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Sample records for group antigen serologic

  1. Prevalence, serologic and genetic studies of high expressers of the blood group A antigen on platelets*

    OpenAIRE

    Sant?Anna Gomes, B M; Estalote, A C; Palatnik, M; Pimenta, G; Pereira, B de B; do Nascimento, E M

    2010-01-01

    Objective/Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of the platelet blood group A antigenicity in Euro-Brazilians (EUBs) and Afro-Brazilians (AFBs). Background: A small but significant proportion of individuals express high levels of A or B antigen on their platelets corresponding to the erythrocyte ABO group. The mechanism of increased antigen expression has not been elucidated. Material/Methods: A cohort of 241 blood group A donors was analysed by flow cytometry. Although m...

  2. Prevalence, serologic and genetic studies of high expressers of the blood group A antigen on platelets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant’Anna Gomes, B M; Estalote, A C; Palatnik, M; Pimenta, G; Pereira, B de B; do Nascimento, E M

    2010-01-01

    Objective/Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of the platelet blood group A antigenicity in Euro-Brazilians (EUBs) and Afro-Brazilians (AFBs). Background: A small but significant proportion of individuals express high levels of A or B antigen on their platelets corresponding to the erythrocyte ABO group. The mechanism of increased antigen expression has not been elucidated. Material/Methods: A cohort of 241 blood group A donors was analysed by flow cytometry. Although mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is a typical continuous variable, platelets were screened and divided into two categories: low expressers (LEs) and high expressers (HEs). A three-generation family was investigated looking for an inheritance mechanism. Results: The prevalence of the HE platelet phenotype among group A1 donors was 2%. The mean of MFI on platelets of A1 subgroup of EUBs differs from that of AFBs (P = 0·0115), whereas the frequency of the HE phenotype was similar between them (P = 0·5251). A significant difference was found between sexes (P = 0·0039). Whereas the serum glycosyltransferase from HE family members converted significantly more H antigen on group O erythrocytes into A antigens compared with that in LE serum, their ABO, FUT1 and FUT2 genes were consensus. The theoretically favourable, transcriptionally four-repeat ABO enhancer was not observed. Conclusion: The occurrence of HE in several members suggests familial aggregation. Indeed, in repeated measures, stability of the MFI values is suggesting an inherited condition. Factors outside the ABO locus might be responsible for the HE phenotype. Whether the real mechanism of inheritance is either of a polygenic or of a discrete Mendelian nature remains to be elucidated. PMID:20553427

  3. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenfeld, O.; Parrott, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  4. Molecular basis of two novel and related high-prevalence antigens in the Kell blood group system, KUCI and KANT, and their serologic and spatial association with K11 and KETI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliquette, Randall W; Hue-Roye, Kim; Lomas-Francis, Christine; Gillen, Barbara; Schierts, Jennifer; Gentzkow, Kristie; Peyrard, Thierry; von Zabern, Inge; Flegel, Willy A; Rodberg, Karen; Debnath, Asim K; Lee, Soohee; Reid, Marion E

    2013-11-01

    The numerous antigens in the Kell blood group system result from missense nucleotide changes in KEL. Antibodies to antigens in this system can be clinically important. We describe six probands whose plasma contained antibodies to high-prevalence Kell antigens and discuss their relationship. Polymerase chain reaction amplification, direct sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism assays, hemagglutination, flow cytometry, and protein modeling were performed by standard methods. Proband 1 (KUCI) and her serologically compatible sister were heterozygous for a nucleotide change in Exon 11 (KEL*1271C/T; Ala424Val). Proband 2 (KANT) was heterozygous for KEL*1283G/T (Arg428Leu) and KEL*1216C/T (Arg406Stop) in Exon 11. Red blood cells (RBCs) from Proband 1 and her sister were not agglutinated by plasma from Proband 2; however, RBCs from Proband 2 were agglutinated by plasma from Proband 1. Probands 3, 4, 5, and 6 had the KEL*1391C>T change associated with the previously reported KETI- phenotype. Proband 5 was also homozygous for KEL*905T>C encoding the K11-K17+ phenotype. Hemagglutination studies revealed an association between KUCI, KANT, KETI, and K11. Protein modeling indicated that whereas Ala424 and Arg428 are clustered, Val302 and Thr464 are not. Ala424 in the Kell glycoprotein is associated with the high-prevalence Kell antigen, KUCI (ISBT 006032), which is detected by the antibody of Proband 1. Arg428 is associated with the high-prevalence Kell antigen, KANT (ISBT 006033). The association between KUCI, KANT, KETI, and K11 and the results of protein modeling are discussed. © 2013 New York Blood Center. Transfusion © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Development of coagglutination reagents for serological grouping of streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanvivatvong, O; Sirilertpana, S; Chutichop, C; Tirawatnapong, S

    2000-11-01

    Coagglutination reagents for the rapid serological grouping of groups A, B, C, F and G Streptococcus have been developed. Antisera to groups A, B, C, F and G Streptococcus were raised in rabbits. After absorption with cross-reacting antigens, the specific antibodies were coated on Staphylococcus protein-A and used as group-specific coagglutination reagents. The sensitivity of the reagents for groups A, C and G Streptococcus was 100 per cent and the specificity was 100, 100, and 98.77 per cent, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of these reagents were consistent up to 12 months, although specificity declined with longer storage. The in-house coagglutination reagents for groups A, C and G streptococcus were also tested in comparison with the commercially available Streptococcus Phadebact test and yielded almost identical results. Sensitivity of the in-house of group B Streptococcus reagent was low, while the group F reagent gave a high incidence of false positive reaction.

  6. Modified coagglutination procedure for the serological grouping of streptococci.

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    Carlson, J R; McCarthy, L R

    1979-03-01

    Cowan I staphylococci coated with antisera to streptococcal groups A, B, C, D, F, and G were used as coagglutination reagents in a modified coagglutination procedure (MCAP). Streptococcal group antigens were extracted with a Streptomyces albus-lysozyme enzyme mixture for 30 min at 55 degrees C and centrifuged, and the supernatant was tested by slide coagglutination. Positive coagglutination reactions occurred within 30 s. The cell pellets from overnight broth cultures and colonies taken directly from sheep blood agar plates were tested and compared with the results of the Lancefield capillary precipitin method. Of the 102 strains of broth-grown cells tested, 100 were grouped by the MCAP and the Lancefield capillary precipitin method. The remaining two isolates were serologically identified only by the MCAP. Of the original 102 strains, 97 were tested by MCAP after extraction of five well-isolated colonies from a sheep blood agar plate. When this latter method was used, 95.9% of the strains were correctly identified. Nonspecific reactions were observed only while testing the MCAP with the direct plate assay. These cross-reactions were remedied promptly by either absorption or dilution of the antisera involved. The MCAP was found to be a rapid and reliable technique for the serological grouping of streptococci.

  7. [Evaluation of the Recombinant Protein Tp0965 of Treponema Pallidum as Perspective Antigen for the Improved Serological Diagnosis of Syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runina, A V; Starovoitova, A S; Deryabin, D G; Kubanov, A A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGRAUND. Treponemal tests based on the detection of antibodies against the Treponema pallidum antigens are the most specific methods for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Due to the inability to cultivate this bacterium in vitro, the most promising sources of antigens for diagnostics are recombinant proteins of T. pallidum. Evaluation of the analytical value of certain T. pallidum proteins is the approach to improve sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of syphilis serological tests, including possibilities of differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease. The aim of the research was to evaluate the analytical values (sensitivity and specificity) of recombinant protein Tp0965 of T. pallidum as a candidate antigen for serological diagnosis of syphilis. tp0965 gene was cloned into the expression vector pET28a and the construct was used for the transformation of E. coli BL-21 (DE3) cells and further expression and purification of the recombinant protein. The collected protein was used as T. pallidum antigen for serum analysis (ELISA) of groups of patients with various forms of syphilis (n=84) and the group of healthy donors (n = 25). High frequency of positive ELISA results was shown with serum of patients with syphilis, compared to the group of healthy donors. The sensitivity of serological reactions using recombinant protein Tp0965 was 98.8%, specificity--87.5%. The highest sensitivity (100%) was detected in the groups of patients with primary, secondary and early latent syphilis while in the group of patients with late latent syphilis it decreased to 95.2%. We concluded that due to its specificity T. pallidum recombinant protein Tp0965 can be used as a novel perspective antigen for development of syphilis serological diagnostic assays (for primary and early latent forms).

  8. Serologic responses to somatic O and colonization-factor antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, T R; Evans, D J; Evans, D G; DuPont, H L

    1979-07-01

    To improve the retrospective diagnoses of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as a cause of travelers' diarrhea, as well as to determine the presence of colonization-factor antigens in these infections, a study of serologic responses to antigens of ETEC was done. Paired sera from 60 United States students in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, were analyzed for rises in titer of antibody to heat-labile toxin, eight somatic antigen O serogroups associated with ETEC, and two colonization-factor antigens, CFA/I and CFA/II. Only 9% had a response to O antigens, while 20% had responses to the colonization-factor antigens. Response to the colonization-factor antigens correlated significantly with response to the heat-labile toxin and with culture evidence of ETEC infection. Serologic studies confirmed that colonization-factor antigen has a role in naturally acquired cases of travelers' diarrhea and that it can be used as an additional determinant of infection with ETEC.

  9. Association of Pneumococcal Protein Antigen Serology With Age and Antigenic Profile of Colonizing Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarian, Taj; Grant, Lindsay R; Georgieva, Maria; Hammitt, Laura L; Reid, Raymond; Bentley, Stephen D; Goldblatt, David; Santosham, Mathuran; Weatherholtz, Robert; Burbidge, Paula; Goklish, Novalene; Thompson, Claudette M; Hanage, William P; O'Brien, Kate L; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Several Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins play a role in pathogenesis and are being investigated as vaccine targets. It is largely unknown whether naturally acquired antibodies reduce the risk of colonization with strains expressing a particular antigenic variant. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers to 28 pneumococcal protein antigens were measured among 242 individuals aged - 30 days after serum collection, and the antigen variant in each pneumococcal isolate was determined using genomic data. We assessed the association between preexisting variant-specific antibody titers and subsequent carriage of pneumococcus expressing a particular antigen variant. Antibody titers often increased across pediatric groups before decreasing among adults. Individuals with low titers against group 3 pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) variants were more likely to be colonized with pneumococci expressing those variants. For other antigens, variant-specific IgG titers do not predict colonization. We observed an inverse association between variant-specific antibody concentration and homologous pneumococcal colonization for only 1 protein. Further assessment of antibody repertoires may elucidate the nature of antipneumococcal antibody-mediated mucosal immunity while informing vaccine development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. THE SEARCH OF OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF ANTIGENS FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF TUBERCULOSIS

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    E. V. Vasilyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The four chimeric recombinant antigens CBD-CFP10, CBD-ESAT6, ESAT6-CFP10 and CBD-P38 contained aminoacid sequences of full-size proteins ESAT6, CFP10 and matured protein P38 of M. tuberculosis, joined with aminoacid sequences of cellulose bind domain of endogluconase A (CBD from Cellumonas fimi have been obtained by gene engineering methods. Recombinant proteins were purified by affine chromatography in column with Ni-NTA-sepharose 6В-CL and as PPDN-3 were used for detection of their antigenic activity in indirect ELISA for TB serological diagnostics. The sera from patients with lung tuberculosis (n = 321, from persons who had professional contacts with TB patients (n = 42, from healthy blood donors (n = 366 and from patients with lung diseases of non-TB etiology were tested. It was detected that there was positive correlation between antibodies level for all studied antigens compared by pair. It has been demonstrated that although antigens were different by antigenic and immunobiological characteristics they add each other in the content of antigenic diagnostics compositions. Thus, all these antigens can be used in the test kits for serological diagnostics of TB. Using of these antigens will allow to detect persons infected by TB and patients with active tuberculosis. 

  11. Mapping the antigenicity of the parasites in Leishmania donovani infection by proteome serology.

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    Michael Forgber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis defines a cluster of protozoal diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. The visceral form caused by Leishmania donovani is the most severe. So far, no vaccines exist for visceral leishmaniasis despite indications of naturally developing immunity, and sensitive immunodiagnostics are still at early stages of development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Establishing a proteome-serological methodology, we mapped the antigenicity of the parasites and the specificities of the immune responses in human leishmaniasis. Using 2-dimensional Western blot analyses with sera and parasites isolated from patients in India, we detected immune responses with widely divergent specificities for up to 330 different leishmanial antigens. 68 antigens were assigned to proteins in silver- and fluorochrome-stained gels. The antigenicity of these proteins did not correlate with the expression levels of the proteins. Although some antigens are shared among different parasite isolates, there are extensive differences and no immunodominant antigens, but indications of antigenic drift in the parasites. Six antigens were identified by mass spectrometry. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomics-based dissection of the serospecificities of leishmaniasis patients provides a comprehensive inventory of the complexity and interindividual heterogeneity of the host-responses to and variations in the antigenicity of the Leishmania parasites. This information can be instrumental in the development of vaccines and new immune monitoring and diagnostic devices.

  12. Relationship of the cell wall composition of group H streptococci and Streptococcus sanguis to their serological properties.

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    Rosan, B

    1976-01-01

    Previous studies indicated the a antigen was widely distributed among strains of Streptococcus sanguis and the group H streptococci. The cell walls of strains containing this antigen had moderate to large quantities of rhamnose, small amounts of phosphorus, and little to no ribitol. The molar ratios of the peptidoglycan amino acids and hexosamines suggested a di-alanyl cross bridge. The homogeneity of the walls of these strains suggested that serological group H can be considered synonymous with S. sanguis. In contrast those strains that did not contain the a antigen had only small amounts of rhamnose in their cell walls, galactosamine and ribitol were always detected, and large quantitites of phosphorus were present. The molar ratios of peptidoglycan components in the latter strains suggested a direct alanyl-lysl cross bridge. Although many of these strains had been classified either as S. sanguis or group H streptococci because of minor serological cross-reactions and similar biochemical properties, the distinct differences between the composition of their cell walls and those of S. sanguis and group H streptococci indicate that they do not belong in this species or group. The cell walls of strains containing the a antigen are relatively homogeneous and therefore it is suggested that cells containing this antigen be considered Lancefield serological group H. Images PMID:1279002

  13. [Serological diagnosis of sporotrichosis using an antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Primavera; Ostos, Ana; Franquiz, Nohelys; Roschman-González, Antonio; Zambrano, Edgar A; Mendoza, Mireya

    2015-06-01

    We developed and analyzed an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in order to detect antibodies in sera from sporotrichosis patients. We used a crude antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, obtained from the mycelial phase of the fungi. Positive sera were analyzed by other serological techniques such as double immunodiffusion (IGG) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The assay was validated by using sera from patients with other pathologies such as: histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, lupus and healthy individuals as negative controls. For the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, we found a 100% of specificity by every technique and sensitivity higher than 98% with IDD, CIE and ELISA. Our results show a high sensitivity and specificity for the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, so it can be used for IDD, CIE and ELISA. The results suggest that this antigen could be used in conjunction with other conventional tests for differential diagnosis and may be useful for monitoring the disease progression and response to treatment.

  14. Comparison of Three Antigenic Extracts of Eurotium amstelodami in Serological Diagnosis of Farmer's Lung Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Rognon, Bénédicte; Monod, Michel; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Quadroni, Manfredo; Fellrath, Jean-Marc; Aubert, John-David; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis. Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia), and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen. In conclusion, the serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen. PMID:19906892

  15. Comparison of three antigenic extracts of Eurotium amstelodami in serological diagnosis of farmer's lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Rognon, Bénédicte; Monod, Michel; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Quadroni, Manfredo; Fellrath, Jean-Marc; Aubert, John-David; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis. Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia), and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen. In conclusion, the serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen.

  16. Serological grouping of streptococci by a slide coagglutination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, R G; Phillips, I

    1977-02-01

    A new method for the serological grouping of streptococci by coagglutination with specific antibodies absorbed to protein A-containing staphylococci has been assessed. A total of 242 strains of streptococci, including beta-haemolytic streptococci of groups A, B, C, F, and G, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Strep. faecalis were studied. All streptococci of groups A, B, C, and G, groupable by standard methods, were correctly grouped by coagglutination, although 7-3% showed varying degrees of cross-agglutination. Two beta-haemolytic strains of Strep. faecalis produced coagglutination with group C streptococcal reagent. The method appears to be quick, accurate, reproducible, and simple to perform.

  17. Cell-wall composition and the grouping antigens of Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLADE, H D; SLAMP, W C

    1962-08-01

    Slade, Hutton D. (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.) and William C. Slamp. Cell-wall composition and grouping antigens of streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 84:345-351. 1962.-The carbohydrates present in the cell walls of streptococci belonging to serological groups A-H and K-S, and unclassifiable strains, have been identified. The sugars found were rhamnose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, and mannose. All sugars vary considerably in their distribution among the groups; glucose, galactose, and rhamnose occur most frequently. Strains were found which contained each of the latter sugars singly or in combination with one or both of the other sugars. Variation within a single group occurred in one-half of the groups. A strain containing only glucose and another only galactose were found. Except for groups A and C, in which only rhamnose is present in the great majority of strains, the presence or absence of the sugars does not aid in the identification of the groups. The cell walls of all groups examined also contained alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, glucosamine, galactosamine, and muramic acid. The cell walls of all groups, except D, agglutinated in the presence of specific group antisera, indicating the presence of the group antigen in the cell wall. Strains in groups F, K, and M gave a weak reaction. The structure and chemical composition of the group antigens of the streptococci are discussed.

  18. Serological Evidence of Immune Priming by Group A Streptococci in Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever

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    Jeremy M Raynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever (ARF is an autoimmune response to Group A Streptococcus (GAS infection. Repeated GAS exposures are proposed to ‘prime’ the immune system for autoimmunity. This notion of immune-priming by multiple GAS infections was first postulated in the 1960s, but direct experimental evidence to support the hypothesis has been lacking. Here we present novel methodology, based on antibody responses to GAS T‑antigens, that enables previous GAS exposures to be mapped in patient sera. T-antigens are surface expressed, type specific antigens and GAS strains fall into 18 major clades or T-types. A panel of recombinant T-antigens was generated and immunoassays were performed in parallel with serum depletion experiments allowing type-specific T‑antigen antibodies to be distinguished from cross-reactive antibodies. At least two distinct GAS exposures were detected in each of the ARF sera tested. Furthermore, no two sera had the same T-antigen reactivity profile suggesting that each patient was exposed to a unique series of GAS T‑types prior to developing ARF. The methods have provided much-needed experimental evidence to substantiate the immune-priming hypothesis, and will facilitate further serological profiling studies that explore the multifaceted interactions between GAS and the host.

  19. Serological Evidence of Immune Priming by Group A Streptococci in Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynes, Jeremy M; Frost, Hannah R C; Williamson, Deborah A; Young, Paul G; Baker, Edward N; Steemson, John D; Loh, Jacelyn M; Proft, Thomas; Dunbar, P R; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Bell, Anita; Moreland, Nicole J

    2016-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an autoimmune response to Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection. Repeated GAS exposures are proposed to 'prime' the immune system for autoimmunity. This notion of immune-priming by multiple GAS infections was first postulated in the 1960s, but direct experimental evidence to support the hypothesis has been lacking. Here, we present novel methodology, based on antibody responses to GAS T-antigens, that enables previous GAS exposures to be mapped in patient sera. T-antigens are surface expressed, type specific antigens and GAS strains fall into 18 major clades or T-types. A panel of recombinant T-antigens was generated and immunoassays were performed in parallel with serum depletion experiments allowing type-specific T-antigen antibodies to be distinguished from cross-reactive antibodies. At least two distinct GAS exposures were detected in each of the ARF sera tested. Furthermore, no two sera had the same T-antigen reactivity profile suggesting that each patient was exposed to a unique series of GAS T-types prior to developing ARF. The methods have provided much-needed experimental evidence to substantiate the immune-priming hypothesis, and will facilitate further serological profiling studies that explore the multifaceted interactions between GAS and the host.

  20. Serological evaluation of Mycobacterium ulcerans antigens identified by comparative genomics.

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    Sacha J Pidot

    Full Text Available A specific and sensitive serodiagnostic test for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection would greatly assist the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer and would also facilitate seroepidemiological surveys. By comparative genomics, we identified 45 potential M. ulcerans specific proteins, of which we were able to express and purify 33 in E. coli. Sera from 30 confirmed Buruli ulcer patients, 24 healthy controls from the same endemic region and 30 healthy controls from a non-endemic region in Benin were screened for antibody responses to these specific proteins by ELISA. Serum IgG responses of Buruli ulcer patients were highly variable, however, seven proteins (MUP045, MUP057, MUL_0513, Hsp65, and the polyketide synthase domains ER, AT propionate, and KR A showed a significant difference between patient and non-endemic control antibody responses. However, when sera from the healthy control subjects living in the same Buruli ulcer endemic area as the patients were examined, none of the proteins were able to discriminate between these two groups. Nevertheless, six of the seven proteins showed an ability to distinguish people living in an endemic area from those in a non-endemic area with an average sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 88%, suggesting exposure to M. ulcerans. Further validation of these six proteins is now underway to assess their suitability for use in Buruli ulcer seroepidemiological studies. Such studies are urgently needed to assist efforts to uncover environmental reservoirs and understand transmission pathways of the M. ulcerans.

  1. A multiplexed and miniaturized serological tuberculosis assay identifies antigens that discriminate maximally between TB and non-TB sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, Miao; Jacobi, Catharina E.; van de Rijke, Frans M.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; van de Werken, Sjaak; Lowary, Todd L.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Appelmelk, Ben J.; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.; Tanke, Hans J.; van Gijlswijk, Rob P. M.; Veuskens, Jacques; Kolk, Arend H. J.; Raap, Anton K.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a multiplexed and miniaturized TB serological assay with the aim of identifying (combinations of) antigens that maximally discriminate between TB and non-TB patients. It features a microarray accommodating 54 TB antigens, less than 1 microl serum consumption and an indirect

  2. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adult by Serological Test and Stool Antigen Test

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    G. Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis that is related to duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and possibly gastric adenocarcinoma. Noninvasive diagnostic tests consist of the urea breath test, serology, and stool antigen testing. Serodiagnosis of H.pylori infection is inaccurate for children. In order to investigate the immune response to H.pylori in children and adult, we compared anti-H pylori IgG and IgA antibodies with H. pylori antigen (HpSA in the stool. Methods: Serum and stool samples were obtained from 218 children and adult patients with clinical symptom in the range of 4 to 77 years old. Paired results of H. pylori serology (IgG and IgA and HpSA were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay methods. Results: There were 218 paired serology and HpSA results for 39 children (≤17 years and 179 adult (≥18 years. The positivity rate of HpSA (45.8% was significantly lower (P<0.001 than those for H. pylori IgG (54.6% and IgA (28.9%. Moreover in child patients specificity for serological test IgG and IgA were higher than adult. Conclusion: In this study, HpSA was sensitive and specific as a clinical and epidemiological tool to evaluate H. pylori infection. IgG correlated better with HpSA than IgA, and also IgG was much more specific in children than adults confirm the fact that adults are more possible to have been exposed to H. pylori in the past. Using HpSA as the gold standard, we found that the performances of IgG and IgA serology tests differ significantly by age because immature immune response or tolerance to H. pylori is present in childhood and serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection is less useful. Hence, we recommend that laboratories reevaluate reference serologic titers based on age and further clinical correlation is needed to establish the optimal ranges.

  3. Evaluation of Antigens for Development of a Serological Test for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

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    Biéler, Sylvain; Waltenberger, Harald; Barrett, Michael P; McCulloch, Richard; Mottram, Jeremy C; Carrington, Mark; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; McKerrow, James; Phillips, Margaret A; Michels, Paul A; Büscher, Philippe; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Bishop, Richard; Robinson, Derrick R; Bangs, James; Ferguson, Michael; Nerima, Barbara; Albertini, Audrey; Michel, Gerd; Radwandska, Magdalena; Ndung'u, Joseph Mathu

    2016-01-01

    Control and elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) can be accelerated through the use of diagnostic tests that are more accurate and easier to deploy. The goal of this work was to evaluate the immuno-reactivity of antigens and identify candidates to be considered for development of a simple serological test for the detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense infections, ideally both. The reactivity of 35 antigens was independently evaluated by slot blot and ELISA against sera from both T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense infected patients and controls. The antigens that were most reactive by both tests to T. b. gambiense sera were the membrane proteins VSG LiTat 1.3, VSG LiTat 1.5 and ISG64. Reactivity to T. b. rhodesiense sera was highest with VSG LiTat 1.3, VSG LiTat 1.5 and SRA, although much lower than with T. b. gambiense samples. The reactivity of all possible combinations of antigens was also calculated. When the slot blot results of 2 antigens were paired, a VSG LiTat 1.3- ISG75 combination performed best on T. b. gambiense sera, while a VSG LiTat 1.3-VSG LiTat 1.5 combination was the most reactive using ELISA. A combination of SRA and either VSG LiTat 1.3 or VSG LiTat 1.5 had the highest reactivity on T. b. rhodesiense sera according to slot blot, while in ELISA, pairing SRA with either GM6 or VSG LiTat 1.3 yielded the best results. This study identified antigens that were highly reactive to T. b. gambiense sera, which could be considered for developing a serological test for gambiense HAT, either individually or in combination. Antigens with potential for inclusion in a test for T. b. rhodesiense HAT were also identified, but because their reactivity was comparatively lower, a search for additional antigens would be required before developing a test for this form of the disease.

  4. Serological versus molecular typing of surface-associated immune evading polysaccharide antigens-based phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waryah, Charlene B; Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Wells, Kelsi; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Sunagar, Raju; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Hegde, Nagendra; Richmond, Peter; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of serological versus molecular typing methods to detect capsular polysaccharide (CP) and surface-associated polysaccharide antigen 336 phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Molecular typing of CP types 1, 5 and 8 was carried out using PCR, whereas serological typing of CP1, 2, 5, 8 and antigen 336 was carried out by slide agglutination using specific antisera. By genotyping, 14/31 strains were CP8 positive, 12/31 strains were CP5 and the remaining 6/31 isolates were non-typable (NT). One isolate was positive for both CP5 and CP8 by PCR, but was confirmed as CP8 type serologically. Detection of CP2 and type 336 by PCR was not possible because specific primers were either not available or non-specific. Using serotyping, 14/31 strains were CP8 positive, 11/31 CP5 positive and 2/31 positive for antigen 336. The remaining four S. aureus isolates were serologically NT. However, three of four NT and two 336-positive S. aureus isolates were encapsulated as determined by light microscopy after capsular staining. This discovery was surprising and warrants further investigations on the identification and characterization of additional capsular phenotypes prevalent among S. aureus clinical isolates. It was concluded that serological typing was a better method than molecular typing for use in epidemiological investigations based upon the distribution of surface-associated polysaccharide antigens-based phenotypes. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Serological cross-reaction between O-antigens of Shigella dysenteriae type 4 and an environmental Escherichia albertii isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Akter, Selina; Azmuda, Nafisa; Sultana, Munawar; Weill, François-Xavier; Khan, Sirajul Islam; Grimont, Patrick A D; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2013-11-01

    An environmental freshwater bacterial isolate, DM104, appearing as Shigella-like colonies on selective agar plates was found to show strong and specific serological cross-reactivity with Shigella dysenteriae type 4. Biochemical identification according to the analytical profile index, molecular serotyping by restriction of the amplified O-antigen gene cluster (rfb-RFLP), together with phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and multi-locus sequence analysis, identified the isolate as Escherichia albertii. rfb-RFLP of DM104, revealed a profile different from that of S. dysenteriae type 4. However, western blot analysis of extracted lipopolysaccharides demonstrated strong cross-reactivity with S. dysenteriae type 4 using specific monovalent antisera and a lipopolysaccharide gel banding profile similar to that of S. dysenteriae type 4. The observed O-antigen cross-reaction between an E. albertii isolate and S. dysenteriae extends our knowledge of the extent of O-antigen cross-reaction within the Escherichia/Shigella group of organisms, and offers the possibility of using DM104 and similar cross-reacting strains as shigellosis vaccine candidates.

  6. Impact of antigenic and genetic drift on the serologic surveillance of H5N2 avian influenza viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serologic surveillance of Avian Influenza (AI viruses is carried out by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI test using reference reagents. This method is recommended by animal health organizations as a standard test to detect antigenic differences (subtypes between circulating influenza virus, vaccine- and/or reference- strains. However, significant discrepancies between reference antisera and field isolates have been observed during serosurveillance of influenza A viruses in pig and poultry farms. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of influenza virus genetic and antigenic drift on serologic testing using standard HI assays and reference reagents. Low pathogenic AI H5N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 1994 and 2008 were used for phylogenetic analysis of AI hemagglutinin genes and for serologic testing using antisera produced with year-specific AI virus isolates. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed significant divergence between early LPAI H5N2 viruses (1994 - 1998 and more recent virus field isolates (2002 - 2008. Results of the HI test were markedly influenced by the selection of the AI H5N2 virus (year of isolation used as reference antigen for the assay. These analyses indicate that LPAI H5N2 viruses in Mexico are constantly undergoing genetic drift and that serosurveillance of AI viruses is significantly influenced by the antigen or antisera used for the HI test. Conclusions Reference viral antigens and/or antisera need to be replaced constantly during surveillance of AI viruses to keep pace with the AI antigenic drift. This strategy should improve the estimation of antigenic differences between circulating AI viruses and the selection of suitable vaccine strains.

  7. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Hofacre

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks.

  8. Evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae antigens in the serological monitoring of a clofazimine-based chemotherapeutic study of dapsone resistant lepromatous leprosy patients in Cebu, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, J. T.; Hirsch, D. S.; Fajardo, T. T.; Cellona, R. V.; Abalos, R. M.; de la Cruz, E. C.; Madarang, M. G.; de Wit, M. Y.; Klatser, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one dapsone resistant lepromatous leprosy patients receiving clofazimine based therapy were serologically monitored throughout their 5-year period of treatment. Sequentially collected sera were used to examine 4 Mycobacterium leprae antigens to evaluate their usefulness in ELISA's for

  9. Comparison of a Recombinant-antigen Enzyme Immunoassay with Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination Test for Serological Confirmation of Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA, BioSCREEN TM anti-Treponema pallidum, was compared favorably with the T. pallidum hemagglutination test, in the detection of specific antibodies in different groups of sera from patients with primary (n = 38, secondary (n = 10, early latent (n = 28 and congenital syphilis (n = 2, patients with leptospirosis ( n= 8, infectious mononucleosis (n = 7, hepatitis (n = 9, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, rheumatoid arthritis (n = 13, leprosy (n = 11, tuberculosis (n = 9, HIV/Aids ( n= 12, systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4, rheumatic fever (n = 3, old-persons (n = 9, pregnant women (n = 29 and blood donors (n = 164. The coincidence between them was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EIA were 93.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Fifteen serum specimens belonging to old-persons, pregnant women, blood donors, and patients with human leptospirosis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever gave false-positive results by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and/or Rapid Plasma Reagin. The EIA can be used as alternative method for the serological confirmation of syphilis.

  10. Specific antigen serologic tests in leprosy: implications for epidemiological surveillance of leprosy cases and household contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Mendes Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There is a lack of straightforward tests for field application and known biomarkers for predicting leprosy progression in infected individuals. OBJECTIVE The aim was to analyse the response to infection by Mycobacterium leprae based on the reactivity of specific antigens: natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via an octyl (NDOHSA, a semisynthetic phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I; Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (LID-1 and natural disaccharide octyl - Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (NDOLID. METHODS The study population consisted of 130 leprosy cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 and 277 household contacts. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to analyse the reactivity of antibodies against NDOHSA, LID-1 and NDOLID. The samples and controls were tested in duplicate, and the antibody titer was expressed as an ELISA index. Data collection was made by home visits with application of questionnaire and dermatological evaluation of all household contacts to identify signs and symptoms of leprosy. FINDINGS Significant differences in the median ELISA results were observed among leprosy cases in treatment, leprosy cases that had completed treatment and household contacts. Higher proportions of seropositivity were observed in leprosy cases in treatment. Seropositivity was also higher in multibacillary in relation to paucibacillary, with the difference reaching statistical significance. Lower titers were observed among cases with a longer treatment time or discharge. For household contacts, the differences according to the clinical characteristics of the leprosy index case were less pronounced than expected. Other factors, such as the endemicity of leprosy, exposure outside the residence and genetic characteristics, appeared to have a greater influence on the seropositivity. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Serologic tests could be used as auxiliary tools for determining the

  11. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Histo-blood group ABH (O) antigens are major alloantigens in humans. These antigens are widely distributed in human tissues and undergo changes in expression during cellular differentiation and malignant development. The ABH antigens have been characterized as terminal disaccharide determinants...... healing show similarly decreased expression of A/B antigens on migrating epithelial cells. Some studies suggest that the relationship between expression of blood group antigens and cell motility can be explained by different degrees of glycosylation of integrins. Changes in ABO expression in tumours have...

  12. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...... carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue...

  13. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue......The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...

  14. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 minutes by direct PCR from plasma or serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz Friedrich; Flegel, Willy Albert; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. PMID:27991657

  15. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with /sup 125/I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with /sup 125/I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with /sup 125/I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined.

  16. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains antigenically related to both serotypes 2 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1996-01-01

    ). Immunodiffusion confirmed the antigenic relationship with serotype 2 and further demonstrated an antigenic relationship with strain WF83 (reference strain of serotype 7). SDS-PAGE with LPS from strains 1536, 4226, WF83 and strain 7317 (representative of the 9 isolates examined) showed that strains WF83 and 7317...

  17. Antigenic determinant of the Lancefield group H antigen of Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosan, B; Argenbright, L

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the teichoic acid isolated from strains of Streptococcus sanguis was group specific and defined the Lancefield group H streptococci. To determine the specific antigenic determinants, the antigen was extracted from a group H streptococcus (ATCC 903) by the phenol-water method and purified by column chromatography. The isolated antigen had a glycerol/phosphate/glucose molar ratio of 1:0.9:0.3; the lipid concentration was 7.6% of its dry weight. No nucleic acids were detected, and amino acids constituted approximately 2% of the dry weight. The minimum concentration of antigen required to sensitize erythrocytes for hemagglutination with a 1:1,000 dilution of either group H antiserum or antiteichoic acid serum was 0.02 microgram/ml. Hemagglutination inhibition studies suggested that the major antigenic determinant consisted of an alpha-glucose linked to the glycerol phosphate backbone. Images PMID:6185428

  18. PNEUMOCOCCAL CAPSULAR ANTIGEN-DETECTION AND PNEUMOCOCCAL SEROLOGY IN PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERSMA, WG; LOWENBERG, A; HOLLOWAY, Y; KUTTSCHRUTTER, H; SNIJDER, JAM; KOETER, GH

    1991-01-01

    Background Methods to determine the microbial cause of community acquired pneumonia include detection of pneumococcal antigen and measurement of pneumococcal capsular antibody response. Their usefulness compared with conventional microbiological techniques was investigated in patients with

  19. THE PROPERTIES OF T ANTIGENS EXTRACTED FROM GROUP A HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancefield, Rebecca C.; Dole, Vincent P.

    1946-01-01

    1. T antigens of group A hemolytic streptococci have been obtained in soluble form by digestion of the bacterial cells with pepsin or trypsin. Large quantities of this antigen were readily extracted from type 1 strains, whereas only small amounts could be obtained from strains of other types. 2. The T antigen, prepared in this way from a type 1 strain, was partially purified by chemical precipitation and further enzymatic digestion. An active fraction, apparently protein in nature, was separated electrophoretically at pH 7.00. The separated material, pooled and analyzed at the same pH, gave only a single peak. The isoelectric point of this substance was about pH 4.50. An elementary analysis was obtained. Although the T antigen was resistant to digestion with proteolytic enzymes and ribonuclease, it was readily inactivated by heat, especially in acid media and in strong salt solutions. The serological activity of this purified T substance was lost after exposure to ultraviolet radiation. 3. Analysis by means of the ultracentrifuge showed that the material was polydisperse and therefore probably impure. 4. The soluble form of the T substance was active in the precipitin reaction, in the fixation of complement, in inhibition of T agglutination, and as an antigen when injected into rabbits. The antibodies produced did not protect mice against infection with virulent strains of hemolytic streptococci containing the same T antigen. 5. The immunological specificity of T antigen in soluble form is the same as that of the T antigen in the intact streptococcus from which it was derived PMID:19871581

  20. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    healing show similarly decreased expression of A/B antigens on migrating epithelial cells. Some studies suggest that the relationship between expression of blood group antigens and cell motility can be explained by different degrees of glycosylation of integrins. Changes in ABO expression in tumours have...

  1. Use of antigens labelled with radioisotopes in serological epidemiology. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenfeld, O.

    1976-01-01

    A brief status report of intended cooperative projects is presented. Some sera were available for testing diptheria, tetanus, smallpox and typhoid antibody formation. Some very preliminary work was carried out on the diagnosis of staphyloenterotoxicosis. A preliminary report on radioisotope-labelled cercarial antigens has been published elsewhere. Lipopolysaccharide complexes were labelled with 14 C-sodium acetate for studying sera in diseases caused by gram-negative cocci (meningococci and gonococci). Leptospiral antigens were studied using 14 C-glucose. Of the other Trepanomataceae, borreliae and the cultivable syphilis T. pallidum were tested, using 14 C-amino acid mixture. The study of trypanosomes was continued. Labelling with 125 I proved effective but the antigens could also be labelled with 14 C (borohydrate- 14 C-formaldehyde). In schistosomiasis, defatted cercariae were used as antigen. Malarial diagnosis with the aid of Plasmodium knowlesi and Pl. gallinarum as antigens for human Plasmodia proved inconclusive. Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin was successfully labelled with 125 I. Progress was achieved in viral diagnosis by using the inhibition test (influenza A virus and vaccinia virus being used as models for RNA and DNA viruses, respectively)

  2. Identification of putative new Escherichia coli flagellar antigens from human origin using serology, PCR-RFlP and DNA sequencing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ribeiro Tiba

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli has been isolated frequently, showing flagellar antigens that are not recognized by any of the 53 antisera, provided by the most important reference center of E. coli, The International Escherichia and Klebsiella Center (WHO of the Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. The objective of this study was to characterize flagellar antigens of E. coli that express non-typeable H antigens. The methods used were serology, PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. This characterization was performed by gene amplification of the fliC (flagellin protein by polymerase chain reaction in all 53 standards E.coli strains for the H antigens and 20 E. coli strains for which the H antigen was untypeable. The amplicons were digested by restriction enzymes, and different restriction enzyme profiles were observed. Anti-sera were produced in rabbits, for the non-typeable strains, and agglutination tests were carried out. In conclusion,the results showed that although non-typeable and typable H antigens strains had similar flagellar antigens, the two types of strains were distinct in terms of nucleotide sequence, and did not phenotypically react with the standard antiserum, as expected. Thirteen strains had been characterized as likely putative new H antigen using PCR-RFLP techniques, DNA sequencing and/or serology.

  3. Serological diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western blot using Paragonimus kellicotti adult worm antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Folk, Scott M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Abstract. We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.

  4. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheong Tar; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Naim, Norris; Knight, Aishah; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2013-01-01

    Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a), in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+) red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Di(a) antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a) in serum. The prevalence of Di(a) antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+) red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  5. New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, E.S.; Boas, Ulrik; Wiuff, Camilla

    2000-01-01

    plates and avoids cross-reactivity due to conserved domains in the lipid A. Furthermore, the covalent binding of the polysaccharide antigens are compatible with harsh assay conditions, such as extensive washing procedures and buffers with high salt concentrations with no risk of antigen leakage. Here we......In this study we demonstrate a new UV irradiation technique for covalent coupling of bacterial polysaccharides derived from lipopolysaccharides to microtiter plates and the use of such plates in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lipopolysaccharides were cleaved by mild acid hydrolysis...... into the lipid A part and the polysaccharide part. The polysaccharide was conjugated regiospecifically to a photochemically active compound, anthraquinone, resulting in a polysaccharide-anthraquinone conjugate. Anthraquinones forms active radicals when exposed to soft UV irradiation (350 nm) permitting...

  6. Immunoproteomics of Brucella abortus RB51 as candidate antigens in serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sung, So-Ra; Lee, Kichan; Lee, Hyang-Keun; Kang, Sung-Il; Lee, Jin Ju; Jung, Suk Chan; Park, Yong Ho; Her, Moon

    2014-08-15

    The current brucellosis serodiagnostic assays are chiefly based on detecting anti-LPS (lipopolysaccharide) antibodies. However, cross-reaction with some gram-negative bacteria can occasionally induce due to similar O-polysaccharide (OPS) structure. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify new candidate antigens from Brucella abortus RB51, a mutant strain lacking the LPS portion, which might be valuable in brucellosis diagnosis. To detect potential antigens, immobilized pH gradients (IPG) strips with three ranges (pH 3-5.6, 4-7 and 6-11) were applied. After separating the insoluble proteins of B. abortus RB51 using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), their immunogenicity was evaluated by western blotting using four types of antisera - B. abortus, Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and Escherichia coli O157:H7-positive, and B. abortus-negative bovine sera. Among the several immunogenic spots, the spots showing specific reactivity with only the B. abortus-positive antisera, were considered as candidate antigens. Overall, eleven immuno-reactive proteins were identified, as follows: Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, histidinol dehydrogenase, chaperonin DnaK, chaperonin GroES, beta-ketoadipyl CoA thiolase, two-component response regulator, the cell-division protein FtsZ, aldehyde dehydrogenase, 50s ribosomal protein L10 and invasion protein B. These selected highly immunogenic protein spots might be useful as alternative antigens for brucellosis and helpful in reducing the cross-reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ТрF1 - a new potential antigen for serological diagnostics of latent forms of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Runina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current diagnostics of sexually transmitted diseases is focused on the search for new diagnostically important antigens, especially antigens of T. pallidum that causes syphilis. This article describes the recovery of the recombinant protein TpF1, a cytoplasmic bacterioferritin of T. pallidum, and a study of its immunogenicity in blood serum samples taken from patients with different forms of syphilis and from healthy volunteers. The authors performed a heterologous expression of the TpF1 protein in E. coli cells and purified the recovered TpF1 by means of metal-chelate affinity chromatography. The recombinant TpF1 was further used as an antigen for the determination of specific IgG for this protein in serum samples taken from patients suffering from primary, secondary and early/late latent forms of syphilis. According to the study results, anti-TpF1 antibodies are present at all stages of syphilis yet the level of such antibodies revealed in the groups of patients suffering from secondary, early and late latent forms of syphilis was statistically significantly different from the level of antibodies in the group of healthy volunteers. The greatest difference was observed in the groups of latent syphilis. These data characterize the TpF1 protein as a promising antigen for the diagnostics of syphilis, and TpF1 can also be considered as a potential antigen for the differential diagnostics of latent forms of syphilis.

  8. The antigens contributing to the serological cross-reactions of Proteus antisera with Klebsiella representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusiak, Agata

    2015-03-01

    Proteus sp. and Klebsiella sp. mainly cause infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts or wounds in humans. The representatives of both genera produce virulence factors like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or outer membrane proteins (OMPs) having much in common in the structures and/or functions. To check how far this similarity is revealed in the serological cross-reactivity, the bacterial masses of 24 tested Klebsiella sp. strains were tested in ELISA with polyclonal rabbit antisera specific to the representatives of 79 Proteus O serogroups. The strongest reacting systems were selected to Western blot, where the majority of Klebsiella masses reacted in a way characteristic for electrophoretic patterns of proteins. The strongest reactions were obtained for proteins of near 67 and 40 kDa and 12.5 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins samples of one Proteus sp. and one Klebsiella sp. strain showed the GroEL like protein of a sequence GI number 2980926 to be similar for both strains. In Western blot some Klebsiella sp. masses reacted similarly to the homologous Proteus LPSs. The LPS contribution in the observed reactions of the high molecular-mass LPS species was confirmed for Klebsiella oxytoca 0.062. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. STANDARDIZATION OF PROCEDURES OF Plasmodium falciparum ANTIGEN PREPARATION FOR SEROLOGIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L.M. AVILA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to standardize the technical variables for preparation and storage of Plasmodium falciparum and of antigen components extracted with the amphoteric detergent Zwittergent. P. falciparum obtained from in vitro culture was stored at different temperatures and for different periods of time. For each variable, antigen components of the parasite were extracted in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors and submitted or not to later dialysis. Products were stored for 15, 30 and 60 days at different temperatures and immunological activity of each extract was determined by SDS-PAGE and ELISA using positive or negative standard sera for the presence of IgG directed to blood stage antigens of P. falciparum. Antigen extracts obtained from parasites stored at -20oC up to 10 days or at -70oC for 2 months presented the best results, showing well-defined bands on SDS-PAGE and Western blots and presenting absorbance values in ELISA that permitted safe differentiation between positive and negative sera.O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar variáveis técnicas para o armazenamento de Plasmodium falciparum e de seus componentes antigênicos. Sedimentos de parasitas foram obtidos do cultivo in vitro de P.falciparum e estocados em diferentes temperaturas por diferentes períodos de tempo. De cada variável, foram extraídos os componentes antigênicos com detergente anfótero Zwittergent na presença e na ausência de inibidores de proteases e submetidos ou não a posterior diálise. Os produtos foram estocados por 15, 30 e 60 dias em diferentes temperaturas e caracterizados por SDS-PAGE. A atividade antigênica de cada extrato foi determinada por ELISA e Western blotting usando soros positivos e negativos para anticorpos IgG anti-formas eritrocitárias de P.falciparum. Os extratos antigênicos obtidos de parasitas estocados até 10 dias a _20ºC ou por 2 meses a _70ºC e tratados com inibidores de proteases, sob as

  10. New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, E.S.; Boas, Ulrik; Wiuff, Camilla

    2000-01-01

    into the lipid A part and the polysaccharide part. The polysaccharide was conjugated regiospecifically to a photochemically active compound, anthraquinone, resulting in a polysaccharide-anthraquinone conjugate. Anthraquinones forms active radicals when exposed to soft UV irradiation (350 nm) permitting...... the formation of stable covalent bonds to polymers e.g, microtiter plates. By this technique the polysaccharides are bound through the anthraquinone part of the polysaccharide-anthraquinone conjugates to the microtiter plates. This minimizes denaturation of O-antigen epitopes during binding to the microtiter...

  11. Identification and differentiation of Taylorella equigenitalis and Taylorella asinigenitalis by lipopolysaccharide O-antigen serology using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian W; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl L; Maclean, Leann L; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Perry, Malcolm B

    2010-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis, and T. asinigenitalis were compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Lipopolysaccharide profiles of 11 T. equigenitalis strains were similar, but different from the profiles of 3 T. asinigenitalis strains, and the profiles of 2 T. asinigenitalis strains were similar to each other. The serological specificities of the LPSs from these 14 strains were examined by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the LPSs of the T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis type strains and T. asinigenitalis strain 2329-98. A MAb to T. equigenitalis LPS O-polysaccharide (O-PS) (M2560) reacted with LPSs from all T. equigenitalis strains but did not react with LPSs from the 3 T. asinigenitalis strains or with 43 non-Taylorella bacteria. Three MAbs to the T. asinigenitalis type strain LPS O-PS or core epitopes (M2974, M2982, M3000) reacted with the homologous strain and T. asinigenitalis strain Bd 3751/05, but not with any of the other bacteria. Five MAbs to T. asinigenitalis 2329-98 LPS O-PS or core epitopes (M2904, M2907, M2910, M2923, M2929) reacted only with this strain. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the O-PSs of the type strains of T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis provided fingerprint identification and differentiation of these 2 organisms. The serological results were consistent with our previous finding that the O-antigen of the type strain of T. equigenitalis, being a linear polymer of disaccharide repeating [-->4)-alpha-L-GulpNAc3NAcA-(1-->4)-beta-D-ManpNAc3NAcA-(1-->] units, differs from that of the T. asinigenitalis O-antigen polymer that is composed of repeating [-->3)-beta-D-QuipNAc4NAc-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAmA-(1-->] units. Lipopolysaccharide O-PS could be a specific marker for identification and differentiation of T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis, and

  12. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Rashmi; Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-02-01

    The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination.

  13. Blood group and Rhesus antigens among Blood donors attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood group and Rhesus antigens among Blood donors attending the Central Blood Bank, Sudan. WM Shahata, HB Khalil, A-E Abass, I Adam, SM Hussien. Abstract. Background: It is well known that the Rhesus system remains the second most clinically important blood group system after the ABO. There is no published ...

  14. Serological, electrophoretic and biological properties of Fasciola hepatica antigens Propiedades serologicas, electroforeticas y biologicas de antigenos de Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Cervi

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica somatic antigen, its partially purified fractions and excretion-secretion products were investigated as to serological, electrophoretic and biological properties. In a Sephadex G-100 column (SG-100, Fasciola hepatica total antigen (FhTA gave 5 fractions, and SDS-PAGE analysis showed they were glycoproteins ranging from 14 to 94 kDa molecular weight (MW. When these fractions were analyzed by enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (EITB and immunodiffusion in gel (ID with serum from immunized rats with FhTA, the presence of different antigenic components was revealed. In the SDS-PAGE of excretor-secretor antigen (ESA, it was possible to observe peptides from 12 to 22 kDa, which were also present in FhTA. When the FhTA, its fractions and the ESA were analyzed by EITB with the immune rat serum (IRS, it was observed that only some fractions of the SG-100 shared antigens with the FhTA and ESA. Moreover, DTH and ITH responses were studied in FhTA immunized rats challenged with these different antigen components, revealing that the protein/carbohydrate ratio is important for inducing DTH response. The ESA was the most active component in the DTH and ITH response.Se realizó la purificación parcial de un antigeno somático de Fasciola hepatica y se obtuveron los productos de excreción-secreción. Por filtración del antigeno total de Fasciola hepatica en Sephadex G-100 (SG-100, se obtuvieron 5 fracciones las que al ser analizadas por electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida, demostraron estar constituidas por glicoproteínas con un rango de peso molecular (PM entre 14 y 94 kDa. Cuando estas fracciones fueron analizadas por immunoblot e inmunodifusión en geles de agar frente al suero de ratas inmunizadas con el homogenato total se reveló la presencia de diferentes componentes antigénicos. Usando un antígeno excretor-secretor fue posible observar en el perfil electroforético la presencia de péptidos con un PM entre 12 y 22 kDa, los

  15. The HLA Dictionary 2001: A Summary of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5, -DQB1 Alleles and Their Association with Serologically Defined HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR and -DQ Antigens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schreuder, G

    2001-01-01

    ...) the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) and individual laboratories. In addition a listing is provided of alleles which are expressed as antigens with serologic reaction patterns that differ from the well-established HLA specificities...

  16. BGMUT: NCBI dbRBC database of allelic variations of genes encoding antigens of blood group systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Blumenfeld, Olga O

    2012-01-01

    Analogous to human leukocyte antigens, blood group antigens are surface markers on the erythrocyte cell membrane whose structures differ among individuals and which can be serologically identified. The Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database (BGMUT) is an online repository of allelic variations in genes that determine the antigens of various human blood group systems. The database is manually curated with allelic information collated from scientific literature and from direct submissions from research laboratories. Currently, the database documents sequence variations of a total of 1251 alleles of all 40 gene loci that together are known to affect antigens of 30 human blood group systems. When available, information on the geographic or ethnic prevalence of an allele is also provided. The BGMUT website also has general information on the human blood group systems and the genes responsible for them. BGMUT is a part of the dbRBC resource of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA, and is available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gv/rbc/xslcgi.fcgi?cmd=bgmut. The database should be of use to members of the transfusion medicine community, those interested in studies of genetic variation and related topics such as human migrations, and students as well as members of the general public.

  17. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  18. Evaluation of an improved rapid coagglutination method for the serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D V; Smith, R D; Day, S

    1979-01-01

    Grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci was performed with the Phadebact Streptococcus Test, a coagglutination method, and the results compared with serological grouping by the standard Lancefield precipitin method. Of 171 clinical specimens examined, 169 (98.8%) were grouped correctly by the Phadebact Test after 24 h of continuous growth in Todd-Hewitt broth. In a parallel study, 96.9% of specimens that grew after only 4 h of incubation in broth were grouped correctly by the coagglutination method. In both studies, the accuracy of the coagglutination test was increased significantly by elimination of multiple-agglutination reactions through centrifugation of cultures and utilization of the supernatant fluid in the Phadebact Test.

