogeneous genetics. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) results of our previous studies describing the susceptibility and protective haplotypes were used for combined analysis to determine possible interaction between the HLA and INS loci. Only in the Ashkenazi group such interaction was presented with statistical significance.

  6. 42 CFR 493.859 - Standard; ABO group and D (Rho) typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; ABO group and D (Rho) typing. 493.859 Section 493.859 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.859 Standard; ABO group and D (Rho) typing. (a) Failure...

  7. PENENTUAN Streptococcus Group A PENYEBAB FARINGITIS PADA ANAK MENGGUNAKAN McIsaac SCORE DAN RAPID ANTIGEN DETECTION TEST (RADT DALAM UPAYA PENGGUNAAN ANTIBIOTIKA SECARA BIJAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Agustia Sinta Dewi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharyngitis can be caused by viruses and bacteria. The bacteria that most commonly causes pharyngitis is Streptococcus Group A. In the treatment of pharyngitis, it is very important to ensure the cause for determining the appropriate treatments, therefore unnecessary use of antibiotics can be avoided. Antibiotics should be prescribed in patients with pharyngitis caused by bacteria. Diagnostic test that can be applied to determine the causes of pharyngitis are McIsaac score and Rapid Antigen Detection Test (RADT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Streptococcus Group A as the cause of pharyngitis applying McIsaac scores and the RADT. This study was cross-sectional. Patients with the inclusion and exclusion criteria were given an initial assessment using the McIsaac score, subsequently tested with the RADT. The results gained from the McIsaac scores and subsequent RADT were compared.  It was found that as many as 124 patients suspected of having bacterial pharyngitis. Forty two of them were scored 3; 55 patients scored 4, and  27 patients scored 5. All patients tested with the RADT, only 18 patients gave positive results. Out of those 18 patients positively tested, 6 patients scored 3; 8 patients scored 4, and 4 patients scored 5. In was concluded that the use of RADT was better than McIsaac scores in determining pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus Group A.

  8. On the Affine Weyl group of type A˜n−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Albar

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available We study in this paper the affine Weyl group of type A˜n−1, [1]. Coxeter [1] showed that this group is infinite. We see in Bourbaki [2] that A˜n−1 is a split extension of Sn, the symmetric group of degree n, by a group of translations and of lattice of weights. A˜n−1 is one of the crystallographic Coxeter groups considered by Maxwell [3], [4].

  9. Lesions and distribution of viral antigen following an experimental infection of young seronegative calves with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus-type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M

    1998-07-01

    During the past several years, acute infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have been causally linked to hemorrhagic and acute mucosal disease-like syndromes with high mortality. The majority of BVDVs isolated in such cases have been classified as type II on the basis of genetic and antigenic characteristics. It was our objective to examine clinical disease, lesions and potential sites of viral replication, following experimental BVDV type II infection in young calves. On approximately day 35 after birth, calves that had received BVDV-antibody-negative colostrum were infected by intranasal inoculation of 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of BVDV type II isolate 24,515 in 5 mL of tissue culture fluid (2.5 mL/nostril). Calves were monitored twice daily for signs of clinical disease. Approximately 48-72 h after infection, all calves developed transient pyrexia (39.4-40.5 degrees C) and leukopenia. Beginning on approximately day 7 after infection, all calves developed watery diarrhea, pyrexia (40.5-41.6 degrees C), marked leukopenia (> or = 75% drop from preinoculation values), variable thrombocytopenia, and moderate to severe depression. Calves were euthanized on days 10, 11, or 12 after infection due to severe disease. Gross and histological lesions consisted of multifocal bronchointerstitial pneumonia (involving 10%-25% of affected lungs), bone marrow hypoplasia and necrosis, and minimal erosive lesions in the alimentary tract. Immunohistochemical staining for BVDV revealed widespread viral antigen usually within epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes in multiple organs, including lung, Peyer's patches, gastric mucosa, thymus, adrenal gland, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin. This BVDV type II isolate caused rapidly progressive, severe multisystemic disease in seronegative calves that was associated with widespread distribution of viral antigen and few gross or histological inflammatory lesions.

  10. Heterozygous Mutation in IκBNS Leads to Reduced Levels of Natural IgM Antibodies and Impaired Responses to T-Independent Type 2 Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gabriel K; Ádori, Monika; Stark, Julian M; Khoenkhoen, Sharesta; Arnold, Carrie; Beutler, Bruce; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in central components of classical NF-κB signaling have low levels of circulating natural IgM antibodies and fail to respond to immunization with T-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens. A plausible explanation for these defects is the severely reduced numbers of B-1 and marginal zone B (MZB) cells in such mice. By using an ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen, we identified a role for the atypical IκB protein IκBNS in humoral immunity. IκBNS-deficient mice lack B-1 cells and have severely reduced numbers of MZB cells, and thus resemble several other strains with defects in classical NF-κB signaling. We analyzed mice heterozygous for the identified IκBNS mutation and demonstrate that these mice have an intermediary phenotype in terms of levels of circulating IgM antibodies and responses to TI-2 antigens. However, in contrast to mice that are homozygous for the IκBNS mutation, the heterozygous mice had normal frequencies of B-1 and MZB cells. These results suggest that there is a requirement for IκBNS expression from two functional alleles for maintaining normal levels of circulating natural IgM antibodies and responses to TI-2 antigens.

  11. Effects of a group rational-emotive behavior therapy program on the Type A behavior pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; Botha, H C

    1996-06-01

    A sample of 44 male Type A insurance representatives, selected by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 22) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 22). The treatment group participated in 9 weekly sessions of group Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and were followed up after 10 weeks. After the control period, the delayed treatment control group received the same treatment program. Repeated measurements were obtained by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, Jenkins Activity Survey, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and Type A Cognitive Questionnaire. Self and spouse/friend ratings of Type A behavior were obtained by means of the Bortner Rating Scale. Analysis indicated that, compared to the control condition, the therapy significantly reduced the intensity of Type A behavior and its time urgency component. These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs.

  12. Clinical significance of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and its relationship with blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武秀玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) .Methods Totally 784 T2DM patients and 197 healthy controls were enrolled in this study.Age,duration,body mass index (BMI) ,systolic blood pressure (SBP) ,diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ,levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) ,postprandial blood glucose (PBG) ,hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglyceride (TG) ,

  13. The Loss of Macrophages from Peritoneal Exudates following the Injection of Antigens into Guinea-Pigs with Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. S.; Boyden, S. V.

    1963-01-01

    Exudates were induced in the peritoneal cavities of guinea-pigs by the injection of glycogen. The cell content of these exudates was examined after 4 days in normal and hypersensitive animals. In animals uninjected with antigens, the exudates contained a high proportion of macrophages, together with lymphocytes and polymorphs. In BCG-vaccinated animals, with delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin, subcutaneous, intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of tuberculin resulted in a profound fall in the macrophage content of the exudates. This effect was apparent within an hour of intraperitoneal injection and occurred with very small doses of tuberculin. No such effect occurred after the intraperitoneal injection of tuberculin into guinea-pigs with Arthus hypersensitivity to tuberculin. Ovalbumin injected intraperitoneally into guinea-pigs with mixed delayed-type and Arthus hypersensitivity to ovalbumin also resulted in a marked fall in the macrophage content of peritoneal exudates, but had no effect on the peritoneal macrophages of animals with pure Arthus hypersensitivity. Bacterial endotoxin injected intraperitoneally caused a similar fall in the macrophage content of exudates of both normal and BCG-vaccinated animals. It is concluded that this loss of macrophages from peritoneal exudates after the injection of antigen is the consequence of an immunological reaction which is a manifestation of a state of delayed-type hypersensitivity. PMID:13938030

  14. MS-H: a novel proteomic approach to isolate and type the E. coli H antigen using membrane filtration and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keding Cheng

    Full Text Available Serotyping is the long-standing gold standard method to determine E. coli H antigens; however, this method requires a panel of H-antigen specific antibodies and often culture-based induction of the H-antigen flagellar motility. In this study, a rapid and accurate method to isolate and identify the Escherichia coli (E. coli H flagellar antigen was developed using membrane filtration and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Flagella were isolated from pure culture, digested with trypsin, and then subjected to LC-MS/MS using one of two systems (Agilent-nano-LC-QSTAR XL or Proxeon-nano-LC-LTQ-Orbitrap XL. The resulting peptide sequence data were searched against a custom E. coli flagella/H antigen database. This approach was evaluated using flagella isolated from reference E. coli strains representing all 53 known H antigen types and 41 clinical E. coli strains. The resulting LC-MS/MS classifications of H antigen types (MS-H were concordant with the known H serogroup for all 53 reference types, and of 41 clinical isolates tested, 38 (92.7% were concordant with the known H serogroup. MS-H clearly also identified two clinical isolates (4.9% that were untypeable by serotyping. Notably, successful detection and classification of flagellar antigens with MS-H did not generally require induction of motility, establishing this proteomic approach as more rapid and cost-effective than traditional methods, while providing equitable specificity for typing E. coli H antigens.

  15. Development of stable Vibrio cholerae O1 Hikojima type vaccine strains co-expressing the Inaba and Ogawa lipopolysaccharide antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L Karlsson

    Full Text Available We describe here the development of stable classical and El Tor V. cholerae O1 strains of the Hikojima serotype that co-express the Inaba and Ogawa antigens of O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mutation of the wbeT gene reduced LPS perosamine methylation and thereby gave only partial transformation into Ogawa LPS on the cell surface. The strains express approximately equal amounts of Inaba- and Ogawa-LPS antigens which are preserved after formalin-inactivation of the bacteria. Oral immunizations of both inbred and outbred mice with formalin-inactivated whole-cell vaccine preparations of these strains elicited strong intestinal IgA anti-LPS as well as serum vibriocidal antibody responses against both Inaba and Ogawa that were fully comparable to the responses induced by the licensed Dukoral vaccine. Passive protection studies in infant mice showed that immune sera raised against either of the novel Hikojima vaccine strains protected baby mice against infection with virulent strains of both serotypes. This study illustrates the power of using genetic manipulation to improve the properties of bacteria strains for use in killed whole-cell vaccines.

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF CLASSICAL ABO BLOOD GROUPS AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS : AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Devi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present Diabetes Mellitus is a global phenomenon with the disease topping the list, comprising of about 32 million cases , India is in the forefront with 30% of the cases . The disease affects multiple organs and is a leading cause of much morbidity and mortality. Since it is a multi - factorial disease a major step would be to identify different associated factors, for an early diagnosis and prompt treatment. The ABO blood groups are often associated with several diseases, with one blood group more often seen with the patients of a particular disease. Our study will help to determine the frequency and distribution of blood groups in correlation with Diabetes Mellitus. MATERIAL & METHODS: This study was conducted in the Gandhi Medical College, Secunderabad, during a two year period. A random study involving every third diabetic patient was chosen and their blood group was determined. A total of 3 00 patients were selected with 150 male and 150 female patients. Another 300 volunteers who were not diabetics were chosen as controls and their blood groups were also determined. A pro - forma was given to both diabetics and controls which included the following variables : 1 . Demographic data 2. Blood grouping 3. Fasting and post prandial blood sugar. Following this, blood groups of both cohorts and controls were determined by antigen antibody agglutination method. Data analysis was do ne after data was entered into excel sheet and double checked for errors using SPSS Software RESULTS: Our a nalysis showed that O group was significantly more among diabetic patients when all patients were compared to control . ² there was a preponderance of blood group O among female diabetics and B among male diabetics. CONCLUSION: ABO blood groups have been determined in 300 diabetic patients and compared with the controls comprising of a series of 300 voluntary blood donors. When the results were analysed on the basis of sex, there was preponderance

  17. Novel association of ABO histo-blood group antigen with soluble ICAM-1: results of a genome-wide association study of 6,578 women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Paré

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available While circulating levels of soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (sICAM-1 have been associated with diverse conditions including myocardial infarction, stroke, malaria, and diabetes, comprehensive analysis of the common genetic determinants of sICAM-1 is not available. In a genome-wide association study conducted among 6,578 participants in the Women's Genome Health Study, we find that three SNPs at the ICAM1 (19p13.2 locus (rs1799969, rs5498 and rs281437 are non-redundantly associated with plasma sICAM-1 concentrations at a genome-wide significance level (P<5x10(-8, thus extending prior results from linkage and candidate gene studies. We also find that a single SNP (rs507666, P = 5.1x10(-29 at the ABO (9q34.2 locus is highly correlated with sICAM-1 concentrations. The novel association at the ABO locus provides evidence for a previously unknown regulatory role of histo-blood group antigens in inflammatory adhesion processes.

  18. Some G-M-type Banach spaces and K-groups of operator algebras on them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Huaijie; CHEN Dongxiao; CHEN Jianlan

    2004-01-01

    By providing several new varieties of G-M-type Banachspaces according to decomposable and compoundable properties, this paper discusses the operator structures of thesespaces and the K-theory of the algebra of the operators on these G-M-type Banach spaces throughcalculation of the K-groups of the operator ideals contained in the class of Riesz operators.

  19. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A Measure for Individuals and Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaulley, Mary H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Looks at history and development of the MBTI, characteristics, scores, Jung's theory of lifelong development, the dynamic interaction of the four functions measured by the MBTI, the construction of the MBTI, use with groups, how to use type tables, and use of the MBTI in career counseling. (NB)

  20. Identification of MCAM/CD146 as the target antigen of a human monoclonal antibody that recognizes both epithelioid and sarcomatoid types of mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; He, Jiang; Wang, Yong; An, Feng; Feng, Jinjin; Barbone, Dario; Gao, Dongwei; Franc, Ben; Broaddus, V Courtney; Liu, Bin

    2009-02-15

    The prognosis for patients diagnosed with mesothelioma is generally poor, and currently available treatments are usually ineffective. Therapies that specifically target tumor cells hold much promise for the treatment of cancers that are resistant to current approaches. We have previously selected phage antibody display libraries on mesothelioma cell lines to identify a panel of internalizing human single chain (scFv) antibodies that target mesothelioma-associated, clinically represented cell surface antigens and further exploited the internalizing function of these scFvs to specifically deliver lethal doses of liposome-encapsulated small molecule drugs to both epithelioid and sarcomatous subtypes of mesothelioma cells. Here, we report the identification of MCAM/MUC18/CD146 as the surface antigen bound by one of the mesothelioma-targeting scFvs using a novel cloning strategy based on yeast surface human proteome display. Immunohistochemical analysis of mesothelioma tissue microarrays confirmed that MCAM is widely expressed by both epithelioid and sarcomatous types of mesothelioma tumor cells in situ but not by normal mesothelial cells. In addition, quantum dot-labeled anti-MCAM scFv targets primary meosthelioma cells in tumor fragment spheroids cultured ex vivo. As the first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of MCAM-targeting antibodies, we performed single-photon emission computed tomography studies using the anti-MCAM scFv and found that it recognizes mesothelioma organotypic xenografts in vivo. The combination of phage antibody library selection on tumor cells and rapid target antigen identification by screening the yeast surface-displayed human proteome could be a powerful method for mapping the targetable tumor cell surface epitope space.

  1. Molecular blood group typing in Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Gani, Rahayu; Manaf, Siti Mariam; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Norazmi, Mohd Noor; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2015-08-01

    In this study we genotyped ABO, Rhesus, Kell, Kidd and Duffy blood group loci in DNA samples from 120 unrelated individuals representing four Malay subethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia (Banjar: n = 30, Jawa: n = 30, Mandailing: n = 30 and Kelantan: n = 30). Analyses were performed using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits (BAG Health Care GmbH, Lich, Germany). Overall, the present study has successfully compiled blood group datasets for the four Malay subethnic groups and used the datasets for studying ancestry and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do Dental Students' Personality Types and Group Dynamics Affect Their Performance in Problem-Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; An, So-Youn; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.

  3. Development and evaluation of two truncated recombinant NP antigen-based indirect ELISAs for detection of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 antibodies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Feng-Xue; Sun, Na; Cao, Li; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Guo, Li; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2015-09-15

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens in both young and adult cattle. Nucleocapsid protein (NP) is the most abundant viral protein and the main regulator of virus replication and transcription. In this study, amino acid sequence data of BPIV3 NP was used to identify potential linear epitopic regions, which were subsequently used to design truncated recombinant NP antigens. The amino-terminal region (aa 9-157, NP-N) and the carboxy-terminal region (aa 391-500, NP-C) were selected, and these two truncated recombinant BPIV3 NP proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli based on the results of prediction studies. Furthermore, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were established using the truncated recombinant BPIV3-N proteins as antigens, and 154 clinical samples were used to evaluate the newly established ELISA systems in comparison with a virus neutralisation test (VNT) as a reference. The results showed that a high coincidence rate was observed for the data that were obtained by the two methods. The sensitivity of NP-N ELISA and NP-C ELISA were 98.4% and 94.6%, respectively, and the specificity of both ELISAs was 100% with reference to the VNTs. Our data indicated that both ends of NP have high immunogenicity during BPIV3 infection and that they were good targets for serodiagnosis. The ELISAs based on the two truncated proteins were especially suitable for use in large-scale epidemiological investigations.

  4. H-2g, a glucose analog of blood group H antigen, mediates monocyte recruitment in vitro and in vivo via IL-8/CXCL8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabquer BJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bradley J Rabquer,1,2 Yong Hou,1 Jeffrey H Ruth,1 Wei Luo,1 Daniel T Eitzman,1 Alisa E Koch,3,1 Mohammad A Amin11University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Albion College, Biology Department, Albion, MI, USA; 3VA Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Monocyte (MN recruitment is an essential inflammatory component of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In this study we investigated the ability of 2-fucosyllactose (H-2g, a glucose analog of blood group H antigen to induce MN migration in vivo and determined if H-2g-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8 plays a role in MN ingress in RA.Methods: Sponge granuloma and intravital microscopy assays were performed to examine H-2g-induced in vivo MN migration and rolling, respectively. MNs were stimulated with H-2g, and the production of IL-8/CXCL8 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, in vitro MN migration assays and an in vivo RA synovial tissue severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model were used to determine the role of IL-8/CXCL8 in H-2g-induced MN migration.Results: In vivo, H-2g induced significantly greater MN migration compared to phosphate buffered saline. Intravital microscopy revealed that H-2g mediates MN migration in vivo by inducing MN rolling. In addition, H-2g induced MN production of IL-8/CXCL8, a process that was dependent on Src kinase. Moreover, we found that H-2g mediated MN migration in vitro, and in vivo migration was inhibited by a neutralizing anti-IL-8/CXCL8 antibody.Conclusion: These findings suggest that H-2g mediates MN recruitment in vitro and in vivo (in part via IL-8/CXCL8.Keywords: inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, chemokine, migration

  5. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  6. Spectroscopic properties of nearby late-type stars, members of stellar kinematic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado, J; Eiroa, C; Montes, D; Montesinos, B

    2010-01-01

    Nearby late-type stars are excellent targets to look for young objects in stellar associations and moving groups. The study of these groups goes back more than one century ago however, their origin is still misunderstood. Although their existence have been confirmed by statistical studies of large sample of stars, the identification of a group of stars as member of moving groups, is not an easy task, list of members often change with time and most members have been identified by means of kinematics criteria which is not sufficient since many old stars can share the same spatial motion of those stars in moving groups. In this contribution we attempt to identify unambiguous moving groups members, among a sample of nearby-late type stars. High resolution echelle spectra is used to i) derive accurate radial velocities which allow us to study the stars' kinematics and make a first selection of moving groups members; and ii) analyze several age-related properties for young late-type stars (i.e., lithium LiI 6707.8 ...

  7. Hydrocarbon group type analysis of petroleum heavy fractions using the TLC-FID technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B.K.; Sarowha, S.L.S.; Bhagat, S.D. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India); Tiwari, R.K.; Gupta, S.K.; Venkataramani, P.S. [Defence Materials and Stores, Research and Development, Establishment, Kanpur (India)

    1998-03-01

    Hydrocarbon group type analysis is important in all conversion processes and in preparation of feed for these conversion processes so as to learn the selectivity of the different type of catalysts for product yield and quality. The use of the Mark 5 Iatroscan detector and the method reported here allowed for a rapid and quantitative hydrocarbon group type analysis of petroleum residues without prior separation of asphaltenes. SARA type analyses of petroleum residues have been performed by a three stage development using n-hexane, toluene and DCM (95%):MeOH (5%). The standard deviation and coefficient of variation in repeated measurements by this method were as low as 0.65 wt% or less and 3.5 wt% or less, respectively. The time required for analysis of 10 samples could be as short as 90 min. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 tabs., 21 refs.

  8. Littelmann patterns and Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series of type D

    CERN Document Server

    Chinta, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a conjecture for the local parts of Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series attached to root systems of type D. Our conjecture is analogous to the description of the local parts of type A series given by Brubaker, Bump, Friedberg, and Hoffstein in terms of Gelfand--Tsetlin patterns. Our conjecture is given in terms of patterns for irreducible representations of even orthogonal Lie algebras developed by Littelmann.

  9. [Food groups for the investigation of risk of type 2 diabetes and associated diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Renata Yumi; Damião, Renata; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouveia; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes

    2011-09-01

    The food groups conventionally applied in activities of nutritional counseling were established according to their macronutrient content. However, it does not consider recent scientific evidences of the association between food consumption and risk of developing non-communicable chronic diseases. To propose food groups for the investigation of the association between food consumption and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and associated diseases among Japanese-Brazilians. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a lifestyle intervention study conducted among Japanese-Brazilians of Bauru, SP, Brazil, from 2005 to 2007. Food intake was assessed by three 24-hour recalls of 640 participants, both genders, aged 30 to 88 years old. Eighteen new food groups were proposed according to their quantity and quality of fat, carbohydrates, sodium, and fiber. The new food groups incorporate recent evidences of the association between diet and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  10. $K(\\pi,1)$ and word problems for infinite type Artin-Tits groups, and applications to virtual braid groups

    CERN Document Server

    Godelle, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\Gamma$ be a Coxeter graph, let $(W,S)$ be its associated Coxeter system, and let $(A,\\Sigma$) be its associated Artin-Tits system. We regard $W$ as a reflection group acting on a real vector space $V$. Let $I$ be the Tits cone, and let $E_\\Gamma$ be the complement in $I +iV$ of the reflecting hyperplanes. Recall that Charney, Davis, and Salvetti have constructed a simplicial complex $\\Omega(\\Gamma)$ having the same homotopy type as $E_\\Gamma$. We observe that, if $T \\subset S$, then $\\Omega(\\Gamma_T)$ naturally embeds into $\\Omega (\\Gamma)$. We prove that this embedding admits a retraction $\\pi_T: \\Omega(\\Gamma) \\to \\Omega (\\Gamma_T)$, and we deduce several topological and combinatorial results on parabolic subgroups of $A$. From a family $\\SS$ of subsets of $S$ having certain properties, we construct a cube complex $\\Phi$, we show that $\\Phi$ has the same homotopy type as the universal cover of $E_\\Gamma$, and we prove that $\\Phi$ is CAT(0) if and only if $\\SS$ is a flag complex. We say that $X \\subset...

  11. Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: Cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Eric W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes. In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate – basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial – and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes. Results: Concordance between gene and protein expression findings based on 'present' vs. 'absent' calls ranged from 46 to 68%. Correlation of expression levels was poor to moderate (Pearson correlations ranged from 0 to 0.63. Divergence between the two data types was most frequently seen for genes whose array signals exceeded background (> 50 but lacked immunoreactivity by immunostaining. This could be due to multiple factors, e.g. low levels of protein expression, technological sensitivities, sample processing, probe set definition or anatomical origin of tissue and actual biological differences between transcript and protein abundance. Conclusion: Agreement between these two very different methodologies has great implications for their respective use in both molecular studies and clinical trials employing molecular biomarkers.

  12. The human leukocyte antigen genotype has a modest effect on the insulin gene polymorphism-associated susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in the Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, A P; Hermann, R; Knip, M; Simell, O; Akerblom, H K; Ilonen, J

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the known human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated risk, polymorphisms of insulin gene region show association with type 1 diabetes. We analyzed possible interactions between the HLA class II genotypes and -2221 MspI (insulin) INS gene polymorphism in Finnish population, using a series of 1331 diabetic children and 2222 healthy newborns. C/C genotype was increased among diabetic children compared to the controls (83.2 vs 70.1%). This genotype was slightly more common in diabetic children with low or moderate HLA-associated risk than in those with high risk, but INS gene effect was clear in all major HLA-risk genotypes and, thus, can be used as an additional risk prediction marker, irrespective of HLA genotypes.

  13. Distinct Gut-Derived Bacteria Differentially Affect Three Types of Antigen-Presenting Cells and Impact on NK- and T-Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Hansen, Anne Marie Valentin; Frøkiær, Hanne

    Objectives Gut bacteria are assumed essential for development and maintenance of a balanced immune system. Specifically, stimulation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by gut bacteria is important for polarisation of the immune response. This experiment was designed to reveal similarities...... and differences between the reaction patterns of three types of human APCs when stimulated with intestinal bacteria. Furthermore, the effect of these APCs on NK-cells and T-cells was examined. Methodology The APCs used in this study were blood monocytes, blood dendritic cells, and dendritic cells differentiated...... previously been examined, but this study revealed that their effect on other kinds of APCs is markedly different. When APCs matured by different bacteria were added to either NK-cells or T-cells, different APCs combined with distinct strains of bacteria caused the production of varying amounts of cytokines...

  14. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-2 detection and typing in immunocompromised children correlated with lymphoproliferative disorder biopsy findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Marques Mendes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis, plays a significant role as a cofactor in the process of tumorigenesis, and has consistently been associated with a variety of malignancies especially in immunocompromised patients. Forty-four children and adolescents (21 liver transplant patients, 7 heart transplant, 5 AIDS, 3 autoimmune hepatitis, 2 nephritic syndromes, 2 medullar aplasia, 2 primary immunodeficiency disorder patients, 1 thrombocytopenic purpura and 1 systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with chronic active EBV infection (VCA-IgM persistently positive; VCA-IgG > 20 AU/mL and positive IgG _ EBNA had peripheral blood samples obtained during clinically characterized EBV reactivation episodes. DNA samples were amplified in order to detect and type EBV on the basis of the EBNA-2 sequence (EBNA2 protein is essential for EBV-driven immortalization of B lymphocytes. Although we have found a predominance of type 1 EBNA-2 virus (33/44; 75%, 10 patients (22.73% carried type 2 EBNA-2, and one liver transplant patient (2.27% a mixture of the two types, the higher proportion of type 2 EBV, as well as the finding of one patient bearing the two types is in agreement with other reports held on lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD patients, which analyzed tumor biopsies. We conclude that EBNA-2 detection and typing can be performed in peripheral blood samples, and the high prevalence of type 2 in our casuistic indicates that this population is actually at risk of developing LPD, and should be monitored.

  15. Lipid Status and Predisposing Genes in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 from Various Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Semenova, N V; Osipova, E V; Gnusina, S V; Bardymova, T A

    2015-12-01

    The peculiarities of HLA class II profile and lipid metabolism were examined in Buryat and Russian ethnic groups of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. The incidence of type 1 haplotypes in HLA class II gene family was lower in Buryats than that in Russians. In comparison with Russians, the course of diabetes mellitus type 1 in Buryat patients was characterized with a lower content of total lipids, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL, which probably explains a more favorable course of the disease in Buryat population.

  16. Social support sources, types, and generativity: a focus group study of cancer survivors and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alison G; Ki, Ppudah; Maharaj, Artie; Brown, Edna; Davis, Cindy; Apolinsky, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Various research studies have identified the sources and types of support that people with cancer receive; however, few have focused on identifying the specific characteristics of emotional, instrumental, and informational support. In this study, focus groups consisting of Gilda's Club members explored the types of support that people with cancer and their caregivers experienced and valued. Results showed that although men and women with cancer and caregivers identify similar sources of support, they experience different types of support. Results also indicated a desire among participants to help and support others, a concept referred to as generativity. Implications for social workers and health care providers are explored.

  17. Negative-Ion Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Microarray Analyses of Developmentally Regulated Antigens Based on Type 1 and Type 2 Backbone Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yibing; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 (Galβ1-3GlcNAc) and type 2 (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) sequences are constituents of the backbones of a large family of glycans of glycoproteins and glycolipids whose branching and peripheral substitutions are developmentally regulated. It is highly desirable to have microsequencing methods that can be used to precisely identify and monitor these oligosaccharide sequences with high sensitivity. Negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation has been used for characterization of branching points, peripheral substitutions, and partial assignment of linkages in reducing oligosaccharides. We now extend this method to characterizing entire sequences of linear type 1 and type 2 chain-based glycans, focusing on the type 1 and type 2 units in the internal regions including the linkages connecting type 1 and type 2 disaccharide units. We apply the principles to sequence analysis of closely related isomeric oligosaccharides and demonstrate by microarray analyses distinct binding activities of antibodies and a lectin toward various combinations of type 1 and 2 units joined by 1,3- and 1,6-linkages. These sequence-specific carbohydrate-binding proteins are in turn valuable tools for detecting and distinguishing the type 1 and type 2-based developmentally regulated glycan sequences.

