Sample records for groundwater systems a review

  1. Groundwater: A review of the 1989 literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.T.; Mayer, A.S.


    This review was prepared under the auspices of the WPCF Research Committee of the annual Literature Review issue of the Journal; because of logistical reasons it could not be published in June. However, in view of the growing importance of the subject, the review is presented here as a supplement to the June Literature Review issue that has not been through the Journal peer review process. In this review, distinctions are made between single-, two-, and three-phase systems. Single-phase systems refer to groundwater systems subjected to saturated flow conditions, whereas the two- and three-phase systems include groundwater systems subjected to unsaturated flow conditions, or conditions influenced by immiscible organic fluids such as petroleum products. Within the single-, two-, and three-phase system categories, subdivisions are made between physical, chemical, or biological processes such as hydrodynamics, sorption/desorption, chemical reactions, and biodegradation. Specialized areas such as radon and radionuclide transport, facilitated transport, and saline groundwaters also are treated separately. Rounding out this year's review, papers concerning groundwater quality monitoring, remediation, and management are discussed

  2. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review. (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw


    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  3. The `Henry Problem' of `density-driven' groundwater flow versus Tothian `groundwater flow systems' with variable density: A review of the influential Biscayne aquifer data. (United States)

    Weyer, K. U.


    Coastal groundwater flow investigations at the Biscayne Bay, south of Miami, Florida, gave rise to the concept of density-driven flow of seawater into coastal aquifers creating a saltwater wedge. Within that wedge, convection-driven return flow of seawater and a dispersion zone were assumed by Cooper et al. (1964) to be the cause of the Biscayne aquifer `sea water wedge'. This conclusion was based on the chloride distribution within the aquifer and on an analytical model concept assuming convection flow within a confined aquifer without taking non-chemical field data into consideration. This concept was later labelled the `Henry Problem', which any numerical variable density flow program must be able to simulate to be considered acceptable. Both, `density-driven flow' and Tothian `groundwater flow systems' (with or without variable density conditions) are driven by gravitation. The difference between the two are the boundary conditions. 'Density-driven flow' occurs under hydrostatic boundary conditions while Tothian `groundwater flow systems' occur under hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Revisiting the Cooper et al. (1964) publication with its record of piezometric field data (heads) showed that the so-called sea water wedge has been caused by discharging deep saline groundwater driven by gravitational flow and not by denser sea water. Density driven flow of seawater into the aquifer was not found reflected in the head measurements for low and high tide conditions which had been taken contemporaneously with the chloride measurements. These head measurements had not been included in the flow interpretation. The very same head measurements indicated a clear dividing line between shallow local fresh groundwater flow and saline deep groundwater flow without the existence of a dispersion zone or a convection cell. The Biscayne situation emphasizes the need for any chemical interpretation of flow pattern to be supported by head data as energy indicators of flow fields

  4. Earthquake effects on groundwater systems: an introductory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report presents an introductory review of the potential effects of earthquakes on groundwater systems with respect to the performance of underground repositories for radioactive waste in Britain. An approach to modelling these effects within the scope of general environmental simulation codes is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed and it is concluded that, although pertinent information exists, no clear relationship between seismic intensity and the degree of fracturing has been established. Recommendations are made for further work on fracture development to complement existing research into the effects of long-term changes on the integrity of radioactive waste disposal facilities. (author)

  5. A Review of Distributed Parameter Groundwater Management Modeling Methods (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.


    Models which solve the governing groundwater flow or solute transport equations in conjunction with optimization techniques, such as linear and quadratic programing, are powerful aquifer management tools. Groundwater management models fall in two general categories: hydraulics or policy evaluation and water allocation. Groundwater hydraulic management models enable the determination of optimal locations and pumping rates of numerous wells under a variety of restrictions placed upon local drawdown, hydraulic gradients, and water production targets. Groundwater policy evaluation and allocation models can be used to study the influence upon regional groundwater use of institutional policies such as taxes and quotas. Furthermore, fairly complex groundwater-surface water allocation problems can be handled using system decomposition and multilevel optimization. Experience from the few real world applications of groundwater optimization-management techniques is summarized. Classified separately are methods for groundwater quality management aimed at optimal waste disposal in the subsurface. This classification is composed of steady state and transient management models that determine disposal patterns in such a way that water quality is protected at supply locations. Classes of research missing from the literature are groundwater quality management models involving nonlinear constraints, models which join groundwater hydraulic and quality simulations with political-economic management considerations, and management models that include parameter uncertainty.

  6. Earthquake chemical precursors in groundwater: a review (United States)

    Paudel, Shukra Raj; Banjara, Sushant Prasad; Wagle, Amrita; Freund, Friedemann T.


    We review changes in groundwater chemistry as precursory signs for earthquakes. In particular, we discuss pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity, and dissolved gases in relation to their significance for earthquake prediction or forecasting. These parameters are widely believed to vary in response to seismic and pre-seismic activity. However, the same parameters also vary in response to non-seismic processes. The inability to reliably distinguish between changes caused by seismic or pre-seismic activities from changes caused by non-seismic activities has impeded progress in earthquake science. Short-term earthquake prediction is unlikely to be achieved, however, by pH, TDS, electrical conductivity, and dissolved gas measurements alone. On the other hand, the production of free hydroxyl radicals (•OH), subsequent reactions such as formation of H2O2 and oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in groundwater, have distinctive precursory characteristics. This study deviates from the prevailing mechanical mantra. It addresses earthquake-related non-seismic mechanisms, but focused on the stress-induced electrification of rocks, the generation of positive hole charge carriers and their long-distance propagation through the rock column, plus on electrochemical processes at the rock-water interface.

  7. Evaluation of a multiport groundwater monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Hall, S.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Spane, F.A. Jr.


    In 1988 and 1989, Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater monitoring system in two wells on the Hanford Site: one near the 216-B-3 Pond in the center of the Hanford Site and one just north of the 300 Area near the Columbia River. The system was installed to provide the US Department of Energy with needed three-dimensional data on the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads on the Hanford Site. This study evaluates the ability of the multiport system to obtain hydrogeologic data at multiple points vertically in a single borehole, and addresses the representativeness of the data. Data collected from the two wells indicate that the multiport system is well suited for groundwater monitoring networks requiring three-dimensional characterization of the hydrogeologic system. A network of these systems could provide valuable information on the hydrogeologic environment. However, the advantages of the multiport system diminish when the system is applied to long-term monitoring networks (30+ years) and to deeper wells (<300 ft). For shallow wells, the multiport system provides data in a cost-effective manner that would not be reasonably obtainable with the conventional methods currently in use at the Hanford Site. 17 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs

  8. A review of visual MODFLOW applications in groundwater modelling (United States)

    Hariharan, V.; Shankar, M. Uma


    Visual MODLOW is a Graphical User Interface for the USGS MODFLOW. It is a commercial software that is popular among the hydrogeologists for its user-friendly features. The software is mainly used for Groundwater flow and contaminant transport models under different conditions. This article is intended to review the versatility of its applications in groundwater modelling for the last 22 years. Agriculture, airfields, constructed wetlands, climate change, drought studies, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), landfills, mining operations, river and flood plain monitoring, salt water intrusion, soil profile surveys, watershed analyses, etc., are the areas where the software has been reportedly used till the current date. The review will provide a clarity on the scope of the software in groundwater modelling and research.

  9. A Method to Evaluate Groundwater flow system under the Seabed (United States)

    Kohara, N.; Marui, A.


    / fresh water interface (position of the submarine groundwater discharge) may appear on the seafloor. Moreover, neither the salinity concentration nor the groundwater age depends on depth. It is thought that it is because that the groundwater forms the complex flow situation through the change in a long-term groundwater flow system. The technology to understand the coastal groundwater flow consists of remote sensing, geographical features analysis, surface of the earth investigation, geophysical exploration, drilling survey, and indoor examination and the measurement. Integration of each technology is needed to interpret groundwater flow system because the one is to catch the local groundwater flow in the time series and another one is to catch the long-term and regional groundwater flow in the general situation. The purpose of this study is to review the previous research of coastal groundwater flow, and to integrate an applicable evaluation approach to understand this mechanism. In this presentation, the review of the research and case study using numerical simulation are introduced.

  10. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  11. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater : a review of sources, fate and occurrence


    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.


    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram...

  12. Sampling and analysis of groundwater colloids. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, M.; Manninen, P.


    The purpose of this literature study was to give basic information of colloids: their formation, colloid material, sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids. Colloids are commonly refereed to as particles in the size range of 1 nm to 1000 nm. They are defined as a suspension of solid material in a liquid that does not appear to separate even after a long period of time. Colloids can be formed from a variety of inorganic or organic material. Inorganic colloids in natural groundwaters are formed by physical fragmentation of the host rock or by precipitation. The water chemistry strongly controls the stability of colloids. The amount of colloid particles in a solution tends to decrease with the increasing ionic strength of the solution. Increases in pH and organic material tend to increase the stability of colloids. The mobility of colloids in a porous medium is controlled mainly by groundwater movement, sedimentation, diffusion and interception. Factors controlling sampling artefacts are oxygen diffusion: leads to e.g. calcite precipitation, pumping rates and filtering techniques. Efforts to minimise artefact formation should be taken if the scope of the sampling programme is to study the colloid particles. The colloid phase size distribution can be determined by light scattering systems, laser induced break down or by single particle analysis using SEM micrographs. Elemental compositions can be analysed with EDS spectrometry from single colloid particles. Bulk compositions of the colloid phase can be analysed with e.g. ICP-MS analyser. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for groundwater colloid samplings. Recommendations for future work are listed in the conclusions of this report. (orig.)

  13. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.


    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram-microgram per litre concentrations are present in groundwater for a large range of EOCs as well as metabolites and transformation products and under certain conditions may pose a threat to freshwater bodies for decades due to relatively long groundwater residence times. In the coming decades, more of these EOCs are likely to have drinking water standards, environmental quality standards and/or groundwater threshold values defined, and therefore a better understanding of the spatial and temporal variation remains a priority. - Highlights: ► First review to focus on EOCs in groundwater. ► A large range (n > 180) of EOCs are detected in groundwater. ► Significant concentrations (10 2 –10 4 ng/L) for a range of EOCs, including endocrine disruptors. ► Groundwater EOC occurrence is poorly characterised compared to other freshwater resources. - A large range of emerging organic contaminants are now being detected in groundwater as a result of recent and historical anthropogenic activities.

  14. Groundwater vulnerability to climate change: A review of the assessment methodology. (United States)

    Aslam, Rana Ammar; Shrestha, Sangam; Pandey, Vishnu Prasad


    Impacts of climate change on water resources, especially groundwater, can no longer be hidden. These impacts are further exacerbated under the integrated influence of climate variability, climate change and anthropogenic activities. The degree of impact varies according to geographical location and other factors leading systems and regions towards different levels of vulnerability. In the recent past, several attempts have been made in various regions across the globe to quantify the impacts and consequences of climate and non-climate factors in terms of vulnerability to groundwater resources. Firstly, this paper provides a structured review of the available literature, aiming to critically analyse and highlight the limitations and knowledge gaps involved in vulnerability (of groundwater to climate change) assessment methodologies. The effects of indicator choice and the importance of including composite indicators are then emphasised. A new integrated approach for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability to climate change is proposed to successfully address those limitations. This review concludes that the choice of indicator has a significant role in defining the reliability of computed results. The effect of an individual indicator is also apparent but the consideration of a combination (variety) of indicators may give more realistic results. Therefore, in future, depending upon the local conditions and scale of the study, indicators from various groups should be chosen. Furthermore, there are various assumptions involved in previous methodologies, which limit their scope by introducing uncertainty in the calculated results. These limitations can be overcome by implementing the proposed approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of passive groundwater remediation systems: Lessons learned Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    One of the proposed solutions for treatment of the contaminated groundwater in the Bear Creek Valley is the installation of a passive treatment system. Such a system would use a reactive media installed in a continuous trench or in a gate as part of a barrier wall and gate system. This report evaluates information on five similar systems [no information was available on two additional systems] and evaluates the shortcomings and the advantages of each. Section 5 provides a short summary of the findings and presents some recommendations on how to avoid some of the common problems encountered with the existing systems

  16. A tracking system for groundwater sampling and data transfer schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, T.M.


    Since groundwater monitoring programs at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have become more complex and varied and as the occasions to respond to internal and external reporting requirements have become more frequent and time constrained, the need to track groundwater sampling activities and data transfer from the analytical laboratories has become imperative. If backlogs can be caught early, resources can be added or reallocated in the field and in the laboratory in a timely manner to ensure reporting deadlines are met. The tracking system discussed in this paper starts with clear definition of the groundwater monitoring program at the facility. This information is input into base datasets at the beginning of the sampling cycle. As the sampling program progresses, information about well sampling dates and data transfer dates is input into the base datasets. From the base program data and the update data, a status report is periodically generated by a computer program which identifies the type and nature of bottle necks encountered during the implementation of the groundwater monitoring program

  17. Integrating a Linear Signal Model with Groundwater and Rainfall time-series on the Characteristic Identification of Groundwater Systems (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Wang, Yetmen; Chang, Liang-Cheng


    Groundwater resources play a vital role on regional supply. To avoid irreversible environmental impact such as land subsidence, the characteristic identification of groundwater system is crucial before sustainable management of groundwater resource. This study proposes a signal process approach to identify the character of groundwater systems based on long-time hydrologic observations include groundwater level and rainfall. The study process contains two steps. First, a linear signal model (LSM) is constructed and calibrated to simulate the variation of underground hydrology based on the time series of groundwater levels and rainfall. The mass balance equation of the proposed LSM contains three major terms contain net rate of horizontal exchange, rate of rainfall recharge and rate of pumpage and four parameters are required to calibrate. Because reliable records of pumpage is rare, the time-variant groundwater amplitudes of daily frequency (P ) calculated by STFT are assumed as linear indicators of puamage instead of pumpage records. Time series obtained from 39 observation wells and 50 rainfall stations in and around the study area, Pintung Plain, are paired for model construction. Second, the well-calibrated parameters of the linear signal model can be used to interpret the characteristic of groundwater system. For example, the rainfall recharge coefficient (γ) means the transform ratio between rainfall intention and groundwater level raise. The area around the observation well with higher γ means that the saturated zone here is easily affected by rainfall events and the material of unsaturated zone might be gravel or coarse sand with high infiltration ratio. Considering the spatial distribution of γ, the values of γ decrease from the upstream to the downstream of major rivers and also are correlated to the spatial distribution of grain size of surface soil. Via the time-series of groundwater levels and rainfall, the well-calibrated parameters of LSM have

  18. Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Sui


    Full Text Available The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in the aquatic environment may pose potential threat to the ecosystem and human health, hence PPCPs have aroused much concern over the world. The contamination of PPCPs in the groundwater, the main source of drinking water supply in many countries and regions, has been extensively studied in the last decade. This paper reviews the occurrence of frequently detected PPCPs, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, lipid-regulators, carbamazepine, caffeine, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in groundwater, with special concern to the progress made over the past three years. Possible emission sources for PPCPs in groundwater, such as wastewater and contaminated surface water, landfills, septic systems, livestock breeding and sewer leakage, are summarized. Besides, adsorption, migration and degradation, the dominant mechanisms in the subsurface transport and fate of PPCPs, are discussed, and the insights into the future study of PPCPs in the groundwater are provided.

  19. Classification as a generic tool for characterising status and changes of regional scale groundwater systems (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Haaf, Ezra


    the behavior of groundwater systems. It is based on the hypothesis that similar groundwater systems respond similarly to similar impacts. At its core is the classification of (i) static hydrogeological characteristics (such as aquifer geometry and hydraulic properties), (ii) dynamic changes of the boundary conditions (such as recharge, water levels in surface waters), and (iii) dynamic groundwater system responses (groundwater head and chemical parameters). The dependencies of system responses on explanatory variables are used to map knowledge from observed locations to areas without measurements. Classification of static and dynamic system features combined with information about known system properties and their dependencies provide insight into system behavior that cannot be directly derived through the analysis of raw data. Classification and dependency analysis could finally lead to a new framework for groundwater system assessment on the regional scale as a replacement or supplement to numerical groundwater models and catchment scale hydrological models. This contribution focusses on the main hydrogeological concepts underlying the approach while another EGU contribution (Haaf and Barthel, 2016) explains the methodologies used to classify groundwater systems. References: Barthel, R., 2014. A call for more fundamental science in regional hydrogeology. Hydrogeol J, 22(3): 507-510. Barthel, R., Banzhaf, S., 2016. Groundwater and Surface Water Interaction at the Regional-scale - A Review with Focus on Regional Integrated Models. Water Resour Manag, 30(1): 1-32. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2016. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs. Abstract submitted to EGU General Assembly 2016, Vienna, Austria.

  20. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankar


    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  1. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation. (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha


    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  2. A Review of Advances in the Identification and Characterization of Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems Using Geospatial Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Pérez Hoyos


    Full Text Available Groundwater Dependent Ecosystem (GDE protection is increasingly being recognized as essential for the sustainable management and allocation of water resources. GDE services are crucial for human well-being and for a variety of flora and fauna. However, the conservation of GDEs is only possible if knowledge about their location and extent is available. Several studies have focused on the identification of GDEs at specific locations using ground-based measurements. However, recent progress in remote sensing technologies and their integration with Geographic Information Systems (GIS has provided alternative ways to map GDEs at a much larger spatial extent. This paper presents a review of the geospatial methods that have been used to map and delineate GDEs at spatial different extents. Additionally, a summary of the satellite sensors useful for identification of GDEs and the integration of remote sensing data with ground-based measurements in the process of mapping GDEs is presented.

  3. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill


    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  4. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.


    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  5. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.


    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility's operations will also be presented

  6. A review of seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta groundwater system – the basis for assessing impacts due to climate changes and water resources development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabrouk, M.B.; Jonoski, A.; Solomatine, D.P.; Uhlenbrook, S.


    Serious environmental problems are emerging in the River Nile basin and its groundwater resources. Recent years have brought scientific evidence of climate change and development-induced environmental impacts globally as well as over Egypt. Some impacts are subtle, like decline of the Nile River

  7. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater. (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela


    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry (United States)

    Kagabu, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Delinom, Robert; Tsujimura, Maki; Taniguchi, Makoto


    In the Jakarta area (Indonesia), excessive groundwater pumping due to the rapidly increasing population has caused groundwater-related problems such as brackish water contamination in coastal areas and land subsidence. In this study, we adopted multiple hydrogeochemical techniques to demonstrate the groundwater flow system in the Jakarta area. Although almost all groundwater existing in the Jakarta basin is recharged at similar elevations, the water quality and residence time demonstrates a clear difference between the shallow and deep aquifers. Due to the rapid decrease in the groundwater potential in urban areas, we found that the seawater intrusion and the shallow and deep groundwaters are mixing, a conclusion confirmed by major ions, Br -:Cl - ratios, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 analysis. Spring water and groundwater samples collected from the southern mountainside area show younger age characteristics with high concentrations of 14C and Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry. We estimated the residence times of these groundwaters within 45 years under piston flow conditions by tritium analysis. Also, these groundwater ages can be limited to 20-30 years with piston flow evaluated by CFCs. Moreover, due to the magnitude of the CFC-12 concentration, we can use a pseudo age indicator in this field study, because we found a positive correlation between the major type of water chemistry and the CFC-12 concentration.

  9. Effects of Sea Level Rise on Groundwater Flow Paths in a Coastal Aquifer System (United States)

    Morrissey, S. K.; Clark, J. F.; Bennett, M. W.; Richardson, E.; Stute, M.


    Changes in groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system, South Florida, from the rise in sea level at the end of the last glacial period may be indicative of changes coastal aquifers will experience with continued sea level rise. As sea level rises, the hydraulic head near the coast increases. Coastal aquifers can therefore experience decreased groundwater gradients (increased residence times) and seawater intrusion. Stable isotopes of water, dissolved noble gas temperatures, radiocarbon and He concentrations were analyzed in water collected from 68 wells in the Floridan aquifer system throughout South Florida. Near the recharge area, geochemical data along groundwater flow paths in the Upper Floridan aquifer show a transition from recently recharged groundwater to glacial-aged water. Down gradient from this transition, little variation is apparent in the stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures, indicating that most of the Upper Floridan aquifer contains groundwater recharged during the last glacial period. The rapid 120-meter rise in sea level marking the end of the last glacial period increased the hydraulic head in the Floridan aquifer system near the coast, slowing the flow of groundwater from the recharge area to the ocean and trapping glacial-aged groundwater. The raised sea level also flooded half of the Florida platform and caused seawater to intrude into the Lower Floridan. This circulation of seawater in the Lower Floridan continues today as our data indicate that the groundwater is similar to modern seawater with a freshwater component entering vertically from the recharge area to the Upper Floridan.