  19. Recombinant 60-kDa heat shock protein from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: is it a good antigen for serological diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, G; Fernandes, F F; Landgraf, T N; Martinez, R; Panunto-Castelo, A

    2017-04-03

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii are fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent systemic mycosis in South America. For serological diagnosis, although 43-kDa glycoprotein (gp43) is regarded as highly specific for PCM, the occurrence of false negative reactions in sera from patients infected with P. lutzii suggests that preparation with only one antigen is not recommended. Heat shock proteins are feasible alternatives as a second antigen because they are often highly immunogenic. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of recombinant 60-kDa heat shock protein from P. brasiliensis (rPbHsp60) for the serological diagnosis of PCM. Using western blotting assay, we observed that 77.3% of the sera from PCM patients were positive to rPbHsp60, with 90.9% positivity to recombinant gp43 (rgp43). More importantly, sera from healthy subjects had 27% positivity to rPbHsp60 and none to rgp43. When rPbHsp60 was used in ELISA, we did not observe significant differences between the reactions with sera from PCM patients and healthy subjects, while the difference was clearly evident when the antigen was rgp43. Furthermore, rPbHsp60 was recognized by sera from patients with histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, sporotrichosis or tuberculosis in an ELISA test. These results show that rPbHsp60 is not a good antigen for PCM diagnosis.

  20. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy a , Fy b , Jk a and Jk b antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Blood groups - minuses and pluses. Do the blood group antigens protect us from infectious diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, Marcin

    2015-06-25

    Human blood can be divided into groups, which is a method of blood classification based on the presence or absence of inherited erythrocyte surface antigens that can elicit immune response. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are 341 blood group antigens collected in 35 blood group systems. These antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and function as transmembrane transporters, ion channels, adhesion molecules or receptors for other proteins. The majority of blood group antigens is present also on another types of cells. Due to their localization on the surface of cells, blood group antigens can act as receptors for various pathogens or their toxins, such as protozoa (malaria parasites), bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae) and viruses (Noroviruses, Parvoviruses, HIV). If the presence of group antigen (or its variant which arised due to mutation) is beneficial for the host (e.g. because pathogens are not able to bind to the cells), the blood group may become a selection trait, leading to its dissemination in the population exposed to that pathogen. There are thirteen blood group systems that can be related to pathogen resistance, and it seems that the particular influence was elicit by malaria parasites. It is generally thought that the high incidence of blood groups such as O in the Amazon region, Fy(a-b-) in Africa and Ge(-) in Papua-New Guinea is the result of selective pressure from malaria parasite. This review summarizes the data about relationship between blood groups and resistance to pathogens.

  2. Using a genomic assay for the detection of SNPs of Knops blood group antigens leads to the identification of two caucasians homozygous for the SNP associated with the knops SL3 antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. A.; Sprogoe, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Case Studies: The antigens of the Knops (Kn) blood group system are associated with SNPs located on exon 29 and (to lesser extent) on exon 26 of the complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene. Because of a lack of proper typing antibodies, serologic detection of Kn antigens is not feasible. We...... previously described to be Sl3- (personal communication from the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol). * Number indicates the nucleotide position of the CR1 gene. Conclusion: In this study, we have set up a genomic assay for identifying the antigens in the Knops system. We found...... designed a genomic assay based on sequencing targeting the SNPs underlying the antigens of the Knops system. Study Design/Methods: Samples from a total of 105 blood donors and 2 patients were examined for polymorphisms in CR1 exon 29 by using PCR and subsequent Sanger sequencing. Results...

  3. INRA, a new high-frequency antigen in the INDIAN (IN023) blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanmukh R; Sheladiya, Ankita; Mendapara-Dobariya, Kinjal V

    2017-01-01

    The INDIAN blood group system comprises 4 antigens sensitive to enzymes and 2-aminoethyl isothiouronium bromide (AET). The patient's antibody was investigated for its specificity to the high-frequency antigens (HFA) of this system. Low ionic strength solution (LISS)-tube/LISS-indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) methods were used. The patient's red blood cells (RBCs) were tested with antisera to HFA. Her antibody was tested with RBCs lacking the HFA. Furthermore, it was tested with RBCs as untreated or treated with enzyme or AET. The genetic sequence was studied for mutation in CD44 gene that encodes INDIAN antigens. The patient was grouped A1B, RhD+, antibody screening test positive, direct antiglobulin test negative. A negative autocontrol test had suggested to the alloantibody being present. Antibody had agglutinated RBCs in LISS-tube at RT and by LISS-IAT at 37°C. The RBCs of the 11-cell panel, those lacking HFA and from 50 random donors, were agglutinated by her antibody indicating its specificity to the HFA, though the RBCs of Lu (a-b-)/In (Lu) type showed a weaker reaction. The patient's RBCs were agglutinated by antisera to a number of the enzyme-sensitive HFA, including those of INDIAN blood groups. The antibody showed reduced reactivity with the RBCs treated with papain, chymotrypsin, and AET but resistant to trypsin and dithiothreitol. The patient's genetic sequence revealed a novel homozygous mutation 449G>A in exon 5 of CD44 . The antibody to enzyme sensitive HFA was tested for serological and molecular genetics studies and found to be directed to the novel HFA, named as INRA of the INDIAN blood group system and was assigned a numerical symbol IN: 005 by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).

  4. Rapid genotyping of blood group antigens by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and DNA microarray hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beiboer, Sigrid H. W.; Wieringa-Jelsma, Tinka; Maaskant-van Wijk, Petra A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; van Zwieten, Rob; Roos, Dirk; den Dunnen, Johan T.; de Haas, Masja

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, 500,000 blood donors are active. Blood of all donors is currently typed serologically for ABO, the Rh phenotype, and K. Only a subset of donors is typed twice for a larger set of red cell (RBC) and/or platelet (PLT) antigens. To increase the direct availability of

  5. [TORCH serology and group B Streptococcus screening analysis in the population of a maternity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lito, David; Francisco, Telma; Salva, Inês; Tavares, Maria das Neves; Oliveira, Rosa; Neto, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Systematic screening for TORCH infections and group B Streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy has been an important factor in the improvement of perinatal care. To evaluate TORCH serology and GBS carriers state in the population of a maternity, to assess variability with age and nationality and to search for congenital infections. Non-probabilistic prevalence study. 9508 TORCH and 2639 GBS results were registered. Immunity rate for rubella was 93.3%, higher for Portuguese women; for toxoplasmosis it was 25.7%, higher among the oldest and foreign women; IgG for CMV was positive in 62.4%, no influence of age was found. VDRL was reactive in 0.5%; HBsAg was found to be positive in 2.3%, higher in foreign women. Antibodies for hepatitis C virus and HIV were found respectively in 1.4% and 0.7%. No congenital infections were diagnosed. GBS carrier state was found in 13.9%. A high rate of positive IgG was found for rubella reflecting vaccines policy. For toxoplasmosis the low rate of positives means that a high number of pregnant women have to repeat serology during pregnancy with inherent costs. Like in the general population, a high rate of CMV positive mothers was found. For some infections we found that foreign women had different conditions. Knowledge on TORCH and GBS state helps to better draw guidelines concerning screening policies during pregnancy.

  6. A SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN AND OTHER GROUPS OF HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancefield, R C

    1933-03-31

    1. All except two of 106 strains of hemolytic streptococci isolated from man, other animals, milk, and cheese have been classified into five groups, which bear a definite relationship to the sources of the cultures. These broad groups may be subdivided into specific types by methods discussed elsewhere. The specific group classification is made possible by employing two special reagents: (a) extracts prepared by treatment of the bacteria with hot hydrochloric acid, and (b) serum of animals immunized with formalinized cultures. This differentiation is not detected by the agglutination reaction. The grouping agrees with that described by other investigators on the basis of cultural and biochemical characteristics. 2. The group-specific substance present in strains of Group A has been identified chemically as carbohydrate in nature. The chemical composition of the specific substances upon which the specificity of the other groups depends has not been determined. It seems not unlikely, however, that all of them may belong in the general class of carbohydrates, each being chemically distinct and serologically specific in the individual groups.

  7. Correlation and agreement between eplet mismatches calculated using serological, low-intermediate and high resolution molecular human leukocyte antigen typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Samantha; D'Orsogna, Lloyd; Irish, Ashley B; Lewis, Joshua R; Wong, Germaine; Lim, Wai H

    2018-03-02

    Structural human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the eplet level can be identified by HLAMatchmaker, which requires the entry of four-digit alleles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between eplet mismatches calculated by serological and two-digit typing methods compared to high-resolution four-digit typing. In a cohort of 264 donor/recipient pairs, the evaluation of measurement error was assessed using intra-class correlation to confirm the absolute agreement between the number of eplet mismatches at class I (HLA-A, -B, C) and II loci (HLA-DQ and -DR) calculated using serological or two-digit molecular typing compared to four-digit molecular typing methods. The proportion of donor/recipient pairs with a difference of >5 eplet mismatches between the HLA typing methods was also determined. Intra-class correlation coefficients between serological and four-digit molecular typing methods were 0.969 (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.960-0.975) and 0.926 (95% CI 0.899-0.944), respectively; and 0.995 (95% CI 0.994-0.996) and 0.993 (95% CI 0.991-0.995), respectively between two-digit and four-digit molecular typing methods. The proportion of donor/recipient pairs with a difference of >5 eplet mismatches at class I and II loci was 4% and 16% for serological versus four-digit molecular typing methods, and 0% and 2% for two-digit versus four-digit molecular typing methods, respectively. In this small predominantly Caucasian population, compared with serology, there is a high level of agreement in the number of eplet mismatches calculated using two-compared to four-digit molecular HLA-typing methods, suggesting that two-digit typing may be sufficient in determining eplet mismatch load in kidney transplantation.

  8. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    It has been shown previously that rat oral epithelia express antigens cross-reacting with antibodies against human blood group antigen B and its structural precursor, the H antigen (Type 2 chain). In the present study we investigated the expression of these antigens in malignant changes in the rat....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...

  9. Evaluation of serologic and antigenic relationships between middle eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other coronaviruses to develop vaccine platforms for the rapid response to emerging coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gopal, Robin; Yount, Boyd L; Donaldson, Eric F; Menachery, Vineet D; Graham, Rachel L; Scobey, Trevor D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Denison, Mark R; Zambon, Maria; Baric, Ralph S

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012, causing severe acute respiratory disease and pneumonia, with 44% mortality among 136 cases to date. Design of vaccines to limit the virus spread or diagnostic tests to track newly emerging strains requires knowledge of antigenic and serologic relationships between MERS-CoV and other CoVs.  Using synthetic genomics and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons (VRPs) expressing spike and nucleocapsid proteins from MERS-CoV and other human and bat CoVs, we characterize the antigenic responses (using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and serologic responses (using neutralization assays) against 2 MERS-CoV isolates in comparison with those of other human and bat CoVs.  Serologic and neutralization responses against the spike glycoprotein were primarily strain specific, with a very low level of cross-reactivity within or across subgroups. CoV N proteins within but not across subgroups share cross-reactive epitopes with MERS-CoV isolates. Our findings were validated using a convalescent-phase serum specimen from a patient infected with MERS-CoV (NA 01) and human antiserum against SARS-CoV, human CoV NL63, and human CoV OC43.  Vaccine design for emerging CoVs should involve chimeric spike protein containing neutralizing epitopes from multiple virus strains across subgroups to reduce immune pathology, and a diagnostic platform should include a panel of nucleocapsid and spike proteins from phylogenetically distinct CoVs.

  10. Distribution of ABO and Rh-Hr blood group antigens, alleles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABO and Rh-Hr blood group antigens represent a genetically stably determined trait with many-sided biological and clinical significance. The indigenous Ajarian population (105 subjects) was investigated for ABO Rh-Hr red cell blood group antigens. Using immunoserologic methods, seven blood group antigens (A, B, C, c, ...

  11. Serological identification of group A streptococci from throat scrapings before culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholy, A E; Facklam, R; Sabri, G; Rotta, J

    1978-12-01

    The use of a microtechnique (modified nitrous acid extraction) to test samples from 150 school children and from patients with acute follicular tonsillitis has indicated that group A streptococci in the throat can be identified from tonsillar scrapings in 30 min. The results are comparable to the grouping results obtained by standard throat culture techniques and the Lancefield procedure for grouping. No cross-reaction with other bacteria or cellular material occurs. Study has also shown that the nitrous acid extraction yields three- to fourfold more polysaccharides than the Lancefield hot-HCl of Fuller formamide techniques. The use of the microtechnique leads to another 20-fold concentration of the antigen. Immune salting-out effect could be obtained with 1.00 M sodium acetate. Such molarity is too low to cause nonspecific slating out. It leads to a strong ampliciation of the precipitin reaction.

  12. Serological and molecular detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, Patrícia F; Vilhena, Hugo; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Amorim, Irina; Ferreira, Paula; Cardoso, Luís; Gärtner, Fátima; de Sousa, Rita

    2017-05-31

    Infections with tick-borne rickettsiae can cause diseases well known in humans but still not so well characterized in dogs. Susceptibility to infection depends on the virulence of Rickettsia spp. and only a few of them have been described to cause disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to Rickettsia spp. among a group of pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Out of 103 dogs included in the study, 62 (60.2%) were infested with ticks. Plasma specimens tested for serology by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that six (5.8%) dogs had detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), with endpoint titers of 64 for two dogs, 128 for three dogs and 1024 for one dog. From the seropositive group of dogs, five (83%) of them were males, with their age ranging from 1 to 8 years old. Among the seropositive dogs, four (66.7%) were parasitized with ticks and no breed (or cross) was found to be associated with specific antibodies. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in two (1.9%) dogs that were found to be seronegative. Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. infection in this group of pet dogs from Luanda is low compared with other studies performed in the same type of hosts in other areas. Although many dogs were parasitized with ticks, a low prevalence of Rickettsia spp. could be related with the hypothesis of a low rickettsial prevalence in the infesting ticks. This study provides evidence that dogs in Luanda are exposed to Rickettsia spp., but further studies are needed to better characterize the bacterial infections in dogs and in their ectoparasites.

  13. Abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in uterine endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, K; Sakayori, M; Arai, H; Yamaoka, K; Kurihara, S; Nozawa, S

    1991-08-01

    The expression of A, B, and H group antigens, Lewis group antigens (Lewis(a), Lewis(b), Lewis(x), and Lewis(y)), and Lc4 and nLc4 antigens, the precursor antigens of both groups, was examined immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies in 9 normal endometria, 6 endometrial hyperplasias, and 31 endometrial cancers. 1) A, B and/or H antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at an incidence of 51.6%, while no distinct localization of these antigens was observed in normal endometria. H antigen, the precursor of A and B antigens, was particularly frequently detected in endometrial cancers. 2) An increased rate of expression of Lewis group antigens, particularly Lewis(b) antigen, was observed in endometrial cancers compared with its expression in normal endometria. 3) Lc4 and nLc4 antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at rates of 41.9% and 38.7%, respectively, these expressions being increased compared with those in normal endometria. 4) These results suggest that a highly abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in endometrial cancers occurs not only at the level of A, B, and H antigens and Lewis group antigens, but also at the level of their precursor Lc4 and nLc4 antigens. 5) Lewis(a), Lewis(b), and Lc4 antigens, built on the type-1 chain, are more specific to endometrial cancers than their respective positional isomers, Lewis(x), Lewis(y), and nLc4 antigens, built on the type-2 chain.

  14. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  15. [Expression, purification and serological reactivity of a chimeric antigen of GRA6 with P30 from Toxoplasma gondii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-Xi; Zhang, Jin-Hai; Tao, Kai-Hua; Huang, Pei-Tang

    2003-11-01

    Major surface protein (p30) and Dense Granule Antigen GRA6 of Toxoplasma gondii have good antigenicity, and could be used for detection of IgM against Toxoplasma gondii. GRA6 may complement P30 to reach more high sensitivity for detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, so, we try to express the chimeric protein of GRA6 and P30 by genetic engineering, identify its antignenicity and use for developing diagnosis reagent. Antigenic domains of p30 and GRA6 of Toxoplasma gondii were screened by analyzing their sequences using the software ANTHEWIN. Two DNA fragments encoding respectively antigenic domains of p30 and GRA6 were cloned, they were inserted into the same expression vector pET28a( + ) and expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. BL21(DE3), the expressed chimeric protein of p30 with GRA6 in a form of inclusion body was about 25% of total proteins of E. coli. BL21(DE3). The inclusion body was washed once with 0.5% Triton X-100 and dissolved with 0.5% SKL, after renaturation by gradient dialysis, the recombinant protein was purified by DEAE-Sepharose FF cation column and then detected with 12% SDS-PAGE, it exists mainly in the eluted peak with 300 mmol/L NaCl and has high purity. By using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the recombinant protein was examined for reactivity with immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in 6 sera from patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii ., it was reactive with all the 6 sera but not with sera from normal people, these results showed that the recombinant chimeric antigen has good antigenicity and specificity and could be used for detection of IgM against Toxoplasma gondii. The expressed chimeric protein could be used for epidemic investigation of Toxoplasma gondii, blood donor screening, especially for detection of pregnant women, and is of great significance in prevention of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

  16. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    palate induced by a chemical carcinogen (4NQO). The H antigen, normally expressed on spinous cells in rats, was absent in malignant epithelium, whereas staining for the B antigen, normally expressed on basal cells, was variable. These changes are equivalent to those seen in human squamous cell carcinomas....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...

  17. Use of serological and mucosal immune responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens P97R1, P46 and P36 in the diagnosis of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Xin; Bai, Yun; Yao, Jing-Ting; Pharr, G Todd; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Xiao, Shao-Bo; Chi, Ling-Zhi; Gan, Yuan; Wang, Hai-Yan; Wei, Yan-Na; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Bai, Fang-Fang; Li, Bin; Wu, Xu-Su; Shao, Guo-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Currently available ELISAs used to diagnose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs have high specificity but low sensitivity. To develop more sensitive assays, the kinetics of specific serum IgG and respiratory mucosal sIgA responses against three M. hyopneumoniae antigens, namely, P97R1 (an adhesin protein), P46 (a membrane protein), and P36 (a cytosolic protein), were characterised over 133 days following experimental infection. Immunoglobulin G against the three proteins remained at high concentrations from 28 to 133 days post-infection (dpi), although IgG against P97R1 was detected earlier and was more reactive than the other two antigens under assessment. Mucosal sIgA appeared earlier than serum IgG but did not persist as long; sIgA concentrations against P97R1 were the highest. Seroconversion was detected 2 weeks earlier with the P97R1-based ELISA than with a commercially available ELISA. On analysis of serum samples from five pig farms that did not use a M. hyopneumoniae vaccine, the P97R1-based IgG ELISA demonstrated a 73.6% coincidence rate with the commercial kit. Moreover, this more specific P97R1-based ELISA detected more positive samples than the commercial kit (52.8% vs. 39.2%). It was concluded that the systemic immune response to M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs was delayed in onset but persistent whereas the mucosal response developed more rapidly but was less sustained. The P97R1 antigen was identified as a suitable serological marker for diagnosing M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs, particularly early stage infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serological responses to Cryptosporidium antigens in inhabitants of Hungary using conventionally filtered surface water and riverbank filtered drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, K; Plutzer, J; Moltchanova, E; Török, A; Varró, M J; Domokos, K; Frost, F; Hunter, P R

    2015-10-01

    In this study the putative protective seroprevalence (PPS) of IgG antibodies to the 27-kDa and 15/17-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens in sera of healthy participants who were and were not exposed to Cryptosporidium oocysts via surface water-derived drinking water was compared. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding risk factors that have been shown to be associated with infection. The PPS was significantly greater (49-61%) in settlements where the drinking water originated from surface water, than in the control city where riverbank filtration was used (21% and 23%). Logistic regression analysis on the risk factors showed an association between bathing/swimming in outdoor pools and antibody responses to the 15/17-kDa antigen complex. Hence the elevated responses were most likely due to the use of contaminated water. Results indicate that waterborne Cryptosporidium infections occur more frequently than reported but may derive from multiple sources.

  19. Serological survey of African animal trypanosomosis in Ghana: The role of the antigen ELISA as a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, C.K.; Seidu, I.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the analysis of 3000 serum samples collected from Zebu cattle in the Nabogu valley. Of the 3000 serum samples collected so far, 182 have been tested using the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the antigen ELISA test. A total of 56 samples have been found positive by both techniques. Using the parasitological technique (=BCT) 44 samples were diagnosed to be positive, while the Ag-ELISA detected 19 positive samples. The majority (75%) of cases detected positive by either technique was due to a single infection by Trypanosoma brucei. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  1. Distribution of ABO and Rh-Hr blood group antigens, alleles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... Ikemoto, 1995) and criminology. As it seems, the composition of the blood group systems' antigens in human populations is a result of a balance ... From the foregoing, we have set an objective to establish the genetic geography of the erythrocytic group antigens in the highland Khulo region of Ajara. The.

  2. INRA, a new high-frequency antigen in the INDIAN (IN023 blood group system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmukh R Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The antibody to enzyme sensitive HFA was tested for serological and molecular genetics studies and found to be directed to the novel HFA, named as INRA of the INDIAN blood group system and was assigned a numerical symbol IN: 005 by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT.

  3. Identification and molecular characterization of serological group C streptococci isolated from diseased pigs and monkeys in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarmanto, I; Pasaribu, F H; Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C

    1996-01-01

    The present study was designed to comparatively investigate 34 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from infected pigs and monkeys from various islands in Indonesia. According to the serological and biochemical data, all 34 isolates were Lancefield's serological group C streptococci and could be identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Of the 34 group C streptococci investigated, 28 grew on solid media in large, mucoid colonies, in fluid media at a uniform turbidity, and in soft agar in diffuse colonies. A decapsulation test with a hyaluronidase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain revealed the hyaluronic acid nature of the capsular material. The remaining six streptococci grew on solid media in small, nonmucoid colonies, in fluid media as sediment with clear supernatant, and in soft agar in compact colonies. Determination of surface hydrophobicity by salt aggregation revealed a hydrophilic surface for the encapsulated bacteria and a hydrophobic surface for the unencapsulated group C streptococci. To further analyze the epidemiological relationships, all 34 mucoid and nonmucoid isolates from pigs and monkeys were subjected to protein and DNA fingerprinting. The latter was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The protein profiles of all 34 isolates and the DNA profiles of 32 isolates appeared to be identical, with the DNA profiles of 2 isolates being closely related, indicating that a single virulent clone is responsible for this disease outbreak in Indonesia. PMID:8862585

  4. Comparison of two automated instruments for Epstein-Barr virus serology in a large adult hospital and implementation of an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-based testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sidairi, Hilal; Binkhamis, Khalifa; Jackson, Colleen; Roberts, Catherine; Heinstein, Charles; MacDonald, Jimmy; Needle, Robert; Hatchette, Todd F; LeBlanc, Jason J

    2017-11-01

    Serology remains the mainstay for diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This study compared two automated platforms (BioPlex 2200 and Architect i2000SR) to test three EBV serological markers: viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulins of class M (IgM), VCA immunoglobulins of class G (IgG) and EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG. Using sera from 65 patients at various stages of EBV disease, BioPlex demonstrated near-perfect agreement for all EBV markers compared to a consensus reference. The agreement for Architect was near-perfect for VCA IgG and EBNA-1 IgG, and substantial for VCA IgM despite five equivocal results. Since the majority of testing in our hospital was from adults with EBNA-1 IgG positive results, post-implementation analysis of an EBNA-based algorithm showed advantages over parallel testing of the three serologic markers. This small verification demonstrated that both automated systems for EBV serology had good performance for all EBV markers, and an EBNA-based testing algorithm is ideal for an adult hospital.

  5. The effect of HLA mismatches, shared cross-reactive antigen groups, and shared HLA-DR antigens on the outcome after pediatric liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieders, E; Hepkema, BG; Peeters, PMJG; Ten Vergert, EM; De Jong, KP; Porte, RJ; Bijleveld, CMA; van den Berg, AP; Lems, SPM; Gouw, ASH; Slooff, MJH

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and HLA-DR mismatching, sharing cross-reactive antigen groups (CREGs), and sharing HLA-DR antigens on the outcome after pediatric liver transplantation. Outcome parameters were graft survival, acute rejection,

  6. A simple and inexpensive point-of-care test for hepatitis B surface antigen detection: serological and molecular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, R G; Gutierrez, J A; Navarro-Cazarez, N; Giang, K; Adler, D; Tran, B; Locarnini, S; Hammond, R; Bowden, S

    2014-12-01

    Early identification of chronic hepatitis B is important for optimal disease management and prevention of transmission. Cost and lack of access to commercial hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) immunoassays can compromise the effectiveness of HBV screening in resource-limited settings and among marginalized populations. High-quality point-of-care (POC) testing may improve HBV diagnosis in these situations. Currently available POC HBsAg assays are often limited in sensitivity. We evaluated the NanoSign(®) HBs POC chromatographic immunoassay for its ability to detect HBsAg of different genotypes and with substitutions in the 'a' determinant. Thirty-seven serum samples from patients with HBV infection, covering HBV genotypes A-G, were assessed for HBsAg titre with the Roche Elecsys HBsAg II quantification assay and with the POC assay. The POC assay reliably detected HBsAg at a concentration of at least 50 IU/mL for all genotypes, and at lower concentrations for some genotypes. Eight samples with substitutions in the HBV 'a' determinant were reliably detected after a 1/100 dilution. The POC strips were used to screen serum samples from 297 individuals at risk for HBV in local clinical settings (health fairs and outreach events) in parallel with commercial laboratory HBsAg testing (Quest Diagnostics EIA). POC testing was 73.7% sensitive and 97.8% specific for detection of HBsAg. Although the POC test demonstrated high sensitivity over a range of genotypes, false negatives were frequent in a clinical setting. Nevertheless, the POC assay offers advantages for testing in both developed and resource-limited countries due to its low cost (0.50$) and immediately available results. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dd-antigen-antibody system in five caste groups in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, V; Kaur, H

    1991-12-01

    Antigen Dd, a polymorphic antigen found in extracts of certain human dandruff specimens, was investigated in five caste groups of north India. The incidence of antigen Dd-positive type varied from 21.21 per cent in Brahmins to 29.08 per cent in the Jat Sikhs of Punjab. However, a high frequency (45%) was observed in the Sunni Muslims of Kashmir, which differed significantly, when compared with different caste groups of Punjab. Family studies on 44 families indicated its inherited nature, the mode of inheritance being autosomal dominant.

  8. New method for the serological grouping of Streptococci with specific antibodies adsorbed to protein A-containing staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P; Kahlmeter, G; Jonsson, S; Kronvall, G

    1973-06-01

    A coagglutinating reagent has recently been developed and utilized in capsule typing of pneumococci. The reagent consists of stabilized staphylococci coated with specific antibody via the gamma globulin Fc-protein A reaction thereby orienting the antibody molecules with the antigen-reactive Fab parts outwards. Reagent staphylococci coated with antibodies directed against streptococcal group-specific antigens have been used in the present investigations. Overnight cultures of streptococci were treated with trypsin and then directly tested for coagglutination of selected reagent staphylococci on glass slides. In all, 179 strains of streptococci were analyzed by the method described. The results were compared with grouping by using Lancefield extracts in counter-immunoelectrophoresis and were shown to agree completely. The coagglutination method described proved to be accurate, rapid, and simple.

  9. Human blood groups: chemical and biochemical basis of antigen specificity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schenkel-Brunner, Helmut

    2000-01-01

    ... of the monograph on the chemistry and biochemistry of human blood groups is being published to honour the 1Oath anniversary of Dr. Karl Landsteiner's discovery of human blood groups here in Vienna. Five years have passed since publication of the first edition, and in this time research on the biochemistry of human blood groups has reached staggering pr...

  10. DNA homologies and serologic relationships among ureaplasmas from various hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, M F

    1986-01-01

    The available data on the serologic and genomic relationships among the established and unspeciated Ureaplasma species and serovars isolated from various hosts can be summarized as follows. Ureaplasma urealyticum (human) is composed of 14 serovars separated into two genomic clusters. Ureaplasma diversum (bovine) is antigenically complex, has three serologic clusters and requires the three representative antisera to identify all U. diversum strains. The nonhuman primate strains form four serologic groups, and each serogroup is composed of strains isolated from primates belonging to one of four distinct zoologic primate families. The ovine-caprine strains have two serologic clusters. Canine strains form four serologic clusters but serovars 1 and 2 are closely related by DNA homology. Avian strains belong to one serogroup with two genomic clusters. The DNA homology data indicate that phenotypic information alone, including antigenic serotypic data, is not always adequate for species designation among the ureaplasmas and that comparative analyses of the genome provide invaluable data for establishing new species. Although there are only two established species, the published data support the contention that the nonhuman primate, ovine-caprine, canine, feline and avian ureaplasmas are genomically and phenotypically distinct from each other based on the serologic, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein and DNA cleavage patterns and DNA homology studies and that these ureaplasmas from various hosts may represent new species or subspecies within the genus.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of a rapid four-hour serological grouping of groups A,B,C, and G beta-streptococci by the Phadebact streptococcus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R

    1977-07-01

    Grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococcal isolates by staphylococcal coagglutination was performed with the Phadebact Streptococcus Test to determine whether such isolates could be accurately grouped serologically with 4 h after examination of the primary isolation plates. Of 132 clinical isolates, 131 were correctly grouped by the Phadebact method using the Lancefield precipitation method as the accepted standard. Of the correctly grouped streptococci, 119 were definitively grouped within 4 h after examination of the primary plates, and the remaining 12 isolates were grouped within 24 h. Since the Phadebact Streptococcus Test contains coagglutination reagents for groups A, B, C, and G, those isolates that failed to react were considered as positive for groups other than the four included in the test system. There were 23 such isolates in this study. Lancefield grouping of these isolates indicated that nine were group F, five were group D, and the remaining nine were not groupable with the Lancefield reagents employed in this study. The one Phadebact "failure" involved an isolate that produced a 4 + reaction with the Phadebact group A reagent and a 4 + reaction with Lancefield group F reagent.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175... Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Cytomegalovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to cytomegalovirus in...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Adenovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  16. Serological variability of the Pellia endiviifolia-P. megaspora complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of antigenic proteins in populations of terrestrial and aquatic forms of P. endiviifolia and populations from Japan revealed the antigenic differentiation of the examined samples into two distinct groups. Pellia megaspora from the eastern part of the USA also exhibits a significant antigenic devergence and bears the most resemblance to the group of populations of the aquatic form of P. endiviifolia from Poland and samples from Japan. The observed serological distances between terrestrial and aquatic forms of P. endiviifolia are of the same rank as differences between remaining species of the genus Pellia. Clarification of the nature of the detected serological differentiation in the Pellia megaspora-P, endiviifoliacomplex will require further studies.

  17. Antigens of Streptococcus sanguis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosan, Burton

    1973-01-01

    An antigenic analysis of the alpha-hemolytic streptococci isolated from dental plaque was performed by use of antisera against a strain of Streptococcus sanguis (M-5) which was isolated from dental plaque. Immunoelectrophoretic and Ouchterlony tests of Rantz and Randall extracts of 45 strains gave positive reactions with the M-5 antisera. These strains represented 60% of the strains tested. The number of antigens which could be identified in these extracts varied from one to five and were designated a to e. The a antigen was found in 36 of the strains tested, including reference strains of S. sanguis and the group H streptococci. The strains reacting with the M-5 antisera were divided into two majors types: type I consisted of 23 strains in which the a antigen was found alone or with one or more of the c, d, and e antigens; type II consisted of 13 strains in which both the a and b antigens were found with or without one or more of the c, d, and e antigens. The remaining strains contained, either singly or in combination, the b, c, d, and e antigens but not the a antigen. Biochemical tests of representatives of each serotype and reference strains indicated that strains reacting with M-5 antisera were S. sanguis. These findings suggest that S. sanguis strains share common physiological and serological properties. Images PMID:4633291

  18. Evaluation of an ELISA using recombinant Ssλ20ΔB3 antigen for the serological diagnosis of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in domestic and wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Rosa; Millán, Javier; Rosell, Joan Maria; Dalton, Kevin P; Prieto, José Miguel

    2015-12-15

    An ELISA, based on the Sarcoptes scabiei Ssλ20ΔB3 inmunodominant antigen, was evaluated for the detection of antibodies to S. scabiei in experimentally infested (n=10), farm (n=109), and wild (n=78) rabbit sera. The S. scabiei antigen Ssλ20ΔB3, a major structural protein present over the entire mite's body, was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified for its use in the ELISA. The resulting ELISA showed, in experimentally infested domestic rabbits, detectable specific antibody responses (IgG) above the cut off level from week three post-infestation indicating that the assay is able to detect positive rabbits very early during the course of the infestation. The ELISA was validated on a panel of 109 domestic breeding rabbit sera collected from 26 Spanish farms, of which 41 were obtained from rabbits with skin lesions compatible with sarcoptic mange, 26 with skin lesions compatible with psoroptic mange, and 42 from unexposed individuals from mange-free farms. The ELISA in this group was characterized by 95% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a high degree of repeatability. In the psoroptic mange compatible lesions group, included in the study as control group for cross-reactivity with the closely related mite Psoroptes cuniculi, cross-reacting antibodies to Ssλ20ΔB3 S. scabiei antigen were detected in 42.30% of the rabbit sera. However, mean% OD values of the sarcoptic-mange group (55.61 ± 39.20%) were significantly higher (psarcoptic mange compatible lesions and presence of S. scabiei mites were seropositive) and the specificity was 90% (67 out of 74 wild rabbits without detectable mange lesions were seronegative). Although, the total number of tested samples from experimentally infested, farm and wild rabbits was limited, our study showed that the ELISA is able to differentiate between infested and non-infested animals in all tested groups with very high sensitivity and specificity indicating that recombinant Ssλ20ΔB3 is a reliable

  19. Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, R N; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Gupta, Richa; Phillip, Jessy

    2013-03-01

    Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fy(a), Fy(b), Jk(a), Jk(b), M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors. Samples from randomly selected blood donors from Delhi and nearby areas (both voluntary and replacement) were collected for extended antigen typing during the period January 2009 to January 2010. Antigens were typed via automated testing on the Galileo instrument using commercial antisera. A total of 3073 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. The prevalence of these antigens was found to be as follows in %: D: 93.6, C: 87, c: 58, E: 20, e: 98, K: 3.5, k: 99.97, F(a) : 87.4, Fy(b) : 57.6, Jk(a) : 81.5, Jk(b) : 67.4, M: 88.7, N: 65.4, S: 54.8 and s: 88.7. This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups.

  20. Group A Streptococcus produce pilus-like structures containing protective antigens and Lancefield T antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Marirosa; Bensi, Giuliano; Capo, Sabrina; Falugi, Fabiana; Zingaretti, Chiara; Manetti, Andrea G O; Maggi, Tiziana; Taddei, Anna Rita; Grandi, Guido; Telford, John L

    2005-10-25

    Although pili have long been recognized in Gram-negative pathogens as important virulence factors involved in adhesion and invasion, very little is known about extended surface organelles in Gram-positive pathogens. Here we report that Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a Gram-positive human-specific pathogen that causes pharyngitis, impetigo, invasive disease, necrotizing fasciitis, and autoimmune sequelae has long, surface-exposed, pilus-like structures composed of members of a family of extracellular matrix-binding proteins. We describe four variant pili and show that each is recognized by a specific serum of the Lancefield T-typing system, which has been used for over five decades to characterize GAS isolates. Furthermore, we show that immunization of mice with a combination of recombinant pilus proteins confers protection against mucosal challenge with virulent GAS bacteria. The data indicate that induction of a protective immune response against these structures may be a useful strategy for development of a vaccine against disease caused by GAS infection.

  1. Transmission of hepatitis-B virus through salivary blood group antigens in saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, S.A.; Abdo, A.A.; Baksh, N.D.; Sanie, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine an association between transmission of hepatitis B virus and secretor and non-secretor status of salivary blood group antigens. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Physiology and Division of Hepatology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2007 to 2009. Methodology: Eighty eight known patients, who were positive for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen [HBsAg] were recruited. Saliva was collected for investigating the secretor and non-secretor status by using blood typing kit number Kemtec Educational Science USA. Hepatitis B Surface antigen test was performed on Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Polymerase chain reaction [PCR] on saliva was also carried out in High Performance Thermal Cycler-Palm- Cycler [Corbett Life Science, Sydney, Australia] and enzymatic amplification of extracted viral DNA was performed using primers covering the promoter of the core region of HBV. Results: Out of the 88 subjects, 61 belong to blood group O, 20 to A and 7 subjects to blood group B. Fifty subjects were secretors [salivary blood group antigens positive] and 38 subjects were non-secretors [salivary blood group antigens negative]. Among core gene positive 25 (69.4%) were secretors and 11 (30.6%) were non-secretors. However, in core gene negative 25 (48.1%) were secretors and 27 (51.9%) were non-secretors. Conclusion: The result shows an association [p=0.047] between secretor and non-secretors status of the salivary blood group antigens with core gene positive and core gene negative. (author)

  2. Point of care testing of phospholipase A2 group IIA for serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Mmesi, Jonas; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Abraham, Sonya; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-02-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care.Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08423g

  3. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuisen, B.; van der Schoot, C. E.; de Haas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human

  4. External quality assessment in blood group serology in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisangwan, Patravee

    2012-01-01

    The quality of blood transfusion services (BTS) is essential for the treatment of patients who need blood or blood products. BTS involve several steps, including the acquisition of the donor's blood, blood grouping, unexpected antibody screening, blood storage, transfusion, etc. There is a need to check the effectiveness of all elements in the BTS can be assessed and monitored by an external quality assessment. To assess and evaluate the performance of ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping and unexpected antibody screening of the selected World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region Member country laboratories. WHO Collaborating Centre on Strengthening Quality of Health Laboratories (Thailand) organized a regional external quality assessment scheme for blood group serology (REQAS-BGS) between 2002 and 2008 for laboratories in countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region. Test items for ABO and Rh(D) blood groupings and unexpected antibody screening and identification were distributed three cycles per year to BTS laboratories in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand. By the end of the project, a total of 20 BTS laboratories had participated for differing lengths of time. It was found that 87.5%, 93.3%, 81.3%, 92.3%, 100% and 87.5% of laboratories returned the test results in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. Laboratories with excellent quality or a trend of quality improvement for ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping, unexpected antibody screening and identification during the six years were 60% (12/20), 50% (10/20), 52.9% (9/17) and 81.8% (9/11), respectively. At the initiation of the scheme, most laboratories were using substandard methods for ABO and Rh blood groupings, i.e. performing only direct blood grouping alone but subsequently adopted the standard methods, i.e. performing both direct and reverse blood groupings. REQAS-BGS in South-East Asia countries has been useful for assessing, monitoring and

  5. Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Trindade Leal

    2002-12-01

    ógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo.Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising alternative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28 and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120 each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

  6. Expression of blood group antigens A and B in pancreas of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENKA GEORGIEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of blood group antigens (BGA A and B in tissues of different vertebrates is still controversial. There are few investigations on vertebrate pancreas and no obvious explanation of their tissue expression. The aim of the present study is to follow and compare the pancreatic expression of BGA A and B in representatives of five vertebrate classes. The biotin-streptavidin-proxidase labeling system was used for immunohistochemical detection of BGA by monoclonal antibodies to human A and B antigens. The present study reveals specific immunoreactivity in acinar and epithelial cells of pancreatic efferent ducts in species free-living vertebrates. The immunoperoxidase staining shows antigenic heterogeneity in the cellular localization. The number of positive cells and the intensity of expression vary in different species. Endothelial cells are positive only in the pancreas of Emys orbicularis. The lack of BGA A and B in some species suggests that the expression of these antigens is dependent not only on the evolutionary level of the species, but mainly on some genetic control mechanisms. The production of BGA A and B and the variability in their cellular localization probably reflect the stage of cell differentiation and the mechanisms of pancreatic secretor function. The presence of histo BGA in endodermal acinar pancreatic cells confirms the assumption for the high antigenic stability and conservatism of these molecules in vertebrate histogenesis and evolution.

  7. Blood group antigen A type 3 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in advanced NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L H; Kuemmel, A; Schliemann, C; Schulze, A; Humberg, J; Mohr, M; Görlich, D; Hartmann, W; Bröckling, S; Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Goletz, S; Karsten, U; Berdel, W E; Spieker, T; Wiewrodt, R

    2016-02-01

    Several blood group-related carbohydrate antigens are prognosis-relevant markers of tumor tissues. A type 3 (repetitive A) is a blood group antigen specific for A1 erythrocytes. Its potential expression in tumor tissues has so far not been examined. We have evaluated its expression in normal lung and in lung cancer using a novel antibody (A69-A/E8). For comparison an anti-A antibody specific to A types 1 and 2 was used, because its expression on lung cancer tissue has been previously reported to be of prognostic relevance. Resected tissue samples of 398 NSCLC patients were analyzed in immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Expression of A type 3 was not observed in non-malignant lung tissues. A type 3 was expressed on tumor cells of around half of NSCLC patients of blood group A1 (ptype 1/2 antigen was observed (p=0.562), the expression of A type 3 by tumor cells indicated a highly significant favorable prognosis among advanced NSCLC patients (p=0.011) and in NSCLC patients with lymphatic spread (p=0.014). Univariate prognostic results were confirmed in a Cox proportional hazards model. In this study we present for the first time prognostic data for A type 3 antigen expression in lung cancer patients. Prospective studies should be performed to confirm the prognostic value of A type 3 expression for an improved risk stratification in NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and immunochemical characterization of carbohydrate antigens prepared from group A Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S; Okahashi, N; Yamamoto, T; Morisaki, I; Michalek, S M; McGhee, J R

    1983-11-01

    Group A carbohydrate antigens were prepared from isolated cell walls or whole cells of Streptococcus pyogenes strain Sv (group A, M type 3). Cell walls were lysate by the enzymatic action of M1 endo-N-acetylmuramidase. The cell wall lysate was concentrated and chromatographed on a Sephadex G-100 column. Two fractions reactive with group A antisera were obtained. These were composed of N-acetylglucosamine, rhamnose, and peptidoglycan components such as glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. For comparison, hot TCA extract of the cell walls (TCAgA) or Rantz and Randall extract of the whole cells (RRgA) was purified chromatographically. The latter two also contained rhamnose and glucosamine, and were reactive with group A antisera. The molecular weights of M1gA antigens were larger than those of TCAgA and RRgA. Hapten inhibition study indicated that N-acetylglucosamine was the most potent inhibitor.

  9. Group A Rotaviruses in Chinese Bats: Genetic Composition, Serology, and Evidence for Bat-to-Human Transmission and Reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biao; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Tan, Weilong; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Qin, Shaomin; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zihan; Yang, Ling'en; Wang, Quanxi; Hu, Tingsong; Bao, Xiaolei; Wu, Jianmin; Tu, Changchun

    2017-06-15

    of causing gastroenteritis in humans, even though 8 group A viruses (RVAs) have been identified from bats so far. In this study, another 4 RVA strains were identified, with one providing strong evidence for zoonotic transmission from bats to humans. Serological investigation has also indicated that RVA infection in bats is far more prevalent than expected based on the detection of viral RNA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. The effects of cigarette smoking on prostate-specific antigen in two different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Gokhan; Akgul, Korhan; Yilmaz, Yuksel; Dirik, Alper; Un, Sitki

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using 2 different age groups. The study was carried out between January 2007 and October 2011 with men; the 2 sets of age groups were: 25 to 35 years and 50 to 70 years old. The participants were divided into 4 groups. Of the 25 to 35 age range, smokers were Group 1, and non-smokers were Group 2; of the 50 to 70 age range, smokers were Group 3 and non-smokers Group 4. In addition, for the 50 to 70 age group, the International Prostate Symptom Score was completed, digital rectal examination was performed, and transabdominal prostate volume was measured. We wanted to see whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels showed a difference between the 2 age groups. There were 114 patients in Group 1, 82 in Group 2, 90 in Group 3, and 102 in Group 4. The mean PSA level was 0.7 ± 0.28 ng/mL for Group 1, and 0.6 ± 0.27 ng/mL for Group 2 (p = 0.27), and there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. The mean PSA was 2.5 ± 1.8 ng/mL for Group 3, and 2.1 ± 2.0 ng/mL (p = 0.59) for Group 4, and there was no statistically significant difference between the these 2 age groups. Cigarette smoking effects various hormone levels. Different from previous studies, the PSA level was higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers, although it was not statistically significant. Our study is limited by the small numbers in our study groups and the lack of PSA velocity data.

  11. Multilocus analysis of extracellular putative virulence proteins made by group A Streptococcus: population genetics, human serologic response, and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S D; Green, N M; Buss, J K; Lei, B; Musser, J M

    2001-06-19

    Species of pathogenic microbes are composed of an array of evolutionarily distinct chromosomal genotypes characterized by diversity in gene content and sequence (allelic variation). The occurrence of substantial genetic diversity has hindered progress in developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of virulence and new therapeutics such as vaccines. To provide new information that bears on these issues, 11 genes encoding extracellular proteins in the human bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus identified by analysis of four genomes were studied. Eight of the 11 genes encode proteins with a LPXTG(L) motif that covalently links Gram-positive virulence factors to the bacterial cell surface. Sequence analysis of the 11 genes in 37 geographically and phylogenetically diverse group A Streptococcus strains cultured from patients with different infection types found that recent horizontal gene transfer has contributed substantially to chromosomal diversity. Regions of the inferred proteins likely to interact with the host were identified by molecular population genetic analysis, and Western immunoblot analysis with sera from infected patients confirmed that they were antigenic. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (TaqMan) assays found that transcription of six of the 11 genes was substantially up-regulated in the stationary phase. In addition, transcription of many genes was influenced by the covR and mga trans-acting gene regulatory loci. Multilocus investigation of putative virulence genes by the integrated approach described herein provides an important strategy to aid microbial pathogenesis research and rapidly identify new targets for therapeutics research.

  12. Evaluation of efficacy of some serological tests used for diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These samples were subjected to the different serological tests including Rose Bengal plate antigen test, Tube Agglutination test, Rivanol test, Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis of the obtained results in different cattle groups was ...

  13. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents... Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents are devices that consist of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus antigens and antisera used to identify...

  15. Comparison of counter-current immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and radioimmunoassay in detection of soluble capsular polysaccharide antigens of Haemohpilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis of groups A or C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinonen, M.; Kaeythy, H.

    1978-01-01

    Three serological methods, radioimmunoassay (RIA), latex agglutination (LX), and counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), for sensitivity in the detection of the capsular polysaccharide antigen of Haemophilus influenzae type b or Neisseria meningitidis groups A and C were compared. RIA was consistently the most sensitive, LX the next, and CIEP the least sensitive. When RIA and LX were used to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with meningitis, they gave very similar results. In only two out of 47 samples, in which RIA detected one of the three antigens, was the amount of the specific polysaccharide too low to be detected by LX. By the serological methods evidence of specific pathogen could be detected in 49 samples, including nine from patients who had received intensive antimicrobial treatment for up to three days and from whom specimens yielded no bacteria on culture. The reactions were specific in all cases except two out of 47 tests positive to LX. From these two CSF samples N. meningitidis group B could be cultivated, whereas the LX was recorded positive for N. meningitidis of group A in one case, and of group C in the other. The nonspecific reactions could be due to antibodies to bacterial components other than the capsular polysaccharide. (author)

  16. [Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the ELISA tests developed by using EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektaş, Bayram; Altintaş, Nazmiye; Akpolat, Nezahat; Gottstein, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by larva stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the lethal parasitic diseases of man and a major public health problem in many countries in the northern hemisphere. When the living conditions and habits in Turkey were considered in terms of relation with the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that AE has been much more common than reported mainly from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Since in vitro serologic diagnosis tests with high specificity for AE have not been used in our country, most of the cases with liver lesions were misdiagnosed by radiological investigations as malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the in-house ELISA methods developed by using three different antigens (EgHF, Em2, EmII/3-10) in the serological diagnosis of AE. The study samples included a total of 100 sera provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute where samples were obtained from patients with helminthiasis and all were confirmed by clinical, parasitological and/or histopathological means. Ten samples from each of the cases infected by E.multilocularis, E.granulosus, Taenia solium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Strongyloides stercolaris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma haematobium were studied. In the study, EgHF (E.granulosus hydatid fluid) antigens were prepared in our laboratory from the liver cyst fluids of sheeps with cystic echinococcosis, however Em2 (E.multilocularis metacestode-purified laminated layer) and EmII/3-10 (E.multilocularis recombinant protoscolex tegument) antigens were provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute. Flat bottom ELISA plates were covered with EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the concentrations of 2.5 µg, 1 µg and 0.18 µg per well, respectively, and all sera were tested by EgHF-ELISA, Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA methods. For each tests, the samples which were reactive above the

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FILARIAL DETECTION BY MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION AND SEROLOGICAL ASSAY UTILIZING BMR1 AND BMXSP RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR EVALUATION OF FILARIASIS ELIMINATION PROGRAM AT KAMPUNG SAWAH AND PAMULANG, SOUTH TANGERANG DISTRICT, BANTEN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Nasution

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available South Tangerang district is one of the endemic areas for filariasis; and based on an evaluation study in 2008-2009 which covered several subdistricts, the prevalence of microfilaria was between 1–2.4%. Nevertheless, the evaluation by serological assay has never been reported. A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the microfilaremia and anti-filarial IgG4 antibody status in Kp Sawah and Pamulang subdistricts. Cluster sampling was performed in Kp Sawah by collecting finger-prick blood (FPB and venous blood samples from inhabitants who lived with and nearby the four elephantiasis subjects in the area. The FPB were only collected in Pamulang area by consecutive sampling method. The detection method included microscopic evaluation of FPB and serological detection using recombinant antigens BmR1 and BmSXP by ELISA and lateral flow rapid tests. Symptomatic patients who had 2nd and 3rd degree of elephantiasis were clinically determined in 10% (4/40 subjects. Among those with elephantiasis, 2 were positive serologically but their microscopic results were all negative (40/40. Meanwhile, the microscopic result for 107 subjects from Pamulang were all negative. The results of the rapid tests showed that 15% (6/40 of the positive cases were detected by Brugia Rapid and 27.5% (11/40 by PanLF. Meanwhile, the ELISA showed that 20% (8/40 of the cases were positive with BmSXP, whereas only 2.5% or 1/40 sample was found to be positive with BmR1. Even though the sensitivity of the Rapid test was lower when compared to microscopic examination for these samples, the assay showed good specificity ranging from 72.5 to 97.5%. The optical density (OD values of ELISA has ranged between 0.3–3.045.

  18. Serological and genetic examination of some nontypical Streptococcus mutans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coykendall, A L; Bratthall, D; O'Connor, K; Dvarskas, R A

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-four strains of Streptococcus mutans whose antigenic or genetic positions were unclear or unknown with respect to the serological scheme of Bratthall (1970) and Perch et al. (1974), or the genetic (deoxyribonucleic acid base sequence homology) scheme of Coykendall were analyzed to clarify their relationship to previously well-characterized strains. Strain OMZ175 of the "new" serotype f was genetically homologous with strains of S. mutans subsp. mutans. Strains of the "new" serotype g were homologous with serotype d strains (S. mutans subsp. sobrinus). Strains isolated from wild rats constituted a new genetic group but carried the c antigen. Thus, strains within a "genospecies" (subspecies) of S. mutans may not always carry a unique or characteristic antigen. We suggest that the existence of multiple serotypes within subspecies represents antigenic variation and adaptations to hosts. PMID:965091

  19. Biosynthetic basis of incompatible histo-blood group A antigen expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, L; Leitao, D; Sobrinho-Simoes, M

    1993-01-01

    , we have screened 31 cases of gastric tumors of phenotype O for the expression of blood group A gene-defined glycosyltransferase by immunohistology on frozen sections using newly developed monoclonal antibodies to the transferases. Three cases were positive, and transferase expression was confirmed...... by enzyme analysis of extracts from the specimens. Blood group A carbohydrate antigens were also identified immunohistologically in these three cases as well as in five other cases. Thin-layer chromatography immunostaining analysis of glycolipid extracts from the three cases did not confirm the chemical...

  20. Enzyme release of antigen from Streptococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes cross-reactive with Lancefield group G typing reagents.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfer, R L; Pinzon, R; Wenglar, M; Rolston, K V

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme extraction methods are commonly used to release antigen for Lancefield serogrouping of streptococci. Recently, up to 47% of enterococci have been found to possess antigens cross-reactive with both the group D and the group G grouping reagents. We investigated whether the organisms had recently emerged or whether changes in extraction methods (enzyme extraction) have resulted in our awareness of their existence. We found that approximately 20% of our enterococcal isolates released mater...