  18. Negative-ion Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Microarray Analyses of Developmentally-regulated Antigens Based on Type 1 and Type 2 Backbone Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yibing; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 (Galβ1-3GlcNAc) and type 2 (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) sequences are constituents of the backbones of a large family of glycans of glycoproteins and glycolipids whose branching and peripheral substitutions are developmentally-regulated. It is highly desirable to have micro-sequencing methods that can be used to precisely identify and monitor these oligosaccharide sequences with high sensitivity. Negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation has been used for characterization of branching points, peripheral substitutions and partial assignment of linkages in reducing oligosaccharides. We now extend this method to characterizing entire sequences of linear type 1 and type 2 chain-based glycans, focusing on the type 1 and -2 units in the internal regions including the linkages connecting type 1 and type 2 disaccharide units. We apply the principles to sequence analysis of closely related isomeric oligosaccharides and demonstrate by microarray analyses distinct binding activities of antibodies and a lectin toward various combinations of type 1 and 2 units joined by 1,3- and 1,6-linkages. These sequence-specific carbohydrate-binding proteins are in turn valuable tools for detecting and distinguishing the type 1 and type 2-based developmentally-regulated glycan sequences. PMID:26530895

  19. Tagging Thinking Types in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Effects on Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellens, T.; Van Keer, H.; De Wever, B.; Valcke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on the use of thinking types as a possible way to structure university students' discourse in asynchronous discussion groups and consequently promote their learning. More specifically, the aim of the study is to determine how requiring students to label their contributions by means of De Bono's (1991) thinking hats…

  20. Gr(o)bner-Shirshov Basis of Quantum Group of Type D4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulshadam YUNUS; Abdukadir OBUL

    2011-01-01

    The authors take all isomorphism classes of indecomposable representations as new generators, and obtain all skew-commutators between these generators by using the Ringel-Hall algebra method. Then they prove that the set of these skew-commutators is a Gr(o)bner-Shirshov basis for quantum group of type D4.

  1. Decay estimates for fractional wave equations on H-type groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to establish the decay estimate for the fractional wave equation semigroup on H-type groups given by e i t Δ α $e^{it\\Delta^{\\alpha}}$ , 0 < α < 1 $0<\\alpha<1$ . Combining the dispersive estimate and a standard duality argument, we also derive the corresponding Strichartz inequalities.

  2. Inequalities of Hadamard Type for r-Convex Functions in Carnot Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-bao Sun; Xiao-ping Yang

    2004-01-01

    For a Carnot group G,we establish the relationship between extended mean values and r-convex functions which is introduced in this paper,which is a class of inequalities of Hadamard type for r-convex function on G.

  3. Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) with F-18-Labeled Compounds: the Influence of Prosthetic Groups on Tumor Uptake and Clearance Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Vincent; Wuest, Melinda; Bailey, Justin J; Bergman, Cody; Janzen, Nancy; Valliant, John F; Wuest, Frank

    2017-06-21

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an important biomarker expressed in the majority of prostate cancers. The favorable positron emission tomography (PET) imaging profile of the PSMA imaging agent 2-(3-(1-carboxy-5-[(6-[(18)F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl)-ureido)-pentane-dioic acid [(18)F]DCFPyL in preclinical prostate cancer models and in prostate cancer patients stimulated the development and validation of other fluorine-containing PSMA inhibitors to further enhance pharmacokinetics and simplify production methods. Here, we describe the synthesis and radiopharmacological evaluation of various F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors which were prepared through different prosthetic group chemistry strategies. Prosthetic groups N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB), 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzaldehyde, and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) were used for bioconjugation reactions to PSMA-binding lysine-urea-glutamate scaffold via acylation and oxime formation. All fluorine-containing PSMA inhibitors were tested for their PSMA inhibitory potency in an in vitro competitive binding assay in comparison to an established reference compound [(125)I]TAAG-PSMA. Tumor uptake and clearance profiles of three F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors ([(18)F]4, [(18)F]7, and [(18)F]8) were studied with dynamic PET imaging using LNCaP tumor-bearing mice. F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors were synthesized in 32-69 % radiochemical yields using (1) acylation reaction at the primary amino group of the lysine residue with [(18)F]SFB and (2) oxime formation with 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzaldehyde and [(18)F]FDG using the respective aminooxy-functionalized lysine residue. Compound 7 displayed an IC50 value of 6 nM reflecting very high affinity for PSMA. Compounds 4 and 8 showed IC50 values of 13 and 62 nM, respectively. The IC50 value of reference compound DCFPyL was 13 nM. Dynamic PET imaging revealed the following SUV60min for radiotracer uptake in PSMA(+) LNCaP tumors: 0

  4. A spectroscopy study of nearby late-type stars, possible members of stellar kinematic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado, J; Eiroa, C; Montes, D; Montesinos, B; 10.1051/0004-6361/201014948

    2010-01-01

    Nearby late-type stars are excellent targets for seeking young objects in stellar associations and moving groups. The origin of these structures is still misunderstood, and lists of moving group members often change with time and also from author to author. Most members of these groups have been identified by means of kinematic criteria, leading to an important contamination of previous lists by old field stars. We attempt to identify unambiguous moving group members among a sample of nearby-late type stars by studying their kinematics, lithium abundance, chromospheric activity, and other age-related properties. High-resolution echelle spectra ($R \\sim 57000$) of a sample of nearby late-type stars are used to derive accurate radial velocities that are combined with the precise Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions to compute galactic-spatial velocity components. Stars are classified as possible members of the classical moving groups according to their kinematics. The spectra are also used to study several a...

  5. Forming Early-type Galaxies in Groups Prior to Cluster Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Kautsch, Stefan J; Soto, Christian A; Tran, Kim-Vy H; Zaritsky, Dennis; Moustakas, John

    2008-01-01

    We study a unique proto-cluster of galaxies, the supergroup SG1120-1202. We quantify the degree to which morphological transformation of cluster galaxies occurs prior to cluster assembly in order to explain the observed early-type fractions in galaxy clusters at z=0. SG1120-1202 at z~0.37 is comprised of four gravitationally bound groups that are expected to coalesce into a single cluster by z=0. Using HST ACS observations, we compare the morphological fractions of the supergroup galaxies to those found in a range of environments. We find that the morphological fractions of early-type galaxies (~60 %) and the ratio of S0 to elliptical galaxies (0.5) in SG1120-1202 are very similar to clusters at comparable redshift, consistent with pre-processing in the group environment playing the dominant role in establishing the observed early-type fraction in galaxy clusters.

  6. A discrete single server queue with Markovian arrivals and phase type group services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attahiru Sule Alfa

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single-server discrete queueing system in which arrivals occur according to a Markovian arrival process. Service is provided in groups of size no more than M customers. The service times are assumed to follow a discrete phase type distribution, whose representation may depend on the group size. Under a probabilistic service rule, which depends on the number of customers waiting in the queue, this system is studied as a Markov process. This type of queueing system is encountered in the operations of an automatic storage retrieval system. The steady-state probability vector is shown to be of (modified matrix-geometric type. Efficient algorithmic procedures for the computation of the rate matrix, steady-state probability vector, and some important system performance measures are developed. The steady-state waiting time distribution is derived explicitly. Some numerical examples are presented.

  7. Block synthesis of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides related to the human ABO blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Ivan M; Korchagina, Elena Yu; Popova, Inna S; Tyrtysh, Tatiana V; Paramonov, Alexander S; Bovin, Nicolai V

    2016-07-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of 3-aminopropyl glycosides of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides via [3 + 1] block scheme. Peracetylated trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides were used as glycosyl donors. The well-known low reactivity of 4-OH group of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine forced us to test four glucosamine derivatives (3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc and 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl β-glycosides of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc, 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3, and 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2) to select the best glycosyl acceptor for the synthesis of type 2 tetrasaccharides. The desired tetrasacchrides were not isolated, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycosyde of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAcβ was glycosylated. Glycosylation of 3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc derivative resulted in α-glycoside as a major product. High stereospecificity was achieved only in the synthesis of B (type 2) tetrasaccharide, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2β was applied as the glycosyl acceptor (β/α 5:1), whereas glycosylation with trichloroacetimidate of A trisaccharide was not stereospecific (β/α 1.3:1). Glycosylation of 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycoside of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3β with trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides provided the same stereochemical yield (β/α 1.5:1).

  8. Structures of two cell wall-associated polysaccharides of a Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain. A unique teichoic acid-like polysaccharide and the group O antigen which is a C-polysaccharide in common with pneumococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The cell wall of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain SK137 contains the C-polysaccharide known as the common antigen of a closely related species Streptococcus pneumoniae, and a teichoic acid-like polysaccharide with a unique structure. The two polysaccharides are different entities and could...... to that of one of the two structures of C-polysaccharide previously identified in S. pneumoniae. C-polysaccharide of S. mitis is characterized by the presence, in each repeating unit, of two residues of phosphocholine and both galactosamine residues in the N-acetylated form. Immunochemical analysis showed that C......-polysaccharide constitutes the Lancefield group O antigen. Studies using mAbs directed against the backbone and against the phosphocholine moiety of the C-polysaccharide revealed several different patterns of these epitopes among 95 S. mitis and Streptococcus oralis strains tested and the exclusive presence of the group O...

  9. The Antigenicity Analysis of Botulinum Toxin of Clostridium botulinum Type C%C型肉毒梭菌肉毒毒素的抗原性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟娟; 刘书东; 李剑; 刘志龙; 陈根元; 曹玉华; 李莲瑞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过对分离纯化的C型肉毒毒素抗原性分析,提供快速鉴定动物因C型肉毒梭菌中毒的理论基础.[方法]对分离纯化的C型肉毒梭菌的肉毒毒素灭活后通过SDS - PAGE测定浓度,确定浓度后与弗氏佐剂乳化后免疫家兔,免疫结束后采家兔血液并分离血清.[结果]将不同稀释倍数的肉毒毒素经SDS -PAGE电泳分离后,转移至HybondNC膜,家兔三免后提取的血清作为一抗,用二抗进行Western blotting检测,大约在98.0和53.0 kDa处出现特异反应带;抗原与抗体在琼脂凝胶上结合时,会形成清晰的沉淀带.[结论]分离纯化的C型肉毒毒素,经免疫后家兔可见:C型肉毒毒素具有免疫原性和反应原性,抗体的效价为1∶8.%[Objective ] The study aims to provide the theoretical basis for quick identification of Clostridium botulinum type C through the separation and purification of type C botulinum toxin antigenic analysis. [ Method ] The experiments were carried out by separating and purifyinng Clostridium botulinum type C in the blood collected from Freunds adjuvant emulsified rabbit and the botulinum toxin was inactivated to determine the concentration by SDS - PAGE. The rabbit blood was collected after immunization and the serum was separated. [ Result ] Different dilutions of botulinum toxin were separated by SDS - PAGE electrophoresis, transferred to HybondNC film, and the three free extracted serum from rabbits was used as primary antibody. The secondary antibody was used for Western blotting analysis. At approximately 98.0 and 53.0 kDa, specific reaction zone appeared; antigens and antibodies in agar gel when combined will form a clear precipitation band. [Conclusion]The immunized rabbits, whose botulinum toxin type C was separated and purified by us, are still there. C botulinum toxin has the characteristics of immunogenicity and reactogenicity, and its antibody ti-ter is 1=8.

  10. Immunodetection of Helicobacter sp. and the associated expression of ABO blood group antigens in the gastric mucosa of captive and free-living New World primates in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délia Cristina Figueira Aguiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The histo-blood group ABH antigens were first described in humans. These antigens are only present on erythrocytes from great apes and humans, while in more primitive animals they are found in tissues and body fluids. The ABH antigens are mainly distributed in tissues exposed to the external environment and potentially serve as ligands for pathogens or inhibitors of tissue connections. The objective of this paper was two-fold: (i to determine the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric mucosa of 16 captive and 24 free-living New World monkeys and (ii to evaluate the presence of histopathological alterations related to bacterial infection and the associated expression of ABH antigens in the tissue. Stomach tissues from 13 species of monkey were assessed using haematoxylin-eosin and modified Gram staining (Hucker methods. An immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue revealed the presence of infectious bacteria that were characteristic of the genus Helicobacter sp. The results demonstrate that various species of monkey might be naturally infected with the Helicobacter sp. and that there is an increased susceptibility to infection. This study serves as a comparative analysis of infection between human and non-human primates and indicates the presence of a new species of Helicobacter.

  11. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-06-06

    Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis.

  12. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  13. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes. 

  14. Poisson formulas for circular functions on some groups of type H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KORáNYI; Adam

    2006-01-01

    [1]Gaveau B,Greiner P,Vauthier J.Polyn(o)mes harmoniques et problème de Dirichlet de la boule du groupe de Heisenberg en présence de symétrie radiale.Bull Sc Math,1984,108:337-354[2]Korányi A,Reimann H M.Horizontal normal vectors and conformal capacity of spherical rings in the Heisenberg group.Bull Sc Math,1987,111:3-21[3]Kaplan A.Fundamental solutions for a class of hypoelliptic PDE generated by composition of quadratic forms.Trans AMS,1980,258:147-153[4]Garofalo N,Vassilev D.Symmetry properties of positive solutions of Yamabe-type equations on groups of Heisenberg type.Duke Math J,2001,106:411-448[5]Gaveau B.Principe de moindre action,propagation da la chaleur et estimées sous-elliptiques sur certains groupes nilpotents.Acta Math,1977,139:95-153[6]Cowling M,Dooley A H,Korányi A,et al.H-type groups and Iwasawa decompositions.Adv Math,1991,87:1-41[7]Erdélyi A,et al.Higher transcendental functions.New York:McGraw-Hill,1953[8]Korányi A.Kelvin transforms and harmonic polynomials on the Heisenberg group.J Funct Analysis,1982,49:177-185[9]Garofalo N,Vassilev D.Regularity near the characteristic set in the non-linear Dirichlet problem and conformal geometry of sub-Laplacians on Carnot groups.Math Ann,2000,318:453-516

  15. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression in Women With Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of psychological disorders and symptoms. Objectives This research investigated the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression among women with type II diabetes. Patients and Methods The present study was a clinical trial study. Twenty-four patients referring to the diabetic clinic of Golestan hospital in Ahvaz, Iran were selected through simple random sampling and were divided in two groups. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Group reminiscence therapy was held over eight biweekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. Finally, data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Chi-Square tests, using SPSS version 20. Results A significant difference was observed between the two groups after the intervention (P = 0.001. The rating for depression decreased significantly in the experimental group. Before the group reminiscence therapy, the highest rating for depression obtained by the experimental group was “need for consultation” (50%, whereas after the intervention, the highest rating was “no depression” (50%. One month after the intervention, the highest rating obtained for depression was “low” (50%. Conclusions Reminiscence therapy decreased depression among diabetic female patients after the intervention and one month after the intervention. It can be said that, through the reminiscence therapy, patients’ past memories were reviewed and emphasis on the positive aspects thereof in the group setting was followed by an increased sense of self-worth and a decrease in depression.

  16. Development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide O antigen and the type IV fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, J. van; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T.C.; Reuhs, B.L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Oudega, B.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.

  17. [Celiac disease in a group of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Katia G; Silva, Giselia A P; Antunes, Margarida M C

    2004-12-01

    To know the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in a group of children and adolescents with type I diabetes mellitus. A cross sectional study was conducted at the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP) in March 2000. The sample consisted of 19 children and adolescents with type I diabetes mellitus that had the human anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies assessed using kits from the Eurospital Laboratory. In case of positive results it was realized small intestine biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. For the calculation of the prevalence of CD it was considered the number of patients with serum positive histological alterations of the mucous membrane of the small intestine compatible with CD. Four patients presented serum positivity for human anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies with a serum prevalence of 21% (4/19). Out of these four subjects, three who accomplished small intestine biopsy presented histological alterations compatible with CD. The prevalence of CD in this group was 15.8% (3/19). The prevalence of CD in this study group was high, suggesting that those with type I diabetes mellitus should be led as a group of high risk to develop this disease.

  18. Novel Kac-Moody-type affine extensions of non-crystallographic Coxeter groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Twarock, Reidun

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent results in mathematical virology, we present novel asymmetric Z[tau]-integer-valued affine extensions of the non-crystallographic Coxeter groups H_2, H_3 and H_4 derived in a Kac-Moody-type formalism. In particular, we show that the affine reflection planes which extend the Coxeter group H_3 generate (twist) translations along 2-, 3- and 5-fold axes of icosahedral symmetry and classify these translations in terms of Fibonacci recursion relations, thus providing a framework to explain results of Keef et al and Wardman at the group level. Finally, we extend this classification to the case of the non-crystallographic Coxeter groups H_2 and H_4. These results should have applications in physics (quasicrystals), biology (viruses) and chemistry (fullerenes).

  19. Invariant differential operators on H-type groups and discrete components in restrictions of complementary series of rank one semisimple groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan; Ørsted, Bent; Zhang, Genkai

    2016-01-01

    on the nilpotent radicals $N$ and $N_1$ of the minimal parabolics in $G$ and $G_1$, respectively. The groups $N$ and $N_1$ are of H-type and we construct explicitly invariant differential operators between $N$ and $N_1$. These operators induce the projections onto the discrete components. Our construction...... of the invariant differential operators is carried out uniformly in the framework of H-type groups and also works for those H-type groups which do not occur as nilpotent radical of a parabolic subgroup in a semisimple group....

  20. Distribution of emm types in invasive and non-invasive group A and G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähäkuopus, S; Vuento, R; Siljander, T; Syrjänen, J; Vuopio, J

    2012-06-01

    Our study describes the emm type distributions of invasive and non-invasive group A streptococci (GAS) and group G streptococci (GGS) strains in one of the biggest Health Districts in Finland. A total of 571 GAS or GGS were recovered from patients with invasive or non-invasive infections during a 1-year period in 2008-2009 in Pirkanmaa Health District in Finland. We describe here the emm type distributions of GAS and GGS collected from throat (n = 246), pus (n = 217), deep tissue (n = 56) and blood (n = 52). The most common emm types among GAS were emm77, emm1, emm28, emm89 and emm12. Among GGS, the most common emm types were stG480, stG643, stG6, stC6979 and stG485. Some emm types were found to associate with certain infection focus. In GAS, emm77 associated with pus isolates, whereas emm1 and emm12 were more frequent among throat isolates. In GGS, stG480 was more commonly found from throat isolates.

  1. Diminished Systemic and Antigen-Specific Type 1, Type 17, and Other Proinflammatory Cytokines in Diabetic and Prediabetic Individuals With Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumaran, Paul; Dolla, Chandra Kumar; Thomas B Nutman; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) is known to be a major risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis, although its influence on latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (hereafter, “latent infection”) remains poorly characterized.

  2. HLA ANTIGENS AND VOGT-KOYANAGI- HARADA'S DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    Thirty patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Haradas disease were typed for HLA-A and HLA-B antigenic determinants by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA-B22 antigen showed an increased frequency of 43.3% in the patient group(relative risk=8.69; exact P<0.0001; corrected P<0.0025) compared with normal control group(frequency=7.69%). This association suggests that immunogenetic factor may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease.

  3. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  4. Exotic relation modules and homotopy types for certain 1-relator groups

    CERN Document Server

    Harlander, Jens; 10.2140/agt.2006.6.2163

    2009-01-01

    Using stably free non-free relation modules we construct an infinite collection of 2-dimensional homotopy types, each of Euler-characteristic one and with trefoil fundamental group. This provides an affirmative answer to a question asked by Berridge and Dunwoody [J. London Math. Soc. 19 (1979) 433-436]. We also give new examples of exotic relation modules. We show that the relation module associated with the generating set x, y^4 for the Baumslag-Solitar group is stably free non-free of rank one.

  5. Molecular basis of two novel and related high-prevalence antigens in the Kell blood group system, KUCI and KANT, and their serologic and spatial association with K11 and KETI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliquette, Randall W; Hue-Roye, Kim; Lomas-Francis, Christine; Gillen, Barbara; Schierts, Jennifer; Gentzkow, Kristie; Peyrard, Thierry; von Zabern, Inge; Flegel, Willy A; Rodberg, Karen; Debnath, Asim K; Lee, Soohee; Reid, Marion E

    2013-11-01

    The numerous antigens in the Kell blood group system result from missense nucleotide changes in KEL. Antibodies to antigens in this system can be clinically important. We describe six probands whose plasma contained antibodies to high-prevalence Kell antigens and discuss their relationship. Polymerase chain reaction amplification, direct sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism assays, hemagglutination, flow cytometry, and protein modeling were performed by standard methods. Proband 1 (KUCI) and her serologically compatible sister were heterozygous for a nucleotide change in Exon 11 (KEL*1271C/T; Ala424Val). Proband 2 (KANT) was heterozygous for KEL*1283G/T (Arg428Leu) and KEL*1216C/T (Arg406Stop) in Exon 11. Red blood cells (RBCs) from Proband 1 and her sister were not agglutinated by plasma from Proband 2; however, RBCs from Proband 2 were agglutinated by plasma from Proband 1. Probands 3, 4, 5, and 6 had the KEL*1391C>T change associated with the previously reported KETI- phenotype. Proband 5 was also homozygous for KEL*905T>C encoding the K11-K17+ phenotype. Hemagglutination studies revealed an association between KUCI, KANT, KETI, and K11. Protein modeling indicated that whereas Ala424 and Arg428 are clustered, Val302 and Thr464 are not. Ala424 in the Kell glycoprotein is associated with the high-prevalence Kell antigen, KUCI (ISBT 006032), which is detected by the antibody of Proband 1. Arg428 is associated with the high-prevalence Kell antigen, KANT (ISBT 006033). The association between KUCI, KANT, KETI, and K11 and the results of protein modeling are discussed. © 2013 New York Blood Center. Transfusion © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Supplementation with Natural Forms of Vitamin E Augments Antigen-Specific TH1-Type Immune Response to Tetanus Toxoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Mahalingam, Dashayini; Selvaduray, Kanga Rani; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the ability of three forms of vitamin E [tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), alpha-tocopherol (α-T), and delta-tocotrienol (δ-T3)] to enhance immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation in a mouse model. Twenty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of five mice each. The mice were fed with the different forms of vitamin E (1 mg) or vehicle daily for two weeks before they were given the TT vaccine [4 Lf] intramuscularly (i.m.). Booster vaccinations were given on days 28 and 42. Serum was collected (days 0, 28, and 56) to quantify anti-TT levels. At autopsy, splenocytes harvested were cultured with TT or mitogens. The production of anti-TT antibodies was augmented (P < 0.05) in mice that were fed with δ-T3 or TRF compared to controls. The production of IFN-γ and IL-4 by splenocytes from the vitamin E treated mice was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from controls. The IFN-γ production was the highest in animals supplemented with δ-T3 followed by TRF and finally α-T. Production of TNF-α was suppressed in the vitamin E treated group compared to vehicle-supplemented controls. Supplementation with δ-T3 or TRF can enhance immune response to TT immunisation and production of cytokines that promote cell-mediated (TH1) immune response. PMID:23936847

  7. Distribution patterns of fibre types in the triceps surae muscle group of chimpanzees and orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Julia P; Schilling, Nadja; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2011-04-01

    Different locomotor and postural demands are met partly due to the varying properties and proportions of the muscle fibre types within the skeletal muscles. Such data are therefore important in understanding the subtle relationships between morphology, function and behaviour. The triceps surae muscle group is of particular interest when studying our closest living relatives, the non-human great apes, as they lack a significant external Achilles tendon, crucial to running locomotion in humans and other cursorial species. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the proportions of type I (slow) and type II (fast) fibres throughout these muscles in chimpanzees and orangutans using immunohistochemistry. The orangutan had a higher proportion of type I fibres in all muscles compared with the chimpanzees, related to their slower, more controlled movements in their arboreal habitat. The higher proportion of type II fibres in the chimpanzees likely reflects a compromise between their need for controlled mobility when arboreal, and greater speed and power when terrestrial. Overall, the proportion of slow fibres was greater in the soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius muscles, and there was some evidence of proximal to distal and medial to lateral variations within some muscles. This study has shown that not only do orangutans and chimpanzees have very different muscle fibre populations that reflect their locomotor repertoires, but it also shows how the proportion of fibre types provides an additional mechanism by which the performance of a muscle can be modulated to suit the needs of a species.

  8. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  9. Morrey estimates for subelliptic p-Laplace type systems with VMO coefficients in Carnot groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study estimates in Morrey spaces to the horizontal gradient of weak solutions for a class of quasilinear sub-elliptic systems of p-Laplace type with VMO coefficients under the controllable growth over Carnot group if p is not too far from 2. We also show a local Holder continuity with an optimal exponent to the solutions.

  10. Determination of Hydrocarbon Group-Type of Diesel Fuels by Gas Chromatography with Vacuum Ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Brandon M; Walsh, Phillip; Harynuk, James J

    2016-06-07

    A GC-vacuum ultraviolet (UV) method to perform group-type separations of diesel range fuels was developed. The method relies on an ionic liquid column to separate diesel samples into saturates, mono-, di-, and polyaromatics by gas chromatography, with selective detection via vacuum UV absorption spectroscopy. Vacuum UV detection was necessary to solve a coelution between saturates and monoaromatics. The method was used to measure group-type composition of 10 oilsands-derived Synfuel light diesel samples, 3 Syncrude light gas oils, and 1 quality control sample. The gas chromatography (GC)-vacuum UV results for the Synfuel samples were similar (absolute % error of 0.8) to historical results from the supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) analysis. For the light gas oils, discrepancies were noted between SFC results and GC-vacuum UV results; however, these samples are known to be challenging to quantify by SFC-flame ionization detector (FID) due to incomplete resolution between the saturate/monoaromatic and/or monoaromatic/diaromatic group types when applied to samples heavier than diesel (i.e., having a larger fraction of higher molecular weight species). The quality control sample also performed well when comparing both methods (absolute % error of 0.2) and the results agreed within error for saturates, mono- and polyaromatics.

  11. Melanoma antigen expression and metastatic ability of mutant B16 melanoma clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, M; Sakiyama, H; Tsuchiya, K; Hirabayashi, Y; Taniguchi, M

    1988-11-15

    The biological functions of murine melanoma-associated antigens recognized by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (M562, M622 and M2590) were examined by using mutant clones which differed in their degree of expression of these antigens. Four clones of high expressors of 3 types of antigen (MEA group), 5 clones of low or non-expressors of M562- and M622-recognizing antigens (MEB group) and 4 clones of non-expressor of GM3 recognized by M2590 (MEC group) were used. Attachment of these clones to components of extracellular matrix was different between the groups. Two clones of the MEA group showed the highest ability to adhere to laminin and type-IV collagen, whereas the clones of the MEB and MEC groups significantly lost their ability to attach to laminin and type-IV collagen. In experimental lung metastasis, metastasizing ability of MEA-group cells was higher than that of MEB- and MEC-group cells. Our results suggest that these antigens play some functional role in metastasis mediated by increasing capacity for attachment to laminin and type-IV collagen.