  10. A study on the groundwater flow system for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    The basic framework of groundwater flow is defined as a conceptual 3-D unit of groundwater system based on hydrogeological environments. The fundamental parameters consisting of groundwater system should include topography, geology and climatic conditions. Climatic conditions control the distribution and amounts of groundwater in an interesting study area. The driving forces responsible for groundwater movement are mainly determined by topographic characteristics. The configuration of groundwater system is also controlled by topography. The geological setting and structures control the reservoir size and groundwater flow path. The hydrogeological setting in Korea was classified by primarily topographic characteristics and considered by geological structures and tectonic division. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitude. 35 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs. (Author)

  11. Arsenic and fluoride contaminated groundwaters: A review of current technologies for contaminants removal. (United States)

    Jadhav, Sachin V; Bringas, Eugenio; Yadav, Ganapati D; Rathod, Virendra K; Ortiz, Inmaculada; Marathe, Kumudini V


    Chronic contamination of groundwaters by both arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) is frequently observed around the world, which has severely affected millions of people. Fluoride and As are introduced into groundwaters by several sources such as water-rock interactions, anthropogenic activities, and groundwater recharge. Coexistence of these pollutants can have adverse effects due to synergistic and/or antagonistic mechanisms leading to uncertain and complicated health effects, including cancer. Many developing countries are beset with the problem of F and As laden waters, with no affordable technologies to provide clean water supply. The technologies available for the simultaneous removal are akin to chemical treatment, adsorption and membrane processes. However, the presence of competing ions such as phosphate, silicate, nitrate, chloride, carbonate, and sulfate affect the removal efficiency. Highly efficient, low-cost and sustainable technology which could be used by rural populations is of utmost importance for simultaneous removal of both pollutants. This can be realized by using readily available low cost materials coupled with proper disposal units. Synthesis of inexpensive and highly selective nanoadsorbents or nanofunctionalized membranes is required along with encapsulation units to isolate the toxicant loaded materials to avoid their re-entry in aquifers. A vast number of reviews have been published periodically on removal of As or F alone. However, there is a dearth of literature on the simultaneous removal of both. This review critically analyzes this important issue and considers strategies for their removal and safe disposal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system (United States)

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  13. A GIS-Enabled, Michigan-Specific, Hierarchical Groundwater Modeling and Visualization System (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Mandle, R.; Simard, A.; Fisher, B.; Brown, E.; Ross, S.


    Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives. Many agencies in Michigan have spent several years compiling expensive and comprehensive surface water and groundwater inventories and other related spatial data that describe their respective areas of responsibility. However, most often this wealth of descriptive data has only been utilized for basic mapping purposes. The benefits from analyzing these data, using GIS analysis functions or externally developed analysis models or programs, has yet to be systematically realized. In this talk, we present a comprehensive software environment that allows Michigan groundwater resources managers and frontline professionals to make more effective use of the available data and improve their ability to manage and protect groundwater resources, address potential conflicts, design cleanup schemes, and prioritize investigation activities. In particular, we take advantage of the Interactive Ground Water (IGW) modeling system and convert it to a customized software environment specifically for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing the Michigan statewide groundwater database. The resulting Michigan IGW modeling system (IGW-M) is completely window-based, fully interactive, and seamlessly integrated with a GIS mapping engine. The system operates in real-time (on the fly) providing dynamic, hierarchical mapping, modeling, spatial analysis, and visualization. Specifically, IGW-M allows water resources and environmental professionals in Michigan to: * Access and utilize the extensive data from the statewide groundwater database, interactively manipulate GIS objects, and display and query the associated data and attributes; * Analyze and model the statewide groundwater database, interactively convert GIS objects into numerical model features

  14. Determination of timescales of nitrate contamination by groundwater age models in a complex aquifer system (United States)

    Koh, E. H.; Lee, E.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.; Green, C. T.


    Timing and magnitudes of nitrate contamination are determined by various factors like contaminant loading, recharge characteristics and geologic system. Information of an elapsed time since recharged water traveling to a certain outlet location, which is defined as groundwater age, can provide indirect interpretation related to the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system. There are three major methods (apparent ages, lumped parameter model, and numerical model) to date groundwater ages, which differently characterize groundwater mixing resulted by various groundwater flow pathways in a heterogeneous aquifer system. Therefore, in this study, we compared the three age models in a complex aquifer system by using observed age tracer data and reconstructed history of nitrate contamination by long-term source loading. The 3H-3He and CFC-12 apparent ages, which did not consider the groundwater mixing, estimated the most delayed response time and a highest period of the nitrate loading had not reached yet. However, the lumped parameter model could generate more recent loading response than the apparent ages and the peak loading period influenced the water quality. The numerical model could delineate various groundwater mixing components and its different impacts on nitrate dynamics in the complex aquifer system. The different age estimation methods lead to variations in the estimated contaminant loading history, in which the discrepancy in the age estimation was dominantly observed in the complex aquifer system.

  15. Arsenic mobilization in a freshening groundwater system formed within glaciomarine deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, R.; Kirste, D.


    Arsenic release to groundwater and conditions favoring As mobility are investigated in a system of aquifers formed within unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. The studied groundwater system is comprised of unconfined aquifers formed in glaciofluvial sediments with Ca–Mg–HCO 3 groundwater, and confined aquifers formed within glaciomarine sediments with high As (above 10 μg/L) Na–HCO 3 or Na–Cl groundwater. A positive relationship of As concentrations with the Na/(Ca + Mg) ratio of groundwater indicates that As release occurs in glaciomarine sediments concurrent to cation exchange reactions related to groundwater freshening. Arsenic is mobile in confined aquifers as a result of groundwater basic pH which prevents arsenate from adsorbing to mineral surfaces, and reducing conditions that favor speciation to arsenite. Selected extractions applied to sediment core samples indicate that As occurs in sediments predominantly in sulfide minerals and in Mn oxides and/or Fe oxyhydroxides. General positive relationships between As and the reduced species Fe 2+ , NH 3 and dissolved S 2− suggest that As release occurs at increasingly reducing conditions. Despite likely As release via Fe oxyhydroxide reductive dissolution, Fe remains at relatively low concentrations in groundwater (up to 0.37 mg/L) as a result of possible Fe adsorption and Fe reprecipitation as carbonate minerals favored by basic pH and high alkalinity. The presence of S 2− in some samples, a negative relationship between δ 34 S of SO 4 and SO 4 2- concentrations, and a positive relationship between δ 34 S and δ 18 O of SO 4 indicate that groundwater in confined aquifers is undergoing bacterial SO 4 reduction.

  16. Significance of direct and indirect impacts of climate change on groundwater resources in the Olifants River basin: A review (United States)

    Nkhonjera, German K.; Dinka, Megersa O.


    This paper considers the extent and usefulness of reviewing existing literature on the significance of direct and indirect impacts of climate change on groundwater resources with emphasis on examples from the Olifants River basin. Here, the existing literature were extensively reviewed, with discussions centred mainly on the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and challenges in modelling climate change impacts on groundwater resources. Since in the hydrological cycle, the hydrological components such as evaporation, temperature, precipitation, and groundwater, are the major drivers of the present and future climate, a detailed discussion is done on the impact of climate change on these hydrological components to determine to what extent the hydrological cycle has already been affected as a result of climate change. The uncertainties, constraints and limitations in climate change research have also been reviewed. In addition to the research gaps discussed here, the emphasis on the need of extensive climate change research on the continent, especially as climate change impacts on groundwater, is discussed. Overall, the importance of conducting further research in climate change, understanding the significance of the impact of climate change on water resources such as groundwater, and taking actions to effectively meet the adaptation needs of the people, emerge as an important theme in this review.

  17. Iodine speciation and diffusion in a sand-groundwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Haigh, D.G.; Allen, M.R.; Williams, G.M.; Warwick, P.


    This study lies within the Mirage II research programme (migration of radionuclides in the geosphere) set up by the Commission of the European Communities and supported by the UK Department of the Environment. The work forms part of the project entilled In situ determination of the effects of organics on the mobility of radionuclides in controlled conditions of groundwater flow which is being carried out by the British Geological Survey at Drigg in Cumbria, on land owned by British Nuclear Fuel plc. The study involves the detailed geochemical and hydrogeological characterization of a confined aquifer of glacial sand, the laboratory scale investigation of radionuclide sorption processes and how these are affected by the presence of natural and anthropogenic organic compounds. Ultimately the results of field hydraulic testing and laboratory studies of radionuclide sorption will be used to predict the outcome of a field tracer experiment using conservative and reactive radionuclide species

  18. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing


    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Review of history matching of reservoirs parameters in groundwater flow raises the problem of identifiability of aquifer systems. Lack of identifiability means that there exists parameters to which the heads are insensitive. From the guidelines of the study of the homogeneous case, we inspect the identifiability of the distributed transmissivity field of heterogeneous groundwater aquifers. These are derived from multiple realizations of a random function Y = log T  whose probability distribution function is normal. We follow the identifiability of the autocorrelated block transmissivities through the measure of the sensitivity of the local derivatives DTh = (∂hi  ∕ ∂Tj computed for each sample of a population N (0; σY, αY. Results obtained from an analysis of Monte Carlo type suggest that the more a system is heterogeneous, the less it is identifiable.

  20. Review: Optimization methods for groundwater modeling and management (United States)

    Yeh, William W.-G.


    Optimization methods have been used in groundwater modeling as well as for the planning and management of groundwater systems. This paper reviews and evaluates the various optimization methods that have been used for solving the inverse problem of parameter identification (estimation), experimental design, and groundwater planning and management. Various model selection criteria are discussed, as well as criteria used for model discrimination. The inverse problem of parameter identification concerns the optimal determination of model parameters using water-level observations. In general, the optimal experimental design seeks to find sampling strategies for the purpose of estimating the unknown model parameters. A typical objective of optimal conjunctive-use planning of surface water and groundwater is to minimize the operational costs of meeting water demand. The optimization methods include mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming, quadratic programming, dynamic programming, stochastic programming, nonlinear programming, and the global search algorithms such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, and tabu search. Emphasis is placed on groundwater flow problems as opposed to contaminant transport problems. A typical two-dimensional groundwater flow problem is used to explain the basic formulations and algorithms that have been used to solve the formulated optimization problems.

  1. Development of a biotreatment system for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, B.R.; Kurisko, P.R.; Ensley, B.D.


    Inadvertent release of fuels and solvents into soil has resulted in groundwater contamination across the United States. This paper reports on the development of biologically based systems for treating mixtures of chemical contaminants which often requires knowledge of both degradative pathways and interactions between individual chemicals. These issues may necessitate the use of specialized microorganisms and/or treatment systems designed to overcome these limitations. One strategy for the treatment of chemical mixtures which cannot be source separated, such as contaminated groundwater, is a modular system to sequentially biodegrade groups of compatible chemicals. A two-stage bioreactor system was constructed for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene and TCE. This treatment system is undergoing development for a field pilot demonstration. Successful implementation of this system should result in significant cost and time savings compared to competitive technologies

  2. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio


    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  3. A review of arsenic and its impacts in groundwater of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Edmunds, W M; Ahmed, K M; Whitehead, P G


    Arsenic in drinking water is the single most important environmental issue facing Bangladesh; between 35 and 77 million of its 156 million inhabitants are considered to be at risk from drinking As-contaminated water. This dominates the list of stress factors affecting health, livelihoods and the ecosystem of the delta region. There is a vast literature on the subject so this review provides a filter of the more important information available on the topic. The arsenic problem arises from the move in the 1980s and 1990s by international agencies to construct tube wells as a source of water free of pathogens, groundwater usually considered a safe source. Since arsenic was not measured during routine chemical analysis and also is difficult to measure at low concentrations it was not until the late 1990s that the widespread natural anomaly of high arsenic was discovered and confirmed. The problem was exacerbated by the fact that the medical evidence of arsenicosis only appears slowly. The problem arises in delta regions because of the young age of the sediments deposited by the GBM river system. The sediments contain minerals such as biotite which undergo slow "diagenetic" reactions as the sediments become compacted, and which, under the reducing conditions of the groundwater, release in the form of toxic As(3+). The problem is restricted to sediments of Holocene age and groundwater of a certain depth (mainly 30-150 m), coinciding with the optimum well depth. The problem is most serious in a belt across southern Bangladesh, but within 50 m of the coast the problem is only minor because of use of deep groundwater; salinity in shallow groundwater here is the main issue for drinking water. The Government of Bangladesh adopted a National Arsenic Policy and Mitigation Action Plan in 2004 for providing arsenic safe water to all the exposed population, to provide medical care for those who have visible symptoms of arsenicosis. There is as yet no national monitoring program in

  4. An introduction to geographic information systems as applied to a groundwater remediation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammock, J.K.; Lorenz, R.


    While the attention to environmental issues has grown over the past several years, so has the focus on groundwater protection. Addressing the task of groundwater remediation often involves a large-scale program with numerous wells and enormous amounts of data. This data must be manipulated and analyzed in an efficient manner for the remediation program to be truly effective. Geographic Information System's (GIS) have proven to be an extremely effective tool in handling and interpreting this type of groundwater information. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the audience to GIS technology, describe how it is being used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to handle groundwater data and demonstrate how it may be used in the corporate Westinghouse environment

  5. Groundwater flow and mixing in a wetland–stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms


    steady-state groundwater model that was calibrated against average head observations. The model results were tested against groundwater fluxes determined from streambed temperature measurements. Discharge varied up to one order of magnitude across the stream and the model was successful in capturing...... in the top of the aquifer and immediately underneath the streambed no NO3- was detected deeper within the aquifer. An inverse relationship between NO3- and SO42- suggests that pyrite oxidation takes place in the deeper parts of the aquifer. Simulated flow path lines showed very different origins for deeper...

  6. Quantifying changes in water use and groundwater availability in a megacity using novel integrated systems modeling (United States)

    Hyndman, D. W.; Xu, T.; Deines, J. M.; Cao, G.; Nagelkirk, R.; Viña, A.; McConnell, W.; Basso, B.; Kendall, A. D.; Li, S.; Luo, L.; Lupi, F.; Ma, D.; Winkler, J. A.; Yang, W.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.


    Water sustainability in megacities is a growing challenge with far-reaching effects. Addressing sustainability requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach able to capture interactions among hydrology, population growth, and socioeconomic factors and to reflect changes due to climate variability and land use. We developed a new systems modeling framework to quantify the influence of changes in land use, crop growth, and urbanization on groundwater storage for Beijing, China. This framework was then used to understand and quantify causes of observed decreases in groundwater storage from 1993 to 2006, revealing that the expansion of Beijing's urban areas at the expense of croplands has enhanced recharge while reducing water lost to evapotranspiration, partially ameliorating groundwater declines. The results demonstrate the efficacy of such a systems approach to quantify the impacts of changes in climate and land use on water sustainability for megacities, while providing a quantitative framework to improve mitigation and adaptation strategies that can help address future water challenges.

  7. A General Solution for Groundwater Flow in Estuarine Leaky Aquifer System with Considering Aquifer Anisotropy (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chia; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Tan, Yih-Chi


    In recent years the urban and industrial developments near the coastal area are rapid and therefore the associated population grows dramatically. More and more water demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on heavy pumping in coastal area. The decline of groundwater table may result in the problems of seawater intrusion and/or land subsidence. Since the 1950s, numerous studies focused on the effect of tidal fluctuation on the groundwater flow in the coastal area. Many studies concentrated on the developments of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analytical solutions describing the tide-induced head fluctuations. For example, Jacob (1950) derived an analytical solution of 1D groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with a boundary condition subject to sinusoidal oscillation. Jiao and Tang (1999) derived a 1D analytical solution of a leaky confined aquifer by considered a constant groundwater head in the overlying unconfined aquifer. Jeng et al. (2002) studied the tidal propagation in a coupled unconfined and confined costal aquifer system. Sun (1997) presented a 2D solution for groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary. Tang and Jiao (2001) derived a 2D analytical solution in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water. This study aims at developing a general analytical solution describing the head fluctuations in a 2D estuarine aquifer system consisted of an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer, and an aquitard between them. Both the confined and unconfined aquifers are considered to be anisotropic. The predicted head fluctuations from this solution will compare with the simulation results from the MODFLOW program. In addition, the solutions mentioned above will be shown to be special cases of the present solution. Some hypothetical cases regarding the head fluctuation in costal aquifers will be made to investigate the dynamic effects of water table fluctuation, hydrogeological conditions, and

  8. Composition of Groundwater Bacterial Communities before and after Air Surging in a Groundwater Heat Pump System According to a Pyrosequencing Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim


    Full Text Available The geothermal energy of groundwater has aroused increasing interest as a solution to climate change. The groundwater heat pumps (GWHP system using groundwater is the most environmentally friendly system to date and has been examined in several studies. However, biological clogging by microorganisms negatively affects the thermal efficiency of the GWHP system. In this study, we employed air surging, the most popular among well management methods, and pyrosequencing to analyze the genetic diversity in bacteria before and after air surging in a geothermal well. Furthermore, the diversity of dominant bacterial genera and those related to clogging were evaluated. The bacterial diversity of the groundwater well increased after air surging. Nevertheless, the proportion of bacterial genera thought to be related to microbiological clogging decreased. In cooling and heating systems based on the geothermal energy of groundwater, the wells should be maintained regularly by air surging to reduce efficiency problems caused by microbiological clogging and to prevent secondary damage to human health, e.g., pneumonia due to human pathogenic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter.

  9. Geochemistry and the Understanding of Groundwater Systems (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Plummer, L. N.; Weissmann, G. S.; Stute, M.


    isotopes, analyses of natural organic tracers), (2) in inverse geochemical and hydrological modeling, (3) in the understanding and simulation of coupled biological, geological, geochemical and hydrological processes, and (4) in the description and quantification of processes occurring at the boundaries of groundwater systems (e.g. unsaturated zone processes, groundwater/surface water interactions, impacts of changing geomorphology and vegetation). Improvements are needed in the integration of widely diverse information. Better techniques are needed to construct coherent conceptual frameworks from individual observations, simulated or reconstructed information, process models, and intermediate scale models. Iterating between data collection, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools is likely to provide progress in this area. Quantifying groundwater system processes by using an open-system thermodynamic approach in a common mass- and energy-flow framework will also facilitate comparison and understanding of diverse processes.

  10. Pickering Nuclear site wide groundwater monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWilde, J.; Chin-Cheong, D.; Lledo, C.; Wootton, R.; Belanger, D.; Hansen, K.


    Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) is continuing its efforts to understand the chemical and physical characteristics of the groundwater flow systems beneath the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). To this end, OPG constructed a site-wide Groundwater Monitoring System (GMS) at the PNGS to provide support to other ongoing environmental investigations and to provide a means to monitor current and future groundwater environmental issues. This paper will present the results of this work, including the development of a state-of-the-art data management system for storage and retrieval of environmental data for the site, which has applications for other power generation facilities. (author)

  11. Tidal variability of nutrients in a coastal coral reef system influenced by groundwater (United States)

    Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Shuling; Wang, Zhangyong; Jing, Wenping; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Zhouling; Tan, Ehui; Dai, Minhan


    To investigate variation in nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in a spring-neap tide in a coral reef system influenced by groundwater discharge, we carried out a time-series observation of these nutrients and 228Ra, a tracer of groundwater discharge, in the Luhuitou fringing reef at Sanya Bay in the South China Sea. The maximum 228Ra, 45.3 dpm 100 L-1, appeared at low tide and the minimum, 14.0 dpm 100 L-1, appeared during a flood tide in the spring tide. The activity of 228Ra was significantly correlated with water depth and salinity in the spring-neap tide, reflecting the tidal-pumping feature of groundwater discharge. Concentrations of all nutrients exhibited strong diurnal variation, with a maximum in the amplitude of the diel change for nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in the spring tide of 0.46, 1.54, 0.12, and 2.68 µM, respectively. Nitrate and phosphate were negatively correlated with water depth during the spring tide but showed no correlation during the neap tide. Nitrite was positively correlated with water depth in the spring and neap tide due to mixing of nitrite-depleted groundwater and nitrite-rich offshore seawater. They were also significantly correlated with salinity (R2 ≥ 0.9 and P reef system was closely related with biological processes during both tidal periods, but the biological influence appeared to be less dominant, as inferred from the less significant correlations (R2 = 0.16) during the spring tide when groundwater discharge was more prominent. Thus, the variability of nutrients in the coral reef system was regulated mainly by biological uptake and release in a spring-neap tide and impacted by mixing of tidally driven groundwater and offshore seawater during spring tide.