  1. [SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, T V; Yakovleva, L M; Brovarska, O S; Varbanets, L D

    2015-01-01

    The serological and phytotoxic properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of plant pathogens--Pantoea agglomerans were studied. It is known that the thin variations in the structure of the O-specific polysaccharides determining serological specificity of gram- negative bacteria and used as a molecular basis of serological classification schemes. For P. agglomerans still does not exist a classification scheme based on serology specificity of their LPS. The results of cross serological tests demonstrate immunochemical heterogeneity of species P agglomerans. Only three strains of the 8488, 8490 and 7969 according to the agglutination of O-antigens and direct hemagglutination and inhibition direct hemagglutination can be attributed to a single serogroup. Other strains--each separate group, although some have a relationship. Compared with control plants under the influence of seed treatment of LPS in plants may be reduced, and in some cases increased root length, height and weight sprout, depending on the strain from which the selected LPS. Dive seedlings of tomatoes in the solutions of the studied preparations FSC caused the loss, and after some time, restore turgor.

  2. CD1a presentation of endogenous antigens by group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Clare S; Chen, Yi-Ling; Salimi, Maryam; Jarrett, Rachael; Johnson, David; Järvinen, Valtteri J; Owens, Raymond J; Repapi, Emmanouela; Cousins, David J; Barlow, Jillian L; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham

    2017-12-22

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are effectors of barrier immunity, with roles in infection, wound healing, and allergy. A proportion of ILC2 express MHCII (major histocompatibility complex II) and are capable of presenting peptide antigens to T cells and amplifying the subsequent adaptive immune response. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of CD1a-reactive T cells in allergy and infection, activated by the presentation of endogenous neolipid antigens and bacterial components. Using a human skin challenge model, we unexpectedly show that human skin-derived ILC2 can express CD1a and are capable of presenting endogenous antigens to T cells. CD1a expression is up-regulated by TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin) at levels observed in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, and the response is dependent on PLA2G4A. Furthermore, this pathway is used to sense Staphylococcus aureus by promoting Toll-like receptor-dependent CD1a-reactive T cell responses to endogenous ligands. These findings define a previously unrecognized role for ILC2 in lipid surveillance and identify shared pathways of CD1a- and PLA2G4A-dependent ILC2 inflammation amenable to therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. BLOOD GROUP ANTIGEN-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF POLYCLONAL IgE-RESPONSE IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Telesmanich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory parameters of IgE-mediated immunological reaction (total IgE were studied. Subjects with impaired carbohydrate metabolism and persons with diabetes mellitus were classified for blood groups 0(I, A(II, B(III (n = 93. We determined total IgE, glucose levels and percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c in blood serum; as well ABO blood groups. Comparison of these parameters in patient cohorts with 0(I and A(II, B(III blood groups showed different reactogenicity, depending on the degree of carbohydrate metabolism disturbance and ABO group specificity of antigenic determinants of blood glycoproteins. There was a strong direct correlation (r = 0.8 between blood group 0(I antigens, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The highest correlation degree was observed between the blood group A(II and type 1 diabetes onset of (r = 1.0. The smallest percentage of DM and the smallest correlation (r = 0.67 were observed in patients, B(III blood group is located. In cases of sufficiently altered carbohydrate metabolism, the blood group 0(I and A(II carriers had total IgE of 43.61±15.12 kIU/L, and 86.2±42.61 kIU/L, respectively, thus being, on average, 4-times lower than in B(III blood group in whom total IgE in type 2 diabetes was 2-fold higher than normal values, being 209.65±52.5 kIU/L.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  5. A toolbox for tuberculosis (TB diagnosis: an Indian multi-centric study (2006-2008; evaluation of serological assays based on PGL-Tb1 and ESAT-6/CFP10 antigens for TB diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe H Lagrange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this multi-centric prospective study in India was to assess the accuracy of a serological test as an additional tool for diagnosing active tuberculosis (ATB. In particular, an assay based on ELISA using a phenolic glycolipid (PGL-Tb1 or a fusion protein (ESAT-6/CFP10 was compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST and the microbiological results according to HIV status. METHODS: Individuals with and without ATB and HIV infection were enrolled. Serology and TST results were analyzed per se and in combination with the microbiological data. RESULTS: Among the 778 ATB patients, 102 were HIV-infected, 316 HIV-uninfected and 360 had an HIV-unknown status. Of the 945 non-ATB subjects, 559 were at low risk (community adults and 386 at high risk of M. tuberculosis exposure. Among those with ATB, the sensitivity of ELISA-PGL-Tb1 for ATB was higher than that of ELISA-ESAT-6/CFP10, both in HIV-infected (72.3% versus 63.7%, p = 0.29 and HIV-uninfected/HIV-unknown groups (40.5% versus 28.6%; p<0.0001, whereas the specificity was around 91% for both tests. Sensitivity for ATB increased when the results of the two ELISA were combined, reaching 75.5% in the HIV-infected and 50.9% in the group of HIV-uninfected/HIV-unknown ATB, with a significant decrease of the global specificity (83.9%. Analyzing the ELISA results with the microbiological results, we observed that the sensitivity of both serology tests was independent of the ATB patients' smear microscopy (SM status and grade. Combining the results of SM with both ELISA, the detection of ATB patients significantly increased (p<0.0001, particularly in those with extrapulmonary TB (up to 45.1% or HIV infection (up to 83.3%. No significant association was observed between TST and serology results. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective multi-centric study, the combination of two rapid tests, such as SM and serology, might be useful in detecting ATB, especially in HIV-infected patients.

  6. Expression, immunolocalization, and serological reactivity of a novel sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-like protein, an excretory/secretory antigen from Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanwei; Zheng, Youwei; Li, Yuzhe; Yang, Mei; Li, Ting; Zeng, Suxiang; Yu, Xinbing; Huang, Huaiqiu; Hu, Xuchu

    2013-06-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection, is a zoonotic parasitic disease of hepatobiliary system in which the proteins released by adult are major pathogenetic factors. In this study, we first characterized a putative sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (CsSMPase) A-like secretory protein, which was highly expressed in the adult worm. The full-length gene was cloned. The putative protein is of relatively low homology comparing with SMPase from other species, and of rich T cell and B cell epitopes, suggesting that it is an antigen of strong antigenicity. The complete coding sequence of the gene was expressed in the Escherichia coli. The recombinant CsSMPase (rCsSMPase) can be recognized by C. sinensis-infected serum, and the protein immunoserum can recognize a specific band in excretory/secretory products (ESPs) of C. sinensis adult by western blotting. Immunolocalization revealed that CsSMPase was not only localized on tegument, ventral sucker of metacercaria, and the intestine of adult but also on the nearby epithelium of bile duct of the infected Sprague-Dawley rats, implying that CsSMPase was mainly secreted and excreted through adult intestine and directly interacted with bile duct epithelium. Although immunized rats evoked high level antibody response, the antigen level was low in clonorchiasis patients. And the sensitivity and specificity of rCsSMPase were 50.0 % (12/24) and 88.4 % (61/69), in sera IgG-ELISA, respectively. It is likely due to the fact that CsSMPase binding to the plasma membrane of biliary epithelium decreases the antigen immune stimulation.

  7. Biochemical and serological properties of Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmler, C

    1991-12-01

    The Strep-Zym identification system, a combination of 23 enzymatic tests, allowed a rapid biochemical characterization of Streptococcus uberis. The biochemical profiles of the S. uberis cultures clearly differed from those of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae. Serological grouping of S. uberis revealed polysaccharide antigens of groups E, G, P and U. Some cultures of S. uberis demonstrated CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities on sheep blood agar and reacted specifically with the lectins of Helix pomatia and Dolichos biflorus. The occurrence of group polysaccharides, CAMP-like reactivities, and the lectin agglutination reactions were obviously not related to each other or to any of the biochemical properties. These reactions, possibly of importance as virulence factors, might serve as epidemiological markers.

  8. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Botswana is among the world's countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic.

  9. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia González

    Full Text Available The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs, which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories.We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua. High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment.TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies.Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs.

  10. Effect of pronase on high-incidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M E; Greeen, C A; Hoffer, J; Øyen, R

    1996-01-01

    Pronase is a useful and relatively nonspecific protease that cleaves many red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins that carry blood group antigens. Unexpected findings in tests using pronase-treated RBCs during the investigation of a patient's blood sample led us to test which high-incidence blood group antigens were sensitive and which were resistant to pronase treatment, and to determine the prevalence of antipronase in the serum of blood donors. Our results show that antigens in the Cromer and Lutheran blood group systems and the JMH antigen were sensitive to pronase treatment of RBCs. Antigens in the Dombrock blood group system and Sc1 were either sensitive to or markedly weakened by pronase treatment of RBCs. The following high-incidence antigens were resistant to treatment of RBCs with pronase: AnWj, Ata, Coa, Co3, Dib, EnaFR, Era, Fy3, Jk3, Jra, k, Kpb, Jsb, K14, Lan, Oka, Rh17, U, Vel, and Wrb. Over half of the serum samples from normal blood donors contained antibodies to pronase-treated RBCs. When testing human serum against pronase-treated RBCs, it is essential either to use an autocontrol or to perform the testing with an eluate.

  11. Serology and anthrax in humans, livestock and Etosha National Park wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, P C; Doganay, M; Lindeque, P M; Aygen, B; McLaughlin, J

    1992-04-01

    Results are presented from a number of epidemiological studies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) based on the purified anthrax toxin antigens, protective antigen, lethal factor and oedema factor. Studies on sera from a group of 62 human anthrax patients in Turkey and from cattle in Britain following two unrelated outbreaks of anthrax show that EIA using protective antigen can be a useful diagnostic aid and will detect subclinical infections in appropriate circumstances. A serological survey on wildlife in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, where anthrax is endemic, showed that naturally acquired anthrax-specific antibodies are rare in herbivores but common in carnivores; in carnivores, titres appear to reflect the prevalence of anthrax in their ranges. Problems, as yet unresolved, were encountered in studies on sera from pigs following an outbreak of anthrax on a farm in Wales. Clinical details, including treatment, of the human and one of the bovine outbreaks are summarized and discussed in relation to the serological findings.

  12. Microbial F-type lectin domains with affinity for blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonal; Khairnar, Aasawari; Bishnoi, Ritika; Ramya, T N C

    2017-09-23

    F-type lectins are fucose binding lectins with characteristic fucose binding and calcium binding motifs. Although they occur with a selective distribution in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most biochemical studies have focused on vertebrate F-type lectins. Recently, using sensitive bioinformatics search techniques on the non-redundant database, we had identified many microbial F-type lectin domains with diverse domain organizations. We report here the biochemical characterization of F-type lectin domains from Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001, Myxococcus hansupus and Leucothrix mucor. We demonstrate that while all these three microbial F-type lectin domains bind to the blood group H antigen epitope on fucosylated glycans, there are fine differences in their glycan binding specificity. Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001 F-type lectin domain binds exclusively to extended H type-2 motif, Myxococcus hansupus F-type lectin domain binds to B, H type-1 and Lewis b motifs, and Leucothrix mucor F-type lectin domain binds to a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including A, B, H and Lewis antigens. We believe that these microbial lectins will be useful additions to the glycobiologist's toolbox for labeling, isolating and visualizing glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme release of antigen from Streptococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes cross-reactive with Lancefield group G typing reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, R L; Pinzon, R; Wenglar, M; Rolston, K V

    1985-10-01

    Enzyme extraction methods are commonly used to release antigen for Lancefield serogrouping of streptococci. Recently, up to 47% of enterococci have been found to possess antigens cross-reactive with both the group D and the group G grouping reagents. We investigated whether the organisms had recently emerged or whether changes in extraction methods (enzyme extraction) have resulted in our awareness of their existence. We found that approximately 20% of our enterococcal isolates released material cross-reactive with the group G reagents. These organisms have been present for at least 6 years, and probably for many more. In addition, we found that most strains of Listeria monocytogenes also released antigen cross-reactive with the group G reagent. The clinical significance of these findings is also discussed.

  14. Serological detection of antibodies to Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor M; Bonilla, Marta C; Kaminsky, Darwin; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Siebert, Susanne; Krämer, Friederike

    2017-03-15

    In a study in Costa Rica 314 serum samples from dogs throughout all seven provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis, and of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of 6.4% (20/314) and 38.2% (120/314) were positive for Anaplasma spp. (An) and E. canis (Ec) antibodies. Overall, 8.0% (25/314) were positive for D. immitis (Di) antigen. One single dog reacted positive with B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bb) antigen (0.3%, 1/314). E. canis positive dogs were detected in all provinces (highest percentages in Guanacaste, Puntarenas [both significantly different compared to the overall] and Limón). Guanacaste and Puntarenas also showed the highest prevalences of Anaplasma spp. (both significantly different compared to the overall). The highest prevalence of D. immitis was detected in Puntarenas (significantly different compared to the overall). Double pathogen exposure (Ec plus An; Ec plus Di; Ec plus Bb) were recorded in 8.9% (28/314). Two dogs showed a triple pathogen exposure (0.6%, 2/314; An, Ec and Di). There was a significant difference between male (11.5%, 18/156) and female (4.4%, 7/158) animals for D. immitis positive results. There was also a significant difference between breed and no breed dogs regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to the single pathogens of Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Finally there was a significant difference in the presence of clinical signs again regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Practitioners in Costa Rica should be aware of the canine vector-borne diseases mentioned as dogs are at risk of becoming infected. Concerning the positive B. burgdorferi s.l. dog, an autochthonous occurrence cannot be confirmed due to a history of adoption and an unusual tattoo number

  15. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  16. Protein array profiling of tic patient sera reveals a broad range and enhanced immune response against Group A Streptococcus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bombaci

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, GAS is widely recognized as a major cause of common pharyngitis as well as of severe invasive diseases and non-suppurative sequelae associated with the existence of GAS antigens eliciting host autoantibodies. It has been proposed that a subset of paediatric disorders characterized by tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms would exacerbate in association with relapses of GAS-associated pharyngitis. This hypothesis is however still controversial. In the attempt to shed light on the contribution of GAS infections to the onset of neuropsychiatric or behavioral disorders affecting as many as 3% of children and adolescents, we tested the antibody response of tic patient sera to a representative panel of GAS antigens. In particular, 102 recombinant proteins were spotted on nitrocellulose-coated glass slides and probed against 61 sera collected from young patients with typical tic neuropsychiatric symptoms but with no overt GAS infection. Sera from 35 children with neither tic disorder nor overt GAS infection were also analyzed. The protein recognition patterns of these two sera groups were compared with those obtained using 239 sera from children with GAS-associated pharyngitis. This comparative analysis identified 25 antigens recognized by sera of the three patient groups and 21 antigens recognized by tic and pharyngitis sera, but poorly or not recognized by sera from children without tic. Interestingly, these antigens appeared to be, in quantitative terms, more immunogenic in tic than in pharyngitis patients. Additionally, a third group of antigens appeared to be preferentially and specifically recognized by tic sera. These findings provide the first evidence that tic patient sera exhibit immunological profiles typical of individuals who elicited a broad, specific and strong immune response against GAS. This may be relevant in the context of one of the hypothesis proposing that GAS

  17. Histo-blood group ABO antigen in oral potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma--genotypic and phenotypic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Bennett, Erik Paul; Reibel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Loss of histo-blood group A/B antigens is frequent in oral cancer. It is unclear whether this alteration is due to loss of the chromosomal region encoding the genes. The aim was to investigate genotypic alterations in the ABO locus in oral potentially malignant lesions and carcinomas. Seventy...... and 3/24 cases with mild and moderate dysplasia by genotyping analysis. O allele loss was found in 10 cases involving all four groups. In patients with heterozygous genotypes, A/B allelic loss by genotyping analysis was always followed by loss of A/B antigen expression by IHC staining. Loss of A...

  18. Biosynthetic basis of incompatible histo-blood group A antigen expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, L; Leitao, D; Sobrinho-Simoes, M

    1993-01-01

    presence of A antigen. The ABO genotype of all patients was found to be OO, showing that all carried O alleles with a structural defect at nucleotide position 261 leading to a shift in the reading frame. The data suggest that incompatible A antigen expression is a result of transferase expression derived...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  20. Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Mun; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor)

    2008-07-28

    Members of Norovirus, a genus in the family Caliciviridae, are causative agents of epidemic diarrhea in humans. Susceptibility to several noroviruses is linked to human histo-blood type, and its determinant histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are regarded as receptors for these viruses. Specificity for these carbohydrates is strain-dependent. Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype genogroup I norovirus that specifically recognizes A- and H-type HBGA, in contrast to genogroup II noroviruses that exhibit a more diverse HBGA binding pattern. To understand the structural basis for how HBGAs interact with the NV capsid protein, and how the specificity is achieved, we carried out x-ray crystallographic analysis of the capsid protein domain by itself and in complex with A- and H-type HBGA at a resolution of {approx}1.4 {angstrom}. Despite differences in their carbohydrate sequence and linkage, both HBGAs bind to the same surface-exposed site in the capsid protein and project outward from the capsid surface, substantiating their possible role in initiating cell attachment. Precisely juxtaposed polar side chains that engage the sugar hydroxyls in a cooperative hydrogen bonding and a His/Trp pair involved in a cation-p interaction contribute to selective and specific recognition of A- and H-type HBGAs. This unique binding epitope, confirmed by mutational analysis, is highly conserved, but only in the genogroup I noroviruses, suggesting that a mechanism by which noroviruses infect broader human populations is by evolving different sites with altered HBGA specificities.

  1. Direct-plate serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci from primary isolation plates with the Phadebact streptococcus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifkin, M; Engwall, C; Pouchet, G R

    1978-04-01

    The grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococcal isolates by a new direct-plate procedure employing Phadebact Streptococcus Test reagents was compared with the results obtained with the 4- and 24-h Phadebact grouping procedure and with the Lancefield grouping obtained with a capillary precipitin test. The new procedure employed a modification of the Phadebact procedure that permitted the grouping of streptococci on glass slides with a minimum of five primary isolated colonies. When only five to eight colonies were available for direct testing with each Phadebact reagent, coagglutination was better manifested when the colonies were disaggregated on a glass slide in a loopful of Tween 80 solution. Further enhancement of the coagglutination reaction was effected when the respective Phadebact reagents were employed in relatively small volumes. The direct-plate procedure permitted the correct identification of 127 out of 129 betahemolytic isolates. The 4-h method correctly identified 192 of the 200 streptococci tested. All of the 200 isolates tested by the 24-h procedure and the Lancefield grouping were correctly identified. The direct-plate Phadebact procedure affords the clinical microbiologist a rapid and reliable means of identifying groups A, B, C, and G beta-hemolytic streptococci. When sufficient numbers of primary colonies are not available for the direct procedure, the 4- or 24-h procedures may be employed.

  2. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Paul, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men

  3. Histo-blood group ABO antigen in oral potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma--genotypic and phenotypic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Bennett, Erik Paul; Reibel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Loss of histo-blood group A/B antigens is frequent in oral cancer. It is unclear whether this alteration is due to loss of the chromosomal region encoding the genes. The aim was to investigate genotypic alterations in the ABO locus in oral potentially malignant lesions and carcinomas. Seventy...... to establish the ABO genotype. Total and patchy loss of A/B antigen expression was found in 24/32 carcinomas, 6/7 leukoplakias with severe dysplasia, 12/17 leukoplakias with mild and moderate dysplasia, and 6/17 leukoplakias without dysplasia. Specific A/B allele loss was found in 8/24 cases with carcinoma...

  4. Association of Alport's syndrome with HLA-DR2 antigen in a group of unrelated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Donadi

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A few family studies have evaluated HLA antigens in Alport's syndrome; however, there are no large population studies. In the present report, we studied 40 unrelated white patients with Alport's syndrome seen at the Unit of Renal Transplantation, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were typed using a complement-dependent microlymphocytotoxicity assay. A control white population (N = 403 from the same geographical area was also typed for HLA antigens. Although the frequencies of HLA-A and -B antigens of patients were not statistically different from controls, the frequency of HLA-DR2 antigen observed in patients (65% was significantly increased in relation to controls (26%; P<0.001. The relative risk and etiologic fraction for HLA-DR2 antigen were 5.2 and 0.525, respectively. Although few immunological abnormalities have been shown in Alport's syndrome, in this report we emphasize the association of HLA molecules and Alport's syndrome. Besides the well-known inherited molecular defects encoded by type IV collagen genes in Alport's syndrome, the major histocompatibility alleles may be in linkage disequilibrium with these defective collagen genes

  5. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how

  6. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C

    1995-01-01

    Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16....... To elucidate the structural relationship between BoLA-A16 and blood group antigen M', immunoprecipitation experiments on red and white cell lysates isolated from M'-A16 positive and negative cattle were carried out. These results showed that M(r) 44,000 and M(r) 12000 polypeptides can be precipitated from both...... difference in the pI of the immunoprecipitable components of red and white cells was observed. All together, this indicates that either the blood group antigen M' is the BoLA-A16 class I antigen or M' and BoLA-A16 are two different class I polypeptides with the same relative mass, sharing identical epitopes...

  7. Chicken Astrovirus Infection: Minireview and Preliminary Serologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken Astrovirus Infection: Minireview and Preliminary Serologic Evidence of Antigenically and Genetically Distinct Chicken Astroviruses in Nigerian ... This knowledge will engender research into the prevalence, distribution, pathogenicity and economic losses caused by these diseases, and ultimately lead to the design ...

  8. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P < 0.0005). It may be of value to consider additional vaccination efforts to protect older adults at higher risk for exposure against diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  10. High-mobility group box-1, promising serological biomarker for the distinction of human WNV disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, Christophe; Papa, Anna; Almeras, Lionel

    2015-01-02

    The recent increase of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) incidence in southern Europe made this change in epidemiology a major concern for public health. The lack of a vaccine or specific treatment against human WNV infection imposes the need to discover biological markers associated with disease severity for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. Recently, using a brain proteomic study from a mouse model of West Nile virus (WNV) infection with neuronal involvement, we reported the kinetic up-regulation of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6), before and after onset of clinical symptoms, respectively. To evaluate whether these proteins could be useful biomarkers for the distinction of WNV disease severity in humans, HMBG1 and PRDX6 concentrations in serum from WNV-infected patients (n=49) diagnosed for either WNF (n=22) or WNND (n=27), were measured by ELISA and compared to concentrations in serum from uninfected healthy individuals (n=30). HMGB1 concentrations were significantly higher in WNND than in either WNF patients (p<0.05) or healthy individuals (p<0.001). In contrast, PRDX6 levels were significantly higher in healthy individuals compared with WNV-infected patients (p<0.001), regardless of clinical symptoms. The present study highlighted the deregulation of HMGB1 and PRDX6 serum level in WNV-infected patients and provided HMGB1 as candidate biomarker distinguishing disease severity. Further investigation in larger cohorts could confirm HMGB1 and PRDX6 as auxiliary biomarkers in confirmed cases of WNV infection and validate the usefulness of measuring HMBG1 for prediction of detrimental clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can......Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...

  12. [Serological characteristic and molecular basis of A2 subgroup in Shanghai population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ziling; Li, Liwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the similarity and difference in blood group serology and molecular biology of A2 and A2B phenotypes between healthy blood donors and patients. The A and AB phenotypes were screened with anti-A1. Exons 1 to 7 and intron 6 of the ABO gene were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. The blood type was determined by referring to the Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database (BGMUT). Among 7111 tested individuals, 75 were assigned as A2 or A2B phenotypes. However, only 28 individuals still belonged to the A2-related allele group based on genetic analysis. Among these, A205/B101 was the most common genotype. Among those non-A2-related alleles, A102/B101 was the most common genotype. Based on serologic testing, there was an imbalance between the A2 and A2B subgroups. In both donor group and patient group, the proportion of A2B was significantly higher than that of the A2. There were statistical differences between different groups (χ² = 64.613, 33.137, 34.963, Pblood type determined by serology and genetic analysis has been low and deserves attention. For A2 and A2B phenotypes by serological screening, A102/B101 was the most common gene among non-A2-related alleles. Further study is needed to clarify this phenomenon.

  13. Genetic distribution of noncapsular meningococcal group B vaccine antigens in Neisseria lactamica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidarme, Jay; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Newbold, Lynne S; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Richardson, Lynne; Bennett, Julia S; Maiden, Martin C J; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray

    2013-09-01

    The poor immunogenicity of the meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) capsule has led to the development of vaccines targeting subcapsular antigens, in particular the immunodominant and diverse outer membrane porin, PorA. These vaccines are largely strain specific; however, they offer limited protection against the diverse MenB-associated diseases observed in many industrialized nations. To broaden the scope of its protection, the multicomponent vaccine (4CMenB) incorporates a PorA-containing outer membrane vesicle (OMV) alongside relatively conserved recombinant protein components, including factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), and neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA). The expression of PorA is unique to meningococci (Neisseria meningitidis); however, many subcapsular antigens are shared with nonpathogenic members of the genus Neisseria that also inhabit the nasopharynx. These organisms may elicit cross-protective immunity against meningococci and/or occupy a niche that might otherwise accommodate pathogens. The potential for 4CMenB responses to impact such species (and vice versa) was investigated by determining the genetic distribution of the primary 4CMenB antigens among diverse members of the common childhood commensal, Neisseria lactamica. All the isolates possessed nhba but were devoid of fhbp and nadA. The nhba alleles were mainly distinct from but closely related to those observed among a representative panel of invasive MenB isolates from the same broad geographic region. We made similar findings for the immunogenic typing antigen, FetA, which constitutes a major part of the 4CMenB OMV. Thus, 4CMenB vaccine responses may impact or be impacted by nasopharyngeal carriage of commensal neisseriae. This highlights an area for further research and surveillance should the vaccine be routinely implemented.

  14. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

  15. Incorporation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels into the prognostic grouping system of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Heita; Kotake, Kenjiro; Hosaka, Miki; Hirata, Akira; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Fujita, Shin; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the significance of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on disease-free survival (DFS) in colon cancer and propose a new prognostic grouping system. A multiinstitutional retrospective cohort of 7296 colon cancer patients who underwent R0 surgery between 1997 and 2006 was analyzed. We stratified preoperative serum CEA values into three categories (C-stages): C0 (normal CEA), C1A (up to double the cutoff value), and C1B (more than double the cutoff value) and stratified each TNM stage by C-stage. Multivariate analyses using Cox regression models were used to analyze the significance of C-stage on 5-year DFS. CEA level was an independent factor affecting DFS; the 5-year DFS of patients with C0 and C1, as well as those with C1A and C1B, differed significantly (C0 84.6%, C1 69.8%, C1A 72.7%, and C1B 66.4%, P < 0.0001). Additionally, the DFS of pStages IIC and C1B was significantly lower than of pStages IIIA and C0 (65.8 vs. 87.7%, respectively; hazard ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.97-5.88, P < 0.0001). Moreover, the 5-year DFS of pStages IIIA and C0 or C1A did not differ significantly from pStages I and C1A (87.7 vs. 87.7%, P = 0.90 and 86.4 vs. 87.7%, P = 0.78, respectively). pStage IIC and C1B disease should be considered candidates for intensive adjuvant chemotherapy. Conversely, pStages IIIA and C0 or C1A could be exempted from adjuvant chemotherapy. Incorporating C-stage into the current TNM staging system may facilitate decision making regarding the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients.

  16. Serological Survey of Toxoplasmosis Transvaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Survey of Toxoplasmosis. Transvaal. P. R. MASON, M. R. JACOBS, P. J. FRIPP. •. In the. SUMMARY. Thirty-seven per cent of 605 samples of human sera col- lected from four ethnic groups in South Africa gave a positive Toxoplasma indir~ct fluorescent antibody test at a dilution 01 1/16 or higher. The incidences ...

  17. [Toxocariasis in children and adolescents with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, HIV infection, hepatitis B and C risk groups: results of serological screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the presence of immunoglobulins class G to Toxocara canis antigens in the sera of children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases from HIV infection and hepatitis B and C risk groups. A total of 422 dwellers of the Republic of Altai, including 144 subjects aged 1 to 17 years, were examined. Toxocara antibodies were found in 18.8 +/- 3.3% of the children and in 21.9 +/- 2.5% of the adults. The infection rate in children with bronchopulmonary and allergic diseases was 27.1 +/- 5.8 and 14.3 +/- 5.0%, respectively; that in the hepatitis B and C risk groups was 13.1 +/- 6.2%. The children (n = 6) from the HIV infection risk group were seronegative. The infection rate in the adults from the HIV infection and hepatitis risk group was 19.2 +/- 3.5 and 24.3 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Diagnostic antibody titers in the children and adults were determined in 9.0 +/- 2.3 and 8.3 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Immunological assays should be used to rule out toxocariasis in the examinees. If there are seropositive results, specific antiparasitic threatment should be performed.

  18. Prevalence of Principal Rh Blood Group Antigens in Blood Donors at the Blood Bank of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundrajukuppam, Deepthi Krishna; Vijaya, Sreedhar Babu Kinnera; Rajendran, Arun; Sarella, Jothibai Dorairaj

    2016-05-01

    Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. Due to its immunogenicity along with A, B antigens, Rh D antigen testing was made mandatory in pre-transfusion testing. Presently there are more than 50 antigens in Rh blood group system but major ones are D, C, E, c, and e. Very few reports are available regarding their prevalence in India and no reports are available from Andhra Pradesh. To study the prevalence of principal Rh blood group antigens like D, C, E, c & e in the voluntary blood donors attending our blood bank. A prospective cross-sectional non interventional study was carried out on 1000 healthy blood donors from August 2013 to July 2014 at our blood bank. Donors were grouped and typed for ABO and Rh major antigens using monoclonal blood grouping reagents as per the manufacturer's instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Comparison of categorical data between antigen positive and negative individuals was done using Chi-square test. Descriptive statistics for the categorical variables were performed by computing the frequencies (percentages) in each category. Incidence was given in proportion with 95% confidence interval. A total of 1000 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. Among Rh antigens, e was the most common antigen (98.4%), followed by D-94.1%, C-88%, c-54.9% and E-18.8% with DCe/DCe (R1R1) (43.4%) being the most common phenotype and the least common phenotype is r'r' (0.1%). Database for antigen frequency to at least Rh blood group system in local donors helps to provide antigen negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies, minimize alloimmunization rate, and thereby improve blood safety.

  19. Antibiotic treatment attenuates behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by exposure of rats to group a streptococcal antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Lotan

    Full Text Available Post-streptococcal A (GAS sequelae including movement and neuropsychiatric disorders have been associated with improvement in response to antibiotic therapy. Besides eradication of infection, the underlying basis of attenuation of neuropsychiatric symptoms following antibiotic treatment is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in a rat model of GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders. In the model, rats were not infected but were exposed to GAS-antigen or to adjuvants only (Control rats and treated continuously with the antibiotic ampicillin in their drinking water from the first day of GAS-antigen exposure. Two additional groups of rats (GAS and Control did not receive ampicillin in their drinking water. Behavior of the four groups was assessed in the forced swim, marble burying and food manipulation assays. We assessed levels of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, and IgG deposition in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and thalamus. Ampicillin treatment prevented emergence of the motor and some of the behavioral alterations induced by GAS-antigen exposure, reduced IgG deposition in the thalamus of GAS-exposed rats, and tended to attenuate the increase in the level of TH and D1 and D2 receptors in their striatum, without concomitantly reducing the level of sera anti-GAS antibodies. Our results reinforce the link between exposure to GAS antigen, dysfunction of central dopaminergic pathways and motor and behavioral alterations. Our data further show that some of these deleterious effects can be attenuated by antibiotic treatment, and supports the latter's possible efficacy as a prophylactic treatment in GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Serological reactivity of different antigenic preparations of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and the Leishmania braziliensis complex Reatividade sorológica frente a diferentes preparações antigênicas de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e do complexo Leishmania braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Gomes-Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Total antigen from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and isolates from the Leishmania braziliensis complex, along with their respective antigenic fractions obtained by affinity chromatography on concanavalin-A-Sepharose and jacalin-agarose columns evaluated using immunoenzymatic ELISA assay. For this, serum samples from 229 patients were used, grouped as American tegmental leishmaniasis (nº=58, visceral leishmaniasis (nº=28, Chagas disease (nº=49, malaria (nº=32, tuberculosis (nº=13 and healthy volunteers (nº=49. Samples from American tegmentary leishmaniasis showed higher reactivity with antigens isolated from the Leishmania braziliensis complex than with antigens from Leishmania amazonensis (pAntígeno total de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e isolado do complexo Leishmania brazilienis, assim como suas respectivas frações antigênicas obtidas por cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de concanavalina-A ligada a sepharose e Jacalina ligada a agarose foram avaliadas por ensaio imunoenzimático ELISA. Para tanto, foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 229 pacientes agrupadas em leishmaniose tegumentar americana (nº=58, leishmaniose visceral (nº=28, doença de Chagas (nº=49, malaria (nº=32, tuberculose (nº=13 e voluntários saudáveis (nº=49. Houve maior reatividade das amostras de leishmaniose tegumentar americana com a utilização dos antígenos obtidos do isolado do complexo Leishmania braziliensis quando comparado com antígenos de Leishmania amazonensis (p<0,001. Observou-se ainda que a sensibilidade do teste ELISA variou de 60 a 95% entre os antígenos obtidos do isolado do complexo Leishmania braziliensis. Houve acentuada reatividade inespecífica das amostras de soros com a utilização das frações antigênicas ligantes de Concanavalina-A e Jacalina de ambos os complexos Leishmania em comparação aos demais antígenos (p<0,001. Os resultados apresentados no presente trabalho sugerem que a utilização de antígenos hom

  1. The type-specific polysaccharide and the R protein antigens of the L-phase from a group B, type III Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A E; Ferrieri, P

    1985-04-01

    The type-specific polysaccharide and the R protein antigens from filtered culture supernatants of the bacterial phase and L-phase of the group B, type III streptococcal strain 76-043 were studied by several immunological methods. In the L-phase of growth, the two antigens were separate and distinct molecules which were found principally in the culture supernatant even on the 254th serial subculture in the cell-wall-defective state. Only trace amounts of these antigens were detected in extracts of L-phase cells. The type III polysaccharide antigens in the supernatant of cultures of the parent bacterium and the L-phase gave reactions of identity in immunodiffusion. Precipitin bands obtained by immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) revealed that the type-specific antigen of the bacterial phase of growth migrated toward the anode, whereas that of the L-phase remained near the antigen well. The R protein antigen in the L-phase supernatant was immunologically identical to the R protein of the supernatant and 1% trypsin-extracted antigens from whole cells of the parent bacterial strain, and other groups A, B and C streptococcal strains sharing a common R antigen. Immunologically, the R antigen appeared to be the species R4. The R protein of the L-phase and bacterial phase cultures was resistant to 5% trypsin but sensitive to 0.5% pepsin at 37 degrees C/2hr. Antiserum prepared in rabbits against L-phase cells contained an antibody reactive with the R protein antigens of the bacterial and L-phase cultures. The soluble, naturally released type III and R protein streptococcal antigens of the L-phase of growth permitted immunological confirmation of its bacterial origin.

  2. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  3. Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using B. melitensis strain B115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrente, Marialaura; Desario, Costantina; Parisi, Antonio; Grandolfo, Erika; Scaltrito, Domenico; Vesco, Gesualdo; Colao, Valeriana; Buonavoglia, Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is diagnosed by official tests, such as Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation test (CFT). Both tests detect antibodies directed against the lipolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella cell wall. Despite their good sensitivity, those tests do not discriminate between true positive and false positive serological reactions (FPSR), the latter being generated by animals infected with other Gram negative microorganisms that share components of Brucella LPS. In this study, an antigenic extract from whole Brucella melitensis B115 strain was used to set up an ELISA assay for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. A total of 148 serum samples from five different groups of animals were tested: Group A: 28 samples from two calves experimentally infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O:9; Group B: 30 samples from bovines infected with Brucella abortus; Group C: 50 samples from brucellosis-free herds; Group D: 20 samples RBPT positive and CFT negative; Group E: 20 samples both RBPT and CFT positive. Group D and Group E serum samples were from brucellosis-free herds. Positive reactions were detected only by RBPT and CFT in calves immunized with Y. enterocolitica O:9. Sera from Group B animals tested positive also in the ELISA assay, whereas sera from the remaining groups were all negative. The results obtained encourage the use of the ELISA assay to implement the serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of capsular polysaccaride antigens of groups A and C meningococci and Haemophilus influenza type b in cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeyhty, H.; Maekelae, P.H.; Ruoslahti, E.

    1977-01-01

    Sensitive radioimmunoassays capable of measuring 0.5 ng/ml of the Haemophilus influenza type b polysaccharide and 2 ng/ml of the groups A and C meningococcal polysaccharides were developed and used to detect these substances in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Polysaccharide of the causative agent was detected in the CSF of 14 out of 15 patients with Haemophilus influenza type b meningitis, in 18 out of 23 patients with group A, and in two out of four patients with group C meningococcal meningitis. In some cases the antigen could be detected even after three days of antibacterial treatment. No false positive reactions were seen. The assay procedure could be shortened to approximately three hours. These assays could be useful in routine diagnostic work and epidemiological investigations. (author)

  5. Serology of paracoccidioidomycosis due to Paracoccidioides lutzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegembauer, Gregory; Araujo, Leticia Mendes; Pereira, Edy Firmina; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Hahn, Rosane Christine; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-07-01

    Paracoccidioides lutzii is a new agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and has its epicenter localized to the Central-West region of Brazil. Serological diagnosis of PCM caused by P. lutzii has not been established. This study aimed to develop new antigenic preparations from P. lutzii and to apply them in serological techniques to improve the diagnosis of PCM due to P. lutzii. Paracoccidioides lutzii exoantigens, cell free antigen (CFA), and a TCA-precipitated antigen were evaluated in immunodiffusion (ID) tests using a total of 89 patient sera from the Central-West region of Brazil. Seventy-two sera were defined as reactive for P. brasiliensis using traditional antigens (AgPbB339 and gp43). Non-reactive sera for traditional antigens (n = 17) were tested with different P. lutzii preparations and P. lutzii CFA showed 100% reactivity. ELISA was found to be a very useful test to titer anti-P. lutzii antibodies using P. lutzii-CFA preparations. Sera from patients with PCM due to P. lutzii presented with higher antibody titers than PCM due to P. brasiliensis and heterologous sera. In western blot, sera from patients with PCM due to P. lutzii were able to recognize antigenic molecules from the P. lutzii-CFA antigen, but sera from patients with PCM due to P. brasiliensis could not recognize any P. lutzii molecules. Due to the facility of preparing P. lutzii CFA antigens we recommend its use in immunodiffusion tests for the diagnosis of PCM due to P. lutzii. ELISA and western blot can be used as complementary tests.

  6. Human platelet antigen polymorphisms (HPA-1, -2, -3, -4, -5 and -15) in major ethnic groups of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, F A; Uddin, M; Ahmed, A; Bugert, P

    2010-04-01

    Gene frequencies of human platelet antigens (HPA) determine the magnitude of platelet immunological disorders like neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, platelet refractoriness and ease of availability of particular HPA-typed platelet donors in a given community. However, the pattern of HPA in Pakistani population is not known. The aim of present study was to determine the gene frequencies of HPA (HPA-1 to -5 and -15) in individuals belonging to major ethnic groups and castes of Pakistani population. HPA genotyping was done in 593 individuals belonging to all ethnic groups of Pakistan, by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers with detection on polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The gene frequencies of the 'a' and 'b' alleles of HPA-1 to -5 and -15 in Pakistanis were as follows: HPA-1a/b, 0.885/0.115; HPA-2a/b, 0.92/0.08; HPA-3a/b, 0.69/0.31; HPA-4a/b, 1/0; HPA-5a/b, 0.9/0.1; HPA-15a/b, 0.59/0.41. Except for significant difference regarding gene frequency of HPA-3 between Pathans and Sindhis, there was no significant difference of HPA-1 to -5 and -15 between major ethnic groups of Pakistan. The estimated mismatch probability regarding platelet antigens 1-5 and 15 in Pakistanis, after transfusion of random donor platelets, is from 14 to 37%. The expected incidence of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-1a in Pakistani pregnant females is a need to establish donor registries typed for HPA in the transfusion centres of the country.

  7. Correlation between serology and genetics of weak D types in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette; Samuelsen, Betina; Christiansen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date more than 100 variant D types have been reported and the frequencies vary among populations. Blood donor typing should reveal all donors expressing D antigens, while patient typing should prevent the development of anti-D in patients with a D- or variant D blood type. Serotyping...... is the standard method to assign transfusion strategies, whereas molecular classification offers a more specific grouping of weak and partial D. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood donor and patient samples with discrepant results of D phenotyping were collected to investigate the frequency of weak D subtypes...... in Denmark and to evaluate currently used serologic methods. RESULTS: Nine different weak D types were identified among the 101 samples. Weak D Types 1, 2, and 3 constituted 80 percent of the analyzed samples and 10 percent of the samples identified as weak D from serology were actually partial D. CONCLUSION...

  8. ABO blood group antigen mismatch has an impact on outcome after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Matthias; Wolff, Daniel; Ahrens, Norbert; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Herr, Wolfgang; Holler, Ernst

    2016-11-01

    ABO blood group antigen incompatibility (ABO mismatch) is not an obstacle to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, the impact on clinical outcome after allo-SCT remains controversial. We analyzed 512 patients after allogeneic peripheral blood SCT (allo-PBSCT) for an association of ABO mismatch with transfusion requirements, myeloid and platelet engraftment, the incidence of GvHD, relapse, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall survival (OS). A total of 260 patients underwent ABO-mismatched transplantation and the control group consisted of 252 patients with ABO-matched allo-PBSCT. We found a significant association between major-0 ABO mismatch (group 0 recipient/group A, B, or AB donor) and increased red blood cell (RBC) and platelet transfusion requirements (both Pmismatch was significantly associated with an increased TRM after allo-PBSCT (P=.001 and P=.02). In multivariate analysis performed using Cox regression, minor ABO mismatch appeared as independent risk factor for TRM after allo-PBSCT. No association was found for ABO mismatch with the incidence of GvHD, relapse, and OS. Our results suggest that ABO blood group mismatch has a significant impact on the outcome and that minor-A and minor-AB ABO mismatch represents a risk factor for increased TRM after allo-PBSCT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Histo-blood group antigens in human fetal thymus and in thymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Francis, D

    1996-01-01

    -y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x) of the ABO-histo-blood group system was investigated in 19 normal fetal thymuses (gestational age 16 to 39 weeks) and in 19 thymomas in order to study possible tumor-associated changes in the glycosylation pattern. The material was investigated by immunochemical stainings...

  10. Kell blood group antigen in Port Harcourt, Nigeria-a pilot study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The Kell blood group system is important and should be considered in blood transfusion practice in this environment. The data emanating from this study could be utilized in the planning and running of an efficient blood transfusion service and better management of our maternal and child unit. Keywords: Kell ...

  11. A unique variant of streptococcal group O-antigen (C-polysaccharide) that lacks phosphocholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus mitis strain SK598, which represents a subgroup of biovar 1, possesses a unique variant of the C-polysaccharide found in the cell wall of all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and in some strains of S. mitis. This new variant lacks the choline methyl groups in contrast...

  12. [The role of miR-492 in the regulation of OK blood group antigen expression on red blood cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Luyi; Wang, Chen; Yang, Qixiu; Zhu, Ziyan

    2017-10-10

    To investigate whether miR-492 is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of OK blood group antigen expression on red blood cells. Two 3'-UTR fragments of the BSG gene were synthesized with a chemical method, which respectively encompassed the BSG rs8259 TT or BSG rs8259 AA sites. The fragments were added with Xho I and Not I restriction enzyme cutting sites at both ends and cloned into a pUC57 vector, which in turn was constructed into a psiCHECK-2 vector and verified by sequencing. K562 cells were transfected with various combinations of miR-492 mimic and constructed psiCHECK2-BSG-T or psiCHECK2-BSG-A recombinant plasmid. A blank control group was set up. Each transfection experiment was repeated three times. The activity of Renilla reniformis luciferase was determined and normalized with that of firefly luciferase, and detected with a dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. The sequencing results confirmed that the recombinant psiCHECK2 plasmids containing the BSG rs8259 TT or rs8259 AA sites were constructed successfully. The results of dual-luciferase report gene detection showed that the miR-492 mimic could significantly inhibit psiCHECK2-BSG-T at a concentration over 100 nmol/L. However, it could not inhibit psiCHECK-BSG-A. miR-492 may be involved in the regulation of OK antigen expression on red blood cells with the BSG rs8259 TT genotype.

  13. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...... and 7 homogeneous leukoplakias) were also examined. The distribution of Lex, Ley, H type 2 chain, and N-acetyllactosamine, all type 2 chain carbohydrate structures, was investigated by immunohistological staining using monoclonal antibodies with selected specificity. The histological pattern...... of expression of these antigens in the benign lesions was similar to that of normal oral mucosa, i.e. expression of: N-acetyllactosamine on basal cells, H antigen on parabasal cells, and Lex and Ley on spinous cells. However, lesions with epithelial dysplasia showed H antigen on all spinous cells, and often...

  14. Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile Of Natural Infected Cattle By Foot And Mouth Disease. ... albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in the infected group than control group, on the other hand there was a highly significant increase in serum glucose concentration of infected group.

  15. Histo-blood group antigens in human fetal thymus and in thymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Francis, D

    1996-01-01

    -y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x) of the ABO-histo-blood group system was investigated in 19 normal fetal thymuses (gestational age 16 to 39 weeks) and in 19 thymomas in order to study possible tumor-associated changes in the glycosylation pattern. The material was investigated by immunochemical stainings...... of formalin-fixed paraffin-imbedded tissue using monoclonal antibodies with defined specificity. In fetal thymus the epithelial cells of the medulla and the Hassal's bodies strongly expressed elongated carbohydrate structures (Le-y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x). In a few cases the cortical epithelial cells weakly...... expressed Le-x and sialyl-Le-x. Compared with fetal thymus 16 of the thymomas showed a total loss, or a very much reduced expression of elongated carbohydrate structures. Three thymomas, which histologically had been reclassified according to Kirchner & Müller-Hermelink (14) as high grade thymic carcinomas...

  16. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is distinct from the N-CAM related group of surface antigens BSP-2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faissner, A; Kruse, J; Goridis, C

    1984-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and the group of N-CAM related molecules, BSP-2 and D2 antigen, are immunochemically distinct molecular species. The two groups of surface molecules are also functionally distinct entities, since inhibition of Ca2+-independent adhesion among early post-natal m...

  17. Development and Validation of Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigen Capture ELISA for Detection of Group A Porcine Rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Atta Muhammad; Bhuyan, Anjuman Ara; Chen, Fangzhou; Guo, Xiaozhen; Menghwar, Harish; Zhu, Yinxing; Ku, Xugang; Chen, Shuhua; Li, Zhonghua; He, Qigai

    2017-05-01

    Porcine rotavirus-A (PoRVA) is one of the common causes of mild to severe dehydrating diarrhea, leading to losses in weaning and postweaning piglets. A rapid, highly specific, and sensitive antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was developed for detection of PoRVA, by using VP6 (a highly conserved and antigenic protein of group-A rotavirus)-directed rabbit polyclonal antibodies (capture antibody) and murine monoclonal antibodies (detector antibody). The detection limit of AC-ELISA was found to be equal to that of conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; about 10 2.5 TCID 50 /mL). For validation of the in-house AC-ELISA, 295 porcine fecal/diarrhea samples, collected from different provinces of China, were evaluated and compared with conventional RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR). The sensitivity and specificity of this in-house AC-ELISA relative to RT-qPCR were found to be 91.67% and 100%, respectively, with the strong agreement (kappa = 0.972) between these two techniques. Total detection rate with AC-ELISA, conventional RT-PCR, and RT-qPCR were found to be 11.2%, 11.5%, and 12.2%, respectively, without any statistical significant difference. Moreover, AC-ELISA failed to detect any cross-reactivity with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, pseudorabies virus, and porcine circovirus-2. These results suggested that our developed method was rapid, highly specific, and sensitive, which may help in large-scale surveillance, timely detection, and preventive control of rotavirus infection in porcine farms.

  18. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2017-01-01

    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  19. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote an Early Antibody Response to a Respiratory Antigen in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Bartemes, Kathleen; Kita, Hirohito

    2016-08-15

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new family of immune cells that play important roles in innate immunity in mucosal tissues, and in the maintenance of tissue and metabolic homeostasis. Recently, group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) were found to promote the development and effector functions of Th2-type CD4(+) T cells by interacting directly with T cells or by activating dendritic cells, suggesting a role for ILC2s in regulating adaptive immunity. However, our current knowledge on the role of ILCs in humoral immunity is limited. In this study, we found that ILC2s isolated from the lungs of naive BALB/c mice enhanced the proliferation of B1- as well as B2-type B cells and promoted the production of IgM, IgG1, IgA, and IgE by these cells in vitro. Soluble factors secreted by ILC2s were sufficient to enhance B cell Ig production. By using blocking Abs and ILC2s isolated from IL-5-deficient mice, we found that ILC2-derived IL-5 is critically involved in the enhanced production of IgM. Furthermore, when adoptively transferred to Il7r(-/-) mice, which lack ILC2s and mature T cells, lung ILC2s promoted the production of IgM Abs to a polysaccharide Ag, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl Ficoll, within 7 d of airway exposure in vivo. These findings add to the growing body of literature regarding the regulatory functions of ILCs in adaptive immunity, and suggest that lung ILC2s promote B cell production of early Abs to a respiratory Ag even in the absence of T cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Serological characteristic and molecular basis of A2 subgroup in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yanlin; Hong, Xiaozhen; Xu, Xianguo; Liu, Ying; Lan, Xiaofei; Ma, Kairong; Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2013-02-01

    A2 phenotype is a common subgroup of blood group A, but the serological characteristic and genetics basis of A2 phenotype currently was rare reported in the Chinese Han population. Here, a large scale study of the serology and genetics of A2 and A2B phenotypes was performed. 11263 Chinese individuals with group A and AB phenotypes were determined for A2 antigen with the standard serological method. The full coding region of the ABO gene was sequenced in the individuals with A2 and A2B phenotypes. Some samples including each ABO genotypes were chosen for determining the activity of glycosyltransferase A (GTA) in plasma. 134 individuals were assigned as A2 and A2B phenotypes in 11263 individuals. There was imbalance in A2 and A2B phenotypes and the proportion of A2B among AB samples was significantly higher than that of A2 in group A samples. All samples of the A2 and A2B phenotypes were classified into A2-related allele group, A1-related allele group and the other group based on kind of the ABO genotype. Four novel A2-related alleles (A217, A218, A219, A220) were identified. The individuals with same genotype showed different agglutination strength with anti-A1 and anti-H on their RBCs. The plasma from individuals with A2-related allele had almost no GTA activity, while plasma from individuals with A1-related allele had some GTA activity. A2 and A2B phenotypes could derive from different genotypes and the serological characteristic may be heterogeneity in the Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential distribution of age and HBV serological markers in liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic patients with primary liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Xiuhua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the age distributions and presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV serological markers between primary hepatic cancer (PHC patients with and without liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 547 PHC cases were analyzed retrospectively. After dividing into two groups according to liver cirrhosis status, the between-group differences in age and HBV serological markers, such as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg status, were statistically compared using the Chi-squared test. ResultsThe number of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic PHC patients was 265 and 282, respectively. HBV infection was present in 221 cirrhotic PHC patients and 256 non-cirrhotic PHC patients (834% vs. 90.8%. There was a substantial bias in the proportion of males to females in the cirrhotic PHC patients (7.83∶1. The number of PHC patients <60 years old was similar between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups, but the non-cirrhotic group had significantly more patients >60 years old (P<0.005. In cirrhotic PHC patients, the HBV infection rate was highest in the <40 years old age group (96.7% and the HBeAg serological conversion rate was highest in the 40-60 years old age group (89.5%. In non-cirrhotic PHC patients, the 40-60 years old age group showed the highest HBV infection rate (90.3% but the lowest HBeAg serological conversion rate (80.0%. ConclusionPHC with liver cirrhosis mainly occurred in males, with the HBV infection rate being higher in individuals <60 years old. Non-cirrhotic PHC patients were more often >60 years old. Many of the HBV-infected PHC patients with cirrhosis had high HBeAg serological conversion rate.