  12. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, G; Quinto, I; Ruocco, M R; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C; Squitieri, B; Tassone, P; Venuta, S

    1993-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected subjects show a high incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This suggests that EBV may function as a cofactor that affects HIV-1 activation and may play a major role in the progression of AIDS. To test this hypothesis, we generated two EBV-negative human B-cell lines that stably express the EBNA2 gene of EBV. These EBNA2-positive cell lines were transiently transfected with plasmids that carry either the wild type or deletion mutants of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. There was a consistently higher HIV-1 LTR activation in EBNA2-expressing cells than in control cells, which suggested that EBNA2 proteins could activate the HIV-1 promoter, possibly by inducing nuclear factors binding to HIV-1 cis-regulatory sequences. To test this possibility, we used CAT-based plasmids carrying deletions of the NF-kappa B (pNFA-CAT), Sp1 (pSpA-CAT), or TAR (pTAR-CAT) region of the HIV-1 LTR and retardation assays in which nuclear proteins from EBNA2-expressing cells were challenged with oligonucleotides encompassing the NF-kappa B or Sp1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We found that both the NF-kappa B and the Sp1 sites of the HIV-1 LTR are necessary for EBNA2 transactivation and that increased expression resulted from the induction of NF-kappa B-like factors. Moreover, experiments with the TAR-deleted pTAR-CAT and with the tat-expressing pAR-TAT plasmids indicated that endogenous Tat-like proteins could participate in EBNA2-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR and that EBNA2 proteins can synergize with the viral tat transactivator. Transfection experiments with plasmids expressing the EBNA1, EBNA3, and EBNALP genes did not cause a significant HIV-1 LTR activation. Thus, it appears that among the latent EBV genes tested, EBNA2 was the only EBV gene active on the HIV-1 LTR. The transactivation function of EBNA2 was also observed in the HeLa epithelial cell line

  13. Classification of upper motives of algebraic groups of inner type A_n

    CERN Document Server

    De Clercq, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Let A, A' be two central simple algebras over a field F and \\mathbb{F} be a finite field of characteristic p. We prove that the upper indecomposable direct summands of the motives of two anisotropic varieties of flags of right ideals X(d_1,...,d_k;A) and X(d'_1,...,d'_s;A') with coefficients in \\mathbb{F} are isomorphic if and only if the p-adic valuations of gcd(d_1,...,d_k) and gcd(d'_1,..,d'_s) are equal and the classes of the p-primary components A_p and A'_p of A and A' generate the same group in the Brauer group of F. This result leads to a surprising dichotomy between upper motives of absolutely simple adjoint algebraic groups of inner type A_n

  14. Predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the South African Territories (SAT) types using virus neutralization data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outer capsid proteins 1B, 1C and 1D contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. This study presents a phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analysis of the South African Territories (SAT) seroty...

  15. HLA-antigen frequencies in patients with a Plummer-Vinson stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D; Logan, J S; Magennis, B P; Nelson, S D

    1978-09-01

    Factors of individual susceptibility seem to be involved in the occurrence of Plummer-Vinson stricture, which is a permanent stricture of the cervical esophagus associated with long continued iron deficiency. Fifty female patients with Plummer-Vinson stricture were HLA typed and the antigen frequencies were compared with those of 75 female blood donors from the same geographic area and of the same race. A comparison was also made with the HLA antigen frequencies of a group of 200 blood donors (75 female and 125 male). There were no statistically significant differences in the HLA antigen distributions of the three groups.

  16. Exposure to Aedes aegypti Bites Induces a Mixed-Type Allergic Response following Salivary Antigens Challenge in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele S Barros

    Full Text Available Classical studies have shown that Aedes aegypti salivary secretion is responsible for the sensitization to mosquito bites and many of the components present in saliva are immunogenic and capable of inducing an intense immune response. Therefore, we have characterized a murine model of adjuvant-free systemic allergy induced by natural exposure to mosquito bites. BALB/c mice were sensitized by exposure to A. aegypti mosquito bites and intranasally challenged with phosphate-buffered saline only or the mosquito's salivary gland extract (SGE. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung were collected and evaluated for cellularity, histopathological analyses, cytokines and antibody determination. Respiratory pattern was analyzed by Penh measurements and tracheal segments were obtained to study in vitro reactivity to methacholine. BAL recovered from sensitized mice following challenge with SGE showed an increased number of eosinophils and Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Peribronchoalveolar eosinophil infiltration, mucus and collagen were also observed in lung parenchyma of sensitized mice, suggesting the development of a typical Th2 response. However, the antibody profile in serum of these mice evidenced a mixed-type response with presence of both, IgG1/IgE (Th2-related and IgG2a (Th1-related isotypes. In addition, changes in breathing pattern and tracheal reactivity to methacholine were not found. Taken together, our results show that A. aegypti bites trigger an atypical allergic reaction, with some classical cellular and soluble Th2 components in the lung, but also systemic Th1 and Th2 antibody isotypes and no change in either the respiratory pattern or the trachea responsiveness to agonist.

  17. Exposure to Aedes aegypti Bites Induces a Mixed-Type Allergic Response following Salivary Antigens Challenge in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Michele S; Gomes, Eliane; Gueroni, Daniele I; Ramos, Anderson D; Mirotti, Luciana; Florsheim, Esther; Bizzarro, Bruna; Lino, Ciro N R; Maciel, Ceres; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Capurro, Margareth L; Russo, Momtchilo; Sá-Nunes, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Classical studies have shown that Aedes aegypti salivary secretion is responsible for the sensitization to mosquito bites and many of the components present in saliva are immunogenic and capable of inducing an intense immune response. Therefore, we have characterized a murine model of adjuvant-free systemic allergy induced by natural exposure to mosquito bites. BALB/c mice were sensitized by exposure to A. aegypti mosquito bites and intranasally challenged with phosphate-buffered saline only or the mosquito's salivary gland extract (SGE). Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung were collected and evaluated for cellularity, histopathological analyses, cytokines and antibody determination. Respiratory pattern was analyzed by Penh measurements and tracheal segments were obtained to study in vitro reactivity to methacholine. BAL recovered from sensitized mice following challenge with SGE showed an increased number of eosinophils and Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Peribronchoalveolar eosinophil infiltration, mucus and collagen were also observed in lung parenchyma of sensitized mice, suggesting the development of a typical Th2 response. However, the antibody profile in serum of these mice evidenced a mixed-type response with presence of both, IgG1/IgE (Th2-related) and IgG2a (Th1-related) isotypes. In addition, changes in breathing pattern and tracheal reactivity to methacholine were not found. Taken together, our results show that A. aegypti bites trigger an atypical allergic reaction, with some classical cellular and soluble Th2 components in the lung, but also systemic Th1 and Th2 antibody isotypes and no change in either the respiratory pattern or the trachea responsiveness to agonist.

  18. Who Uses Earth Observations? User Types in Group on Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    How can we communicate concepts in the physical sciences unless we know our audience? The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) User Interface Committee (UIC) has a responsibility within GEO to support and advocate for the user community in the development of Global Earth Observations System of Systems (GEOSS) and related work. As part of its efforts, the UIC has been working on developing a taxonomy that can be used to characterize the broad spectrum of users of GEOSS and its data, services, and applications. The user type taxonomy is designed to be broad and flexible but aims at describing the needs of the users GEOSS is going to serve. These user types represent a continuum of users of Earth observations from research through to decision support activities, and it includes organizations that use GEOSS as a tool to provide data and services for customers and consumers of the information. The classification scheme includes factors about skills and capacity for using Earth observations, sophistication level, spatial resolution, latency, and frequency of data. As part of the effort to develop a set of User Types, the GEO UIC foresees that those inside and outside GEO can use the typologies to understand how to engage users at a more effective level. This talk presents the GEOSS User Type taxonomy, explaining the development and highlights of key feedback. The talk will highlight possible ways to use the User Type taxonomy to communicate concepts and promote the use of Earth observations to a wide variety of users.

  19. Evaluation of simplified dna extraction methods for EMM typing of group a streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose JJM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simplified methods of DNA extraction for amplification and sequencing for emm typing of group A streptococci (GAS can save valuable time and cost in resource crunch situations. To evaluate this, we compared two methods of DNA extraction directly from colonies with the standard CDC cell lysate method for emm typing of 50 GAS strains isolated from children with pharyngitis and impetigo. For this, GAS colonies were transferred into two sets of PCR tubes. One set was preheated at 94oC for two minutes in the thermal cycler and cooled while the other set was frozen overnight at -20oC and then thawed before adding the PCR mix. For the cell lysate method, cells were treated with mutanolysin and hyaluronidase before heating at 100oC for 10 minutes and cooling immediately as recommended in the CDC method. All 50 strains could be typed by sequencing the hyper variable region of the emm gene after amplification. The quality of sequences and the emm types identified were also identical. Our study shows that the two simplified DNA extraction methods directly from colonies can conveniently be used for typing a large number of GAS strains easily in relatively short time.

  20. Prototype for Internet support of pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes: focus group testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfsson A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson,1,2 Malin Jansson1,21School of Life Sciences, University of Skovde, Skovde, Sweden; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to pilot test a prototype website called MODIAB-web designed to support pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes.Method: A focus group was undertaken and the results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results: Eight subthemes were identified, comprising "blood glucose versus insulin," "application for smart phones," "the time aspect," "interface and technology," "forum," "direct link to the diabetes midwife," "ask the expert," and "lack of contact information." These subthemes were condensed into two main themes. The first theme was "easily understood interface, but in need of a more blood-glucose focused orientation" and the second theme was "forum for interaction with both equals and experts." Conclusion: The women in this study had positive impressions of several of the MODIAB-web functions, including a forum for pregnant mothers with type 1 diabetes and the possibility of being able to put their blood glucose levels into a diagram which could be sent directly to the diabetes midwife. Access to articles and information via the "fact" tab and the ability to ask questions of experts were also significantly helpful to women in the focus group. Pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes can gain support from such a Web-based self-help system.Keywords: type 1 diabetes, web support, pregnancy, focus group interview

  1. Some non-trivial Kazhdan-Lusztig coefficients of an affine Weyl group of type _n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCOTT; Leonard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that the leading coeficient μ(y,w) of some Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials Py,w with y,w in an affine Weyl group of type n is n + 2.This fact has some consequences on the dimension of first extension groups of finite groups of Lie type with irreducible coefficients.

  2. The Possible Topologic structure Types of Orthopyroxene with Space Group P21ca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗谷风; 林承毅; 等

    1990-01-01

    The possible topologic structure types of orthopyroxene with space group P21ca comprise four kinds of tetrahedral chains and four kinds of octahedral sites.all of which are non-equivalent in symmetry,In these structure types,the skew of the octahedral layers has a sequence of ++--,There are sixteen possible combination forms for the rotation type of tetradral chain.Twelve of them violate Thompson 's sparity rule and the remainder constitutes two pairs.In each pair,the two polar forms show a relationship of anti-orientation for their polar a-axes.Thus,there are only two possible different topologic structure types for P21ca-orthopyroxene.The ratios of O-rotated and S-rotated tetrahedral chains for these two structure types are 3:1 and 1:3,respectively,In the view S-rotated tetrahedral chains for these two structure types are 3:1 and 1:3,respectively,In the view of crystallochemical principle,the most likely form is the one with a ratio of 3:1,and its constitutions of two stacks of I-beam,which are non-equivalent both in symmetry and in topology,are and the configurations of the two types of M2 sites are P.P and P.N,respectively,A complementary twinning on(100) would be formed between the anti-oriented structure pairs,and their twin boundary is exactly equivalent to the inversion boundary,Moreover,it is possible that the ordered structure would appear when the atom ratio of Mg:Fe is equal to 3:1 as well as to 1:1。

  3. Effectiveness of individual and group interventions for people with type 2 diabetes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazu, Maria Fernanda Manoel; Faria, Barbara Nascimento; de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Sales, Catarina Aparecida; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the effectiveness of two educational interventions used by a healthcare provider in the monitoring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), regarding knowledge of the disease, impact on quality of life and adoption of self-care actions. METHODS: comparative, longitudinal, prospective study performed with 150 subjects with type 2 diabetes, analyzed according to the type of participation in the program (individual and/or group). Participants of the individual intervention (II) received nursing consultations every six months and those of the group intervention (GI) took part in weekly meetings for three months. Data were collected through four questionnaires: Identification questionnaire, Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID), Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire (SDSCA) and the Diabetes Knowledge Scale (DKN-A). Data were analyzed using the Friedman and Mann Whitney tests, considering a statistical significance of p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: there was an increase in knowledge about the disease in the II (p<0.003) and GI (p<0.007), with reduction of the impact on the quality of life in the II (p<0.007) and improvement in self-care actions in the GI (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: in both intervention models improvements were observed in the indicators, over the six month monitoring period. PMID:26039289

  4. Association of Tissue mRNA and Serum Antigen Levels of Members of the Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator System with Clinical and Prognostic Parameters in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Al-Janabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the mRNA expression and protein levels of uPA system components in tissue specimens and serum samples, respectively, from prostate cancer (PCa patients and to assess their association with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival (OS. The mRNA expression levels of uPA, its receptor (uPAR, and its inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 were analyzed in corresponding malignant and adjacent nonmalignant tissue specimens from 132 PCa patients by quantitative PCR. Preoperative serum samples from 81 PCa patients were analyzed for antigen levels of uPA system members by ELISA. RNA levels of uPA system components displayed significant correlations with each other in the tumor tissues. A significantly decreased uPA mRNA expression in PCa compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissue was detected. High uPA mRNA level was significantly associated with a high Gleason score. Elevated concentration of soluble uPAR (suPAR in serum was significantly associated with a poor OS of PCa patients (P=0.022. PCa patients with high suPAR levels have a significantly higher risk of death (multivariate Cox’s regression analysis; HR=7.12, P=0.027. The association of high suPAR levels with poor survival of PCa patients suggests a prognostic impact of suPAR levels in serum of cancer patients.

  5. Enhanced antigen uptake by dendritic cells induced by the B pentamer of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa requires engagement of TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Nawar, Hesham F; Mandell, Lorrie; Liang, Shuang; Hajishengallis, George; Connell, Terry D

    2010-05-07

    The potent mucosal adjuvant properties of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa of Escherichia coli are dependent upon binding of the B pentamer of the enterotoxin (LT-IIa-B(5)) to ganglioside receptors on immunocompetent cells. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activities of LT-IIa-B(5), in vitro experiments employing bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) were performed. Uptake of OVA-FITC, a model antigen (Ag), was enhanced by treatment of BMDC with LT-IIa-B5, but not by treatment of cells with the B pentamer of cholera toxin (CTB). Expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC-II) and cytokines (IL-12p40, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) was increased in BMDC treated with LT-IIa-B(5). The capacity of LT-IIa-B(5) to enhance Ag uptake and to induce expression of co-stimulatory receptors and cytokines by BMDC was dependent upon expression of TLR2 by the cell. Increased Ag uptake induced by LT-IIa-B(5) was correlated with increased Ag-specific proliferation of CD4(+) T cells in an in vitro syngeneic DO11.10 CD4(+) T cell proliferation assay. These experiments confirm that LT-IIa-B(5) exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties which may be exploitable as a non-toxic mucosal adjuvant.

  6. Typing of feline calicivirus isolates from different clinical groups by virus neutralisation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S; McArdle, F; Bennett, M; Carter, M; Milton, I P; Turner, P; Meanger, J; Gaskell, R M

    1993-07-03

    One hundred and thirteen isolates of feline calicivirus originating from seven different clinical groups were typed by virus neutralisation tests using eight different cat antisera. The clinical groups comprised 'healthy' cats, cases of acute oral/respiratory disease, chronic stomatitis, acute febrile lameness syndrome, vaccine reactions (clinical disease seen within 21 days of vaccination) and vaccine breakdowns (clinical disease seen more than 21 days after but within one year of vaccination). Isolates from the vaccine reaction cases were grouped into those associated with acute oral/respiratory disease alone and those associated with the lameness syndrome, and the latter group was further subdivided according to the vaccine used. Two groups appeared significantly different from others with some of the antisera. Thus the lameness vaccine reaction isolates associated with vaccine B were significantly different from the isolates from all the other clinical groups, including other lameness isolates, with a number of the antisera. In addition, the chronic stomatitis isolates were significantly different from those from the 'healthy' and the acute oral/respiratory disease groups with one or two of the antisera. Eighty-five to 88 per cent of the isolates were neutralised by antisera raised against F9 or F9-like vaccine strains at a dilution of 1 in 2. Twenty antibody units of such antisera neutralised 42 to 80 per cent of the isolates. A bivalent antiserum raised against a vaccine F9 strain and field strain LS015 neutralised 96 per cent of the isolates at a dilution of 1 in 2, and 20 antibody units neutralised 68 per cent of isolates. Antisera to field strain F65 neutralised all the remaining isolates at a dilution of 1 in 2 and 44 per cent of the remaining isolates at a dilution of 20 antibody units. Therefore, strains LS015 and F65 may be of use in the production of a polyvalent feline calicivirus vaccine, together with the widely used strain F9.

  7. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Grace J; Hoskins, Andrew J; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics.

  8. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace J Sutton

    Full Text Available Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor, a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics.

  9. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Grace J.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics. PMID:26674073

  10. Epidemiology and emm types of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Finland, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, P W; Lindholm, L; Lyytikäinen, O; Jalava, J; Pätäri-Sampo, A; Vuopio, J

    2015-10-01

    Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) infections are a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. We analysed the surveillance data on invasive GAS and the microbiological characteristics of corresponding isolates to assess the incidence and emm type distribution of invasive GAS infections in Finland. Cases defined as patients with isolations of blood and cerebrospinal fluid S. pyogenes are mandatorily notified to the National Infectious Disease Registry and sent to the national reference laboratory for emm typing. Antimicrobial data were collected through the network including all clinical microbiology laboratories. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed to assess clonality. In total, 1165 cases of invasive GAS were reported in Finland during 2008-2013; the median age was 52 years (range, 0-100) and 54% were male. The overall day 7 case fatality rate was 5.1% (59 cases). The average annual incidence was 3.6 cases per 100,000 population. A total of 1122 invasive GAS isolates (96%) were analysed by emm typing; 72 different emm types were identified, of which emm28 (297 isolates, 26%), emm89 (193 isolates, 12%) and emm1 (132 isolates, 12%) were the most common types. During 2008-2013, an increase of erythromycin resistance (1.9% to 8.7%) and clindamycin (0.9% to 9.2%) was observed. This resistance increase was in parallel with the introduction of a novel clone emm33 into Finland. The overall incidence of invasive GAS infections remained stable over the study period in Finland. We identified clonal spread of macrolide-resistant invasive emm33 GAS type, highlighting the importance of molecular surveillance.

  11. DNA polymorphism analysis of candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Mexican ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Martínez, S E; Islas-Andrade, S; Machorro-Lazo, M V; Revilla, M C; Juárez, R E; Mújica-López, K I; Morán-Moguel, M C; López-Cardona, M G; Sánchez-Corona, J

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder resulting from the action and interaction of many genetic and environmental factors. It has been reported that polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of glucose are associated with the susceptibility to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus increases with age, as well as with obesity and hypertension, its prevalence and incidence are different among geographical regions and ethnic groups. In Mexico, a higher prevalence and incidence has been described in the south of the country, and differences between urban and rural communities have been observed. We studied 73 individuals from Santiago Jamiltepec, a small indigenous community from Oaxaca State, Mexico. This population has shown a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the Pst I (insulin gene), Nsi I (insulin receptor gene) and Gly972Arg (insulin receptor substrate 1 gene) polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension in this population. Clinical evaluation consisted of BMI and blood pressure measurements, and biochemical assays consisted of determination of fasting plasma insulin and glucose levels. PCR and restriction enzyme digestion analysis were applied to genomic DNA to identify the three polymorphisms. From statistical analysis carried out here, individually, the Pst I, Nsi I and Gly972Arg polymorphisms were not associated with the type 2 diabetes, obese or hypertensive phenotypes in this population. Nevertheless, there was an association between the Nsi I and Pst I polymorphisms and increased serum insulin levels.

  12. Overexpression of a Novel Lymphocyte Population, Positive for an Intracellular CD14-Like Antigen, in Patients Positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dan; Hoffman, Michael; Yust, Israel; Fried, Mordechai; Bleiberg, Margalit; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    CD14, originally recognized as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, has recently been implicated in the process of T-cell suppression and apoptosis. Its soluble form has been shown to bind, in vitro, to human T cells, a process that may carry a negative signal onto these cells. We recently described a novel lymphocyte population in human peripheral blood, a population that expresses an intracellular CD14-like antigen. This novel T-cell population, composed mainly of CD8 cells and of very few CD4 cells, was found to be greatly enhanced in asymptomatic, untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. In the present study, we further characterized this cell population and found that it differed from other CD8 subpopulations associated with HIV infection such as CD8/CD38. In addition, we followed HIV patients under conditions of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and observed two groups of patients: patients in whom the CD14-like positive-testing T cells returned to normal within 1 to 3 months, and patients in whom it did not, in spite of a significant plasma HIV-RNA viral load decrease. Thus, this new CD14-like positive-testing lymphocyte population may represent an interesting and important component of the cellular events associated with HIV infection. On the basis of its modulation following HAART, we speculate that it may be used, in the future, as a drug-monitoring cellular marker in antiretroviral treatment. PMID:15539503

  13. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Peter A. [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Roming, Peter W. A. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Corporation, P.O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, TX 78228-0510 (United States); Bufano, Filomena [Universidad Andres Bello, Departmento de Cincias Fisicas, Avda. Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Codes 660.1 and 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  14. [An object-based information extraction technology for dominant tree species group types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Fan, Wen-yi; Lu, Wei; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    Information extraction for dominant tree group types is difficult in remote sensing image classification, howevers, the object-oriented classification method using high spatial resolution remote sensing data is a new method to realize the accurate type information extraction. In this paper, taking the Jiangle Forest Farm in Fujian Province as the research area, based on the Quickbird image data in 2013, the object-oriented method was adopted to identify the farmland, shrub-herbaceous plant, young afforested land, Pinus massoniana, Cunninghamia lanceolata and broad-leave tree types. Three types of classification factors including spectral, texture, and different vegetation indices were used to establish a class hierarchy. According to the different levels, membership functions and the decision tree classification rules were adopted. The results showed that the method based on the object-oriented method by using texture, spectrum and the vegetation indices achieved the classification accuracy of 91.3%, which was increased by 5.7% compared with that by only using the texture and spectrum.

  15. Comparison of renormalization group schemes for sine-Gordon type models

    CERN Document Server

    Nandori, I; Sailer, K; Trombettoni, A

    2009-01-01

    We consider the scheme-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) flow obtained in the local potential approximation for two-dimensional periodic, sine-Gordon type field-theoric models with possible inclusion of explicit mass terms. For sine-Gordon type models showing up a Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii type phase transition the Wegner-Houghton, the Polchinski, the functional Callan-Symanzik and the effective average action RG methods give qualitatively the same result and the critical frequency (temperature) can be obtained scheme-independently from the RG equations linearized around the Gaussian fixed point. For the massive sine-Gordon model which undergoes an Ising type phase transition, the Wegner-Houghton, the functional Callan-Symanzik and the effective average action RG methods provide the same scheme-independent phase structure and value for the critical ratio, in agreement with the results of lattice methods. It is also shown that RG equations linearized around the Gaussian fixed point produce sch...

  16. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for the analysis of some jet and diesel fuel samples which were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Thirty-two samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were obtained. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA) analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Recently, rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been proposed for hydrocarbon group type analysis, with some suggestion for their use as a replacement of the FIA technique. Two of these methods were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  17. Using computerized text analysis to assess communication within an Italian type 1 diabetes Facebook group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Troncone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess messages posted by mothers of children with type 1 diabetes in the Italian Facebook group “Mamme e diabete” using computerized text analysis. The data suggest that these mothers use online discussion boards as a place to seek and provide information to better manage the disease’s daily demands—especially those tasks linked to insulin correction and administration, control of food intake, and bureaucratic duties, as well as to seek and give encouragement and to share experiences regarding diabetes and related impact on their life. The implications of these findings for the management of diabetes are discussed.

  18. Simulating the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Rogge, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance...... failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs...

  19. Freudenthal Duality in Gravity: from Groups of Type E7 to Pre-Homogeneous Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Freudenthal duality can be defined as an anti-involutive, non-linear map acting on symplectic spaces. It was introduced in four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein theories coupled to a non-linear sigma model of scalar fields. In this short review, I will consider its relation to the U-duality Lie groups of type E7 in extended supergravity theories, and comment on the relation between the Hessian of the black hole entropy and the pseudo-Euclidean, rigid special (pseudo)Kaehler metric of the pre-homogeneous spaces associated to the U-orbits.

  20. Using computerized text analysis to assess communication within an Italian type 1 diabetes Facebook group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncone, Alda; Cascella, Crescenzo; Chianese, Antonietta; Iafusco, Dario

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess messages posted by mothers of children with type 1 diabetes in the Italian Facebook group "Mamme e diabete" using computerized text analysis. The data suggest that these mothers use online discussion boards as a place to seek and provide information to better manage the disease's daily demands-especially those tasks linked to insulin correction and administration, control of food intake, and bureaucratic duties, as well as to seek and give encouragement and to share experiences regarding diabetes and related impact on their life. The implications of these findings for the management of diabetes are discussed.

  1. Randers metrics of Berwald type on four-dimensional hypercomplex Lie groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghaddam, H R Salimi [Department of Mathematics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hrsalimi@shahroodut.ac.ir

    2009-03-06

    In the present paper we study Randers metrics of Berwald type on simply connected four-dimensional real Lie groups admitting invariant hypercomplex structure. On these spaces, the Randers metrics arising from invariant hyper-Hermitian metrics are considered. Then we give explicit formulae for computing the flag curvature of these metrics. By this study we construct two four-dimensional Berwald spaces, one of them with a non-negative flag curvature and the other one with a non-positive flag curvature.

  2. Weyl Modules for Groups of Type B(2) and G(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John G. M.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. In this thesis we determine the submodule structure of a number of Weyl modules for algebraic groups with root systems B_2 and G_2 . We use the Jantzen sum formula to find the composition factors of Weyl modules and go on to use homomorphisms between Weyl modules, given by H. H. Andersen, and the comparison of two filtrations of tensor products of Weyl modules to establish submodule structure. A computer program in the Prolog language is given which calculates the Jantzen sum formula. In addition we find one 2-dimensional Ext group for simple modules for type G_2 in characteristic greater than or equal to 7.

  3. A group sequential type design for three-arm non-inferiority trials with binary endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Gao, Shan

    2010-08-01

    The three-arm design with a test treatment, an active control and a placebo group is the gold standard design for non-inferiority trials if it is ethically justifiable to expose patients to placebo. In this paper, we first use the closed testing principle to establish the hierarchical testing procedure for the multiple comparisons involved in the three-arm design. For the effect preservation test we derive the explicit formula for the optimal allocation ratios. We propose a group sequential type design, which naturally accommodates the hierarchical testing procedure. Under this proposed design, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the sequential effect preservation test when the variance of the test statistic is estimated based on the restricted maximum likelihood estimators of the response rates under the null hypothesis. When there are uncertainties for the placebo response rate, the proposed design demonstrates better operating characteristics than the fixed sample design.

  4. Dengue viruses cluster antigenically but not as discrete serotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Katzelnick (Leah); J.M. Fonville (Judith); G.D. Gromowski (Gregory D.); J.B. Arriaga (Jose Bustos); A. Green (Angela); S.L. James (Sarah ); L. Lau (Louis); M. Montoya (Magelda); C. Wang (Chunling); L.A. Van Blargan (Laura A.); C.A. Russell (Colin); H.M. Thu (Hlaing Myat); T.C. Pierson (Theodore C.); P. Buchy (Philippe); J.G. Aaskov (John G.); J.L. Muñoz-Jordán (Jorge L.); N. Vasilakis (Nikos); R.V. Gibbons (Robert V.); R.B. Tesh (Robert B.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A. Durbin (Anna); C.P. Simmons (Cameron P.); E.C. Holmes (Edward C.); E. Harris (Eva); S.S. Whitehead (Stephen S.); D.J. Smith (Derek James)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe four genetically divergent dengue virus (DENV) types are traditionally classified as serotypes. Antigenic and genetic differences among the DENV types influence disease outcome, vaccine-induced protection, epidemic magnitude, and viral evolution.We scharacterized antigenic diversity

  5. Psychoeducative groups help control type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cervantes Cuesta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of a psychoeducational group intervention in diabetes using glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, the body mass index (BMI and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF compared with conventional educational measures provided individually. Methods: A quasi-experimental study (pre/post-intervention with a non-equivalent control group was conducted, including 72 type 2 individuals with diabetes (mean data: age 63.08 years, HbA1C 6.98%, BMI 30.48 kg/m². The beneficial effect of psychoeducational group therapy in the study group (PGT was compared with conventional diabetes education in the control group (CG. Results: The PGT had a higher mean HbA1c reduction (-0.51 ± 1.7 vs. -0.06 ± 0.53%, p 0.003, met the objectives of optimal control of HbA1c to a higher degree (80% vs. 48%, p 0.005 and greater mean weight reduction (-1.93 ± 3.57 vs. 0.52 ± 1.73 kg, p 0002 than the CG.A significant improvement in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was achieved in PGT (all p < 0.05. Conclusions: PGT patients achieved a significant improvement in HbA1C, BMI and CVRF, and outperformed the conventional diabetes education group in achieving the optimal diabetes control objectives. Structural changes in the assistance programs should be considered to introduce these more efficient therapies for diabetes education in primary care.