  12. Systemic mastocytosis - A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.L.; Hasselbalch, H.C.; Kristensen, T.K.


    of the cell has been described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice. METHODS: A search was made in PubMed in August 2011 entering the keywords: mastocytosis, (systemic...

  13. Generalized hydrogeologic framework and groundwater budget for a groundwater availability study for the glacial aquifer system of the United States (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Bayless, E. Randall; Dudley, Robert W.; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Qi, Sharon L.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.


    The glacial aquifer system groundwater availability study seeks to quantify (1) the status of groundwater resources in the glacial aquifer system, (2) how these resources have changed over time, and (3) likely system response to future changes in anthropogenic and environmental conditions. The glacial aquifer system extends from Maine to Alaska, although the focus of this report is the part of the system in the conterminous United States east of the Rocky Mountains. The glacial sand and gravel principal aquifer is the largest source of public and self-supplied industrial supply for any principal aquifer and also is an important source for irrigation supply. Despite its importance for water supply, water levels in the glacial aquifer system are generally stable varying with climate and only locally from pumping. The hydrogeologic framework developed for this study includes the information from waterwell records and classification of material types from surficial geologic maps into likely aquifers dominated by sand and gravel deposits. Generalized groundwater budgets across the study area highlight the variation in recharge and discharge primarily driven by climate.

  14. Simulating Salt Movement using a Coupled Salinity Transport Model in a Variably Saturated Agricultural Groundwater System (United States)

    Tavakoli Kivi, S.; Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T. K.


    Salinization is one of the major concerns in irrigated agricultural fields. Increasing salinity concentrations are due principally to a high water table that results from excessive irrigation, canal seepage, and a lack of efficient drainage systems, and lead to decreasing crop yield. High groundwater salinity loading to nearby river systems also impacts downstream areas, with saline river water diverted for application on irrigated fields. To assess the different strategies for salt remediation, we present a reactive transport model (UZF-RT3D) coupled with a salinity equilibrium chemistry module for simulating the fate and transport of salt ions in a variably-saturated agricultural groundwater system. The developed model accounts not for advection, dispersion, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, oxidation-reduction, sorption, complexation, ion exchange, and precipitation/dissolution of salt minerals. The model is applied to a 500 km2 region within the Lower Arkansas River Valley (LARV) in southeastern Colorado, an area acutely affected by salinization in the past few decades. The model is tested against salt ion concentrations in the saturated zone, total dissolved solid concentrations in the unsaturated zone, and salt groundwater loading to the Arkansas River. The model now can be used to investigate salinity remediation strategies.

  15. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment (United States)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann


    In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the

  16. Groundwater flow system stability in shield settings a multi-disciplinary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.R.; Goodwin, B.W.


    Within the Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program (DGRTP) several Geoscience activities are focused on advancing the understanding of groundwater flow system evolution and geochemical stability in a Shield setting as affected by long-term climate change. A key aspect is developing confidence in predictions of groundwater flow patterns and residence times as they relate to the safety of a Deep Geologic Repository for used nuclear fuel waste. A specific focus in this regard has been placed on constraining redox stability and groundwater flow system dynamics during the Pleistocene. Attempts are being made to achieve this through a coordinated multi-disciplinary approach intent on; i) demonstrating coincidence between independent geo-scientific data; ii) improving the traceability of geo-scientific data and its interpretation within a conceptual descriptive model(s); iii) improving upon methods to assess and demonstrate robustness in flow domain prediction(s) given inherent flow domain uncertainties (i.e. spatial chemical/physical property distributions; boundary conditions) in time and space; and iv) improving awareness amongst geo-scientists as to the utility various geo-scientific data in supporting a repository safety case. Coordinated by the DGRTP, elements of this program include the development of a climate driven Laurentide ice-sheet model to constrain the understanding of time rate of change in boundary conditions most affecting the groundwater flow domain and its evolution. Further work has involved supporting WRA Paleo-hydrogeologic studies in which constrained thermodynamic analyses coupled with field studies to characterize the paragenesis of fracture infill mineralogy are providing evidence to premise understandings of possible depth of penetration by oxygenated glacial recharge. In parallel. numerical simulations have been undertaken to illustrate aspect of groundwater flow system stability and evolution in a Shield setting. Such simulations

  17. Applying a System Dynamics Approach for Modeling Groundwater Dynamics to Depletion under Different Economical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Balali


    Full Text Available In the recent decades, due to many different factors, including climate change effects towards be warming and lower precipitation, as well as some structural policies such as more intensive harvesting of groundwater and low price of irrigation water, the level of groundwater has decreased in most plains of Iran. The objective of this study is to model groundwater dynamics to depletion under different economic policies and climate change by using a system dynamics approach. For this purpose a dynamic hydro-economic model which simultaneously simulates the farmer’s economic behavior, groundwater aquifer dynamics, studied area climatology factors and government economical policies related to groundwater, is developed using STELLA 10.0.6. The vulnerability of groundwater balance is forecasted under three scenarios of climate including the Dry, Nor and Wet and also, different scenarios of irrigation water and energy pricing policies. Results show that implementation of some economic policies on irrigation water and energy pricing can significantly affect on groundwater exploitation and its volume balance. By increasing of irrigation water price along with energy price, exploitation of groundwater will improve, in so far as in scenarios S15 and S16, studied area’s aquifer groundwater balance is positive at the end of planning horizon, even in Dry condition of precipitation. Also, results indicate that climate change can affect groundwater recharge. It can generally be expected that increases in precipitation would produce greater aquifer recharge rates.

  18. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond. (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar


    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  19. Modeling Groundwater Flow System of a Drainage Basin in the Basement Complex Environment of Southwestern Nigera (United States)

    Akinwumiju, Akinola S.; Olorunfemi, Martins O.


    This study attempted to model the groundwater flow system of a drainage basin within the Basement Complex environment of Southwestern Nigeria. Four groundwater models were derived from Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Data, remotely sensed data, geological information (hydrolineaments and lithology) and borehole data. Subsequently, two sub-surface (local and regional) flow systems were delineated in the study area. While the local flow system is controlled by surface topography, the regional flow system is controlled by the networks of intermediate and deep seated faults/fractures. The local flow system is characterized by convergence, divergence, inflow and outflow in places, while the regional flow system is dominated by NNE-SSW and W-E flow directions. Minor flow directions include NNW-SSE and E-W with possible linkages to the main flow-paths. The NNE-SSW regional flow system is a double open ended flow system with possible linkage to the Niger Trough. The W-E regional flow system is a single open ended system that originates within the study area (with possible linkage to the NNE-SSW regional flow system) and extends to Ikogosi in the adjoining drainage basin. Thus, the groundwater drainage basin of the study area is much larger and extensive than its surface drainage basin. The all year round flowing (perennial) rivers are linked to groundwater outcrops from faults/fractures and contact zones. Consequently, larger percentage of annual rainwater usually leaves the basin in form of runoff and base flow. Therefore, the basin is categorized as a donor basin but with suspected subsurface water input at its northeastern axis.

  20. A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater. (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Lee, Jechan; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Kwon, Eilhann E; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Ki-Hyun


    Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe VI O 4 2- ) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems. Therefore, this paper provides comprehensive information on the recent progress on the use of (Fe VI O 4 2- ) as a green material for use in sustainable treatment processes, especially for soil and water remediation. We reviewed diverse synthesis recipes for ferrates (Fe VI O 4 2- ) and their associated physicochemical properties as oxidants, coagulants, and disinfectants for the elimination of a diverse range of chemical and biological species from water/wastewater samples. A summary of the eco-sustainable performance of ferrate(VI) in water remediation is also provided and the future of ferrate(VI) is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecohydrological Investigations of a Groundwater-Lake System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mette Cristine Schou

    are very dynamic systems on a spatial scale. Variability in meteorology can lead to variability in the hydrology, and in some cases ignite transient effects that are temporally distinct and difficult to capture. •To some extend the lakes acts as sentinel for all the in and out-puts to the system as well....... On densely vegetated areas (~9000 plants m-2), the vertical hydraulic conductivity was lower compared to non-vegetated sediment. Disturbing the top layer of the sediment lead to a significant increase in hydraulic conductivity on the vegetated sediment, whereas the non-vegetated sediment was not affected...... greatly qualifies the results of ecological studies....

  2. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  3. Systems pathology: a critical review. (United States)

    Costa, Jose


    The technological advances of the last twenty years together with the dramatic increase in computational power have injected new life into systems-level thinking in Medicine. This review emphasizes the close relationship of Systems Pathology to Systems Biology and delineates the differences between Systems Pathology and Clinical Systems Pathology. It also suggests an algorithm to support the application of systems-level thinking to clinical research, proposes applying systems-level thinking to the health care systems and forecasts an acceleration of preventive medicine as a result of the coupling of personal genomics with systems pathology. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anaerobic oxidation of carbon steel in granitic groundwaters: A review of the relevant literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, N.; Blackwood, D.J.; Naish, C.C.


    This report reviews the published literature on the anaerobic oxidation of iron in aqueous solutions which are of particular relevance to Swedish granitic groundwaters. The thermodynamics of iron corrosion in water are briefly considered. Following this the experimental data found in the literature are presented and discussed. Results were found for corrosion of iron in both pure water and solutions containing mineral salts. The literature work in the nature of the films formed on iron surfaces under anaerobic conditions is reviewed and the possible mechanisms of film formation are discussed. Conclusions are drawn on the factors most likely to influence and control film growth. 32 refs

  5. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.


    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Multivariate analysis of the heterogeneous geochemical processes controlling arsenic enrichment in a shallow groundwater system. (United States)

    Huang, Shuangbing; Liu, Changrong; Wang, Yanxin; Zhan, Hongbin


    The effects of various geochemical processes on arsenic enrichment in a high-arsenic aquifer at Jianghan Plain in Central China were investigated using multivariate models developed from combined adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The results indicated that the optimum variable group for the AFNIS model consisted of bicarbonate, ammonium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, fluorescence index, pH, and siderite saturation. These data suggest that reductive dissolution of iron/manganese oxides, phosphate-competitive adsorption, pH-dependent desorption, and siderite precipitation could integrally affect arsenic concentration. Analysis of the MLR models indicated that reductive dissolution of iron(III) was primarily responsible for arsenic mobilization in groundwaters with low arsenic concentration. By contrast, for groundwaters with high arsenic concentration (i.e., > 170 μg/L), reductive dissolution of iron oxides approached a dynamic equilibrium. The desorption effects from phosphate-competitive adsorption and the increase in pH exhibited arsenic enrichment superior to that caused by iron(III) reductive dissolution as the groundwater chemistry evolved. The inhibition effect of siderite precipitation on arsenic mobilization was expected to exist in groundwater that was highly saturated with siderite. The results suggest an evolutionary dominance of specific geochemical process over other factors controlling arsenic concentration, which presented a heterogeneous distribution in aquifers. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the supplemental file.

  7. Groundwater discharge and phosphorus dynamics in a flood-pulse system: Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia (United States)

    Burnett, William C.; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Supcharoen, Ratsirin; Sioudom, Khamfeuane; Kum, Veasna; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kritsananuwat, Rawiwan


    Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia), a classic example of a "flood pulse" system, is the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia, and is reported to have one of the highest freshwater fish productions anywhere. During the dry season (November-April) the lake drains through a tributary to the Mekong River. The flow in the connecting tributary completely reverses during the wet monsoon (May-October), adding huge volumes of water back to the lake, increasing its area about six fold. The lake is likely phosphorus limited and we hypothesized that groundwater discharge, including recirculated lake water, may represent an important source of P and other nutrients. To address this question, we surveyed hundreds of kilometers of the lake for natural 222Rn (radon), temperature, conductivity, GPS coordinates and water depth. All major inorganic nutrients and phosphorus species were evaluated by systematic sampling throughout the lake. Results showed that there were radon hotspots, all at the boundaries between the permanent lake and the floodplain, indicating likely groundwater inputs. A radon mass balance model indicates that the groundwater flow to Tonle Sap Lake is approximately 10 km3/yr, about 25% as large as the floodwaters entering from the Mekong River during the wet monsoon. Our results suggest that the groundwater-derived dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) contribution to Tonle Sap is more than 30% of the average inflows from all natural sources. Since the productivity of the lake appears to be phosphorus limited, this finding suggests that the role of groundwater is significant for Tonle Sap Lake and perhaps for other flood pulse systems worldwide.

  8. Quantifying the energy required for groundwater pumping across a regional aquifer system (United States)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Shugert, D. T.


    Groundwater pumping can be a substantial source of energy expenditure, particularly in semiarid regions with large depths to water. In this study we assessed the energy required for groundwater pumping in the Denver Basin aquifer system, a group of sedimentary rock aquifers used for municipal water supply in Colorado. In recent decades, declining water levels in the Denver Basin aquifers has resulted in increased pumping lifts and higher energy use rates. We quantified the spatially variable energy intensity for groundwater pumping by analyzing spatial variations in the lift requirement. The median energy intensities for two major aquifers were 1.2 and 1.8 kWh m-3. Considering typical municipal well production rates and household water use in the study area, these results indicate that the energy cost associated with groundwater pumping can be a significant fraction (>20%) of the total electricity consumption for all household end uses. Pumping at this scale (hundreds of municipal wells producing from deep aquifers) also generates substantial greenhouse gas emissions. Analytical wellfield modeling conducted as part of this study clearly demonstrates how multiple components of the lift impact the energy requirement. Results provide guidance for water management strategies that reduce energy expenditure.

  9. Construction and calibration of a groundwater-flow model to assess groundwater availability in the uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Williston Basin, United States and Canada (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Long, Andrew J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater-flow model for the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability in the area. The assessment was done because of the potential for increased demands and stresses on groundwater associated with large-scale energy development in the area. As part of this assessment, a three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed as a tool that can be used to simulate how the groundwater-flow system responds to changes in hydrologic stresses at a regional scale.The three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s numerical finite-difference groundwater model with the Newton-Rhapson solver, MODFLOW–NWT, to represent the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems for steady-state (mean) hydrological conditions for 1981‒2005 and for transient (temporally varying) conditions using a combination of a steady-state period for pre-1960 and transient periods for 1961‒2005. The numerical model framework was constructed based on existing and interpreted hydrogeologic and geospatial data and consisted of eight layers. Two layers were used to represent the glacial aquifer system in the model; layer 1 represented the upper one-half and layer 2 represented the lower one-half of the glacial aquifer system. Three layers were used to represent the lower Tertiary aquifer system in the model; layer 3 represented the upper Fort Union aquifer, layer 4 represented the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit, and layer 5 represented the lower Fort Union aquifer. Three layers were used to represent the Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the model; layer 6 represented the upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit, layer 7 represented the lower Hell Creek aquifer, and layer 8 represented the Fox

  10. Identifying three-dimensional nested groundwater flow systems in a Tóthian basin (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Hailong; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wang, Junzhi; Ji, Xiaohui


    Nested groundwater flow systems have been revealed in Tóth's theory as the structural property of basin-scale groundwater circulation but were only well known with two-dimensional (2D) profile models. The method of searching special streamlines across stagnation points for partitioning flow systems, which has been successfully applied in the 2D models, has never been implemented for three-dimensional (3D) Tóthian basins because of the difficulty in solving the dual stream functions. Alternatively, a new method is developed to investigate 3D nested groundwater flow systems without determination of stagnation points. Connective indices are defined to quantify the connection between individual recharge and discharge zones along streamlines. Groundwater circulation cells (GWCCs) are identified according to the distribution of the connective indices and then grouped into local, intermediate and regional flow systems. This method requires existing solution of the flow velocity vector and is implemented via particle tracking technique. It is applied in a hypothetical 3D Tóthian basin with an analytical solution of the flow field and in a real-world basin with a numerical modeling approach. Different spatial patterns of flow systems compared to 2D profile models are found. The outcrops boundaries of GWCCs on water table may significantly deviate from and are not parallel to the nearby water table divides. Topological network is proposed to represent the linked recharge-discharge zones through closed and open GWCCs. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the development of GWCCs depends on the basin geometry, hydraulic parameters and water table shape.

  11. Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.; Burbey, Thomas J.


    The extraction of groundwater can generate land subsidence by causing the compaction of susceptible aquifer systems, typically unconsolidated alluvial or basin-fill aquifer systems comprising aquifers and aquitards. Various ground-based and remotely sensed methods are used to measure and map subsidence. Many areas of subsidence caused by groundwater pumping have been identified and monitored, and corrective measures to slow or halt subsidence have been devised. Two principal means are used to mitigate subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal—reduction of groundwater withdrawal, and artificial recharge. Analysis and simulation of aquifer-system compaction follow from the basic relations between head, stress, compressibility, and groundwater flow and are addressed primarily using two approaches—one based on conventional groundwater flow theory and one based on linear poroelasticity theory. Research and development to improve the assessment and analysis of aquifer-system compaction, the accompanying subsidence and potential ground ruptures are needed in the topic areas of the hydromechanical behavior of aquitards, the role of horizontal deformation, the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and the regional-scale simulation of coupled groundwater flow and aquifer-system deformation to support resource management and hazard mitigation measures.

  12. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks. (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong


    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  13. A conceptual model for the analysis of multi-stressors in linked groundwater-surface water systems. (United States)

    Kaandorp, Vince P; Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Bloomfield, John P; Kuijper, Martina J M; de Louw, Perry G B


    Groundwater and surface water are often closely coupled and are both under the influence of multiple stressors. Stressed groundwater systems may lead to a poor ecological status of surface waters but to date no conceptual framework to analyse linked multi-stressed groundwater - surface water systems has been developed. In this paper, a framework is proposed showing the effect of groundwater on surface waters in multiple stressed systems. This framework will be illustrated by applying it to four European catchments, the Odense, Denmark, the Regge and Dinkel, Netherlands, and the Thames, UK, and by assessing its utility in analysing the propagation or buffering of multi-stressors through groundwater to surface waters in these catchments. It is shown that groundwater affects surface water flow, nutrients and temperature, and can both propagate stressors towards surface waters and buffer the effect of stressors in space and time. The effect of groundwater on drivers and states depends on catchment characteristics, stressor combinations, scale and management practises. The proposed framework shows how groundwater in lowland catchments acts as a bridge between stressors and their effects within surface waters. It shows water managers how their management areas might be influenced by groundwater, and helps them to include this important, but often overlooked part of the water cycle in their basin management plans. The analysis of the study catchments also revealed a lack of data on the temperature of both groundwater and surface water, while it is an important parameter considering future climate warming. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Groundwater Energy Designer - Review of basic data and modification; Grundlagendatenueberpruefung und Anpassungen des Groundwater Energy Designer (Teilprojekt Programmoptimierung) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppei, J.; Mayer, G.; Schwarz, R.


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the extension and improvement of the Groundwater Energy Designer programme. A survey of selected existing small and medium sized ground-water heat pump systems formed the basis of the review. In this first phase of the project, a concept for measurement technologies to be used and the software changes necessary are discussed. The changes to the existing programme library to enable operation under Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Mac OSX are discussed. Also user dialogues were revised. New features and changes are presented and discussed, as are the functionality and user interface of the new version.