  2. Towards a unified theory for immunogenetic systems. I. Probing the serologic field--a meta-serologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, J

    1977-01-01

    A serologic field (SEF) is produced by the in vitro studies of antibody-antigen interactions and usually includes serologic information processing (SIF). SIF can be regarded as the process whereby essentially "meaningless" raw data or experimental observables emanating from an input reality are structuralized and hence falsified into a "meaningful" pattern, Gestalt or output image. According to this "black box model", different "fact categories" (FC) can be identified in SEF. Traditional serology generally confounds its FC whereby fact category mistakes (FCM) are produced. Some FCM are structurally similar to the description of "mice" as four-letter animals or as a four-legged word--i.e. facts about "thing-properties" (animals, legs) are confounded with facts about "language-properties" (letters, words). In SEF, antibody and antigen molecules (thing-properties) are similarly endowed with "empty symbols" (language-properties). Due to such FCM, radically new meanings are assigned to experimental observables if the serologic language and/or theory is changed. The present meta-serologic approach consists of the design of a meta-serologic symbol language (SL-2) which includes the contemporary (simple-complex) conceptual framework (language and theory) as a limiting case. Consequently, some truly radical and revolutionary Gestalt switches will be generated when a specified SEF is mapped onto SL-2.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... are devices that consist of antigens used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a fluorescent...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Blastomyces determatitidis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of blastomycosis...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of respiratory...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to parainfluenza virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections and provides...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to coxsackievirus in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of coxsackievirus antisera conjugated with a...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a fluorescent dye...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Francisella tularensis in serum or to identify Francisella tularensis in cultured isolates derived from...

  11. Evaluation of a serological test for the diagnosis of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Sarksyan, Denis S; Kolyasnikova, Nadezda M; Hovius, Joppe W; Sprong, Hein; Platonov, Alexander E

    2017-05-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi causes systemic febrile illness and is transmitted by the same tick species that transmits Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus. We describe a serological test using a fragment of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) as an antigen, and determined its performance in well-defined patient categories. Serum of patients with PCR-confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD), Lyme borreliosis (LB), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and healthy blood donors (HBD) were collected in Udmurt Republic, Russia. Sera of BMD and LB patients were collected at hospital admission, one week, one month and one year after admission. The levels of IgM and IgG anti-GlpQ antibodies, determined as optical density values in Luminex bead-based assays, were significantly higher in the BMD patient group than in LB patients, TBE patients or HBD group (all p<0.05). By using a strict cut-off value, it was possible to exclude B. miyamotoi infection in LB and TBE patients and to serologically confirm B. miyamotoi infection in 44% to 94% of the PCR-positive BMD patients (95% confidence interval). Thus, sensitive serological assays should not solely rely on rGlpQ, to support the diagnosis of acute BMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...

  13. Rough lipopolysaccharide of Brucella abortus RB51 as a common antigen for serological detection of B. ovis, B. canis, and B. abortus RB51 exposure using indirect enzyme immunoassay and fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Smith, P; Conde, S; Draghi de Benitez, G; Gall, D; Halbert, G; Kenny, K; Massengill, C; Muenks, Q; Rojas, X; Perez, B; Samartino, L; Silva, P; Tollersrud, T; Jolley, M

    2004-01-01

    Rough lipopolysaccharide (RLPS) antigens were prepared from cultures of Brucella abortus RB51, B. ovis, and B. canis. The preparations were standardized by weight and tested with sera from cattle immunized with B. abortus RB51, sheep infected with B. ovis, and dogs infected with B. canis. Populations of unexposed animals of each species were also tested. The tests used were the indirect enzyme immunoassay (IELISA) using RLPS and the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using RLPS core fractions, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The IELISA using B. abortus RB51 RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 94.8% and 97.3%, respectively, when testing bovine sera, 98.5% and 97.8% when testing ovine sera, and 95.8% and 100% when testing dog sera. The IELISA using B. ovis RLPS antigen gave sensitivity and specificity values of 80.5% and 91.7%, respectively with bovine sera, 98.9% and 93.8% with sheep sera, and 70.8% and 79.8% with dog sera. The IELISA using B. canis RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 97.0% and 97.4%, respectively, with bovine sera, 96.2% and 96.3% with sheep sera, and 95.8% and 98.8% with dog sera. Labeling RLPS core from B. ovis and B. canis with fluorescein was not successful. B. abortus RB51 core labeled with fluorescein resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 99.8%, respectively, with bovine sera and 78.1% and 99.0% with sheep sera. It was not possible to test the dog sera in the FPA.

  14. Serological identification of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L C

    1985-04-01

    A total of 165 strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior were selected on the basis of their biochemical reactions using established identification procedures. These strains were also classified using API Database and were then screened against five candidate grouping sera. Biochemical tests and serological identification were in general complementary, but no regular associations between biotype and serological reaction were observed.

  15. Serological identification of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, L C

    1985-01-01

    A total of 165 strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior were selected on the basis of their biochemical reactions using established identification procedures. These strains were also classified using API Database and were then screened against five candidate grouping sera. Biochemical tests and serological identification were in general complementary, but no regular associations between biotype and serological reaction were observed.

  16. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  17. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  18. Serologic cross-reactivity of human IgM and IgG antibodies to five species of Ebola virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Macneil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Five species of Ebola virus (EBOV have been identified, with nucleotide differences of 30-45% between species. Four of these species have been shown to cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF in humans and a fifth species (Reston ebolavirus is capable of causing a similar disease in non-human primates. While examining potential serologic cross-reactivity between EBOV species is important for diagnostic assays as well as putative vaccines, the nature of cross-reactive antibodies following EBOV infection has not been thoroughly characterized. In order to examine cross-reactivity of human serologic responses to EBOV, we developed antigen preparations for all five EBOV species, and compared serologic responses by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in groups of convalescent diagnostic sera from outbreaks in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (n=24, Gulu, Uganda (n=20, Bundibugyo, Uganda (n=33, and the Philippines (n=18, which represent outbreaks due to four different EBOV species. For groups of samples from Kikwit, Gulu, and Bundibugyo, some limited IgM cross-reactivity was noted between heterologous sera-antigen pairs, however, IgM responses were largely stronger against autologous antigen. In some instances IgG responses were higher to autologous antigen than heterologous antigen, however, in contrast to IgM responses, we observed strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses to heterologous antigens among all sets of samples. Finally, we examined autologous IgM and IgG antibody levels, relative to time following EHF onset, and observed early peaking and declining IgM antibody levels (by 80 days and early development and persistence of IgG antibodies among all samples, implying a consistent pattern of antibody kinetics, regardless of EBOV species. Our findings demonstrate limited cross-reactivity of IgM antibodies to EBOV, however, the stronger tendency for cross-reactive IgG antibody responses can largely circumvent

  19. Detection of dengue cases by serological testing in a dengue vaccine efficacy trial: Utility for efficacy evaluation and impact of future vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plennevaux, Eric; Sabchareon, Arunee; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Moureau, Annick; Boaz, Mark; Wartel, T Anh; Saville, Melanie; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2016-05-23

    Dengue diagnosis confirmation and surveillance are widely based on serological assays to detect anti-dengue IgM or IgG antibodies since such tests are affordable/user-friendly. The World Health Organization identified serological based diagnosis as a potential tool to define probable dengue cases in the context of vaccine trials, while acknowledging that this may have to be interpreted with caution. In a phase IIb randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Thai schoolchildren, case definition was based on virological confirmation by either serotype-specific RT-PCRs or by NS1-antigen ELISA (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00842530). Here, we characterized suspected dengue cases using IgM and IgG ELISA to assess their utility in evaluating probable dengue cases in the context of vaccine efficacy trials, comparing virologically-confirmed and serologically diagnosed dengue in the vaccine and placebo groups. Serologically probable cases were defined as: (1) IgM positive acute- or convalescent-phase samples, or (2) IgG positive acute-phase sample and ≥4-fold IgG increase between acute and convalescent-phase samples. Serological diagnosis had good sensitivity (97.1%), but low specificity (85.1%) compared to virological confirmation. A high level of false positivity through serology diagnosis particularly in the 2 months post-vaccination was observed, and is most likely related to detection of the immune response to the dengue vaccine. This lack of specificity and bias with vaccination demonstrates the limitation of using IgM and IgG antibody responses to explore vaccine efficacy. Reliance on serological assessments would lead to a significant number of false positives during routine clinical practice and surveillance following the introduction of the dengue vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for analysis of protein antigens in a meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Lawrence W; Mehl, John T; Loughney, John W; Mach, Anna; Rustandi, Richard R; Ha, Sha; Zhang, Lan; Przysiecki, Craig T; Dieter, Lance; Hoang, Van M

    2015-01-01

    The development of a multivalent outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine where each strain contributes multiple key protein antigens presents numerous analytical challenges. One major difficulty is the ability to accurately and specifically quantitate each antigen, especially during early development and process optimization when immunoreagents are limited or unavailable. To overcome this problem, quantitative mass spectrometry methods can be used. In place of traditional mass assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), quantitative LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) can be used during early-phase process development to measure key protein components in complex vaccines in the absence of specific immunoreagents. Multiplexed, label-free quantitative mass spectrometry methods using protein extraction by either detergent or 2-phase solvent were developed to quantitate levels of several meningococcal serogroup B protein antigens in an OMV vaccine candidate. Precision was demonstrated to be less than 15% RSD for the 2-phase extraction and less than 10% RSD for the detergent extraction method. Accuracy was 70 to 130% for the method using a 2-phase extraction and 90-110% for detergent extraction. The viability of MS-based protein quantification as a vaccine characterization method was demonstrated and advantages over traditional quantitative methods were evaluated. Implementation of these MS-based quantification methods can help to decrease the development time for complex vaccines and can provide orthogonal confirmation of results from existing antigen quantification techniques.

  1. Inactivation of the alpha C protein antigen gene, bca, by a novel shuttle/suicide vector results in attenuation of virulence and immunity in group B Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Kasper, D L; Ausubel, F M; Rosner, B; Michel, J L

    1997-11-25

    The alpha C protein of group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major surface-associated antigen. Although its role in the biology and virulence of GBS has not been defined, it is opsonic and capable of eliciting protective immunity. The alpha C protein is widely distributed among clinical isolates and is a potential protein carrier and antigen in conjugate vaccines to prevent GBS infections. The structural gene for the alpha C protein, bca, has been cloned and sequenced. The protein encoded by bca is related to a class of surface-associated proteins of gram-positive cocci involved in virulence and immunity. To investigate the potential roles of the alpha C protein, bca null mutants were generated in which the bca gene was replaced with a kanamycin resistance cassette via homologous recombination using a novel shuttle/suicide vector. Studies of lethality in neonatal mice showed that the virulence of the bca null mutants was attenuated 5- to 7-fold when compared with the isogenic wild-type strain A909. Significant differences in mortality occurred in the first 24 h, suggesting that the role of the alpha antigen is important in the initial stages of the infection. In contrast to A909, bca mutants were no longer killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the presence of alpha-specific antibodies in an in vitro opsonophagocytic assay. In contrast to previous studies, alpha antigen expression does not appear to play a role in resistance to opsonophagocytosis in the absence of alpha-specific antibodies. In addition, antibodies to the alpha C protein did not passively protect neonatal mice from lethal challenge with bca mutants, suggesting that these epitopes are uniquely present within the alpha antigen as expressed from the bca gene. Therefore, the alpha C protein is important in the pathogenesis of GBS infection and is a target for protective immunity in the development of GBS vaccines.

  2. Identification of novel rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus B-cell epitopes and their interaction with host histo-blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanhua; Wang, Fang; Fan, Zhiyu; Hu, Bo; Liu, Xing; Wei, Houjun; Xue, Jiabin; Xu, Weizhong; Qiu, Rulong

    2016-02-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease, caused by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), results in the death of millions of adult rabbits worldwide, with a mortality rate that exceeds 90%. The sole capsid protein, VP60, is divided into shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, and the more exposed P domain likely contains determinants for cell attachment and antigenic diversity. Nine mAbs against VP60 were screened and identified. To map antigenic epitopes, a set of partially overlapping and consecutive truncated proteins spanning VP60 were expressed. The minimal determinants of the linear B-cell epitopes of VP60 in the P domain, N(326)PISQV(331), D(338)MSFV(342) and K(562)STLVFNL(569), were recognized by one (5H3), four (1B8, 3D11, 4C2 and 4G2) and four mAbs (1D4, 3F7, 5G2 and 6B2), respectively. Sequence alignment showed epitope D(338)MSFV(342) was conserved among all RHDV isolates. Epitopes N(326)PISQV(331) and K(562)STLVFNL(569) were highly conserved among RHDV G1-G6 and variable in RHDV2 strains. Previous studies demonstrated that native viral particles and virus-like particles (VLPs) of RHDV specifically bound to synthetic blood group H type 2 oligosaccharides. We established an oligosaccharide-based assay to analyse the binding of VP60 and epitopes to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Results showed VP60 and its epitopes (aa 326-331 and 338-342) in the P2 subdomain could significantly bind to blood group H type 2. Furthermore, mAbs 1B8 and 5H3 could block RHDV VLP binding to synthetic H type 2. Collectively, these two epitopes might play a key role in the antigenic structure of VP60 and interaction of RHDV and HBGA.

  3. Impact of aging and HIV infection on serologic response to seasonal influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; De Armas, Lesley R; Pahwa, Rajendra; Rinaldi, Stefano; George, Varghese K; Sanchez, Celeste M; Pan, Li; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Pahwa, Savita

    2018-02-08

    To determine influence of age and HIV infection on influenza vaccine responses. Evaluate serologic response to seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) as the immunologic outcome in HIV-infected (HIV) and age-matched HIV negative (HIV) adults. During 2013-2016, 151 virologically controlled HIV individuals on antiretroviral therapy and 164 HIV volunteers grouped by age as young (<40 years), middle aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were administered TIV and investigated for serum antibody response to vaccine antigens. At prevaccination (T0) titers were in seroprotective range in more than 90% of participants. Antibody titers increased in all participants postvaccination but frequency of classified vaccine responders to individual or all three vaccine antigens at 3-4 weeks was higher in HIV than HIV adults with the greatest differences manifesting in the young age group. Of the three vaccine strains in TIV, antibody responses at T2 were weakest against H3N2 with those to H1N1 and B antigens dominating. Among the age groups, the titers for H1N1 and B were lowest in old age, with evidence of an age-associated interaction in HIV persons with antibody to B antigen. Greater frequencies of vaccine nonresponders are seen in HIV young compared with HIV adults and the observed age-associated interaction for B antigen in HIV persons are supportive of the concept of premature immune senescence in controlled HIV infection. High-potency influenza vaccination recommended for healthy aging could be considered for HIV adults of all ages.

  4. Utilization of serology for the diagnosis of suspected Lyme borreliosis in Denmark: Survey of patients seen in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarphedinsson Sigurdur

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological testing for Lyme borreliosis (LB is frequently requested by general practitioners for patients with a wide variety of symptoms. Methods A survey was performed in order to characterize test utilization and clinical features of patients investigated for serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. During one calendar year a questionnaire was sent to the general practitioners who had ordered LB serology from patients in three Danish counties (population 1.5 million inhabitants. Testing was done with a commercial ELISA assay with purified flagella antigen from a Danish strain of B. afzelii. Results A total of 4,664 patients were tested. The IgM and IgG seropositivity rates were 9.2% and 3.3%, respectively. Questionnaires from 2,643 (57% patients were available for analysis. Erythema migrans (EM was suspected in 38% of patients, Lyme arthritis/disseminated disease in 23% and early neuroborreliosis in 13%. Age 0-15 years and suspected EM were significant predictors of IgM seropositivity, whereas suspected acrodermatitis was a predictor of IgG seropositivity. LB was suspected in 646 patients with arthritis, but only 2.3% were IgG seropositive. This is comparable to the level of seropositivity in the background population indicating that Lyme arthritis is a rare entity in Denmark, and the low pretest probability should alert general practitioners to the possibility of false positive LB serology. Significant predictors for treating the patient were a reported tick bite and suspected EM. Conclusions A detailed description of the utilization of serology for Lyme borreliosis with rates of seropositivity according to clinical symptoms is presented. Low rates of seropositivity in certain patient groups indicate a low pretest probability and there is a notable risk of false positive results. 38% of all patients tested were suspected of EM, although this is not a recommended indication due to a low sensitivity of

  5. Funções biológicas dos antígenos eritrocitários Biological functions of blood group antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Bonifácio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os antígenos de grupos sanguíneos eritrocitários são estruturas macromoleculares localizadas na superfície extracelular da membrana eritrocitária. Com o desenvolvimento de estudos moleculares, mais de 250 antígenos são conhecidos e estão organizados em 29 sistemas de grupos sanguíneos reconhecidos pela Sociedade Internacional de Transfusão Sanguínea (ISBT. Estudos têm revelado que os antígenos de grupo sanguíneo estão expressos na membrana eritrocitária com ampla diversidade estrutural, incluindo epítopos de carboidratos em glicoproteínas e/ou glicolipídios e em proteínas inseridas na membrana via um domínio, via domínios de multipassagem ou ligados a glicosilfosfatidinositol. Além das diversidades estruturais, muitas funções importantes têm sido associadas aos antígenos eritrocitários recentemente identificadas, podendo ser esquematicamente divididas em: estruturais, transportadores, receptores e moléculas de adesão, enzimas, proteínas controladoras do complemento e outras. Esta revisão tem como foco as funções potenciais das moléculas que expressam os antígenos eritrocitários.Erythrocyte blood group antigens are macromolecules structures located on the extracellular surface of the red blood cell membrane. The development of molecular studies allowed the recognition of more than 250 antigens by the International Society for Blood Transfusion (ISBT. These studies have also shown that blood group antigens are carried on red blood cell membrane of wide structural diversity, including carbohydrate epitopes on glycoproteins and/or glycolipids and on proteins inserted within the membrane via single or multi-pass transmembrane domains, or via glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkages. In addition, to their structural diversity, many important functions associated with blood group antigens have been recently identified and can be didactically divided into: structural proteins, transporters, receptors and adhesion

  6. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the "a" determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003-2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some "a" determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive for HBV-DNA were seen to exhibit a ten-fold higher presence of anti

  7. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive

  8. Specific serology for emerging human coronaviruses by protein microarray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusken, C.; Mou, H.; Godeke, G. J.; van der Hoek, L.; Meyer, B.; Müller, M. A.; Haagmans, B.; de Sousa, R.; Schuurman, N.; Dittmer, U.; Rottier, P.; Osterhaus, A.; Drosten, C.; Bosch, B. J.; Koopmans, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a serological assay for the specific detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against the emerging human coronavirus hCoV-EMC and the SARS-CoV based on protein microarray technology. The assay uses the S1 receptor-binding subunit of the spike protein of hCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV as antigens. The

  9. [A rapid method of grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci using extemporaneous coagglutination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaafar, N; Trabelsi, H; Rassas, M; Jeddi, M

    1989-01-01

    Extemporaneous coagglutination procedure for the serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci is reported. Streptococcal group antigens were extracted with nitrous acid. 250 strains of groups A, B, C, F and G streptococci were tested with this method. An agreement of 100% was found between this method and the Lancefield capillary precipitation procedure. Extemporaneous coagglutination method was found to be rapid, reliable, easy and economical and could be adopted in any routine diagnostic laboratory.

  10. Serological studies on schistosomiasis mansoni in the northeast Brazil (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Okazaki, M; Okazaki, M; Kobayashi, S; Kaneko, N; Sekiguchi, T; Tateno, S; Motta, S R; Takeuchi, T

    1990-01-01

    Sera from the patients (N = 10) with schistosomiasis mansoni of the hospital of Federal University of Pernambuco, the Schistosoma mansoni egg-positive (N = 51) and -negative (N = 452) inhabitants in Cabo City area, out-patients (N = 37) of the IMIP hospital and Japanese immigrants (N = 127) in Petrolina City area of northeast Brazil as well as Japanese healthy subjects (N = 30) were examined by serological tests including an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with antigens prepared from eggs (ELISA-egg) and adult worms (ELISA-adult). The ELISA with egg or adult antigen correctly identified 100% of the uninfected individuals lived in non-endemic area of schistosomiasis. Moreover, when examined cross-reactivity of our ELISA with sera isolated from 78 subjects infected with various intestinal parasitic infections, only one of these sera reacted with the egg and adult antigens. On the examination of 51 sera from the egg-positive subjects, the ELISA-egg revealed the highest sensitivity (98.0%), whereas a large number of false negative reactions of ELISA-adult, Ouchterlony method using adult antigen, circumoval precipitation and immediate intradermal skin test were observed. A low sensitivity of these serologic tests except for ELISA-egg appears to be primarily due to their inability to detect antibody in the sera from egg-positive infantiles. There was no positive correlation between the absorbance values of these two types of ELISA among the sera isolated from ELISA-positive subjects. Rather, by the reactivity of these sera to egg or adult antigen, they could be divided into two subgroups; one reacted more positively with egg antigen and the other with adult antigen. Moreover, it was confirmed that the sera from young subjects (under 20 years old) appear to be highly reactive to the egg antigen than did aged ones. These data suggest that the ELISA with egg antigen, but not with the adult antigen, appears to be useful for the serological survey of schistosomiasis mansoni

  11. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor); (LBNL)

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Genetic diversity of K-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli and their molecular typing using a suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Xi, Daoyi; Jing, Fuyi; Kong, Deju; Wu, Junli; Feng, Lu; Cao, Boyang; Wang, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), or K-antigens, are the major surface antigens of Escherichia coli. More than 80 serologically unique K-antigens are classified into 4 groups (Groups 1-4) of capsules. Groups 1 and 4 contain the Wzy-dependent polymerization pathway and the gene clusters are in the order galF to gnd; Groups 2 and 3 contain the ABC-transporter-dependent pathway and the gene clusters consist of 3 regions, regions 1, 2 and 3. Little is known about the variations among the gene clusters. In this study, 9 serotypes of K-antigen gene clusters (K2ab, K11, K20, K24, K38, K84, K92, K96, and K102) were sequenced and correlated with their CPS chemical structures. On the basis of sequence data, a K-antigen-specific suspension array that detects 10 distinct CPSs, including the above 9 CPSs plus K30, was developed. This is the first report to catalog the genetic features of E. coli K-antigen variations and to develop a suspension array for their molecular typing. The method has a number of advantages over traditional bacteriophage and serum agglutination methods and lays the foundation for straightforward identification and detection of additional K-antigens in the future.

  13. Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen Frequencies in Patients with Type II Congenital Smell Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stateman, William A.; Henkin, Robert I.; Knöppel, Alexandra; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether there are genetic factors associated with Type II congenital smell loss. STUDY DESIGN The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 99 patients with Type II congenital smell loss. Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, and Jkb was analyzed by blood group serology. Comparisons of expression frequencies of these antigens were made between the patients and a large control group. RESULTS Patients tested for the Duffy b antigen (Fyb haplotype) exhibited a statistically significant 11% decrease in expression frequency compared to the controls. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte antigens (A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, or Jkb). CONCLUSIONS These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. The deviation in expression rate of Duffy b suggests a target gene and chromosome region in which future research into this form of congenital smell loss may reveal a more specific genetic basis for Type II congenital smell loss. PMID:25456515

  14. Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (EBV-EA/D)-directed immunoglobulin A antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, A H; Jørgensen, J M; Müller, H

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.......We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients....

  15. Performance characteristics of a combined hepatitis C virus core antigen and anti–hepatitis C virus antibody test in different patient groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Fu Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the performance of a hepatitis C virus (HCV antigen/antibody combination test [Murex HCV Antigen/Antibody Combination Test (Murex Ag/Ab test] by comparing it with the current third-generation HCV antibody enzyme immunoassay (anti-HCV. A total of 403 serum samples were consecutively collected from four patient groups: healthy controls (n=100; HCV-infected patients (HCV group, n=102; Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HCV-infected patients (HIV/HCV group, n=100; and patients with uremia (uremia group, n=101. Performances were evaluated for the Murex Ag/Ab, anti-HCV, and HCV RNA in the HIV/HCV and uremia patient groups. In the HCV group, all 102 samples showed concordant positive and negative results for anti-HCV, Murex Ag/Ab, and HCV RNA tests. In the HIV/HCV group, all 100 samples were positive for both anti-HCV and Murex Ag/Ab tests, whereas 88 patients (88% were HCV RNA positive. In the uremia group, 14 (69.0% of the 23 anti-HCV-positive patients were HCV RNA positive, whereas 14 (77.8% of the 18 Murex Ag/Ab–positive patients were HCV RNA positive. None of anti-HCV-negative or Murex Ag/Ab–negative patients were HCV RNA positive. Based on the HCV RNA assay, the sensitivities for both anti-HCV and Murex Ag/Ab assays were 100%, whereas the specificities of these two assays were 89.7% and 95.4%, respectively. With good sensitivity and specificity, the Murex Ag/Ab assay could be a useful alternative diagnostic tool, especially in immunocompromised populations, such as patients with uremia or those infected with HIV.

  16. Both group 4 capsule and lipopolysaccharide O-antigen contribute to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli resistance to human α-defensin 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny-Lee Thomassin

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC are food-borne pathogens that colonize the small intestine and colon, respectively. To cause disease, these pathogens must overcome the action of different host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs secreted into these distinct niches. We have shown previously that EHEC expresses high levels of the OmpT protease to inactivate the human cathelicidin LL-37, an AMP present in the colon. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms used by EPEC to resist human α-defensin 5 (HD-5, the most abundant AMP in the small intestine. Quantitative PCR was used to measure transcript levels of various EPEC surface structures. High transcript levels of gfcA, a gene required for group 4 capsule (G4C production, were observed in EPEC, but not in EHEC. The unencapsulated EPEC ∆gfcA and EHEC wild-type strains were more susceptible to HD-5 than EPEC wild-type. Since the G4C is composed of the same sugar repeats as the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen, an -antigen ligase (waaL deletion mutant was generated in EPEC to assess its role in HD-5 resistance. The ∆waaL EPEC strain was more susceptible to HD-5 than both the wild-type and ∆gfcA strains. The ∆gfcA∆waaL EPEC strain was not significantly more susceptible to HD-5 than the ∆waaL strain, suggesting that the absence of -antigen influences G4C formation. To determine whether the G4C and -antigen interact with HD-5, total polysaccharide was purified from wild-type EPEC and added to the ∆gfcA∆waaL strain in the presence of HD-5. The addition of exogenous polysaccharide protected the susceptible strain against HD-5 killing in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that HD-5 binds to the polysaccharides present on the surface of EPEC. Altogether, these findings indicate that EPEC relies on both the G4C and the -antigen to resist the bactericidal activity of HD-5.

  17. Development of multiplex serological assay for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzou, Samson Muuo; Fujii, Yoshito; Miura, Masashi; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Itoh, Makoto; Salam, Md Abdus; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by Kinetoplastid infection. Serological tests are useful for epidemiological surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex serological assay for HAT to assess the diagnostic value of selected HAT antigens for sero-epidemiological surveillance. We cloned loci encoding eight antigens from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, expressed the genes in bacterial systems, and purified the resulting proteins. Antigens were subjected to Luminex multiplex assays using sera from HAT and VL patients to assess the antigens' immunodiagnostic potential. Among T. b. gambiense antigens, the 64-kDa and 65-kDa invariant surface glycoproteins (ISGs) and flagellar calcium binding protein (FCaBP) had high sensitivity for sera from T. b. gambiense patients, yielding AUC values of 0.871, 0.737 and 0.858 respectively in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The ISG64, ISG65, and FCaBP antigens were partially cross-reactive to sera from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients. The GM6 antigen was cross-reactive to sera from T. b. rhodesiense patients as well as to sera from VL patients. Furthermore, heterogeneous antibody responses to each individual HAT antigen were observed. Testing for multiple HAT antigens in the same panel allowed specific and sensitive detection. Our results demonstrate the utility of applying multiplex assays for development and evaluation of HAT antigens for use in sero-epidemiological surveillance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. EFFECT OF PLANT LECTINS ON HUMAN BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON PLANT FOODS AND JUICES

    OpenAIRE

    B. Venkata Raman; B. Sravani; P. Phani Rekha; K.V.N. Lalitha; B. Narasimha Rao

    2012-01-01

    Different plant lectins have been studied for lectin binding activity on ABO blood group system individually to study their suitability for consumption. 45% of plants were found to show blood group agglutination activity against A, B, AB and O groups. These results showed more suitability for consumption of investigated plants and their products to entire human population. Data also alarming human to be more careful about the plant lectins reacting with blood groups as the similar reactions ...

  19. Impact of Vaccination History on Serological Testing in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie

    2017-12-21

    Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposición a Estreptococo del grupo B en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva Serologic evidence of high exposure to Group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae in Mexican women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Palacios-Saucedo

    2002-01-01

    Sera Bank; serum samples were collected during a national seroepidemiologic survey conducted in 1987-1988. The assays for standardization and for evaluation of seroprevalence were carried out at the Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Children's Hospital Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security from January to November 1995. IgG antibodies against group B antigen were studied with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA developed in our lab. Group B antigen was produced and purified from the reference strain GBS 110. Results. A total of 2669 serum samples were studied; 2405 were positive to anti-group B antigen IgG antibodies, for a seroprevalence of 90.2%. No differences in prevalence were found among the different age groups or among the different states of the country. Conclusions. The high seroprevalence of antibodies against GBS suggests that young women in Mexico are commonly exposed to GBS infection.

  1. Systematic screening for novel, serologically reactive Hepatitis E Virus epitopes

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    Osterman Andreas

    2012-01-01

    not necessarily improve sensitivity and specificity, but broaden the overall quality of existing test systems. ORF2 and ORF3-antigens are still commonly used in diagnostic assays and possibly hold the potential to serologically differentiate between genotype 1 and 3 infections. Our systematic approach is a suitable method to investigate HEV domains for their serologic antigenicity. Epitope screening of native viral domains could be a preferable tool in developing new serologic test components.

  2. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

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    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  3. Human platelet antigens - 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, B R; McFarland, J G

    2014-02-01

    To date, 33 human platelet alloantigens (HPAs) have been identified on six functionally important platelet glycoprotein (GP) complexes and have been implicated in alloimmune platelet disorders including foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), posttransfusion purpura (PTP) and multitransfusion platelet refractoriness (MPR). The greatest number of recognized HPA (20 of 33) resides on the GPIIb/IIIa complex, which serves as the receptor for ligands important in mediating haemostasis and inflammation. These include HPA-1a, the most commonly implicated HPA in FNAIT and PTP in Caucasian populations. Other platelet GP complexes, GPIb/V/IX, GPIa/IIa and CD109, express the remaining 13 HPAs. Of the recognized HPAs, 12 occur as six serologically and genetically defined biallelic 'systems' where the -a form designates the higher frequency allele and the -b form, the lower. Twenty-one other HPAs are low-frequency or rare antigens for which postulated higher frequency -a alleles have not yet been identified as antibody specificities. In addition to the HPA markers, platelets also express ABO and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antigens; antibodies directed at the former are occasionally important in FNAIT, and to the latter, in MPR. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Estudo da mucosa nasal de contatos de hanseníase, com positividade para o antígeno glicolipídio fenólico 1 Nasal mucosa study of leprosy contacts with positive serology for the phenolic glycolipid 1 antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina da Costa Martins

    2010-10-01

    reaction of the nasal cavity mucosa on household and peridomiciliary contacts with positive serology for the phenolic glycolipid 1 antigen. METHODOLOGY: Between 2003 at 2006 there was a prospective cross-sectional clinical study with 31 contacts with patients with leprosy with positive serology against PGL-1, 05 negative controls and 01 positive control. RESULTS: Between seropositive contacts, real-time PCR was positive for M. leprae DNA in 06 (19.35% of them and the higher number of genome copies were found in contacts who became sick. CONCLUSION: Nasal mucosa tests alone did not enable the early diagnosis of Leprosy. However, through the combination of various methods, tests on the contacts can help identify subclinical infection and monitor the contacts that could be responsible for spreading the disease.

  5. No evidence for a direct effect of von Willebrand factor's ABH blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J

    BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated.

  6. No association between histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to clinical infections with genogroup II norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Tamar; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Kayouf, Raid; Sela, Tamar; Ambar, Ruhama; Klement, Eyal

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. In the present study, the association between NoV susceptibility and the ABO histo-blood group was studied during 2 outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in military units in Israel caused by genogroup II (GII) NoVs. The findings demonstrate that, unlike for genogroup I of NoV, there is no association between the ABO histo-blood group and clinical infection with GII NoVs. This is the largest study to test the association between NoVs, proven clinical infection with GII, and the ABO histo-blood group.

  7. C6 Peptide-Based Multiplex Phosphorescence Analysis (PHOSPHAN for Serologic Confirmation of Lyme Borreliosis.

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    Vera G Pomelova

    Full Text Available A single-tier immunoassay using the C6 peptide of VlsE (C6 from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bb has been proposed as a potential alternative to conventional two-tier testing for the serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States and Europe.To evaluate the performance of C6 peptide based multiplex Phosphorescence Analysis (PHOSPHAN for the serologic confirmation of Lyme borreliosis (LB in Russian patients.Serum samples (n = 351 were collected from 146 patients with erythema migrans (EM; samples from 131 of these patients were taken several times prior to treatment and at different stages of recovery. The control group consisted of 197 healthy blood donors and 31 patients with other diseases, all from the same highly endemic region of Russia. All samples were analyzed by PHOSPHAN for IgM and IgG to Bb C6, recombinant OspC and VlsE proteins, and C6 peptides from B. garinii and B. afzelii.IgM and IgG to Bb C6 were identified in 43 and 95 out of 131 patients (32.8 and 72.5%, respectively; seroconversion of IgM antibodies was observed in about half of the patients (51.2%, and of IgG antibodies, in almost all of them (88.4%. Additional detection of OspC-IgM and VlsE-IgM or IgG to C6 from B. garinii or B. afzelii did not contribute significantly to the overall sensitivity of the multiplex immunoassay.The multiplex phosphorescence immunoassay is a promising method for simultaneously revealing the spectrum of antibodies to several Borrelia antigens. Detection of IgM and IgG to Bb C6 in the sera of EM patients provides effective serologic confirmation of LB and, with high probability, indicates an active infection process.

  8. Evolution of hepatitis B serological markers in HIV coinfected patients: a case study

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    Ana Luiza de Castro Conde Toscano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the evolution of serological markers among HIV and hepatitis B coinfected patients, with emphasis on evaluating the reactivation or seroreversion of these markers. METHODS The study population consisted of patients met in an AIDS Outpatient Clinic in São Paulo State, Brazil. We included in the analysis all HIV-infected and who underwent at least two positive hepatitis B surface antigen serological testing during clinical follow up, with tests taken six months apart. Patients were tested with commercial kits available for hepatitis B serological markers by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Clinical variables were collected: age, sex, CD4+ T-cell count, HIV viral load, alanine aminotransferase level, exposure to antiretroviral drugs including lamivudine and/or tenofovir. RESULTS Among 2,242 HIV positive patients, we identified 105 (4.7% patients with chronic hepatitis B. Follow up time for these patients varied from six months to 20.5 years. All patients underwent antiretroviral therapy during follow-up. Among patients with chronic hepatitis B, 58% were hepatitis B “e” antigen positive at the first assessment. Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen occurred in 15% (16/105 of patients with chronic hepatitis B, and 50% (8/16 of these patients presented subsequent reactivation or seroreversion of hepatitis B surface antigen. Among hepatitis B “e” antigen positive patients, 57% (35/61 presented clearance of this serologic marker. During clinical follow up, 28.5% (10/35 of those who initially cleared hepatitis B “e” antigen presented seroreversion or reactivation of this marker. CONCLUSIONS Among HIV coinfected patients under antiretroviral therapy, changes of HBV serological markers were frequently observed. These results suggest that frequent monitoring of these serum markers should be recommended.

  9. Significance of isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in Dutch national vaccination campaign of behavioural high-risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, R. P. M.; Gotz, H. M.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; Heijnen, M. L. A.; van Steenbergen, J. A.; Kroes, A. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Dutch national vaccination campaign for behavioural risk groups, anti-HBcore is used as the primary HBV screening test. Samples with positive results undergo testing for active infection (HBsAg) but are otherwise accepted as indicating past infection, thereby assuming immunity. This study

  10. Serologic detection of coccidioidomycosis antibodies in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; da Costa, Ana Karoline Freire; Nagao, Maria Aparecida Tiemi Dias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2009-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Coccidioides spp. The disease is endemic in Brazil but its incidence is underreported as it is not a notifiable disease. This article presents the results of a serologic survey carried out with 229 volunteers in northeast Brazil by the immunodiffusion (ID) test with commercial Coccidioides spp. antigens. The commercial ID test detected 15 individuals without clinical diagnosis of the disease and two individuals in treatment for coccidioidomycosis. Regarding the epidemiological data, most of the positive individuals were male, between 18 and 65 years of age and were engaged in armadillo hunting. Three women who had never participated in armadillo hunts also displayed positive results for coccidioidal antibodies. Besides armadillo hunts, exposure to environmental dust in endemic areas may account for the serologic response detected in the study. The data from this study suggest the importance of performing epidemiological surveys for coccidioidomycosis in order to understand the prevalence of this disease in Brazil.

  11. Virulence Role of the GlcNAc Side Chain of the Lancefield Cell Wall Carbohydrate Antigen in Non-M1-Serotype Group A Streptococcus

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    Anna Henningham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of streptococci is based upon expression of unique cell wall carbohydrate antigens. All serotypes of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes, a leading cause of infection-related mortality worldwide, express the group A carbohydrate (GAC. GAC, the classical Lancefield antigen, is comprised of a polyrhamnose backbone with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc side chains. The immunodominant GlcNAc epitope of GAC is the basis of all rapid diagnostic testing for GAS infection. We previously identified the 12-gene GAC biosynthesis gene cluster and determined that the glycosyltransferase GacI was required for addition of the GlcNAc side chain to the polyrhamnose core. Loss of the GAC GlcNAc epitope in serotype M1 GAS resulted in attenuated virulence in two animal infection models and increased GAS sensitivity to killing by whole human blood, serum, neutrophils, and antimicrobial peptides. Here, we report that the GAC biosynthesis gene cluster is ubiquitous among 520 GAS isolates from global sources, representing 105 GAS emm serotypes. Isogenic ΔgacI mutants were constructed in M2, M3, M4, M28, and M89 backgrounds and displayed an array of phenotypes in susceptibility to killing by whole human blood, baby rabbit serum, human platelet releasate, human neutrophils, and antimicrobial peptide LL-37. The contribution of the GlcNAc side chain to GAS survival in vivo also varied by strain, demonstrating that it is not a prerequisite for virulence in the murine infection model. Thus, the relative contribution of GAC to virulence in non-M1 serotypes appears to depend on the quorum of other virulence factors that each strain possesses.

  12. [Serological Profiles of Hepatitis-B HBcAb-Positive Blood donors ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Durán, Mauricio; Berrío-Pérez, Maritza; Bermúdez-Forero, María I; Cortés-Buelvas, Armando D; Molina-Guevara, Gloria C; Camacho-Rodríguez, Bernardo A; Forero-Matiz, Sonia P

    2014-01-01

    To assess the serological profiles for HBV in blood donors that were anti-HBc reactive and non-reactive to HBsAg in four Colombian cities. A prospective transversal study was conducted during 17 months, applying a complete serological profile for HBV in samples from blood donors that were anti-HBc reactive and non-reactive to HBsAg, results were analyzed employing descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel and Epiinfo V. 3.5.1. From donors reactive to anti-HBc, 75.0 % shown some additional infection marker for HBV. 1.3 % of blood donors had serological markers for chronical infection with hepatitis B, and a case had reactivity only for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). 6.1 % of donors showed a vaccination serological profile, only with reactivity to anti-HBsAg antibodies. With this study, anti-HBc blood screening importance was confirmed.

  13. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella Mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars; Gradel, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    A Mix-ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigens from Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Typhimurium? was evaluated using samples collected over time in the Danish salmonella surveillance programme for poultry. Serological samples (n = 42813) taken from broiler-breeder flocks after a year...

  14. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH

  15. Diagnosis algorithm for leptospirosis in dogs: disease and vaccination effects on the serological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre-Fontaine, G

    2013-05-11

    Leptospirosis is a common disease in dogs, despite their current vaccination. Vet surgeons may use a serological test to verify their clinical observations. The gold standard is the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). After infection, the dog produces agglutinating antibodies against the lipopolyosidic antigens shared by the infectious strain but also, after vaccination, against the lipopolyosidic antigens shared by the serovars used in the bacterins (Leptospira species serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola in most countries). MATs were performed in a group of 102 healthy field dogs and a group of 6 Canicola-challenged dogs. A diagnosis algorithm was constructed based on age, previous vaccinations, kinetics of the agglutinating antibodies after infection or vaccination and the delay after onset of the disease. This algorithm was applied to 169 well-documented sera (clinical and vaccine data) from 272 sick dogs with suspected leptospirosis. Totally, 102 dogs were vaccinated according to the usual vaccination scheme and 30 were not vaccinated. Leptospirosis was confirmed by MAT in 37/102 (36.2 per cent) vaccinated dogs and remained probable in 14 others (13.7 per cent), thus indicating the permanent exposure of dogs and the weakness of the protection offered by the current vaccines to pathogenic Leptospira.

  16. Polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith S Málaga-Machaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in clinical samples is considered an important diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. The production and use of polyclonal antibodies may contribute to an increase in the sensitivity of immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease.Polyclonal antibodies were raised in alpacas, rabbits, and hens immunized with trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen, membrane proteins, trypomastigote lysate antigen and recombinant 1F8 to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis was performed to determine specificity of the developed antibodies. An antigen capture ELISA of circulating antigens in serum, plasma and urine samples was developed using IgY polyclonal antibodies against T. cruzi membrane antigens (capture antibody and IgG from alpaca raised against TESA. A total of 33 serum, 23 plasma and 9 urine samples were analyzed using the developed test. Among serum samples, compared to serology, the antigen capture ELISA tested positive in 55% of samples. All plasma samples from serology positive subjects were positive in the antigen capture ELISA. All urine positive samples had corresponding plasma samples that were also positive when tested by the antigen capture ELISA.Polyclonal antibodies are useful for detection of circulating antigens in both the plasma and urine of infected individuals. Detection of antigens is direct evidence of the presence of the parasite, and could be a better surrogate of current infection status.

  17. Structures of two cell wall-associated polysaccharides of a Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain. A unique teichoic acid-like polysaccharide and the group O antigen which is a C-polysaccharide in common with pneumococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    -polysaccharide constitutes the Lancefield group O antigen. Studies using mAbs directed against the backbone and against the phosphocholine moiety of the C-polysaccharide revealed several different patterns of these epitopes among 95 S. mitis and Streptococcus oralis strains tested and the exclusive presence of the group O...

  18. Impact of age and vaccination history on long-term serological responses after symptomatic B. pertussis infection, a high dimensional data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Twillert, Inonge; Bonačić Marinović, Axel A.; Kuipers, Betsy; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Capturing the complexity and waning patterns of co-occurring immunoglobulin (Ig) responses after clinical B. pertussis infection may help understand how the human host gradually loses protection against whooping cough. We applied bi-exponential modelling to characterise and compare B. pertussis specific serological dynamics in a comprehensive database of IgG, IgG subclass and IgA responses to Ptx, FHA, Prn, Fim2/3 and OMV antigens of (ex-) symptomatic pertussis cases across all age groups. The decay model revealed that antigen type and age group were major factors determining differences in levels and kinetics of Ig (sub) classes. IgG-Ptx waned fastest in all age groups, while IgA to Ptx, FHA, Prn and Fim2/3 decreased fast in the younger but remained high in older (ex-) cases, indicating an age-effect. While IgG1 was the main IgG subclass in response to most antigens, IgG2 and IgG3 dominated the anti-OMV response. Moreover, vaccination history plays an important role in post-infection Ig responses, demonstrated by low responsiveness to Fim2/3 in unvaccinated elderly and by elevated IgG4 responses to multiple antigens only in children primed with acellular pertussis vaccine (aP). This work highlights the complexity of the immune response to this re-emerging pathogen and factors determining its Ig quantity and quality. PMID:28091579

  19. HLA II class antigens and susceptibility to coeliac disease

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    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is a systemic autoimmune, complex and multifactorial disorder, which is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The only established genetic risk factors so far are the human leucocyte antigens. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of II class human leukocyte antigens (HLA in patients with coeliac disease and to investigate the susceptibility to coeliac disease in family members. We typed HLA DR and DQ antigens in 37 patients from Vojvodina with coeliac disease, 23 first-degree relatives, and 210 controls, serologically using standard lymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA DQ5(1, DQ6(1, DR11(5, DQ7(3, DQ2 and DR15(2 were the most common antigens in the control group. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 was higher in CD patients than in the control group. The relative risks for HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 were 4.846, 6.986 and 2.106, respectively, while positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3 and CD. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR16(2 was higher in first-degree relatives than in the control group while a positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3. A negative association was found between HLA DQ5(1 and DQ6(1 in coeliac patients from Vojvodina and their relatives, in addition to HLA DR11(5 in the group of relatives (RR=0.363,PF=0.232. These findings indicate the impact of the HLA testing for CD in clinical practice in order to rule out the possibility to CD in doubtful cases or in at-risk subjects.

  20. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Notowicz (Alfred)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific

  1. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

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    Aleksei Leonidovich Maslaynski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a classic autoimmune disease associated with the production of wide range of autoantibodies, and their detection has diagnostic and prognostic implication. The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of antibodies against modified citrullinated vimentin (AMCV and nuclear antigen RA33 of the IgA rheumatoid factor (RF versus the value of routinely used profile of autoantibodies in diagnostic work-up of RA. Material and methods. 253 patients with RA prehistory of varying duration were included into the study group. The control group was comprised of 92 patients, including patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies and diffuse connective tissue diseases, as well as sex and age matched healthy controls. Serum levels of IgM and IgA RF, antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP, ACMV, anti-keratin antibodies (AKA, antibodies against RA33 antigen (ARA33 and antinuclear factor (ANF were measured in all patients and controls. Results and discussion. Diagnostic sensitivity of AMCV equaled 78%, ACCP — 77%, IgM RF — 71%, IgA RF — 43%, AKA — 43%, ARA33 — 31% and ANF — 31%. All anti-citrullinic antibodies (AKA, ACCP, ACMV were significantly more commonly associated with IgM RF. Among RF and ACCP seronegative patients ACMV were found in 24% cases with 20 IU/Ml detection threshold, and in 21% — with 30 IU/Ml, allowing to increase diagnostic specificity of the test up to 91% with the increment of diagnostic threshold. Incidence of ARA33 was not significantly different among the RF and ACCP positive or negative subgroups, thus making ARA33 an independent RA marker. Specificity of this marker was 87,9%, thus making it inferior to RF and ACCP by a composite of diagnostic characteristics. Conclusions. Integrated measurement of ACMV and ARA33 is a rational approach at the second stage of serologic testing work-up in suspected cases of RA onset, when initial RF and ACCP tests were negative.

  2. Serology for human papillomavirus Serología para el virus del papiloma humano

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    Pierre Coursaget

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties with serology for papillomavirus are associated with the large number of human papillomavirus, cross-reactions between papillomavirus, and to the diversity of lesions and target sites for infection. In addition, the expression of the papillomavirus in the superficial layers of the epithelium gives rise to the weak presentation to immunocompetent cells of viral antigens, which in turn gives rise to a weak serological response. Distinct efforts have been made in previous decades to develop more specific and sensitive serological assays. These former studies use fusion proteins and synthetic peptides, although they remain on the whole uninteresting, due to their lack of sensitivity and specificity. Only in the last few years, and principally due to the advent of various virus-like particles (VLP, have more sensitive and specific assays become available.Las limitaciones para la utilización de la serología para el estudio del virus del papiloma humano con fines clínicos están asociadas con la gran variedad de subtipos humanos, con las reacciones cruzadas que existen entre diversos genotipos, la diversidad de lesiones precursoras de cáncer y con los sitios blancos de infección. Asimismo, la expresión del virus del papiloma humano en las capas superficiales del epitelio dan origen a una débil presentación de células inmunocompetentes de antígenos virales, lo cual origina una elevación de la respuesta serológica. Distintos esfuerzos se han realizado en décadas previas para desarrollar ensayos serológicos más específicos y sensibles. En muchas investigaciones se ha utilizado una fusión de proteínas y péptidos sintéticos que tienen como principal limitación su escasa sensibilidad y especificidad. Sólo en los últimos años, y principalmente debido al arribo de partículas parecidas a este virus, tenemos disponibles ensayos más sensibles y específicos, ampliamente descritos en este artículo.

  3. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a program...

  4. A viral vaccine encoding PSA induces antigen spreading to a common set of self proteins in prostate cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesslinger, Nancy J.; Ng, Alvin; Tsang, Kwong-Yok; Ferrara, Theresa; Schlom, Jeff; Gulley, James L.; Nelson, Brad H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported a randomized phase II clinical trial combining a poxvirus-based vaccine encoding PSA with radiotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. Here we investigate whether vaccination against PSA induced immune responses to additional tumor-associated antigens and how this influenced clinical outcome. Experimental Design Pre- and post-treatment serum samples from patients treated with vaccine + external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) versus EBRT alone were evaluated by Western blot and serological screening of a prostate cancer cDNA expression library (SEREX) to assess the development of treatment-associated autoantibody responses. Results Western blotting revealed treatment-associated autoantibody responses in 15/33 (45.5%) patients treated with vaccine + EBRT versus 1/8 (12.5%) treated with EBRT alone. SEREX screening identified 18 antigens, which were assembled on an antigen array with 16 previously identified antigens. Antigen array screening revealed that seven of 33 patients (21.2%) treated with vaccine + EBRT demonstrated a vaccine-associated autoantibody response to four ubiquitously expressed self antigens: DIRC2, NDUFS1, MRFAP1 and MATN2. These responses were not seen in patients treated with EBRT alone, or other control groups. Patients with autoantibody responses to this panel of antigens had a trend towards decreased biochemical-free survival. Conclusions Vaccine + EBRT induced antigen spreading in a large proportion of patients. A subset of patients developed autoantibodies to a panel of four self antigens and showed a trend toward inferior outcomes. Thus, cancer vaccines directed against tumor-specific antigens can trigger autoantibody responses to self proteins, which may influence the efficacy of vaccination. PMID:20562209

  5. Antigenic characteristics as taxonomic criterion of differentiation of Alternaria spp., pathogenic for carrot and parsley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Aleksandra R.

    2007-01-01

    identification. All investigated isolates, both domestic and the standards, were similar to each other, and they could be correctly identified to the species level using EBIA. Besides grouping to the species level, antigenic characteristics indicated similarities and differences among the isolates within the same and different species, showing their complex relationships which properly reflect their diversity in nature. In all the previous investigations of Alternaria genus fungi up to now, there have been no data about their serological characteristics as possible taxonomic criteria. Introduction of this group of characteristics represents an important contribution both to the taxonomy and implementation of fast and accurate methods of phytopathogenic fungi identification.

  6. Serologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in health care workers, Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Janbakhsh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is a major infectious risk factor for health-care workers (HCWs and public- safety workers. Although seroconversion rate following hepatitis B vaccination is estimated to be more than 90%, serologic response to Heberbiovac HB vaccine currently given in our center in Kermanshah province has been varied in different experiences, So, this study was conducted to determine serologic response in HCWs. Methods: In a descriptive-cross sectional study, in 138 HbcAb from 10 health care centers, HbcAb negatives and vaccinated with Heberbiovac HB (Cuba made, available vaccine in Iran, HbsAb titer was assessed by ELISA. Serologic response as antibody titer equal or more than 10mIU/ml considered protective level (serologic responder. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using X² and Fisher exact test. Results: Within 138 HCWs(60.1% female and 39.9% male, 69.6% had serologic response. The age had significant role in serologic response rate, but sex, weight, smoking and interval from the last time of vaccine reception were not effective factors. Conclusion: Serologic response rate to HBV vaccine in Kermanshah was much lower than other experiences. We need more information about the efficacy of Heberbiovac HB in high-risk groups and general population, the reasons of low efficacy and increasing serologic response. Keywords: Hepatitis B, Vaccine, Serologic response, Heberbiovac HB, Health-care workers

  7. Association of Mean Platelet Volume with Severity, Serology & Treatment Outcome in Dengue Fever: Prognostic Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kritika; Yadav, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue fever (DF) with its severe manifestations such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) has emerged as a major public health problem of international concern. Thrombocytopenia and bleeding are common complications of dengue fever, hence besides platelet counts, there is a need to assess the role of mean platelet volume. Studying association of mean platelet volume (MPV) with severity, serology & treatment outcome to assess its prognostic utility, which can be of great help in limiting morbidity & mortality associated with dengue fever. The present study was conducted in Central Pathology Lab of SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan from the period of March 2013 till October 2013. Blood samples were collected from 200 patients with NS 1 Antigen positivity experiencing febrile illness, clinically consistent with dengue infection. Evaluation of platelet counts, MPV, IgM and IgG antibodies was done in all these cases. Categorical data were presented as numbers (percent) and were compared among groups using Chi-square test. Groups compared for demographic data were presented as mean and standard deviation and were compared using student t-test, ANOVA and Post-Hoc Test, Tukey Test using SPSS, version 20 for Windows. A total of 200 Dengue fever cases were studied. Out of which, 68% cases were of DF, 23% DHF & 9% DSS i.e. classical dengue fever was most common presentation. Maximum (44%) cases were in age group of 15-24 years. Fever was the presenting complaint in all cases (100%). 98% cases of dengue had thrombocytopenia. MPV showed no significant correlation with severity, serology & treatment outcome, thus excluding its role in dengue cases. Mean platelet volume is not important as prognostic parameter in dengue fever.