  6. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  7. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  8. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langerak Ankie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. Results A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila, C. muridarum (Chlamydia and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 – 500 base pairs from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F. The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania

  9. Tangles of type $E_n$ and a reducibility criterion for the Cohen-Wales representation of the Artin group of type $E_6$

    CERN Document Server

    Levaillant, Claire I

    2011-01-01

    We introduce tangles of type $E_n$ and construct a representation of the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebra (BMW algebra) of type $E_6$. As a representation of the Artin group of type $E_6$, this representation is equivalent to the faithful Cohen-Wales representation of type $E_6$ that was used to show the linearity of the Artin group of type $E_6$. We find a reducibility criterion for this representation and complex values of the parameters for which the algebra is not semisimple.

  10. Cysteine proteinase type III is protective against Leishmania infantum infection in BALB/c mice and highly antigenic in visceral leishmaniasis individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgoo, Naghmeh; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Azizi, Hiva; Taslimi, Yasaman; Alonso, Maribel Jiménez; Rafati, Sima

    2008-10-29

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most acute form of leishmaniasis and vaccination is the best approach to control it. One of the major groups of virulence factors in Leishmania belongs to cysteine proteinase family. In this study, for the first time, the protective potential of Leishmania infantum cysteine proteinase type III (CPC) by using a prime-boost strategy is evaluated in BALB/c mice. The experiment was carried out in three groups of mice. Vaccinated group was primed with pcDNA-cpc and boosted with rCPC-DHFR in combination with CpG motif and Montanide 720 as adjuvant. Control groups received pcDNA and rDHFR or PBS. The ratio of IgG2a/IgG1, nitric oxide concentration and IFN-gamma induction in vaccinated group is significantly higher than controls. Furthermore, the parasite load of vaccinated group is significantly lower than controls. In addition, sera reactivity of visceral leishmaniasis individuals was examined and showed considerable reactivities toward rCPC in comparison with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The achieved result is highly encouraging the use of cysteine proteinases types I, II and III as vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. Further characterization of protective Trypanosoma cruzi-specific CD4+ T-cell clones: T helper type 1-like phenotype and reactivity with shed trypomastigote antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the isolation from immune mice of a panel of murine clonal T-cell lines which specifically recognize antigens expressed by the trypomastigote stage of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas' disease. Our analysis indicated that distinct clones which recognize common as well as strain-specific antigenic determinants were represented. The immunoprotective potential of several of these T-cell clones was demonstrated by adoptive transf...

  12. New Developments in Mass Spectrometry for Group-Type Analysis of Petroleum Cuts (First Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafet A.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of petroleum cuts constitutes a necessary stage to perfect understanding of the reaction mechanisms and to the description of the kinetics of certain refining processes such as hydrotreating or catalytic cracking. Mass spectrometry (MS, thanks to group-type quantitative analysis methods, enables to access detailed description of complex hydrocarbon mixtures such as middle distillates or heavy cuts such as vacuum distillates. But these methods are also subject to some drawbacks and we shall expose, thereunder, two examples of improvements. In a first part, the accuracy of MS quantification of thiophenic sulphured compounds in middle distillates is studied by intertechnique comparison with the results obtained by gas phase chromatography coupled to sulphur-specific detection by chemiluminescence (GC/SCD. Improving on the MS method is suggested. In the second part, a new system for introducing the sample in the spectrometer source, dedicated to group-type analysis of heavy cuts is described. Its validation, by comparison of the MS results to those of liquid chromatography (LC as well as its performances, is exposed.

  13. Immune responses to chlamydial antigens in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, L; Kerlan, R; Senyk, G; Stites, D P; Juster, R P; Jawetz, E

    1982-01-01

    Antibody titer, lymphocyte stimulation and leukocyte migration inhibition with chlamydial antigens were determined repeatedly over many months on human subjects. The volunteers were retrospectively placed into four groups on the basis of clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic criteria. Group A consisted of persons with proven or probable chlamydial infection, including an illness confirmed by chlamydial isolation or seroconversion, or a clinically compatible illness with positive serologic results. Group B were sexual partners or close contacts of group A individuals. Group C were laboratory workers with prolonged exposure to viable chlamydiae or their antigens. Group D included persons of comparable age as those in groups A and B, but lacking a history of symptomatic chlamydial infection or of contact with chlamydiae. Individual cases illustrated the rise of antibody and some cell mediated immunity reactions (CMI) with active chlamydial infection. By contrast, laboratory exposure resulted in elevation of CMI but not of antibody. Statistical analysis of the results in 46 volunteers tested repeatedly indicated a strong association of specific antibody with lymphocyte stimulation, but not with leukocyte migration inhibition. Regression analysis suggested that the type of exposure markedly influenced the relationship between antibody and lymphocyte stimulation. Measurement of immunotype-specific antibody titer by microimmunofluorescence (or an equally sensitive method) remains the best laboratory indicator of past chlamydial infection. Neither antibody nor CMI can, as yet, be definitely related to resistance to re-infection in humans.

  14. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I

    1990-01-01

    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.

  15. Localized bullous pemphigoid: report of a case with an immunofluorescence and electron microscopical studies on the lesional distribution of 180-KD bullous pemphigoid antigen, beta 4 integrin, and type VII collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Y; Suzuki, M; Johkura, Y; Yaoita, H

    1993-07-01

    A 67-year-old woman with a left-sided hemiplegia had localized bullous pemphigoid demonstrating typical clinical lesions on the left pretibial skin and the radial-side skin of the right forearm. The histology showed a subepidermal blister with extensive hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, and acanthosis. Direct immunofluorescence revealed distinct linear deposits of IgG and C3 at the dermo-epidermal junction in the perilesional skin and in the roof of the blisters, but few deposits in nonlesional skin. Electron microscopy revealed separation in the lamina lucida. Indirect immunofluorescence of type VII collagen showed its localization in the blister floor. The distribution of the 180-KD bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA) and beta 4 integrin, hemidesmosomal transmembrane proteins, were studied in the lesional skin by indirect immunofluorescence. Both 180-KD BPA and beta 4 integrin were localized in the blister roof. By immunoelectron microscopy, beta 4 integrin was detected in small groups on the cell surface facing the blister cavity. Since the epitope of the monoclonal antibody to 180-KD BPA used here is known to be localized at a distance of 20 to 50 nm from the membrane surface and this epitope retained in the blister roof, it appears that the blister was produced in the deep lamina lucida. The lesions were cleared with topical 0.05% clobetasole propionate ointment.

  16. 多重PCR筛选K、Ytb血型抗原的方法研究%Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction system for screening low-frequency blood group antigens K and Ytb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莉; 贺云蕾; 库热西江; 叶璐夷; 朱自严

    2014-01-01

    Objective A multiplex PCR system for screening rare blood group antigens K and Ytb was constructed to study the distribution of the two blood groups in a Uygur population in Xinjiang,China.Methods Sequence-specific primers (SSP) were designed based on single nucleotide polymorphism sites of KEL and ACHE alleles encoding the two blood group antigens.The system was designed for simultaneously detecting the two antigens by optimizing the PCR reaction.Three hundred and sixty-two randomly selected healthy individuals were screened.Products of PCR were further analyzed for heterozygnsity.Results The system was set up successfully.No KK sample was identified and 9 K+k+,41 Yt (a+b+),4 Yt (a-b +) were found among the 362 samples.Conclusion The established PCR-SSP based multiple PCR system is efficient to screen the rare blood group antigens K and Ytb.The information of rare blood donors obtained from the screening can be used to improve the capability of compatible transfusion.%目的 建立筛选稀有血型抗原K、Ytb的多重PCR体系,了解这两种血型抗原在维吾尔族人群中的分布情况.方法 针对血型抗原K、Ytb的编码基因KEL和ACHE单核苷酸多态性位点设计序列特异性引物,通过优化PCR反应条件,构建可同时检测K、Ytb血型抗原的多重PCR体系,用该体系对362份新疆维吾尔族随机献血者样本进行相应抗原筛选,并对筛选到的稀有样本进行杂合性分析.结果 成功构建可同时检测低频血型抗原K、Ytb的多重PCR体系,362份维吾尔族样本中共检出9例K+k+,41例Yt(a+b+),4例Yt(a-b+).结论 建立的检测K、Ytb血型抗原的多重PCR体系简便有效.通过筛选所获得的维吾尔族稀有血型数据,可为临床输注配合性血液提供参考资料.

  17. Synthesis and Monolayer Behaviors of Succinic Acid-Type Gemini Surfactants Containing Semifluoroalkyl Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Nagase, Youhei; Oida, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, novel succinic acid-type gemini surfactants containing semifluoroalkyl groups, dl- and meso-2,3-bis[Rf-(CH2)n]-succinic acids (Rf = C4F9, C6F13, C8F17; n = 2, 9), were successfully synthesized, and the effects of Rf, methylene chain length (n), and stereochemistry on their monolayer behaviors were studied. Critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of dl- and meso-2,3-bis[C4F9(CH2)9]-succinic acids were one order of magnitude smaller than that of the corresponding 1+1 type surfactant, C4F9(CH2)9COOH. From surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements, the lift-off areas of the geminis were found to decrease in the order C4F9 ≥ C6F13 > C8F17, regardless of methylene chain length and stereochemistry. The zero-pressure molecular areas of the geminis were twice those of the corresponding 1+1 type surfactants. Based on Gibbs compression modulus analysis, it was clarified that 2,3-bis[C8F17(CH2)n]-succinic gemini with short methylene chains (n = 2) would form more rigid monolayers than those having long methylene chains (n = 9). Unlike for 2,3-bis(alkyl)-succinic acids, the effects of stereochemistry on the monolayer behavior of semifluoroalkylated geminis were small.

  18. Assignment of Staphylococcus isolates to groups by spa typing, SmaI macrorestriction analysis, and multilocus sequence typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strommenger, B; Kettlitz, C; Weniger, T; Harmsen, D; Friedrich, A W; Witte, W

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of the new clustering algorithm Based Upon Repeat Pattern (BURP) into the Ridom StaphType software tool enables clustering based on spa typing data for Staphylococcus aureus. We compared clustering results obtained by spa typing/BURP to those obtained by currently well-established

  19. Transformation Groups for a Schwarzschild-Type Geometry in f(R Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Dil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We know that the Lorentz transformations are special relativistic coordinate transformations between inertial frames. What happens if we would like to find the coordinate transformations between noninertial reference frames? Noninertial frames are known to be accelerated frames with respect to an inertial frame. Therefore these should be considered in the framework of general relativity or its modified versions. We assume that the inertial frames are flat space-times and noninertial frames are curved space-times; then we investigate the deformation and coordinate transformation groups between a flat space-time and a curved space-time which is curved by a Schwarzschild-type black hole, in the framework of f(R gravity. We firstly study the deformation transformation groups by relating the metrics of the flat and curved space-times in spherical coordinates; after the deformation transformations we concentrate on the coordinate transformations. Later on, we investigate the same deformation and coordinate transformations in Cartesian coordinates. Finally we obtain two different sets of transformation groups for the spherical and Cartesian coordinates.

  20. Genetic variants of human T-lymphotrophic virus type II in American Indian groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, R J; Taylor, M E; Neel, J V; Hjelle, B; Levine, P H; Black, F L; Shaw, G M; Sharp, P M; Hahn, B H

    1996-02-01

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is found in many New World Indian groups in North and South America and may have entered the New World from Asia with the earliest migration of ancestral Amerindians over 15,000 years ago. To characterize the phylogenetic relationships of HTLV-II strains infecting geographically diverse Indian populations, we used polymerase chain reaction to amplify HTLV-II sequences from lymphocytes of seropositive Amerindians from Brazil (Kraho, Kayapo, and Kaxuyana), Panama (Guaymi), and the United States (the Navajo and Pueblo tribes of the southwestern states and the Seminoles of Florida). Sequence analysis of a 780-base pair fragment (located between the env gene and the second exons of tax/rex) revealed that Amerindian viruses clustered in the same two genetic subtypes (IIa and IIb) previously identified for viruses from intravenous drug users. Most infected North and Central American Indians had subtype IIb, while HTLV-II infected members of three remote Amazonian tribes clustered as a distinct group within subtype IIa. These findings suggest that the ancestral Amerindians migrating to the New World brought at least two genetic subtypes, IIa and IIb. Because HTLV-II strains from Amazonian Indians form a distinct group within subtype HTLV-IIa, these Brazilian tribes are unlikely to be the source of IIa viruses in North American drug users. Finally, the near identity of viral sequences from geographically diverse populations indicate that HTLV-II is a very ancient virus of man.

  1. The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin across racial groups in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James R; Davies, Melanie J; Davies, Michael; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Alba, Maria; Meininger, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, enhances urinary glucose excretion through an insulin-independent mode of action, and improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin across racial groups. The efficacy of canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg was evaluated by racial group using data pooled from four placebo-controlled phase 3 studies and two placebo-controlled sub-studies of a population of patients with inadequately controlled T2DM (N = 4158). Least-squares mean changes from baseline were calculated for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), body weight (BW), cholesterol, and triglycerides. Safety/tolerability evaluation included reporting of general and prespecified adverse events (AEs). A total of 75% of patients were White, 13% were Asian, 4% were Black/African American, and 8% were 'Other' (American Indian, Alaskan Native, mixed race, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, not reported, and unknown). Baseline demographics were similar for these groups. Dose-related reductions in HbA1c, BW, and SBP were observed with both canagliflozin doses in all racial groups. Canagliflozin was generally safe and well tolerated. Treatment with canagliflozin was associated with an increased rate of genital mycotic infections (GMIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in all racial groups. GMIs were observed more often in Black/African American males and males from the 'Other' racial group, whereas UTIs and osmotic diuresis-related AEs were less common in Asians. Key study limitations include the high proportion of White patients compared with other racial groups and the fact that included studies were not powered to evaluate racial differences. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated and consistently associated with reductions in HbA1c, BW, and SBP in patients with T2DM independent of racial background. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers: NCT

  2. Effects of type II collagen epitope carbamylation and citrullination in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4(+) monozygotic twins discordant for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, M; Ceribelli, A; Cavaciocchi, F; Generali, E; Massarotti, M; Isailovic, N; Crotti, C; Scherer, H U; Montecucco, C; Selmi, C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the native, citrullinated or carbamylated type II human collagen T cell- and B cell-epitopes on the adaptive immune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Peripheral blood T and B cells obtained from a human leucocyte D4-related (antigen DR4(-) HLA-DR4)(+) woman with early RA, her healthy monozygotic twin and an unrelated HLA-DR3(+) woman with early RA were analysed for activation (CD154/CD69), apoptosis (annexin/7-aminoactinomycin), cytokine production [interferon (IFN)γ/interleukin (IL)-17/IL-4/IL-10/IL-6] and functional phenotype (CD45Ra/CCR7) after stimulation with the collagen native T cell epitope (T261-273), the K264 carbamylated T cell epitope (carT261-273), the native B cell epitope (B359-369) or the R360 citrullinated B cell epitope (citB359-369), and the combinations of these. The T cell memory compartment was activated by T cell epitopes in both discordant DR4(+) twins, but not in the DR3(+) RA. The collagen-specific activation of CD4(+) T cells was induced with both the native and carbamylated T cell epitopes only in the RA twin. Both T cell epitopes also induced IL-17 production in the RA twin, but a greater IL-4 and IL-10 response in the healthy twin. The citrullinated B cell epitope, particularly when combined with the carbamylated T cell epitope, induced B cell activation and an increased IL-6/IL-10 ratio in the RA twin compared to a greater IL-10 production in the healthy twin. Our data suggest that circulating collagen-specific T and B cells are found in HLA-DR4(+) subjects, but only RA activated cells express co-stimulatory molecules and produce proinflammatory cytokines. Carbamylation and citrullination further modulate the activation and cytokine polarization of T and B cells.

  3. The effects of group type and young silverbacks on wounding rates in western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Austin; Boyer, Dawn; Ross, Stephen R; Lukas, Kristen E

    2015-01-01

    In North American zoos, male gorillas are often housed in all-male (bachelor) groups to provide socialization for males not managed in breeding groups. These groups exhibit long-term cohesion and stability and males in bachelor groups are no more aggressive than males in mixed-sex groups. Previous studies have shown that aggression in male gorillas is more directly related to age rather than group type, with young silverbacks (YSB; males 14-20 years of age) having higher rates of aggressive behavior than males of other age classes. Despite this, anecdotal reports have persisted that bachelor groups have higher wounding rates than mixed-sex groups. To assess wounding in zoo-housed gorillas, all instances of wounding across 28 zoos (180 gorillas, 45 social groups) were recorded over a 26 months period via a standardized data sheet. Similar to previous reports, we found age to be an important determinant in wounding. Bachelor groups that contained YSB's had significantly more wounds than bachelor groups without YSB's (U = 14.0, z = -2.193, P = 0.029). There was no difference in wounding rates between mixed-sex and bachelor groups without YSB's (U = 69.5, z = -0.411, P = 0.689). These data further demonstrate the importance of behavioral management of YSB's in zoos and the viability of bachelor groups as a long-term housing solution for male gorillas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Immune responses in human infections with Brugia malayi: specific cellular unresponsiveness to filarial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, W F; McGreevy, P B; Piessens, P W; McGreevy, M; Koiman, I; Saroso, J S; Dennis, D T

    1980-01-01

    We evaluated the cellular immune competence of 101 subjects living in an area of South Kalimantan (Borneo) where Malayan filariasis is endemic. All patients with elephantiasis but none with other clinical stages of filariasis reacted with adult worm antigens. The majority of subjects without clinical or parasitological evidence of filariasis and approximately one-half of those with amicrofilaremic filariasis reacted with microfilarial antigens. In contrast, most patients with patent microfilaremia did not respond to microfilarial antigens. The in vitro reactivity of all patient categories to nonparasite antigens was similar to that of the distant control group. These results indicate that patent microfilaremia is associated with a state of specific cellular immune unresponsiveness and are consistent with the current hypothesis that the various clinical manifestations of filariasis result from different types of immune responses to distinct antigens associated with different developmental stages of filarial worms. PMID:7350196

  5. Blood type biochemistry and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, D Rose; Sumner, Susan C J

    2016-11-01

    Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. In the 1950s, the chemical identification of the carbohydrate structure of surface antigens led to the understanding of biosynthetic pathways. The blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, which are specific to the antigens, thus, blood group antigens are secondary gene products, while the primary gene products are various glycosyltransferase enzymes that attach the sugar molecules to the oligosaccharide chain. Blood group antigens are found on red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes, plasma proteins, certain tissues, and various cell surface enzymes, and also exist in soluble form in body secretions such as breast milk, seminal fluid, saliva, sweat, gastric secretions, urine, and amniotic fluid. Recent advances in technology, biochemistry, and genetics have clarified the functional classifications of human blood group antigens, the structure of the A, B, H, and Lewis determinants and the enzymes that produce them, and the association of blood group antigens with disease risks. Further research to identify differences in the biochemical composition of blood group antigens, and the relationship to risks for disease, can be important for the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, or the identification of druggable targets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:517-535. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis have components that are immunochemically similar to precursors of human blood group antigens. Carbohydrate sequence specificity of the mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize crossreacting antigens on LOS and human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, R E; Griffiss, J M; Macher, B A

    1988-07-01

    We have used mouse mAbs, 3F11 and 06B4, that are specific for highly conserved epitopes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides (LOS) to identify immunochemically similar structures on human erythrocytes. mAb 3F11 agglutinated erythrocytes from all randomly selected adult humans, while mAb 06B4 agglutinated only 80% of the same specimens. The antibodies had an activity with erythrocytes similar to human cold agglutinins in that agglutination occurred at 4 degrees C and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Human infant erythrocytes were agglutinated less well, but enzymatic treatment of either infant or adult cells resulted in an increase in expression of the 3F11- and 06B4-defined epitopes. Both antibodies bound to a series of neutral glycosphingolipids from human erythrocytes and neutrophils that have a type 2 (Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc) or N-acetyllactosamine structure. Neither antibody bound to glycosphingolipids from human meconium, which have a type 1 (Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc) structure. The antibodies were unable to bind to N-acetyl-lactosamine glycosphingolipids with a nonreducing terminal sialic acid or a Gala1----3Gal disaccharide. Antibody binding also was blocked by the presence of fucose linked to the penultimate glucosamine residue of N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids. Although both antibodies bound to linear and branched-chain N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids, 3F11 had a higher affinity for branched structures than did 06B4. The activity of 3F11 with human adult and infant treated and untreated erythrocytes with N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids, and with LOS was very similar, if not identical, in specificity to 1B2, an mAb prepared from mice inoculated with a linear N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipid.

  7. Group-type separation and simulated distillation: a niche for SFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiebaut, D.R.P. [Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. Environnement et Chimie Analytique; Robert, E.C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in supercritical-fluid chromatography (SFC) of petroleum fractions are reviewed. Simulated distillation (Simdis) still requires some improvements of the hardware so that routine analysis of heavy fraction can be performed. Compared to gas-chromatography Simdis, SFC Simdis extends the range of this application up to C{sub 140} hydrocarbons while multi-detection would allow the differentiation of aromatic and non-aromatic hydrocarbons. SFC has been registered by ASTM for hydrocarbon group-type analysis using carbon dioxide. It enables fast separation of aromatic and non-aromatic fractions, sub-fractionation of aromatics and easier quantitation than in liquid chromatography. Resins and asphaltenes of heavier samples can be back flushed from the column. The method could be further improved for better resolution and quantitation via multiple detection and more selective stationary and mobile detection and more selective stationary and mobile phases (CO{sub 2}-SF{sub 6} mixtures for example). (authors)

  8. Outbreak of infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis group C type 2 in a nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Nieto, J A; Perucha, M; Casamayor, H; Marcen, J J; Llacer, A; Garcia-Barreno, B; Casal, J

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of meningococcal infection which took place in a nursery in Rioja, Spain, is reported. Between November 1981 and February 1982, 11 patients had meningitis with or without septicaemia. Two died. Three meningococcal strains from the patients isolated were studied. All three were group C type 2 and were resistant to sulphadiazine (MIC 50 mg/l) but susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and spiramycin. This outbreak took place during an epidemic in which serogroup B was the most prevalent in Spain. Two surveys before and after chemoprophylaxis were made to determine the carrier rate in the nursery population. The strain causing the outbreak was found in 2.5 and 4 per cent of persons respectively. Rifampicin was administered to all carriers after the first survey and to carriers of the virulent strain after the second survey. The remaining children were given polysaccharide C vaccine. No more cases arose after this last prophylactic measure.

  9. Solutions of Kapustin-Witten equations for ADE-type groups

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhi Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Kapustin-Witten (KW) equations are encountered in the localization of the topological N=4 SYM theory. Mikhaylov has constructed model solutions of KW equations for the boundary 't~Hooft operators on a half space. Direct proof of the solutions boils down to check a boundary condition. There are two computational difficulties in explicitly constructing the solutions to Lie algebra of higher rank. The first one is related to the commutation of generators of Lie algebra. We derived an identity which effectively reduces this computational difficulty. The second one involves the number of ways from the highest weights to other weights in the fundamental representation. For ADE-type gauge groups, we found an amazing formula which can be used to rewrite the solutions of KW equations. This new formula of solutions bypass above two computational difficulties.

  10. Walking for Well-Being: Are Group Walks in Certain Types of Natural Environments Better for Well-Being than Group Walks in Urban Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Warber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708 were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, depression (Major Depressive Inventory, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity.

  11. Bruxism frequency and dental occlusion type in a group of Mexican adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murrieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bruxism is a parafunctional habit characterized by the incessant action of grinding and clenching of the teeth improperly. It can occurred when dental occlusion is altered due to premature contacts between the teeth, and excursive occlusal interference. These conditions can alter the frequency, intensity and duration of the bruxism episode adopted. A transversal study was carried out to evaluate the frequency of the habit of bruxism and its relation with the type of dental occlusion in a group of teenagers. Material and method. A total of 278 teenagers were examined, who were signed up in high school. For the epidemiology survey, a questioner was applied and they were given a mouth exam for such end, an examiner was previously standardized (malocclusion kappa=0.89, bruxism kappa=0.93. Results. 51.5% of the teenagers presented bruxism being more frequent in the category of 17 years old with no difference of sex. The 81.4% showed some kind of dental malocclusion, out of which 57.6% were cases of malocclusion Class I, the 21.4% Class II and the 2.4% Class III, with no association noticed between both variables. Conclusion. The frequency of bruxism was high with similar distribution given the age as well as gender with no relation noticed with the type of dental occlusion or with the frequency of dental malocclusion.

  12. A consensus model for group decision making under interval type-2 fuzzy environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xiong ZHANG; Bing-feng GE; Yue-jin TAN

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new consensus model for group decision making (GDM) problems, using an interval type-2 fuzzy environment. In our model, experts are asked to express their preferences using linguistic terms characterized by interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs), because these can provide decision makers with greater freedom to express the vagueness in real-life situa-tions. Consensus and proximity measures based on the arithmetic operations of IT2 FSs are used simultaneously to guide the decision-making process. The majority of previous studies have taken into account only the importance of the experts in the aggregation process, which may give unreasonable results. Thus, we propose a new feedback mechanism that generates different advice strategies for experts according to their levels of importance. In general, experts with a lower level of importance require a larger number of suggestions to change their initial preferences. Finally, we investigate a numerical example and execute com-parable models and ours, to demonstrate the performance of our proposed model. The results indicate that the proposed model provides greater insight into the GDM process.

  13. The young binary HD 102077: Orbit, spectral type, kinematics, and moving group membership

    CERN Document Server

    Wöllert, Maria; Reffert, Sabine; Schlieder, Joshua E; Mohler-Fischer, Maren; Köhler, Rainer; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The K-type binary star HD 102077 was proposed as a candidate member of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA) which is a young (5-15 Myr) moving group in close proximity (~50 pc) to the solar system. The aim of this work is to verify this hypothesis by different means. We first combine diffraction-limited observations from the ESO NTT 3.5m telescope in SDSS-i' and -z' passbands and ESO 3.6m telescope in H-band with literature data to obtain a new, amended orbit fit, estimate the spectral types of both components, and reanalyse the Hipparcos parallax and proper motion taking the orbital motion into account. Moreover, we use two high-resolution spectra of HD 102077 obtained with the fibre-fed optical echelle spectrograph FEROS at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope to determine the radial velocity and the lithium equivalent width of the system. The trajectory of HD 102077 is well constrained and we derive a total system mass of $2.6 \\pm 0.8\\,$ M$_{\\odot}$ and a semi-major axis of $14.9 \\pm 1.6\\,$AU. From the i'-z' colours we i...

  14. Noncanonical sortase-mediated assembly of pilus type 2b in group B Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarin, Maddalena; Cozzi, Roberta; Malito, Enrico; Martinelli, Manuele; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Maione, Domenico; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C Daniela

    2015-11-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) expresses 3 structurally distinct pilus types (1, 2a, and 2b) identified as important virulence factors and vaccine targets. These pili are heterotrimeric polymers, covalently assembled on the cell wall by sortase (Srt) enzymes. We investigated the pilus-2b biogenesis mechanism by using a multidisciplinary approach integrating genetic, biochemical, and structural studies to dissect the role of the 2 pilus-2b-associated Srts. We show that only 1 sortase (SrtC1-2b) is responsible for pilus protein polymerization, whereas the second one (Srt2-2b) does not act as a pilin polymerase, but similarly to the housekeeping class A Srt (SrtA), it is involved in cell-wall pilus anchoring by targeting the minor ancillary subunit. Based on its function and sequence features, Srt2-2b does not belong to class C Srts (SrtCs), nor is it a canonical member of any other known family of Srts. We also report the crystal structure of SrtC1-2b at 1.9 Å resolution. The overall fold resembles the typical structure of SrtCs except for the N-terminal lid region that appears in an open conformation displaced from the active site. Our findings reveal that GBS pilus type 2b biogenesis differs significantly from the current model of pilus assembly in gram-positive pathogens.