  15. Implications of Self-Potential Distribution for Groundwater Flow System in a Nonvolcanic Mountain Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tada-nori Goto


    Full Text Available Self-potential (SP measurements were conducted at Mt. Tsukuba, Japan, which is a nonvolcanic mountain, to infer groundwater flow system in the mountain. Survey routes were set around the northern slope, and the reliability of observed SP anomaly was checked by using SP values along parallel survey routes; the error was almost within 10 mV. The FFT analysis of the spatial SP distribution allows us a separation of raw data into two components with shorter and longer wavelength. In the shorter (altitudinal wavelength than ∼200 meters, several positive SP peaks of more than 100 mV in magnitude are present, which indicate shallow perched water discharges along the slope. In the regional SP pattern of longer wavelength, there are two major perturbations from the general trend reflecting the topographic effect. By comparing the SP and hydrological data, the perturbation around the foothill is interpreted to be caused by heterogeneous infiltration at the ground surface. The perturbation around the summit is also interpreted to be caused by heterogeneous infiltration process, based on a simplified numerical modeling of SP. As a result, the SP pattern is well explained by groundwater flow and infiltration processes. Thus, SP data is thought to be very useful for understanding of groundwater flow system on a mountain scale.

  16. A cost-effective system for in-situ geological arsenic adsorption from groundwater. (United States)

    Shan, Huimei; Ma, Teng; Wang, Yanxin; Zhao, Jie; Han, Hongyin; Deng, Yamin; He, Xin; Dong, Yihui


    An effective and low-cost in-situ geological filtration system was developed to treat arsenic-contaminated groundwater in remote rural areas. Hangjinhouqi in western Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, China, where groundwater contains a high arsenic concentration, was selected as the study area. Fe-mineral and limestone widely distributed in the study area were used as filter materials. Batch and column experiments as well as field tests were performed to determine optimal filtration parameters and to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology for arsenic removal under different hydrogeochemical conditions. A mixture containing natural Fe-mineral (hematite and goethite) and limestone at a mass ratio of 2:1 was found to be the most effective for arsenic removal. The results indicated that Fe-mineral in the mixture played a major role for arsenic removal. Meanwhile, limestone buffered groundwater pH to be conducive for the optimal arsenic removal. As(III) adsorption and oxidation by iron mineral, and the formation of Ca-As(V) precipitation with Ca contributed from limestone dissolution were likely mechanisms leading to the As removal. Field demonstrations revealed that a geological filter bed filled with the proposed mineral mixture reduced groundwater arsenic concentration from 400 μg/L to below 10 μg/L. The filtration system was continuously operated for a total volume of 365,000L, which is sufficient for drinking water supplying a rural household of 5 persons for 5 years at a rate of 40 L per person per day. © 2013.

  17. Review: Groundwater resources and related environmental issues in China (United States)

    Hao, Aibing; Zhang, Yilong; Zhang, Eryong; Li, Zhenghong; Yu, Juan; Wang, Huang; Yang, Jianfeng; Wang, Yao


    As an important component of water resources, groundwater plays a crucial role in water utilization in China and an irreplaceable role in supporting economic and social development, especially in the northern arid and semi-arid plains and basin areas, which are densely populated and relatively short of surface-water resources. This paper comprehensively reviews and discusses the regional hydrogeological conditions, the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater, the groundwater quality, and the actuality of groundwater exploitation and utilization in China. Meanwhile, aiming at the environmental problems induced by overexploitation to meet the sharply increasing water demand, this paper puts forward the major tasks for the next few years in terms of groundwater exploitation control, conservation and management.

  18. A Mamdani Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System for Improvement of Groundwater Vulnerability. (United States)

    Agoubi, Belgacem; Dabbaghi, Radhia; Kharroubi, Adel


    Assessing groundwater vulnerability is an important procedure for sustainable water management. Various methods have been developed for effective assessment of groundwater vulnerability and protection. However, each method has its own conditions of use and, in practice; it is difficult to return the same results for the same site. The research conceptualized and developed an improved DRASTIC method using Mamdani Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (M-ANFIS-DRASTIC). DRASTIC and M-ANFIS-DRASTIC were applied in the Jorf aquifer, southeastern Tunisia, and results were compared. Results confirm that M-ANFIS-DRASTIC combined with geostatistical tools is more powerful, generated more precise vulnerability classes with very low estimation variance. Fuzzy logic has a power to produce more realistic aquifer vulnerability assessments and introduces new ways of modeling in hydrogeology using natural human language expressed by logic rules. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater


    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn


    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well a...

  20. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater (United States)

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel


    Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the pre-nuclear-detonation 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) recharged to groundwater that has been corrected/adjusted for geochemical processes in the absence of radioactive decay (14C0) - a quantity that is essential for estimation of radiocarbon age of DIC in groundwater. The models/approaches most commonly used are grouped as follows: (1) single-sample-based models, (2) a statistical approach based on the observed (curved) relationship between 14C and δ13C data for the aquifer, and (3) the geochemical mass-balance approach that constructs adjustment models accounting for all the geochemical reactions known to occur along a groundwater flow path. This review discusses first the geochemical processes behind each of the single-sample-based models, followed by discussions of the statistical approach and the geochemical mass-balance approach. Finally, the applications, advantages and limitations of the three groups of models/approaches are discussed.The single-sample-based models constitute the prevailing use of 14C data in hydrogeology and hydrological studies. This is in part because the models are applied to an individual water sample to estimate the 14C age, therefore the measurement data are easily available. These models have been shown to provide realistic radiocarbon ages in many studies. However, they usually are limited to simple carbonate aquifers and selection of model may have significant effects on 14C0 often resulting in a wide range of estimates of 14C ages.Of the single-sample-based models, four are recommended for the estimation of 14C0 of DIC in groundwater: Pearson's model, (Ingerson and Pearson, 1964; Pearson and White, 1967), Han & Plummer's model (Han and Plummer, 2013), the IAEA model (Gonfiantini, 1972; Salem et al., 1980), and Oeschger's model (Geyh, 2000). These four models include all processes considered in single-sample-based models, and can be used in different ranges of

  1. Arsenic transport in groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone of a mine-influenced stream-aquifer system


    Brown, Brendan


    We investigated the transport of dissolved arsenic in groundwater, surface water and the hyporheic zone in a stream-aquifer system influenced by an abandoned arsenopyrite mine. Mine tailing piles consisting of a host of arsenic-bearing minerals including arsenopyrite and scorodite remain adjacent to the stream and represent a continuous source of arsenic. Arsenic loads from the stream, springs, and groundwater were quantified at the study reach on nine dates from January to August 2005 and ...

  2. Tidal variability of nutrients in a coastal coral reef system influenced by groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wang


    Full Text Available To investigate variation in nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in a spring–neap tide in a coral reef system influenced by groundwater discharge, we carried out a time-series observation of these nutrients and 228Ra, a tracer of groundwater discharge, in the Luhuitou fringing reef at Sanya Bay in the South China Sea. The maximum 228Ra, 45.3 dpm 100 L−1, appeared at low tide and the minimum, 14.0 dpm 100 L−1, appeared during a flood tide in the spring tide. The activity of 228Ra was significantly correlated with water depth and salinity in the spring–neap tide, reflecting the tidal-pumping feature of groundwater discharge. Concentrations of all nutrients exhibited strong diurnal variation, with a maximum in the amplitude of the diel change for nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in the spring tide of 0.46, 1.54, 0.12, and 2.68 µM, respectively. Nitrate and phosphate were negatively correlated with water depth during the spring tide but showed no correlation during the neap tide. Nitrite was positively correlated with water depth in the spring and neap tide due to mixing of nitrite-depleted groundwater and nitrite-rich offshore seawater. They were also significantly correlated with salinity (R2  ≥  0.9 and P < 0.05 at the ebb flow of the spring tide, negative for nitrate and phosphate and positive for nitrite, indicating the mixing of nitrite-depleted, nitrate- and phosphate-rich less saline groundwater and nitrite-rich, nitrate- and phosphate-depleted saline offshore seawater. We quantified variation in oxidized nitrogen (NOx and phosphate contributed by biological processes based on deviations from mixing lines of these nutrients. During both the spring and neap tide biologically contributed NOx and phosphate were significantly correlated with regression slopes of 4.60 (R2  =  0.16 in the spring tide and 13.4 (R2  =  0.75 in the neap tide, similar to the composition of these

  3. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)


    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  4. A method of groundwater quality assessment based on fuzzy network-CANFIS and geographic information system (GIS) (United States)

    Gholami, V.; Khaleghi, M. R.; Sebghati, M.


    The process of water quality testing is money/time-consuming, quite important and difficult stage for routine measurements. Therefore, use of models has become commonplace in simulating water quality. In this study, the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was used to simulate groundwater quality. Further, geographic information system (GIS) was used as the pre-processor and post-processor tool to demonstrate spatial variation of groundwater quality. All important factors were quantified and groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed. The proposed model was trained and validated by taking a case study of Mazandaran Plain located in northern part of Iran. The factors affecting groundwater quality were the input variables for the simulation, whereas GWQI index was the output. The developed model was validated to simulate groundwater quality. Network validation was performed via comparison between the estimated and actual GWQI values. In GIS, the study area was separated to raster format in the pixel dimensions of 1 km and also by incorporation of input data layers of the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model; the geo-referenced layers of the effective factors in groundwater quality were earned. Therefore, numeric values of each pixel with geographical coordinates were entered to the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model and thus simulation of groundwater quality was accessed in the study area. Finally, the simulated GWQI indices using the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model were entered into GIS, and hence groundwater quality map (raster layer) based on the results of the network simulation was earned. The study's results confirm the high efficiency of incorporation of neuro-fuzzy techniques and GIS. It is also worth noting that the general quality of the groundwater in the most studied plain is fairly low.

  5. Implications of Self-Potential Distribution for Groundwater Flow System in a Nonvolcanic Mountain Slope


    Goto, Tada-nori; Kondo, Kazuya; Ito, Rina; Esaki, Keisuke; Oouchi, Yasuo; Abe, Yutaka; Tsujimura, Maki


    Self-potential (SP) measurements were conducted at Mt. Tsukuba, Japan, which is a nonvolcanic mountain, to infer groundwater flow system in the mountain. Survey routes were set around the northern slope, and the reliability of observed SP anomaly was checked by using SP values along parallel survey routes; the error was almost within 10 mV. The FFT analysis of the spatial SP distribution allows us a separation of raw data into two components with shorter and longer wavelength. In the shorter ...

  6. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations (United States)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao


    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  7. Deliverable 4.2-2: Stressor propagation through surface-groundwater linkages and its effect on aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaandorp, Vince; de Louw, Perry; Bloomfield, John


    The good ecological status of Europe’s freshwaters is still lacking. This paper reviews the role of groundwater in these systems and demonstrates that it is an important factor to include in surface water management. Groundwater influences streamflow, water chemistry and water temperature...... and connects rivers and streams with their catchment and thus functions as a pathway for stressors to reach the surface water. A new ‘Groundwater DPS’ framework is proposed which shows how groundwater fits in the system of a stressed aquatic ecosystem. The functioning of this framework is demonstrated using...... examples from four different European lowland catchments: the Thames, Odense, Regge and Dinkel catchments. The importance of groundwater varies between scales, between catchments and within catchments. The Groundwater DPS will aid water managers in understanding the importance of groundwater...

  8. The geochemistry of Don Juan Pond: Evidence for a deep groundwater flow system in Wright Valley, Antarctica (United States)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Sletten, R. S.


    Don Juan Pond (DJP), Antarctica, is one of the most unusual surface waters on Earth because of its CaCl2-rich composition. To investigate the evolution of pond waters during closed-basin evaporation and to understand the source of brines responsible for the chemistry of DJP, we apply a newly developed low-temperature aqueous model in the Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl system to DJP. By modeling the closed-basin evaporation of DJP and comparing ionic ratios between DJP surface water, deep groundwater, shallow groundwater, and other surface chemistries in Wright Valley, we find that DJP is best explained by upwelling deep groundwater, as opposed to recent hypotheses proposing shallow groundwater sources. The early closed-basin evolution of brines in our model accurately predicts observed chemistries in DJP; however, late-stage closed-basin evaporation produces Mg-K-rich brines and salts that do not match the CaCl2-rich brine in DJP. Based on groundwater inflow rates to DJP, we estimate that even the most concentrated brines in DJP have undergone closed-basin evaporation for less than a year. To explain the observed lack of Mg2+ and K+ accumulation in DJP over time, and the surprisingly young age for the brines, we deduce that DJP is a localized upwelling from a regional groundwater flow-through system in which evaporated DJP brines are recycled back into the subsurface over yearly timescales. The existence of a regional groundwater flow system beneath DJP has implications for water and solute budgets in cold desert ecosystems, and may provide clues for the formation of groundwater and aqueous flows on Mars.

  9. A flexible hydrological warning system in Denmark for real-time surface water and groundwater simulations (United States)

    He, Xin; Stisen, Simon; Wiese, Marianne B.; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans


    In Denmark, increasing focus on extreme weather events has created considerable demand for short term forecasts and early warnings in relation to groundwater and surface water flooding. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has setup, calibrated and applied a nationwide water resources model, the DK-Model, primarily for simulating groundwater and surface water flows and groundwater levels during the past 20 years. So far, the DK-model has only been used in offline historical and future scenario simulations. Therefore, challenges arise in operating such a model for online forecasts and early warnings, which requires access to continuously updated observed climate input data and forecast data of precipitation, temperature and global radiation for the next 48 hours or longer. GEUS has a close collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute in order to test and enable this data input for the DK model. Due to the comprehensive physical descriptions of the DK-Model, the simulation results can potentially be any component of the hydrological cycle within the models domain. Therefore, it is important to identify which results need to be updated and saved in the real-time mode, since it is not computationally economical to save every result considering the heavy load of data. GEUS have worked closely with the end-users and interest groups such as water planners and emergency managers from the municipalities, water supply and waste water companies, consulting companies and farmer organizations, in order to understand their possible needs for real time simulation and monitoring of the nationwide water cycle. This participatory process has been supported by a web based questionnaire survey, and a workshop that connected the model developers and the users. For qualifying the stakeholder engagement, GEUS has selected a representative catchment area (Skjern River) for testing and demonstrating a prototype of the web based hydrological warning system at the

  10. A review of global outlook on fluoride contamination in groundwater with prominence on the Pakistan current situation. (United States)

    Rasool, Atta; Farooqi, Abida; Xiao, Tangfu; Ali, Waqar; Noor, Sifat; Abiola, Oyebamiji; Ali, Salar; Nasim, Wajid


    Several million people are exposed to fluoride (F - ) via drinking water in the world. Current review emphasized the elevated level of fluoride concentrations in the groundwater and associated potential health risk globally with a special focus on Pakistan. Millions of people are deeply dependent on groundwater from different countries of the world encompassing with an elevated level of fluoride. The latest estimates suggest that around 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, are under the dreadful fate of fluorosis. India and China, the two most populous countries of the world, are the worst affected. In Pakistan, fluoride data of 29 major cities are reviewed and 34% of the cities show fluoride levels with a mean value greater than 1.5 mg/L where Lahore, Quetta and Tehsil Mailsi are having the maximum values of 23.60, 24.48, > 5.5 mg/L, respectively. In recent years, however, other countries have minimized, even eliminated its use due to health issues. High concentration of fluoride for extended time period causes adverse effects of health such as skin lesions, discoloration, cardiovascular disorders, dental fluorosis and crippling skeletal fluorosis. This review deliberates comprehensive strategy of drinking water quality in the global scenario of fluoride contamination, especially in Pakistan with prominence on major pollutants, mitigation technologies, sources of pollution and ensuing health problems. Considering these verities, health authorities urgently need to establish alternative means of water decontamination in order to prevent associated health problems.

  11. Groundwater monitoring systems and groundwater quality in the administrative district of Detmold (North Rhine-Westphalia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabau, J.


    Two groundwater monitoring systems for areas of different dimensions in the administrative district of Detmold are introduced. Firstly, the monitoring of groundwater and untreated water by the Water Conservation and Waste Disposal Authority (Amt fuer Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft) in Minden and secondly, the monitoring of groundwater and drinking water by the Water Resources Board (Wasserschutzamt) in Bielefeld. Different approaches and methods are required for the description of groundwater quality on a regional and a local basis, respectively, i.e. for the monitoring of a whole region and the monitoring of parts of such a region. The properties of groundwater in areas of different dimensions are analysed and described by means of an extensive database and with the help of (geo)statistical methods of analysis. Existing hydrochemical data have only limited value as evidence of groundwater properties in the dimensional units ''region'' and ''small investigation area''. They often do not meet the requirements of correct mathematical statistical methods. (orig.)

  12. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries (United States)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar


    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  13. Modelling climate change effects on a dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneca S̀anchez, M.; Gunnink, J.L.; Baaren, E.S. van; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; Louw, P.G.B. de


    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being

  14. ArcNLET: A GIS-based software to simulate groundwater nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies (United States)

    Rios, J. Fernando; Ye, Ming; Wang, Liying; Lee, Paul Z.; Davis, Hal; Hicks, Rick


    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, can be a significant source of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. The adverse effects that nitrates have on human and environmental health have given rise to the need to estimate the actual or potential level of nitrate contamination. With the goal of reducing data collection and preparation costs, and decreasing the time required to produce an estimate compared to complex nitrate modeling tools, we developed the ArcGIS-based Nitrate Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET) software. Leveraging the power of geographic information systems (GIS), ArcNLET is an easy-to-use software capable of simulating nitrate transport in groundwater and estimating long-term nitrate loads from groundwater to surface water bodies. Data requirements are reduced by using simplified models of groundwater flow and nitrate transport which consider nitrate attenuation mechanisms (subsurface dispersion and denitrification) as well as spatial variability in the hydraulic parameters and septic tank distribution. ArcNLET provides a spatial distribution of nitrate plumes from multiple septic systems and a load estimate to water bodies. ArcNLET's conceptual model is divided into three sub-models: a groundwater flow model, a nitrate transport and fate model, and a load estimation model which are implemented as an extension to ArcGIS. The groundwater flow model uses a map of topography in order to generate a steady-state approximation of the water table. In a validation study, this approximation was found to correlate well with a water table produced by a calibrated numerical model although it was found that the degree to which the water table resembles the topography can vary greatly across the modeling domain. The transport model uses a semi-analytical solution to estimate the distribution of nitrate within groundwater, which is then used to estimate a nitrate load using a mass balance argument. The estimates given by ArcNLET are

  15. Nitrogen removal in shallow groundwater below three arable land systems in a high nitrogen loading region (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhou, W.


    The Taihu Lake region (TLR) is one of the most intensive agricultural regions with high nitrogen (N) loading in eastern China. Large inputs of synthetic N fertilizer have led to a series of environmental problems including eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate (NO3-) pollution of groundwater. To fully evaluate the risk of NO3- on groundwater environments, it is necessary to know the natural NO3- removal ability. In this study, denitrification capacity was assessed for two years through measuring the concentration of different N species (NO3-, NH4+, TN, excess N2 and dissolved N2O) in groundwater below three typical agricultural land-use types in the TLR. The results suggested that the conversion of paddy field (PF) to vineyard (VY) and vegetable (VF) significantly increased the groundwater NO3-N concentration, but denitrification consumed 76%, 83% and 65% of the groundwater NO3-N in VY, VF and PF, respectively. Because of the low O2 and high DOC concentrations in groundwater, denitrification activity was high in the study sites, resulting in high excess N2 accumulation in groundwater, and the concentration even exceeded the total active N in the deep layer. The large amounts of excess N2 observed in the VY and VF over all the sample times indicated that considerable N was stored as gaseous N2 in groundwater and should not be ignored in balancing N budgets in aquifers where denitrification is high. Our results also demonstrated that the indirect N2O emission factor (EF5-g) in VY (0.0052)and VF (0.0057)was significantly higher than PF (0.0011)as well as higher than the IPCC default values (0.0025. In view of the increasing trend of paddy fields being converted to uplands combined with the low GWT in the TLR, we thus concluded that the risk of NO3- contamination in groundwater and indirect N2O emission will intensify below arable land.

  16. Groundwater and climate change in Africa : review of recharge studies


    Bonsor, H.C.; MacDonald, A.M.


    The review of recharge studies was conducted as part of a one year DFID-funded research programme, aimed at improving understanding of the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and local livelihoods – see The review is one of a series of components within the project. The overall outputs of the project are: Two hydrogeological case studies in West and East Africa – which assess the storage and availability of groundwater in different aquifers a...

  17. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset was used to create graphics associated with manuscript: Garcia et al., Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a...