  8. THE SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF PATHOGENIC AND NON-PATHOGENIC STRAINS OF HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI FROM PARTURIENT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancefield, Rebecca C.; Hare, Ronald

    1935-01-01

    1. The majority of strains of hemolytic streptococci from puerperal infections of the uterus were identified serologically as members of the Group A described by Lancefield. 2. The majority of strains isolated from the birth canal of women whose puerperium was afebrile were not members of Group A. 3. The existence of two new serological groups of hemolytic streptococci, Groups F and G, is described. PMID:19870362

  9. Human leukocyte antigen class II genes and Helicobacter pylori infection: does genotype overwhelm environmental exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Antonio; Maconi, Giovanni; Lombardo, Claudia; Settesoldi, Daniela; Ferrari, Daniela; Ravagnani, Fernando; Andreola, Salvatore; Pizzetti, Paolo; Spinelli, Pasquale; Bertario, Lucio

    2003-09-01

    We investigated associations between human leukocyte antigen class II genes, environmental exposures, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Sixty-eight subjects with histologically confirmed H. pylori and intestinal metaplasia (cases) and 70 healthy subjects without H. pylori (controls) matched for age, sex, and year of birth were included in this study. All patients answered a detailed questionnaire designed to collect sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking, and dietary habits. Human leukocyte antigen class II genes were typed with genomic DNA. The cytotoxins CagA and VacA were investigated with serology. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated from multivariate conditional logistic regression. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to represent the interrelationships of a multiple contingency table. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 genotypes were not significantly associated with H. pylori infection and intestinal metaplasia. No significant association with blood group or Lewis antigen system was found. However, multiple correspondence analysis clearly associated H. pylori with environmental exposure: the control group largely consumed olive oil, fresh fruits, and vegetables and histories of never or formerly smoking and the case group (those positive for H. pylori and metaplasia) largely consumed eggs, meat and butter and had histories of smoking cigarettes. These findings suggested that H. pylori infection is not influenced by a genetic compound and confirmed the relevance of environmental exposure.

  10. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, SallyAnne L; Schares, Gereon; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Mittel, Linda D; Dubey, Jitender P; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Divers, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and 3 serologic assays for the detection of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospective study of 416 donkeys from 6 privately owned herds across 5 U.S. states (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington) was performed. Donkeys were examined for clinical lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis and evaluated for antibodies against B. bennetti using a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and 2 immunoblot assays specific for bradyzoite and tachyzoite antigens, respectively. Donkeys were confirmed to be infected with B. bennetti by histology (cases; n = 32) and were compared to those with no clinical signs of besnoitiosis (controls; n = 384). Identifying clinical lesions in 2 or more locations correctly identified infected donkeys 83% of the time. Donkeys with besnoitiosis had significantly higher FAT titers (P < 0.001) and numbers of bradyzoite (P < 0.001) and tachyzoite (P < 0.001) immunoblot bands than control donkeys. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic assays for detecting besnoitiosis was 88% and 96% for FAT, 81% and 91% for bradyzoite immunoblot, and 91% and 92% for tachyzoite immunoblot, respectively. Fluorescent antibody and immunoblot assays are effective at identifying donkeys with besnoitiosis and provide a more efficient and less invasive diagnostic alternative to histology. © 2014 The Author(s).

  11. Human leukocyte antigen genetics and clinical features of self-treated patients on a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, John A; Vande Voort, Jennifer L; Lahr, Brian D; Van Dyke, Carol T; Kroning, Cynthia M; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Gandhi, Manish J; Murray, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, people start a gluten-free diet (GFD) without a clear celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping is useful in ruling out CD in patients with equivocal results of serologic testing or small-bowel biopsy (SBB), but its utility and the clinical features of patients on self-treated GFD (ST-GFD) are largely unknown. Retrospective study of single tertiary care center cohort compared 137 patients on ST-GFD and 443 patients with well-defined CD. We compared HLA genotype, symptoms, serologic and SBB results, and response to GFD between the 2 groups. Analysis used univariate logistic regression modeling, adjusted for age and sex. Patients with ST-GFD presented more often with diarrhea (Pgluten sensitivity may play a role.

  12. Noninvasive determination of fetal rh blood group, D antigen status by cell-free DNA analysis in maternal plasma: experience in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Paulo Alexandre; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Martinhago, Ciro Dresch; Camano, Luiz; Daher, Silvia; Pares, David Baptista da Silva; Minett, Thais; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Rh blood group, D antigen (RHD) fetal genotyping, using real-time polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood samples, in a racially mixed population. We performed a prospective study conducted between January 2006 and December 2007, analyzing fetal RHD genotype in the plasma of 102 D- pregnant women by real-time polymerase chain reaction, targeting exons 7 and 10 of the RHD gene. Genotype results were compared with cord blood phenotype obtained after delivery or before the first intrauterine transfusion when necessary. Most of the participants (75.5%) were under 28 weeks of pregnancy, and 87.5% had at least one relative of black ancestry. By combining amplification of two exons, the accuracy of genotyping was 98%, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 92%. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.5, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0. The two false-positive cases were confirmed to be pseudogene RHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There were no differences between the patients with positive or negative Coombs test ( P = 0.479). Determination of fetal RHD status in maternal peripheral blood was highly sensitive in this racially mixed population and was not influenced by the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  13. Frequency of Helicobacter pylori blood-group antigen-binding adhesion 2 and sialic acid binding adhesion genes among dyspeptic patients in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Yousefi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this research was to analyze blood-group antigen-binding adhesion (babA2 and sialic acid binding adhesion (sabA genotypes status in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori isolates and their relationship with clinical outcomes. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens were homogenized and placed in Brucella agar medium supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 3 antibiotics and were cultured at 37 °C under microaerophilic conditions and incubated for 4-7 days. H. pylori was identified by typical morphology, gram-staining and urease tests, and babA2 and sabA genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: From a total of 100 H. pylori isolates; babA2 and sabA genes were detected in 23.0 and 26.4%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between these genes and clinical outcomes (P < 0.050. Conclusion: We found that the babA2 status was not related to clinical outcomes in Tabriz, Iran. However, sabA was a promoting determinant for disease, and multivariate analysis disclosed sabA to be an independent marker of non-ulcer diseases in our subjects.

  14. Profile of anti-Tp47 antibodies in patients with positive serology for syphilis analized by Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana Paula Félix de; Sato, Neuza Satomi

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, syphilis is still a great problem of public health. Serological test is essential for syphilis diagnosis and the current trend is the use of recombinant antigen in the treponemal tests, due to its confirmed higher sensibility and specificity. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the profile of anti-Tp47 antibodies in patients with positive serology for syphilis. One hundred positive sera samples were analyzed by Western Blot (WB) technique, using the recombinant antigen (rTp47). Ten of them did not present antibodies against the fraction rTp47, the results were confirmed by WB using native T. pallidum antigen. All ten samples had antibodies against the fractions Tp17 and Tp15 and presented low reactivity in VDRL, negative results or title below than 1:4. Considering that VDRL is used for therapeutic monitoring due to seroreversion of nontreponemal antibodies in response to the treatment, and that some studies reported loss of treponemal antibodies after treatment, we could speculate if these ten samples are cases of serological memory from patients previously treated for syphilis. In addition, although several features state the Tp47 fraction as one of the major antigenic components, based on our results we point out to the importance of including other antigenic proteins such as Tp17 and Tp15 in addition to Tp47 in tests for serological screening of syphilis.

  15. [Efficacy of UK 4271 (oxamniquine, Pfizer) in Schistosoma mansoni bilharziasis in western Africa (parasitological and serological study of 252 children)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P; Geunier, M

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted on 252 childrens afflicted with Schistosomiasis (S. mansoni and S. haematobium) living in endemic area and treated with doses of 15 mg/kg to 60 mg/kg of Oxamniquine. During eight months, parasitologic and serologic (Indirect fluorescent antibody test) controls were continued. A single per os dose of 15 mg/kg appears best and 87% cure rates were obtained with only 12% reinfestation. Antibody studies indicate, at this dosage, an antigenic stimulation that lasts at least 8 months, thus conferring a "vaccinating" action possible to be used with large population groups. Further studies show acceptable tolerance clinically of Oxamniquine and its ineffectiveness against S. haematobium. As mentioned by others, it appears that Oxamniquine has usefulness in treatment of schistosomiasis due to S. mansoni.

  16. Limited Value of Assays Using Detection of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to the Two Recombinant Dense Granule Antigens, GRA1 and GRA6 Nt of Toxoplasma gondii, for Distinguishing between Acute and Chronic Infections in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandiz, Josette; Mercier, Corinne; Wallon, Martine; Picot, Stéphane; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Peyron, François

    2004-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two recombinant antigens of Toxoplasma gondii (GRA1 and GRA6 Nt) was developed in order to differentiate between pregnant women with a serological profile of recently acquired infection and those with chronic infection. Both proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Thirty-two serum samples from subjects who presented seroconversion within 3 months before sampling (group 1; acute profile), 46 serum samples from women who had a positive serology at least 1 year before sampling (group 2; chronic profile), and 100 serum samples from pregnant women who were not infected by T. gondii (group 3) were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity. For both antigens, the specificity reached 98%. In both groups of infected patients, the overall sensitivity scored was 60% for GRA1 and 83% for GRA6 Nt. In group 1, 34% of sera reacted with GRA1 whereas 84% of sera reacted with GRA6 Nt; in group 2, however, sensitivities were 78.2 and 82.6%, respectively. Combination of the readings obtained with both antigens yielded a sensitivity of 91%. A serological follow-up of 10 women who seroconverted during pregnancy displayed three different serological patterns: (i) a GRA profile paralleling the IgG curve, as detected by the commercial kit, (ii) a GRA1 profile, or (iii) GRA1 and GRA6 Nt profiles remaining negative for at least 8 weeks after the reference test gave positive results. Taken together, these results suggest that neither GRA1 nor GRA6 Nt is sensitive enough to be used routinely to differentiate between acute and chronic toxoplasmic infections. PMID:15539499

  17. A group-specific inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteinases selectively inhibits both proteolytic degradation and presentation of the antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine by guinea pig accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    A limited intralysosomal proteolytic degradation is probably a key event in the accessory cell processing of large protein antigens before their presentation to T cells. With the aid of highly specific inhibitors of proteinases, we have examined the role of proteolysis in the presentation...... of antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. The proteinase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanylalanine-diazomethyl-ketone, which selectively inhibits cysteine proteinases, was used to block this set of enzymes in cultured cells. We demonstrate that the selective inhibition of the cysteine proteinases...... inhibitor. Another inhibitor, pepstatin A, which selectively blocks aspartic proteinases, did not block the presentation of dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. The results identify cysteine proteinases, probably lysosomal, as one of the groups of enzymes involved in antigen processing....

  18. Antigenic maps of influenza A(H3N2) produced with human antisera obtained after primary infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Fonville (Judith); P.L.A. Fraaij (Pieter); G. de Mutsert (Gerrie); S. Wilks; R. van Beek (Ruud); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Antigenic characterization of influenza viruses is typically based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data for viral isolates tested against strain-specific postinfection ferret antisera. Here, similar virus characterizations were performed using serological data from

  19. Serological study of yaws in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-Ying; Soebekti, R.

    1955-01-01

    This report presents the results of serological analyses made by the laboratory of the Treponematoses Control Project, Indonesia, from its establishment in April 1951 until April 1953. All sera were tested quantitatively with the VDRL and Kline slide-tests or the Kahn test, or with all three. A study of the mean reagin titre in untreated yaws cases showed that the percentage of seronegative reactors among clinically positive cases was low. Less seronegativity was observed among females than males. Examination of decrease in mean reagin titre after treatment by clinical group showed maximum to minimum decrease in the following sequence: early contagious, early contagious plus hyperkeratosis, ulcerative plus osteo-articular, ulcerative, hyperkeratosis, and osteo-articular lesions. The decrease tended to be greater in females than males and in patients with high than with low titre; it also varied with the age of the patient. No significant variation in decrease was noted when four different PAM treatment schedules were tested comparatively. The percentage of serological cure and improvement with all schedules was highest in the cases with early lesions, and in the younger age-groups. A study of patients requiring re-treatment at the time of resurvey showed no important difference in mean reagin titre between clinically cured and uncured patients suffering from palmar or plantar hyperkeratosis and ulcerative or osteo-articular lesions. Serological testing of sera from clinically negative household contacts and non-contacts, with or without previous history of yaws, gave the following results: Among the household contacts, the number of seronegative reactors, while not affected by age-distribution, was significantly higher in the history-positive than in the history-negative groups. The percentage of seropositive reactors was in direct proportion to the prevalence of yaws, the seropositivity-rate being high in villages with a yaws incidence of 11%-30%. The report also

  20. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  1. H-2g, a glucose analog of blood group H antigen, mediates monocyte recruitment in vitro and in vivo via IL-8/CXCL8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabquer BJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bradley J Rabquer,1,2 Yong Hou,1 Jeffrey H Ruth,1 Wei Luo,1 Daniel T Eitzman,1 Alisa E Koch,3,1 Mohammad A Amin11University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Albion College, Biology Department, Albion, MI, USA; 3VA Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Monocyte (MN recruitment is an essential inflammatory component of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In this study we investigated the ability of 2-fucosyllactose (H-2g, a glucose analog of blood group H antigen to induce MN migration in vivo and determined if H-2g-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8 plays a role in MN ingress in RA.Methods: Sponge granuloma and intravital microscopy assays were performed to examine H-2g-induced in vivo MN migration and rolling, respectively. MNs were stimulated with H-2g, and the production of IL-8/CXCL8 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, in vitro MN migration assays and an in vivo RA synovial tissue severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model were used to determine the role of IL-8/CXCL8 in H-2g-induced MN migration.Results: In vivo, H-2g induced significantly greater MN migration compared to phosphate buffered saline. Intravital microscopy revealed that H-2g mediates MN migration in vivo by inducing MN rolling. In addition, H-2g induced MN production of IL-8/CXCL8, a process that was dependent on Src kinase. Moreover, we found that H-2g mediated MN migration in vitro, and in vivo migration was inhibited by a neutralizing anti-IL-8/CXCL8 antibody.Conclusion: These findings suggest that H-2g mediates MN recruitment in vitro and in vivo (in part via IL-8/CXCL8.Keywords: inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, chemokine, migration

  2. Epitope mapping of histo blood group antigens bound to norovirus VLPs using STD NMR experiments reveals fine details of molecular recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, Brigitte; Leuthold, Mila; Parra, Francisco; Dalton, Kevin P; Meloncelli, Peter J; Lowary, Todd L; Peters, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Attachment of human noroviruses to histo blood group antigens (HBGAs) is thought to be critical for the infection process. Therefore, we have determined binding epitopes of synthetic type 1 to 6 blood group A- and B-tetrasaccharides binding to GII.4 human Norovirus virus like particles (VLPs) using STD NMR experiments. So far, little information is available from crystal structure analysis studies on the interactions of the reducing-end sugars with the protruding domain (P-domain) of the viral coat protein VP1. Here, we show that the reducing-end sugars make notable contacts with the protein surface. The type of glycosidic linkage, and the identity of the sugar at the reducing end modulate HBGA recognition. Most strikingly, type 2 structures yield only very poor saturation transfer indicating impeded binding. This observation is in accordance with previous mass spectrometry based affinity measurements, and can be understood based on recent crystal structure data of a complex of highly homologous GII.4 P-dimers with H-type 2 trisaccharide where the N-acetyl group of the reducing N-acetyl glucosamine residue points towards a loop comprising amino acids Q390 to H395. We suggest that in our case, binding of type 2 A- and B-tetrasaccharides leads to steric conflicts with this loop. In order to identify factors determining L-Fuc recognition, we also synthesized GII.4 VLPs with point mutations D391A and H395A. Prior studies had suggested that these residues, located in a second shell around the L-Fuc binding site, assist L-Fuc binding. STD NMR experiments with L-Fuc and B-trisaccharide in the presence of wild type and mutant VLPs yield virtually identical binding epitopes suggesting that these two mutations do not significantly alter HBGA recognition. Our study emphasizes that recognition of α-(1→2)-linked L-Fuc residues is a conserved feature of GII.4 noroviruses. However, structural variation of the HBGA core structures clearly modulates molecular recognition

  3. Epidemiological survey in single-species flocks from Poland reveals expanded genetic and antigenic diversity of small ruminant lentiviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Stephen; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections are widespread in Poland and circulation of subtypes A1, A12, A13, B1 and B2 was detected. The present work aimed at extending previous study based on the analysis of a larger number of animals from single-species flocks. Animals were selected for genetic analysis based on serological reactivity towards a range of recombinant antigens derived from Gag and Env viral proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of subtypes B2 and A12 in both goats and sheep and subtypes A1 and B1 in goats only. In addition, two novel subtypes, A16 and A17, were found in goats. Co-infections with strains belonging to different subtypes within A and B groups were detected in 1 sheep and 4 goats originating from four flocks. Although the reactivity of serum samples towards the recombinant antigens confirmed immunological relatedness between Gag epitopes of different subtypes and the cross-reactive nature of Gag antibodies, eleven serum samples failed to react with antigens representing all subtypes detected up-to-date in Poland, highlighting the limitations of the serological diagnosis. These data showed the complex nature of SRLV subtypes circulating in sheep and goats in Poland and the need for improving SRLV-related diagnostic capacity. PMID:29505612

  4. Evaluation of serology, bacteriological isolation and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract after experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiers, Koen; Donné, Eef; Van Overbeke, Ingrid; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2002-09-24

    Pigs, asymptomatically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in their upper respiratory tract, can transmit the infection. Detection of such animals is indispensable to prevent the intake of the disease in a herd. This study was conducted to evaluate bacteriology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology for the detection of subclinically infected pigs. Pigs were inoculated onto the tonsils with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 strain (n=12, group 1) or phosphate buffered saline solution (PBSS) (n=5, group 2). To prevent infection of the lungs, pigs of group 1 were treated three times with sodium ceftiofur as an aerosol. A third group (n=5) was inoculated intranasally with the same strain. All animals were euthanized 30 days post-inoculation (dpi). In pigs of group 1, clinical signs were not observed. A small lung lesion was found in only one pig and A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated from this lesion. The bacterium was not isolated from the lungs of animals that did not develop lung lesions. A. pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated in tonsils of 9/12 animals using bacteriological isolation, whereas it was demonstrated in mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils of all 12 animals by PCR. In non-infected animals (group 2), clinical signs were not observed and A. pleuropneumoniae was not demonstrated in any sample. All intranasally infected animals (group 3) developed disease signs and lung lesions. High antibody titers against ApxI, ApxII and heat-stable antigens were detected in animals that developed lung lesions. Antibody titers against these antigens were low or absent in all other pigs. It was concluded that pigs carrying A. pleuropneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract generally do not show measurable antibodies in serum. Therefore, sensitive methods for the detection of the etiological agent such as PCR are required to identify carrier animals, while serological methods are not suitable.

  5. Serological studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Nkouawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3% with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined.Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%, 72 (42.8%, and 19 (11.3% persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%, 25 (14.9% and 2 (1.2% of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas.Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early treatment.

  6. Serological Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis: High Rate of Inter-laboratorial Variability among Medical Mycology Reference Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Monica Scarpelli Martinelli; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; Svidzinski, Teresinha Inez Estivalet; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Martinez, Roberto; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Benard, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Background Serological tests have long been established as rapid, simple and inexpensive tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of PCM. However, different protocols and antigen preparations are used and the few attempts to standardize the routine serological methods have not succeeded. Methodology/Principal findings We compared the performance of six Brazilian reference centers for serological diagnosis of PCM. Each center provided 30 sera of PCM patients, with positive high, intermediate and low titers, which were defined as the “reference” titers. Each center then applied its own antigen preparation and serological routine test, either semiquantitative double immunodifusion or counterimmmunoelectrophoresis, in the 150 sera from the other five centers blindly as regard to the “reference” titers. Titers were transformed into scores: 0 (negative), 1 (healing titers), 2 (active disease, low titers) and 3 (active disease, high titers) according to each center's criteria. Major discordances were considered between scores indicating active disease and scores indicating negative or healing titers; such discordance when associated with proper clinical and other laboratorial data, may correspond to different approaches to the patient's treatment. Surprisingly, all centers exhibited a high rate of “major” discordances with a mean of 31 (20%) discordant scores. Alternatively, when the scores given by one center to their own sera were compared with the scores given to their sera by the remaining five other centers, a high rate of major discordances was also found, with a mean number of 14.8 sera in 30 presenting a discordance with at least one other center. The data also suggest that centers that used CIE and pool of isolates for antigen preparation performed better. Conclusion There are inconsistencies among the laboratories that are strong enough to result in conflicting information regarding the patients' treatment. Renewed efforts should be promoted to improve

  7. Serological diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis: high rate of inter-laboratorial variability among medical mycology reference centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Scarpelli Martinelli Vidal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serological tests have long been established as rapid, simple and inexpensive tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of PCM. However, different protocols and antigen preparations are used and the few attempts to standardize the routine serological methods have not succeeded.We compared the performance of six Brazilian reference centers for serological diagnosis of PCM. Each center provided 30 sera of PCM patients, with positive high, intermediate and low titers, which were defined as the "reference" titers. Each center then applied its own antigen preparation and serological routine test, either semiquantitative double immunodifusion or counterimmmunoelectrophoresis, in the 150 sera from the other five centers blindly as regard to the "reference" titers. Titers were transformed into scores: 0 (negative, 1 (healing titers, 2 (active disease, low titers and 3 (active disease, high titers according to each center's criteria. Major discordances were considered between scores indicating active disease and scores indicating negative or healing titers; such discordance when associated with proper clinical and other laboratorial data, may correspond to different approaches to the patient's treatment. Surprisingly, all centers exhibited a high rate of "major" discordances with a mean of 31 (20% discordant scores. Alternatively, when the scores given by one center to their own sera were compared with the scores given to their sera by the remaining five other centers, a high rate of major discordances was also found, with a mean number of 14.8 sera in 30 presenting a discordance with at least one other center. The data also suggest that centers that used CIE and pool of isolates for antigen preparation performed better.There are inconsistencies among the laboratories that are strong enough to result in conflicting information regarding the patients' treatment. Renewed efforts should be promoted to improve standardization of the serological diagnosis of PCM.

  8. Serologic reactions against Salmonella in samples from broiler parent stock with and without preceding colibacillosis: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Feld, Niels Christian; Andersen, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    In the Danish Salmonella Control Program, eggs from broiler parent flocks are surveyed by serologic analysis every 4 wk for antibodies against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O-antigens 1, 4, 5, 9, and 12 (Mix-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and 6 and 7 (Infantis-ELISA). The antibody res...

  9. Prevalence and sequence variations of the genes encoding the five antigens included in the novel 5CVMB vaccine covering group B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Susanne; Hedberg, Sara Thulin; Mölling, Paula; Unemo, Magnus; Comanducci, Maurizio; Rappuoli, Rino; Olcén, Per

    2009-03-04

    During the recent years, projects are in progress for designing broad-range non-capsular-based meningococcal vaccines, covering also serogroup B isolates. We have examined three genes encoding antigens (NadA, GNA1030 and GNA2091) included in a novel vaccine, i.e. the 5 Component Vaccine against Meningococcus B (5CVMB), in terms of gene prevalence and sequence variations. These data were combined with the results from a similar study, examining the two additional antigens included in the 5CVMB (fHbp and GNA2132). nadA and fHbp v. 1 were present in 38% (n=36), respectively 71% (n=67) of the isolates, whereas gna2132, gna1030 and gna2091 were present in all the Neisseria meningitidis isolates tested (n=95). The level of amino acid conservation was relatively high in GNA1030 (93%), GNA2091 (92%), and within the main variants of NadA and fHbp. GNA2132 (54% of the amino acids conserved) appeared to be the most diversified antigen. Consequently, the theoretical coverage of the 5CVMB antigens and the feasibility to use these in a broad-range meningococcal vaccine is appealing.

  10. Evaluation of commercial latex agglutination reagents for grouping streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facklam, R R; Cooksey, R C; Wortham, E C

    1979-11-01

    A total of 155 strains of beta-hemolytic streptococci were serologically grouped by conventional techniques (Lancefield extraction and capillary precipitin testing) and by latex agglutination (LA). Agreement between conventional and LA techniques was 97% when the instructions of the manufacturer for the LA technique were followed. Agreement of 99% was obtained when modified autoclave extracts were used as antigens in the LA procedure. A total of 82 strains of non-beta-hemolytic streptococci were also tested by conventional, prescribed LA, and modified autoclave procedures. The agreement between conventional techniques and both LA procedures was 76%. However, when serological cross-reactions in the conventional grouping procedures were considered as errors, the accuracy of identification of both LA procedures was 88% among the non-beta-hemolytic strains. Of 13 strains of Streptococcus bovis, 10 did not react with the LA group D reagent but were serogroup D by conventional techniques. More S. bovis strains were grouped by the LA technique when extracts of 20 ml of broth cultures were used as antigens; however, cross-reactions were observed with non-group D strains when this technique was applied to them.

  11. Experimental Study of Interference Between Pertussis Antigens and Salk Poliomyelitis Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirehamsy

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available An interference is observed between whooping-cough antigens and Salk polioc vaccine even if the two components are mixed immediately before use. The phenomenon is more evident when flUlid antigens are injected. Pertussis soluble antigen, which gives a good serological response in rabbits, when used alone or combined with DT, is inactivated in the presence of Salk polio vacc:ne

  12. Comparison of three serological tests to detect Paragonimus mexicanus infections in infected cats

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo, William R.; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Alva, Pilar F.; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Sevilla, Carlos R.; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Huiza, Alina F.; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Paragonimiasis is a lung disease caused by Paragonimus trematodes genus. Human infection laboratory diagnosis is usually done by detection of parasite eggs in sputum or feces; however, findings may be negative and alternative diagnostic methods are required. Objectives: To compare three serologic tests for detection of Paragonimus mexicanus somatic antigen (PmAS) antibodies in serum samples of cats infected experimentally. Design: Experimental study. Setting: Instituto de Medicina...

  13. Advances and challenges in paracoccidioidomycosis serology caused by Paracoccidioides species complex: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the possible methodologies for the rapid and inexpensive identification of fungal infections is essential for disease diagnosis, but there are some limitations. To help with this problem, serological methods that detect antigens or antibodies are widely used and are useful for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) through the detection of gp43, which is the main antigen employed for the immunodiagnosis of this disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. However, the use of gp43 has become restricted because it was recently found that this marker is not identified in the infections caused by Paracoccidioides lutzii. Therefore, it is necessary to identify new antigens in both species or antigens specific for P. lutzii to decrease the morbidity and/or mortality associated with PCM. This review provides a discussion of new diagnostic challenges after the recent discoveries regarding the taxonomy of the Paracoccidioides genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of gamma radiation on the immunological and immunochemical properties of cholera. Comm. 3. Serological activity and immunochemical properties of irradiated nonpurified toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedugova, G.I.; Rubtsov, I.V.; Samojlenko, I.I. (Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniya SSSR, Moscow. Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehpidemiologii)

    1984-06-01

    Results of studying the effect of gamma-radiation on immunochemical properties and serologic activity of unpurified cholera exotoxin are presented. It is found that in irradiated toxin preparations physico-chemical alterations take place as the dose of ionizing radiation increases, which brings about the increase in electrophoretic mobility, aggregation of protein components. It is shown that serologic activity contained in antigene toxin preparations retains within the limits of radiation doses studied.

  15. Pengembangan Metode Imunokromatografi untuk Deteksi secara Serologi Campylobacter jejuni pada Ayam DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR DETECTING Campylobacter jejuni ON CHICKEN SEROLOGICALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Rosyidi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp cause infection in human in the form of gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barre syndrome.Campylobacter jejuni is one of  Campylobacter spp responsible for about 90% of cases of Campylobacteriosisin human with gastroenteritis.  Efforts to prevent the incidence of Campylobacteriosis in humans should bestarted with an assessment on its level of poultry. This study aims to develop a diagnostic test for C. jejunion chicken using immunochromatographic serological method. Stages of the research consist of thepreparation of test card, antigen preparation, optimization of the antigen and serum. The results showedthat immmunochromatographic card can distinguish infected serum from the uninfected.The minimumamount of antigen  was found to be 1,5 ng/µl. It needs 10 µl serum to perform the test properly.

  16. Comparison of Diagnostic Value of Antigen B and Protoscoleces Antigen in Diagnosis of Hydatid Cyst by Blotting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oreizi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Hydatidosis, a disease caused by the cestod helminth echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important parasitic zoonosis in man and a variety of animals. Sensitive and reliable serologic methods are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this study, Ag B and Psc Ag were purified as two specific parasitic antigens and evaluated by Dot blotting used on the serum of hydatidosis patients and control group in order to identify the most sensitive and specific subunits.Materials and Methods: In an analytic and comparative study, serum samples collected from 22 patients under operation of hydatid cyst. As a control group, 4 patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 4 patients with leishmaniasis, 4 patients infected by non-hydatid cestods(Tenia saginata and H.nana and 4 normal subjects were included in this investigation. Infected sheep’s liver and lung were used for the preparation of antigen. Cyst fluid containing protoscoleces was extracted and then partially purified with a protein A column. AgB and Psc Ags were interacted with hydatid and control sera, with Dot blot method and sensitivity and specificity of these antigens were evaluated. Results: Sensitivity and specificity were estimated 95.9% and 81% respectively, for AgB and 100% and 63% respectively, for Psc Ag in Dot blot Method. Conclusion: Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of AgB and Psc Ag using Dot blotting revealed that AgB has high value for diagnosis of hydatidosis. and presumably can help physicians to diagnose hydatid cyst easier than other routine tests.

  17. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Leila; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Soufian, Safieh; Farjadi, Vahideh; Abtahi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity. Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis . PMID:23997913

  18. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hasanzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity.   Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis .

  19. Heteroclitic serological response in esophageal and prostate cancer patients after NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Junji; Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Gnjatic, Sacha; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Jungbluth, Achim A; Okazaki, Nami; Uenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Yurika; Fujiwara, Shinichi; Mizuno, Naoaki; Saika, Takashi; Ritter, Erika; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Ritter, Gerd; Murphy, Roger; Venhaus, Ralph; Pan, Linda; Old, Lloyd J; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2012-02-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a prototypic cancer/testis antigen. In a recent phase I clinical trial, we vaccinated 13 patients bearing NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1) and showed efficient induction of NY-ESO-1 antibody, and CD4 and CD8 T cell responses using peripheral blood from the patients. In our study, we analyzed heteroclitic serological responses in those patients after vaccination. Serological response against 11 tumor antigens including MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A4, CT7/MAGEC1, CT10/MAGEC2, CT45, CT46/HORMAD1, SOX2, SSX2, XAGE1B and p53 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sera from ten vaccinated patients. Expression of tumor antigens was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry. Eight of nine patients who showed antibody responses against NY-ESO-1 also showed an antibody response against at least 1 of these 11 tumor antigens after vaccination. In one patient, seven tumor antigens were recognized. Specificity analysis of the antibody response by ELISA using control recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides and by Western blot showed that the response was not against His6-tag and/or bacterial products included in a preparation of CHP-NY-ESO-1 used for vaccination. Thus, heteroclitic serological responses appear to be indicative of the overall immune response against the tumor, and their analysis could be useful for immune monitoring in cancer vaccine. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  20. Introduction of five potentially metabolizable linking groups between [sup 111]In-cyclohexyl EDTA derivatives and F(ab')[sub 2] fragments of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody: Pt. 1; A new reproducible synthetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestin, J.F.; Faivre-Chauvet, A.; Sai-Maurel, C.; Thedrez, P.; Slinkin, M.; Chatal, J.F. (INSERM, 44 - Nantes (France)); Mease, R.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize new bifunctional linker-chelating agents for the modification of the in vivo distribution of [sup 111]In-labeled antibodies. A general simple synthetic method of preparing cyclohexyl EDTA (CDTA) derivatives containing a linker/spacer group is described. Linkers prepared included a diester, a six carbon aliphatic chain, two thioethers and a disulfide group. The CDTA-linker compounds were coupled to F(Ab')[sub 2] fragments of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody and labeled with [sup 111]In with good retention of immunoreactivity. (author).

  1. Introduction of five potentially metabolizable linking groups between 111In-cyclohexyl EDTA derivatives and F(ab')2 fragments of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody--I. A new reproducible synthetic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestin, J F; Faivre-Chauvet, A; Mease, R C; Sai-Maurel, C; Thédrez, P; Slinkin, M; Meinken, G E; Srivastava, S C; Chatal, J F

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize new bifunctional linker-chelating agents for the modification of the in vivo distribution of 111In-labeled antibodies. A general simple synthetic method of preparing cyclohexyl EDTA (CDTA) derivatives containing a linker/spacer group is described. Linkers prepared included a diester, a six carbon aliphatic chain, two thioethers and a disulfide group. The CDTA-linker compounds were coupled to F(Ab')2 fragments of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody and labeled with 111In with good retention of immunoreactivity.

  2. Cell-free antigens of Sporothrix brasiliensis: antigenic diversity and application in an immunoblot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Pizzini, Cláudia Vera; Reis, Rosani Santos; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Peralta, José Mauro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2012-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis diagnosed by isolation of the fungus in culture. Serological tests for help in diagnosis in general do not use purified or recombinant antigens, because there is a paucity of described immunoreactive proteins, especially for the new described Sporothrix species, such as Sporothrix brasiliensis. This study aims to characterise antigens from S. brasiliensis and verify their application in serodiagnosis of sporotrichosis. An immunoblot assay allied with computer-based analysis was used to identify putative antigenic molecules in a cell-free extracts of both morphological phases of this fungus, and to delineate antigenic polymorphism among seven S. brasiliensis isolates and one S. schenckii Brazilian strain. The mycelial and yeast phase of the fungus originated 14 and 23 reactive bands, respectively, which were variable in intensity. An 85 kDa antigen, verified in the yeast phase of the fungus, was observed in all strains used and the immunodominant protein was identified. This protein, however, cross-react with serum samples from patients infected with other pathogens. The results show that the S. brasiliensis cell-free antigen extract is a single and inexpensive source of antigens, and can be applied on the sporotrichosis serodiagnosis. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Serological screening for cysticercosis in mentally altered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzón, Fernando; Osorio, Ana M; Morales, José P; Isaza, Rodrigo; Cardona, Edgar; Moncayo, Luis C; Villota, Guido E; Zapata, Olga T; Palacio, Carlos A; Arbeláez, María P; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2002-06-01

    The parasitic infection neurocysticercosis may give rise to a variety of psychiatric manifestations that resemble, but are different from, primary psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if among individuals from a neurocysticercosis-endemic area of Colombia who apparently had a psychiatric manifestation with associated neurological finding ('cases'), some could have been infected with Taenia solium cysticerci. This case-control study was done in individuals hospitalized in two mental institutions. The control-1 individuals were those classified with primary psychiatric disease, and the control-2 group consisted of healthy, non-hospitalized individuals. A serological test for cysticercosis was positive in 5/96 (5.1%) cases, 4/153 (2.6%) psychiatric controls, and 5/246 (2%) healthy controls. The data analysis indicated a weak association between the cases and a positive serology for neurocysticercosis (odds ratio > 2; P > 0.05). The lower education level of the cases influenced this association.

  5. Comparative Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Serological Assays Using Clinically and Serologically Defined Reference Standards and Latent Class Analysis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Claudia; de Souza, Vanda Akico; Sumita, Laura Masami; Freire, Wilton; Munoz, Fernando; Kim, Joseph; Pannuti, Claudio S.; Mayaud, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Accurate determination of infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been hindered by the lack of a “gold standard” for comparison of serological assays used to estimate KSHV prevalence in serosurveys conducted in different settings. We have evaluated the performance of five in-house (developed at University College London [UCL], United Kingdom, and at the virology laboratory of the Instituto de Medicine Tropical [IMT] in Sao Paulo, Brazil) and two commercial (ABI and DIAVIR) serological assays to detect antibodies to latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and to lytic KSHV antigens. We used a variety of serum samples assembled to represent populations likely to be at high, intermediate, and low risk of KSHV infection in Brazil. Composite reference standard panels were prepared based on clinical and serological parameters, against which assay performances were assessed using conventional Bayesian statistics and latent class analysis (LCA). Against the clinical reference standard, in-house immunofluorescence assays to detect anti-LANA antibodies (IFA-LANA) produced at UCL and IMT had similar performances, with sensitivities of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48% to 74%) and 72% (95% CI, 58% to 83%) and specificities of 99% (95% CI, 94% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 96% to 100%), respectively, and only the IMT IFA-LANA was included in LCA, together with the IMT IFA-lytic and four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The LCA indicated that the IMT whole-virus ELISA performed best (sensitivity, 87% [95% CI, 81% to 91%]; and specificity, 100% [95% CI, 98% to 100%]), confirming the results obtained with the conventional statistical approach. Commercially available ELISA-based tests yielded the lowest specificities using a spectrum of serum samples. The evaluation of KSHV serological assays is warranted before planning serosurveys in various settings. PMID:17182752

  6. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  13. Assessment of four serological techniques in the immunological diagnosis of farmers' lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboux, Gabriel; Piarroux, Renaud; Roussel, Sandrine; Millon, Laurence; Bardonnet, Karine; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2007-10-01

    Farmers' lung disease (FLD) is a pulmonary disease that results from repeated inhalation of antigens from mouldy hay or straw. The objective of this prospective study was to assess the reliability of four serological techniques in FLD diagnosis. Sera from 15 consecutive patients with FLD, 15 healthy control farmers and 30 urban controls were analysed using four serological techniques [electrosyneresis (ES), Ouchterlony double diffusion (DD), ELISA and Western blot (WB)] with four antigens (Absidia corymbifera, Eurotium amstelodami, Wallemia sebi and Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula). In the authors' region, ES on cellulose acetate with A. corymbifera antigen was the most relevant diagnostic tool for discriminating FLD patients from healthy exposed farmers (sensitivity 87 %, specificity 100 %). DD tests were in accordance with ES, but their discriminatory power was lower. No threshold indicating both good sensitivity and specificity could be established with ELISA. WB analysis failed to identify specific bands for FLD. This study demonstrates the efficacy of determining precipitin levels with an appropriate technique, using a panel of antigens consistent with the specific exposure of a given area.

  14. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adroaldo Lunardelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pertinent to viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV, these, determined by immunosorbent tests (ELISA. Results: In the period of the study, there were 2476 corneal donors at the institution, with a major incidence on the male gender, on an average of 58.7 years old. 23% of retention because of serological unfitness was also identified, that is, 570 samples were non-negative to any of the used tests. The marker anti- HBc was the most prevalent on the studied population, followed by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV and by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Conclusion: From the data found through this study, it is essential to have the participation of an efficient service on the serological evaluation of the candidates to corneal donation, once the security of the receptor must be taken into consideration in a population of donors with 23% of unfitness prevalence, in which the most prevalent marker is the one of Hepatits B.

  15. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  16. Characterization of WbiQ: An α1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8), and synthesis of H-type 3 blood group antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, Nicholas; Styslinger, Thomas; Mei, Zhen; Han, Weiqing; Zhao, Guohui; Wang, Peng George

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → WbiQ is an α1,2-fucosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O127. → WbiQ demonstrates strict substrate specificity for the Gal-β1,3-GalNAc acceptor. → WbiQ was used to synthesize milligram scale of the H-type 3 blood group antigen. -- Abstract: Escherichia coli O127:K63(B8) possesses high human blood group H (O) activity due to its O-antigen repeating unit structure. In this work, the wbiQ gene from E. coli O127:K63(B8) was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified as a fusion protein containing an N-terminal GST affinity tag. Using the GST-WbiQ fusion protein, the wbiQ gene was identified to encode an α1,2-fucosyltransferase using a radioactivity based assay, thin-layer chromatography assay, as well confirming product formation by using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The fused enzyme (GST-WbiQ) has an optimal pH range from 6.5 to 7.5 and does not require the presence of a divalent metal to be enzymatically active. WbiQ displays strict substrate specificity, displaying activity only towards acceptors that contain Gal-β1,3-GalNAc-α-OR linkages; indicating that both the Gal and GalNAc residues are vital for enzymatic activity. In addition, WbiQ was used to prepare the H-type 3 blood group antigen, Fuc-α1,2-Gal-β1,3-GalNAc-α-OMe, on a milligram scale.

  17. Incidence and characterization of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus milleri and differentiation from S. pyogenes (group A), S. equisimilis (group C), and large-colony group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J; Yajko, D M; Hadley, W K

    1985-01-01

    The biochemical characteristics of 172 clinical isolates of group A, C, F, or G or "nongroupable" beta-hemolytic streptococci were examined. Among these isolates, 91 were identified as beta-hemolytic strains of Streptococcus milleri. The remaining isolates included 20 Streptococcus pyogenes, 21 Streptococcus equisimilis, 37 large-colony group G streptococci, and 3 unidentified nongroupable isolates. A majority (84%) of the S. milleri strains possessed Lancefield group antigen (3 A, 27 C, 41 F, and 5 G), whereas 15 S. milleri strains (16%) were nongroupable. Serological tests did not differentiate S. milleri isolates with group A, C, or G antigen from S. pyogenes (group A), S. equisimilis (group C), or large-colony group G streptococci. Biochemical tests which were found useful for differentiation included the Voges-Proskauer test, hydrolysis of pyroglutamic acid and beta-D-glucuronide, bacitracin susceptibility, and acid production from ribose. S. milleri represented 56% of the group C, 100% of the group F, and 83% of the nongroupable beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated in our clinical laboratory, whereas the incidence of S. milleri among group A and group G streptococci was estimated to be low. The role of beta-hemolytic S. milleri as a cause of human infection remains obscured by the failure to routinely differentiate S. milleri from other beta-hemolytic streptococci. PMID:3902878

  18. Molecular and Serological Survey of Selected Viruses in Free-Ranging Wild Ruminants in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhid Hemmatzadeh

    Full Text Available A molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in Iran. Samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 Mouflon (Ovis orientalis, 22 wild goat (Capra aegagrus, nine Indian gazelle (Gazella bennettii and eight Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa during the national survey for wildlife diseases in Iran. Serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody tests for Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV, Pestiviruses [Border Disease virus (BVD and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV], Bluetongue virus (BTV, Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1, and Parainfluenza type 3 (PI3. Sera were also ELISA tested for Pestivirus antigen. Tissue samples including spleen, liver, lung, tonsils, mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and white blood cells (WBCs were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for PPRV, Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV, Pestivirus, BTV, Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2 and BHV-1. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against PPRV (17%, Pestiviruses (2% and BTV (2%. No antibodies were detected for BHV-1 or PI3, and no Pestivirus antigen was detected. PCR results were positive for PPRV (7.8%, FMDV (11%, BTV (3%, OvHV-2 (31% and BHV-1 (1.5%. None of the samples were positive for Pestiviruses.

  19. Development of a T7 Phage Display Library to Detect Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis by a Panel of Novel Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvinder Talwar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease, diagnosed through tissue biopsy of involved organs in the absence of other causes such as tuberculosis (TB. No specific serologic test is available to diagnose and differentiate sarcoidosis from TB. Using a high throughput method, we developed a T7 phage display cDNA library derived from mRNA isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells and leukocytes of sarcoidosis patients. This complex cDNA library was biopanned to obtain 1152 potential sarcoidosis antigens and a microarray was constructed to immunoscreen two different sets of sera from healthy controls and sarcoidosis. Meta-analysis identified 259 discriminating sarcoidosis antigens, and multivariate analysis identified 32 antigens with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 83% to classify sarcoidosis from healthy controls. Additionally, interrogating the same microarray platform with sera from subjects with TB, we identified 50 clones that distinguish between TB, sarcoidosis and healthy controls. The top 10 sarcoidosis and TB specific clones were sequenced and homologies were searched in the public database revealing unique epitopes and mimotopes in each group. Here, we show for the first time that immunoscreenings of a library derived from sarcoidosis tissue differentiates between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis antigens. These novel biomarkers can improve diagnosis of sarcoidosis and TB, and may aid to develop or evaluate a TB vaccine.

  20. Antibody response to the lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of Salmonella typhi during typhoid infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, R.S.W.; Chau, P.Y.; Lam, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Serum antibody responses to the lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of S. typhi in typhoid patients were studied using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique with 125 I labelled anti-immunoglobulin antibody. Sera from 24 adult typhoid patients and 20 non-typhoid adult controls were compared. As a group, sera from typhoid patients showed increased IgA, IgG and IgM immunoglobulin levels and gave significantly higher anti-LPS and anti-protein antibody titres in all three major immunoglobulin classes than did non-typhoid controls. Levels of antibodies against LPS or protein in sera of typhoid patients were highly variable with a skew distribution. A good correlation was found between antibody titres to the LPS antigen and those to a protein antigen. No correlation, however, was found between the anti-LPS antibody titres measured by radioimmunoassay and the anti-O antibody titres measured by the Widal agglutination test. Titration of anti-LPS or anti-protein antibodies by radioimmunoassay was found to be more sensitive and specific than Widal test for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever. The advantages of measuring antibody response by radioimmunoassay over conventional Widal test are discussed. (author)

  1. ANTIGENIC PROMOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Yu; Cinader, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with p-azobenzene arsonic acid derivatives of human serum albumin (HA-As) or of dissociated keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The IgM response to the hapten was evaluated in terms of the number of hapten-specific plaque-forming cells in the lymph node draining the injection site. In some experiments, antibody was measured by agglutination of tanned and sensitized erythrocytes. The hapten response of animals immunized with HA-As was increased (promoting effect) when the animals were injected with one of several structurally unrelated macromolecules: keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), horse spleen ferritin (HSF), lysozyme (Lys), alum-precipitated human gamma globulin (alum-precipitated HGG). Different macromolecules differed in the magnitude of the promoting effect they induced, e.g., promotion by the associated form of KLH was greater than that by the dissociated form; alum-precipitated HGG was a better promoter than was soluble HGG. The relative magnitude of promotion by different macromolecules (associated vs. dissociated KLH, alum-precipitated vs. soluble HGG) correlated with the relative magnitude of the carrier effect, as judged by the hapten response induced by p-azobenzene arsonic acid conjugated to various proteins. Promotion was detected by agglutination assay of circulating antibody, by plaque assay of cells from the popliteal lymph node draining the site of preinjection, but not by plaque assay of cells from the contralateral lymph node. Promotion was dependent on the dose of the promoting macromolecule and on the dose of the hapten-protein conjugate. It was not observed in animals tolerant to the promoting macromolecule. Inhibition (i.e. antigenic competition), rather than promotion, was observed upon a secondary response to the preinjected macromolecule or when the hapten-protein conjugate was incorporated in Freund's adjuvant. PMID:15776570

  2. Serological follow-up of infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology - real-world experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Harriet E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Isitt, Catherine E; Miall, Lawrence S; Wilson, Janet D

    2016-11-01

    The 2008 UK syphilis guideline recommends infants born to women with any positive syphilis serology be followed up until both treponemal and nontreponemal tests are negative to exclude congenital syphilis, whereas Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend using only nontreponemal tests. Historically, we had low infant follow-up rates with no coherent pathways. We initiated a change in multidisciplinary team practice of infant testing for syphilis in 2011 and evaluated the results before and after by retrospective review of testing of infants born to women with positive syphilis serology between 2005 and 2012. A total of 28 infants' mothers were treated in pregnancy (termed 'high risk'); 26 had adequate treatment prior to pregnancy (termed 'low risk'). There was a significant increase in serological testing after 2011 compared with before (83% versus 48%; OR 5.07 [95% CI 1.22-22.77] p = 0.01) but mainly in low risk infants with no significant improvement in high risk infants who are the priority group. Using nontreponemal tests only in the infants would have reduced the tests required by at least 50%, allowing health resources to be concentrated on achieving adequate follow-up for those infants most at risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. [Serologic cross-reactions to Leishmania infantum using indirect immunofluorescence in HIV+ and HIV- patients with active tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vélez, R; Turientes, M C; Gómez-Mampaso, E

    1998-03-01

    Clinical presentation of disseminated tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniosis can be very similar, mainly in those infected with HIV, being serology a useful tool in making a differential diagnosis. Cross-reactions of IFAT serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniosis with other diseases are well known, but few data is available with tuberculosis. Detection of serum antibodies against Leishmania, using a commercial IFAT kit, was attempted in sera of 51 patients with active pulmonar and/or extrapulmonar tuberculosis (25 HIV+ and 26 HIV-). Overall cross-reactions was found in 19.6% patients without significative differences in between 2 groups, but differences in positive serum titres was observed: one at 1/256, three at 1/160, and one at 1/80 dilution, in the HIV+ group, whereas all 5 patients in HIV- group cross-reacted at 1/80 dilution. Recognition of specific leishmanial antigenic bands by serum antibodies of patients with tuberculosis were not clearly defined by Western-blot. IFAT technique for leishmaniosis cross-react in 20% of patients with tuberculosis.

  4. Resolution of Serologic Problems Due to Cold Agglutinins in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Rizwan; Datta, Suvro Sankha; Basu, Sabita; Chakrapani, Anupam

    2016-06-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia can be classified depending on presence of warm, cold or mixed type of autoantibodies that are directed against antigens on the red blood cell surface. Here we report a case of pathological cold agglutinin disease which was eventually detected due to blood group discrepancy. A request was sent to the blood bank for two units of packed red cells in a diagnosed case of CLL which showed type IV discrepancy during blood grouping.The discrepancy was subsequently resolved after warm saline washing of red cells along with repetition of reverse grouping with pre-warmed serum. The direct antiglobulin test was positive and revealed autoanibodies against C3b/C3d only. Indirect antiglobulin test was performed with 3-cell panel in a polyspecific gel card (IgG+C3d) showed a pan-reactive pattern along with a positive autocontrol. Subsequently a cold agglutinin titration was performed and titers of 1024 at 4 °C; titer of 2 at room temperature were detected. Dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of serum was undertaken and IgM type of autoantibody was detected in this case confirming a case of secondary cold agglutinin disease in this patient. Two units of red cells were transfused to this patient after successfully performing cross-match with pre-warmed serum. It was advised from the blood bank that the blood should be transfused slowly through a blood-warmer and patient should be kept in warm condition to avoid in-vivo hemolysis due to high titer of cold agglutinin. The transfusion was uneventful and patient is on regular follow-up till now. Thus we concluded that serological discrepancies observed in blood bank can successfully guide the bedside transfusion protocol in case of cold agglutinin disease.

  5. Serological properties of Streptococcus mutans from humans and some animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simple but reliable diagnostic method of identifying and grouping S. mutans was undertaken. There were three specific antigens of S. mutans, and the slide agglutination test was found to be a good method using three specific antisera. The distribution of S. mutans groups in the Japanese and some animals was studied.