  15. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  16. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  17. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  18. Evaluation of procedures for typing of group B Streptococcus: a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Background This study evaluates two procedures for typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci; GBS) isolates, using retrospective typing data from the period 2010 to 2014 with a commercial latex agglutination test (latex test) and the Lancefield precipitation test (LP test). Furthermore, the genotype distribution of phenotypically non-typable (NT) GBS isolates is presented. We also raise the awareness, that the difference in typing results obtained by phenotypical methods and genotype based methods may have implications on vaccine surveillance in case a GBS vaccine is introduced. Methods A total of 616 clinical GBS isolates from 2010 to 2014 were tested with both a latex test and the LP test. Among these, 66 isolates were genotyped by PCR, including 41 isolates that were phenotypically NT. Results The latex test provided a serotype for 83.8% of the isolates (95% CI [80.7–86.6]) compared to 87.5% (95% CI [84.6–90.0]) obtained by the LP method. The two assays provided identical capsular identification for all sero-typeable isolates (excluding NT isolates). The PCR assay provided a genotype designation to the 41 isolates defined as phenotypically NT isolates. Discussion We found that the latex test showed a slightly lower identification percentage than the LP test. Our recommendation is to use the latex agglutination as the routine primary assay for GBS surveillance, and then use the more labour intensive precipitation test on the NT isolates to increase the serotyping rate. A genotype could be assigned to all the phenotypically NT isolates, however, as a consequence genotyping will overestimate the coverage from possible future capsular polysaccharide based GBS vaccines. PMID:28321367

  19. Blood groups and red cell acid phosphatase types in a Mixteca population resident in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentello, L.; García, P.; Lisker, R.; Salamanca, F.; Peñaloza, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several blood groups, ABO, Rh, Ss, Fy, Jk, and red cell acid phosphatase (ACP) types were studied in a native Mixteca population that has resided in Mexico City since 1950. Gene frequencies were obtained and used to establish admixture estimates with blacks and whites. The subjects came from three different geographical areas: High Mixteca, Low Mixteca, and Coast Mixteca. All frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The difference in the ABO frequencies was statistically significant when subjects from the three areas were compared simultaneously. Rh frequencies differed only between the High and the Low Mixteca populations. The ACP frequencies were similar between the Low Mixteca population and a previously reported Mestizo population. However, there were significant differences between the High Mixteca group and a Mestizo population, all the subjects being from Oaxaca. This is the first report of Ss, Fy, Jk, and ACP frequencies in a Mixteca population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:525-529, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Group, field and isolated early-type galaxies II. Global trends from nuclear data

    CERN Document Server

    Denicolo, G; Terlevich, E; Forbes, D A; Terlevich, A I; Denicolo, Glenda; Terlevich, Roberto; Terlevich, Elena; Forbes, Duncan A.; Terlevich, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    We have derived ages, metallicities and enhanced-element ratios [alpha/Fe] for a sample of 83 early-type galaxies essentially in groups, the field or isolated objects. The stellar population properties derived for each galaxy corresponds to the nuclear r_e/8 aperture extraction. The median age found for Es is 5.8 +- 0.6 Gyr and the average metallicity is +0.37 +- 0.03 dex. For S0s, the median age is 3.0 +- 0.6 Gyr and [Z/H] = 0.53 +- 0.04 dex. We compare the distribution of our galaxies in the Hbeta-[MgFe] diagram with Fornax galaxies. Our elliptical galaxies are 3-4 Gyr younger than Es in the Fornax cluster. We find that the galaxies lie in a plane defined by [Z/H] = 0.99 log sigma_0 - 0.46 log Age - 1.60. More massive (larger sigma_0) and older galaxies present, on average, large [alpha/Fe] values, and therefore, must have undergone shorter star-formation timescales. Comparing group against field/isolated galaxies, it is not clear that environment plays an important role in determining their stellar populat...

  1. Case-Control Study: Smoking History Affects the Production of Tumor Antigen-Specific Antibodies NY-ESO-1 in Patients with Lung Cancer in Comparison with Cancer Disease-Free Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myšíková, Dagmar; Adkins, Irena; Hradilová, Nad'a; Palata, Ondřej; Šimonek, Jan; Pozniak, Jiří; Kolařík, Jan; Skallová-Fialová, Anna; Špíšek, Radek; Lischke, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide; therefore, understanding the biological or clinical role of tumor-associated antigens and autoantibodies is of eminent interest for designing antitumor immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we prospectively analyzed the serum frequencies of New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1), human epidermal growth factor 2/neu, and melanoma-associated antigen A4 (MAGE-A4) antibodies and expression of the corresponding antigens in tumors of 121 patients with NSCLC undergoing an operation without prior neoadjuvant chemotherapy and compared them with those in 57 control age-matched patients with no history of a malignant disease. We found that only antibodies specific for NY-ESO-1 (19.8% [n = 24 of 121]) were significantly increased in the group of patients with NSCLC compared with in the controls. NY-ESO-1 seropositivity was significantly positively associated with an active smoking history in patients with NSCLC but not in smokers from the control group. In tumors, the frequency of NY-ESO-1 mRNA expression was 6.3% (in four of 64 patients), the frequency of human epidermal growth factor 2/neu (HER 2/neu) expression was 11.9% (five of 42), and the frequency of MAGE-A4 expression was 35.1% (20 of 57). MAGE-A4 expression in tumors correlated with smoking status and male sex in patients with NSCLC. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma displayed higher expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A4 in tumors than did patients with adenocarcinoma. On the other hand, 94.7% of nonsmoking patients in our study had adenocarcinoma (of whom 73.7% were women). These results confirm the reported high immunogenicity of NY-ESO-1 and suggest that a smoking-induced chronic inflammatory state might potentiate the development of NY-ESO-1-specific immune responses. Moreover, smoking might contribute to the expression of other cancer/testis antigens such as MAGE-A4 at early stages of NSCLC development. Copyright © 2016

  2. Group participants' experiences of a patient-directed group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers-Jewell, Kate; Isenring, Elisabeth A; Thomas, Rae; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of individuals who participated in a group-based education program, including their motivators in relation to their diabetes management, and the perceived impact of group interactions on participants' experiences and motivation for self-management. Understanding individuals diagnosed with diabetes experiences of group-based education for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus may guide the development and facilitation of these programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all individuals who participated in the intervention. Using thematic analysis underpinned by self-determination theory, we developed themes that explored participants' motivators in relation to diabetes management and the impact of group interactions on their experiences and motivation. The key themes included knowledge, experience, group interactions and motivation. Participants perceived that the group interactions facilitated further learning and increased motivation, achieved through normalization, peer identification or by talking with, and learning from the experience of others. The results support the use of patient-centred programs that prioritize group interactions over the didactic presentation of content, which may address relevant psychological needs of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improve their motivation and health behaviours. Future group-based education programs may benefit from the use of self-determination theory as a framework for intervention design to enhance participant motivation.

  3. Dynamic virtual fixture on the Euclidean group for admittance-type manipulator in deforming environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongwen; Zhu, Qingsong; Xiong, Jing; Wang, Lei

    2014-04-27

    In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0 ~ 40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF controller jointly control the

  4. Antigenic variation of Streptococcus mutans colonizing gnotobiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratthall, D; Gibbons, R J

    1975-12-01

    Strains of Streptococcus mutans representative of serotypes b and d exhibited antigenic variation in both the oral cavity and in the intestinal canal of gnotobiotic rats. Laboratory-maintained cultures did not vary. The antigenic alterations observed were: (i) loss of detectable levels of both weakly reacting "strain" antigens and the type antigen; (ii) decreased production of the type antigen; (ii) production of altered type antigen; and (iv) production of an antigen not possessed by the parent strain. Immunization of animals before monoinfection with S. mutans strain Bob-1 (serotype d) appeared to increase the rate of emergence of antigenically altered mutants in the intestinal canal, and more diversely altered isolates were obtained. Antigenic variation may account in part for the variation noted by several investigators in attempting to immunize animals against S. mutans-induced dental caries.

  5. Use of thermolytic protective groups to prevent G-tetrad formation in CpG ODN type D: structural studies and immunomodulatory activity in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Montserrat; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Ausín, Cristina; Beaucage, Serge L; Verthelyi, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) show promise as immunoprotective agents and vaccine adjuvants. CpG ODN type D were shown to improve clinical outcome in rhesus macaques challenged with Leishmania major. These ODN have a self-complementary core sequence and a 3' end poly(G) track that favors G-tetrad formation leading to multimerization. Although multimerization appears necessary for localization to early endosomes and signaling via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9), it can result in product polymorphisms, aggregation and precipitation, thereby hampering their clinical applications. This study shows that functionalizing the poly(G) track of D ODN with thermolytic 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl (fma) phosphate/thiophosphate protecting groups (pro-D ODN) reduces G-tetrad formation in solution, while allowing tetrad formation inside the cell where the potassium concentration is higher. Temperature-dependent cleavage of the fma groups over time further promoted formation of stable G-tetrads. Peripheral blood cells internalized pro-D ODN efficiently, inducing high levels of IFNalpha, IL-6, IFNgamma and IP-10 and triggering dendritic cell maturation. Administration of pro-D35 to macaques challenged with L.major significantly increased the number of antigen-specific IFNgamma-secreting PBMC and reduced the severity of the skin lesions demonstrating immunoprotective activity of pro-D ODN in vivo. This technology fosters the development of more efficient immunotherapeutic oligonucleotide formulations for the treatment of allergies, cancer and infectious diseases.

  6. Classification of four-dimensional real Lie bialgebras of symplectic type and their Poisson-Lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Fardad, J.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.; Haghighatdoost, Gh.

    2017-01-01

    We classify all four-dimensional real Lie bialgebras of symplectic type and obtain the classical r-matrices for these Lie bialgebras and Poisson structures on all the associated four-dimensional Poisson-Lie groups. We obtain some new integrable models where a Poisson-Lie group plays the role of the phase space and its dual Lie group plays the role of the symmetry group of the system.

  7. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  8. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafat; Chopra, Rupali; Manvati, Siddharth; Singh, Yoginder Pal; Kaul, Nabodita; Behura, Anita; Mahajan, Ankit; Sehajpal, Prabodh; Gupta, Subash; Dhar, Manoj K; Chainy, Gagan B N; Bhanwer, Amarjit S; Sharma, Swarkar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, ppopulation. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08) in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial) levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR)<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59) when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  9. Severe type 1 upgrading leprosy reaction in a renal transplant recipient: a paradoxical manifestation associated with deficiency of antigen-specific regulatory T-cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Paula; Trindade, Maria Angela Bianconcini; de Paula, Flávio Jota; Sakai-Valente, Neusa Yurico; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Lemos, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho; Benard, Gil

    2017-04-24

    Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. This case report illustrates the challenges in diagnosing and managing leprosy and its reactional states in a transplant recipient. A 53-year-old man presented 34 months after a successful renal transplantation a borderline-tuberculoid leprosy with signs of mild type 1 upgrading reaction (T1R). Cutaneous manifestations were atypical, and diagnosis was only made when granulomatous neuritis was found in a cutaneous biopsy. He was successfully treated with the WHO recommended multidrug therapy (MDT: rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). However he developed a severe T1R immediately after completion of the MDT but no signs of allograft rejection. T1R results from flare-ups of the host T-helper-1 cell-mediated immune response against Mycobacterium leprae antigens in patients with immunologically unstable, borderline forms of leprosy and has been considered an inflammatory syndrome in many aspects similar to the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (IRS). The T1R was successfully treated by increasing the prednisone dose without modifying the other immunosuppressive drugs used for preventing allograft rejection. Immunological study revealed that the patient had a profound depletion of both in situ and circulating regulatory T-cells and lack of expansion of the Tregs upon M. leprae stimulation compared to T1R leprosy patients without iatrogenic immunosuppression. Our case report highlights that leprosy, especially in the transplant setting, requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and the contribution of histopathology. It also suggests that the development of upgrading inflammatory syndromes such as T1R can occur

  10. Relationship of spermatoscopy, prostatic acid phosphatase activity and prostate-specific antigen (p30) assays with further DNA typing in forensic samples from rape cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Montoya, Lydia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Hugo; Pérez, Miguel Antonio; Argüello-García, Raúl

    2011-03-20

    In the forensic laboratory the biological analyses for rape investigation commonly include vaginal swabs as sample material combined to biochemical tests including sperm cytology (SC) and detection of acid phosphatase activity (AP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, p30) for the conclusive identification of semen components. Most reports comparing these tests relied on analysis of semen samples or donor swabs taken under controlled conditions; however their individual or combined efficacy under real live sampling conditions in different laboratories is largely unknown. We carried out SC, APA and PSA analyses in vaginal swabs collected from casework rapes submitted to Mexican Forensic Laboratories at Texcoco and Toluca. On the basis of positive and negative results from each assay and sample, data were classified into eight categories (I-VIII) and compared with those obtained in the two only similar studies reported in Toronto, Canada and Hong Kong, China. SC and APA assays had the higher overall positivity in Toluca and Texcoco samples respectively and otherwise PSA had a lower but very similar positivity between these two laboratories. When compared to the previous studies some similarities were found, namely similar frequencies (at a ratio of approximately 1 out of 3) of samples being positive or negative by all techniques (Categories I and VI respectively) and a comparable overall positivity of APA and SC but higher than that of PSA. Indeed the combined results of using SC, APA and PSA tests was considered as conclusive for semen detection from approximately 1 out of 3 cases (Category I) to approximately 1 out of 2 cases in a scenario where at least SC is positive, strongly presumptive in 2 out of 3 cases (with at least one test positive) and the remainder 1 out of 3 cases (Category VI) suggested absence of semen. By determining Y-STR polymorphisms (12-loci) in additional samples obtained at Toluca laboratory, complete DNA profiles were determined from all

  11. Both clades of the epidemic KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone ST258 share a modified galactan O-antigen type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szijártó, Valéria; Guachalla, Luis Miguel; Hartl, Katharina; Varga, Cecília; Banerjee, Pallavi; Stojkovic, Katarina; Kaszowska, Marta; Nagy, Eszter; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Nagy, Gábor

    2016-02-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 is a globally disseminated, extremely drug resistant, nosocomial clone with limited treatment options. We show that the vast majority of ST258 isolates express modified d-galactan-I lipopolysaccharide O-antigen, termed hereinafter as D-galactan-III. The genetic determinant required for galactan-III synthesis was identified as a distinct operon adjacent to the rfb (wb) locus encoding D-galactan-I synthesis. The three genes within the operon encode predicted glycosyltransferases. Testing an isogenic transformant pair revealed that expression of D-galactan-III, in comparison to D-galactan-I, conferred improved survival in the presence of human serum. Eighty-three percent of the more than 200 ST258 draft genome sequences currently available carries the corresponding operon and hence these isolates are predicted to express galactan-III antigens. A D-galactan-III specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) was shown to bind to extracted LPS from a panel of ST258 isolates. The same mAb confirmed accessibility of galactan-III in surface staining of ST258 irrespective of the distinct capsular antigens expressed by both clades described previously. Based on these data, the galactan-III antigen may represent an attractive target for active and passive immunization approaches against K. pneumoniae ST258.

  12. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  13. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  14. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Daneshpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended.

  15. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  16. The Canastra Group in the type-area, Tapira region, southwest of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at describing the Neoproterozoic evolution of a Southern Brasília Fold Belt segment, in Tapira area(southwest of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, using detailed geologic mapping. This area, the Canastra Group type-area, hasshowed great tectonic and stratigraphic complexities unlike the simplicity suggested in previous works. From recognizingthe main tectonic discontinuities, it was possible to subdivide the area into some domains. In the west domain, they wereindividualized in tectonic sheet I, marked by pelitic rocks and pelitic-graphite rocks with psammitic intercalations, and II,pelitic rocks with psammitic and mafic-ultramafic intercalations overlapped by gneisses. In the east domain, a group ofthree tectonic sheets was defined, in which, in the two lower tectonic sheets, pelitic and pelitic-graphite rocks with psammiticrock intercalations prevailed, which is different in metamorphic conditions. The lower tectonic sheet is marked bymineralogical associations with muscovite + chlorite + quartz ± graphite ± albite, without biotite; however, the superior oneis with muscovite + quartz + garnet ± chlorite ± biotite ± chloritoid ± graphite ± albite. In the upper tectonic sheet, peliticrocks with local contributions of psammitic and ultramafics rocks occur. In the south domain, psammitic rocks basically occur with contributions of pelitics and rudaceous rocks, where the preservation of textures and sedimentary structures is common.Rocks of the several domains are interpreted as part of a passive continental margin basin, located in the western margin of the SãoFrancisco paleocontinent. Thus, the south domain rocks would represent the facies of proximal platform; rocks of the lower and middle tectonic sheets (east domain and of the tectonic sheet I (west domain are of facies distal platform; and the ones from the upper tectonic sheet (east domain and tectonic sheet II (west domain were acknowledged as deposited in an environment

  17. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and the identification of commonly expressed haplotypes using sequence specific low- and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Jungersen, Gregers

    The genomic region (SLA) of the swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which bind and present endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system, is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many of which encode a distinct MHC class I molecule. Each SLA...... individual. Therefore analyses of the prevalence of SLA alleles in a population are fundamental to employ pathogen-specific subunits or peptides in novel vaccines or immune diagnostics. In this study we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly...... expressed SLA class I alleles in Danish outbred swine. A total of 108 animals from eight different production herds were tested, and with low resolution sequence specific primer (SSP)-PCR typing the top five most commonly expressed SLA class I allele groups were found to be SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-1...

  18. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  19. Tidal Interaction as the origin of early-type dwarf galaxies in group environment

    CERN Document Server

    Paudel, Sanjaya

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal force of nearby massive galaxies. Analysing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a `smoking gun' example of the formation of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment through the tidal stirring. Inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fitted with the Sersic functions, while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within the 50 kpc sky-projected distance from the center of host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocity larger than 205 km/s to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population (CSP) properties these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate ...

  20. Embedding types and canonical affine maps between Bruhat-Tits buildings of classical groups (Thesis)

    CERN Document Server

    Skodlerack, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There are 2 parts. To part one. P. Broussous and S. Stevens studied maps between enlarged Bruhat-Tits buildings to construct types for p-adic unitary groups. They needed maps which respect the Moy-Prasad filtrations. That property is called (CLF), i.e. compatibility with the Lie algebra filtrations. We generalise their results on CLF-maps. Let k_0 be a p-adic field of characteristic not two. We consider G:={\\bf U}(h) defined over k_0 with a signed hermitian form h. Let H be the centraliser of a semisimple k_0-rational Lie algebra element of G. We prove the existence of an affine H(k_0)-equivariant CLF-map j from the enlarged Bruhat-Tits building B^1(H,k_0) to B^1(G,k_0). Every point of B^1(H,k_0) and B^1(G,k_0) has attached a Lie algebra filtration. CLF is precisely that the intersection of the Lie algebra filtration of j(x) down to Lie(H)(k_0) is the filtration of x. We also prove how strong the CLF-property determines j. In the non-quaternion algebra case Broussous und Stevens showed the existence and a fir...

  1. Constraining anisotropy of the universe from different groups of type-Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China); Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-15

    Recently released Planck data and other astronomical observations show that the universe may be anisotropic on large scales. Inspired by this, anisotropic cosmological models have been proposed. We note that the Finsler-Randers spacetime provides an appropriate framework for the anisotropic cosmology. By adding an arbitrary 1-form to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker line element, a privileged axis in the universe is picked out. The distance-redshift relation is modified to be direction-dependent. We wish that the anisotropic cosmological model may be tested crossly by independent observations. Type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) calibrated from four different light curve fitters are used to constrain the possible anisotropy of the universe. The magnitudes of anisotropy are all between 2-5 %, but the systematic uncertainty cannot be excluded. The directions of the privileged axis seem to differ from each other. The statistical significance is not high enough to make a convincing conclusion. Nevertheless, the 1σ contours in the (l,b) plane obtained from four groups of SNe Ia have an overlap, centering at (l,b) ∼ (170 , 0 ). Monte Carlo simulation shows that the anisotropy is unlikely to be caused by the selection effect. (orig.)

  2. Conformational analysis of thioglycoside derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens using an ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4: implications for design of non-hydrolysable mimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2009-12-01

    Histo-blood group ABH antigens serve as recognition sites for infectious microorganisms and tissue lectins in intercellular communication, e.g. in tumor progression. Thus, they are of interest as a starting point for drug design. In this respect, potent non-hydrolysable derivatives such as thioglycosides are of special interest. As prerequisite to enable estimations of ligand properties relative to their natural counterparts, conformational properties of the thioglycosidic derivatives of ABH trisaccharides and their disaccharide units were calculated using systematic and filtered systematic searches with the MM4 force field. Parameters for the glycosidic torsions of thioglycosides were independently derived from ab initio calculations. The resulting energy deviations required a reparameterization of MM4 to a new parameter set called MM4R. The data sets obtained using MM4R reveal that the thioglycosides have somewhat increased levels of flexibility about the major low-energy conformations shared with the corresponding O-glycosides. In the trisaccharides, the thiosubstitution of the Gal[NAc]α1-3Gal linkage leads to a preference for a conformation which is the secondary minimum of the natural counterparts. This conformation also generates contacts between the N-acetyl group and the fucose moiety in the blood group A derivative. Calculations further indicate that thiosubstitution of only the Fucα1-2Gal linkage does not affect the conformational preferences compared to the natural trisaccharide. Thiosubstitution of both linkages in the trisaccharide results in increased flexibility but the favored conformation of the natural trisaccharides is preferred. The study suggests that thioglycoside derivatives of ABH antigens could have pharmaceutical interest as ligands of lectins and other carbohydrate-binding proteins.

  3. Comparison of opa typing with Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing for discrimination of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from patients and their sex partners%性伴间淋球菌的opa分型及Ng-MAST基因分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏翔; 吴志洪; 李家文; 刘厚君; 陈嵘档; 严小枫; 帅俊; 许莉; 涂亚庭

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the potentiality of opa typing versus Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (Ng-MAST) in discrimination of N. gonorrhoeae isolates, and to investigate the consistency of genotypes of N. gonorrhoeae between patients and their sex partners. Methods N. gonor-rhoeae was isolated from patients and their sex partners who attended sexually transmitted disease clinics of the Affiliated Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 2006 to August 2007. All isolates were cultured on Thayer-Martin agar and GC-based choco-late agar, and identified by Gram stain and oxidase reaction. Totally, twenty-four strains of N. gonorrhoeae were isolated form 12 pairs of male-female sex partners. Genomic DNA was isolated from the strains, and subjected to PCR amplification of opa gene as well as pot and tbpB genes, opa typing and Ng-MAST typing were utilized to differentiate the 24 strains respectively. Results The 24 isolates were classified into 10 sequence types (ST) by Ng-MAST typing, and 12 opa types (OT) by opa typing. A novel genotype identi-fied by Ng-MAST (217-86% homologisation 178), was unique in China. Conclusions Both ST and OT of N. gonorrhoeae strains are identical between patients and their corresponding partners except for one pair of partners, 45/46, suggesting that gonorrhea is transmitted to each other by contiguity between sex partners. Opa typing is likely to be more potential than Ng-MAST in genotyping of N.gonorrhoeae strains.%目的 评价淋球菌opa分型及Ng-MAST对淋球菌分离株进行基因分型的能力,分析性伴分离淋球菌基因型别之间的关系.方法 本研究中24株淋球菌野生株于2006年2月至2007年8月从华中科技大学同济医学院附属协和医院皮肤科门诊分离获得,经Thayer Martin(T-M)培养基选择分离培养后通过革兰染色和氧化酶试验等方法确证.PCR扩增其opa基因以Hpa Ⅱ酶切及聚丙烯酰胺

  4. HIV type-1 group O infection in Gabon: low prevalence rate but circulation of genetically diverse and drug-resistant HIV type-1 group O strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Florian; Boué, Vanina; Butel, Christelle; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Sica, Jeanne; Zamba, Chantal; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Rouet, François

    2013-07-01

    The goals of this study conducted in Gabon were to determine the prevalence rate of HIV-1 group O (HIV-1/O) infections and to characterize the genetic diversity of HIV-1/O strains as well as implications on antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance. During 2010-2011, 1,176 samples from HIV-positive subjects were tested at the CIRMF (Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville) retrovirology laboratory using an in-house serotyping assay. Plasma HIV-1/O RNA viral loads (VL) were determined using the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay. After full genome sequencing, drug resistance patterns were analyzed using two different algorithms (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales and Stanford). Overall, four subjects (0.34%) were diagnosed as HIV-1/O infected. One subject, untreated by ARVs, died 2 months after HIV-1/O diagnosis. One was lost to follow-up. Two additional patients, treated with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens, showed CD4 counts Gabon, an accurate diagnosis and a reliable virological follow-up are required in Central Africa to optimize ARV treatments of HIV-1/O-infected patients.

  5. Characteristic distribution of HTLV type I and HTLV type II carriers among native ethnic groups in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, T; Li, H C; Lou, H; Yashiki, S; Karino, S; Zaninovic, V; Oneegllo, S G; Camacho, M; Andrade, R; Hurtado, L V; Gomez, L H; Damiani, E; Cartier, L; Dipierri, J E; Hayami, M; Sonoda, S; Tajima, K

    1999-09-20

    To confirm the geographic and ethnic segregation of HTLV-I and HTLV-II carriers in native populations in South America, we have conducted a seroepidemiological study of native populations in South America, including HTLV-I carriers distributed among seven ethnic groups in the Andes highlands of Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile, and two ethnic groups on Chiloe Island and Easter Island; and HTLV-II carriers distributed among seven ethnic groups of the lowlands along the Atlantic coast of Colombia, Orinoco, Amazon, and Patagonia, and one ethnic group on Chiloe Island. The incidence rate of HTLV-I and HTLV-II carriers varied among the ethnic groups, ranging from 0.8 to 6.8% for HTLV-I seropositivity and from 1.4 to 57.9% for HTLV-II seropositivity. A new HTLV-I focus was found among the Peruvian Aymara (1.6%), the Bolivian Aymara (5.3%) and Quechua (4.5%), the Argentine Puna (2.3%), and the Chilean Atacama (4.1%), while on HTLV-II focus was found among the Brazilian Kayapo (57.9%), the Paraguayan Chaco (16.4%), and the Chilean Alacalf (34.8%) and Yahgan (9.1%). The distribution of HTLV-I/II foci showed a geographic clustering of HTLV-I foci in the Andes highlands and of HTLV-II foci in the lowlands of South America. It was thus suggested that South American natives might be divided into two major ethnic groups by HTLV-I and HTLV-II carrier state.

  6. First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outside the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outsidethe Local Group Summary An international team led by ESO astronomer Marina Rejkuba [1] has discovered more than 1000 luminous red variable stars in the nearby elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) . Brightness changes and periods of these stars were measured accurately and reveal that they are mostly cool long-period variable stars of the so-called "Mira-type" . The observed variability is caused by stellar pulsation. This is the first time a detailed census of variable stars has been accomplished for a galaxy outside the Local Group of Galaxies (of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is a member). It also opens an entirely new window towards the detailed study of stellar content and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies . These massive objects are presumed to play a major role in the gravitational assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe (especially during the early phases). This unprecedented research project is based on near-infrared observations obtained over more than three years with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 14a/03 : Colour image of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A . PR Photo 14b/03 : Location of the fields in Centaurus A, now studied. PR Photo 14c/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14d/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14e/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14f/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14g/03 : Light variation of six variable stars in Centaurus A PR Photo 14h/03 : Light variation of stars in Centaurus A (Animated GIF) PR Photo 14i/03 : Light curves of four variable stars in Centaurus A. Mira-type variable stars Among the stars that are visible in the sky to the unaided eye, roughly one out of three hundred (0.3%) displays brightness variations and is referred to by astronomers as a

  7. Blood group change in acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Rakul K.; Prakash, N. P.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood group antigens are either sugars or proteins found attached to the red blood cell membrane. ABO blood group antigens are the most clinically important antigens because they are the most immunogenic. As red blood cell antigens are inherited traits, they are usually not altered throughout the life of an individual. There have been occasional case reports of ABO blood group antigen change in malignant conditions. We report two such cases of ABO antigen alteration associated with acute myeloid leukemia. These patients had suppression of their blood group antigens during their leukemic phase, and the antigens were reexpressed when the patients attained remission.

  8. Relationship between immunoglobulin isotype response to Plasmodium falciparum blood stage antigens and parasitological indexes as well as splenomegaly in sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Manijeh; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Maiga, Bakary; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Troye-Blomberg, Marita

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess correlations between anti-malarial antibody levels and differences in malariometric characteristics, seen between two sympatric ethnic groups, the Fulani and the Dogon, living in Mali. Plasma levels of anti-malarial IgE, IgG, IgG1-4 and total IgE were determined in asymptomatic individuals, of the above mentioned groups, and were correlated to malariometric indexes. Significantly higher levels of anti-malarial IgE, IgG, IgG1-3 and total IgE were detected in the Fulani individuals as compared to the Dogon. No difference in plasma levels of malaria specific IgG4 was noted between the two groups. Within the Fulani, an increase in total IgE levels was associated with the presence of infection. As the IgG4 level increased, the number of clones decreased in the Fulani individuals. A positive correlation between elevated levels of anti-malarial IgG and IgG3 and splenomegaly was noted only within the Fulani group. No other correlations between antibody levels and parasite prevalence, clone numbers or spleen rates were observed in any of the communities. These results suggest that the magnitude of antibody response against Plasmodium falciparum may not be as important as it is believed to be. Instead, the fine specificity or function of the response might be more critical in protection against malaria disease.