  18. Study of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the DRASTIC method coupled with a geographic information system (GIS): application to groundwater Beni Amir, Morocco (United States)

    Knouz, Najat; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Bachaoui, El Mostafa


    Fresh water is the condition of all life on Earth for its vital role in the survival of living beings and in the social, economic and technological development. The Groundwater, as the surface water, is increasingly threatened by agricultural and industrial pollution. In this respect, the groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution is a very valuable tool for resource protection, management of its quality and uses it in a sustainable way. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the study area, Beni Amir, located in the first irrigated perimeter of Morocco, Tadla, using the DRASTIC method (depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of Vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity), and assessing the impact of each parameter on the DRASTIC vulnerability index by a sensitivity analysis. This study also highlights the role of geographic information systems (GIS) in assessing vulnerability. The Vulnerability index is calculated as the sum of product of ratings and weights assigned to each of the parameter DRASTIC. The results revealed four vulnerability classes, 7% of the study area has a high vulnerability, 31% are moderately vulnerable, 57% have a low vulnerability and 5% are of very low vulnerability.

  19. Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.


    Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along

  20. Influence of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage on groundwater quality: A review illustrated by seven case studies from Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Possemiers


    New hydrological insights for the region: The results of the analysis of the hydrochemical data confirm that the small temperature differences (ΔT ≤ 10 at which the ATES systems are operating do not influence the concentrations of the main chemical constituents. Mixing of shallow with deeper groundwater during ATES operation, on the other hand, can alter groundwater quality. The results of this study, however, suggest that the groundwater quality changes are rather small, so that there is no immediate risk for the drinking water supply. However, the installation of ATES systems in the vicinity of public drinking water supply well fields should be handled with care, especially in phreatic aquifers.

  1. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area. Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo


    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human society associated with groundwater flow. Groundwater flow systems for many domestic areas including Tono Mine, Kamaishi Mine and Horonobe district have been studied, but deep groundwater flow circumstances, and mixing between deep groundwater and shallow groundwater flow system are not well understood. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started to investigate a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture, where the topographic and geological features are relatively simple for mathematical modeling, and hydraulic data as well as data from river and well water are available. Hydro-chemical conditions of the regional groundwater were discussed based on temperature, chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and the isotopic age of radioactive carbon for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs in the Yoro river basin. It was found that the groundwater system in this basin consists of types of water: Ca-HCO 3 type water, Na-HCO 3 type water and NaCl type water. The Ca-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated several thousand years or after, the Na-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated under cold climates several to twenty thousand years ago. The NaCl type water is fossil brine water formed twenty thousand years ago. It was also observed that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled at the surface originates from GL-200m to -400m. This observation indicates that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled through the Ca-HCO 3 type water area with the both waters partially mixed. (author)

  2. Development of a groundwater monitoring system at Horonobe Underground Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanjo, Isao; Amano, Yuki; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Murakami, Hiroaki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Morikawa, Keita; Hosoya, Shinichi


    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) develops basic investigation techniques for deep geological environment around Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Horonobe area, Japan. The observation technique of hydrochemical condition in low permeable sedimentary rock around the facility is one of R and D subjects. We report, 1) development of hydrochemical monitoring system to observe water pressure, pH, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, redox potential and temperature, 2) hydrochemical observation results around URL under construction. The applicability of the hydrochemical monitoring system is evaluated for low permeable sedimentary rock bearing abundant dissolved gases. The hydrochemical observation during facility construction demonstrates that pH and redox potential of groundwater almost did not changed even at hydraulic disturbed zone (water pressure decreased zone). A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  3. Documentation of a groundwater flow model developed to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.


    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability of the area and included an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time from stresses related to human uses and climate trends. The assessment was necessary because of the substantial dependency on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs in this area.The three-dimensional, groundwater flow model developed for this investigation used the numerical code MODFLOW–NWT to represent changes in groundwater pumping and aquifer recharge from predevelopment (before 1900) to future conditions, from 1900 to 2058. The model was constructed using existing hydrogeologic and geospatial information to represent the aquifer system geometry, boundaries, and hydraulic properties of the 19 separate regional aquifers and confining units within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system and was calibrated using an inverse modeling parameter-estimation (PEST) technique.The parameter estimation process was achieved through history matching, using observations of heads and flows for both steady-state and transient conditions. A total of 8,868 annual water-level observations from 644 wells from 1986 to 2008 were combined into 29 water-level observation groups that were chosen to focus the history matching on specific hydrogeologic units in geographic areas in which distinct geologic and hydrologic conditions were observed. In addition to absolute water-level elevations, the water-level differences between individual measurements were also included in the parameter estimation process to remove the systematic bias caused by missing hydrologic stresses prior to 1986. The total average residual of –1.7 feet was normally distributed for all head groups, indicating minimal bias. The average absolute residual value

  4. Quantifying Third-Party Impacts and Environmental Externalities from a Cap-And-Trade System for Groundwater Management (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Brown, C.


    Economic decision models, such as the cap-and-trade system, have been shown to be useful in the context of groundwater management. A uniformly applied cap-and-trade system can however result in significant spatially and temporally varying hydrogeologic impacts that reduce public welfare. Hydrological challenges associated with the cap-and-trade system for groundwater management include establishing appropriate system boundaries, setting system-wide sustainable yield and limiting third party impacts from extractions. Given these challenges, these economic models need to be supplemented with physically based hydrogeologic models that are able to represent the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in conditions across a region. This investigation assesses third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from a cap-and-trade system in a sub-basin of the Republican River Basin, overlying the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States. The economic model is coupled with a calibrated physically based groundwater model. The cap-and-trade system is developed using a multi-agent system model where individual benefits of each self-interested agent are maximized subject to bounds on irrigation requirements and water use permits. We then compare the performance of the cap-and-trade system with a smart groundwater market which, in addition to a cap on total groundwater extraction, also incorporates streamflow constraints. The results quantify third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from uncontrolled trading. This analysis demonstrates the value added by a well-designed cap-and-trade system able to account for basin-wide heterogeneity in hydrogeologic and ecological conditions by establishing trading limits, managing inter-area transfers and setting exchange rates for permit trading.

  5. Groundwater resources in Brazil: a review of possible impacts caused by climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hirata


    Full Text Available Groundwater has a strategic role in times of climate change mainly because aquifers can provide water for long periods, even during very long and severe drought. The reduction and/or changes on the precipitation pattern can diminish the recharge mainly in unconfined aquifer, causing available groundwater restriction. The expected impact of long-term climate changes on the Brazilian aquifers for 2050 will lead to a severe reduction in 70% of recharge in the Northeast region aquifers (comparing to 2010 values, varying from 30% to 70% in the North region. Data referring to the South and Southeast regions are more favorable, with an increase in the relative recharge values from 30% to 100%. Another expected impact is the increase in demand and the decrease in the surface water availability that will make the population turn to aquifers as its main source of water for public or private uses in many regions of the country. Thus, an integrated use of surface and groundwater must therefore be considered in the water use planning. The solution of water scarcity is based on three factors: society growth awareness, better knowledge on the characteristics of hydraulic and chemical aquifers and effective management actions.Águas subterrâneas têm um papel estratégico em tempos de mudanças climáticas, principalmente porque os aquíferos podem fornecer água por longos períodos, mesmo durante a seca estiagem muito longa e severa. A redução e / ou alterações no padrão de precipitação pode diminuir a recarga principalmente no aquífero freático, causando restrição de águas subterrâneas disponíveis. O impacto esperado das alterações climáticas de longo prazo sobre os aquíferos brasileiros para 2050 vai levar a uma severa redução em 70% da recarga nos aquíferos da região Nordeste (comparando aos valores de 2010, variando de 30% a 70% na região Norte. Os dados referentes às regiões Sul e Sudeste são mais favoráveis, com um aumento

  6. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn


    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system in the 4,700 square-mile study area was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The model was developed to gain a better understanding of the groundwater system and to establish a scientific foundation for resource-management decisions. Data and information were collected or obtained from various sources to develop the model. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data were used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Groundwater-quality data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water and rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map, delineate regional groundwater divides, and describe regional groundwater-flow paths.

  7. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.


    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  8. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.


    in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...... intermediate during abiotic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, with the latter formed during bacterial sulfate reduction. The formed elemental sulfur may be used by the specific microbial community found in this aquifer for the oxidation of organic contaminants such as toluene. In contrast, reoxidation...... of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate by molecular oxygen may affect sulfur cycling within the transition between the unsaturated and the saturated zones and therefore attenuate concentrations of contaminants in groundwater as well....

  9. Review: Epidemiological evidence of groundwater contribution to global enteric disease, 1948-2015 (United States)

    Murphy, Heather M.; Prioleau, Morgan D.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Hynds, Paul D.


    Globally, approximately 2.2 billion people rely on groundwater for daily consumption. It is widely accepted that groundwater is more pristine than surface water but while this assumption is frequently the case, groundwater is not ubiquitously free of contaminants; accordingly, this presumption can result in an unfounded and potentially hazardous sense of security among owners, operators and users. The current paper presents a review of published literature providing epidemiological evidence of the contribution of groundwater to global human enteric infection. An emphasis is placed on enteric pathogens transmitted via the faecal-oral route, and specifically those associated with acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). The review identified 649 published groundwater outbreaks globally between 1948 and 2013 and several epidemiological studies that show there is an increased risk of AGI associated with the consumption of untreated groundwater. The review identified that the following five pathogens were responsible for most outbreaks: norovirus, Campylobacter, Shigella, Hepatitis A and Giardia. Crudely, the authors estimate that between 35.2 and 59.4 million cases of AGI per year globally could be attributable to the consumption of groundwater. Although groundwater is frequently presumed to be a microbiologically safe source of water for consumption, this review demonstrates that consumers served by an untreated groundwater supply remain at risk to enteric disease. The authors conclude that collaboration between microbiologists, hydrogeologists and epidemiologists is needed to better understand pathogen occurrence, persistence, detection and transport in groundwater as well as build stronger epidemiological evidence documenting the true magnitude of disease associated with groundwater globally.

  10. Design and testing of a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system for predicting concentrations of agrichemicals in groundwater across the United States (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E; Voss, Frank D.


    Efforts to assess the likelihood of groundwater contamination from surface-derived compounds have spanned more than three decades. Relatively few of these assessments, however, have involved the use of process-based simulations of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface, or compared the predictions from such models with measured data—especially over regional to national scales. To address this need, a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system was constructed to use transport-and-fate simulations to predict the concentration of any surface-derived compound at a specified depth in the vadose zone anywhere in the conterminous United States. The system was then used to simulate the concentrations of selected agrichemicals in the vadose zone beneath agricultural areas in multiple locations across the conterminous United States. The simulated concentrations were compared with measured concentrations of the compounds detected in shallow groundwater (that is, groundwater drawn from within a depth of 6.3 ± 0.5 meters [mean ± 95 percent confidence interval] below the water table) in more than 1,400 locations across the United States. The results from these comparisons were used to select the simulation approaches that led to the closest agreement between the simulated and the measured concentrations.The P-GWAVA system uses computer simulations that account for a broader range of the hydrologic, physical, biological and chemical phenomena known to control the transport and fate of solutes in the subsurface than has been accounted for by any other vulnerability assessment over regional to national scales. Such phenomena include preferential transport and the influences of temperature, soil properties, and depth on the partitioning, transport, and transformation of pesticides in the subsurface. Published methods and detailed soil property data are used to estimate a wide range of model input parameters for each site, including surface

  11. H-O isotopic and chemical characteristics of a precipitation-lake water-groundwater system in a desert area (United States)

    Jin, Ke; Rao, Wenbo; Tan, Hongbing; Song, Yinxian; Yong, Bin; Zheng, Fangwen; Chen, Tangqing; Han, Liangfeng


    The recharge mechanism of groundwater in the Badain Jaran Desert, North China has been a focus of research and still disputable in the past two decades. In this study, the chemical and hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) isotopic characteristics of shallow groundwater, lake water and local precipitation in the Badain Jaran Desert and neighboring areas were investigated to reveal the relationships between various water bodies and the recharge source of shallow groundwater. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical results show that (1) shallow groundwater was associated with local precipitation in the Ayouqi and Yabulai regions, (2) lake water was mainly recharged by groundwater in the desert hinterland, (3) shallow groundwater of the desert hinterland, Yabulai Mountain and Gurinai Grassland had a common recharge source. Shallow groundwater of the desert hinterland had a mean recharge elevation of 1869 m a.s.l. on the basis of the isotope-altitude relationship and thus originated chiefly from lateral infiltration of precipitation in the Yabulai Mountain. It is further concluded that shallow groundwater flowed towards the Gurinai Grassland according to the groundwater table contour map. Along the flow pathway, the H-O isotopic variations were primarily caused by the evaporation effect but chemical variations of shallow groundwater were affected by multiple factors, e.g., evaporation effect, dilution effect of occasional heavy-precipitation and dissolution of aquifer evaporites. Our findings provide new insight into the groundwater cycle and benefit the management of the limited water resources in the arid desert area.

  12. Speciation and mobility of trace elements and uranium in a river/groundwater infiltration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von


    The infiltration and migration behaviour of dissolved species from the river Glatt, Switzerland, into a hydrologically connected shallow groundwater aquifer was investigated for more than 10 years. Seasonal cycles of the concentrations of several species were observed in the sediments of the riverbed and in the groundwater. The bacteria-mediated oxidation of organic matter and aquatic biota in the riverbed sediments governed related chemical and redox processes which led to significant changes in the composition and properties of the infiltrating water. Up to 1990, significant peaks of manganese, cadmium, uranium and other trace elements appeared each summer in the interstitial water of the sediments and in the groundwater. Recently, these peaks disappeared completely. The authors attribute these drastic changes in the water chemistry to a more efficient removal of the nutrient phosphate from surface waters

  13. Investigation by multivariate analysis of groundwater composition in a multilayer aquifer system from North Africa: A multi-tracer approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassi, Lassaad, E-mail: [Faculte des Sciences, Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Zrig, Gabes 6072 (Tunisia)


    Highlights: > We investigate the hydrodynamics and hydrochemistry of a multilayer aquifer system. > We examine the geochemical evolution, the origins and the circulation patterns of groundwater. > The mineralization is controlled by water-rock interaction and return flow process. > Groundwater derives from palaeoclimatic and modern end-members. > Mixing by upward and downward leakage occurs between these two end-members. - Abstract: A multi-tracer approach has been carried out in the Sbeitla multilayer aquifer system, central Tunisia, to investigate the geochemical evolution, the origin of groundwaters and their circulation patterns. It involves statistical data analysis coupled with the definition of the hydrochemical and isotopic features of the different groundwaters. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of geochemical data used in conjunction with bivariate diagrams of major and trace elements indicate that groundwater mineralization is mainly controlled by water-rock interaction and anthropogenic processes in relation to return flow of irrigation waters. The PCA of isotopic data and bivariate conventional diagrams of stable and radiogenic isotopes i.e. {delta}{sup 18}O vs. {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O vs. {sup 14}C provide valuable information about the origin and the circulation patterns of the different groundwater groups. They permit classifying groundwaters into three groups. The first group is characterized by low {sup 3}H concentrations, low {sup 14}C activities and depleted stable isotope contents. It corresponds to an old end-member in relation with palaeoclimatic recharge which occurred during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene humid periods. The second group is distinguished by high to moderate {sup 3}H concentrations, high {sup 14}C activities and enriched heavy isotope signatures. It corresponds to a modern end-member originating from a mixture of post-nuclear and present-day recharge in relation to return flow of irrigation waters

  14. Integration goes underground: A review of groundwater research in support of sustainable development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C


    Full Text Available and services .Aquifers store huge volumes of water and act as nature’s dams: groundwater accounts for around 95% of available, usable freshwater. This storage can be enhanced by infiltrating or pumping water into aquifers, reducing the evaporation losses...

  15. Book Review: Organizations: A Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis


    Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413.......Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413....

  16. Groundwater detection monitoring system design under conditions of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.


    Landfills represent a wide-spread and significant threat to groundwater quality. In this thesis a methodology was developed for the design of optimal groundwater moni-toring system design at landfill sites under conditions of uncertainty. First a decision analysis approach was presented for optimal

  17. River-groundwater connectivity in a karst system, Wellington, New South Wales, Australia (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mohammadreza; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Andersen, Martin S.


    The characterization of river-aquifer connectivity in karst environments is difficult due to the presence of conduits and caves. This work demonstrates how geophysical imaging combined with hydrogeological data can improve the conceptualization of surface-water and groundwater interactions in karst terrains. The objective of this study is to understand the association between the Bell River and karst-alluvial aquifer at Wellington, Australia. River and groundwater levels were continuously monitored, and electrical resistivity imaging and water quality surveys conducted. Two-dimensional resistivity imaging mapped the transition between the alluvium and karst. This is important for highlighting the proximity of the saturated alluvial sediments to the water-filled caves and conduits. In the unsaturated zone the resistivity imaging differentiated between air- and sediment-filled karst features, and in the saturated zone it mapped the location of possible water- and sediment-filled caves. Groundwater levels are dynamic and respond quickly to changes in the river stage, implying that there is a strong hydraulic connection, and that the river is losing and recharging the adjacent aquifer. Groundwater extractions (1,370 ML, megalitres, annually) from the alluvial aquifer can cause the groundwater level to fall by as much as 1.5 m in a year. However, when the Bell River flows after significant rainfall in the upper catchment, river-leakage rapidly recharges the alluvial and karst aquifers. This work demonstrates that in complex hydrogeological settings, the combined use of geophysical imaging, hydrograph analysis and geochemical measurements provide insights on the local karst hydrology and groundwater processes, which will enable better water-resource and karst management.

  18. Understanding similarity of groundwater systems with empirical copulas (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Barthel, Roland


    Within the classification framework for groundwater systems that aims for identifying similarity of hydrogeological systems and transferring information from a well-observed to an ungauged system (Haaf and Barthel, 2015; Haaf and Barthel, 2016), we propose a copula-based method for describing groundwater-systems similarity. Copulas are an emerging method in hydrological sciences that make it possible to model the dependence structure of two groundwater level time series, independently of the effects of their marginal distributions. This study is based on Samaniego et al. (2010), which described an approach calculating dissimilarity measures from bivariate empirical copula densities of streamflow time series. Subsequently, streamflow is predicted in ungauged basins by transferring properties from similar catchments. The proposed approach is innovative because copula-based similarity has not yet been applied to groundwater systems. Here we estimate the pairwise dependence structure of 600 wells in Southern Germany using 10 years of weekly groundwater level observations. Based on these empirical copulas, dissimilarity measures are estimated, such as the copula's lower- and upper corner cumulated probability, copula-based Spearman's rank correlation - as proposed by Samaniego et al. (2010). For the characterization of groundwater systems, copula-based metrics are compared with dissimilarities obtained from precipitation signals corresponding to the presumed area of influence of each groundwater well. This promising approach provides a new tool for advancing similarity-based classification of groundwater system dynamics. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2015. Methods for assessing hydrogeological similarity and for classification of groundwater systems on the regional scale, EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2016. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs EGU General Assembly

  19. Linking stream flow and groundwater to avian habitat in a desert riparian system. (United States)

    Merritt, David M; Bateman, Heather L


    Increasing human populations have resulted in aggressive water development in arid regions. This development typically results in altered stream flow regimes, reduced annual flow volumes, changes in fluvial disturbance regimes, changes in groundwater levels, and subsequent shifts in ecological patterns and processes. Balancing human demands for water with environmental requirements to maintain functioning ecosystems requires quantitative linkages between water in streams and ecosystem attributes. Streams in the Sonoran Desert provide important habitat for vertebrate species, including resident and migratory birds. Habitat structure, food, and nest-building materials, which are concentrated in riparian areas, are provided directly or indirectly by vegetation. We measured riparian vegetation, groundwater and surface water, habitat structure, and bird occurrence along Cherry Creek, a perennial tributary of the Salt River in central Arizona, USA. The purpose of this work was to develop an integrated model of groundwater-vegetation-habitat structure and bird occurrence by: (1) characterizing structural and provisioning attributes of riparian vegetation through developing a bird habitat index (BHI), (2) validating the utility of our BHI through relating it to measured bird community composition, (3) determining the riparian plant species that best explain the variability in BHI, (4) developing predictive models that link important riparian species to fluvial disturbance and groundwater availability along an arid-land stream, and (5) simulating the effects of changes in flow regime and groundwater levels and determining their consequences for riparian bird communities. Riparian forest and shrubland vegetation cover types were correctly classified in 83% of observations as a function of fluvial disturbance and depth to water table. Groundwater decline and decreased magnitude of fluvial disturbance caused significant shifts in riparian cover types from riparian forest to

  20. Review: Micro-organic contaminants in groundwater in China (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Xie, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Wen, Chuanlei; Cao, Zhipeng; Wan, Yuyu


    Micro-organic contaminants (MOs) in groundwater, which may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems worldwide, are gaining increased attention in China. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate their sources, occurrences and behavior in aquifers. This paper reviews the main sources, distribution, concentrations and behavior of a wide range of MOs in groundwater in China. These MOs include well-established persistent organic pollutants—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA)—and some contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (antibiotics, caffeine, shampoos) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The results reveal that the main MOs in groundwater are PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PBDEs, PAEs, and antibiotics. Moreover, some PFCs such as perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have only recently been observed in groundwater as emerging organic contaminants. Additionally, most MOs are distributed in populated and industrialized areas such as the southeast coast of China. Finally, industrial emissions, wastewater treatment plant effluents and agricultural wastewater are found to be dominant sources of MOs in groundwater. Based on the existing pollution levels, regulation and amelioration of MOs are warranted.