  6. Multiparameter grouping delineates heterogeneous populations of human IL-17 and/or IL-22 T-cell producers that share antigen specificities with other T-cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Martin; Arnaud, Laurent; Hié, Miguel; Parizot, Christophe; Dorgham, Karim; Shoukry, Mohamed; Kemula, Mathilde; Barete, Stéphane; Derai, David; Sauce, Delphine; Amoura, Zahir; Pène, Jérôme; Yssel, Hans; Gorochov, Guy

    2011-09-01

    The ontogenic relationship between pro-inflammatory populations of interleukin-17 (IL-17A)- and/or IL-22-producing T cells and other T-cell subsets is currently unclear in humans. To appreciate T helper cell-lineage commitment, we combined cytokine production profiles of in vitro expanded T-cell clones with T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypic signatures. Moreover, ex vivo cytokine production profiles at the single-cell level were analyzed using an original approach based on the hierarchical cluster analysis of multiparametric flow cytometry data. These combined approaches enabled the delineation of distinct functional T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Tr1, Th17 cells and a highly polyfunctional IL-22-producing T-cell population. Cluster analysis highlighted that the IL-22-producing T-cell population should be considered independently from the Th17 and Th1 subsets, although it was more closely related to the former. In parallel, we observed extensive TCRαβ sharing across all five subsets defined. The strategy described here allows the objective definition of cellular subsets and an unbiased insight into their similarities. Together, our results underscore the ontogenic plasticity of CD4(+) T-cell progenitors, which can adopt a differentiation profile irrespective of antigen specificity. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A triclade DNA vaccine designed on the basis of a comprehensive serologic study elicits neutralizing antibody responses against all clades and subclades of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Wang, Guiqin; Buchy, Philippe; Cai, Zhipeng; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Cheng, Genhong; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Deubel, Vincent; Zhou, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Because of their rapid evolution, genetic diversity, broad host range, ongoing circulation in birds, and potential human-to-human transmission, H5N1 influenza viruses remain a major global health concern. Their high degree of genetic diversity also poses enormous burdens and uncertainties in developing effective vaccines. To overcome this, we took a new approach, i.e., the development of immunogens based on a comprehensive serologic study. We constructed DNA plasmids encoding codon-optimized hemagglutinin (HA) from 17 representative strains covering all reported clades and subclades of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses. Using DNA plasmids, we generated the corresponding H5N1 pseudotypes and immune sera. We performed an across-the-board pseudotype-based neutralization assay and determined antigenic clusters by cartography. We then designed a triclade DNA vaccine and evaluated its immunogenicity and protection in mice. We report here that (sub)clades 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.1, and 9 were grouped into antigenic cluster 1, (sub)clades 2.1.3.2, 2.3.4, 2.4, 2.5, and 8 were grouped into another antigenic cluster, with subclade 2.2.1 loosely connected to it, and each of subclades 2.3.2.1 and 7.2 was by itself. Importantly, the triclade DNA vaccine encoding HAs of (sub)clades 0, 2.3.2.1, and 7.2 elicited broadly neutralizing antibody responses against all H5 clades and subclades and protected mice against high-lethal-dose heterologous H5N1 challenge. Thus, we conclude that broadly neutralizing antibodies against all H5 clades and subclades can indeed be elicited with immunogens on the basis of a comprehensive serologic study. Further evaluation and optimization of such an approach in ferrets and in humans is warranted.

  8. [External serology quality control programs developed in Latin America with the support of PAHO from 1997 through 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Alquézar, Amadeo; Otani, Marcia M; Sabino, Ester C; Salles, Nanci A; Chamone, Dalton F

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of serological screening of blood donors in five groups of blood banks in Latin America that participated over the 1997-2000 period in an external serology control project developed with support from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). With assistance from PAHO, the Serology Authority of the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), of São Paulo, Brazil, carried out the external quality control project and served as its "organizing center" (OC). The OC developed five external serology quality control "programs" (ESQCPs), or external evaluation activities, for the respective groups of participating blood banks. There was one ESQCP each in 1997, 1999, and 2000, and there were two in 1998. In these five programs, the number of participating blood banks ranged from 13 to 21, and the number of countries ranged from 11 to 16. In each program, the OC used a set of 24 blinded sera samples with different reactivities for the various infectious agents for which screening is obligatory in Brazil. Each participating institution in each program received a sera set, to be processed using that institution's standard screening procedures. After returning its results to the OC, each participant received an answer key for the sera set, to be used in evaluating its own performance. All the individual results were kept strictly confidential. At the end of each program, the OC prepared and sent to all the participants a final report that contained information on the overall results from that program. An analysis of the five programs showed that there was a lack of homogeneity among the countries with respect to the strategies and the parameters used in screening blood donors. Few laboratories screened for human T-cell-lymphotropic virus (beginning with the 1997 program, the respective rates were 17%, 27%, 35%, 39%, and 45%). Rates of screening were also low for antibodies to the hepatitis B core

  9. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological surveillance of infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Joan; Andresen, Lars Ole; Barfod, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for serological surveillance of infection of pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 5 was developed. The antigen used was prepared from Ap serotype 5b strain L20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis...

  10. Dose response effects of avian influenza (H7N7) vaccination of chickens: Serology, clinical protection and reduction of virus excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.A.; Tacken, M.G.J.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Oei, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the relation between the antigen content of inactivated avian influenza (Al) vaccines, the serological response after vaccination and protection of vaccinated animals is important for the choice of optimal vaccines and vaccination regimes as well as for the assessment of criteria for

  11. Geographical patterns of malaria transmission based on serological markers for falciparum and vivax malaria in Ratanakiri, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Karen; Sluydts, Vincent; Heng, Somony; Kim, Saorin; Pareyn, Myrthe; Willen, Laura; Canier, Lydie; Sovannaroth, Siv; Ménard, Didier; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2016-10-19

    Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, especially in low endemic countries, such as Cambodia. This results in geographical clusters of residual transmission in the dry, low transmission season, which can fuel the transmission to wider areas or populations during the wet season. A better understanding of spatial clustering of malaria can lead to a more efficient, targeted strategy to reduce malaria transmission. This study aims to evaluate the potential of the use of serological markers to define spatial patterns in malaria exposure. Blood samples collected in a community-based randomized trial performed in 98 high endemic communities in Ratanakiri province, north-eastern Cambodia, were screened with a multiplex serological assay for five serological markers (three Plasmodium falciparum and two Plasmodium vivax). The antibody half-lives range from approximately six months until more than two years. Geographical heterogeneity in malaria transmission was examined using a spatial scan statistic on serology, PCR prevalence and malaria incidence rate data. Furthermore, to identify behavioural patterns or intrinsic factors associated with malaria exposure (antibody levels), risk factor analyses were performed by using multivariable random effect logistic regression models. The serological outcomes were then compared to PCR prevalence and malaria incidence data. A total of 6502 samples from two surveys were screened in an area where the average parasite prevalence estimated by PCR among the selected villages is 3.4 %. High-risk malaria pockets were observed adjacent to the 'Tonle San River' and neighbouring Vietnam for all three sets of data (serology, PCR prevalence and malaria incidence rates). The main risk factors for all P. falciparum antigens and P. vivax MSP1.19 are age, ethnicity and staying overnight at the plot hut. It is possible to identify similar malaria pockets of higher malaria transmission together with the potential risk factors by using serology

  12. Identification of streptococci: use of lysozyme and Streptomyces albus filtrate in the preparation of extracts for Lancefield grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, B K; Moellering, R C; Kunz, L J

    1975-03-01

    A combination of lysozyme and Streptomyces albus filtrate has been shown effective in extracting group-specific antigen for all commonly occurring serologically groupable streptococci. A prospective comparison of this method with that of Rantz and Randall (1955) for grouping 761 clinical isolates has confirmed its accuracy, which in our hands exceeded that of the latter more complicated method of serogrouping. Its rapidity and simplicity and the relatively low cost of the reagents involved make it practical for routine use in clinical bacteriology laboratories.

  13. Survival improvement in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma who undergo pretargeted anti-carcinoembryonic-antigen radioimmunotherapy: a collaborative study with the French Endocrine Tumor Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatal, Jean-François; Campion, Loïc; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Bardet, Stephane; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Charbonnel, Bernard; Rohmer, Vincent; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Sharkey, Robert M; Goldenberg, David M; Barbet, Jacques

    2006-04-10

    No effective therapy is currently available for the management of patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The efficacy of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (pRAIT) with bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb) and a iodine-131 (131I) -labeled bivalent hapten is evaluated. Twenty-nine patients with advanced, progressive MTC, as documented by short serum calcitonin doubling times (Ct DTs), received an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/anti-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) -indium BsMAb, followed 4 days later by a 131I-labeled bivalent hapten. Overall survival (OS) was compared with 39 contemporaneous untreated MTC patients with comparable prognostic indicators. OS was significantly longer in high-risk, treated patients (Ct DT < 2 years) than in high-risk, untreated patients (median OS, 110 v 61 months; P < .030). Forty-seven percent of patients, defined as biologic responders by a more than 100% increase in CtDT, experienced significantly longer survival than nonresponders (median OS, 159 v 109 months; P < .035) and untreated patients (median OS, 159 v 61 months; P < .010). Treated patients with bone/bone-marrow disease had a longer survival than patients without such involvement (10-year OS, 83% v 14%; P < .023). Toxicity was mainly hematologic and related to bone/bone-marrow tumor spread. pRAIT against CEA induced long-term disease stabilization and a significantly longer survival in high-risk patients with Ct DTs less than 2 years, compared with similarly high-risk, untreated patients. Ct DT and bone-marrow involvement appear to be prognostic indicators in MTC patients who undergo pRAIT.

  14. Refining the LPS-Antigen in Salmonella Antibody Elisa for Poultry Enhanced Specificity without Impairing Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Lind, Peter; Klausen, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In the Danish serological surveillance for Salmonella in poultry (serum and egg yolk) a mix-ELISA is used, based on S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis antigens (Feld et al., 2000). When we evaluated results of the test retrospectively, over the years an unacceptably large fraction of seropositive...... findings could not be confirmed by the subsequent confirmatory bacteriological sampling in the herd. Therefore we tried to enhance specificity of the ELISA, without losing sensitivity, by refining the antigens used....

  15. Impact of heat treatment on antigen detection in sera of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Gillis-Germitsch, Nina; Schnyder, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the last decade serological tests for detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies have been developed and adopted for individual diagnosis and epidemiological studies in dogs. Although confirmed positive at necropsy, antigen detection was not possible in single experimentally, as well as naturally infected dogs, possibly due to immune complex formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on detection of A. vas...

  16. Serological investigation on the incidence of Leptospira serovars among rice farmers in Veysian, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Babakhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospira is belonged to phylum spirochaetes, which causes leptospirosis disease. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with highly variable symptoms. The purpose of the study was to determine the serological incidence of Leptospira serovars among rice farmers in Veysian, Lorestan province. Materials and Methods: 200 rice farmers of Veysian were sampled (blood sample clinically in 2014. Blood samples were transfered to the laboratory. The sera were transferred to -20° C until performance of MAT test. The serum samples were examined by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT method. The final dilution of leptospiral infection was determined by 1:200, 1:400 and 1:800 dilutions. Results: 60 serum samples (30% out of 200 samples were positive in 1:100 dilution. 38 (63.33% L. grippotyphosa and 22 (36.67% L.canicola antigens reacted positively . The infection rate was 65% for males and 35% for females. P value according to gender was 0.02. There is a significant correlation between leptospiral infection and gender based on statistical analysis. The highest and the lowest frequency of positive samples were related to age group over 50 and 21-30 years groups, respectively. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is a common disease among rice farmers, and in Veysian according to the rice farms, and planting and harvesting which are in traditional way is introduced as an impotant infectious disease; therefore to prevent the spread of this disease, health and safty should be developed. Also, using mechanized methods of farming, planting and harvesting, leptospirosis can be prevented largely in the region.

  17. The use of next-generation sequencing for the determination of rare blood group genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. A.; Dellgren, C.; Sheppard, C.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the determination of rare blood group genotypes was tested in 72 individuals from different ethnicities. Background: Traditional serological-based antigen detection methods, as well as genotyping based on specific single nucleotide polymorphisms...... (SNPs) or single nucleotide variants (SNVs), are limited to detecting only a limited number of known antigens or alleles. NGS methods do not have this limitation. Methods: NGS using Ion torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) was performed with a customised Ampliseq panel targeting 15 different blood...... genotypes using commercial SNP assays. However, particularly for the Kidd, Duffy and Lutheran blood group systems, several SNVs were detected by the NGS assay that revealed additional coding information compared to other methods. Furthermore, the NGS assay allowed for the detection of genotypes related...

  18. Immunotherapy Using Autoclaved L. Major Antigens and M. Vaccae with Meglumine Antimoniate, for the Treatment of Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Jamshidi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania ma­jor antigen and heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172 were used as stimulators of immune de­fense mechanisms and the results were compared with standard chemotherapy meglumine antimoni­ate.Methods: Nineteen mongrel dogs aging 1-3 years old were used in this experiment. Infection was carried out in 15 out of 19 dogs using L. infantum, isolated from a naturally infected poly-symptomatic dog.Results: All the cases showed positive serologic results by direct agglutination test during 30-60 days following inoculation. In the first group, which was under chemotherapy (GlucantimeR, one of the members showed recurrence of the disease despite rapid effect of the therapeutic protocol. Im­munotherapy using SRL172 caused complete cleaning of the parasite in group 2, but the speed was less than Glucantime. Immunotherapy using L. major antigen combined with M. vaccae in group 3 and combine administration of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in group 4 both were with relapsing of one case in each group. Group 5 and 6 were consisted of positive and negative con­trol dogs, respectively.Conclusion: Immunotherapy seems to be an adjuvant in treatment of canine leishmaniasis but it needs more investigation for final confirmation.

  19. Molecular and serological evidence for Seoul virus in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Zhangmu, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingsong; Fan, Quanshui; Hu, Xiaobing; Deng, Bo; Chen, Gang; Gu, Liangqi; Li, Ming; Zheng, Ying; Yuan, Guihong; Qiu, Wei; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2015-05-01

    We report the detection of a virus, tentatively identified as Seoul virus (SEOV), from a rat (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Zhangmu, Tibet. SEOV RNA was detected in lung tissue by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, followed by sequencing. Serum samples collected from Zhangmu were positive for SEOV-specific antibodies (indirect fluorescent antibody test that used SEO antigen). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S sequences together with serology results suggest that the Zhangmu01 hantavirus is an isolate of SEOV, that hantaviruses circulate in Tibet, and that rats may act as natural reservoirs for the virus.

  20. Immunochemical characterization of and isolation of the gene for a Borrelia burgdorferi immunodominant 60-kilodalton antigen common to a wide range of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Fjordvang, H

    1988-01-01

    By crossed immunoelectrophoresis and Western blotting (immunoblotting), it was shown that Borrelia burgdorferi expresses the 60-kilodalton Common Antigen (CA) that is cross-reactive with an equivalent antigen in a wide range of remotely related bacteria. B. burgdorferi CA is strongly immunogenic....... account for the low diagnostic specificity of the currently used serological tests in Lyme borreliosis....

  1. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  2. Serological pregnancy diagnosis of syphilis in pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.N. Naicker, J. Moodley, A. Van Middelkoop, R.C. Cooper. Abstract. Three different serological screening tests for syphilis were performed at the 'booking' visit of 500 antenatal patients at the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. The prevalence of ... The TPHA test is therefore advocated for screening patients for syphilis.

  3. Serological pregnancy diagnosis of· syphilis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-02

    Apr 2, 1983 ... Experiences at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. S. N. NAICKER, J. MOODLEY, A. VAN MIDDELKOOP, R. C. COOPER. Summary. Three different serological screening tests for syphilis were performed at the 'booking' visit of 500 antenatal patients at the King Edward VIII Hospital,. Durban. The prevalence ...

  4. Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical, parasitological and serological diagnostic methods were compared for definitive diagnosis of human onchocerciasis in three endemic communities of Nkpologu, Ukpab and Obimo located at differing distances from the bank of Adada river in Nsukka i ; senatorial zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. The results revealed ...

  5. Helicobacter Pylori : Serological Testing and Treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with dyspepsia and eradication of H. pylori after a non-invasive testing is an integral part of most management guidelines. This study evaluated the benefit of serological testing and treatment of H. pylori in Nigerian patients presenting with uninvestigated dyspepsia.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930 Section 866.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and provides...

  8. A Serological Protein Microarray for Detection of Multiple Cross-Reactive Flavivirus Infections in Horses for Veterinary and Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, N B; van Maanen, K; Bergervoet, S A; Bon, N; Beck, C; Godeke, G-J; Lecollinet, S; Bowen, R; Lelli, D; Nowotny, N; Koopmans, M P G; Reusken, C B E M

    2017-12-01

    The genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae includes some of the most important examples of emerging zoonotic arboviruses that are rapidly spreading across the globe. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne members of the JEV serological group. Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic or present with mild flu-like symptoms, clinical manifestations of JEV, WNV, SLEV, USUV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can include severe neurological disease and death. In horses, infection with WNV and JEV can lead to severe neurological disease and death, while USUV, SLEV and TBEV infections are mainly asymptomatic, however, and induce antibody responses. Horses often serve as sentinels to monitor active virus circulation in serological surveillance programmes specifically for WNV, USUV and JEV. Here, we developed and validated a NS1-antigen protein microarray for the serological differential diagnosis of flavivirus infections in horses using sera of experimentally and naturally infected symptomatic as well as asymptomatic horses. Using samples from experimentally infected horses, an IgG and IgM specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 95% for WNV and 100% for JEV was achieved with a cut-off titre of 1 : 20 based on ROC calculation. In field settings, the microarray identified 93-100% of IgG-positive horses with recent WNV infections and 87% of TBEV IgG-positive horses. WNV IgM sensitivity was 80%. Differentiation between closely related flaviviruses by the NS1-antigen protein microarray is possible, even though we identified some instances of cross-reactivity among antibodies. However, the assay is not able to differentiate between naturally infected horses and animals vaccinated with an inactivated WNV whole-virus vaccine. We showed that the NS1-microarray can potentially be used for diagnosing and distinguishing flavivirus infections in horses and for public

  9. Marrow grafts between phenotypically DLA-identical and haploidentical unrelated dogs: additional antigens controlling engraftment are not detected by cell-mediated lympholysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA); Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Weiden, P.L.; DeRose, S.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow transplants with low marrow cell doses (less than or equal to4 X 10/sup 8/ cells/kg) from unrelated donors were carried out in 16 dogs conditioned with 9 Gy (900 rad) of total body irradiation. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. Eleven donor-recipient pairs were phenotypically identical (group 1) for the known antigens of the canine major histocompatibility complex (DLA) and in five the donor was homozygous and the recipient heterozygous for DLA (group 2), as determined by serological histocompatibility typing and mixed leukocyte cultures including homozygous cell typing. In addition, lymphocytes from donors and recipients in group 1 were mutually nonreactive in cell-mediated lympholysis; lymphocytes from recipients in group 2 were not cytotoxic against donor cells. Eight dogs rejected their grafts and eight showed sustained engraftment; of these, four died from graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of rejection was higher than in DLA-identical littermates but lower than in DLA-nonidentical unrelated or littermate dogs. These results indicate that antigens different from the recognized alleles at DLA are involved in the control of engraftment. These antigens most likely represent the expression of unrecognized differences within DLA or are coded for by a locus different from but linked to DLA-A, B, C or D; they are not recognized in the cell-mediated lympholysis assay.

  10. [Myiasis caused by Oestridae: serological and molecular diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, D; Traversa, D; Giangaspero, A

    2004-06-01

    Myiasis-causing Oestridae (bot flies) infect several animal species world-wide, from palaearctic to subtropical/tropical areas. Oestrids affect livestock production causing abortion, reduced milk production, losses in weight and fertility, poor hide quality and an impairment of the host's immune system. In the last few years much research has been carried out on the immunology of these infestations, in order to acquire efficient and reliable diagnostic serological tools; the genome of the different species of Oestridae has been studied to further their molecular identification, taxonomy and phylogenesis. The immunodiagnostic methods for many myiasis causing Oestrids have proven to be a viable alternative to the clinical parasitological examination or the post-mortem examination. Numerous serological tests have been developed for the diagnosis of bovine hypodermosis caused by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum, and ELISAs using larval hypodermin C as the antigen are currently used on serum, individual and pooled milk samples to detect the presence of circulating anti-Hypoderma antibodies. In Italy the best period to sample the animals is November-January, since it is in this period that the antibody kinetics of the animals reaches a peak. Recently the efficacy of the ELISA test on pasteurized milk samples has been demonstrated, allowing the diagnosis of bovine hypodermosis also in areas where there is no information on the presence of the disease and the sampling of the animals is laborious. The cross-reactivity between Przhevalskiana silenus antigens and anti-Hypoderma antibodies led to assessing the usefulness of a simple and cost-effective ELISA for the diagnosis of goat warble fly infection. In particular, it has been demonstrated that infected goats display an antibody peak in November-December in blood and milk, thus making this period suitable for sampling. Although no extensive data is available on the immunology of sheep and goat oestrosis caused by

  11. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. by culture, PCR and serology, in veterinary personnel from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Oteo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Bartonella includes fastidious, facultative intracellular bacteria mainly transmitted by arthropods and distributed among mammalian reservoirs. Bartonella spp. implicated as etiological agents of zoonoses are increasing. Apart from the classical Bartonella henselae, B. bacilliformis or B. quintana, other species (B. elizabethae, B. rochalimae, B. vinsonii arupensis and B. v. berkhoffii, B. tamiae or B. koehlerae, among others have also been associated with human and/or animal diseases. Laboratory techniques for diagnosis (culture, PCR assays and serology usually show lack of sensitivity. Since 2005, a method based on a liquid enrichment Bartonella alphaproteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM followed by PCRs for the amplification of Bartonella spp. has been developed. We aimed to assess culture, molecular and serological prevalence of Bartonella infections in companion animal veterinary personnel from Spain. Methods Each of 89 participants completed a questionnaire. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA using B. vinsonii berkhoffii (genotypes I, II and III, B. henselae, B. quintana and B. koehlerae as antigens were performed. A cut-off of 1:64 was selected as a seroreactivity titer. Blood samples were inoculated into BAPGM and subcultured onto blood agar plates. Bartonella spp. was detected using conventional and quantitative real-time PCR assays and DNA sequencing. Results Among antigens corresponding to six Bartonella spp. or genotypes, the lowest seroreactivity was found against B. quintana (11.2% and the highest, against B. v. berkhoffii genotype III (56%. A total of 27% of 89 individuals were not seroreactive to any test antigen. Bartonella spp. IFA seroreactivity was not associated with any clinical sign or symptom. DNA from Bartonella spp., including B. henselae (n = 2, B. v. berkhoffii genotypes I (n = 1 and III (n = 2, and B. quintana (n = 2 was detected in 7/89 veterinary personnel. PCR and DNA sequencing

  12. Robust pro-inflammatory immune response is associated with serological cure in patients with syphilis: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszczak, Maciej; Gozdzialska, Anna; Jakiela, Bogdan; Obtulowicz, Aleksander; Jaskiewicz, Jerzy; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 15% of adequately treated patients with early syphilis remain serofast. Pathogenesis and clinical significance of this phenomenon is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is any association between host immune response and treatment outcome (serofast state or proper serological response). Forty-four patients with secondary syphilis were enrolled to this study. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured before treatment and 8 hours after injection of antibiotic. After 1 year, based on the serological response patients were stratified into two groups: (1) proper serological response (n=31) and (2) serofast state (n=9). The serological cure rate was 77.5% at 12 months after treatment. Patients with proper serological response had significantly higher levels of analysed cytokines (at baseline and 8 hours after treatment) compared with the serofast state group (pimmune response to infection may be the predictive factor of serological cure. The treatment outcome may be also associated with the magnitude of immune reaction occurring during the treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Serologic reactivity to the emerging pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David E; Shoffner, Adam R; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly R; Arora, Kriti; Zhao, Ming; Martin, Raynaldo; Ding, Li; Hammer, Carl H; Shaw, Pamela A; Kuhns, Douglas B; Malech, Harry L; Gallin, John I; Zarember, Kol A; Holland, Steven M

    2012-09-15

    Granulibacter bethesdensis is a recently described member of the Acetobacteraceae family that has been isolated from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Its pathogenesis, environmental reservoir(s), and incidence of infection among CGD patients and the general population are unknown. Detected antigens were identified by mass spectroscopy after 2-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoaffinity chromatography. The prevalence of Granulibacter immunoreactivity was assessed through immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) and formaldehyde-activating enzyme were recognized during analysis of sera from infected patients. Unique patterns of immunoreactive bands were identified in Granulibacter extracts, compared with extracts of other Acetobacteraceae species. By use of criteria based on these specific bands, specimens from 79 of 175 CGD patients (45.1%) and 23 of 93 healthy donors (24.7%) reacted to all 11 bands. An ELISA that used native MDH to capture and detect immunoglobulin G was developed and revealed high-titer MDH seroreactivity in culture-confirmed cases and 5 additional CGD patients. Testing of samples collected prior to culture-confirmed infection demonstrated instances of recent seroconversion, as well as sustained seropositivity. Infection of CGD mice with G. bethesdensis confirmed acquisition of high-titer antibody-recognizing MDH. These serologic tests suggest that Granulibacter immunoreactivity is more common among CGD patients and, perhaps, among healthy donors than was previously suspected. This finding raises the possibility that clinical presentations of Granulibacter infection may be underappreciated.

  14. Serological Survey of Hantavirus and Flavivirus Among Wild Rodents in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Sozio, Giulia; Valleriani, Fabrizia; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Pascucci, Ilaria; Gavaudan, Stefano; Marianneau, Philippe; Monaco, Federica

    2017-11-01

    Hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic viruses carried by rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) are the causative agents of human hantavirus infections in Europe. Knowledge about hantavirus circulation in Italy is very scarce. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are emerging neuropathogenic flaviviruses, both endemic in most part of the Italian territories. To monitor the circulation of PUUV, DOBV, WNV, and USUV in natural environment in central Italy, we carried out serological surveillance in wild rodents. During this study, 90 animals were captured in forested areas of Abruzzo and Marche regions and tested with serological assays for the specific pathogens. Serological test provided no evidence of PUUV and DOBV circulation in the studied area. However, four rodents (Apodemus flavicollis) were found to be positive by WNV ELISA test. Two of them were confirmed as WNV by virus neutralization test.

  15. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  16. Serological Diagnosis of Brucella Infections in Odontocetes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Manire, Charles A.; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Staggs, Lydia; Thompson, Rachel; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo

    2009-01-01

    Brucella ceti causes disease in Odontoceti. The absence of control serum collections and the diversity of cetaceans have hampered the standardization of serological tests for the diagnosis of cetacean brucellosis. Without a “gold” standard for sensitivity and specificity determination, an alternative approach was followed. We designed an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) that recognizes immunoglobulins G (IgGs) from 17 odontocete species as a single group. For the standardization, we used Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides, serum samples from seven resident odontocetes with no history of infectious disease displaying negative rose bengal test (RBT) reactions, and serum samples from seven dolphins infected with B. ceti. We compared the performance of the iELISA with those of the protein G ELISA (gELISA), the competitive ELISA (cELISA), and the immunofluorescence (IF) and dot blot (DB) tests, using 179 odontocete serum samples and RBT as the reference. The diagnostic potential based on sensitivity and specificity of the iELISA was superior to that of gELISA and cELISA. The correlation and agreement between the iELISA and the gELISA were relatively good (Ri/g2 = 0.65 and κi/g = 0.66, respectively), while the correlation and agreement of these two ELISAs with cELISA were low (Ri/c2 = 0.46, Rg/c2 = 0.37 and κi/c = 0.62, κg/c = 0.42). In spite of using the same anti-odontocete IgG antibody, the iELISA was more specific than were the IF and DB tests. An association between high antibody titers and the presence of neurological symptoms in dolphins was observed. The prediction is that iELISA based on broadly cross-reacting anti-dolphin IgG antibody would be a reliable test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in odontocetes, including families not covered in this study. PMID:19386800

  17. BIOANALYTICAL STANDARDIZING FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Galkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO 13485 “Medical devices. Quality management system. Regulatory requirements”, and DSTU ISO/IEC 17025 “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories”. Similar requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine which are used for drug standardization can not be directly applied to the medical devises for in vitro diagnostics due to a number of features, namely, the serological diagnosis products pre-designed to determine the unknown concentration of a particular analyte in a biological material, the diagnostic kits has to include the control samples (internal standard systems that need to be calibrated. It was determined following parameters of bioanalytical standardization and validation characterization for of qualitative (semi quantitative test-kits for serological diagnosis: precision (convergence, intralaboratory precision and reproducibility, diagnostic and analytical specificity, diagnostic sensitivity. It’s necessary to inspect additional parameters for quantitative test-kits such as accuracy (precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity and range.

  18. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Antigen/antibody in Patients of Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Joshi

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available In some cases of Hepatitis B antigen positive hepatitis, a history of previous blood transfusion or any parenteral therapy is lacking and evidence for other routes of infections have to be sought. Sexual contact has been suggested as one of the methods of transmission of this infection. To approach the problem from this angle we studied 480 serawhich werepositive for syphilis serology for the presence of HB antigen and antibody by discontinuous counter immune electrophoresis method. It was found to be prevalent to the extentof 5.Z-per centagainst 1.4 per cent found in voluntary blood donors. Our observation agrees with that of other workers that HB antigen/antibody is seen more frequently in patients with positive syphilis serol-ogy.

  19. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydia infections: proposal of a cost-effective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Ciarrocchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by genus Chlamydia are challenging for phisicians, as a results of a complicated pathogenesis and a variable clinical picture. Furthermore, potential sequelae following Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci infections are of clinical relevant interest. Serodiagnosis is a clue tool when the direct antigen research or the bacteria fragments detection is impaired. Some serological tests such as the ELISA or the indirect micro-immunofluorescence methods are routinely performed. To improve the diagnostic efficiency of these tests, a selective coating of specie-specific reactive antigens on microwells or on microscopic slides is proposed.A highly selective coating is essential to generate a specific immune response for each Chlamydia species and high levels of distinct IgA, IgG, IgM antibody classes.The goal of serology is the diagnostic value of results, therefore the correct choice of the best screening and confirmation test is of extreme relevance due to the clinical impact of results for the therapeutical approach and management of acute and chronic infections. In conclusion, a quantitative specific anti-Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody detection is a useful method to improve the follow up of complicated chronic clinical sequelae.

  20. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina E Egüez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc. and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.. Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia. Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  1. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez, Karina E.; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it. PMID:28369081

  2. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez, Karina E; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  3. A group-specific inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteinases selectively inhibits both proteolytic degradation and presentation of the antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine by guinea pig accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    A limited intralysosomal proteolytic degradation is probably a key event in the accessory cell processing of large protein antigens before their presentation to T cells. With the aid of highly specific inhibitors of proteinases, we have examined the role of proteolysis in the presentation...... of antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. The proteinase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanylalanine-diazomethyl-ketone, which selectively inhibits cysteine proteinases, was used to block this set of enzymes in cultured cells. We demonstrate that the selective inhibition of the cysteine proteinases...... of antigen-presenting cells causes a profound inhibition of both the proteolytic degradation and the presentation of the synthetic antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. In contrast, the presentation of another synthetic antigen, the copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-alanine, was enhanced by the same...

  4. Diagnostic Values of Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Cancer Antigen 15-3 and Cancer Antigen 125 Levels in Nipple Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Gai, Xiaodong; Wang, Yongmei; Liang, Weili; Gao, Haidong; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Yanhong; Wang, Jianli; Ma, Rong

    2015-12-31

    An expedient and cost-effective diagnostic tool is needed to complement galactography and exfoliative cytology for detection of benign or malignant breast diseases with nipple discharge. The aim of this prospective study is to explore the utility of carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 15-3 and cancer antigen 125 levels in nipple discharge for the diagnosis of various breast diseases. We evaluated the pre-operative tumor marker levels in 153 nipple discharge samples collected from one or both breasts of 142 women undergoing surgery. Patients with nipple discharge underwent auxiliary examination (ultrasonography, exfoliative cytology, ductoscopy and galactography). Statistically higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 were found in patients in the malignant group as compared to those in the benign group. No statistically significant difference in the level of cancer antigen 125 (P = 0.895). Sensitivities of carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 for diagnosing breast cancer were 74.42% and 58.14%, and specificities were 87.27% and 80.00% where as the cutoff values with max-sum of sensitivity and specificity were 224.3 ng/ml and 1368.2 U/ml, respectively. The following sensitivities for telling malignant from benign could be determined: exfoliative cytology 46.67%, ultrasonography 76.74%, galactography 75.00%, and ductoscopy 0%. Exfoliative cytology was found to be a valuable alternative method for differentiating benign from malignancy. Thus, tumor marker analysis of nipple discharge fluid for carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 would enhance the accurate assessment and treatment planning for patients with nipple discharge.

  5. Brucella serology in abattoir workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, F.; Kokab, F.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is an occupational hazard with those particularly at risk either living in close proximity with animals or handling them. It is a public health problem in developing countries with adverse health implications both for animals and human beings as well as economic implications for individuals and communities. The Objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among abattoir workers of Lahore District and to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job of the workers. Data was collected in April 2008. It was a cross-sectional study in which four main slaughterhouses in Lahore were included. The slaughterhouse workers were divided into seven strata based on their nature of job: meat sellers, slaughterers, animal keepers, drivers, cleaners, loaders and vets/paravets. A total of 360 such workers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Sampling frames for different strata were prepared and from each frame, proportionate numbers, were selected through simple random method using random number tables. Data was obtained using a questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The seroprevalence of anti-Brucella IgG was found to be 21.7%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the immune status of the respondents and their nature of job (p=0.005), age groups (p=0.013), and duration of job (p=0.003). The disease is an important public health problem in Pakistan. The disease can be prevented in the slaughterhouse workers through the use of personal protective devices. Public health authorities should educate the general public regarding prevention of the disease with specific emphasis on people working in slaughterhouses. (author)

  6. Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Garcia, M; Stone, H D

    1999-06-01

    The influence of vaccine strain and antigen mass on the ability of inactivated avian influenza (AI) viruses to protect chicks from a lethal, highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus challenge was studied. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing one of 10 haemagglutinin subtype H5 AI viruses, one heterologous H7 AI virus or normal allantoic fluid (sham), and challenged 3 weeks later by intra-nasal inoculation with a HP H5 chicken-origin AI virus. All 10 H5 vaccines provided good protection from clinical signs and death, and produced positive serological reactions on agar gel immunodiffusion and haemagglutination inhibition tests. In experiment 1, challenge virus was recovered from the oropharynx of 80% of chickens in the H5 vaccine group. In five H5 vaccine groups, challenge virus was not recovered from the cloaca of chickens. In the other five H5 vaccine groups, the number of chickens with detection of challenge virus from the cloaca was lower than in the sham group (P turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) was the best vaccine candidate of the H5 strains tested (PD50= 0.006 μg AI antigen). These data demonstrate that chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5 whole virus AI vaccines were protected from clinical signs and death, but usage of vaccine generally did not prevent infection by the challenge virus, as indicated by recovery of virus from the oropharynx. Vaccine use reduced cloacal detection rates, and quantity of virus shed from the cloaca and oropharynx in some vaccine groups, which would potentially reduce environmental contamination and disease transmission in the field.

  7. Tracking the Antigenic Evolution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Reeve

    Full Text Available Quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. However, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. Here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the phenotypic evolution of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combining host serology and viral sequence data to identify sites that are critical to their antigenic evolution. For serotype SAT1, we validate our antigenic phylogeny against monoclonal antibody escape mutants, which match all of the predicted antigenic sites. For serotype O, we validate it against known sites where available, and otherwise directly evaluate the impact on antigenic phenotype of substitutions in predicted sites using reverse genetics and serology. We also highlight a critical and poorly understood problem for vaccine selection by revealing qualitative differences between assays that are often used interchangeably to determine antigenic match between field viruses and vaccine strains. Our approach provides a tool to identify naturally occurring antigenic substitutions, allowing us to track the genetic diversification and associated antigenic evolution of the virus. Despite the hugely important role vaccines have played in enhancing human and animal health, vaccinology remains a conspicuously empirical science. This study advances the field by providing guidance for tuning vaccine strains via site-directed mutagenesis through this high-resolution tracking of antigenic evolution of the virus between rare major shifts in phenotype.

  8. HLA antigens in three populations of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiha, S S; Wentzel, J; Shah, K C; Roberts, D F

    1989-01-01

    In blood samples from a Hindu population of Uttar Pradesh (North India) and from two Muslim groups, one from Andhra Pradesh (South India) and the other from Gujurat (West India), frequencies of 38 HLA-A, -B and -C antigens were investigated. Eight antigens - A23, A25, A29, A32, Bw45, B21, Bw22 and Bw53 - were absent in the Hindu population, four different antigens - A29, Bw52, B14 and Bw42 - were absent in Hyderabad Muslims, two antigens - A31 and Bw45 - were lacking in Surat Muslims. The three populations showed considerable genetic heterogeneity. The genetic difference between the two Muslim groups was small, but the Hindu population showed pronounced differences from each of the Muslim groups.

  9. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    KAUST Repository

    Domina, Maria

    2014-12-04

    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  10. AntigenMap 3D: an online antigenic cartography resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J Lamar; Yang, Jialiang; Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Antigenic cartography is a useful technique to visualize and minimize errors in immunological data by projecting antigens to 2D or 3D cartography. However, a 2D cartography may not be sufficient to capture the antigenic relationship from high-dimensional immunological data. AntigenMap 3D presents an online, interactive, and robust 3D antigenic cartography construction and visualization resource. AntigenMap 3D can be applied to identify antigenic variants and vaccine strain candidates for pathogens with rapid antigenic variations, such as influenza A virus. http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap3D

  11. The effectiveness of (IgG-ELISA) serology as an alternative diagnostic method for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastro-intestinal bleeding due to gastro-duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, E; Castro-Fernández, M; Romero-Gómez, M; Vargas-Romero, J

    2002-12-01

    To establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of serology (IgG ELISA) as an alternative diagnostic method for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer and digestive hemorrhage. The diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in these patients is difficult due to the low sensitivity of invasive tests and the need to discontinue treatment with proton pump inhibitors to perform a breath test with urea 13C or the detection of Helicobacter pylori antigens in feces. We included 214 patients (164 men and 50 women) with an average age of 58 +/- 15 years, who were admitted to hospital due to upper gastro-intestinal bleeding caused by a gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was established by means of gastric biopsy (fast urease test histology and/or culture) and a breath test with 13C-labeled urea. Serology was performed with the ELISA method (Pyloriset EIA-G by Orion Diagnostica). Positive Helicobacter pylori infection was accepted with any positive invasive method or breath test, and no infection was established if all invasive tests performed and the breath test with 13C-labeled urea were negative. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of serology in the global series and in different subgroups of patients according to age (> 60 and peptic ulcer. 192 patients (89.7%) showed infection due to Helicobacter pylori. In the global series (n = 214) we obtained a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 87.5, 54.5, 94.3 and 33.3%, respectively. Specificity was greater in the group not exposed to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 110) as compared to the exposed group (n = 104), in the 60 years group (n = 105), in the duodenal ulcer group (n = 141) with respect to the gastric ulcer group (n = 59), and in the group with a history of gastro-duodenal peptic

  12. NovelTreponema pallidumRecombinant Antigens for Syphilis Diagnostics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanov, Aleksey; Runina, Anastassia; Deryabin, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    The recombinant protein technology considerably promoted the development of rapid and accurate treponema-specific laboratory diagnostics of syphilis infection. For the last ten years, the immunodominant recombinant inner membrane lipoproteins are proved to be sensitive and specific antigens for syphilis screening. However, the development of an enlarged T. pallidum antigen panel for diagnostics of early and late syphilis and differentiation of syphilis stages or cured syphilis remains as actual goal of multidisciplinary expertise. Current review revealed novel recombinant antigens: surface-exposed proteins, adhesins, and periplasmic and flagellar proteins, which are promising candidates for the improved syphilis serological diagnostics. The opportunities and limitations of diagnostic usage of these antigens are discussed and the criteria for selection of optimal antigens panel summarized.

  13. Novel Treponema pallidum Recombinant Antigens for Syphilis Diagnostics: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanov, Aleksey; Runina, Anastassia

    2017-01-01

    The recombinant protein technology considerably promoted the development of rapid and accurate treponema-specific laboratory diagnostics of syphilis infection. For the last ten years, the immunodominant recombinant inner membrane lipoproteins are proved to be sensitive and specific antigens for syphilis screening. However, the development of an enlarged T. pallidum antigen panel for diagnostics of early and late syphilis and differentiation of syphilis stages or cured syphilis remains as actual goal of multidisciplinary expertise. Current review revealed novel recombinant antigens: surface-exposed proteins, adhesins, and periplasmic and flagellar proteins, which are promising candidates for the improved syphilis serological diagnostics. The opportunities and limitations of diagnostic usage of these antigens are discussed and the criteria for selection of optimal antigens panel summarized. PMID:28523273

  14. External validation of recombinant antigens for serodiagnosis of machine operator's lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Coralie; Reboux, Gabriel; Warfolomeow, Isabel; Rognon, Bénédicte; Millon, Laurence; Roussel, Sandrine

    2014-02-01

    Machine operator's lung (MOL) is a hypersensitivity pneumonitis the diagnosis of which is difficult. Our laboratory previously developed an ELISA test using recombinant antigens from Mycobacterium immunogenum isolated in French plant. The objective was to validate the previous ELISA results with ten new suspected cases from Germany. Two serological analyses were performed: ELISA with the six recombinant antigens, and electrosyneresis with crude antigens of M. immunogenum and three other main species isolated from contaminated metalworking fluids. The two recombinant antigens acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, combined together, and electrosyneresis are useful in making the diagnosis regardless of the clinical and radiological data. Finally 9 out of the 10 suspected cases were declared as MOL. Despite the geographical distance, the crude and recombinant antigens produced to investigate the clustered French cases also proved to be useful in diagnosing the suspected cases in Germany. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A polyvalent vaccine for high-risk prostate patients: "are more antigens better?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slovin, Susan F; Ragupathi, Govind; Fernandez, Celina

    2007-01-01

    vaccine of synthetic "self" antigens broke immunologic tolerance against two or more antigens in all 30 vaccinated patients, was safe, but antibody titers against several of the antigens were lower than those seen in individual monovalent trials. No impact on PSA slope was detected. We address...... with stimulation by multiple antigens, a hexavalent vaccine was prepared using previously determined doses and administered in a Phase II setting to 30 high-risk patients. The hexavalent vaccine included GM2, Globo H, Lewis(y), glycosylated MUC-1-32mer and Tn and TF in a clustered formation, conjugated to KLH...... and mixed with QS-21. Eight vaccinations were administered over 13 months. All 30 patients had significant elevations in antibody titers to at least two of the six antigens; 22 patients had increased reactivity with FACS. These serologic responses were lower than that seen previously in patients treated...

  16. [An avian strain of Escherichia coli with antigens common to the genus Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzolo, H R; Zoratti de Verona, A; d'Empaire, M; Furowicz, A J

    1977-01-01

    On a commercial poultry farm, a large percentage (9%) of clinically healthy fowls had positive reaction to the plate test, with commercial polyvalent pullorum antigens. We could not isolate Salmonella from the positive birds. An strain, of Escherichia coli Balcarce (E. coli B) was isolated from the feces of one of the birds. The isolate was identified biochemically and the antigenic study showed correlation with E. coli 044 and the somatic fraction 1, 2, 8, 14 and 23 of the Salmonella genus. The common antigens were studied by agglutination, absorption and crossed immunodiffusion tests, comparing the isolated strain and the different Salmonella serotypes. Four pullorum polyvalent commercial antigens reacted with sera containing somatic agglutinins 1, and with the E. coli B antiserum. These observations confirm the high antigenic correlation between the genus of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is indicated that for the diagnosis of avian salmonelosis rather than using a single serological tests, the isolation and identification of the etiological agent is required.

  17. A Longitudinal Hepatitis B Vaccine Cohort Demonstrates Long-lasting Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Cellular Immunity Despite Loss of Antibody Against HBV Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Brenna C; Spradling, Philip R; Bruden, Dana J T; Zanis, Carolyn; Case, Samantha; Choromanski, Tammy L; Apodaca, Minjun; Brogdon, Hazel D; Dwyer, Gaelen; Snowball, Mary; Negus, Susan; Bruce, Michael G; Morishima, Chihiro; Knall, Cindy; McMahon, Brian J

    2016-07-15

    Long-lasting protection resulting from hepatitis B vaccine, despite loss of antibody against hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (anti-HBs), is undetermined. We recruited persons from a cohort vaccinated with plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine in 1981 who have been followed periodically since. We performed serological testing for anti-HBs and microRNA-155 and assessed HBV-specific T-cell responses by enzyme-linked immunospot and cytometric bead array. Study subgroups were defined 32 years after vaccination as having an anti-HBs level of either ≥10 mIU/mL (group 1; n = 13) or anti-HBs level, tested positive for tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 10, or interleukin 6 production by HBV surface antigen-specific T cells. The frequency of natural killer T cells correlated with the level of anti-HBs (P = .008). The proportion of participants who demonstrated T-cell responses to HBV core antigen varied among the cytokines measured, suggesting some natural exposure to HBV in the study group. No participant had evidence of breakthrough HBV infection. Evidence of long-lasting cellular immunity, regardless of anti-HBs level, suggests that protection afforded by primary immunization with plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine during childhood and adulthood lasts at least 32 years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tests to identify antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in serum. The identification aids in... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents...

  19. Restricted distribution of Streptococcus milleri carbohydrate type antigens amongst other viridans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Matsunoshita, N; Yakushiji, T

    1992-09-01

    The distribution of oral Streptococcus milleri carbohydrate type antigens in other viridans streptococcus species was examined. Rantz-Randall extracts of cells of the test strains grown in broth containing glucose were allowed to react with typing or grouping antisera for S. milleri serotypes a-k, or Lancefield groups A-G and K. Of 93 strains comprising more than 12 streptococcal species that included S. mutans and S. sanguis complexes, only 15 S. salivarius strains and one S. mitis strain were immunologically related to S. milleri serotype f. Unlike S. milleri strains, S. salivarius type f strains belonged to Lancefield group K, whereas the S. mitis strain was closely related to S. milleri serotype f but did not react with any of the Lancefield grouping antisera tested. Results suggest that oral S. milleri strains can be distinguished serologically from other oral viridans streptococci and that the typing antisera used in our researches might differentiate S. milleri isolates from the mouth from those associated with systemic purulent infections.

  20. Eosinofil Sel Penyaji Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Wahyu Jatmiko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sel eosinofil merupakan jenis sel lekosit yang terlibat dalam berbagai patogenesis penyakit. Sel eosinofil pada awalnya dikenal sebagai sel efektor  dari sistem imunitas alamiah. Akan tetapi, kemampuan sel eosinofil dalam memfagositosis patogen menimbulkan dugaan bahwa sel eosinofil ikut berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen. Hal ini dianalogikan dengan sel makrofag dan sel dendritik yang bisa memfagositosis dan menyajikan antigen sebagai hasil dari degradasi patogen yang difagositosis. Untuk menjawab permasalahan ini, penulis melakukan penelusuran artikel tentang eosinofil sebagai sel penyaji antigen melalui US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Healthdengan kata kunci eoshinophil dan antigen presenting cell. Hasil penelusuran adalah ditemukannya 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik. Hasil dari sintesis kesepuluh jurnal tersebut adalah sel eosinofil mampu berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen yang profesional (professionalantigenpresentng cell

  1. Humoral response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6: a serological indicator of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rizzo

    Full Text Available Salivary proteins injected by blood feeding arthropods into their hosts evoke a saliva-specific humoral response which can be useful to evaluate exposure to bites of disease vectors. However, saliva of hematophagous arthropods is a complex cocktail of bioactive factors and its use in immunoassays can be misleading because of potential cross-reactivity to other antigens. Toward the development of a serological marker of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors we expressed the Anopheles gambiae gSG6, a small anopheline-specific salivary protein, and we measured the anti-gSG6 IgG response in individuals from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The gSG6 protein was immunogenic and anti-gSG6 IgG levels and/or prevalence increased in exposed individuals during the malaria transmission/rainy season. Moreover, this response dropped during the intervening low transmission/dry season, suggesting it is sensitive enough to detect variation in vector density. Members of the Fulani ethnic group showed higher anti-gSG6 IgG response as compared to Mossi, a result consistent with the stronger immune reactivity reported in this group. Remarkably, anti-gSG6 IgG levels among responders were high in children and gradually declined with age. This unusual pattern, opposite to the one observed with Plasmodium antigens, is compatible with a progressive desensitization to mosquito saliva and may be linked to the continued exposure to bites of anopheline mosquitoes. Overall, the humoral anti-gSG6 IgG response appears a reliable serological indicator of exposure to bites of the main African malaria vectors (An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and, possibly, Anopheles funestus and it may be exploited for malaria epidemiological studies, development of risk maps and evaluation of anti-vector measures. In addition, the gSG6 protein may represent a powerful model system to get a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the

  2. New serological tools for improved diagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lourena E; Salles, Beatriz C S; Alves, Patrícia T; Dias, Ana C S; Vaz, Emília R; Ramos, Fernanda F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Duarte, Mariana C; Roatt, Bruno M; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Tavares, Carlos A P; Gonçalves, Denise U; Rocha, Manoel O C; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-07-01

    Human tegumentary leishmaniasis (HTL), characterized by skin ulcers that may spread and cause dreadful and massive tissue destruction of the nose and mouth, is considered a neglected tropical disease, and it is a serious threat to global health due to its continuous expansion, favored by the lifecycle of its causative organism that is maintained in domestic animal reservoirs and anthropophilic sand fly species. Serodiagnosis of HTL is a great challenge due to many biological factors, including hampered specificity and/or sensitivity. This investigation addresses the unmet need for new diagnostic markers of HTL, and describes a simple platform to improve the serodiagnosis. A constrained conformational phage display random peptide library combined with a magnetic microsphere-based subtraction strategy was used to identify ligands with potential diagnostic applications. Six clones were selected against IgG antibodies from HTL patients, characterized by sequencing and confirmed by a phage-ELISA using sera from patients developing visceral leishmaniasis (n=20), Chagas disease (n=10), mucosal (n=30) and cutaneous (n=20) leishmaniasis; as well as from healthy subjects living in endemic (n=20) and non-endemic (n=30) areas of leishmaniasis. A wild-type M13-phage clone and a soluble Leishmania antigenic extract were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Three clones reached 100% sensitivity and specificity, without any cross-reactivity with sera from patients with leishmaniasis-related diseases. Briefly, we describe for the first time a set of serological markers based on three immunodominant mimotopes that showed 100% accuracy, and that could be used in a phage-ELISA assay for the HTL serodiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii Serology and Outcomes After Heart Transplantation: Contention in the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehrazi-Raffle, A; Luu, M; Yu, Z; Liou, F; Kittleson, M; Hamilton, M; Kobashigawa, J

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an endemic pathogen to which approximately half of healthy patients develop antibodies. Toxoplasma serology is routinely assessed prior to heart transplantation. It has been suggested that donor or recipient toxoplasma serologic status may be associated with poor long-term outcomes post-transplantation, but current literature reveals conflicting results. From 1995 to 2012 at our single center, we retrospectively reviewed 785 heart transplant patients for pre-transplantation T. gondii serology. Patients were divided into T. gondii seronegative and seropositive groups. Subgroups in each group were created based on whether the donor was seropositive or seronegative. We assessed survival, freedom from nonfatal major adverse cardiac events, and freedom from cardiac allograft vasculopathy at 5 years post-transplantation. No significant difference was found between 5-year outcomes of pre-transplant T. gondii seronegative and T. gondii seropositive recipients post-heart transplantation. However, in the donor-seropositive/recipient-seronegative subgroup (D+/R-), there was a significantly lower 5-year survival rate compared to the cohort of donor-seronegative/recipient-seronegative (D-/R-) patients (60% vs 87%, P = .04). After adjustment by multivariate analysis, D+/R- status conferred a trend towards increased mortality (HR 3.0, P = .06). Toxoplasma serology prior to heart transplantation does not appear to impact post-transplantation outcome. However, toxoplasma seronegative patients who receive toxoplasma seropositive hearts appear to have poorer 5-year survival compared to toxoplasma seronegative patients who received toxoplasma seronegative hearts. Due to the small sample size, the association between T. gondii serology mismatch and long-term survival warrants further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression, refolding and bio-structural analysis of a tetravalent recombinant dengue envelope domain III protein for serological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Maxime; Lacoux, Xavier; Martinez, Jérôme; Méjan, Odile; Luciani, Françoise; Daniel, Soizic

    2017-05-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by four genetically and serologically related viruses that affect several millions of people. Envelope domain III (EDIII) of the viral envelope protein contains dengue virus (DENV) type-specific and DENV complex-reactive antigenic sites. Here, we describe the expression in Escherichia coli, the refolding and bio-structural analysis of envelope domain III of the four dengue serotypes as a tetravalent dengue protein (EDIIIT2), generating an attractive diagnostic candidate. In vitro refolding of denatured EDIIIT2 was performed by successive dialysis with decreasing concentrations of chaotropic reagent and in the presence of oxidized glutathione. The efficiency of refolding was demonstrated by protein mobility shifting and fluorescent visualization of labeled cysteine in non-reducing SDS-PAGE. The identity and the fully oxidized state of the protein were verified by mass spectrometry. Analysis of the structure by fluorescence, differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism showed a well-formed structural conformation mainly composed of β-strands. A label-free immunoassay based on biolayer interferometry technology was subsequently used to evaluate antigenic properties of folded EDIIIT2 protein using a panel of dengue IgM positive and negative human sera. Our data collectively support the use of an oxidatively refolded EDIIIT2 recombinant chimeric protein as a promising antigen in the serological diagnosis of dengue virus infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1: a multiplexed flow cytometry method for differential serological diagnosis of chagas disease and leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho

    Full Text Available Differential serological diagnosis of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis is difficult owing to cross-reactivity resulting from the fact that the parasites that cause these pathologies share antigenic epitopes. Even with optimized serological assays that use parasite-specific recombinant antigens, inconclusive test results continue to be a problem. Therefore, new serological tests with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. In the present work, we developed and evaluated the performance of a new flow cytometric serological method, referred to as FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1, for the all-in-one classification of inconclusive tests. The method uses antigens for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease and is based on an inverted detuned algorithm for analysis of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity. First, parasites were label with fluorescein isothiocyanate or Alexa Fluor 647 at various concentrations. Then serum samples were serially diluted, the dilutions were incubated with suspensions of mixed labeled parasites, and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine percentages of positive fluorescent parasites. Using the new method, we obtained correct results for 76 of 80 analyzed serum samples (95% overall performance, underscoring the outstanding performance of the method. Moreover, we found that the fluorescently labeled parasite suspensions were stable during storage at room temperature, 4 °C, and -20 °C for 1 year. In addition, two different lots of parasite suspensions showed equivalent antigen recognition; that is, the two lots showed equivalent categorical segregation of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity at selected serum dilutions. In conclusion, we have developed a sensitive and selective method for differential diagnosis of Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  6. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  7. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to rhinovirus in serum. The... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to echovirus in serum. Additionally... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to reovirus in serum. The identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to poliovirus in serum. Additionally... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in serological tests to identify antibodies to mumps virus in serum. Additionally, some of these... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. Short-term follow-up of chagasic patients after benznidazole treatment using multiple serological markers

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    Fernández-Villegas Ana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional serological tests, using total soluble proteins or a cocktail of recombinant proteins from T. cruzi as antigens, are highly sensitive for Chagas disease diagnosis. This type of tests, however, does not seem to be reliable tools for short- and medium-term monitoring of the evolution of patients after antiparasitic treatment. The aim of the present study was to search for immunological markers that could be altered in the sera from Chagas disease patients after benznidazole treatment, and therefore have a potential predictive diagnostic value. Methods We analyzed the reactivity of sera from chagasic patients during different clinical phases of the disease against a series of immunodominant antigens, known as KMP11, PFR2, HSP70 and Tgp63. The reactivity of the sera from 46 adult Chronic Chagas disease patients living in a non-endemic country without vector transmission of T. cruzi (15 patients in the indeterminate stage, 16 in the cardiomiopathy stage and 16 in the digestive stage and 22 control sera from non-infected subjects was analyzed. We also analyzed the response dynamics of sera from those patients who had been treated with benznidazole. Results Regardless of the stage of the sickness, the sera from chagasic patients reacted against KMP11, HSP70, PFR2 and Tgp63 recombinant proteins with statistical significance relative to the reactivity against the same antigens by the sera from healthy donors, patients with autoimmune diseases or patients suffering from tuberculosis, leprosy or malaria. Shortly after benznidazole treatment, a statistically significant decrease in reactivity against KMP11, HSP70 and PFR2 was observed (six or nine month. It was also observed that, following benznidazole treatment, the differential reactivity against these antigens co-relates with the clinical status of the patients. Conclusions The recombinant antigens KMP11, PFR2, Tgp63 and HSP70 are recognized by Chagas disease patients

  14. A joint matrix completion and filtering model for influenza serological data integration.

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    Xiao-Tong Yuan

    Full Text Available Antigenic characterization based on serological data, such as Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI assay, is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. In many cases, it would be impossible to measure all pairwise antigenic correlations between testing antigens and reference antisera in each individual experiment. Thus, we have to combine and integrate the HI tables from a number of individual experiments. Measurements from different experiments may be inconsistent due to different experimental conditions. Consequently we will observe a matrix with missing data and possibly inconsistent measurements. In this paper, we develop a new mathematical model, which we refer to as Joint Matrix Completion and Filtering, for HI data integration. In this approach, we simultaneously handle the incompleteness and uncertainty of observations by assuming that the underlying merged HI data matrix has low rank, as well as carefully modeling different levels of noises in each individual table. An efficient blockwise coordinate descent procedure is developed for optimization. The performance of our approach is validated on synthetic and real influenza datasets. The proposed joint matrix completion and filtering model can be adapted as a general model for biological data integration, targeting data noises and missing values within and across experiments.