  9. Immune control of tumors by antigen presentation improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedi, María Mónica; Bonacci, Gustavo; Vides, Miguel Angel; Donadio, Ana Carolina

    2003-01-01

    Tumor cells cannot activate T lymphocytes, since they do not usually express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Thus, tumor antigens can only be presented indirectly to T cells through professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). In our laboratory, we have treated a tumor cell line (Tu1-A) - derived from an induced rat mammary sarcoma - in order to increase the expression of MHC class I and class II molecules. In our tumor model, the transference of these induced cells into normal rats generated a tumor mass that exhibited a lower tumor growth rate and an earlier regression as compared to those observed in rats inoculated with wild-type Tu1-A cells. This earlier tumor regression was associated with the development of an antigen-specific immune response. 85-87% of the rats in both groups rejected the tumor and were alive at day 60 after tumor cell inoculation. However, in rats treated with wild-type cells the rejection was delayed and took place after tumor ulceration. Rats that had rejected tumors were rechallenged with wild-type cells in order to assay the presence of a long-lived antitumor immunity. All the animals were resistant to the second tumor challenge. We conclude that the development of a specific immune response could be achieved by the superexpression of MHC molecules on tumor cells or when tumor ulceration promotes APC to take up necrotic cells and tumor antigens are presented to T lymphocytes.

  10. Ordering Power of Separate versus Grouped True-False Tests: Interaction of Type of Test with Knowledge Levels of Examinees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the relative ordering power of separate and grouped-items true-false tests indicated that neither type of test was uniformly superior to the other across all levels of knowledge of examinees. Grouped-item tests were found superior for examinees with low levels of knowledge. (Author/CTM)

  11. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Ho, Chak-Sum; Vadekær, Dorte Fink

    2014-12-15

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth-disease virus and others. Here we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly occurring SLA class I alleles in Danish swine. A total of 101 animals from seven different herds were tested, and by low resolution typing the top four most frequent SLA class I alleles were those of the allele groups SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-2*02XX, and SLA-1*07XX, respectively. Customised high resolution primers were used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups as well as within the SLA-2*05XX allele group. Our studies also suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs to be Lr-4.0 expressing the SLA-1*04XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-3*04XX allele combination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and Electroluminescent Properties of Julolidine-π-Juloidine Type Materials with the Bulky Adamantane Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kum Hee; Yoon, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Young Kwan [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A main problem of red emitting material, which contributes to their low EL performances, is the concentration quenching due to the effective self aggregation and the consequent formation of excimers. To avoid this drawback and thus improve the EL properties of red fluorescent OLED devices, many synthetic efforts have been conducted to develop new emitting materials with the structural motifs to suppress self-aggregation by the weakening intermolecular attractive interactions. Particularly, the introduction of bulky moieties in the emitters would provide the steric hindrance between emitting materials in solid state devices and thus reduce the self-aggregation. Nevertheless, EL performances of red materials still need to be improved for the practical applications. In conclusion, we designed and synthesized three julolidine-π-juloidine type emitting materials (1-3) with the bulky adamantane groups. To study their electroluminescent properties, the multilayered OLED devices with the structure of ITO/NPB (40 nm)/ADN : 1-3 (x%) (20 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (40 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al were fabricated. All devices using emitters 1-3 showed the efficient emissions, in which their EL performances depend on the structure of emitters sensitively. Particularly, a device using emitter 3 exhibited the efficient orange-red emission with the luminous and power efficiencies of 4.79 cd/A and 1.76 lm/W at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device was (0.57, 0.42) at 7.0 V.

  13. A Survey of ABO, Rhesus (D) Antigen and Haemoglobin Genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    This longitudinal study involved the determination of ABO and Rh(D) antigens in 3241 and ... Keywords: ABO antigen, Rhesus D, Blood group, Haemoglobin genotype, Blood substitutes ... composition, the variations in amino acid composition.

  14. [Infectious hepatitis. I. Presence of HBs antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, E; Ridaura, C; Legorreta, J; Gómez, D; Ruiz, M; Kassian, A

    1975-01-01

    A prospective study in 268 patients of different pediatric ages affected with icteric hepatitis is presented, with a longitudinal follow-up of one year minimum. Different types of clinical evolution are described and related to the presence of HBs antigen. In 34 of the 268 patients HBs antigen was positive; in 20 of 28 patients with acute and long evolution, positivity of the antigen was transitory with an average of 46 days; in the remaining 8 of 28 patients it extended from 6 months to less than 2 years. The presence of HBs antigen is a risk that may be correlated with the tendency to extend the prolonged.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus Subtype 3a Envelope Protein 1 Binding with Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Types of Pakistani Population: Candidate Epitopes for Synthetic Peptide Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nawaz-Tipu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The object of this cross sectional study was to determine the HCV subtype 3a envelope protein binding affinity with Human Leukocyte Antigen. Envelope 1 (E1 protein is one of the structural proteins responsible for entering the cells through the receptors. The binding affinity of E1 protein epitopes to the selected Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA class I alleles was investigated using the computer-based tools. These prediction tools were also used to design the synthetic vaccine’s candidate epitopes and to identify the individuals/populations who are likely to be responder to those vaccines.The mean frequency of HLA I antigens in Pakistani population was calculated. Threealleles each from HLA A and B were selected. E1 protein sequence extracted from HCV 3a isolates was retrieved and twenty-four sequences of it were selected. NetMHCcons 1.0 server was used to determine the binding affinities of HLA alleles to the epitope sequences of 10 amino acids in length.A02, A03, A11, A24, A33, B08, B13, B15, B35 and B40 were the first five antigens moreprevalent in Pakistan each from HLA A and HLA B.. We did not find any binding affinity between HLA A*201, B*1501 and B*4001 and epitopes from E1 sequences in a threshold of50 nM. Totally five various epitopes derived from different isolates were characterized.The prediction of HLA-E1 epitope specific bindings and the forthcoming response can be a useful bioinformatics tool to uncover the right synthetic peptides for vaccine design purposes.

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Subtype 3a Envelope Protein 1 Binding with Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Types of Pakistani Population: Candidate Epitopes for Synthetic Peptide Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz-Tipu, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    The object of this cross sectional study was to determine the HCV subtype 3a envelope protein binding affinity with Human Leukocyte Antigen. Envelope 1 (E1) protein is one of the structural proteins responsible for entering the cells through the receptors. The binding affinity of E1 protein epitopes to the selected Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I alleles was investigated using the computer-based tools. These prediction tools were also used to design the synthetic vaccine's candidate epitopes and to identify the individuals/populations who are likely to be responder to those vaccines.The mean frequency of HLA I antigens in Pakistani population was calculated. Three alleles each from HLA A and B were selected. E1 protein sequence extracted from HCV 3a isolates was retrieved and twenty-four sequences of it were selected. NetMHCcons 1.0 server was used to determine the binding affinities of HLA alleles to the epitope sequences of 10 amino acids in length.A02, A03, A11, A24, A33, B08, B13, B15, B35 and B40 were the first five antigens more prevalent in Pakistan each from HLA A and HLA B.. We did not find any binding affinity between HLA A*201, B*1501 and B*4001 and epitopes from E1 sequences in a threshold of 50 nM. Totally five various epitopes derived from different isolates were characterized.The prediction of HLA-E1 epitope specific bindings and the forthcoming response can be a useful bioinformatics tool to uncover the right synthetic peptides for vaccine design purposes.

  17. Two amino acid substitutions in apolipoprotein B are in complete allelic association with the antigen group (x/y) polymorphism: Evidence for little recombination in the 3 prime end of the human gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, A.M.; Renges, H.H.; Xu, Chunfang; Peacock, R.; Humphries, S.E.; Talmud, P.; Laxer, G. (Bickbeck Coll., London (England)); Brasseur, R. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)); Tikkanen, M.J. (Univ. of Helsinki (Switzerland)); Buetler, R. (Swiss Red Cross, Berne (Switzerland)); Saha, N. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)); Hamsten, A. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosseneu, M. (A.Z. St-Jan, Brugge (Belgium))

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the identification of an A-to-G base change, in exon 29 of the apolipoprotein B (apo B) gene, that results in the substitution of serine for asparagine at residue 4,311 of mature apo B100. In a recent publication, Huang et al. have reported a C-to-T base change in exon 26 that causes the substitution of leucine for proline at residue 2712 of apo B. The authors have found complete linkage disequilibrium between the alleles at both these sites and an immunochemical polymorphism of LDL designated antigen group (x/y) (Ag(x/y)) in a sample of 118 Finnish individuals. This implies that either one of these substitutions - or both of them combined - could be the molecular basis of the Ag(x/y) antigenic determinants, with the allele encoding serine{sub 4311} plus leucine{sub 2,712} representing the Ag(x) epitope, and that encoding asparagine{sub 4,311} plus proline{sub 2,712} the Ag(y) epitope. In a sample of 90 healthy Swedish individuals the Leu{sub 2,712}/Ser{sub 4,311} allele is associated both with reduced serum levels of LDL cholesterol and apo B and with raised levels of HDL. They have also genotyped 523 individuals from European, Asian, Chinese, and Afro-Caribbean populations and have found complete association between the sites encoding residues 2,712 and 4,311 in all of these samples, although there are large allele frequency differences between these populations. Taken together, these data suggest that, since the divergence of the major ethnic groups, there has been little or no recombination in the 3' end of the human apo B gene.

  18. Further characterization of protective Trypanosoma cruzi-specific CD4+ T-cell clones: T helper type 1-like phenotype and reactivity with shed trypomastigote antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, S P; Keane, M; So, M

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the isolation from immune mice of a panel of murine clonal T-cell lines which specifically recognize antigens expressed by the trypomastigote stage of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas' disease. Our analysis indicated that distinct clones which recognize common as well as strain-specific antigenic determinants were represented. The immunoprotective potential of several of these T-cell clones was demonstrated by adoptive transfer of protection to naive syngeneic recipients. Here we report that these T-cell clones are all of the TH1 phenotype, as determined from their lymphokine secretion patterns. Significant levels of stimulatory activity for each clone were detected in trypomastigote supernatants, and the release of this activity was time and temperature dependent. Seven of 10 T-cell clones tested responded to nitrocellulose-immunoblotted trypomastigote proteins in the range of 90 to 47 kDa; no fewer than six distinct epitopes residing on at least five distinct polypeptide species were recognized by this panel of clones. Two clones (2G8 and 4B10) previously shown to protect in vivo responded to immunoblotted proteins in the range of 65 to 53 and 90 to 80 kD, respectively. Stimulatory activity for the latter clone was shown to be expressed on the surface of trypomastigotes and to bind specifically to wheat germ agglutinin, indicating that its target antigen is an 85-kDa trypomastigote surface glycoprotein. PMID:8335358

  19. Antigen, allele, and haplotype frequencies report of the ASHI minority antigens workshops: part 1, African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, A A; Bias, W B; Johnson, A; Rose, S M; Leffell, M S

    2001-10-01

    HLA typing was performed on 977 African Americans residing throughout most of the United States. Class I and class II antigens and class II alleles were defined for all individuals and class I alleles were determined for a subset of individuals. The occurrence of 854 of the individuals in family groups permitted direct counting of allele and haplotype frequencies. The data were analyzed for antigen, allele, and haplotype frequencies; recombination frequencies; segregation distortion; distribution of haplotype frequencies; linkage disequilibria; and geographic distribution of DR antigens. Tables of the antigen, allele, the most common two and three point haplotypes, and 88 extended haplotypes that include class I and class II alleles are presented. Notable findings include a lower than expected frequency of recombination between the B and DR loci (theta= 0.0013), lower than expected frequency of inheritance (44.5% vs 54.5%) of the DRB1*1503; DQB1*0602 haplotype, lower than anticipated linkage disequilibrium values for DR; DQ haplotypes, and a skewed geographic distribution of DR antigens.

  20. Best Constants for Moser-Trudinger Inequalities, Fundamental Solutions and One-Parameter Representation Formulas on Groups of Heisenberg Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    COHN William S.; LU Guo Zhen

    2002-01-01

    We derive the explicit fundamental solutions for a class of degenerate (or singular) oneparameter subelliptic differential operators on groups of Heisenberg (H) type. This extends the result of Kaplan for the sub-Laplacian on H-type groups, which in turn generalizes Folland's result on the Heisenberg group. As an application, we obtain a one-parameter representation formula for Sobolev functions of compact support on H-type groups. By choosing the parameter equal to the homogeneous dimension Q and using the Moser-Trudinger inequality for the convolutional type operator on stratified groups obtained in [18], we get the following theorem which gives the best constant for the MoserTrudinger inequality for Sobolev functions on H-type groups.Let G be any group of Heisenberg type whose Lie algebra is generated by m left invariant vectorfields and with a q-dimensional center. Let Q = m + 2q, Q′= Q/Q-1 andAQ= [(1/4)q-1/2πq+m/2Γ(Q+m/4)/ QΓ(m/2)Γ(Q/2)] 1/Q-1Then,F∈sup C∞U(Ω) { 1/|Ω|∫Ωexp (AQ(F(u)/‖ GF‖Q)Q′)du}<∞,with AQ as the sharp constant, where G denotes the subelliptic gradient on G.This continues the research originated in our earlier study of the best constants in Moser-Teudinger inequalities and fundamental solutions for one-parameter subelliptic operators on the Heisenberg group[18].

  1. Immunodominant antigens of Leishmania chagasi associated with protection against human visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Abánades

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protection and recovery from visceral leishmaniasis (VL have been associated with cell-mediated immune (CMI responses, whereas no protective role has been attributed to humoral responses against specific parasitic antigens. In this report, we compared carefully selected groups of individuals with distinct responses to Leishmania chagasi to explore antigen-recognizing IgG present in resistant individuals. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VL patients with negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH were classified into the susceptible group. Individuals who had recovered from VL and converted to a DTH+ response, as well as asymptomatic infected individuals (DTH+, were categorized into the resistant group. Sera from these groups were used to detect antigens from L. chagasi by conventional and 2D Western blot assays. Despite an overall reduction in the reactivity of several proteins after DTH conversion, a specific group of proteins (approximately 110-130 kDa consistently reacted with sera from DTH converters. Other antigens that specifically reacted with sera from DTH+ individuals were isolated and tandem mass spectrometry followed by database query with the protein search engine MASCO were used to identify antigens. The serological properties of recombinant version of the selected antigens were tested by ELISA. Sera from asymptomatic infected people (DTH+ reacted more strongly with a mixture of selected recombinant antigens than with total soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA, with less cross-reactivity against Chagas disease patients' sera. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are the first evidence of leishmania proteins that are specifically recognized by sera from individuals who are putatively resistant to VL. In addition, these data highlight the possibility of using specific proteins in serological tests for the identification of asymptomatic infected individuals.

  2. Which Types of Televised Anti-Tobacco Campaigns Prompt More Quitline Calls from Disadvantaged Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah J.; Wakefield, Melanie A.; Spittal, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of different types of mass media ads in driving lower socio-economic smokers (SES) to utilize quitlines. This study collected all 33 719 calls to the Victorian quitline in Australia over a 2-year period. Negative binomial regressions examined the relationship between weekly levels of exposure to different types of…

  3. Is type D personality here to stay? Emerging evidence across cardiovascular disease patient groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); J. Denollet (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe distressed personality (Type D) is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that incurs a risk on par with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ischemic heart disease. Type D is defined as the co-occurring tendencies to experience increased negative emotions a

  4. A convolution type characterization for Lp - multipliers for the Heisenberg group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Radha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that if m is an Lp - multiplier for the Fourier transform on ℝn(1group Fourier transform on the Heisenberg group Hn. Though this result is already known in generality for amenable groups, a simple proof is provided in this paper.

  5. Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

    CERN Document Server

    Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

  6. Relationship between the types of binary alloy phase diagrams of VIII and IB group elements and the Mendeleev numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the types of binary alloy phase diagrams of Vlll and IB group elements and the Men deleev numbers was discussed for the first time using the Vlll and IB group elements as solvent metals (A) and the other elements as solute metals (B), basesd on their alloy phase diagram types. The Mendeleev numbers of the solvent metals and the solute metals were expressed as Ma and MB, respectively. A two-dimension map of MdMB was drawn. It is indicated that there is an oblique line in the map, which divides the binary alloy phase diagram types of solvent metals into two symmetry parts, the phase diagram types of the other elements with solvent metals located at the above or down of the line respectively, while on the line, AM= 0. The phase diagrams between the solvent metals basically are simple systems, mainly belong to the types of continues solid solution and the peritectic (about 40% for each type). The solvent metals can be divided into three groups: Co, Ir, Rh, Ni, Pt, and Pd as the first group; Ag, Au, and Cu as the second group;and Fe, Os, and Ru as the third group. The characteristics of the phase diagrams formed between the elements in each group were discussed. About 80% phase diagrams belong to complex systems and less than 20% belong to the simple systems. The regular variation of the chemical scale, the metallic radii of the atoms, the number of valence electrons, and the first ionization energy with the Mendeleev numbers and the crystal structure were introduced as well.

  7. Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Marília B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the characteristics of clinical care offered to type 1 diabetic patients across the four distinct regions of Brazil, with geographic and contrasting socioeconomic differences. Glycemic control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening for chronic complications and the frequency that the recommended treatment goals were met using the American Diabetes Association guidelines were evaluated. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted from December 2008 to December 2010 in 28 secondary and tertiary care public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities in north/northeast, mid-west, southeast and south regions. The data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% females and 57.1% Caucasians aged 21.2 ± 11.7 years with a disease duration of 9.6 ± 8.1 years ( Results Overall, 18.4% patients had HbA1c levels Conclusions A majority of patients, mainly in the north/northeast and mid-west regions, did not meet metabolic control goals and were not screened for diabetes-related chronic complications. These results should guide governmental health policy decisions, specific to each geographic region, to improve diabetes care and decrease the negative impact diabetes has on the public health system.

  8. Identification and screening the mimic epitopes of human Rh(D)blood type antigens%人Rh(D)血型抗原模拟表位的筛选和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞茂红; 沈际佳; 刘淼; 许伟; 杨鹏; 刘淑均; 钟涛

    2008-01-01

    Objective To screen the mimic epitopes of Rh(D)blood group antigens and identify their immunity from phage display peptide library.Methods A twelve mer phage peptide library was biopanned with anti-Rh(D)monoclonal antibody immobilized on plastic surface.After three round panning,thirty-five clones were randomly selected and positive clones were identified by ELISA and cross-reaction,followed by antibody competition inhibition assay and DNA sequencing to obtain the mimic epitopes of Rh (D)blood type antigens.The target phage clones were characterized and the antigenicity was analyzed by Western blot.Results After the third round screening,phages were enriched,and eleven positive clones were obtained.According to sequencing and competition inhibition analysis,the same"-WP-Q-"structure existed in seven of the eleven clones,and they had more than 40%inhibition ratio.The other clones had no same characteristics with low inhibition ratio possibly due to non-specific binding.Western blot analysis indicated that these phage clones could be specifically recognized by the anti-Rh(D)serum and they shared the same antigenicity of Rh(D)protein.Conclusions Rh(D)mimotope of"-WP-Q-"structure is successfully obtained by phage peptide library screening with anti-Rh(D)monoelonal antibody.The results lay the foundation for further exploration of pathogenesis and vaccine development of Rh(D)hemolytic diseases of newborn.%目的 从噬菌体随机肽库中筛选人Rh(D)血型抗原模拟表位,并对其免疫学活性进行鉴定.方法 以抗Rh(D)单克隆抗体作为固相筛选分子,对噬菌体随机十二肽库进行3轮"吸附-洗脱-扩增"筛选过程,随机挑选35个克隆,经噬菌体ELISA和交叉反应试验,确定阳性克隆,再对这些克隆进行DNA序列测定和抗体竞争抑制试验,以获取人Rh(D)血型抗原模拟表位.然后采用蛋白质免疫印迹法(Western blot)对所获噬菌体进行鉴定和抗原性分析.结果 经过3轮淘洗

  9. Oral Immunization with a Recombinant Lactococcus lactis-Expressing HIV-1 Antigen on Group A Streptococcus Pilus Induces Strong Mucosal Immunity in the Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Jones, Andrew; Quigley, Bernard R; Scott, June R; Amara, Rama Rao

    2015-11-15

    The induction of a potent humoral and cellular immune response in mucosal tissue is important for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Most of the current HIV vaccines under development use the i.m. route for immunization, which is relatively poor in generating potent and long-lived mucosal immune responses. In this article, we explore the ability of an oral vaccination with a probiotic organism, Lactococcus lactis, to elicit HIV-specific immune responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments of BALB/c mice. We expressed the HIV-1 Gag-p24 on the tip of the T3 pilus of Streptococcus pyogenes as a fusion to the Cpa protein (LL-Gag). After four monthly LL-Gag oral immunizations, we observed strong Gag-specific IgG and IgA responses in serum, feces, and vaginal secretions. However, the Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses in the blood were at or below our detection limit. After an i.m. modified vaccinia Ankara/Gag boost, we observed robust Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses both in systemic and in mucosal tissues, including intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes of the small intestine, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Consistent with strong immunogenicity, the LL-Gag induced activation of CD11c(+) CD11b(+) dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches after oral immunization. Our results demonstrate that oral immunization with L. lactis expressing an Ag on the tip of the group A Streptococcus pilus serves as an excellent vaccine platform to induce strong mucosal humoral and cellular immunity against HIV.

  10. Grouping Normal Type Ia Supernovae by UV to Optical Color Differences

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, Peter A; Roming, Peter W A; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Observations of many SNe Ia with the UVOT instrument on the Swift satellite has revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-OPT colors of normal SNe. We examine UV-OPT color curves for 25 SNe Ia, dividing them into 4 groups, finding that ~1/3 of these SNe Ia have bluer UV-OPT colors than the larger group, with these "NUV-blue" SNe Ia 0.4 mag bluer than the "NUV-red" SNe Ia in u-v. Another group of events feature colors similar to NUV-red SNe Ia in the u-v to uvw1-v colors, but similar to the NUV-blue SNe Ia in the uvm2-v color. We name these events "MUV-blue". The last group initially has colors similar to NUV-red SNe Ia, but with color curves that feature more modest changes than the larger NUV-red group. These "irregular" events are comprised of all the NUV-red events with the broadest optical peaks, which leads us to consider this minor group a subset of the NUV-red group. When so separated and the accounting is made for the rapid time evolution of the UV-OPT colors, we find that the scat...

  11. Small-Molecule End-Groups of Linear Polymer Determine Cell-type Gene-Delivery Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Joel; Green, Jordan J; Mahon, Kerry P; Yang, Fan; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Nguyen, David N; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2009-12-28

    End-modified polymers are promising for the nonviral delivery of genes to cancer cells, immune cells, and human stem cells and point to polymer end-groups as regulators for cell-type specificity. A library of polymers has been synthesized and, although some polymers are strong transfection agents overall, for each cell type, a particular polymer is most effective. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Reducing resistance to treatment, through group intervention, improves clinical measurements in patients with type 2 diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valinsky, Liora; Mishali, Moshe; Endevelt, Ronit; Preiss, Rachel; Dopelt, Keren; Heymann, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    .... The Objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of diabetes groups in reducing resistance to treatment and the association between reduced resistance and better management of the disease...

  13. Permian ultrafelsic A-type granite from Besar Islands group, Johor, peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azman A Ghani; Fatin Izzani Hazad; Azmiah Jamil; Quek Long Xiang; Wan Nur Atiqah Wan Ismail; Sun-Lin Chung; Yu-Ming Lai; Muhammad Hatta Roselee; Nur Islami; Kyaw Kyaw Nyein; Meor Hakif Amir Hassan; Mohd Farid Abu Bakar; Mohd Rozi Umor

    2014-12-01

    The granitic rocks of the peninsula have traditionally been divided into two provinces, i.e., Western and Eastern provinces, corresponding to S- and I-type granite respectively. The Western Province granite is characterised by megacrystic and coarse-grained biotite, tin-mineralised, continental collision granite, whereas, the Eastern Province granite is bimodal I-type dominated by granodiorite and associated gabbroic of arc type granite. This paper reports the occurrence of an A-type granite from peninsular Malaysia. The rocks occur in the Besar, Tengah, and Hujung islands located in the southeastern part of the peninsula. The granite is highly felsic with SiO2 ranging from 75.70% to 77.90% (differentiation index = 94.2–97.04). It is weakly peraluminous (average ACNK=1.02), has normative hypersthene (0.09–2.19%) and high alkali content (8.32–8.60%). The granites have many A-type characteristics, among them are shallow level of emplacement, high Ga, FeT/MgO and low P, Sr, Ti, CaO and Nb. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures for the Besar magma ranging from 793° to 806°C is consistent with high temperature partial melting of a felsic infracrustal source which is taken as one of the mechanisms to produce A-type magma. The occurrence of the A-type granite can be related to the extensional back arc basin in the Indo-China terrane during the earliest Permian.

  14. CA 19-9 (Cancer Antigen 19-9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called Lewis antigen that is similar to the ABO antigens that are used in blood typing for transfusions. About 5% to 7% of people are Lewis antigen negative (about 30% in people of African ancestry) and do not produce CA 19-9. The CA 19-9 test is not useful for monitoring people who are ...

  15. Interpersonal Personality Type as a Result of the Manifestations of Ethnic Groups Individuals from Dobrogea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Luminiţa Sandu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian people, especially ethnic belonging of the people was one of the people subject to the proletarian dictatorship, which has claimed over a long period study in this area. In the last decade we are witnessing a revival of studies on ethnic groups in Romania. This is due not only progress and the spread of democracy, encouraging linguistic, but also some deeper theoretical perspectives on diversity of ethnicity seen as opposed unification that could bring world economic globalization and scientific and technological. Ethnic groups, social organizations with specific characteristics becomes more pronounced as, the strongest influence their component elements (organizations and institutions and through their people. Differences between ethnic groups become noticeable if we refer to the organization and functioning of families in urban and rural communities, ways to produce goods or ways to spend your free time. The difference of the ethnic groups, however, does not stop here. They are obvious and if it investigates the ways in which group members analyze and interpret them. By how they are managing their own ethnic groups, rules of internal organization, the statuses and roles of men, the ways in which they are sanctioned adverse behaviors and encourage behaviors that may be favorable, the illustrations and pictures about them, they generate especially the people involved in their operation, ethnic organizations causes people to act as their members, maintain self-awareness and ethnic groups to preserve. Currently in Romania live, learn and work together membership of several ethnicities such as Romanian, Hungarian, Saxon, Székely, Bulgarians, Armenians, Russians, Turks, Tatars, Roma, Macedo and so on, each with its own cultural particularities, characteristics known little or unknown to others.

  16. Three classes of plasmid (47-63 kb) carry the type B neurotoxin gene cluster of group II Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Andrew T; Austin, John W; Weedmark, Kelly A; Corbett, Cindi; Peck, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of 26 strains of Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B4 showed that 23 strains carried their neurotoxin gene cluster on a 47-63 kb plasmid (three strains lacked any hybridization signal for the neurotoxin gene, presumably having lost their plasmid). Unexpectedly, no neurotoxin genes were found on the chromosome. This apparent constraint on neurotoxin gene transfer to the chromosome stands in marked contrast to Group I C. botulinum, in which neurotoxin gene clusters are routinely found in both locations. The three main classes of type B4 plasmid identified in this study shared different regions of homology, but were unrelated to any Group I or Group III plasmid. An important evolutionary aspect firmly links plasmid class to geographical origin, with one class apparently dominant in marine environments, whereas a second class is dominant in European terrestrial environments. A third class of plasmid is a hybrid between the other two other classes, providing evidence for contact between these seemingly geographically separated populations. Mobility via conjugation has been previously demonstrated for the type B4 plasmid of strain Eklund 17B, and similar genes associated with conjugation are present in all type B4 plasmids now described. A plasmid toxin-antitoxin system pemI gene located close to the neurotoxin gene cluster and conserved in each type B4 plasmid class may be important in understanding the mechanism which regulates this unique and unexpected bias toward plasmid-borne neurotoxin genes in Group II C. botulinum type B4.

  17. Red Blood Cell Antigen Genotyping for Sickle Cell Disease, Thalassemia, and Other Transfusion Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Ross M; Chou, Stella T

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group in the early 20th century, more than 300 blood group antigens have been categorized among 35 blood group systems. The molecular basis for most blood group antigens has been determined and demonstrates tremendous genetic diversity, particularly in the ABO and Rh systems. Several blood group genotyping assays have been developed, and 1 platform has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a "test of record," such that no phenotype confirmation with antisera is required. DNA-based red blood cell (RBC) phenotyping can overcome certain limitations of hemagglutination assays and is beneficial in many transfusion settings. Genotyping can be used to determine RBC antigen phenotypes in patients recently transfused or with interfering allo- or autoantibodies, to resolve discrepant serologic typing, and/or when typing antisera are not readily available. Molecular RBC antigen typing can facilitate complex antibody evaluations and guide RBC selection for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. High-resolution RH genotyping can identify variant RHD and RHCE in patients with SCD, which have been associated with alloimmunization. In the future, broader access to cost-efficient, high-resolution RBC genotyping technology for both patient and donor populations may be transformative for the field of transfusion medicine.