  1. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems. (United States)


    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  2. Simulating the reactive transport of nitrogen species in a regional irrigated agricultural groundwater system (United States)

    Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T. K.


    The fate and transport of nitrogen (N) species in irrigated agricultural groundwater systems is governed by irrigation patterns, cultivation practices, aquifer-surface water exchanges, and chemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction, volatilization, and sorption, as well as the presence of dissolved oxygen (O2). We present results of applying the newly-developed numerical model RT3D-AG to a 50,400-ha regional study site within the Lower Arkansas River Valley in southeastern Colorado, where elevated concentrations of NO3 have been observed in both groundwater and surface water during the recent decade. Furthermore, NO3 has a strong influence on the fate and transport of other contaminants in the aquifer system such as selenium (Se) through inhibition of reduction of dissolved Se as well as oxidation of precipitate Se from outcropped and bedrock shale. RT3D-AG, developed by appending the multi-species reactive transport finite-difference model RT3D with modular packages that account for variably-saturated transport, the cycling of carbon (C) and N, and the fate and transport of O2 within the soil and aquifer system, simulates organic C and organic N decomposition and mineralization, oxidation-reduction reactions, and sorption. System sources/sinks consist of applied fertilizer and manure; crop uptake of ammonium (NH4) and NO3 during the growing season; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 associated with irrigation water and canal seepage; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 transferred to canals and the Arkansas River from the aquifer; and dead root mass and after-harvest stover mass incorporated into the soil organic matter at the end of the growing season. Chemical reactions are simulated using first-order Monod kinetics, wherein the rate of reaction is dependent on the concentration of the reactants as well as temperature and water content of the soil. Fertilizer and manure application timing and loading, mass of seasonal crop uptake, and end-of-season root mass and stover mass are

  3. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil. (United States)

    Oliveira, Helena M B; Santos, Cledir; Paterson, R Russell M; Gusmão, Norma B; Lima, Nelson


    Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively), followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each), Curvularia (5%) and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%). Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens.

  4. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M.B. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a block water pipes; (b cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c act as pathogens or allergens and (d cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife—Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively, followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each, Curvularia (5% and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%. Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens.

  5. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan


    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  6. Groundwater System of Sundarbans (Basanti), West Bengal, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopmann, Moritz; Binning, Philip John; Bregnhøj, Henrik


    In Basanti, a rural block in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, the water availability is vital for its inhabitants. Groundwater levels are decreasing, and a proper understanding of key factors influencing the water resource is required. In the following, a social review of Basanti is given followed...... by a geologic and hydrostratigraphic analysis. The main hydrologic flows, a water balance, and the trend of salinity in the groundwater are presented. Finally, available long- and short-term drawdown data of South 24 Parganas and Basanti to determine groundwater level and annual recharge trends. The assessment...

  7. Testing of a benchscale Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport system for treating contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, K.M.; Lunsford, T.R.; Panjabi, G.


    The Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport process is a innovative means of removing radionuclides from contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site. Specifically, groundwater in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site has been contaminated with uranium, technetium, and nitrate. Investigations are proceeding to determine the most cost effective method to remove these contaminants. The process described in this paper combines three different membrane technologies (reverse osmosis, coupled transport, and nanofiltration to purify the groundwater while extracting and concentrating uranium, technetium, and nitrate into separate solutions. This separation allows for the future use of the radionuclides, if needed, and reduces the amount of waste that will need to be disposed of. This process has the potential to concentrate the contaminants into solutions with volumes in a ratio of 1/10,000 of the feed volume. This compares to traditional volume reductions of 10 to 100 for ion exchange and stand-alone reverse osmosis. The successful demonstration of this technology could result in significant savings in the overall cost of decontaminating the groundwater

  8. Systems approach to tracer data in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, R.K.


    A brief review of current mathematical methods for the analysis of tracer data in groundwater hydrology has been given. The description of the hydrological cycle as a whole or in part, by a system (compartment) or sub-system under linear and stationary conditions is discussed. Basic concepts of transit time, residence time, their distributions in time and response characteristics of a system are outlined. From the knowledge of tracer input, output and systems response function for a generalised system, reservoir capacity and storage for given period can be estimated. Use of a time series model for environmental tracer data in discreet time scale aimed at the solution of hydrological problems e.g. mean transit time and reservoir capacity is also explored. It is concluded that the combination of tracer data with systems approach can go a long way in the study of some complex hydrological problems. (author)

  9. Modeling of water transfer to aquifers: application to the determination of groundwater recharge by inversion in a complex hydrogeological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassane-Mamadou-Maina, Fadji-Zaouna


    Groundwater is the main available water resource for many countries; they are mainly replenished by water from precipitation, called groundwater recharge. Due to its great importance, management of groundwater resources is more essential than ever, and is achieved through mathematical models which offer us a better understanding of physical phenomena as well as their prediction. Hydrogeological Systems are generally complex thus characterized by a highly variable dynamic over time and space. These complexities have attracted the attention of many hydro geologists and many sophisticated models that can handle these issues and describe these Systems accurately were developed. Unfortunately, modeling groundwater recharge is still a challenge in groundwater resource management. Generally, groundwater models are used to simulate aquifers flow without a good estimation of recharge and its spatial-temporal distribution. as groundwater recharge rates show spatial-temporal variability due to climatic conditions, land use, and hydrogeological heterogeneity, these methods have limitations in dealing with these characteristics. To overcome these limitations, a coupled model which simulates flow in the unsaturated zone and recharge as well as groundwater flow was developed. The flow in the unsaturated zone is solved either with resolution of Richards equation or with empirical models while the diffusivity equation governs flow in the saturated zone. Robust numerical methods were used to solve these equations: we apply nonconforming finite element to solve the diffusivity equation and we used an accurate and efficient method for solving the Richards equation. In the natural environments, parameters that control these hydrological mechanisms aren't accurately known or even unknowns, only variations of piezometric heads are commonly available. Hence, ail parameters related to unsaturated and saturated flows will be identified by using only these piezometric data

  10. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.


    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  11. Design of groundwater pollution expert system: forward chaining and interfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop


    The groundwater pollution expert system (GWPES was developed by C Language Integrate Production System (CLEPS). The control techniques of this system consider some conclusion and then attempts to prove it by searching for supportive information from the database. The inference process goes in forward chaining of this system such as predicting groundwater pollution vulnerability, predicting the effect of nitrogen fertiliser, agricultural impact and project development on groundwater pollution potential. In GWPES, forward chaining system begins with a matching of inputs with the existing database of groundwater environment and activities impact of the project development. While, interaction between an expert system and user is conducted in simple English language. The interaction is highly interactive. A basis design with simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) to input data and by asking simple questions. (author)

  12. Considerations of a nonhomogeneous fluid in the deep groundwater flow system at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.


    This report presents such a general theory capable of describing the flow on nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media, theory that is a composite from several disciplines including groundwater hydrology, soil physics, civil engineering, petroleum reservoir engineering, mechanics, and mathematical physics. The report discussed the conceptual basis for considering the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids. From this conceptual basis emphasis shifts to providing complete definitions and then appropriately describing those definitions in mathematical terms. Throughout the report, the necessary assumptions are stated in detail because the limitations of any theory are best assessed through careful scrutiny of the assumptions. From the mathematical definitions with appropriate functional dependence the results and constraints needed are derived to provide the general theory necessary to describe the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media. Particular attention is given to comparing the general theory with the classical theory of flow for a homogeneous fluid. Such comparison provides significant insight to the effects of variable fluid properties on subsurface flow systems. The comparisons also indicate the importance of carefully formulating subsurface flow models within the more general theoretical framework describing the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media. 29 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  13. A comprehensive summary of the ORNL Groundwater Compliance and Surveillance Sampling Results Software System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffman, R.S.


    Groundwater compliance and surveillance activities are conducted at ORNL to fulfill federal and state requirements for environmental monitoring. Information management is an important aspect of this and encompasses many activities which usually have spcific time frames and schedules. In addition to fulfilling these immediate requirements, the results for the monitoring activities are also used to determine the need for environmental remediation. ORNL performs this groundwater results data management and reporting utilizing a group of SAS reg-sign applications and tools which provide the ability to track samples, capture field measurements, verify and validate result data, manage data, and report results in a variety of ways and in a timely manner. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of these applications and tools

  14. A high resolution global scale groundwater model (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc


    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  15. Multi-objective analysis of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in a multisource water supply system (United States)

    Vieira, João; da Conceição Cunha, Maria


    A multi-objective decision model has been developed to identify the Pareto-optimal set of management alternatives for the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater of a multisource urban water supply system. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, Borg MOEA, is used to solve the multi-objective decision model. The multiple solutions can be shown to stakeholders allowing them to choose their own solutions depending on their preferences. The multisource urban water supply system studied here is dependent on surface water and groundwater and located in the Algarve region, southernmost province of Portugal, with a typical warm Mediterranean climate. The rainfall is low, intermittent and concentrated in a short winter, followed by a long and dry period. A base population of 450 000 inhabitants and visits by more than 13 million tourists per year, mostly in summertime, turns water management critical and challenging. Previous studies on single objective optimization after aggregating multiple objectives together have already concluded that only an integrated and interannual water resources management perspective can be efficient for water resource allocation in this drought prone region. A simulation model of the multisource urban water supply system using mathematical functions to represent the water balance in the surface reservoirs, the groundwater flow in the aquifers, and the water transport in the distribution network with explicit representation of water quality is coupled with Borg MOEA. The multi-objective problem formulation includes five objectives. Two objective evaluate separately the water quantity and the water quality supplied for the urban use in a finite time horizon, one objective calculates the operating costs, and two objectives appraise the state of the two water sources - the storage in the surface reservoir and the piezometric levels in aquifer - at the end of the time horizon. The decision variables are the volume of withdrawals from

  16. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater. (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn


    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as caffeine and nicotine. Many are relatively small polar molecules which may not be effectively removed by drinking water treatment. Data from the UK Environment Agency's groundwater screening programme for organic pollutants found within the 30 most frequently detected compounds a number of EGCs such as pesticide metabolites, caffeine and DEET. Specific determinands frequently detected include pesticides metabolites, pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine and triclosan, nicotine, food additives and alkyl phosphates. This paper discusses the routes by which these compounds enter groundwater, their toxicity and potential risks to drinking water and the environment. It identifies challenges that need to be met to minimise risk to drinking water and ecosystems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. African financial systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Allen


    Full Text Available We start by providing an overview of financial systems in the African continent. We then consider the regions of Arab North Africa, West Africa, East and Central Africa, and Southern Africa in more detail. The paper covers, among other things, central banks, deposit-taking banks, non-bank institutions, such as the stock markets, fixed income markets, insurance markets, and microfinance institutions.

  18. Development of a three-dimensional ground-water model of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1995 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Williams, M.D.


    A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow was developed for the uppermost unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Development of the model is supported by the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is responsible for monitoring the sitewide movement of contaminants in ground water beneath the Hanford Site. Two objectives of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project are to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, and (2) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the Hanford Site through the ground-water pathway. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system are important tools for estimating future aquifer conditions and predicting the movement of contaminants through ground water. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project has supported development and maintenance of a two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer. This report describes upgrade of the two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional model. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional conceptual model that will be continually refined and updated as additional information becomes available. This report presents a description of the three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system and then discusses the cur-rent state of the three-dimensional numerical model

  19. Development and implementation of a comprehensive groundwater protection program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.


    The major goals of the groundwater protection program are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of Savannah River Plant operations, to take corrective measures as required to restore or protect groundwater quality, and to ensure that future operations do not adversely affect the quality or availability of the groundwater resources at the site. The specific elements of this program include (1) continuation of an extensive groundwater monitoring program, (2) assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality, (3) implementation of mitigative actions, as required, to restore or protect groundwater quality, (4) incorporation of groundwater protection concepts in the design of new production and waste management facilities, and (5) review of site utilization of groundwater resources to ensure compatibility with regional needs. The major focal points of the groundwater protection program are the assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality and the implementation of remedial action projects. Many locations at SRP have been used as waste disposal sites for a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Field investigations are ongoing to determine the nature and extent of any contamination in the sediments and groundwater at these waste sites on a priority basis. Remedial action has been initiated. Certain aspects of the groundwater protection program have been identified as key to the success in achieving the desired objectives. Key elements of the program have included early identification of all the potential sources for groundwater contamination, development of an overall strategy for waste site assessment and mitigation, use of a flexible computerized system for data base management, and establishing good relationships with regulatory agencies. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  20. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter


    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  1. Fluctuations in Nonlinear Systems: A Short Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubia, F.J. de la; Buceta, J.; Cabrera, J.L.; Olarrea, J.; Parrondo, J.M.R.


    We review some results that illustrate the constructive role of noise in nonlinear systems. Several phenomena are briefly discussed: optimal localization of orbits in a system with limit cycle behavior and perturbed by colored noise; stochastic branch selection at secondary bifurcations; noise- induced order/disorder transitions and pattern formation in spatially extended systems. In all cases the presence of noise is crucial, and the results reinforce the modern view of the importance of noise in the evolution of nonlinear systems. (author)

  2. A Low-Level Real-Time In Situ Monitoring System for Tritium in Groundwater and Vadose Zone (United States)

    Santo, J. T.; Levitt, D. G.


    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen produced as a by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is also an integral part of the nuclear weapons industry and has been released into the environment through both the production and testing of nuclear weapons. There are many sites across the DOE complex where tritium has been released into the subsurface through the disposal of radioactive waste and at the Nevada Test Site, through the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Numerous DOE facilities have an on-going regulatory need to be able to monitor tritium concentrations in groundwater within deep hydrologic zones and in the shallower non-saturated vadose zone beneath waste disposal pits and shafts and other release sites. Typical access to groundwater is through deep monitoring wells and situated in remote locations. In response to this need, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and its subcontractor, the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Harry Reid Center (HRC) for Environmental Studies has conducted the applied research and engineering and produced a real time, in situ monitoring system for the detection and measurement of low levels of tritium in the groundwater and in the shallower vadose zone. The monitoring system has been deployed to measure tritium in both the vadose zone near a subsurface radioactive waste package and the groundwater in a deep hydrologic reservoir at the Nevada Test Site. The monitoring system has been designed to detect tritium in the subsurface below federal and/or state regulatory limits for safe drinking water and has been successfully demonstrated. The development effort is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory and the DOE Nevada Operations Office Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI).

  3. Variations of uranium concentrations in a multi-aquifer system under the impact of surface water-groundwater interaction (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun


    Understanding uranium (U) mobility is vital to minimizing its concentrations in potential drinking water sources. In this study, we report spatial-seasonal variations in U speciation and concentrations in a multi-aquifer system under the impact of Sanggan River in Datong basin, northern China. Hydrochemical and H, O, Sr isotopic data, thermodynamic calculations, and geochemical modeling are used to investigate the mechanisms of surface water-groundwater mixing-induced mobilization and natural attenuation of U. In the study site, groundwater U concentrations are up to 30.2 μg/L, and exhibit strong spatial-seasonal variations that are related to pH and Eh values, as well as dissolved Ca2+, HCO3-, and Fe(III) concentrations. For the alkaline aquifers of this site (pH 7.02-8.44), U mobilization is due to the formation and desorption of Ca2UO2(CO3)30 and CaUO2(CO3)32- caused by groundwater Ca2+ elevation via mineral weathering and Na-Ca exchange, incorporated U(VI) release from calcite, and U(IV) oxidation by Fe(OH)3. U immobilization is linked to the adsorption of CaUO2(CO3)32- and UO2(CO3)34- shifted from Ca2UO2(CO3)30 because of HCO3- elevation and Ca2+ depletion, U(VI) co-precipitation with calcite, and U(VI) reduction by adsorbed Fe2+ and FeS. Those results are of great significance for the groundwater resource management of this and similar other surface water-groundwater interaction zones.

  4. Challenges for creating a site-specific groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010 (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.


    Hydrologic budgets to determine groundwater availability are important tools for water-resource managers. One challenging component for developing hydrologic budgets is quantifying water use through time because historical and site-specific water-use data can be sparse or poorly documented. This research developed a groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010 that related county-level aggregated water-use data to site-specific well locations and aquifer units. A simple population-based linear model, constrained to 0 million liters per day in 1900, provided the best means to extrapolate groundwater-withdrawal rates pre-1950s when there was a paucity of water-use data. To disaggregate county-level data to individual wells across a regional aquifer system, a programmatic hierarchical process was developed, based on the level of confidence that a well pumped groundwater for a specific use during a specific year. Statistical models tested on a subset of the best-available site-specific water-use data provided a mechanism to bracket historic groundwater use, such that groundwater-withdrawal rates ranged, on average, plus or minus 38% from modeled values. Groundwater withdrawn for public supply and domestic use accounted for between 48 and 74% of total groundwater use since 1901, highlighting that groundwater provides an important drinking-water resource. The compilation, analysis, and spatial and temporal extrapolation of water-use data remain a challenging task for water scientists, but is of paramount importance to better quantify groundwater use and availability.

  5. Rule base system in developing groundwater pollution expert system: predicting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop


    New techniques are now available for use in the protection of the environment. One of these techniques is the use of expert system for prediction groundwater pollution potential. Groundwater Pollution Expert system (GWPES) rules are a collection of principles and procedures used to know the comprehension of groundwater pollution prediction. The rules of groundwater pollution expert system in the form of questions, choice, radio-box, slide rule, button or frame are translated in to IF-THEN rule. The rules including of variables, types, domains and descriptions were used by the function of wxCLIPS (C Language Integrate Production System) expert system shell. (author)

  6. Review: Selenium contamination, fate, and reactive transport in groundwater in relation to human health (United States)

    Bailey, Ryan T.


    Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-nutrient for humans, but can be toxic at high levels of intake. Se deficiency and Se toxicity are linked with serious diseases, with some regions worldwide experiencing Se deficiency due to Se-poor rocks and soils and other areas dealing with Se toxicity due to the presence of Se-enriched geologic materials. In addition, Se is consumed primarily through plants that take up Se from soil and through animal products that consume these plants. Hence, the soil and groundwater system play important roles in determining the effect of Se on human health. This paper reviews current understanding of Se fate and transport in soil and groundwater systems and its relation to human health, with a focus on alluvial systems, soil systems, and the interface between alluvial systems and Cretaceous shale that release Se via oxidation processes. The review focuses first on the relation between Se and human health, followed by a summary of Se distribution in soil-aquifer systems, with an emphasis on the quantitative relationship between Se content in soil and Se concentration in underlying groundwater. The physical, chemical, and microbial processes that govern Se fate and transport in subsurface systems then are presented, followed by numerical modeling techniques used to simulate these processes in study regions and available remediation strategies for either Se-deficient or Se-toxic regions. This paper can serve as a guide to any field, laboratory or modeling study aimed at assessing Se fate and transport in groundwater systems and its relation to human health.