  15. The expression and serological reactivity of recombinant canine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D

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    MarkéŽta Vaňkov‡á

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to express recombinant glycoprotein D of canine herpesvirus 1 in bacterial cells and to evaluate its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when compared to traditional serological methods. The gene fragment coding glycoprotein D of canine herpesvirus 1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned into plasmid vector and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Recombinant protein was then purified and used as an antigen in immunoblot for a detection of canine herpesvirus 1 specific antibodies. Antibody testing was performed on the panel of 100 canine sera by immunoblot with recombinant glycoprotein D as antigen and compared with indirect immunofluorescence assay. Serum samples were collected from 83 dogs with no history of canine herpesvirus 1 or reproductive disorders, and from 17 dogs from breeding kennels with a history of canine herpesvirus 1 related reproductive disorders. Sensitivity of glycoprotein D based immunoblot was 89.2% and specificity was 93%. Kappa value was calculated to be 0.8 between immunoblot and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Antibodies against canine herpesvirus 1 infection were detected in 33% of samples by immunoblot assay. Our study confirms that recombinant glycoprotein D expressed in bacterial cells could be used as a suitable and sensitive antigen for immunological tests and that herpesvirus infection seems to be common among the canine population in the Czech Republic.

  16. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, K.H.; Cox, P.H.; Hamer, C.J.A. v.d.; Berends, W.; Delhez, H.

    1977-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a complex of antigen determinants and also the carrier of these determinants. Chemically it is a glycoprotein. Its occurrence in blood serum or urine is correlated with malignant disease. Several radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed, one by Hoffmann-Laroche and one by the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute. Both methods and the Hoffmann assay kit are tested. Specifications are given for isolation of the antigen, preparation of the antiserum, and the execution of the RIA. Biochemical and clinical aspects are discussed

  17. Septic arthritis and acute rheumatic fever in children: the diagnostic value of serological inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Raakhi M; Lennon, Diana; Boyle, Matthew J; Chivers, Karel; Frampton, Chris; Nicholson, Ross; Crawford, Haemish

    2015-01-01

    Joint pain and raised inflammatory markers are features of both acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and septic arthritis, often posing a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Important differences in the presenting serological inflammatory marker profile may assist patient diagnosis, however, as clinical experience suggests that ARF is associated with a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), whereas other serological markers may be similarly elevated in these 2 conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of serological inflammatory markers and white cell count (WCC) in children presenting with acute joint pain secondary to ARF or septic arthritis. Data were obtained from the Auckland regional rheumatic fever database and hospital computer records between 2005 and 2012. Records of all patients under the age of 16 years who were admitted with a new diagnosis of ARF or septic arthritis were analyzed. The diagnosis of ARF was defined on the basis of the New Zealand modification of the Jones Criteria, and the diagnosis of septic arthritis was defined on the basis of joint fluid cytology and culture. Baseline characteristics, serological inflammatory markers, and serum WCC were compared between the ARF and septic arthritis patient groups. Children with ARF displayed significantly higher ESR, higher serum C-reactive protein, and lower serum WCC than children with septic arthritis on presentation to hospital. In children presenting with monoarthritis, an ESR>64.5, serum WCCseptic arthritis. A significant proportion (30%) of children with the final diagnosis of ARF initially presented with monoarthritis; 14% of these children (5/34) had received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication before hospital presentation, and 74% of these children (25/34) had abnormal echocardiograms on admission. ARF and septic arthritis are important diagnoses to consider in children presenting with acute joint pain in New Zealand. A significant proportion of patients

  18. [Pentastomosis. A serological study of 193 Ivorians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P; Cagnard, V; Doucet, J

    1982-01-01

    Pentastomosis is the infection caused by the larvae of a worm resorting to Armillifer genus, the adults living in the lungs of big african snakes. Eggs are released with snakes slime and dejecta and ingested by man and various animals. Larvae are disseminated through lymphatic vessels in peritoneum, liver, spleen, lungs, pleurae, and rarely in kidneys, brain or even eye. Most often the infection is fortuitously detected during a radiologic control or a surgical inspection. The serological prevalence was of 4.2 p. 100 as a whole, somewhat lower than that given by post mortem examinations but higher than the prevalence resulting of radiologic controls. Children under 5 are concerned with a prevalence of 7 p. 100.

  19. Imunopatogenesis Treponema pallidum dan Pemeriksaan Serologi

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    Efrida .

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSifilis adalah penyakit menular seksual yang sangat infeksius, disebabkan oleh bakteri berbentuk spiral, Treponema pallidum subspesies pallidum. Penyebaran sifilis di dunia telah menjadi masalah kesehatan yang besar dengan jumlah kasus 12 juta pertahun. Infeksi sifilis dibagi menjadi sifilis stadium dini dan lanjut. Sifilis stadium dini terbagi menjadi sifilis primer, sekunder, dan laten dini. Sifilis stadium lanjut termasuk sifilis tersier (gumatous, sifilis kardiovaskular dan neurosifilis serta sifilis laten lanjut. Sifilis primer didiagnosis berdasarkan gejala klinis ditemukannya satu atau lebih chancre (ulser. Sifilis sekunder ditandai dengan ditemukannya lesi mukokutaneus yang terlokalisir atau difus dengan limfadenopati. Sifilis laten tanpa gejala klinis sifilis dengan pemeriksaan nontreponemal dan treponemal reaktif, riwayat terapi sifilis dengan titer uji nontreponemal yang meningkat dibandingkan dengan hasil titer nontreponemal sebelumnya. Sifilis tersier ditemukan guma dengan pemeriksaan treponemal reaktif, sekitar 30% dengan uji nontreponemal yang tidak reaktifKata kunci: sifilis, Treponema pallidum, serologiAbstractSyphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is highly infectious, caused by a spiral -shaped bacterium, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The spread of syphilis in the world has become a major health problem and the common, the number of 12 million cases per year. Infectious syphilis is divided into early and late-stage syphilis. Early-stage syphilis is divided into primary, secondary, and early latent. Advanced stage of syphilis include tertiary syphilis (gumatous, cardiovascular syphilis, and neurosyphilis and late latent syphilis. Primary syphilis is diagnosed by clinical symptoms of the discovery of one or more chancre (ulcer. Secondary syphilis is characterized by the finding of localized mucocutaneous lesions or with diffuse lymphadenopathy. Latent syphilis without clinical symptoms of syphilis with

  20. LOCALIZATION OF ANTIGEN IN TISSUE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Albert H.; Leduc, Elizabeth H.; Kaplan, Melvin H.

    1951-01-01

    The fate of three proteins, crystalline hen's egg albumin, crystalline bovine plasma albumin, and human plasma γ-globulin, was traced after intravenous injection into mice. This was done by preparing frozen sections of quick-frozen tissue, allowing what foreign protein might be present in the section to react with homologous antibody labelled with fluorescein, and examining the section under the fluorescence microscope. By this means, which employs the serological specificity of the protein as a natural "marker," all three of these proteins were found in the cells of the reticulo-endothelial system, the connective tissue, the vascular endothelium, the lymphocytes of spleen and lymph node, and the epithelium of the kidney tubules, the liver, and in very small amounts in the adrenal. The central nervous system was not studied. All three persisted longest in the reticulo-endothelial system and the connective tissue, and in the doses employed egg white (10 mg.) was no longer detectable after 1 day, bovine albumin (10 mg.) after 2 days, and human γ-globulin (4 mg.) after 6 days, although in a somewhat higher dose (10 mg.) human γ-globulin persisted longer than 8 days. Egg albumin differed from the others in not being detectable in the cells of the renal glomerulus. It was found that each of the three proteins was present in the nuclei of each cell type enumerated above, often in higher concentration than in the cytoplasm. Further, some of the nuclei not only contained antigen, soon after injection, but were also surrounded by a bright ring associated with the nuclear membrane. By means of photographic records under the fluorescence microscope of sections stained for antigen, and direct observation under the light microscope of the same field subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin, it could be determined that the antigen was not adsorbed to chromatin or nucleoli, but was apparently in solution in the nuclear sap. PMID:14803641

  1. Impact of serology and molecular methods on improving the microbiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Amany Aly; El-Rachidi, Nevine Gamal El-din; El-Enany, Mervat Gaber; AbdulRahman, Eiman Mohammed; Mohamed, Reem Mostafa; Rizk, Hussien Hasan

    2015-10-01

    Conventional diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) is based mainly on culture-dependent methods that may fail because of antibiotic therapy or fastidious microorganisms. We aimed to evaluate the added values of serological and molecular methods for diagnosis of infective endocarditis. One hundred and fifty-six cases of suspected endocarditis were enrolled in the study. For each patient, three sets of blood culture were withdrawn and serum sample was collected for Brucella, Bartonella and Coxiella burnetii antibody testing. Galactomannan antigen was added if fungal endocarditis was suspected. Broad range PCR targeting bacterial and fungal pathogens were done on blood culture bottles followed by sequencing. Culture and molecular studies were done on excised valve tissue when available. One hundred and thirty-two cases were diagnosed as definite IE. Causative organisms were detected by blood cultures in 40 (30.3 %) of cases. Blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) represented 69.7 %. Of these cases, PCR followed by sequencing on blood and valvular tissue could diagnose five cases of Aspergillus flavus. Eleven patients with BCNE (8.3 %) were diagnosed as zoonotic endocarditis by serology and PCR including five cases of Brucella spp, four cases of Bartonella spp and two cases of Coxiella burnetii. PCR detected three cases of Brucella spp and two cases of Bartonella spp, while cases of Coxiella burnetii were PCR negative. The results of all diagnostic tools decreased the percentage of non-identified cases of BCNE from 69.7 to 49.2 %. Our data underline the role of serologic and molecular tools for the diagnosis of blood culture-negative endocarditis.

  2. [Problems in the serological diagnosis of atypical pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietańska, Karolina; Chróst, Anna; Rastawicki, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The clinical presentation of atypical pneumonia is often similar to the presentation of more typical bacterial pneumonias and the etiological agent must be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. This article will discuss the problems in the serological diagnosis of atypical pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae which are the agents most commonly associated with atypical pneumonia. Specifically, seeking the possibility of non-specific response, we evaluated the prevalence of antibodies to M. pneumoniae in serum samples obtained from patients suspected in clinical investigation for legionellosis. The total numbers of 261 serum obtained from patients suspected in clinical investigation for legionellosis, were tested by in-house ELISA with M. pneumoniae sonicated antigen. Some of the positive sera were also re-tested by western-blot with high specific recombinant M. pneumoniae P1 protein. The diagnostic significant level of IgA antibodies to M. pneumoniae were diagnosed by ELISA in 71 (27,2%) of tested serum samples. Some of the IgA-positive sera have also high level of IgG and IgM antibodies to M pneumoniae (respectively 4,2% and 6,5%). Most from the 18 selected positive results obtained by ELISA were also confirmed by western-blot. It was characteristic that IgA antibodies to M pneumoniae were detected more than three times often in serum samples with positive serological tests for Legionnaires' disease than in samples with negative results for L. pneumophila. This study showed the possibility of non-specific reactions in serological diagnosis of atypical pneumonia. However, according to the data of the literature, co-infections of L. pneumophila and M pneumoniae can not be excluded.

  3. An immunoproteomic approach revealed antigenic proteins enhancing serodiagnosis performance of bird fancier's lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzet, Adeline; Reboux, Gabriel; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Gondouin, Anne; De Vuyst, Paul; Balliau, Thierry; Millon, Laurence; Valot, Benoit; Roussel, Sandrine

    2017-11-01

    Bird fancier's lung (BFL) caused by repeated inhalation of avian proteins is the most common form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. However, the exact identification of proteins involved is unknown, and serological test use for diagnosis need to be standardized. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify antigenic proteins from pigeon droppings (ii) to provide information about their location in avian matrices and (iii) to produce them in recombinant proteins to evaluate their diagnostic performances. Antigenic proteins of pigeon dropping extracts were investigated using 2-dimensional immunoblotting with sera from patients with BFL, asymptomatic exposed controls and healthy volunteers. We investigated the origin of these antigenic proteins by analyzing droppings, blooms and sera using a shotgun proteomic analysis. BFL-associated proteins were produced as recombinant antigens in E. coli and were assessed in ELISA with sera from patients (n=25) and subject exposed controls (n=30). These diagnostic performances were compared with those obtained by precipitin techniques (agar gel double diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis). We identified 14 antigenic proteins mainly located in droppings and blooms. These proteins were involved in either the digestive or immune systems of pigeons. Using the recombinant BFL-associated proteins: Immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide-1 (IGLL1: sensitivity: 76%; specificity: 100%; AUC: 0.93) and Proproteinase E (ProE: sensitivity: 84%; specificity: 80%; AUC: 0.85), the ELISA test showed better performance than precipitin assays with pigeon dropping extracts (sensitivity: 60%; specificity: 93.3%; AUC: 0.76). IGLL1 and ProE were identified as the biomarkers of the disease. The use of these highly standardized antigens discriminates BFL cases from exposed subjects in serological assays. The results of this study offer new possibilities for the serological diagnosis of the disease. ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT03056404. Copyright

  4. Serologic and molecular characteristics of hepatitis B virus among school children in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Lusida, Maria Inge; Amin, Mochamad; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2010-07-01

    Universal childhood hepatitis B vaccination was introduced in Indonesia in 1997; by 2008, coverage was estimated to be 78%. This study aimed to investigate the serologic status and virologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the children in East Java. A total of 229 healthy children born during 1994-1999 were enrolled in this study. Overall, 3.1% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 23.6% were positive for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). HBV DNA was detected in 5 of 222 HBsAg-negative carriers, which were suggested to be cases of occult HBV infection. A single amino substitution (T126I) in the S region was frequently found. HBV infection remains endemic, and the prevalence of anti-HBs remains insufficient among children in East Java, Indonesia.

  5. First serologic evidence of human hantavirus infection in Alagoas State in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo dos Santos-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.

  6. Serological cross-reactivity between Merkel cell polyomavirus and two closely related chimpanzee polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme T J Nicol

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses based on the major capsid protein sequence indicate that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV and chimpanzee polyomaviruses (PtvPyV1, PtvPyV2, and similarly Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV and the orangutan polyomavirus (OraPyV1 are closely related. The existence of cross-reactivity between these polyomaviruses was therefore investigated. The findings indicated serological identity between the two chimpanzee polyomaviruses investigated and a high level of cross-reactivity with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In contrast, cross-reactivity was not observed between TSPyV and OraPyV1. Furthermore, specific antibodies to chimpanzee polyomaviruses were detected in chimpanzee sera by pre-incubation of sera with the different antigens, but not in human sera.

  7. Hepatitis B serology among the Palestinian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashef, L; Thalji, A

    1992-01-01

    A total of 778 blood samples collected from Palestinian subjects between September 1989 and March 1990 were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and when negative for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). The emphasis of the survey was on the younger population with 85% of those tested under the age of 30 years. The prevalence of positive markers (HBsAg or anti-HBs) rose progressively with age, being 1% under the age of 5 years and reaching 47% in those aged between 30 and 50 years. The results clearly show that this infection is endemic in our population. A vaccination policy is discussed. The most important finding was the very low prevalence of the infection in those under 5 years of age, indicating the minor role played by perinatal transmission in our community. Thus, an effective immunization programme does not need to target newborns.

  8. Trypanosoma equiperdum Low Molecular Weight Proteins As Candidates for Specific Serological Diagnosis of Dourine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Luciani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of dourine can be difficult because the clinical signs of this disease in horses are similar to those of surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi. Moreover, T. equiperdum and T. evansi are closely related and, so far, they cannot be distinguished using serological tests. In a previous work, the T. equiperdum protein pattern recognized by antibodies from dourine-infected horses and the humoral immune response kinetics were investigated by immunoblotting assay; a total of 20 sera from naturally and experimentally infected horses and from healthy animals were tested. Immunoblotting analysis showed that antibodies from infected horses specifically bind T. equiperdum low molecular weight proteins (from 16 to 35 kDa, which are not recognized by antibodies from uninfected horses. In this work, we tested other 615 sera (7 from naturally infected horses and 608 sera from healthy horses and donkeys: results confirmed the data obtained previously. In addition, six SDS-PAGE bands with molecular weight ranging from 10 to 37 kDa were analyzed by mass spectrometry, in order to identify immunogenic proteins that could be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of dourine. A total of 167 proteins were identified. Among them, 37 were found unique for T. equiperdum. Twenty-four of them could represent possible candidate diagnostic antigens for the development of serological tests specific for T. equiperdum.

  9. Atypical prediagnosis Epstein-Barr virus serology restricted to EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Lennette, Evelyne T.; Rubertone, Mark V.; Mann, Risa B.; Borowitz, Michael; Weir, Edward G.; Abbondanzo, Susan L.; Mueller, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    An altered anti–Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serologic profile preceding diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. It is unknown whether this atypical pattern predicts Hodgkin lymphoma risk further subdivided by determination of EBV in tumor cells. A nested case-control study of 128 incident Hodgkin lymphoma cases and 368 matched controls from active-duty military personnel with archived serum in the US Department of Defense Serum Repository was conducted to determine whether a panel of anti-EBV antibody titers differed in EBV+ and EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma. Among 40 EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma cases and matched controls, statistically significant increased risks were associated with elevated anti-EBV VCA IgG antibody titers (relative risk = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.7), and an anti–EBNA-1/anti–EBNA-2 antibody ratio ≤ 1.0 versus > 1.0 (relative risk = 4.7; 95% CI, 1.6-13.8). In contrast, no significant associations were found among 88 EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma cases relative to their matched controls. In case-case analysis, EBV+ disease was significantly associated with a low anti–EBNA-1/anti–EBNA-2 antibody ratio. This distinc-tive serologic response to EBV latent antigens, indicative of immune dysfunction in other clinical settings, is associated with an increased risk of developing EBV+ but not EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:22972983

  10. Development and performance of prototype serologic and molecular tests for hepatitis delta infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Kelly E; Butler, Emily K; Luk, Ka-Cheung; Rodgers, Mary A; Cassidy, Michael; Gersch, Jeffrey; McNamara, Anne L; Kuhns, Mary C; Dawson, George J; Kaptue, Lazare; Bremer, Birgit; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Cloherty, Gavin A

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 5% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected people are coinfected with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDV infection leads to increased mortality over HBV mono-infection, yet HDV diagnostics are not widely available. Prototype molecular (RNA) and serologic (IgG) assays were developed for high-throughput testing on the Abbott m2000 and ARCHITECT systems, respectively. RNA detection was achieved through amplification of a ribozyme region target, with a limit of detection of 5 IU/ml. The prototype serology assay (IgG) was developed using peptides derived from HDV large antigen (HDAg), and linear epitopes were further identified by peptide scan. Specificity of an HBV negative population was 100% for both assays. A panel of 145 HBsAg positive samples from Cameroon with unknown HDV status was tested using both assays: 16 (11.0%) had detectable HDV RNA, and 23 (15.7%) were sero-positive including the 16 HDV RNA positive samples. Additionally, an archival serial bleed panel from an HDV superinfected chimpanzee was tested with both prototypes; data was consistent with historic testing data using a commercial total anti-Delta test. Overall, the two prototype assays provide sensitive and specific methods for HDV detection using high throughput automated platforms, allowing opportunity for improved diagnosis of HDV infected patients.

  11. Development of Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Antigen Detection in Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mu-Xin; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Huang, Da-Na; Ai, Lin; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is difficult to be diagnosed for the reason that no ideal method can be used. Serologic tests require specific equipment and are not always available in poverty-stricken zone and are time-consuming. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) may be useful for angiostrongyliasis control. We established a LFIA for the diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis adults. The sensitivity and specificity were 91.1...

  12. Detection of serological biomarkers by proximity extension assay for detection of colorectal neoplasias in symptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Stine Buch; Lundberg, Martin; Villablanca, Andrea; Christensen, Sarah Louise T; Belling, Kirstine Christensen; Nielsen, Birgitte Sander; Knowles, Mick; Gee, Nick; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Brünner, Nils; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Fredriksson, Simon; Stenvang, Jan; Assarsson, Erika

    2013-10-10

    Although the potential of biomarkers to aid in early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is recognized and numerous biomarker candidates have been reported in the literature, to date only few molecular markers have been approved for daily clinical use. In order to improve the translation of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from a case-control sample set consisting of symptomatic individuals representing CRC patients, patients with adenoma, patients with non-neoplastic large bowel diseases and healthy individuals. After statistical evaluation we found 12 significant indicators of CRC and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Transferrin Receptor-1 (TFRC), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), Osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) and cancer antigen 242 (CA242) showed additive effect. This biomarker panel identified CRC patients with a sensitivity of 56% at 90% specificity and thus the performance is sufficiently high to further investigate this combination of five proteins as serological biomarkers for detection of CRC. Furthermore, when applying the indicators to identify early-stage CRC a combination of CEA, TFRC and CA242 resulted in a ROC curve with an area under the curve of 0.861. Five plasma protein biomarkers were found to be potential CRC discriminators and three of these were additionally found to be discriminators of early-stage CRC. These explorative data in symptomatic individuals demonstrates the feasibility of the multiplex proximity extension assay for screening of potential serological protein biomarkers and warrants independent analyses in a larger sample cohort, including asymptomatic individuals, to further validate the performances of our

  13. Investigation of the response to the enterobacterial common antigen after typhoid vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete M. Milhomem

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies against the Salmonella typhi enterobacterial common antigen (ECA and the O and H antigens were investigated in sera from healthy male subjects who had been previously vaccinated with the typhoid vaccine. No serological response to ECA was observed. Sera from subjects not previously vaccinated presented titers of ECA hemagglutinins which quantitatively were related to the presence ofH titers, but not to O agglutinins but with no statistical significance. The results are discussed in relation to the possible protective immunological mechanisms in typhoid fever.

  14. DNA biosensor/biochip for multiplex blood group genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccoz, S A; Blum, L J; Marquette, C A

    2013-12-15

    At present, 33 blood groups representing over 300 antigens are listed by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). Most of them result from a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the corresponding DNA sequence, i.e. approx. 200 SNPs. In immunohematology laboratories, blood group determination is classically carried out by serological tests, but these have some limitations, mostly in term of multiplexing and throughput. Yet, there is a growing need of extended blood group typing to prevent alloimmunization in transfused patients and transfusion accidents. The knowledge of the molecular bases of blood groups allows the use of molecular biology methods within immunohematology laboratories. Numerous assays focused on blood group genotyping were developed and described during the last 10 years. Some of them were real biochips or biosensors while others were more characterized by the particular molecular biology techniques they used, but all were intending to produce multiplex analysis. PCR techniques are most of the time used followed by an analytical step involving a DNA biosensor, biochip or analysis system (capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry). According to the method used, the test can then be classified as low-, medium- or high-throughput. There are several companies which developed platforms dedicated to blood group genotyping able to analyze simultaneously various SNPs or variants associated with blood group systems. This review summarizes the characteristics of each molecular biology method and medium-/high-throughput platforms dedicated to the blood group genotyping. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular and serological study of rickettsial infection in humans, and in wild and farm animals, in the province of Burgos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Gegúndez, Isabel; González, Rosario; Saz, José Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Limited information is available on the presence of rickettsial infection in humans and animal reservoirs in Spain. Exposure to spotted fever group rickettsia in healthy humans and in farm and wild animals in the Province of Burgos, Spain, was examined by serological methods. Rickettsial DNA was also sought by PCR in animal samples. Of 102 human serum samples examined by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA), 5.88% were positive for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (titers 1/128-1/512). Significant differences were detected in human seroprevalence with respect to age. In further IFAs, 102 out of 375 (27.2%) serum samples from the wild animals reacted with R. conorii antigens (titers 1/64-1/1024); 32 out of 281 (11.38%) samples from farm animals were also positive for R. conorii (titers 1/64-1/2048). The prevalence detected among total wild animals was significantly higher than among total farm animals. No rickettsial DNA was found by PCR in any farm or wild animal sample.

  16. Serological diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: a complicated puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sensini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has a prominent role in respiratory tract infections, especially in children and young adults. Serological methods, in particular complement fixation test (CFT and enzyme immunoassays (ELISA, are most widely used for the diagnosis. However, a reliable diagnosis remains difficult to achieve. Study Design. The population study was subdivided in 2 groups. Group 1 52 serum samples from blood donors; group 2 50 serum samples from 50 patients (23 women, 27 men affected by atypical pneumonia. The mean age was 29.2 years (1 to 85 years and 48% was under 20 years.The following commercial products were used: Chorus M. pneumoniae ELISA IgG and IgM, Chorus CFT total Ig (DIESSE, Siena, Italy. Results. Group 1 67.3% of blood donors resulted positive for IgG and 19.2% positive or equivocal for IgM. Group 2 specific IgG were detected in 70% of the patients and IgM resulted positive or equivocal in 64%. Since the number of IgG positive subjects was similar in the 2 groups, the CFT test was added to better define acute stage of infection.The CFT test resulted positive in 92.3% of the IgG+IgM+, and in 41.7% of the IgG+IgM- serum samples, respectively. Conclusions. High titers of IgG do not necessarily identify acute or recent infection, as previously suggested. The CFT test showed a good correlation with ELISA test in IgG+IgM+ serum samples. Detection of IgM antibodies is still the most reliable test to define acute infection, especially if confirmed by a positive CFT test.

  17. Comparison of 2 molecular assays and a serologic test in diagnosing Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in paediatrics patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Silvia; Fuenzalida, Loreto; Bas, Albert; Prat, Cristina; Ramírez, Aida; Matas, Lurdes; Rodrigo, Carlos; Ausina, Vicente

    2011-12-01

    Two commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays (a real-time PCR [Cepheid] and an oligochromatographic test [Speed-oligo]) and 1 serology test (Serodia-Myco II) for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal aspirates and serum samples were studied. Among the 145 samples, 32 serum pairs were serologically positive for M. pneumoniae. Of these, in 30 nasopharyngeal aspirates, M. pneumoniae was detected using the real-time PCR assay and 25 using Speed-oligo, corresponding to a sensitivity of 93.7% and 78.1%, respectively. Among the 94 samples with negative serology, we only obtained 1 positive result by real-time PCR assay. In the group of samples from healthy children, no positive results were obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic value of serum precipitins to mould antigens in active hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, C-M; Reboux, G; Sudre, B; Mercier, M; Roussel, S; Cordier, J-F; Piarroux, R; Dalphin, J-C

    2007-04-01

    Serum precipitins have a controversial diagnostic value in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). The present authors' objective was to assess their diagnostic value by developing scores from a panel of specific antigens tested by two techniques (electrosyneresis and double diffusion) to discriminate active HP from other interstitial lung diseases. Consecutive patients presenting with a condition for which HP was considered in the differential diagnosis were included in the study. All patients underwent the same standardised diagnostic procedure, including precipitin tests performed in routine conditions. Clinical manifestations, bronchoalveolar lavage and high-resolution computed tomography defined the presence or absence of HP. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and logistic regression were used to develop the serological scores. A total of 122 patients (including 31 cases of HP) were included in the study. Five antigens from the panel were selected for the serological scores (Absidia corymbifera, Eurotium amstelodami, Wallemia sebi, Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula and mesophilic Streptomyces sp.). Electrosyneresis was more discriminative than the double-diffusion technique. Predictive negative values varied 81-88% and predictive positive values varied 71-75% for prevalence of HP 20-35%. In conclusion, serological scores using a panel of relevant antigens may guide both biological and clinical practice in areas of high prevalence of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  19. Optimal ELISA antigen for the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Kikuchi, Taisei; Nakagaki, Shiori; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-12-01

    Ascarid nematodes, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, are the most important causative species of larva migrans syndrome (LMS) in humans. Although the diagnosis of ascarid LMS is generally based on serological tests, specific serological tests for A. suum infection have not been fully developed. In the present study, the sensitivity and specificity of three A. suum antigen preparations, i.e., the somatic adult worm antigen (As-SWAP), larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens derived from infective L3 (AsiL3-ES) and larval ES from tissue migratory L3 (AsmL3-ES), were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of A. suum infection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that all A. suum antigen preparations showed positive reaction to all sera from A. suum-infected mice, while only AsmL3-ES obtained 100 % detection of anti-A. suum antibodies in human visceral ascarosis patients. Comparing the reactivity of each A. suum antigen, sera from both A. suum-infected mice and human patients bound to AsiL3-ES significantly weaker than As-SWAP and AsmL3-ES. Moreover, the OD 450 values of ELISA with the A. suum antigen preparations and T. canis larval ES antigen (TciL3-ES) were compared in order to discriminate between ascarosis and toxocarosis. Linear discriminant analysis showed that diagnosis based on TciL3-ES and AsmL3-ES ELISA gave the most reliable result for the discrimination of infecting species. In conclusion, the application of AsmL3-ES antigen in ELISA can be recommended for the serodiagnosis of A. suum infection in humans.

  20. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Serological survey of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsega, E; Mengesha, B; Nordenfelt, E; Hansson, B G; Lindberg, J

    1988-10-01

    A serological survey was conducted on 1754 people in various parts of Ethiopia from 1982-1987, with no HIV positive findings until 1984. The problem of Aids reached epidemic proportion in North America and Central Africa in the early 1980s. The reasons for delayed appearance and the source of HIV infection in Ethiopia are not clear. There were 4 groups of subjects tested. The 1st from 1982-83 consisted of 500 patients: 100 each from Asmara, Harar, Addis Ababa, Yirga Alem, and Nekemte; the 2nd in 1983 consisted of 459 volunteer blood donors in Addis Ababa; the 3rd in 1984 consisted of 167 patients with Bell's palsy, and 100 others; the 4th from 1985-87 consisted of 528 patients of the liver clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The 1st 2 HIV positive sera appeared in group 3 during 1984, and since then 13 patients examined for liver and gastrointestinal conditions were found to be positive. It may be speculated that the new and delayed introduction of HIV infection into Ethiopia is part of the transcontinental spread, caused by migration of refugees, frequent visits to existing harbors by sailors, and the influx of many international organizations to Addis Ababa where prostitution is common. Considering the high prevalence of HIV infection among prostitutes, promiscuity might be the major mode of transmission in this population. The multiple use of inadequately sterilized hypodermics and blood transfusions without screening also contribute to the spread of HIV infection.

  2. Interpretation of sequential measurements of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) based on analytical imprecision and biological variation in the monitoring of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Petersen, P H

    2001-01-01

    patients with serological tumor markers should take into account the stochastic variation, i.e. the probability that observed increases and decreases may solely be due to analytical imprecision and normal intra-individual biological variation. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characteristic......, the standard deviations, and the coefficients of variation differed among subjects, and iii) the steady state variability differed among the markers. In conclusion, our data indicate that the assessment of sequential CA 125, CEA, and TPA concentrations is more complex than hitherto recognized. We suggest......The main objective with cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) monitoring of ovarian cancer patients is to detect an early change of disease activity with high reliability. We hypothesized that a monitoring scheme for ovarian cancer...

  3. HSV Serologic Testing for Pregnant Women: Willingness to Be Tested and Factors Affecting Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate pregnant women's willingness to undergo HSV type-specific serologic testing and factors affecting willingness in an obstetrics/gynecology ambulatory unit. Methods. At prenatal Visit 1, pregnant women (n=303 with no history of HSV-2 were tested for HSV-1/HSV-2 before and after they received counseling on genital and neonatal herpes. Results. In both the Unwilling Subgroup and the group that changed from being willing to being unwilling, the most common reasons for choosing not to be tested were not being at risk for genital herpes, being tested is too personal, and concern about what will be done with the results. Of the 134 participants in the Willing/Tested Subgroup, 27 (20% were HSV-2 seropositive and 81 (60% were HSV-1 seropositive. Conclusions. These results support the feasibility of HSV serologic testing and counseling in pregnant women.

  4. Q Fever Serological Survey and Associated Risk Factors in Veterinarians, Southern Belgium, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, F; Martinelle, L; Léonard, P; Renaville, B; Renaville, R; Thys, C; Smeets, F; Czaplicki, G; Van Esbroeck, M; Saegerman, C

    2017-06-01

    A sero-epidemiological survey was organized among veterinarians working in Southern Belgium to estimate the seroprevalence of Q fever and the risk factors associated with exposure. A total of 108 veterinarians took part to this cross-sectional study, with a majority practicing with livestock animals. The overall seroprevalence was 45.4%, but it increased to 58.3% among veterinarians having contact with livestock. Three main serological profiles were detected (relatively recent, past and potentially chronic infections). The contact with manure during the prior month was the risk factor associated with seropositivity after multivariate logistic regression analysis. Classification and regression tree analysis identified the age as the most predictive variable to exclude potentially chronic infection in apparently healthy seropositive veterinarians. In conclusion, livestock veterinarians practicing in Southern Belgium are highly exposed to Q fever, a neglected zoonosis for which serological and medical examinations should be envisaged in at risk groups. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Comparative evaluation of various serological tests in the laboratory diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of public health importance having an impact on animal husbandry and dairy industry. Isolation of bacteria from blood cultures is very low, and diagnosis mainly depends on serology and molecular methods. The aim of this study is to know the impact of various serological tests on the diagnosis of brucellosis. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, a total of 180 samples, 90 from pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO and 90 from high-risk group comprising veterinarians and animal handlers were serologically tested by Rose Bengal plate test, standard tube agglutination (STA test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and results were analyzed. Results: Out of 90 PUO cases, 28 were positive for brucellosis and in high-risk group, out of 30 veterinarians three were positive and out of 60 animal handlers 14 were positive. Male preponderance was seen. Rose Bengal and STA tests were still efficient methods for brucellosis serodiagnosis. The ELISA was observed to be more efficient in both acute and chronic brucellosis. Conclusion: All the three methods used are efficient methods for detecting Brucella antibody. Rose Bengal card test is the best suited for rapid diagnosis in rural endemic area as STA test is laborious and time-consuming. ELISA is the most sensitive test.

  6. Multiple sclerosis and positive lyme serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available As Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB may clinically mimick multiple sclerosis (MS the presence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in serum of patients with a MS-like disease in non-edemic areas for Lyme disease may be troublesome. We report the case of a 45-year-old white female with the diagnosis of relapsing/ remitting form of MS due to a 15-year history of optic neuritis and recurrent episodes of motor and sensation disturbance in the upper right limb and in both lower extremites associated with bladder dysfunction. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple high intensity periventricular white matter lesions. The patient had been exposed to ticks but did not recall the presence of erythema migrans. ELISA for Lyme disease was positive in two different laboratories and the positive serology was confirmed by Western blotting. No convincing reponse followed treatment with ceftriaxone. Although it is clear that the patient had been infect by Borrelia burgdorferi the relationship of this spirochetal infection with the neurological disease could not be ascertained.

  7. Serología en hepatitis virales = Serology in viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Aristizábal, María Clara; García Rendón, María Valentina; Restrepo Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Cuando ocurre infección por el virus de hepatitis A (VHA), virus de hepatitits B (VHB), virus de hepatitis C (VHC) virus de hepatitis D o virus de hepatitis E (VHE) el cuadro clínico y bioquímico es similar, por lo que se hace necesario recurrir a pruebas de laboratorio diferentes a las de función hepática para identificar con certeza el agente etiológico; dentro de estas se encuentran: la serología, que permite detectar antígenos virales o anticuerpos contra estos y las pruebas moleculares...

  8. Molecular and serological investigation of border disease virus infection in sheep in the Kars District of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a serological and virological examination of the border disease virus (BDV in sheep at 1–5 years of age from private small scale production units of less than 20 sheep per unit, in the Kars District of Turkey. For this purpose, blood sera from 460 sheep were tested for antibodies against BDV using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Since BDV causes persistent infection, antigen-ELISA was also performed for this agent. Seropositivity rate was detected to be 74.57%. In addition, the BDV antigen was detected in one sample of seronegative sera (0.85%. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique was used to determine the presence of pestivirus nucleic acid by using 5’UTR primer pair. Pestivirus nucleic acid was found in 2 of 117 seronegative samples (1.71% by RT-PCR. The results suggest that the infection was spreading in private small scale production units. Furthermore, recommendations for the control of BDV infection are presented. This study is the first molecular and serological study to determine viroprevalence and seroprevalence of BDV infection in sheep in the Kars District of Turkey.

  9. Characterization of Jk(a+(weak)): a new blood group phenotype associated with an altered JK*01 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Elisabet S; Storry, Jill R; Olsson, Martin L

    2011-02-01

    The clinically important Kidd (JK) blood group system is considered to be relatively uncomplicated, both serologically and genetically. The JK*01 and JK*02 alleles give rise to Jk(a) and Jk(b) antigens, respectively, and silenced alleles result in Jk(a-b-). Other inherited variants analogous to Fy(x) and weak D phenotypes have not been characterized for JK, although recent abstracts indicate their presence. Six index samples from individuals whose RBCs reacted variably or weakly with different sources of anti-Jk(a) and 300 controls of the four known JK phenotypes were investigated by standard serology, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and the urea hemolysis test. Molecular analysis, including allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and transcript analysis by real-time PCR, was performed. All Jk(a+(w)b-) and Jk(a+(w)b+) index samples were homo- or heterozygous for an altered JK*01 allele carrying 130G>A (Glu44Lys) and the JK*02-associated silent SNPs 588G and Intron 9 -46g. Blood donor screening indicated an allele frequency of 0.042. Titration and flow cytometry with anti-Jk(a) gave lower values in index samples compared to controls, as did anti-Jk3 titers. Donors with 130A also showed significantly decreased Jk(a) density by flow cytometry versus 130G. Western blotting with anti-UT-B demonstrated weaker reactivity with Jk(a+(w)) membranes while JK mRNA levels could not discriminate index samples from controls. The urea hemolysis test was only moderately affected in two Jk(a+(w)b-) samples. A new phenotype with weakened Jk(a) expression on RBCs is associated with a JK*01-like allele, which may constitute a risk for hemolytic transfusion reactions if antigen-positive units are missed by routine serology. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. RecNcMIC3-1-R is a microneme- and rhoptry-based chimeric antigen that protects against acute neosporosis and limits cerebral parasite load in the mouse model for Neospora caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monney, Thierry; Rütti, David; Schorer, Michelle; Debache, Karim; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Hemphill, Andrew

    2011-09-16

    In order to achieve host cell entry, the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum relies on the contents of distinct organelles, named micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules, which are secreted at defined timepoints during and after host cell entry. It was shown previously that a vaccine composed of a mixture of three recombinant antigens, corresponding to the two microneme antigens NcMIC1 and NcMIC3 and the rhoptry protein NcROP2, prevented disease and limited cerebral infection and transplacental transmission in mice. In this study, we selected predicted immunogenic domains of each of these proteins and created four different chimeric antigens, with the respective domains incorporated into these chimers in different orders. Following vaccination, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with 2 × 10(6)N. caninum tachzyoites and were then carefully monitored for clinical symptoms during 4 weeks post-infection. Of the four chimeric antigens, only recNcMIC3-1-R provided complete protection against disease with 100% survivors, compared to 40-80% of survivors in the other groups. Serology did not show any clear differences in total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a levels between the different treatment groups. Vaccination with all four chimeric variants generated an IL-4 biased cytokine expression, which then shifted to an IFN-γ-dominated response following experimental infection. Sera of recNcMIC3-1-R vaccinated mice reacted with each individual recombinant antigen, as well as with three distinct bands in Neospora extracts with similar Mr as NcMIC1, NcMIC3 and NcROP2, and exhibited distinct apical labeling in tachyzoites. These results suggest that recNcMIC3-1-R is an interesting chimeric vaccine candidate and should be followed up in subsequent studies in a fetal infection model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of a Highly Antigenic Linear B Cell Epitope within Plasmodium vivax Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Lobo, Francisco Pereira; Morais, Cristiane Guimarães; Mourão, Luíza Carvalho; de Ávila, Ricardo Andrez Machado; Soares, Irene Silva; Fontes, Cor Jesus; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius; Olórtegui, Carlos Chavez; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Braga, Érika Martins

    2011-01-01

    Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) is considered to be a major candidate antigen for a malaria vaccine. Previous immunoepidemiological studies of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1) have shown a higher prevalence of specific antibodies to domain II (DII) of AMA-1. In the present study, we confirmed that specific antibody responses from naturally infected individuals were highly reactive to both full-length AMA-1 and DII. Also, we demonstrated a strong association between AMA-1 and DII IgG and IgG subclass responses. We analyzed the primary sequence of PvAMA-1 for B cell linear epitopes co-occurring with intrinsically unstructured/disordered regions (IURs). The B cell epitope comprising the amino acid sequence 290–307 of PvAMA-1 (SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK), with the highest prediction scores, was identified in domain II and further selected for chemical synthesis and immunological testing. The antigenicity of the synthetic peptide was identified by serological analysis using sera from P. vivax-infected individuals who were knowingly reactive to the PvAMA-1 ectodomain only, domain II only, or reactive to both antigens. Although the synthetic peptide was recognized by all serum samples specific to domain II, serum with reactivity only to the full-length protein presented 58.3% positivity. Moreover, IgG reactivity against PvAMA-1 and domain II after depletion of specific synthetic peptide antibodies was reduced by 18% and 33% (P = 0.0001 for both), respectively. These results suggest that the linear epitope SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK is highly antigenic during natural human infections and is an important antigenic region of the domain II of PvAMA-1, suggesting its possible future use in pre-clinical studies. PMID:21713006

  12. A monkey antigen crossreacting with carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvall, E.; Vuento, M.; Ruoslahti, E.

    1976-01-01

    Normal monkey tissues were found to contain an antigen which crossreacts immunologically with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) of the human digestive tract. The monkey antigen reacted with complete or partial identity to the normal crossreacting antigen (NCA) in humans when tested in immunodiffusion against anti-CEA or anti-NCA. Extracts of monkey tissues inhibited in radioimmunoassays measuring human NCA. It is possible that monkey foetuses and colonic tumours contain CEA. Images Fig. 1 PMID:823952

  13. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2001), s. 425-430 ISSN 0001-2815. [Conference on Human leucocyte differentiation antigens /7./. Harrogate, 20.06.2000-25.06.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : CD molecules, HLDA Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.864, year: 2001

  15. CD antigens 2002

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 10 (2002), s. 3877-3880 ISSN 0006-4971. [Conference on Human leucocyte differentiation antigens /7./. Harrogate, 20.06.2000-25.06.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : CD molecules, HLDA Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 9.631, year: 2002

  16. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 5 (2002), s. 2083-2086 ISSN 0022-1767. [Conference on Human leucocyte differentiation antigens /7./. Harrogate, 20.06.2000-25.06.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : CD molecules, HLDA Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 7.014, year: 2002

  17. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 4 (2001), s. 401-406 ISSN 0019-2805 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/0349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : antigen * CD * leukocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.656, year: 2001

  18. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2001), s. 556-562 ISSN 1066-5099 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7052904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : CD * leukocyte antigens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.689, year: 2001

  19. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2001), s. 2841-2847 ISSN 0014-2980 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7052904 Keywords : CD * leukocyte antigens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.990, year: 2001

  20. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 2 (2001), s. 81-85 ISSN 0008-8749 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/0349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : antigen * CD * leukocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.604, year: 2001

  1. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2002), s. 71-76 ISSN 0893-3952. [Conference on Human leucocyte differentiation antigens /7./. Harrogate, 20.06.2000-25.06.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : CD molecules, HLDA Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.821, year: 2002

  2. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 5 (2001), s. 685-690 ISSN 0741-5400 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7052904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : CD * leukocyte antigens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.516, year: 2001

  3. CD antigens 2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, D.; Andre, P.; Bensussan, A.; Buckley, C.; Civin, C.; Clark, E.; de Haas, M.; Goyert, S.; Hadam, M.; Hart, D.; Hořejší, Václav; Meuer, S.; Morrissey, J.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Shaw, S.; Simmons, D.; Uguccioni, M.; van der Schoot, E.; Vivier, E.; Zola, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2001), s. 1095-1098 ISSN 0953-8178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/0349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : antigen * CD * leukocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.611, year: 2001

  4. β-endorphin antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of antigens comprising β-endorphin, βsub(h)-endorphin, or βsub(c)-endorphin, in covalent conjugation with human gammaglobulin as immunogenic carrier material, and an antibody having the property of specifically binding β-endorphin or fragments thereof, containing the (6-15) residue sequence. (U.K.)

  5. Evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae antigens in the monitoring of a dapsone-based chemotherapy of previously untreated lepromatous patients in Cebu, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatser, P. R.; de Wit, M. Y.; Fajardo, T. T.; Cellona, R. V.; Abalos, R. M.; de la Cruz, E. C.; Madarang, M. G.; Hirsch, D. S.; Douglas, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five previously untreated lepromatous patients receiving dapsone-based therapy were monitored throughout their 5-year period of treatment by serology and by pathology. Sequentially collected sera were used to evaluate the usefulness of four Mycobacterium leprae antigens as used in ELISA to

  6. A protein-conjugate approach to develop a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patra, Kailash P.; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L.; Rolán, Hortensia G.; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize

  7. A NEW SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONALIZED ANTIGEN CARRIER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRIJFHOUT, JW; BLOEMHOFF, W

    A new synthetic functionalized antigen carrier is described. It consists of a core of seven branched lysine residues, of which each of the four N-terminal lysine residues contains two N-(S-acetylmercaptoacetyl)-glutamyl residues. After removal of the protecting S-acetyl groups affording eight thiol

  8. Serology and ultrasound for diagnosis of choledocholithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, G; Williams, R; Metcalfe, M; Dennison, AR

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is not a routine investigation to exclude choledocholithiasis unless there is clinical or biochemical suspicion of common bile duct (CBD) stones. This study attempted to determine which radiological or serological parameters best predicted CBD stones. Methods All patients undergoing MRCP from 2005 to 2011 were selected. Patients with pancreatitis were excluded. Liver function tests (LFTs) at admission and prior to MRCP were recorded, as was abdominal ultrasonography and MRCP results. Parameters measured routinely on LFTs included alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and bilirubin. Receiver operating characteristic curve area analysis (area under the curve [AUC]) and chi-squared analysis were undertaken. Results Overall, 195 patients were identified, 71 of whom had CBD stones on MRCP. Raised ALP levels on admission demonstrated a correlation with CBD stones (AUC: 0.619, odds ratio [OR]: 3.16, p=0.06). At ultrasonography, a dilated CBD (OR: 3.76, p<0.001) and intrahepatic duct dilation (OR: 5.56, p<0.001) were highly significant predictors. However, only 37% of patients had a dilated CBD on ultrasonography. Ongoing elevation of LFT parameters, particularly ALP (AUC: 0.707, OR: 4.64, p<0.001) and ALT (AUC: 0.646, OR: 5.40, p<0.001), displayed a significant correlation with CBD stones. Conclusions Ongoing (even if minor) elevations of liver function test parameters should prompt the need to exclude CBD stones even in the presence of a normal CBD diameter on ultrasonography. PMID:24780789

  9. Antigenic profiling of Yersinia pestis infection in the Wyoming coyote (Canis latrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernati, G.; Edwards, W.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Little, S.F.; Andrews, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Yersinia pestis is classified as a "high-virulence" pathogen, some host species are variably susceptible to disease. Coyotes (Canis latrans) exhibit mild, if any, symptoms during infection, but antibody production occurs postinfection. This immune response has been reported to be against the F1 capsule, although little subsequent characterization has been conducted. To further define the nature of coyote humoral immunity to plague, qualitative serology was conducted to assess the antiplague antibody repertoire. Humoral responses to six plasmid-encoded Y. pestis virulence factors were first examined. Of 20 individual immune coyotes, 90% were reactive to at least one other antigen in the panel other than F1. The frequency of reactivity to low calcium response plasmid (pLcr)-encoded Yersinia protein kinase A (YpkA) and Yersinia outer protein D (YopD) was significantly greater than that previously observed in a murine model for plague. Additionally, both V antigen and plasminogen activator were reactive with over half of the serum samples tested. Reactivity to F1 was markedly less frequent in coyotes (35%). Twenty previously tested antibody-negative samples were also examined. While the majority were negative across the panel, 15% were positive for 1-3 non-F1 antigens. In vivo-induced antigen technology employed to identify novel chromosomal genes of Y. pestis that are up-regulated during infection resulted in the identification of five proteins, including a flagellar component (FliP) that was uniquely reactive with the coyote serum compared with immune serum from two other host species. Collectively, these data suggest that humoral immunity to pLcr-encoded antigens and the pesticin plasmid (pPst)-encoded Pla antigen may be relevant to plague resistance in coyotes. The serologic profile of Y. pestis chromosomal antigens up-regulated in vivo specific to C. latrans may provide insight into the differences in the pathogen-host responses during Y. pestis infection.