  18. First cohomology for finite groups of Lie type: simple modules with small dominant weights

    CERN Document Server

    Boe, Brian D; Carlson, Jon F; Chastkofsky, Leonard; Drupieski, Christopher M; Johnson, Niles; Jones, Benjamin F; Li, Wenjing; Nakano, Daniel K; Ngo, Nham Vo; Nguyen, Duc Duy; Samples, Brandon L; Talian, Andrew J; Townsley, Lisa; Wyser, Benjamin J

    2010-01-01

    Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field of characteristic $p > 0$, and let $G$ be a simple, simply connected algebraic group defined over $\\mathbb{F}_p$. Given $r \\geq 1$, set $q=p^r$, and let $G(\\mathbb{F}_q)$ be the corresponding finite Chevalley group. In this paper we investigate the structure of the first cohomology group $H^1(G(\\mathbb{F}_q),L(\\lambda))$ where $L(\\lambda)$ is the simple $G$-module of highest weight $\\lambda$. Under certain very mild conditions on $p$ and $q$, we are able to completely describe the first cohomology group when $\\lambda$ is less than or equal to a fundamental dominant weight. In particular, in the cases we consider, we show that the first cohomology group has dimension at most one. Our calculations significantly extend, and provide new proofs for, earlier results of Cline, Parshall, Scott, and Jones, who only considered the special case when $\\lambda$ is a minimal nonzero dominant weight.

  19. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. Methods and Matherials: The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. Results: The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Conclusions: According to the article, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  20. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Bbehavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Thus, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  1. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Are emm Type-Specific in Highly Prevalent Group A Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Po-Xing; Chan, Yuen-Chi; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Wang, Shu-Ying; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Yee-Shin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas) and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson's index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type.

  2. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Are emm Type-Specific in Highly Prevalent Group A Streptococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Xing Zheng

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson's index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type.

  3. Metformin Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy: An Active Controlled, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Open Label Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahan Ara Ainuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess the effect of metformin and to compare it with insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in terms of perinatal outcome, maternal complications, additional insulin requirement, and treatment acceptability. Methods. In this randomized, open label study, 206 patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy who met the eligibility criteria were selected from the antenatal clinics. Insulin was added to metformin treatment when required, to maintain the target glycemic control. The patients were followed up till delivery. Maternal, and perinatal outcomes and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics were recorded on a proforma. Results. Maternal characteristics were comparable in metformin and insulin treated group. 84.9% patients in metformin group required add-on insulin therapy at mean gestational age of 26.58 ± 3.85 weeks. Less maternal weight gain (P24 hours in metformin group (P<0.01. Significant reduction in cost of treatment was found in metformin group. Conclusion. Metformin alone or with add-on insulin is an effective and cheap treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number: Clinical trials.gov NCT01855763.

  4. Development of a Group Intervention for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes-Knadle, Yolanda M.; Munoz, Cynthia E.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (DM1) are at significant risk for depression compared to their non-diabetic counterparts and frequently demonstrate poor glycemic control. Comorbid depression may further exacerbate inadequate metabolic control by creating emotional barriers to effective adherence. Caregiver response to the diagnosis and management…

  5. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER.... M—Mixed. N—Nondescript, as defined. S—Scrap, as defined. (b) Type 31-V. Notwithstanding...

  6. Development of a Group Intervention for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes-Knadle, Yolanda M.; Munoz, Cynthia E.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (DM1) are at significant risk for depression compared to their non-diabetic counterparts and frequently demonstrate poor glycemic control. Comorbid depression may further exacerbate inadequate metabolic control by creating emotional barriers to effective adherence. Caregiver response to the diagnosis and management…

  7. Specific Involvement of Pilus Type 2a in Biofilm Formation in Group B Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Cesira L.; Berti, Francesco; Necchi, Francesca; Reguzzi, Valerio; Ghezzo, Claudia; Telford, John Laird; Grandi, Guido; Maione, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary colonizer of the anogenital mucosa of up to 30% of healthy women and can infect newborns during delivery and cause severe sepsis and meningitis. Persistent colonization usually involves the formation of biofilm and increasing evidences indicate that in pathogenic streptococci biofilm formation is mediated by pili. Recently, we have characterized pili distribution and conservation in 289 GBS clinical isolates and we have shown that GBS has three pilus types, 1, 2a and 2b encoded by three corresponding pilus islands, and that each strain carries one or two islands. Here we have investigated the capacity of these strains to form biofilms. We have found that most of the biofilm-formers carry pilus 2a, and using insertion and deletion mutants we have confirmed that pilus type 2a, but not pilus types 1 and 2b, confers biofilm-forming phenotype. We also show that deletion of the major ancillary protein of type 2a did not impair biofilm formation while the inactivation of the other ancillary protein and of the backbone protein completely abolished this phenotype. Furthermore, antibodies raised against pilus components inhibited bacterial adherence to solid surfaces, offering new strategies to prevent GBS infection by targeting bacteria during their initial attachment to host epithelial cells. PMID:20169161

  8. Specific involvement of pilus type 2a in biofilm formation in group B Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Daniela Rinaudo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary colonizer of the anogenital mucosa of up to 30% of healthy women and can infect newborns during delivery and cause severe sepsis and meningitis. Persistent colonization usually involves the formation of biofilm and increasing evidences indicate that in pathogenic streptococci biofilm formation is mediated by pili. Recently, we have characterized pili distribution and conservation in 289 GBS clinical isolates and we have shown that GBS has three pilus types, 1, 2a and 2b encoded by three corresponding pilus islands, and that each strain carries one or two islands. Here we have investigated the capacity of these strains to form biofilms. We have found that most of the biofilm-formers carry pilus 2a, and using insertion and deletion mutants we have confirmed that pilus type 2a, but not pilus types 1 and 2b, confers biofilm-forming phenotype. We also show that deletion of the major ancillary protein of type 2a did not impair biofilm formation while the inactivation of the other ancillary protein and of the backbone protein completely abolished this phenotype. Furthermore, antibodies raised against pilus components inhibited bacterial adherence to solid surfaces, offering new strategies to prevent GBS infection by targeting bacteria during their initial attachment to host epithelial cells.

  9. Reduced frequency of blood group Lewis a-b- in female Type 1 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharagjitsingh, A.V.; Prinsen, K.; Lemkes, H.H.;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To examine a disputed association between the Lewis(a(-)b(-)) phenotype and Type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Lewis red blood cell phenotyping was performed for 97 T1D White patients and 100 control subjects using monoclonal antibodies. Two historical cohorts were also included as a control...

  10. 尿液标本淋球菌多抗原序列分型研究%Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing using urine samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍椿; 尹跃平; 施美琴; 戴秀芹; 韩燕; 王宝玺; 陈祥生

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨江苏常州、扬州,广西梧州、贺州,海南三亚、琼海,广东江门、茂名淋球菌多抗原序列分型(NG-MAST)的型别分布.方法 88份淋球菌核酸检测阳性的男性性病门诊就诊者(MSP)的尿液标本,用Qiagen试剂盒提取DNA,并进行2次PCR扩增porB、tbpB基因片段,扩增成功的标本测序后登陆NG-MAST网站进行序列比对,获取菌株基因型别信息.结果 对88份阳性标本提取DNA进行单次PCR,扩增porB、tbpB基因的效率分别为13.6%和14.8%,共有12份标本比对成功,得到菌株基因型别,分型效率为13.6%(12/88);进行2次PCR扩增后,porB、tbpB基因的PCR扩增效率分别为71.6%和72.7%,分别增长了58.0%和57.9%,共有62份标本比对成功得到菌株基因型别,分型效率为70.5%(62/88),分型效率提高了56.9%.62份标本共分出45个基因型,其中40个型为已知型别,5个为新型别.所有型别中,ST1866型丰度最高,有6份标本为此型别,ST1972、ST3356各有4份标本,都集中于江苏项目点.ST532有3份,集中于广东项目点.ST2221有2份,集中于广西项目点,其余各基因型均只有1份标本,散在分布于各省.5个新型别为:porB基因型为892、tbppB基因型98%相似于46型的标本,且丰度较高,仅发现于江苏项目点;porB基因型为903、tbpB基因型99%相似于958型;porB基因型为130、tbpB基因型96%相似于504型;porB基因型为2790、tbpB基因型99%相似于32型;porB基因型为1053、tbpB基因型99%相似于856型.结论 尿液标本可以用于NG-MAST分型研究,2次PCR扩增可以提高尿液标本的分型效率,不同地区淋球菌NG-MAST型别表现为多样性.%Objective To determine Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) sequence types in different geographical areas of China,including Changzhou and Yangzhou cities of Jiangsu province,Wuzhou and Hezhou cities in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous region,Sanya and Qionghai cities of Hainan

  11. Determination of an unrelated donor pool size for human leukocyte antigen-matched platelets in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonet Bub

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Successful transfusion of platelet refractory patients is a challenge. Many potential donors are needed to sustain human leukocyte antigen matched-platelet transfusion programs because of the different types of antigens and the constant needs of these patients. For a highly mixed population such as the Brazilian population, the pool size required to provide adequate platelet support is unknown. Methods: A mathematical model was created to estimate the appropriate size of an unrelated donor pool to provide human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet support for a Brazilian population. A group of 154 hematologic human leukocyte antigen-typed patients was used as the potential patient population and a database of 65,500 human leukocyte antigen-typed bone marrow registered donors was used as the donor population. Platelet compatibility was based on the grading system of Duquesnoy. Results: Using the mathematical model, a pool containing 31,940, 1710 and 321 donors would be necessary to match more than 80% of the patients with at least five completely compatible (no cross-reactive group, partial compatible (one cross-reactive group or less compatible (two cross-reactive group donors, respectively. Conclusion: The phenotypic diversity of the Brazilian population has probably made it more difficulty to find completely compatible donors. However, this heterogeneity seems to have facilitated finding donors when cross-reactive groups are accepted as proposed by the grading system of Duquesnoy. The results of this study may help to establish unrelated human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet transfusions, a procedure not routinely performed in most Brazilian transfusion services.

  12. Luminosity function of galaxies in groups in the SDSS DR7: the dependence on mass, environment and galaxy type

    CERN Document Server

    Zandivarez, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the luminosities of galaxies in groups in the SDSS DR7. We analyse the luminosity function (LF) as a function of group mass for different photometric bands, galaxy populations, galaxy positions within the groups, and the group surrounding large scale density. We find that M* brightens and alpha becomes steeper as a function of mass in all SDSS photometric bands, in agreement with previous results. From the analysis of different galaxy populations, we observe that different methods to split galaxy populations, based on the concentration index or the colour-magnitude diagram, produce quite different behaviours in the luminosity trends, mainly for alpha. These discrepancies and the trends with mass mentioned above are explained when analysing the LF of galaxies classified simultaneously according to their concentrations and colours. We find that only the red spheroids have a LF that strongly depends on group mass. Late type galaxies, whether blue or red, have luminosity functions that d...

  13. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O strains isolated from Cameroonian patients living in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussert-Ajaka, I; Chaix, M L; Korber, B; Letourneur, F; Gomas, E; Allen, E; Ly, T D; Brun-Vézinet, F; Simon, F; Saragosti, S

    1995-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleotide sequences encoding p24Gag and the Env C2V3 region were obtained from seven patients who were selected on the basis of having paradoxical seronegativity on a subset of HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection kits and having atypical Western blot (immunoblot) reactivity. Sequence analyses showed that all of these strains were more closely related to the recently described Cameroonian HIV isolates of group O (HIV-1 outlier) than to group M (HIV-1 major). All seven patients had Cameroonian origins but were living in France at the time the blood samples were taken. Characterization of a large number of group M strains has to date revealed eight distinct genetic subtypes (A to H). Genetic distances between sequences from available group O isolates were generally comparable to those observed in M intersubtype sequence comparisons, showing that the group O viruses are genetically very diverse. Analysis of sequences from these seven new viral strains, combined with the three previously characterized group O strains, revealed few discernable phylogenetic clustering patterns among the 10 patients' viral sequences. The level of diversity among group O sequences suggests that they may have a comparable (or greater) age than the M group sequences, although for unknown reasons, the latter group dispersed first and is the dominant lineage in the pandemic.

  14. Helical -type aggregation of trimeric -phenylene vinylene with chiral ester groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiquan Zhang; Ying Li; Peng Wang

    2011-08-01

    Self-assembly properties of the trimeric -phenylene vinylene derivative containing symmetrical endgroups of -(+)-2-methylbutyric acid ester (ChTPV) in H2O/THF mixed solvents were studied by absorption, photoluminescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The results indicate that ChTPV exhibits helical -type nano-aggregates in 80% H2O/THFmixed solvents, and the negative exciton coupling suggests that the chromophoric dipoles are oriented in a counter-clockwise direction.

  15. Screening and identification of dengue virus type 2-specific antigens%登革2型病毒特异性抗原片段的筛选及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任瑞文; 唐博恒; 张培; 胡文龙; 洪文艳; 刘建伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 筛选、鉴定登革2型病毒特异性抗原,为进一步研究其生物学功能奠定基础,并利用纯化抗原建立检测登革2型病毒抗体的ELISA方法.方法 分别利用DNAStar及ANTHEPROT软件对登革病毒1-4型、流行性乙型脑炎及黄热病毒M、E蛋白进行分析,分析登革2型病毒型特异性抗原表位,并参考GenBank中的序列信息进行比对,分析其在不同登革2型病毒株中的保守性.然后选择预测得分值较高的表位,利用pET32a原核表达系统进行原核表达,Western blotting验证其免疫学反应特异性,特异性片段经亲和层析纯化后,包被ELISA微孔板,并对ELISA反应条件进行系统优化.结果 经系统的生物信息学分析,初步预测获得登革2型病毒特异性抗原表位8个,并对其中得分值较高的6段进行了高效表达,经Western blotting分析,获得登革2型病毒特异性抗原片段1段.经纯化后作为检测用抗原,建立了检测登革2型病毒抗体的ELISA方法.初步应用表明,所建立方法具备良好的特异性,可检测1~200倍稀释的患者血清,S/N比值均在10以上.结论 获得登革2型病毒特异性抗原片段1段,并建立检测登革2型病毒抗体的ELISA方法.%Objective To screen and identify dengue virus type 2 specific antigens and establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELBA) for detecting dengue virus type 2 antibody. Methods Using the bioinformatic software DNAstar and ANTHEPROT, we analyzed the hydrophilicity, flexibility, surface probability and antigenicity of dengue virus type 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Yellow fever virus M and E protein amino acid sequences, and also evaluated the influence of secondary structure. The specific epitopes of dengue virus type 2 were predicted according to the epitope location and amino acid sequence similarity, and the epitope conservation was assessed using the sequence information of different dengue virus type 2 strains in GenBank. Based on

  16. [Comparison of antibody responses to hepatitis B surface antigen among four recipient groups of hepatitis B vaccines that have been approved in Japan: evaluation using passive hemagglutination assay and chemiluminescent immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio

    2009-10-01

    In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-preventing programs, serum or plasma levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are important to determine whether individuals are protective or not. We compared anti-HBs responses using passive hemagglutination assay (Mycell) and chemiluminescent immunoassay (Architect) among four recipient groups of HB vaccines, Meinyu, HBY, Bimmugen and Heptavax II, that have been approved in Japan. Overall, in a total of 1875 vaccinees Mycell results showed recipient groups of Meinyu and HBY acquired higher anti-HBs levels than those of Bimmugen and Heptavax II. Comparison of anti-HBs responses by both Mycell and Architect in recipient groups of Meinyu (n=150), HBY (n=218), Bimmugen (n=260), and Heptavax II (n=47) demonstrated the order of vaccinees' responses, such as geometric mean titers, ratios of acquiring high antibody levels (Mycell titers over 1024, Architect measurements over 1000 mIU/mL), and ratios of having unsuccessful antibody responses (Mycell titers under 8, Architect measurements under 10 mIU/mL), were somewhat different between the two assays. Comparison of Architect measurements at given Mycell titers revealed Bimmugen-recipients showed significantly lower values than HBY- or Heptavax II-recipients. Around critical protective levels, 5 of 22 Bimmugen-recipients with Mycell titers 16 or 32 showed Architect measurements under 10 mIU/mL, while 8 of 11 Heptavax II-recipients with Mycell titers below 8 demonstrated Architect measurements over 10 mIU/mL. Thus, discrepancies in anti-HBs evaluation between Mycell and Architect seemed to partly depend on administered vaccines. These results indicate anti-HBs concentration should be evaluated carefully so that we could completely prevent HBV infection.

  17. Topics in quantum groups and finite-type invariants mathematics at the independent University of Moscow

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipov, S M; Odesskii, A V; Feigin, B; Vassiliev, V

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents the first collection of articles consisting entirely of work by faculty and students of the Higher Mathematics College of the Independent University of Moscow (IUM). This unique institution was established to train elite students to become research scientists. Covered in the book are two main topics: quantum groups and low-dimensional topology. The articles were written by participants of the Feigin and Vassiliev seminars, two of the most active seminars at the IUM.

  18. Frank Aggregation Operators for Triangular Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Set and Its Application in Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an approach to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM problems, in which the individual assessments are in the form of triangle interval type-2 fuzzy numbers (TIT2FNs. Firstly, some Frank operation laws of triangle interval type-2 fuzzy set (TIT2FS are defined. Secondly, some Frank aggregation operators such as the triangle interval type-2 fuzzy Frank weighted averaging (TIT2FFWA operator and the triangle interval type-2 fuzzy Frank weighted geometric (TIT2FFWG operator are developed for aggregation TIT2FNs. Furthermore, some desirable properties of the two aggregation operators are analyzed in detail. Finally, an approach based on TIT2FFWA (or TIT2FFWG operator to solve MAGDM is developed. An illustrative example about supplier selection is provided to illustrate the developed procedures. The results demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of our new method.

  19. Sun protection attitudes and behaviours among first generation Australians with darker skin types: results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Zucca, Alison; Brozek, Irena; Rock, Vanessa; Bonevski, Billie

    2015-02-01

    Despite residing in a country that has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and sun protection practices of first generation Australian-born individuals with olive and darker skin types. Six focus groups with first generation Australian-born individuals of Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian background were conducted. Participants had good knowledge of the dangers of skin cancer. Most correctly perceived darker skin types as protective and believed they were at low risk of skin cancer. Most participants could recall high profile mass media sun protection campaigns. Several participants suggested that greater representation of ethnic minorities and/or individuals with darker skin types would increase the personal relevance of campaigns. Beliefs that sun protection is not necessary on the basis of skin type highlights the need for further studies to explore fundamental differences in attitudes and practices between those with olive and darker skin and the general Australian population.

  20. Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution and HPV type 16 E6 variants in two Spanish population groups with different levels of HPV infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M; Torres, M; Muñoz, L; Fernández-García, E; Canals, J; Cabornero, A I; Aguilar, E; Ballesteros, J; Del Amo, J; García-Sáiz, A

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and HPV type 16 (HPV16) variant distribution in two Spanish population groups, commercial sex workers and imprisoned women (CSW/IPW) and the general population. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 1,889 women from five clinical settings in two Spanish cities was conducted from May to November 2004. Oncogenic HPV infection was tested by an Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test, and positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing using three different primer sets in L1 (MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+) and E6/E7. HPV16 variants were identified by sequencing the E6, E2, and L1 regions. Four hundred twenty-five samples were positive for the HC2 test, 31.5% from CSW/IPW and 10.7% from the general population. HPV16 was the most frequent type. Distinct profiles of oncogenic HPV type prevalence were observed across the two populations. In order of decreasing frequency, HPV types 16, 31, 58, 66, 56, and 18 were most frequent in CSW/IPW women, and types 16, 31, 52, 68, 51, and 53 were most frequent in the general population. We analyzed HPV16 intratype variants, and a large majority (78.7%) belonged to the European lineage. AA variants were detected in 16.0% of cases. African variants belonging to classes Af1 (4.0%) and Af2 (1.3%) were detected. Different HPV types and HPV16 intratype variants are involved in oncogenic HPV infections in our population. These results suggest that HPV type distribution differs in CSW/IPW women and in the general population, although further analysis is necessary.

  1. Type synthesis of a class of spatial lower-mobility parallel mechanisms with orthogonal arrangement based on Lie group enumeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Jian; S.

    2010-01-01

    Type synthesis of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms (PMs) has drawn extensive interests, particularly two main approaches were established by using the reciprocal screw system theory and Lie group theory, respectively. Although every above approach provides a universal framework for structural design of general lower-mobility PMs, type synthesis is still a comparably difficult task for the PMs with particular geometry or required to fulfill some specified tasks. This paper aims at exploring a simple and effective synthesis method for lower-mobility parallel mechanisms with orthogonal arrangement (OPMs), and the applied mathematical tool is established in the displacement group theory. For this purpose, the concept of the Cartesian DOF-characteristic matrix, originated from canonical displacement subgroup and displacement submanifold, is proposed. A new approach based on combination of the atlas of Cartesian DOF-characteristic matrix and displacement group-theoretic method is addressed for both exhaustive classification and type synthesis of OPMs. Type synthesis for some representatives of 3-DOF OPMs verifies effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Synthesis of organozirconium and -hafnium compounds containing silaneopentyl-type groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vdovin, V.M.; Bespalova, N.B.; Ivaschenko, D.A.; Nikitin, V.S.; Sergeeva, M.B.; Strelenko, Y.A.

    1986-01-10

    This paper proposes a new method for the synthesis of organic compounds of zirconium and hafnium containing the group MCH/sub 2/Si, by reacting Zr or Hf tetrachloride with 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-disilacyclobutane (I). Using equimolar amounts of the reactants and a temperature of 20 C, cleavage of the disilacyclobutane ring occurs with the formation of the appropriate organometallic compound 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-4-chloro-2,4-disilabutylzirconium (or hafnium) trichloride (II). The C 13 chemical shifts of compound (II) in C/sub 6/D/sub 6/ solution relative to (CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/Si are presented.

  3. Oligomers Solidification Depending on the Nature, Molecular Mass, Type and Reactional Group Containing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliyp. Medvedev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to regularity defining of curing oligomers, and prepolymers with hydroxyl and isocyanate groups and double bonds reactive oligomers.The features of the spatial structure of elasticpolyurethane based oligomers and prepolymers with the definition of the physical and chemical bonds share, as well as the chain interval length between grid points were researched. The possibility of oligodiendiolecuring in the presence of a methacrylate component on the mechanism of radical polymerization was experimentally confirmed.To achieve the objectives rheokinetic method of analysis (rotational viscometer, thermometric and iodometric methods, IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetrywere used.

  4. Liquid Crystalline π-Conjugated Copolymers Bearing a Pyrimidine Type Mesogenic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsuke Kawabata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenylene-thiophene-based liquid crystalline π-conjugated copolymers bearing mesogenic groups as side chains were synthesized via a Stille polycondensation reaction and confirmed to exhibit a nematic liquid crystal phase at appropriate temperatures. The formation of a nematic phase, but not a smectic phase indicates cooperation of the main chain and side chain in the formation of a nematic main-chain/side-chain liquid crystal phase. The generation of polarons in the main chain as charge carriers during in-situ vapor doping of iodine is confirmed to increase with a doping progresses, exhibiting Dysonian paramagnetic behavior typical of conductive polymers.

  5. Incidence rates of specific histological types of lung cancer in Singapore Chinese dialect groups, and their aetiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C H; Day, N E; Shanmugaratnam, K

    1976-03-15

    Significant differences in the incidence levels of lung cancer have been observed among major Chinese dialect groups or communities (Kokkien, Teochew and Cantonese) in Singapore. Among males, the incidence rate is highest in the Hokkiens (age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 persons per year in Hokkien 67.8, Teochew 55.3, Cantonese 54.0) and among females, it is highest in the Cantonese (Hokkien 12.4, Teochew 12.8, Cantonese 27.2). The present investigation was undertaken to determine the incidence rates of each of the main histological types of lung cancer in the Chinese population and to determine whether there are any correlations between histological patterns and the dialect group differentials that may be of aetiological significance. During the period 1968-1972, a total of 1,747 cases of lung cancer (1,285 males and 462 females) were reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry. It proved possible to type the neoplasms histologically in 476 males (37.0%) and 154 females (33.3%). Age-standardized rates by histological type were computed on the assumption that those histologically typed were a representative sample of all lung cancers. This study shows that Hokkien males have a significantly higher incidence rate of epidermoid carcinoma than the other dialect groups (Hokkien 36.1, Teochew 21.1, Cantonese 17.3). The Cantonese females have significantly higher incidence rates of both epidermoid carcinoma (Hokkien 3.7, Teochew 2.3, Cantonese 5.9) and adenocarcinoma (Hokkien 4.6, Teochew 3.6, Cantonese 11.9). Various sources of bias in studied of this type were examined; it is concluded that the differences in the histologic-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the various Chinese dialect groups in Singapore are real and not artefactual. The significance of these findings in relation to possible aetiological factors is discussed.

  6. M protein typing of Thai group A streptococcal isolates by PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Good Michael F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group A streptococcal (GAS infections can lead to the development of severe post-infectious sequelae, such as rheumatic fever (RF and rheumatic heart disease (RHD. RF and RHD are a major health concern in developing countries, and in indigenous populations of developed nations. The majority of GAS isolates are M protein-nontypeable (MNT by standard serotyping. However, GAS typing is a necessary tool in the epidemiologically analysis of GAS and provides useful information for vaccine development. Although DNA sequencing is the most conclusive method for M protein typing, this is not a feasible approach especially in developing countries. To overcome this problem, we have developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based assay for molecular typing the M protein gene (emm of GAS. Results Using one pair of primers, 13 known GAS M types showed one to four bands of PCR products and after digestion with Alu I, they gave different RFLP patterns. Of 106 GAS isolates examined from the normal Thai population and from patients with GAS-associated complications including RHD, 95 isolates gave RFLP patterns that corresponded to the 13 known M types. Only 11 isolates gave RFLP patterns that differed from the 13 known M types. These were then analyzed by DNA sequencing and six additional M types were identified. In addition, we found that M93 GAS was the most common M type in the population studied, and is consistent with a previous study of Thai GAS isolates. Conclusion PCR-RFLP analysis has the potential for the rapid screening of different GAS M types and is therefore considerably advantageous as an alternative M typing approach in developing countries in which GAS is endemic.

  7. Inorganic SnIP-type double helices in main group chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Maximilian; Weihrich, Richard; Nilges, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by the synthesis of the first atomic-scale double helix semiconductor SnIP this study deals with the question if more atomistic, inorganic double helix compounds are accessible. With the aid of quantum chemical calculations we have identified 31 candidates by a homoatomic substitution in MXPn, varying the group 4 M-element from Si to Pb, the group 7 X-element from F to I and replacing the pnictide (Pn) phosphorus by arsenic. The double-helical structure of SnIP has been used as the starting model for all candidates and the electronic structure and vibrational spectra were determined within the Framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT). Varying the outer MX or the inner Pn helix led to the conclusion that iodide and bromide containing MXPn compounds show similar structures to SnIP. Here, the calculations indicate interesting effects for electronic band gap tuning. For the highly polarized fluorides a segregation of the helices to more complex MX substructures is predicted.

  8. Methods and compositions for diagnosing and preventing a group B streptococcal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Linda Jeannine; Seifert, Kyle N.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-09-15

    The present invention provides a group B streptococcal (GBS) surface antigen, designated epsilon antigen, that is co-expressed with the delta antigen on a subset of serotype III GBS. Epsilon is expressed on more pathogenic Restriction Digest Pattern (RDP) III-3 GBS, but not on RDP types 1, 2, or 4. Accordingly, the present invention provides compositions and methods for detecting a group B streptococcus serotype III, RDP III-3 strain. Vaccines and methods of identifying agents which inhibit adhesion of a group B streptococcal cell to a host cell are also provided.

  9. Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: Standpoint of an experts′ committee (India hypoglycemia study group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Viswanathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of type 2 diabetes and the recognition that achieving specific glycemic goals can substantially reduce morbidity have made the effective treatment of hyperglycemia a top priority. Despite compelling evidence that tight glycemic control is crucial for delaying disease progression, increased risk of hypoglycemia associated with such control underscore the complexity of diabetes management. In most cases, hypoglycemia results from an excess of insulin, either absolute or relative to the available glucose substrate and the factors perhaps exacerbating the risk are pharmacokinetic imperfections, behavioral, co-morbidities etc. Additionally, many patients remain undiagnosed, and many diagnosed patients are not treated appropriately. In this article, the challenges of hypoglycemia, confronting health care providers and their patients with diabetes, are discussed for making treatment decisions that will help minimize risk of hypoglycemia and eventually overcome formidable barriers to optimal diabetes management. Strategies to treat and minimize the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia without compromising on glycemic goals are also presented.