  7. Recent flow regime and sedimentological evolution of a fluvial system as the main factors controlling spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater (Red River, Vietnam)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Larsen, F.; Jakobsen, R.


    sediments was partially eroded during the Holocene and covered by sand and clay deposited in fluvial environments. Sedimentary processes lead to the development of two flow systems. Shallow groundwater discharges either to the local surface water bodies or, in the areas where low permeable sediments...... isolating Pleistocene and Holocene aquifers were eroded, to the deep groundwater flow system discharging to Red River. Previously reported pattern of arsenic groundwater concentrations decreasing with an increasing sediment age is modified by the observed flow regime. Connection of the younger and older...... river channels resulted in a transport of high arsenic concentrations towards the Pleistocene aquifer, where low arsenic concentrations were expected....

  8. Performance of air sparging systems -- A review of case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.H.; Brown, R.A.


    In situ air sparging is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination in Groundwater and saturated zone soil. Recently, some questions have been raised regarding the effectiveness of air sparging. To address these questions the results of 21 sparging case studies have been compiled to shed light on how well air sparging achieves permanent reduction in groundwater contaminant concentrations. The case studies included both chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and covered a wide range of soil conditions and sparge system parameters. In each case study, groundwater concentrations were compared before sparging was initiated, just before sparging was terminated, and in the months following shutdown of the sparging system

  9. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington (United States)

    Ely, D. Matthew; Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Vaccaro, John J.


    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS), Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and to evaluate groundwater availability. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-resource managers and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies and assess the long‑term availability of groundwater. The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the CPRAS was completed with support from the Groundwater Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Groundwater.

  10. A critical review of published groundwater flow models for safety of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.


    Flow models have been simulated for the potential nuclear waste sites in Precambrian bedrock of Finland in the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The work had been commissioned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy. In the present study, the published flow models are critically reviewed. The work concentrates on qualitative evaluation of the applied equivalent continuum approach applied to crystalline bedrock. Special attention is paid to the use of the geological information in connection with flow modelling. (35 refs., 6 figs.)

  11. Assessment on seasonal variation of groundwater quality of phreatic aquifers - A river basin system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.

    suspended solids (TDS), fluoride and total iron content will help to identify the quality of ground water. Groundwater contamination can often have serious ill ef- fects on human health. Groundwater with low pH values can cause gastrointestinal disorders... is considered as an important parameter for irrigation and industrial purposes. Total dissolved solids help to identify the potability of groundwater. Total iron content may not have direct effects on human health but is of importance due to aesthetic reasons...

  12. Single event time series analysis in a binary karst catchment evaluated using a groundwater model (Lurbach system, Austria). (United States)

    Mayaud, C; Wagner, T; Benischke, R; Birk, S


    The Lurbach karst system (Styria, Austria) is drained by two major springs and replenished by both autogenic recharge from the karst massif itself and a sinking stream that originates in low permeable schists (allogenic recharge). Detailed data from two events recorded during a tracer experiment in 2008 demonstrate that an overflow from one of the sub-catchments to the other is activated if the discharge of the main spring exceeds a certain threshold. Time series analysis (autocorrelation and cross-correlation) was applied to examine to what extent the various available methods support the identification of the transient inter-catchment flow observed in this binary karst system. As inter-catchment flow is found to be intermittent, the evaluation was focused on single events. In order to support the interpretation of the results from the time series analysis a simplified groundwater flow model was built using MODFLOW. The groundwater model is based on the current conceptual understanding of the karst system and represents a synthetic karst aquifer for which the same methods were applied. Using the wetting capability package of MODFLOW, the model simulated an overflow similar to what has been observed during the tracer experiment. Various intensities of allogenic recharge were employed to generate synthetic discharge data for the time series analysis. In addition, geometric and hydraulic properties of the karst system were varied in several model scenarios. This approach helps to identify effects of allogenic recharge and aquifer properties in the results from the time series analysis. Comparing the results from the time series analysis of the observed data with those of the synthetic data a good agreement was found. For instance, the cross-correlograms show similar patterns with respect to time lags and maximum cross-correlation coefficients if appropriate hydraulic parameters are assigned to the groundwater model. The comparable behaviors of the real and the

  13. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study. (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas


    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus


    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines...... exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  15. Advances in heat pump systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K.J.; Chou, S.K.; Yang, W.M.


    Heat pump systems offer economical alternatives of recovering heat from different sources for use in various industrial, commercial and residential applications. As the cost of energy continues to rise, it becomes imperative to save energy and improve overall energy efficiency. In this light, the heat pump becomes a key component in an energy recovery system with great potential for energy saving. Improving heat pump performance, reliability, and its environmental impact has been an ongoing concern. Recent progresses in heat pump systems have centred upon advanced cycle designs for both heat- and work-actuated systems, improved cycle components (including choice of working fluid), and exploiting utilisation in a wider range of applications. For the heat pump to be an economical proposition, continuous efforts need to be devoted to improving its performance and reliability while discovering novel applications. Some recent research efforts have markedly improved the energy efficiency of heat pump. For example, the incorporation of a heat-driven ejector to the heat pump has improved system efficiency by more than 20%. Additionally, the development of better compressor technology has the potential to reduce energy consumption of heat pump systems by as much as 80%. The evolution of new hybrid systems has also enabled the heat pump to perform efficiently with wider applications. For example, incorporating a desiccant to a heat pump cycle allowed better humidity and temperature controls with achievable COP as high as 6. This review paper provides an update on recent developments in heat pump systems, and is intended to be a 'one-stop' archive of known practical heat pump solutions. The paper, broadly divided into three main sections, begins with a review of the various methods of enhancing the performance of heat pumps. This is followed by a review of the major hybrid heat pump systems suitable for application with various heat sources. Lastly, the paper presents novel

  16. Emulation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes in shallow groundwater systems (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C.; Pickett, Trevor; Crosbie, Russell S.; Morgan, Leanne K.; Turnadge, Chris; Davies, Phil J.


    In shallow groundwater systems, recharge and evapotranspiration are highly sensitive to changes in the depth to water table. To effectively model these fluxes, complex functions that include soil and vegetation properties are often required. Model emulation (surrogate modelling or meta-modelling) can provide a means of incorporating detailed conceptualisation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes, while maintaining the numerical tractability and computational performance required for regional scale groundwater models and uncertainty analysis. A method for emulating recharge and evapotranspiration processes in groundwater flow models was developed, and applied to the South East region of South Australia and western Victoria, which is characterised by shallow groundwater, wetlands and coastal lakes. The soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model WAVES was used to generate relationships between net recharge (diffuse recharge minus evapotranspiration from groundwater) and depth to water table for different combinations of climate, soil and land cover types. These relationships, which mimicked previously described soil, vegetation and groundwater behaviour, were combined into a net recharge lookup table. The segmented evapotranspiration package in MODFLOW was adapted to select values of net recharge from the lookup table depending on groundwater depth, and the climate, soil and land use characteristics of each cell. The model was found to be numerically robust in steady state testing, had no major increase in run time, and would be more efficient than tightly-coupled modelling approaches. It made reasonable predictions of net recharge and groundwater head compared with remotely sensed estimates of net recharge and a standard MODFLOW comparison model. In particular, the method was better able to predict net recharge and groundwater head in areas with steep hydraulic gradients.

  17. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.


    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report

  18. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.


    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task

  19. Review: Occurrence of the pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri in groundwater (United States)

    Bright, Kelly R.; Gerba, Charles P.


    Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic free-living amoeba found worldwide in soils and warm freshwater. It is the causative agent of primary amebic meningoencephalitis, a nearly always fatal disease afflicting mainly children and young adults. Humans are exposed to the organism via swimming, bathing, or other recreational activity during which water is forcefully inhaled into the upper nasal passages. Although many studies have looked at the occurrence of N. fowleri in surface waters, limited information is available regarding its occurrence in groundwater and geothermally heated natural waters such as hot springs. This paper reviews the current literature related to the occurrence of N. fowleri in these waters and the methods employed for its detection. Case reports of potential groundwater exposures are also included. Despite increased interest in N. fowleri in recent years due to well-publicized cases linked to drinking water, many questions still remain unanswered. For instance, why the organism persists in some water sources and not in others is not well understood. The role of biofilms in groundwater wells and plumbing in individual buildings, and the potential for warming due to climate change to expand the occurrence of the organism into new regions, are still unclear. Additional research is needed to address these questions in order to better understand the ecology of N. fowleri and the conditions that result in greater risks to bathers.

  20. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna


    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  1. A review on systematic reviews of health information system studies. (United States)

    Lau, Francis; Kuziemsky, Craig; Price, Morgan; Gardner, Jesse


    The purpose of this review is to consolidate existing evidence from published systematic reviews on health information system (HIS) evaluation studies to inform HIS practice and research. Fifty reviews published during 1994-2008 were selected for meta-level synthesis. These reviews covered five areas: medication management, preventive care, health conditions, data quality, and care process/outcome. After reconciliation for duplicates, 1276 HIS studies were arrived at as the non-overlapping corpus. On the basis of a subset of 287 controlled HIS studies, there is some evidence for improved quality of care, but in varying degrees across topic areas. For instance, 31/43 (72%) controlled HIS studies had positive results using preventive care reminders, mostly through guideline adherence such as immunization and health screening. Key factors that influence HIS success included having in-house systems, developers as users, integrated decision support and benchmark practices, and addressing such contextual issues as provider knowledge and perception, incentives, and legislation/policy.

  2. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, S.


    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  3. Systemic mastocytosis--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Kristensen, Thomas Kielsgaard; Severinsen, Marianne Tang


    The mast cell lives a hidden life, but it is implicated in several physiological reactions. Its ability to react to different stimuli impacts a variety of conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, urticaria and anaphylaxis. It is not until recent decades that the evolution of the cell has bee...... described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice....

  4. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.


    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  5. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.


    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  6. Hydrogeochemical characterization of Bacolod City groundwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucgang, Raymond J.; Almoneda, Rosalina; Fernandez, Lourdes; Castaneda, Soledad S.; Gemora, Jenelyn Y.; Desengano, Daisy; Lim, Fatima


    Groundwater is constantly being recycled and replenished by rainfall. However, because of the uneven distribution of rain and the heavy use of water in certain areas, some regions are experiencing undue water shortage. Changes in land use, population growth, and economic development in the Bacolod City region, can result in an increase in water demand and the generation of additional pollution sources. To delineate the ground water recharge area for Bacolod City and at the same time, assess the vulnerability of the aquifer to pollution, water samples were collected in an attempt to relate chemical variations in ground water to the underlying differences in geology, availability and mechanism of recharge, and to define the natural versus anthropogenic influences in the groundwater system. Measurements of field data such as pH, conductivity, temperature and alkalinity were made. Several geochemical processes are recognized in the chemistry of the Bacolod aquifer system. The most important processes are: water-bedrock interaction, dissolution of connate halites , and seawater intrusion. Simple mass balance modeling shows that the feasible source of active recharge aside from direct precipitation, is infiltration from the Loygoy river. Rivers and tributaries transport water originated as precipitation falling at higher elevations. The ground water in Bacolod City is predominantly of the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type. Recharge becomes sodium dominated along its path, indicating a slow but active mechanism. The ground water near the coasts is brackish due to sea water infiltration. The possible presence of connate halites lying in the deep aquifers is also indicated. The information generated, when used in conjunction with isotopic techniques, will be important in the choice of sites for pumping stations and in the knowledge of the extent of potential pollution of ground water from streams/reservoirs. (author)

  7. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Teeple, Andrew; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn


    A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers, which include the Pecos Valley, Igneous, Dockum, Rustler, and Capitan Reef aquifers, was developed as the second phase of a groundwater availability study in the Pecos County region in west Texas. The first phase of the study was to collect and compile groundwater, surface-water, water-quality, geophysical, and geologic data in the area. The third phase of the study involves a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in order to simulate groundwater conditions based on various groundwater-withdrawal scenarios. Resource managers plan to use the results of the study to establish management strategies for the groundwater system. The hydrogeologic framework is composed of the hydrostratigraphy, structural features, and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. Well and geophysical logs were interpreted to define the top and base surfaces of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units. Elevations of the top and base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer generally decrease from the southwestern part of the study area to the northeast. The thicknesses of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units were calculated using the interpolated top and base surfaces of the hydrostratigraphic units. Some of the thinnest sections of the aquifer were in the eastern part of the study area and some of the thickest sections were in the Pecos, Monument Draw, and Belding-Coyanosa trough areas. Normal-fault zones, which formed as growth and collapse features as sediments were deposited along the margins of more resistant rocks and as overlying sediments collapsed into the voids created by the dissolution of Permian-age evaporite deposits, were delineated based on the interpretation of hydrostratigraphic cross sections. The lowest aquifer transmissivity values were measured in the eastern part of the study area; the highest transmissivity values were

  8. Integrated assessment of variable density-viscosity groundwater flow for a high temperature mono-well aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system in a geothermal reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeghici, Răzvan Mihai; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P.; Hartog, Niels; Sommer, Wijb


    The use of groundwater systems for heat storage increasingly gains interest among water managers, policy makers and researchers as a way to increase the efficiency of energy production and to allow the re-use of waste heat. Typically, mono-well storage systems are thought to require the use of

  9. Review of Electrical and Gravity Methods of Near-Surface Exploration for Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Raji


    Full Text Available The theory and practice of electrical and gravity methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration was reviewed with illustrations and data examples. With the goal of reducing cases of borehole/water-well failure attributed to the lack of the knowledge of the methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration and development, the paper reviews the basic concepts, field procedures for data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation as applied to the subject matter. Given a case study of groundwater exploration in University of Ilorin Campus, the three important techniques of electrical method of groundwater exploration are explained and illustrated using field data obtained in a previous study. Interpretation of resistivity data shows that an area measuring low resistivity (high conductivity, having thick pile of unconsolidated rock, and underlained by fracture crystalline is a ‘bright spot’ for citing borehole for groundwater abstraction in a basement complex area. Further to this, gravity method of groundwater exploration was discussed with field data from Wokbedilo community in Ethopia. Bouguer and reduced gravity anomaly results were presented as maps and contours to demonstrate how gravity data can be inverted to map groundwater aquifers and subsurface geological structures during groundwater exploration.

  10. Hydrochemistry and Isotope Hydrology for Groundwater Sustainability of the Coastal Multilayered Aquifer System (Zhanjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Zhou


    Full Text Available Groundwater sustainability has become a critical issue for Zhanjiang (China because of serious groundwater level drawdown induced by overexploitation of its coastal multilayered aquifer system. It is necessary to understand the origins, material sources, hydrochemical processes, and dynamics of the coastal groundwater in Zhanjiang to support its sustainable management. To this end, an integrated analysis of hydrochemical and isotopic data of 95 groundwater samples was conducted. Hydrochemical analysis shows that coastal groundwater is fresh; however, relatively high levels of Cl−, Mg2+, and total dissolved solid (TDS imply slight seawater mixing with coastal unconfined groundwater. Stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H values reveal the recharge sources of groundwater in the multilayered aquifer system. The unconfined groundwater originates from local modern precipitation; the confined groundwater in mainland originates from modern precipitation in northwestern mountain area, and the confined groundwater in Donghai and Leizhou is sourced from rainfall recharge during an older period with a colder climate. Ionic relations demonstrate that silicate weathering, carbonate dissolutions, and cation exchange are the primary processes controlling the groundwater chemical composition. Declining trends of groundwater level and increasing trends of TDS of the confined groundwater in islands reveal the landward extending tendency of the freshwater-seawater mixing zone.

  11. Radionuclides in groundwater flow system understanding (United States)

    Erőss, Anita; Csondor, Katalin; Horváth, Ákos; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Surbeck, Heinz


    Using radionuclides is a novel approach to characterize fluids of groundwater flow systems and understand their mixing. Particularly, in regional discharge areas, where different order flow systems convey waters with different temperature, composition and redox-state to the discharge zone. Radium and uranium are redox-sensitive parameters, which causes fractionation along groundwater flow paths. Discharging waters of regional flow systems are characterized by elevated total dissolved solid content (TDS), temperature and by reducing conditions, and therefore with negligible uranium content, whereas local flow systems have lower TDS and temperature and represent oxidizing environments, and therefore their radium content is low. Due to the short transit time, radon may appear in local systems' discharge, where its source is the soil zone. However, our studies revealed the importance of FeOOH precipitates as local radon sources throughout the adsorption of radium transported by the thermal waters of regional flow systems. These precipitates can form either by direct oxidizing of thermal waters at discharge, or by mixing of waters with different redox state. Therefore elevated radon content often occurs in regional discharge areas as well. This study compares the results of geochemical studies in three thermal karst areas in Hungary, focusing on radionuclides as natural tracers. In the Buda Thermal Karst, the waters of the distinct discharge areas are characterized by different temperature and chemical composition. In the central discharge area both lukewarm (20-35°C, 770-980 mg/l TDS) and thermal waters (40-65°C, 800-1350 mg/l TDS), in the South only thermal water discharge (33-43°C, 1450-1700 mg/l TDS) occur. Radionuclides helped to identify mixing of fluids and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members for the central discharge area. For the southern discharge zone mixing components could not be identified, which suggests different cave

  12. Groundwater systems of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mukherjee


    Full Text Available The Indian Sub-Continent is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world's land area. It encompasses some of the world's largest fluvial systems in the world (River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus Basins, which hosts some of the highest yielding aquifers in the world. The distribution of usable groundwater in the region varies considerably and the continued availability of safe water from many of these aquifers (e.g. Bengal Basin is constrained by the presence of natural contaminants. Further, the trans-boundary nature of the aquifers in the Indian Sub-Continent makes groundwater resource a potentially politically sensitive issue, particularly since this region is the largest user of groundwater resources in the world. Indeed, there is considerable concern regarding dwindling well yield and declining groundwater levels, even for the highly productive aquifers. Though irrigation already accounts for >85% of the total ground water extraction of the region, there is a mounting pressure on aquifers for food security of the region. Highly variable precipitation, hydrogeological conditions and predicted, impending climate change effects provide substantial challenges to groundwater management. The observed presence of natural groundwater contaminants together with the growing demand for irrigated food production and predicted climate change further complicate the development of strategies for using groundwater resources sustainably. We provide an introduction and overview of 11 articles, collated in this special issue, which describe the current condition of vulnerable groundwater resources across the Indian Sub-Continent.

  13. An approach to hydrogeological modeling of a large system of groundwater-fed lakes and wetlands in the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; Rowe, Clinton M.


    The feasibility of a hydrogeological modeling approach to simulate several thousand shallow groundwater-fed lakes and wetlands without explicitly considering their connection with groundwater is investigated at the regional scale ( 40,000 km2) through an application in the semi-arid Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), USA. Hydraulic heads are compared to local land-surface elevations from a digital elevation model (DEM) within a geographic information system to assess locations of lakes and wetlands. The water bodies are inferred where hydraulic heads exceed, or are above a certain depth below, the land surface. Numbers of lakes and/or wetlands are determined via image cluster analysis applied to the same 30-m grid as the DEM after interpolating both simulated and estimated heads. The regional water-table map was used for groundwater model calibration, considering MODIS-based net groundwater recharge data. Resulting values of simulated total baseflow to interior streams are within 1% of observed values. Locations, areas, and numbers of simulated lakes and wetlands are compared with Landsat 2005 survey data and with areas of lakes from a 1979-1980 Landsat survey and the National Hydrography Dataset. This simplified process-based modeling approach avoids the need for field-based morphology or water-budget data from individual lakes or wetlands, or determination of lake-groundwater exchanges, yet it reproduces observed lake-wetland characteristics at regional groundwater management scales. A better understanding of the NSH hydrogeology is attained, and the approach shows promise for use in simulations of groundwater-fed lake and wetland characteristics in other large groundwater systems.

  14. FCC riser quick separation system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li


    Full Text Available Abstract The riser reactor is the key unit in the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC process. As the FCC feedstocks become heavier, the product mixture of oil, gas and catalysts must be separated immediately at the outlet of the riser to avoid excessive coking. The quick separation system is the core equipment in the FCC unit. China University of Petroleum (Beijing has developed many kinds of separation system including the fender-stripping cyclone and circulating-stripping cyclone systems, which can increase the separation efficiency and reduce the pressure drop remarkably. For the inner riser system, a vortex quick separation system has been developed. It contains a vortex quick separator and an isolated shell. In order to reduce the separation time, a new type of separator called the short residence time separator system was developed. It can further reduce the separation time to less than 1 s. In this paper, the corresponding design principles, structure and industrial application of these different kinds of separation systems are reviewed. A system that can simultaneously realize quick oil gas separation, quick oil gas extraction and quick pre-stripping of catalysts at the end of the riser is the trend in the future.