  10. Leukemia Associated Antigens: Their Dual Role as Biomarkers and Immunotherapeutic Targets for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia associated antigens (LAAs are being increasingly identified by methods such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL cloning, serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries (SEREX and mass spectrometry (MS. In additional, large scale screening techniques such as microarray, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE have expanded our understanding of the role that tumor antigens play in the biological processes which are perturbed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. It has become increasingly apparent that these antigens play a dual role, not only as targets for immunotherapy, but also as biomarkers of disease state, stage, response to treatment and survival. We need biomarkers to enable the identification of the patients who are most likely to benefit from specific treatments (conventional and/or novel and to help clinicians and scientists improve clinical end points and treatment design. Here we describe the LAAs identified in AML, to date, which have already been shown to play a dual role as biomarkers of AML disease.Abbreviations: AML: acute myeloid leukemia; APL: acute promyelocytic leukemia; ATRA: all-trans-retinoic acid; B-CLL: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; CT: cancer-testis; CTL: cytotoxic T-lymphocyte; FAB: French-American-British; HI: hypusination inhibitors; HSP: heat shock protein; ITD: internal tandem duplication; LAA: leukemia associated antigen; MDS: myelodysplastic syndrome; MGEA6: meningioma antigen 6; MPD: myeloproliferative disease; MS: mass spectrometry; NK: natural killer; PRAME: preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma; PRTN3: proteinase 3; RAGE-1: renal antigen 1; RHAMM: receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility; RQ-PCR: real-time PCR; SAGE: serial analysis of gene expression; SCT: stem cell transplant; SEREX: serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries; SNPs: single nucleotide polymorphisms; UPD

  11. Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection: Recommendations from the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis manifests no clinical signs in 80% of cases in immunocompetent patient, causing immunization characterized by the persistence of cysts, particularly in brain, muscles, and retina. Assessing the serological status, based on testing for serum toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, is essential in cases that are increasingly at risk for the more severe disease forms, such as congenital or ocular toxoplasmosis. This disease also exposes immunosuppressed patients to reactivation, which can lead to more widespread forms and increased mortality. By interpreting the serological results, we can estimate the risk of contamination or reactivation and define appropriate prophylactic and preventive measures, such as hygienic and dietetic, therapeutic, biological, and clinical follow-up, according to the clinical context. We hereby propose practical approaches based on serological data, resulting from a consensus of a group of experts from the French National Reference Center Network for Toxoplasmosis, according to both routine and specific clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis A, B and C serological markers in children from western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Meléndez, Griselda; Fierro, Nora A; Roman, Sonia; Maldonado-González, Monserrat; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy; Panduro, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Viral hepatitis in children is a major public health problem worldwide. To evaluate the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis A, B and C infections in Mexican children diagnosed with hepatitis during a five-year period. A total of 31,818 children admitted to a tertiary level hospital in Mexico from 2005 to 2009 were evaluated for hepatitis. Hepatitis was found in 215 (0.7%) of the children. Serum samples from hepatitis-positive children were screened for anti-HAV IgM, HBsAg, total anti-HBc and anti-HCV. HAV was the leading cause of viral hepatitis (81%), followed by HBV and HCV (3.1 and 2%, respectively), whereas no serological marker was observed in 13.9% of the analyzed samples. Furthermore, when children were categorized by age, a significant increase in anti-HAV detection was observed in school-aged children (7-11 years old) (p hepatitis A is the most prevalent viral hepatitis infection detected in children, followed by HBV and HCV. In addition, the high percentage of hepatitis infections without a known etiological agent and the serological test limitations require the detection of occult HBV, HCV and hepatitis E infections. The age-dependent vulnerability of groups with HAV infections emphasizes the importance of HAV vaccination in young children in Mexico.

  13. Usefulness of serology for the evaluation of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in endemic areas of Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chuit

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen communities from 7 Argentinian provinces were selected for the evaluation of serology as an indicator of transmission of Chagas disease. Of the communities appraised, 6 did not have a history of previous treatment with insecticides and 7 had received sporadic or continuous insecticide treatment. The inhabitants of 20% of the houses of each locality were studied by serology. The samples were obtained byfinger pricking and 50 fil of blood were mixed with 150μl of 50% glycerine solution in tissue culture media to be assayed by Indirect Hemagglutination and Indirect Immunofluorescence tests. In untreated areas, the prevalence of infection in infants 0-4 years old was 17.5%, reaching to over 22% for the 5-9 year old group, and to 33.3% in 10-14 year old individuals. The prevalence in treated and surveyed areas was 2.6% in 0-4 year old children, 5.4% in 5-9 year old and 6,2% in 10-14 year old youngsters. The differences between both areas were statistically significant (p < 0.005. This study favors serology as a valid indicator for the evaluation of transmission of Chagas disease in rural areas.

  14. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  15. Accuracy of chimeric proteins in the serological diagnosis of chronic chagas disease – a Phase II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, Paola Alejandra Fiorani; Zanchin, Nilson Ivo Tonin; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; da Silva, Edimilson Domingos; Foti, Leonardo; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Gomes, Yara de Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Background The performance of current serologic tests for diagnosing chronic Chagas disease (CD) is highly variable. The search for new diagnostic markers has been a constant challenge for improving accuracy and reducing the number of inconclusive results. Methodology/Principal findings Here, four chimeric proteins (IBMP-8.1 to -8.4) comprising immunodominant regions of different Trypanosoma cruzi antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins were used to detect specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies in the sera of 857 chagasic and 689 non-chagasic individuals to evaluate their accuracy for chronic CD diagnosis. The antigens were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. The sensitivity and specificity values ranged from 94.3% to 99.3% and 99.4% to 100%, respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) values were 6,462 for IBMP-8.1, 3,807 for IBMP-8.2, 32,095 for IBMP-8.3, and 283,714 for IBMP-8.4. These chimeric antigens presented DORs that were higher than the commercial test Pathozyme Chagas. The antigens IBMP-8.3 and -8.4 also showed DORs higher than the Gold ELISA Chagas test. Mixtures with equimolar concentrations were tested in order to improve the diagnosis accuracy of negative samples with high signal and positive samples with low signal. However, no gain in accuracy was observed relative to the individual antigens. A total of 1,079 additional sera were used to test cross-reactivity to unrelated diseases. The cross-reactivity rates ranged from 0.37% to 0.74% even for Leishmania spp., a pathogen showing relatively high genome sequence identity to T. cruzi. Imprecision analyses showed that IBMP chimeras are very stable and the results are highly reproducible. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that the IBMP-8.4 antigen can be safely used in serological tests for T. cruzi screening in blood banks and for chronic CD laboratory diagnosis. PMID:28273127

  16. Solitary expression of CD7 among T-cell antigens in acute myeloid leukemia: identification of a group of patients with similar T-cell receptor beta and delta rearrangements and course of disease suggestive of poor prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A W; Hokland, M; Jørgensen, H

    1991-01-01

    to the French-American-British type M4, and four were under the age of 40. Despite intensive chemotherapy, four never obtained a complete remission and the fifth died of relapse after an allogenic bone marrow transplantation. While 12 randomly selected T-cell antigen negative AML patients showed only few...... rearrangements in Ig- or T-cell receptor (TCR) genes, such genetic alterations were demonstrated in four of five patients for the TCR delta gene and in all patients for the TCR beta gene. Interestingly, DNA fragments of similar size were demonstrated in three of five patients for both the beta and delta genes...

  17. National strategy for serological diagnosis ofHIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they form peptide chains of 10 - 40 amino acids homo- logous to a portion of a viral antigen. Tests based on either recombinant or synthetic peptide antigens have sensitivities and specificities higher than first-generation tests; however, recombinant antigen tests may yield some false-positives (lower specificity) due to ...

  18. HLA antigens, epilepsy and cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, P; Morellini, M; Raucci, U; Cappellacci, S

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-one epileptic patients, selected from among 900 children with previous febrile convulsions and subsequent epilepsy, were typed for HLA antigens. In 16 of the 31 patients CMV was isolated from the urine shortly after the appearance of spontaneous fits; in the remaining 15 patients the virus was never detected. All the examined children were typed for 14 HLA-A, 23 HLA-B, 7 HLA-C and 9 HLA-DR specificities, and compared with a group of healthy subjects. The HLA-A11 antigen was present in 25% of the children with chronic CMV infection and epilepsy, and absent in patients with epilepsy but without CMV infection (p less than 0.02). The possibility that the A11 antigen is a marker of the predisposing genes for CMV infection in children with epilepsy following FC is proposed.

  19. Immune Response in Calves Vaccinated with Type Three Secretion System Antigens and Shiga Toxin 2B Subunit of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisina Martorelli

    Full Text Available Ruminants are the primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic properties of a candidate vaccine consisting on the recombinant proteins of E. coli O157:H7 IntiminC280, the carboxy-terminal fraction of Intimin γ, EspB and the fusion protein between the B subunit of Stx2 and Brucella Lumazine Synthase (BLS(BLS-Stx2B, in Holstein Fresian calves.To accomplish this goal we vaccinated calves with two doses of different vaccine formulations: 2 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, 3 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, BLS-Stx2B, BLS-Stx2B alone and a control non-vaccinated group. All antigens were expressed as recombinant proteins in E. coli. Specific IgG titres increased in vaccinated calves and the inclusion of BLS-Stx2B in the formulation seems to have a stimulatory effect on the humoral response to IntiminC280 and EspB after the booster. The neutralizing activity of antibodies against these two antigens was assessed in Red Blood Cell lysis assays and adherence to Hep-2 cells as a correlate of T3SS activity. Both sera from animals vaccinated with 2 or 3 antigens inhibited both virulence properties. Serological response to Stx2 was observed in animals vaccinated only with BLS-Stx2B and with 3 antigens and neutralization of Stx2 cytotoxicity was also observed in both groups. In conclusion, immunization of calves with BLS-Stx2B, IntiminC280 and EspB elicited a potent humoral response able to neutralize Shiga toxin 2 cytotoxity and the T3SS virulence properties in vitro. These results suggest that this formulation is a good candidate vaccine to reduce STEC shedding in cattle and needs to be further assessed in vivo.

  20. Immune Response in Calves Vaccinated with Type Three Secretion System Antigens and Shiga Toxin 2B Subunit of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorelli, Luisina; Garbaccio, Sergio; Vilte, Daniel A; Albanese, Adriana A; Mejías, María P; Palermo, Marina S; Mercado, Elsa C; Ibarra, Cristina E; Cataldi, Angel A

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants are the primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic properties of a candidate vaccine consisting on the recombinant proteins of E. coli O157:H7 IntiminC280, the carboxy-terminal fraction of Intimin γ, EspB and the fusion protein between the B subunit of Stx2 and Brucella Lumazine Synthase (BLS)(BLS-Stx2B), in Holstein Fresian calves.To accomplish this goal we vaccinated calves with two doses of different vaccine formulations: 2 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB), 3 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, BLS-Stx2B), BLS-Stx2B alone and a control non-vaccinated group. All antigens were expressed as recombinant proteins in E. coli. Specific IgG titres increased in vaccinated calves and the inclusion of BLS-Stx2B in the formulation seems to have a stimulatory effect on the humoral response to IntiminC280 and EspB after the booster. The neutralizing activity of antibodies against these two antigens was assessed in Red Blood Cell lysis assays and adherence to Hep-2 cells as a correlate of T3SS activity. Both sera from animals vaccinated with 2 or 3 antigens inhibited both virulence properties. Serological response to Stx2 was observed in animals vaccinated only with BLS-Stx2B and with 3 antigens and neutralization of Stx2 cytotoxicity was also observed in both groups. In conclusion, immunization of calves with BLS-Stx2B, IntiminC280 and EspB elicited a potent humoral response able to neutralize Shiga toxin 2 cytotoxity and the T3SS virulence properties in vitro. These results suggest that this formulation is a good candidate vaccine to reduce STEC shedding in cattle and needs to be further assessed in vivo.

  1. Bayesian nonparametric clustering in phylogenetics: modeling antigenic evolution in influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybis, Gabriela B; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A

    2018-01-30

    Influenza is responsible for up to 500,000 deaths every year, and antigenic variability represents much of its epidemiological burden. To visualize antigenic differences across many viral strains, antigenic cartography methods use multidimensional scaling on binding assay data to map influenza antigenicity onto a low-dimensional space. Analysis of such assay data ideally leads to natural clustering of influenza strains of similar antigenicity that correlate with sequence evolution. To understand the dynamics of these antigenic groups, we present a framework that jointly models genetic and antigenic evolution by combining multidimensional scaling of binding assay data, Bayesian phylogenetic machinery and nonparametric clustering methods. We propose a phylogenetic Chinese restaurant process that extends the current process to incorporate the phylogenetic dependency structure between strains in the modeling of antigenic clusters. With this method, we are able to use the genetic information to better understand the evolution of antigenicity throughout epidemics, as shown in applications of this model to H1N1 influenza. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Malaria serology: performance of six Plasmodium falciparum antigen extracts and of three ways of determining serum titers in IgG and IgM-ELISA Sorologia da malária: desempenho de seis diferentes extratos antigênicos de Plasmodium falciparum e de três métodos de determinação de títulos de soros no teste ELISA-IgG e IgM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Arroyo Sanchez

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated six Plasmodium falciparum antigen extracts to be used in the IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, for malaria diagnosis and epidemiological studies. Results obtained with eighteen positive and nine negative control sera indicated that there were statistically significant differences among these antigen extracts (Multifactor ANOVA, pEste estudo avaliou seis extratos antigênicos de Plasmodium falciparum para utilização no diagnóstico da malária e em estudos epidemiológicos, empregando o teste "enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA para a pesquisa de anticorpos das classes IgG e IgM. Os resultados obtidos empregando dezoito soros padrão positivo e nove padrão negativo, indicaram que houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os extratos antigênicos estudados (Multifactor ANOVA, p <0,0001. Extratos antigênicos preparados com uréia, desoxicolato de sódio e Zwittergent forneceram melhores resultados que os demais e se comportaram de modo bastante semelhante, para a detecção de anticorpos IgG. Extratos antigenicos de uréia, alcalino e de desoxicolato de sódio foram os melhores na detecção de anticorpos IgM. Devido à relação linear obtida entre as densidades ópticas (ou os log10 respectivos e os log10 das diluições, com uma inclinação constante, os títulos dos soros foram determinados através de duas equações diferentes, que necessitam apenas de uma diluição do soro. Para anticorpos IgM, a expressão que emprega log10 da densidade óptica forneceu resultados que se correlacionaram melhor com a titulação (95% Bon-ferroni. Para anticorpos IgG, as diferenças entre resultados não foram significativas. A avaliação da reprodutibilidade dos títulos e das partidas de antígenos forneceu resultados satisfatórios.

  3. Relevance of and New Developments in Serology for Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Céline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread parasitic disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii with a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often difficult and of paramount importance because clinical features are not sufficient to discriminate between toxoplasmosis and other illnesses. Serological tests are the most widely used biological tools for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis worldwide. This review focuses on the crucial role of serology in providing answers to the most important questions related to the epidemiology and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Notwithstanding their undeniable importance, serological tools need to be continuously improved and the interpretation of the ensuing results remains complex in many circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rh Immunoprophylaxis for Women With a Serologic Weak D Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mrigender; Sandler, S Gerald

    2015-01-01

    It is standard practice for pregnant RhD-negative women who have not already formed anti-D to receive antepartum Rh immunoprophylaxis and, if they deliver an RhD-positive neonate, to receive postpartum Rh immunoprophylaxis. An estimated 0.6% to 1.0% of white women have red blood cells that express a serologic weak D phenotype. Of these women, approximately 80% will have a weak D type 1, 2, or 3 that could be managed safely as RhD-positive. Surveys of laboratory practice reveal a lack of standards for interpreting the RhD type for women with a serologic weak D and for determining their need for Rh immunoprophylaxis. RhD genotyping is recommended to determine the molecular basis of serologic weak D phenotypes in pregnant women as a basis for determining their candidacy for Rh immunoprophylaxis.

  5. Anti-D Antibodies in Pregnant D Variant Antigen Carriers Initially Typed as RhD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacevic Krstic, Jelena; Dajak, Slavica; Bingulac-Popovic, Jasna; Dogic, Vesna; Mratinovic-Mikulandra, Jela

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the incidence, the consequences, and the prevention strategy of anti-D alloimmunizations of D variant carriers in the obstetric population of Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia. Methods RhD immunization events were evaluated retrospectively for the period between 1993 and 2012. Women were tested for RhD antigen and irregular antibodies. Those with anti-D antibody who were not serologically D- were genotyped for RHD. They were evaluated for their obstetric and transfusion history and their titer of anti-D. The neonates were evaluated for RhD status, direct antiglobulin test (DAT), hemoglobin and bilirubin levels, transfusion therapy as well as phototherapy and outcome. Results Out of 104,884 live births 102,982 women were tested for RhD antigen. Anti-D immunization occurred in 184 women which accounts for 0.9% of individuals at risk of anti-D formation. 181 cases occurred in women serologically typed as D-. Three women were partial D carriers (DVa n = 2, DNB n = 1), initially typed RhD+, and recognized as D variant carriers after the immunization occurred. Anti-D titer varied from 1:1 to 1:16. Six children were RhD+, four had positive DAT, and two underwent phototherapy. Conclusion Anti-D immunization occurred in pregnant partial D carriers (DVa, DNB). RhD+ children had serologic markers of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), with no cases of severe HDFN. PMID:27994529

  6. Anti-D Antibodies in Pregnant D Variant Antigen Carriers Initially Typed as RhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacevic Krstic, Jelena; Dajak, Slavica; Bingulac-Popovic, Jasna; Dogic, Vesna; Mratinovic-Mikulandra, Jela

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the incidence, the consequences, and the prevention strategy of anti-D alloimmunizations of D variant carriers in the obstetric population of Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia. RhD immunization events were evaluated retrospectively for the period between 1993 and 2012. Women were tested for RhD antigen and irregular antibodies. Those with anti-D antibody who were not serologically D- were genotyped for RHD. They were evaluated for their obstetric and transfusion history and their titer of anti-D. The neonates were evaluated for RhD status, direct antiglobulin test (DAT), hemoglobin and bilirubin levels, transfusion therapy as well as phototherapy and outcome. Out of 104,884 live births 102,982 women were tested for RhD antigen. Anti-D immunization occurred in 184 women which accounts for 0.9% of individuals at risk of anti-D formation. 181 cases occurred in women serologically typed as D-. Three women were partial D carriers (DVa n = 2, DNB n = 1), initially typed RhD+, and recognized as D variant carriers after the immunization occurred. Anti-D titer varied from 1:1 to 1:16. Six children were RhD+, four had positive DAT, and two underwent phototherapy. Anti-D immunization occurred in pregnant partial D carriers (DVa, DNB). RhD+ children had serologic markers of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), with no cases of severe HDFN.

  7. Association of serologic and hematologic test results in dengue infant patients in RSUP. Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A.; Handayani, I.; Indrati, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of Dengue virus infection is increasing every year,and the progression of the disease is faster towards severe manifestations in infants than in children and adults.The clinical appearance is still challenging to make for the diagnosis of dengue fever, so routine blood examination becomes one of thefurther enforcement efforts. The gold standard isconfirmatory tests for dengue, but this examination would be difficult in remote areas and also cost more. Research on serological testing and its association with routine blood testing in infant dengue-infected patients is still less publicized. The purpose of this study was to describe theconnection between serological and routine blood test results of infant dengue infection patients in RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin. Observational design in dengue 56 infants with 2-12 months age range examined serologic test and routine blood examination. The results showed that serological testing tended to be on routine blood tests. It can be from differences in routine blood tests such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets. Also, there was also no difference in routine blood profile between reactive and non-reactive IgM groups. It suggests that routine blood examination results are still lacking for the diagnosis of dengue.

  8. Serological survey of Leishmania infection in blood donors in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Figueiredo, Virgínia; Celes, Fabiana S; Cristal, Juqueline R; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2014-07-30

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is endemic to Brazil, where it is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Following parasite inoculation, individuals may experience asymptomatic infection, raising the possibility of parasite transmission through the transfusion of contaminated blood products. In the present work, we evaluated the prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection among blood donors in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. Peripheral blood was collected from 700 blood donors attending the Blood Bank of Bahia (HEMOBA/SESAB), from January to September 2010. We evaluated anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA, employing Soluble Leishmania Antigen (sensitivity 90% and specificity 95%). The presence of parasite DNA was determined by qPCR, targeting a single copy gene (G6PD), and by end-point PCR, targeting multiple targets, namely a segment located in the Leishmania rRNA locus (ITS) and the conserved region of kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. The blood-donor population was comprised of 74.5% of males with a mean age of 34 years. Anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA was positive in 5.4% (38/700) individuals. One individual was also positive for Chagas' disease and another tested positive for Syphilis. Employing qPCR, parasite DNA was not found in any of 38 seropositive samples. However, by ITS PCR, 8/38 (21%) samples were positive and this positivity increased to 26/38 (68%) when we targeted kDNA amplification. Agreement between both techniques (ITS and kDNA PCR) was fair (kappa = 0.219). These results indicate that asymptomatic infection is present among the blood donor population of Salvador, a finding that warrants a broader discussion regarding the need to implement specific screening strategies.

  9. Serological Diagnosis of Chronic Chagas Disease: Is It Time for a Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abras, Alba; Gállego, Montserrat; Llovet, Teresa; Tebar, Silvia; Herrero, Mercedes; Berenguer, Pere; Ballart, Cristina; Martí, Carmen; Muñoz, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Chagas disease has spread to areas that are nonendemic for the disease with human migration. Since no single reference standard test is available, serological diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease requires at least two tests. New-generation techniques have significantly improved the accuracy of Chagas disease diagnosis by the use of a large mixture of recombinant antigens with different detection systems, such as chemiluminescence. The aim of the present study was to assess the overall accuracy of a new-generation kit, the Architect Chagas (cutoff, ≥1 sample relative light units/cutoff value [S/CO]), as a single technique for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease. The Architect Chagas showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.5 to 100%) and a specificity of 97.6% (95% CI, 95.2 to 99.9%). Five out of six false-positive serum samples were a consequence of cross-reactivity with Leishmania spp., and all of them achieved results of Chagas as a single technique for screening in blood banks and for routine diagnosis in clinical laboratories. Only gray-zone and positive sera with a result of ≤6 S/CO would need to be confirmed by a second serological assay, thus avoiding false-positive sera and the problem of cross-reactivity with Leishmania species. The application of this proposal would result in important savings in the cost of Chagas disease diagnosis and therefore in the management and control of the disease. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Asymptomatic infections in blood donors harbouring Plasmodium: an invisible risk detected by molecular and serological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Giselle F M C; Arroyo Sanchez, Maria C; Levi, José E; Fujimori, Mahyumi; Da Cruz Caramelo, Luiza; Sanchez, Arianni Rondelli; Ramos-Sanchez, Eduardo M; Inoue, Juliana; De Jesus Costa-Nascimento, Maria; Mendrone Junior, Alfredo; Di Santi, Silvia M

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted malaria due to asymptomatic Plasmodium infections is a challenge for blood banks. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infected blood donors and the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in low endemicity areas worldwide. We estimated the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium in an area in which asymptomatic infections have been reported. To estimate the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium we used microscopy and molecular tools. Serological tests were applied to measure the exposure of candidates to Plasmodium antigens. Venous blood was collected from 91 candidates attending the "Pró-Sangue" Blood Centre Foundation in São Paulo, who lived in the municipality of Juquitiba, São Paulo, Brazil, where sporadic autochthonous cases of malaria have been described. Blood samples were used for parasitological, molecular and serological studies. Among the 91 samples examined, rare Plasmodium forms were observed in two donors. Genus real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated Plasmodium amplification in three candidates and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction identified P. malariae in two. ELISA-IgG was reactive in 42.9% of samples for P. vivax (Pv-MSP1 19 ) and in 6.6% for P. falciparum (Pf-Zw). ELISA-IgM was reactive in 2.2% of samples for P. vivax and in 4.4% for P. falciparum. An indirect immunofluorescence assay was reactive for P. malariae in 15.4% of cases. Reservoirs of Plasmodium represent a challenge for blood banks, since studies have shown that high levels of submicroscopic infections can occur in low transmission areas. The risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria presented here points to the need to conduct molecular investigations of candidate donors with any positive malarial antibody test.

  11. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of serological methods for the detection of bovine neosporosis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, Lucía M; Minke, Lieselotte; Moré, Gastón; Rambeaud, Magdalena; Bacigalupe, Diana; Moore, Dadin P; Hecker, Yanina; Campero, Carlos M; Schares, Gereon; Venturini, María C

    2015-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion and important economic losses in cattle worldwide. The accurate diagnosis of neosporosis is essential for management and control measures. The aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the performance of an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the 38kDa native antigen (p38-ELISA) to diagnose bovine neosporosis in Argentina using a well- characterized local sera panel from experimentally infected and naturally exposed cattle and ii) to compare the diagnostic performance and agreement of three N. caninum serological tests: p38-ELISA, indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and immunoblotting (IB) using the same sera panel. Serum samples testing either positive or negative by IFAT and IB were considered "Relative Standards of Comparison" (RSC) and used for p38-ELISA evaluation. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that p38-ELISA was highly accurate (area under the curve= 0.982) according to RSC with a cut-off index of 0.0905. Relative sensitivity and specificity of p38-ELISA were 97.8% and 99.5%, respectively and agreement between RSC and p38-ELISA was almost perfect (k= 0.97). The evaluation and performance comparison of serological tests were performed according to the definition of gold standard based on the decision of the "majority of tests". All tests displayed high sensitivity and specificity values (greater than 95%); and excellent agreement. This study describes the accurate performance of p38-ELISA evaluated locally and the highly accurate diagnostic performance of the studied tests for the detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies in cattle from Argentina. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Canine leishmaniosis in Central Europe: retrospective survey and serological study of imported and travelling dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Maik; Grimm, Felix; Naucke, Torsten J; Maasjost, Christiane; Deplazes, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a common parasitic disease in Central Europe affecting dogs imported or returning from endemic countries around the Mediterranean basin. Through an internet discussion forum owners of dogs with suspected or proven leishmaniosis living in Central Europe (D, A, CH), were questioned about the dog's history. Additionally, serologic examinations of the dogs for anti-Leishmania antibodies (ELISA using antigen of promastigote stages) were offered to the participants. From February to October 2003, 291 dogs imported or returning from Southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, France, Malta, Portugal and others) were analysed. Serologically, 111 dogs (38%) were classified positive; 103 being imported and eight travelling dogs. The majority of seropositive dogs originated from Spain (67%). No significant correlation could be established between race, sex and age and the incidence of the disease. The clinical symptoms in the seropositive dogs varied widely and ranged from mild general symptoms to visceral manifestations with chronic renal failure. Skin disorders were found in 78% of the seropositive, symptomatic animals. In the country of origin or after import or return, 174 out of 291 dogs (60%) had been tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by different immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT). Discrepancies between the ELISA and the various IFATs used were noted in 55 cases (32%), especially in cases of low IFAT titers. Most of the seropositive dogs (80%) had been treated against leishmaniosis. In 91% of these cases, Allopurinol as monotherapy or in combination with Glucantime had been used. For diagnostics and therapy, dog owners had spent an average of 1,100 euros (median 900 euros, maximum 5,800 euros).

  14. Effective serological and molecular screening of deceased tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors.

  15. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

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    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  16. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  17. Preparation and Purification of Polyclonal Antibodies against Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis Antigens in Rabbit

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    Hafezeh Alizadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Johne’s disease is the chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, and a major health hazard worldwide. In recent years, researchers have focused on mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP antigens in diagnostic tests. Identification of antibodies against MAP antigens is, therefore, effective for the diagnosis or preparation of vaccine. The aim of this study was to prepare and purify polyclonal antibodies against MAP antigens. Materials and Methods: A New Zealand white rabbit was immunized at a certain time period with MAP antigens and Freund’s adjuvant. After the immunization of the animal, the rabbit was bled to obtain enriched serum. Immunoglobulins were obtained via sedimentation with ammonium sulfate 35% and then IgG was purified by ion exchange (DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Serologic test was used to evaluate the interaction of antigens and antibodies. Results: Ion exchange chromatography of IgG showed one peak, and SDS_PAGE of IgG showed a single band. Serologic test was applied and clear precipitation lines were appeared up to 1:16 dilution, which indicated the high quality of the product. Conclusion: In this study, the humoral immune response was induced well by immunization with MAP antigens in a New Zealand white rabbit and polyclonal antibodies were produced in high titers. Polyclonal antibodies are relatively inexpensive and easy to produce in large quantities and can connect to the more connective sites, resulting in better sensitivity. Identification of polyclonal antibodies via immunological tests can play a significant role in studying MAP disorders.

  18. Achieving high seroprevalence against polioviruses in Sri Lanka--results from a serological survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Deepa; Palihawadana, Paba; Mach, Ondrej; Weldon, William C; Oberste, Steven M; Sutter, Roland W

    2015-12-01

    The immunization program in Sri Lanka consistently reaches >90% coverage with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV), and no polio supplementary vaccination campaigns have been conducted since 2003. We evaluated serological protection against polioviruses in children. A cross-sectional community-based survey was performed in three districts of Sri Lanka (Colombo, Badulla, and Killinochi). Randomly selected children in four age groups (9-11 months, 3-4 years, 7-9 years, and 15 years) were tested for poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. All 400 enrolled children completed the study. The proportion of seropositive children for poliovirus Type 1 and Type 2 was >95% for all age groups; for poliovirus Type 3 it was 95%, 90%, 77%, and 75% in the respective age groups. The vaccination coverage in our sample based on vaccination cards or parental recall was >90% in all age groups. Most Sri Lankan children are serologically protected against polioviruses through routine immunization only. This seroprevalence survey provided baseline data prior to the anticipated addition of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into the Sri Lankan immunization program and the switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV). Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Feld, Niels Christian; Carstensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    uninfected as controls. The groups were monitored bacteriologically by examination of cloacal swabs and organs and serologically by examination of serum and egg yolk by a lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay throughout the period. Within the first week, 100% of birds in both infected groups...... at the onset of egg production. For both S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, positive bacteriologic cultures were obtained by sampling from internal organs at the end of the experiment, more than 1 yr from the time of infection. At the age of 6-7 wk, 50% of the chickens in the two infected groups showed...... a measurable serologic response in serum samples. The response persisted throughout the study in both serum and egg yell, samples. The inclusion of serologic methods is a valuable additional tool in the detection of salmonella in poultry, but serology should be used in conjunction with bacteriologic methods...

  20. Prevalence of viral hepatitis (B and C serological markers in healthy working population

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    José Luis Calleja-Panero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: prevalence of viral hepatitis (B and C changes geographically. Our aim was to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV serological markers in healthy working population and to describe the epidemiological characteristics associated to its presence. Methods: blood samples and epidemiological data of 5,017 healthy workers from Murcia and Madrid were recorded prospectively. Results: a total of 5,017 healthy volunteers participated. Mean age 39 ± 11 years, men predominance (73 %. Prevalence of serological markers of HCV and HBV was 0.6 % and 0.7 %. Age of patients with HCV antibody was significantly higher (43 ± 9 years vs. 39 ± 11 years; p = 0.03. We observed significant differences in liver test values (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] 64 ± 56 IU/L vs. 28 ± 20 IU/L; p < 0.001; aspartate aminotransferase [AST] (51 ± 45 IU/L vs. 23 ± 12 IU/L; p < 0.001 and in gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT value (104 ± 122 IU/L vs. 37 ± 46 IU/L; p < 0.001. The presence of HCV antibody was related significantly to previous transfusion (13 % vs. 5 %; p = 0.03, tattoos (29 % vs. 13 %; p < 0.01, intravenous drug addiction (13 % vs. 0.2 %; p < 0.001 and coexistence with people with positive HCV antibody (16 % vs. 4 %; p < 0.001. In HBV no differences in basal characteristics were observed with exception in AST values (29 ± 15 IU/L vs. 23 ± 12 IU/L; p < 0.01. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was related significantly to previous transfusion (15 % vs. 5 %; p < 0.01, tattoos (26 % vs. 14 %; p = 0.04 and coexistence with people with positive HBsAg (17 % vs. 4 %; p < 0.001. Conclusions: prevalence of serological markers in healthy working population is low. Risk factors for infection were previous transfusion and tattoos. Intravenous drug addiction was only a risk factor in HCV.

  1. Current concepts and future directions for the assessment of autoantibodies to cellular antigens referred to as anti-nuclear antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Michael; Meroni, Pier-Luigi; Bossuyt, Xavier; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2014-01-01

    The detection of autoantibodies that target intracellular antigens, commonly termed anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), is a serological hallmark in the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD). Different methods are available for detection of ANA and all bearing their own advantages and limitations. Most laboratories use the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay based on HEp-2 cell substrates. Due to the subjectivity of this diagnostic platform, automated digital reading syste...

  2. Comparison of IgM Capture Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using Inhouse method and commercially available MRL kit for serological confirmation of dengue infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapugoda, D.M.; De Silva R, Nilanthi; Abeywickreme, W.; Gunasena, Sunethra; Prithimala, L.D.; Jayawardene, S.L.G.J.; Kumari, Thamara

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of dengue infection is important for the management of the patients. In this study igM capture ELISA using an inhouse method and commercially available kit (MRL diagnostics,USA) was compared to detect diagnostic capability of Inhouse IgM ELISA for provision of diagnostic facilities to the public at an affordable cost. Eighty acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from serologically confirmed dengue patients. Serological confirmation of patients were performed by Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay, gold standard assay for dengue on paired serum samples. All collected acute and convalescent sera were tested by IgM ELISA using the inhouse method and MRL kit. Antigen and conjugate for the inhouse IgM method were prepared in the laboratory. A cocktail of four dengue antigens containing 25 Antigen ELISA units of each type was prepared and used as the assay antigen. Conjugate was prepared using a serum sample with high dengue Anti flavi IgG antibody titre conjugated with Horseradish peroxidase. A prospective study of both IgM ELISA assays were performed using 113 acute sera collected from dengue suspected cases. Overall results showed that 46% and 52% acute sera collected from dengue confirmed patients were positive by inhouse ELISA assay and MRL kits respectively. In the prospective study done using acute sera collected from dengue suspected patients showed that 44% and 52% were positive by inhouse ELISA assay and MRL kits. There was no significant difference in positivity between these two assays. (P=0.18). Inhouse IgM ELISA can be used for provision of laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infection more than 5 days. The assay is 10 times less costly than using MRL kits as assay antigen and conjugate can be prepared easily in the laboratory

  3. Changing patterns of serological testing for celiac disease in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Marcis; Kojalo, Una; Frickauss, Gunars; Bandere, Biruta; Gavars, Didzis; Boka, Viesturs

    2011-06-01

    A number of recent guidelines have discouraged the use of the old anti-gliadin tests for the detection of celiac disease; tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTGA) and anti-endomysial (EMA) tests are recommended instead. Our aim was to evaluate how the current recommendations have been applied in real practice. The secondary aim was to evaluate the positivity rates provided by different test types. We analyzed the number of celiac disease tests [anti-gliadin IgA (AGA), anti-gliadin IgG (AGG), tTGA and EMA] performed by the largest laboratory in Latvia. The analysis was performed on a yearly basis for the period between 2004 and 2009. Additionally, we analyzed the percentage of the positive test results for each of the tests. The number of patients being tested for celiac disease constantly increased, with the average annual growth of 16.1%; this trend was similar both in children and in adults. The majority of patients (62.6%) were tested with anti-gliadin tests only; 27.7% were tested with either tTGA or EMA, while 9.7% were tested by a combination of the above groups. There was a substantial difference in the positivity rates of the different tests from 0.94% for EMA to 21.8% for AGG. Substantial differences were also present between various manufacturers' products. The current guidelines and the published evidence on the proper use of serological tests for celiac disease have been slow to be applied in clinical practice; more intensive education campaigns and change in reimbursement systems could improve the situation. Nevertheless, more clinicians in Latvia are checking patients for celiac disease; this suggests an overall increased awareness.

  4. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  5. [Serologic study of arbovirus in 2 localities of the Juventud island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Ramudo, S; Guzmán Tirado, M G; Monteagudo Borges, R

    1989-01-01

    A serologic study is made in two population groups in the Isle of Youth. A total 268 blood samples in blotting paper are subjected to the hemagglutination inhibition technique, using the Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, and dengue 2 viruses; 16% positivity to flavivirus was found. A second serum sample was taken in people positive by the hemagglutination inhibition technique in order to carry out the techniques of complement fixation and plate reduction neutralization. Nine cases showed complement-fixating antibodies, which is indicative of recent infection and in 29 cases neutralizing antibodies to SLE virus were found.

  6. Serological response to an indirect and a competitive elisa in heifers vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E.A.; Uzal, F.A.; Echaide, S.

    1998-01-01

    The different serologic techniques for bovine brucellosis diagnosis have different abilities to detect antibodies after vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19. The humoral response in heifers vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 was evaluated by using several serologic techniques. In the experimental field of INTA, Pilcaniyeu, Rio Negro province, sixteen 5 months old heifers were vaccinated subcutaneously with a standard dose (2ml, containing 20x10 9 to 10x10 9 living organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19. Sera from all the heifers were obtained on 18 occasions (one 87 days before vaccination, one immediately before vaccination and on 16 occasions after vaccination, during 488 days) and analyzed by buffered plate antigen test, rose bengal test, standard tube agglutination test, 2-mercaptoetanol test, complement fixation test, indirect ELISA, and competitive ELISA. Prior vaccination, 100% of the heifers gave negative results in all the techniques used, while 100% of them gave positive reaction in the first sampling after vaccination to all the techniques, with the exception of standard tube agglutination test that showed agglutinating titters of 1/100 or higher (positive threshold) in only 71.4% of the heifers. The indirect ELISA technique showed a reducing percentage of positive animals up until 316 days after vaccination, after which positive results were obtained. The competitive ELISA gave positive results in a variable number of heifers up to 253 days after vaccination when 100% of the sera were negative to this technique. Buffered plate antigen test was the technique that gave positive results for a longest period, being 100% of the animals negative to this technique at 450 days after vaccination. The other serological techniques assayed gave positive results during variable periods of time, intermediate between standard tube agglutination test and buffered plate antigen test. Although the present results were obtained from a limited number of

  7. Characterizing Antibody Responses to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Antigens in India Using Genome-Scale Protein Microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Uplekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding naturally acquired immune responses to Plasmodium in India is key to improving malaria surveillance and diagnostic tools. Here we describe serological profiling of immune responses at three sites in India by probing protein microarrays consisting of 515 Plasmodium vivax and 500 Plasmodium falciparum proteins with 353 plasma samples. A total of 236 malaria-positive (symptomatic and asymptomatic plasma samples and 117 malaria-negative samples were collected at three field sites in Raurkela, Nadiad, and Chennai. Indian samples showed significant seroreactivity to 265 P. vivax and 373 P. falciparum antigens, but overall seroreactivity to P. vivax antigens was lower compared to P. falciparum antigens. We identified the most immunogenic antigens of both Plasmodium species that were recognized at all three sites in India, as well as P. falciparum antigens that were associated with asymptomatic malaria. This is the first genome-scale analysis of serological responses to the two major species of malaria parasite in India. The range of immune responses characterized in different endemic settings argues for targeted surveillance approaches tailored to the diverse epidemiology of malaria across the world.

  8. Construction of a complementary DNA library for Parelaphostrongylus tenuis and identification of a potentially sero-diagnostic recombinant antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunremi, Oladele; Benjamin, Jane; MacDonald, Lily; Schimpf, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Newly developed serological tests for diagnosing parelaphostrongylosis in cervids, using the excretory-secretory products (ES) of the infective larvae of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), have demonstrable superiority over the traditional method of larval recovery and microscopic identification. To generate a source of ELISA antigen by genetic engineering, we created a complementary DNA (cDNA) expression library by the reverse transcription of mRNA of P. tenuis adult worms, and ligation with the vector lambda-ZAP II. The library was screened using antisera produced in mice by immunization with a somatic antigen preparation of adult worms. Seventeen clones were isolated, sequenced, and checked for similarity to other DNA sequences in GenBank. A previously identified parasite gene encoding an aspartyl protease inhibitor (API) was isolated from the cDNA library, subcloned and expressed using the pET expression vector to produce a glutathione S transferase (GST)-His-S.Tag-P. tenuis API fusion protein (molecular weight = 63 kDa). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing the API fusion protein as the coating antigen was used to serologically diagnose all white-tailed deer (WTD, 10 out of 10) that had been inoculated with 6 - 150 L3 P. tenuis, indicating that the antigen may be a useful serodiagnostic antigen for P. tenuis infection in this cervid species.

  9. Use of detergent extracts of Brucella abortus RB51 to detect serologic responses in RB51-vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, S M; Koster, N A

    2001-09-01

    Serologic responses to the newly introduced rough Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 have been determined in a dot-blot format using gamma-irradiated RB51 cells as the antigen. Because gamma-irradiated cells are not easily prepared and the signal from cells was not always reliable, an alternative antigen was sought. Detergent extracts of B. abortus RB51 were prepared using zwittergent 3-14, Triton X-100, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and examined in a dot-blot format. Zwittergent 3-14 extracts and gamma-irradiated RB51 cells gave the same titers. Unlike gamma-irradiated RB51 cells, zwittergent 3-14 extracts produced signals consistently, and the signals were easily interpreted. Triton X-100 extracts interfered with signal development, and SDS extracts resulted in a high background signal. Western blot analyses revealed several outer membrane proteins in the zwittergent 3-14 extract. The major antigens in the extract had apparent molecular weights of <20,000.

  10. Molecular characterization of the capsular antigens of Pasteurella multocida isolates using multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid S. Al-Maary

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular techniques for detection and characterization of the Pasteurella multocida is very important for rapid and specific detection and characterization of the organism. During the period from 15th February, 2014 to 15th April, 2015, 425 nasopharyngeal swabs and 175 lung and spleen samples were collected and examined by conventional methods, 80 strains (18.82% of P. multocida were isolated from the calves, sheep and goat with respiratory manifestation. Meanwhile, 77 strains (44% were isolated from emergency slaughtered animals. All the recovered strains were positive for specific PCR for detection of P. multocida strains previously identified as P. multocida by standard microbiological techniques. Multiplex PCR for molecular typing of the capsular antigens of the recovered P. multocida revealed positive amplification of 1044 bp fragments specific to the capsular antigen type A with 105 strains (66.88%, and amplification 511 bp fragments of the capsular antigen type E with 52 strain (33.12% and absence of B, D and F antigens. Multiplex PCR for molecular typing of the capsular antigens of P. multocida can be used as a simple, sensitive, rapid, reliable technique instead of the serological techniques for identification of the capsular antigens of P. multocida

  11. Cancer antigens are expressed in a carcinogen-transformed Bloom syndrome B-lymphoblastoid cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Yukimasa; Soma, Hiroaki

    1988-01-01

    The authors have cloned malignant cells carrying specific antigens associated with ovarian cancer (OVC) and malignant lymphoma (ML) from BS-SHI-4M cells, a line derived from a 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine-treated B-lymphoblastoid cell line isolated from a patient with Bloom syndrome. Since BS-SHI-4M cells react with sera from various individual cancer patients at relatively low frequencies (2-9%), as detected by an indirect immunofluorescence technique, cell clones that specifically react with sera from patients with OVC and ML were separated by the panning method in which polystyrene dishes were coated with sera from OVC and ML patients and cells with the corresponding antigens bound to the dishes. Subsequent cloning by limiting dilution provided cell clones highly enriched for OVC- and ML-associated antigens. Karyotype analyses revealed that cell clones with OVC and ML antigens had common marker chromosomes. Interestingly, in cell clones with a strong OVC antigen response, the distal part of the Y chromosome (Yq11) was missing in 100% of the cells. Therefore the cell line BS-SHI-4M appears to be a reservoir of cell clones each of which carries a specific tumor antigen and thus provides a potential tool for rapid serological diagnosis of cancer

  12. A clue to the basis of allelic enhancement: occurrence of the Ax subgroup in the offspring of blood group O parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M L; Michalewska, B; Hellberg, A; Walaszczyk, A; Chester, M A

    2005-10-01

    Apparent deviation from Mendelian rules of blood group inheritance is rarely observed. Blood group O parents with children expressing weak A subgroups have occasionally been described but not explained. A detailed serological investigation of such a family is described here. The ABO locus was analysed by PCR-ASP/restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping and DNA sequencing. The propositus' RBCs were very weakly agglutinated with monoclonal anti-A but distinctly with polyclonal anti-A,B, i.e. typical for Ax. Serum anti-A1 (titre 4) and -B were present. Her parents' blood groups were both clearly O, with titres of serum anti-A1, and -A at 16 and 4, respectively. Adsorption/ elution studies demonstrated A antigen on the daughter's cells only. The ABO genotypes were: mother, AxO1; father, O1vO2; and propositus, AxO2. The Ax allele was an A1-O1v hybrid allele with a crossing-over breakpoint between positions 235 and 446 in intron 6 (Ax-4). Compared to the A1 glycosyltransferase, this allele predicts a protein with two amino acid substitutions (Phe216Ile and Met277Val) known to yield either weakly expressed or no A antigen on RBCs. This study suggests that the nature of the ABO allele in trans can influence A antigen expression, a phenomenon previously described as allelic enhancement (or reinforcement). Potential mechanisms for this are discussed.

  13. Clinical Utility of Serologic Testing for Celiac Disease in Asymptomatic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    disease without any symptoms consistent with the disease presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated. When evaluating the risk of lymphoma and all-cause mortality, the study population consisted of asymptomatic individuals with a positive celiac disease serologic test and/or small bowel biopsy. Literature Search Search Strategy Literature searches were performed for each disease/condition evaluated between December 2010 and March 2011 using OVID MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA). No restrictions for start date of search were used. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Articles with an unknown eligibility were reviewed with a second clinical epidemiologist and then a group of epidemiologists until consensus was established. Inclusion Criteria Studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that assessed the effects of a GFD in patients with newly diagnosed asymptomatic celiac disease presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated. If symptoms were not reported in the study but subjects were identified through screening for celiac disease the study was included. Studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that assessed the prevalence of newly diagnosed asymptomatic celiac disease in patients with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated. If symptoms were not reported in the study but subjects were identified through screening for celiac disease the study was included. Studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that evaluated the risk of all-cause mortality or lymphoma in individuals with asymptomatic celiac disease. Sample size ≥ 10. Publications in English. Exclusion Criteria Studies that retrospectively assessed the prevalence of

  14. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  15. Accuracy of the serological ELISA test compared with the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Varella Parmigiani

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The most frequently used methods for detecting antibodies are the indirect immunofluorescence test and the enzymatic immunoassay (ELISA. The polymerase chain reaction is a molecular biology technique in which the production of large amounts of specific DNA fragments is induced from very low concentrations of complex substrates aloowing the detection of very low amounts of viral particles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of serological/ELISA tests in comparison with the polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood to diagnose cytomegalovirus infection. DESIGN: A descriptive study was performed. SETTING: High-risk outpatient clinic of Campinas University (Unicamp. PARTICIPANTS: We selected 243 pregnant women. All of them had been indicated for blood sampling because of suspicions of cytomegalovirus infection and also because of other infections. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The group was tested for cytomegalovirus. Serological tests were run and compared to the polymerase chain reaction, which was considered to be the gold standard. Status analyses were done using Fisher's exact test, via the SAS software. RESULTS: The previous cytomegalovirus infection rate was 94.6%. The main reasons for inclusion in the study were fetal nervous system malformation (25.5%, maternal toxoplasmosis (25.5% and Rh isoimmunization (14.8%. Only two women were included because of positive serological immunoglobulin M test for cytomegalovirus. The sensitivity and specificity of the serological tests were 94% and 6% for immunoglobulin G. CONCLUSION: Serological tests had lower sensitivity in comparison with the polymerase chain reaction test when diagnosing cytomegalovirus infection. The consequences of positive polymerase chain reaction and negative immunoglobulin M in women remain unknown.

  16. [Serologic prevalence of HCV antibodies in health personnel in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colichon Yerosh, Alejandro; Figueroa, Rolando; Moreno, Armando; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Ferrandíz, Jorge; Busalleu, Alejandro; Prado, William; Candella, Ricardo; Colichón, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Wilson; Espinoza, Julio; Kianman, Wilfredo; Amaya, Nelly; García Pérez, Segundo A; Tello Rodriguez, José; Valdez, Jesús; Paucar Sotomayor, Héctor; Sanchez, César

    2004-01-01

    In Peru, new cases of asymptomatic HCV infection are reported with certain frequency in patients with or without antecedents of blood transfusion. Although serologic screening has improved notoriously in the last years, there is still a population of polytransfused patients with high HCV risk (e.g. hemodialyzed patients), making up a major reservoir. Based on this premise, we decided to study the risk of the health worker population in Peru as another major HCV risk group. A total of 2,769 health workers from 7 Public Hospitals and 2 Private Hospitals in the City of Lima and from 7 Public Hospitals in 4 major/main cities of Peru (Chiclayo, Trujillo, Arequipa, and Cusco) were studied. All those workers, who due to their area of work had higher contact with blood and/or blood derivatives (Surgery, ICU, Traumatology, Gynecology, Gastroenterology, Hemodialysis and Laboratories-Blood Banks) were studied. The studied population accounts for 30% of the total health worker population in these services. All serums underwent the EIA-3 test (HCV-Cobas-Core, Lab. Roche, USA). The positive results were confirmed by RT-HCV (Ampiclor, Roche). The positive serums were confirmed by PCR and the positive results with high viral load underwent HCV genotyping (AMPICLOR-Roche Diagnostic, IGEN Diagnostic USA). Of the 2,769 health workers studied in Peru, 32 were positive for HCV antibodies (1.16% of the total number). Lima showed a prevalence slightly higher than the provinces: 26 out of 2,112 vs. 6 out of 657, or 1.23% vs. 0.91%, respectively. The higher risk is assumed by professional with higher level of contact with blood: 2 physicians (Hemodialysis), 5 nurses (HD) and Lab-Blood Bank technicians. The physicians and nurses share the same risk. If we segregate Lima from provinces, it can be seen that the highest risk is in Lima (1.34% compared to 1.07% in provinces). There is a major risk in health workers and the figures are slightly above those that were suspected for Peru (between 0

  17. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  18. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  19. Microbiological and Serological Studies of some Poultry Pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Serological surveillance of 24 different species of wild water birds living around water sewage plants and fresh wetland water area in Khartoum state (Sudan) were carried out in the period from September 2011 to March 2012 during ringing operation. The presence of selected avian diseases including ...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Flavobacterium and provides epidemiological information...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of diseases caused by virus-like bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsiae and...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis is characterized by a variety of acute and chronic infections. Acute...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of shigellosis caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella and provides...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and provides epidemiological information on diseases...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Listeria, and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Erysipelothrix. This organism...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... roundworms belonging to the genus Trichinella and provides epidemiological information on trichinosis...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Klebsiella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. These...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bacteria belonging to the genus Citrobacter and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... fungus belonging to the genus Coccidioides and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aids in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis caused by this fungus belonging to the genus Histoplasma and...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... protozoans belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis in adults is a chronic disease characterized...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... belonging to the genus Sporothrix and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Sporothrichosis...