  10. Constraining anisotropy of the universe from different groups of type-Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai

    2014-01-01

    Recent released Planck data and other astronomical observations show that the universe may be anisotropic on large scales. Inspired by this, anisotropic cosmological models have been proposed. We note that the Finsler-Randers spacetime provides an appropriate framework for the anisotropic cosmology. By adding an arbitrary 1-form to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) line element, a privileged axis in the universe is picked out. The distance-redshift relation is modified to be direction-dependent. We wish that the anisotropic cosmological model may be tested crossly by independent observations. Type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) calibrated from four different light curve fitters are used to constrain possible anisotropy of the universe. The magnitudes of anisotropy are all between 2% --- 5%, but the systematic uncertainty cannot be excluded. The directions of privileged axis seem to differ from each other. The statistical significance is not high enough to make a convincing conclusion. Nevertheless, the $1\\sigma$ c...

  11. Extending Inferential Group Analysis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Multivariate GLM Implemented in SPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fábio S; Pereira, João M S; Duarte, João V; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Although voxel based morphometry studies are still the standard for analyzing brain structure, their dependence on massive univariate inferential methods is a limiting factor. A better understanding of brain pathologies can be achieved by applying inferential multivariate methods, which allow the study of multiple dependent variables, e.g. different imaging modalities of the same subject. Given the widespread use of SPM software in the brain imaging community, the main aim of this work is the implementation of massive multivariate inferential analysis as a toolbox in this software package. applied to the use of T1 and T2 structural data from diabetic patients and controls. This implementation was compared with the traditional ANCOVA in SPM and a similar multivariate GLM toolbox (MRM). We implemented the new toolbox and tested it by investigating brain alterations on a cohort of twenty-eight type 2 diabetes patients and twenty-six matched healthy controls, using information from both T1 and T2 weighted structural MRI scans, both separately - using standard univariate VBM - and simultaneously, with multivariate analyses. Univariate VBM replicated predominantly bilateral changes in basal ganglia and insular regions in type 2 diabetes patients. On the other hand, multivariate analyses replicated key findings of univariate results, while also revealing the thalami as additional foci of pathology. While the presented algorithm must be further optimized, the proposed toolbox is the first implementation of multivariate statistics in SPM8 as a user-friendly toolbox, which shows great potential and is ready to be validated in other clinical cohorts and modalities.

  12. High Order Fefferman-Phong Type Inequalities in Carnot Groups and Regularity for Degenerate Elliptic Operators plus a Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let {X1,X2,…,Xm} be the basis of space of horizontal vector fields in a Carnot group G=(Rn;∘ (mtype inequalities in G. As applications, we derive a priori Lp(G estimates for the nondivergence degenerate elliptic operators L=-∑i,j=1maij(xXiXj+V(x with VMO coefficients and a potential V belonging to an appropriate Stummel type class introduced in this paper. Some of our results are also new even for the usual Euclidean space.

  13. Conformational Dynamics and Exchange Kinetics of N-Formyl and N-Acetyl Groups Substituting 3-Amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-d-galactopyranose, a Sugar Found in Bacterial O-Antigen Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Olof; Mobarak, Hani; Ståhle, Jonas; Widmalm, Göran

    2017-10-04

    Three dimensional shape and conformation of carbohydrates are important factors in molecular recognition events and the N-acetyl group of a monosaccharide residue can function as a conformational gatekeeper whereby it influences the overall shape of the oligosaccharide. NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanics (QM) calculations are used herein to investigate both the conformational preferences and the dynamic behavior of N-acetyl and N-formyl substituents of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-d-galactopyranose, a sugar and substitution pattern found in bacterial O-antigen polysaccharides. QM calculations suggest that the amide oxygen can be involved in hydrogen bonding with the axial OH4 group primarily but also with the equatorial OH2 group. However, an NMR J coupling analysis indicates that the θ1 torsion angle, adjacent to the sugar ring, prefers an ap conformation where conformations formyl-substituted compound (4)JHH coupling constants to the exo-cyclic group were detected and analyzed. A van't Hoff analysis revealed that the trans conformation at the amide bond is favored by ΔG° ≈ - 0.8 kcal·mol(-1) in the formyl-containing compound and with ΔG° ≈ - 2.5 kcal·mol(-1) when the N-acetyl group is the substituent. In both cases the enthalpic term dominates to the free energy, irrespective of water or DMSO as solvent, with only a small contribution from the entropic term. The cis-trans isomerization of the θ2 torsion angle, centered at the amide bond, was also investigated by employing (1)H NMR line shape analysis and (13)C NMR saturation transfer experiments. The extracted transition rate constants were utilized to calculate transition energy barriers that were found to be about 20 kcal·mol(-1) in both DMSO-d6 and D2O. Enthalpy had a higher contribution to the energy barriers in DMSO-d6 compared to in D2O, where entropy compensated for the loss of enthalpy.

  14. Comparative analysis of prostate-specific antigen free survival outcomes for patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer treatment by radical therapy. Results from the Prostate Cancer Results Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Peter; Billiet, Ignace; Bostwick, David; Dicker, Adam P; Frank, Steven; Immerzeel, Jos; Keyes, Mira; Kupelian, Patrick; Lee, W Robert; Machtens, Stefan; Mayadev, Jyoti; Moran, Brian J; Merrick, Gregory; Millar, Jeremy; Roach, Mack; Stock, Richard; Shinohara, Katsuto; Scholz, Mark; Weber, Ed; Zietman, Anthony; Zelefsky, Michael; Wong, Jason; Wentworth, Stacy; Vera, Robyn; Langley, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Very few comparative studies to date evaluate the results of treatment options for prostate cancer using the most sensitive measurement tools. PSA has been identified as the most sensitive tool for measuring treatment effectiveness. To date, comprehensive unbiased reviews of all the current literature are limited for prostate cancer. This is the first large scale comprehensive review of the literature comparing risk stratified patients by treatment option and with long-term follow-up. The results of the studies are weighted, respecting the impact of larger studies on overall results. The study identified a lack of uniformity in reporting results amongst institutions and centres. A large number of studies have been conducted on the primary therapy of prostate cancer but very few randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The comparison of outcomes from individual studies involving surgery (radical prostatectomy or robotic radical prostatectomy), external beam radiation (EBRT) (conformal, intensity modulated radiotherapy, protons), brachytherapy, cryotherapy or high intensity focused ultrasound remains problematic due to the non-uniformity of reporting results and the use of varied disease outcome endpoints. Technical advances in these treatments have also made long-term comparisons difficult. The Prostate Cancer Results Study Group was formed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of prostate cancer treatments. This international group conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify all studies involving treatment of localized prostate cancer published during 2000-2010. Over 18,000 papers were identified and a further selection was made based on the following key criteria: minimum/median follow-up of 5 years; stratification into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups; clinical and pathological staging; accepted standard definitions for prostate-specific antigen failure; minimum patient

  15. Schottky-type groups and minimal sets of horocycle and geodesic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, M. S.

    2004-02-01

    In the first part of the paper the following conjecture stated by Dal'bo and Starkov is proved: the geodesic flow on a surface M=\\mathbb H^2/\\Gamma of constant negative curvature has a non-compact non-trivial minimal set if and only if the Fuchsian group \\Gamma is infinitely generated or contains a parabolic element. In the second part interesting examples of horocycle flows are constructed: 1) a flow whose restriction to the non-wandering set has no minimal subsets, and 2) a flow without minimal sets.In addition, an example of an infinitely generated discrete subgroup of \\operatorname{SL}(2,\\mathbb R) with all orbits discrete and dense in \\mathbb R^2 is constructed.

  16. Antitumor activities and interaction with DNA of oxaliplatin-type platinum complexes with linear or branched alkoxyacetates as leaving groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runting; Gou, Shaohua; Liu, Xia; Lou, Liguang

    2011-08-01

    Five oxaliplatin-typed platinum complexes containing trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane chelating platinum cores, characteristic of linear or branched alkoxycarboxylates as leaving groups, were biologically evaluated. These compounds showed higher antitumor activity, lower toxicity in vivo than cisplatin or oxaliplatin. And the results revealed that the antitumor activity and interaction with DNA of these compounds were highly related to the nature of leaving groups. Among these complexes, 5a, cis-(trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane) bis (2-tert-butoxyacetate) platinum(II), showed the highest antitumor activity and the lowest toxicity.

  17. Heat Shock Enhances the Expression of the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type-I (HTLV-I) Trans-Activator (Tax) Antigen in Human HTLV-I Infected Primary and Cultured T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihiro, Marie; Fujii, Hideki; Miyagi, Takuya; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Reiko; Fukushima, Takuya; Ansari, Aftab A; Tanaka, Yuetsu

    2016-07-11

    The environmental factors that lead to the reactivation of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) in latently infected T cells in vivo remain unknown. It has been previously shown that heat shock (HS) is a potent inducer of HTLV-I viral protein expression in long-term cultured cell lines. However, the precise HTLV-I protein(s) and mechanisms by which HS induces its effect remain ill-defined. We initiated these studies by first monitoring the levels of the trans-activator (Tax) protein induced by exposure of the HTLV-I infected cell line to HS. HS treatment at 43 °C for 30 min for 24 h led to marked increases in the level of Tax antigen expression in all HTLV-I-infected T cell lines tested including a number of HTLV-I-naturally infected T cell lines. HS also increased the expression of functional HTLV-I envelope gp46 antigen, as shown by increased syncytium formation activity. Interestingly, the enhancing effect of HS was partially inhibited by the addition of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-inhibitor pifithlin-μ (PFT). In contrast, the HSP 70-inducer zerumbone (ZER) enhanced Tax expression in the absence of HS. These data suggest that HSP 70 is at least partially involved in HS-mediated stimulation of Tax expression. As expected, HS resulted in enhanced expression of the Tax-inducible host antigens, such as CD83 and OX40. Finally, we confirmed that HS enhanced the levels of Tax and gp46 antigen expression in primary human CD4⁺ T cells isolated from HTLV-I-infected humanized NOD/SCID/γc null (NOG) mice and HTLV-I carriers. In summary, the data presented herein indicate that HS is one of the environmental factors involved in the reactivation of HTLV-I in vivo via enhanced Tax expression, which may favor HTLV-I expansion in vivo.

  18. AntigenMap 3D: an online antigenic cartography resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J Lamar; Yang, Jialiang; Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Antigenic cartography is a useful technique to visualize and minimize errors in immunological data by projecting antigens to 2D or 3D cartography. However, a 2D cartography may not be sufficient to capture the antigenic relationship from high-dimensional immunological data. AntigenMap 3D presents an online, interactive, and robust 3D antigenic cartography construction and visualization resource. AntigenMap 3D can be applied to identify antigenic variants and vaccine strain candidates for pathogens with rapid antigenic variations, such as influenza A virus. http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap3D

  19. [The construction of sexology as a profession in Portugal: composition professional group and types of sexologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-02-01

    This study sets out to discuss the emergence of the profession of sexologist in Portugal, comparing its development with international trends. This research also seeks to understand the self-identification of sexologists and the significances they attribute to it. The empirical information presented derives from a survey conducted with 91 Portuguese sexologists identified through the leading professional associations and from 44 in-depth interviews with experts selected by intentional sampling to ensure the diversity of Portuguese sexologists. The results of the survey indicate that the Portuguese sexologist is on average 43 years old, mainly female, non-physician, and has training in sexology. Considering the qualifications of the interviewees, their professional trajectories and the activities they develop in the field, and the discourses related to their ideals of the profession, a typology was found with five types: sexologists by vocation, sexologist by clinical practice, sexologists by certification, social scientist-sexologists and sexologists by media coverage. The survey identified an interesting diversity of practices and professional conceptions in the field of sexology in Portugal. Being a sexologist appears to be more associated with the ideals of the profession than the time devoted to same.

  20. A group of type I keratin genes on human chromosome 17: Characterization and expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M.; Chaudhury, A.R.; Shows, T.B.; LeBeau, M.M.; Fuchs, E.

    1988-02-01

    The human type I keratins K16 and K14 are coexpressed in a number of epithelial tissues, including esophagus, tongue, and hair follicles. The authors determined that two genes encoding K16 and three genes encoding K14 were clustered in two distinct segments of chromosome 17. The genes within each cluster were tightly linked, and large parts of the genome containing these genes have been recently duplicated. The sequences of the two K16 genes showed striking homology not only within the coding sequences, but also within the intron positions and sequences and extending at least 400 base pairs 5' upstream and 850 base pairs 3' downstream from these genes. Despite the strong homologies between these two genes, only one of the genes encoded a protein which assembled into keratin filaments when introduced into simple epithelial cells. While there were no obvious abnormalities in the sequence of the other gene, its promoter seemed to be significantly weaker, and even a hybrid gene with the other gene's promoter gave rise to a much reduced mRNA level after gene transfection. To demonstrate that the functional K16 gene that they identified was in fact responsible for the K16 expressed in human tissues, we made a polyclonal antiserum which recognized our functional K16 gene product in both denatured and filamentous form and which was specific for bona fide human K16.

  1. LOWER CARNIAN FORAMINIFERS FROM THE TYPE LOCALITY OF THE CALCARE DELPREDIL (RAIBL GROUP, NORTHEASTERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO RETTORI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Foraminiferal content from the type section of the Calcare del Predil, Early Carnian in age, is here firstly reported. Dolomites, dololimestones and blackish limestones alternate black shales, marls and marly limestones; in addition turbiditic deposits and debris flow consisting of calcirudites and thin to coarse calcarenites occur in the stratigraphical unit. The bottom of the Rio del Lago Formation was also investigated from a micropaleontological point of view. Nineteen taxa were classified; they are mainly represented by Aulotortinae Zaninetti, Lamelliconinae Zaninetti et al., Triadodiscinae Zaninetti, Turriglomininae Zaninetti and Ophthalmidiidae Wiesner. Furthermore, some Ammodiscidae Reuss, "Trochamminidae" Schwager, Piallinidae Rettori & Zaninetti, Duostominidae Brotzen and rare Lagenina Delage & Hérouard have been recorded. Undetermined encrusting foraminifers also occur. The specimens referable to the superfamily Involutinacea Btschli are dominant and represent the 4O% of the finely grained laminas inside the black limestones. The turriglominas occurring in the muddy lithotypes pertain to the morphogroup which is considered as typical of basinal environment. The occurrence almost constant in the micritic limestones of the ophthalmidiid Gsolbergella spiroloculiformis (Oravecz-Scheffer (few specimens leed to suggest this species as inhabitant basinal environment also. Two Julic species of the Austriacum zone are firstly reported from the Aon zone (Cordevolian Auct. and the suprageneric position of the genus Prorakusia di Bari & Laghi is also discussed. 

  2. Management of adolescents with very poorly controlled type 1 diabetes by nurses: a parallel group randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kassai, Behrouz; Rabilloud, Muriel; Bernoux, Delphine; Michal, Catherine; Riche, Benjamin; Ginhoux, Tiphanie; Laudy, Valérie; Terral, Daniel; Didier-Wright, Catherine; Maire, Veronique; Dumont, Catherine; Cottancin, Gilles; Plasse, Muriel; Jeannoel, Guy-Patrick; Khoury, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Fluctuation in glycemia due to hormonal changes, growth periods, physical activity, and emotions make diabetes management difficult during adolescence. Our objective was to show that a close control of patients’ self-management of diabetes by nurse-counseling could probably improve metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods We designed a multicenter, randomized controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. Seventy seven adolescents aged 12–17 years with A1C >8 % ...

  3. HLA II class antigens and susceptibility to coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is a systemic autoimmune, complex and multifactorial disorder, which is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The only established genetic risk factors so far are the human leucocyte antigens. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of II class human leukocyte antigens (HLA in patients with coeliac disease and to investigate the susceptibility to coeliac disease in family members. We typed HLA DR and DQ antigens in 37 patients from Vojvodina with coeliac disease, 23 first-degree relatives, and 210 controls, serologically using standard lymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA DQ5(1, DQ6(1, DR11(5, DQ7(3, DQ2 and DR15(2 were the most common antigens in the control group. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 was higher in CD patients than in the control group. The relative risks for HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 were 4.846, 6.986 and 2.106, respectively, while positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3 and CD. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR16(2 was higher in first-degree relatives than in the control group while a positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3. A negative association was found between HLA DQ5(1 and DQ6(1 in coeliac patients from Vojvodina and their relatives, in addition to HLA DR11(5 in the group of relatives (RR=0.363,PF=0.232. These findings indicate the impact of the HLA testing for CD in clinical practice in order to rule out the possibility to CD in doubtful cases or in at-risk subjects.

  4. Multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing Clostridium botulinum group III organisms and their mosaic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Woudstra, Cédric; Fach, Patrick; Fiore, Alfonsina; Skarin, Hanna; Bano, Luca; Segerman, Bo; Knutsson, Rickard; De Medici, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease that can occur in all warm-blooded animals, birds, and fishes. The disease in animals is mainly caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum strains belonging to group III, although outbreaks due to toxins produced by group I and II organisms have been recognized. Group III strains are capable of producing botulinum toxins of type C, D, and C/D and D/C mosaic variants. Definitive diagnosis of animal botulism is made by combining clinical findings with laboratory investigations. Detection of toxins in clinical specimens and feed is the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis. Since toxins may be degraded by organisms contained in the gastrointestinal tract or may be present at levels below the detection limit, the recovery of C. botulinum from sick animal specimens is consistent for laboratory confirmation. In this article we report the development and in-house validation of a new multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing the neurotoxin genes found in C. botulinum group III organisms. Validation procedures have been carried out according to ISO 16140, using strains and samples recovered from cases of animal botulism in Italy and France.

  5. ABO blood group A antigen expression in A201 allele analysis of activity%ABO血型A201等位基因表达A抗原活性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾学平; 王恭; 陆理; 李涛; 冯学冠

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究ABO血型A201等位基因表达A抗原活性。方法运用血型血清学方法对1家2代3人的唾液及血液标本的ABO血型进行检测;运用Identifiler法医基因分析试剂盒作为亲缘关系鉴定;PCR扩增ABO基因后,对所有外显子做DNA测序分析,运用PCR-RFLP法进行同步检测A201等位基因中的序列变异。结果亲缘关系鉴定在Identifiler的15个遗传标记系统中显示,父母可以将所有的等位基因提供给子女,确定具有亲缘关系;然而运用不同来源的3份抗体对ABO血型进行检验时,却出现了正定型否定了母子关系,反定型无法排除母子关系的现象。3个标本ABO基因的测序:父、母、子的基因型分别为O01/O01、A201/B101及A201/O01,符合反定型结果,这就说明A201等位基因在A表型及AB表型中表达的A抗原活性差异显著。运用PCR-RFLP法可将A201等位基因中的2个主要变异点1059-1061delC和467C/T。结论 ABO血型A201基因在AB及A表型中表达A抗原活性,可由于检测抗体不同出现一定的差异;基因测序与PCR-RFLP法进行同步分析能够快速简便的鉴定A201等位基因中的1059-1061delC和467C/T。%Objective To study the ABO blood group A antigen expression in A201 allele activity. Methods Using serological methods, a two-generation three human saliva and blood samples were used to detect ABO blood. Forensic genetic analysis using Identifiler kit was used as kinship identification including PCR amplification ABO gene,exons do for all DNA sequencing,PCR-RFLP method using synchronous detection of sequence variation A201 allele. Results Identification of the genetic relationship of 15 genetic markers was performed using Identifiler system, which shows that parents can have all the alleles,be available to children determined to have kinship. However,after the use of three different sources of ABO blood group antibodies,they appeared the mother-child relationship was

  6. Improvement of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for equine herpesvirus type 4 by using a synthetic-peptide 24-mer repeat sequence of glycoprotein G as an antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Maeda, Ken; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    To increase the sensitivity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) that uses a 12-mer peptide of glycoprotein G (gG4-12-mer: MKNNPIYSEGSL) [4], we used a longer peptide consisting of a 24-mer repeat sequence (gG4-24-mer: MKNNPIYSEGSLMLNVQHDDSIHT) as an antigen. Sera of horses experimentally infected with EHV-4 reacted much more strongly to the gG4-24-mer peptide than to the gG4-12-mer peptide. We used peptide ELISAs to test paired sera from horses naturally infected with EHV-4 (n=40). gG4-24-mer ELISA detected 37 positive samples (92.5%), whereas gG4-12-mer ELISA detected only 28 (70.0%). gG4-24-mer ELISA was much more sensitive than gG4-12-mer ELISA.

  7. Genetic and antigenic characterization of complete genomes of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) isolated in Denmark over a period of 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, Charlotte;

    2013-01-01

    than 50% of the herds are infected with Type 1 and/or Type 2 PRRSV. The main objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity and drift of Type 1 viruses in a population with limited introduction of new animals and semen. A total of 43 ORF5 and 42 ORF7 nucleotide sequences were obtained......,098 nucleotides and the pairwise nucleotide identity among the Danish viruses was 86.5–97.3% and the identity to LV was 88.7–97.9%. The study strongly indicated that there have been at least two independent introductions of Type 1 PRRSV in Denmark and analysis of the full genomes revealed a significant drift...

  8. Whole genome sequencing of group A Streptococcus: development and evaluation of an automated pipeline for emmgene typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kapatai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes group A Streptococcus (GAS is the most common cause of bacterial throat infections, and can cause mild to severe skin and soft tissue infections, including impetigo, erysipelas, necrotizing fasciitis, as well as systemic and fatal infections including septicaemia and meningitis. Estimated annual incidence for invasive group A streptococcal infection (iGAS in industrialised countries is approximately three per 100,000 per year. Typing is currently used in England and Wales to monitor bacterial strains of S. pyogenes causing invasive infections and those isolated from patients and healthcare/care workers in cluster and outbreak situations. Sequence analysis of the emm gene is the currently accepted gold standard methodology for GAS typing. A comprehensive database of emm types observed from superficial and invasive GAS strains from England and Wales informs outbreak control teams during investigations. Each year the Bacterial Reference Department, Public Health England (PHE receives approximately 3,000 GAS isolates from England and Wales. In April 2014 the Bacterial Reference Department, PHE began genomic sequencing of referred S. pyogenes isolates and those pertaining to selected elderly/nursing care or maternity clusters from 2010 to inform future reference services and outbreak analysis (n = 3, 047. In line with the modernizing strategy of PHE, we developed a novel bioinformatics pipeline that can predict emmtypes using whole genome sequence (WGS data. The efficiency of this method was measured by comparing the emmtype assigned by this method against the result from the current gold standard methodology; concordance to emmsubtype level was observed in 93.8% (2,852/3,040 of our cases, whereas in 2.4% (n = 72 of our cases concordance was observed to emm type level. The remaining 3.8% (n = 117 of our cases corresponded to novel types/subtypes, contamination, laboratory sample transcription errors or problems arising

  9. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in type III group B streptococcal invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sooan; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Maneesh, Paul-Satyaseela; Lee, Jong-Seok; Romer, Lewis H; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2006-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), the leading cause of neonatal meningitis, has been shown to invade human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier. GBS invasion of HBMEC has been shown to require the host cell actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. The present study examined the mechanisms underlying actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that are involved in type III GBS invasion of HBMEC. We showed that type III GBS invasion was inhibited by genistein, a general tyrosine kinase inhibitor (mean 54% invasion decrease at 100 microM), and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase inhibitor (mean 70% invasion decrease at 50 microM), but not by PP2, an inhibitor of the Src family tyrosine kinases. We subsequently showed that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was the one of the host proteins tyrosine phosphorylated by type III GBS. Over-expression of a dominant negative form of the FAK C-terminal domain significantly decreased type III GBS invasion of HBMEC (mean 51% invasion decrease). In addition, we showed that FAK phosphorylation correlated with its association of paxillin, an adapter protein of actin filament, and PI3-kinase subunit p85. This is the first demonstration that FAK phosphorylation and its association with paxillin and PI3 kinase play a key role in type III GBS invasion of HBMEC.

  10. Group Patient Education: Effectiveness of a Brief Intervention in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care in Greece: A Clinically Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merakou, K.; Knithaki, A.; Karageorgos, G.; Theodoridis, D.; Barbouni, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample, 193 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were patients at the diabetic clinic of a primary health care setting in Attica, was assigned to two groups, intervention (138 individuals) and control group (55…

  11. Production of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10 accompanies T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses to a major thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin, in health and autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Hegedüs, L; Rieneck, K;

    2007-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma exert detrimental effects in organ-specific autoimmune disease, while both destructive and protective roles have been demonstrated for interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4 and IL-5. We examined the production of these cytokines by peripheral bloo......-gamma, IL-5 and IL-10 responses were markedly inhibited by partial denaturation of Tg by boiling. We hypothesize that autoantibodies and complement may promote mixed Th1/Th2 cell cytokine responses by enhancing the uptake of autoantigens by antigen-presenting cells....... appeared to promote the production of IL-2 and particularly IL-5, the levels of which were reduced by neutralization of complement by heat- or zymosan treatment. The production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 of the three groups together correlated directly with the serum anti-Tg activity. Moreover, TNF-alpha, IFN...

  12. Production of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10 accompanies T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses to a major thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin, in health and autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Hegedüs, L; Rieneck, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma exert detrimental effects in organ-specific autoimmune disease, while both destructive and protective roles have been demonstrated for interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4 and IL-5. We examined the production of these cytokines by peripheral bloo......-gamma, IL-5 and IL-10 responses were markedly inhibited by partial denaturation of Tg by boiling. We hypothesize that autoantibodies and complement may promote mixed Th1/Th2 cell cytokine responses by enhancing the uptake of autoantigens by antigen-presenting cells...... appeared to promote the production of IL-2 and particularly IL-5, the levels of which were reduced by neutralization of complement by heat- or zymosan treatment. The production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 of the three groups together correlated directly with the serum anti-Tg activity. Moreover, TNF-alpha, IFN...

  13. Eosinofil Sel Penyaji Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Wahyu Jatmiko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sel eosinofil merupakan jenis sel lekosit yang terlibat dalam berbagai patogenesis penyakit. Sel eosinofil pada awalnya dikenal sebagai sel efektor  dari sistem imunitas alamiah. Akan tetapi, kemampuan sel eosinofil dalam memfagositosis patogen menimbulkan dugaan bahwa sel eosinofil ikut berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen. Hal ini dianalogikan dengan sel makrofag dan sel dendritik yang bisa memfagositosis dan menyajikan antigen sebagai hasil dari degradasi patogen yang difagositosis. Untuk menjawab permasalahan ini, penulis melakukan penelusuran artikel tentang eosinofil sebagai sel penyaji antigen melalui US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Healthdengan kata kunci eoshinophil dan antigen presenting cell. Hasil penelusuran adalah ditemukannya 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik. Hasil dari sintesis kesepuluh jurnal tersebut adalah sel eosinofil mampu berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen yang profesional (professionalantigenpresentng cell

  14. 不同乳腺癌细胞冻融抗原负载树突细胞的抑瘤功能研究%Research of the Antitumor Functions of Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Various Types of Breast Cancer Cell Lysate Antigens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹天泽; 高维实; 郭慧军; 马虎林; 施晓辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antitumor functions of dendritic cells ( DCs ) pulsed with various types of breast cancer cell lysate antigens. Methods Purified breast cancer cells ( group A ) and breast cancer tissues ( group B ) from patients underwent breast cancer surgery in the surgical oncology of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Hospital, and breast cancer cell line SKBR - 3 ( group C ) purchased from Peking Union Medical College were involved into the study. Tumor lysate antigens were prepared and DC vaccines were obtained. The surface molecule expression of DCs and function were tested by flow cytometer and the T lymphocyte proliferation test. Results After seven days inducement, the CD80, CD83 , CD86 and HLA - DR between the three groups' DC showed statistically significant differences ( P 0. 05 ) .The CPM value of group A ( 13 047 ± 215 ), group B ( 4 964 ± 148 ) and group C ( 5 082 ± 176 ) showed statistically significant differences ( F = 5 200. 7159, P =0. 0000 ) . Compared with group A, the group B and group C both showed statistically significant differences ( q = 125. 8166, 123. 9803 , P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion DCs pulsed with purified autologous tumor cell lysate antigens can mediate remarkable immune response of T lymphocyte.%目的 探讨不同乳腺癌细胞冻融抗原负载树突细胞(DC)的抑瘤功能.方法 选取我院肿瘤外科乳腺癌手术患者纯