  15. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan


    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  16. Chronic groundwater decline: A multi-decadal analysis of groundwater trends under extreme climate cycles (United States)

    Le Brocque, Andrew F.; Kath, Jarrod; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn


    Chronic groundwater decline is a concern in many of the world's major agricultural areas. However, a general lack of accurate long-term in situ measurement of groundwater depth and analysis of trends prevents understanding of the dynamics of these systems at landscape scales. This is particularly worrying in the context of future climate uncertainties. This study examines long-term groundwater responses to climate variability in a major agricultural production landscape in southern Queensland, Australia. Based on records for 381 groundwater bores, we used a modified Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and Sen's slope estimator to determine groundwater trends across a 26-year period (1989-2015) and in distinct wet and dry climatic phases. Comparison of trends between climatic phases showed groundwater level recovery during wet phases was insufficient to offset the decline in groundwater level from the previous dry phase. Across the entire 26-year sampling period, groundwater bore levels (all bores) showed an overall significant declining trend (p 0.05). Spatially, both declining and rising bores were highly clustered. We conclude that over 1989-2015 there is a significant net decline in groundwater levels driven by a smaller subset of highly responsive bores in high irrigation areas within the catchment. Despite a number of targeted policy interventions, chronic groundwater decline remains evident in the catchment. We argue that this is likely to continue and to occur more widely under potential climate change and that policy makers, groundwater users and managers need to engage in planning to ensure the sustainability of this vital resource.

  17. Why is the Groundwater Level Rising? A Case Study Using HARTT to Simulate Groundwater Level Dynamic. (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Danis, Cara; Paffard, Andrew


    Groundwater from a shallow unconfined aquifer at a site in coastal New South Wales has been causing recent water logging issues. A trend of rising groundwater level has been anecdotally observed over the last 10 years. It was not clear whether the changes in groundwater levels were solely natural variations within the groundwater system or whether human interference was driving the level up. Time series topographic images revealed significant surrounding land use changes and human modification to the environment of the groundwater catchment. A statistical model utilising HARTT (multiple linear regression hydrograph analysis method) simulated the groundwater level dynamics at five key monitoring locations and successfully showed a trend of rising groundwater level. Utilising hydrogeological input from field investigations, the model successfully simulated the rise in the water table over time to the present day levels, whilst taking into consideration rainfall and land changes. The underlying geological/land conditions were found to be just as significant as the impact of climate variation. The correlation coefficient for the monitoring bores (MB), excluding MB4, show that the groundwater level fluctuation can be explained by the climate variable (rainfall) with the lag time between the atypical rainfall and groundwater level ranging from 4 to 7 months. The low R2 value for MB4 indicates that there are factors missing in the model which are primarily related to human interference. The elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are the result of long term cumulative land use changes, instigated by humans, which have directly resulted in detrimental changes to the groundwater aquifer properties.

  18. A review of genomic data warehousing systems. (United States)

    Triplet, Thomas; Butler, Gregory


    To facilitate the integration and querying of genomics data, a number of generic data warehousing frameworks have been developed. They differ in their design and capabilities, as well as their intended audience. We provide a comprehensive and quantitative review of those genomic data warehousing frameworks in the context of large-scale systems biology. We reviewed in detail four genomic data warehouses (BioMart, BioXRT, InterMine and PathwayTools) freely available to the academic community. We quantified 20 aspects of the warehouses, covering the accuracy of their responses, their computational requirements and development efforts. Performance of the warehouses was evaluated under various hardware configurations to help laboratories optimize hardware expenses. Each aspect of the benchmark may be dynamically weighted by scientists using our online tool BenchDW ( to build custom warehouse profiles and tailor our results to their specific needs.

  19. Investigation of the mobilizability of persistent pollutants in the system groundwater/soil/plant of a former fen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.; Goertz, W.; Leisner-Saaber, J.; Rathje, M.


    For a former fen situated at the eastern border of the Lower terraces of the river Rhine in the close neighbourhood of densely populated urban districts a biotope-managementplan suggests the rewetting and restauration of typical landscape forms. High concentrations of heavy metals and low pH-values of the soil imply a potential danger especially for the groundwater. In order to solve this conflict between the aims of protecting rare biotopes and of saving groundwater-resources investigations were carried out considering all environmental compartments concerned: groundwater, surfacewater, soil and plants. The results demonstate that a step-by-step rewetting of the area is possible without a previous exchange of soil. In addition, careful groundwater control has to be carried out. (orig.) [de

  20. A strategic review of electricity systems models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.M.; O Gallachoir, B.P.; McKeogh, E.J.; Hur, J.; Baldick, R.


    Electricity systems models are software tools used to manage electricity demand and the electricity systems, to trade electricity and for generation expansion planning purposes. Various portfolios and scenarios are modelled in order to compare the effects of decision making in policy and on business development plans in electricity systems so as to best advise governments and industry on the least cost economic and environmental approach to electricity supply, while maintaining a secure supply of sufficient quality electricity. The modelling techniques developed to study vertically integrated state monopolies are now applied in liberalised markets where the issues and constraints are more complex. This paper reviews the changing role of electricity systems modelling in a strategic manner, focussing on the modelling response to key developments, the move away from monopoly towards liberalised market regimes and the increasing complexity brought about by policy targets for renewable energy and emissions. The paper provides an overview of electricity systems modelling techniques, discusses a number of key proprietary electricity systems models used in the USA and Europe and provides an information resource to the electricity analyst not currently readily available in the literature on the choice of model to investigate different aspects of the electricity system. (author)

  1. Herbicides and nitrates in groundwater of Maryland and childhood cancers: a geographic information systems approach. (United States)

    Thorpe, Nancy; Shirmohammadi, Adel


    This hypothesis-generating study explores spatial patterns of childhood cancers in Maryland and investigates their potential associations with herbicides and nitrates in groundwater. The Maryland Cancer Registry (MCR) provided data for bone and brain cancers, leukemia, and lymphoma, for ages 0-17, during the years 1992-1998. Cancer clusters and relative risks generated in the study indicate higher relative risk areas and potential clusters in several counties. Contingency table analysis indicates a potential association with several herbicides and nitrates. Cancer rates for the four types have a crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.10 (0.78-1.56) in relationship to atrazine, and an OR = 1.54 (1.14-2.07) for metolachlor. Potential association to mixtures of three compounds give an OR = 7.56 (4.16-13.73). A potential association is indicated between leukemia and nitrates, OR = 1.81 (1.35-2.42), and bone cancer with metolachlor, OR = 2.26 (0.97-5.24). These results give insight to generate a hypothesis of the potential association between exposure to these herbicides and nitrates and specific types of childhood cancer.

  2. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus


    exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  3. Transient simulation and sensitivity analysis for transport of radionuclides in a saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.H.


    Radionuclide transport by groundwater flow is an important pathway in the assessment of the environmental impact of radioactive waste disposal to the biosphere. A numerical model was developed to simulate radionuclide transport by groundwater flow and predict the radionuclide discharge rate to the biosphere. A sensitivity analysis methodology was developed to address the sensitivity of the input parameters of the radionuclide transport equation to the specified response of interest

  4. Self-contained microfluidic systems: a review. (United States)

    Boyd-Moss, Mitchell; Baratchi, Sara; Di Venere, Martina; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar


    Microfluidic systems enable rapid diagnosis, screening and monitoring of diseases and health conditions using small amounts of biological samples and reagents. Despite these remarkable features, conventional microfluidic systems rely on bulky expensive external equipment, which hinders their utility as powerful analysis tools outside of research laboratories. 'Self-contained' microfluidic systems, which contain all necessary components to facilitate a complete assay, have been developed to address this limitation. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of self-contained microfluidic systems. We categorise these systems based on their operating mechanisms into three major groups: passive, hand-powered and active. Several examples are provided to discuss the structure, capabilities and shortcomings of each group. In particular, we discuss the self-contained microfluidic systems enabled by active mechanisms, due to their unique capability for running multi-step and highly controllable diagnostic assays. Integration of self-contained microfluidic systems with the image acquisition and processing capabilities of smartphones, especially those equipped with accessory optical components, enables highly sensitive and quantitative assays, which are discussed. Finally, the future trends and possible solutions to expand the versatility of self-contained, stand-alone microfluidic platforms are outlined.

  5. Stochastic modeling of wetland-groundwater systems (United States)

    Bertassello, Leonardo Enrico; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Park, Jeryang; Jawitz, James W.; Botter, Gianluca


    Modeling and data analyses were used in this study to examine the temporal hydrological variability in geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), as influenced by hydrologic connectivity to shallow groundwater, wetland bathymetry, and subject to stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. We examined the general case of GIWs coupled to shallow groundwater through exfiltration or infiltration across wetland bottom. We also examined limiting case with the wetland stage as the local expression of the shallow groundwater. We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state probability density functions (pdfs) for wetland water storage and stage using few, scaled, physically-based parameters. In addition, we analyze the hydrologic crossing time properties of wetland stage, and the dependence of the mean hydroperiod on climatic and wetland morphologic attributes. Our analyses show that it is crucial to account for shallow groundwater connectivity to fully understand the hydrologic dynamics in wetlands. The application of the model to two different case studies in Florida, jointly with a detailed sensitivity analysis, allowed us to identify the main drivers of hydrologic dynamics in GIWs under different climate and morphologic conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  7. Microbial degradation of chloroethenes in groundwater systems (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    The chloroethenes, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are among the most common contaminants detected in groundwater systems. As recently as 1980, the consensus was that chloroethene compounds were not significantly biodegradable in groundwater. Consequently, efforts to remediate chloroethene-contaminated groundwater were limited to largely unsuccessful pump-and-treat attempts. Subsequent investigation revealed that under reducing conditions, aquifer microorganisms can reductively dechlorinate PCE and TCE to the less chlorinated daughter products dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Although recent laboratory studies conducted with halorespiring microorganisms suggest that complete reduction to ethene is possible, in the majority of groundwater systems reductive dechlorination apparently stops at DCE or VC. However, recent investigations conducted with aquifer and stream-bed sediments have demonstrated that microbial oxidation of these reduced daughter products can be significant under anaerobic redox conditions. The combination of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE under anaerobic conditions followed by anaerobic microbial oxidation of DCE and VC provides a possible microbial pathway for complete degradation of chloroethene contaminants in groundwater systems. Résumé Les chloroéthanes, tétrachloroéthane (PCE) et trichloroéthane (TCE) sont parmi les polluants les plus communs trouvés dans les aquifères. Depuis les années 1980, on considère que les chloroéthanes ne sont pas significativement biodégradables dans les aquifères. Par conséquent, les efforts pour dépolluer les nappes contaminées par des chloroéthanes se sont limités à des tentatives de pompage-traitement globalement sans succès. Des travaux ultérieurs ont montré que dans des conditions réductrices, des micro-organismes présents dans les aquifères peuvent, par réduction, dégrader les PCE et TCE en composés moins chlorés, comme le dichlor

  8. Oxygen enhancement of groundwater using an oxygen releasing compound in a funnel-and-gate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D G


    ORC is a fine white MgO[sub 2] powder treated with a patented process so that a slow, relatively steady release of oxygen occurs when the powder is in contact with water. Recent work suggests ORC could potentially be used to increase the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of ground water, thereby enhancing the biodegradation of dissolved phase contaminants such as benzene and toluene from gasoline spills. Field and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the oxygen release characteristics of ORC when mixed with filter sand and exposed to groundwater from an aquifer in Ontario. Quasi steady state oxygen release rates of 0.013-0.030 and 0.030 mg O[sub 2]/d per g of ORC were determined from the column and field tests respectively. The column tests indicated that steady state oxygen release conditions from the ORC required ca 90 d after initial contact with water, but field data indicated that oxygen release rate may continue to decrease. Falling head permeameter tests indicated that a maximum drop in hydraulic conductivity occurred within the first 48 h of exposure of ORC to water. Both laboratory and field studies indicated that ORC-contacted water increased in pH. Field studies further suggested an inverse correlation between pH increases and the ability of ORC to enhance DO concentration of ground water. The use of ORC in a funnel-and-gate scheme appears to be an effective means of increasing the DO concentration in ground water, thereby stimulating the in-situ bioremediation of many organic contaminants. 30 refs., 17 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Assemble-to-order systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atan, Z.; Ahmadi, T.; Stegehuis, C.; de Kok, A.G.; Adan, I.J.B.F.


    In this paper, we review the recent literature on assemble-to-order systems. Each assemble-to-order system consists of multiple components and end-products. The components are assembled into the end-products after information on customer demand is received but the decision on what components to

  10. A Perspective on a Management Information Systems (MIS) Program Review (United States)

    Yew, Bee K.


    This paper highlights relevant curriculum issues that were identified in a Management Information Systems (MIS) program review undertaken by a group of business faculty in a small regional university. The program review was initiated to improve job marketability of graduates and student enrollment. The review process is described as a collective…

  11. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Kroitoru, L.; Ronen, D.; Magaritz, M.


    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient (-0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient (-0.10) and a 0. 83-meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone

  12. Solar-energy drying systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Atul; Chen, C.R.; Vu Lan, Nguyen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949, Da-Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 71003 (China)


    In many countries of the world, the use of solar thermal systems in the agricultural area to conserve vegetables, fruits, coffee and other crops has shown to be practical, economical and the responsible approach environmentally. Solar heating systems to dry food and other crops can improve the quality of the product, while reducing wasted produce and traditional fuels - thus improving the quality of life, however the availability of good information is lacking in many of the countries where solar food processing systems are most needed. Solar food dryers are available in a range of size and design and are used for drying various food products. It is found that various types of driers are available to suit the needs of farmers. Therefore, selection of dryers for a particular application is largely a decision based on what is available and the types of dryers currently used widely. A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically realized designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz. passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy dryers. Some very recent developments in solar drying technology are highlighted. (author)

  13. Simulation of the regional groundwater-flow system of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Dunning, Charles P.


    A regional, two-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate the groundwater-flow system and groundwater/surface-water interactions within the Menominee Indian Reservation. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, to contribute to the fundamental understanding of the region’s hydrogeology. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the groundwater-flow system, including groundwater/surface-water interactions, and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate groundwater/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional groundwater-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate groundwater-flow patterns at multiple scales. Simulations made with the regional model reproduce groundwater levels and stream base flows representative of recent conditions (1970–2013) and illustrate groundwater-flow patterns with maps of (1) the simulated water table and groundwater-flow directions, (2) probabilistic areas contributing recharge to high-capacity pumped wells, and (3) estimation of the extent of infiltrated wastewater from treatment lagoons.

  14. Combining hydrologic and groundwater modelling to characterize a regional aquifer system within a rift setting (Gidabo River Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift) (United States)

    Birk, Steffen; Mechal, Abraham; Wagner, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra


    The development of groundwater resources within the Ethiopian Rift is complicated by the strong physiographic contrasts between the rift floor and the highland and by the manifold hydrogeological setting composed of volcanic rocks of different type and age that are intersected by numerous faults. Hydrogeochemical and isotope data from various regions within the Ethiopian Rift suggest that the aquifers within the semi-arid rift floor receive a significant contribution of groundwater flow from the humid highland. For example, the major ion composition of groundwater samples from Gidabo River Basin (3302 km²) in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift reveals a mixing trend from the highland toward the rift floor; moreover, the stable isotopes of water, deuterium and O-18, of the rift-floor samples indicate a component recharged in the highland. This work aims to assess if the hydrological and hydrogeological data available for Gidabo River Basin is consistent with these findings and to characterize the regional aquifer system within the rift setting. For this purpose, a two-step approach is employed: First, the semi-distributed hydrological model SWAT is used to obtain an estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge within the watershed; second, the numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW is employed to infer aquifer properties and groundwater flow components. The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using discharge data from three stream gauging stations within the watershed (Mechal et al., Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.09.001). The resulting recharge distribution exhibits a strong decrease from the highland, where the mean annual recharge amounts to several hundred millimetres, to the rift floor, where annual recharge largely is around 100 mm and below. Using this recharge distribution as input, a two-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model was calibrated to hydraulic

  15. A high-resolution global-scale groundwater model (United States)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.


    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying basic needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global-scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolutions. In this study we present a global-scale groundwater model (run at 6' resolution) using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The used aquifer schematization and properties are based on available global data sets of lithology and transmissivities combined with the estimated thickness of an upper, unconfined aquifer. This model is forced with outputs from the land-surface PCRaster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) model, specifically net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed that variation in saturated conductivity has the largest impact on the groundwater levels simulated. Validation with observed groundwater heads showed that groundwater heads are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R2 = 0.95). The simulated regional-scale groundwater patterns and flow paths demonstrate the relevance of lateral groundwater flow in GHMs. Inter-basin groundwater flows can be a significant part of a basin's water budget and help to sustain river baseflows, especially during droughts. Also, water availability of larger aquifer systems can be positively affected by additional recharge from inter-basin groundwater flows.

  16. Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach (United States)

    Pai, H.; Malenda, H. F.; Briggs, M. A.; Singha, K.; González-Pinzón, R.; Gooseff, M. N.; Tyler, S. W.


    The exchange of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW), including dissolved constituents and energy, represents a critical yet challenging characterization problem for hydrogeologists and stream ecologists. Here we describe the use of a suite of high spatial resolution remote sensing techniques, collected using a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), to provide novel and complementary data to analyze GW-SW exchange. sUAS provided centimeter-scale resolution topography and water surface elevations, which are often drivers of exchange along the river corridor. Additionally, sUAS-based vegetation imagery, vegetation-top elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index mapping indicated GW-SW exchange patterns that are difficult to characterize from the land surface and may not be resolved from coarser satellite-based imagery. We combined these data with estimates of sediment hydraulic conductivity to provide a direct estimate of GW "shortcutting" through meander necks, which was corroborated by temperature data at the riverbed interface.

  17. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.


    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  18. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities in South Africa. ... Hence, the Water Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project ... and available tools to achieve sustainable groundwater management reflect ...

  19. Microbes Characteristics in Groundwater Flow System in Mountainous Area (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Sakakibara, Koichi; Ogawa, Mahiro; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo


    We focus on a possibility of microbes as a tracer for groundwater flow investigation. Some previous papers showed that the total number of prokaryotes in groundwater has correlation with depth and geology (Parkes et al., 1994; Griebler et al., 2009; Kato et al., 2012). However, there are few studies investigating both microbe characteristics and groundwater flow system. Therefore, we investigated a relationship between the total number of prokaryotes and age of spring water and groundwater. Intensive field survey was conducted at four mountainous areas, namely Mt. Fuji (volcano), a headwater at Mt. Setohachi, a headwater at River Oi and a headwater at River Nagano underlain by volcanic lava at Mt. Fuji, granite at Mt. Setohachi and sedimentary rock at River Oi and River Nagano. We collected totally 40 spring water/ groundwater samples in these mountainous areas in October 2015, August, October and November 2016 and analyzed concentration of inorganic ions, the stable isotopes of oxygen - 18, deuterium, CFCs and SF6. Also, we counted prokaryotic cells under the epifluorescence microscopy after fixation and filteration. The total number of prokaryotes in the spring water/ groundwater ranged from 1.0×102 to 7.0×103cells mL-1 at the Mt. Fuji, 1.3×104 to 2.7×105cells mL-1 at Mt. Setohachi, 3.1×104cells mL-1 at River Oi and 1.8×105 to 3.2×106cells mL-1 at River Nagano. The SF6 age of the spring water/ groundwater ranged from 8 to 64 years at Mt. Fuji, 2 to 32.5 years at Mt. Setohachi, 2.5 years at River Oi and 15 to 16 years at River Nagano. The total number of prokaryotes showed a clear negative correlation with residence time of spring water/ groundwater in all regions. Especially the prokaryotes number increased in the order of 102 cells mL-1 with decreasing of residence time in approximately 10 years in the groundwater and spring water with the age less than 15 years.

  20. Aespoe Task Force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Review of Tasks 6A, 6B and 6B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, David; Black, John


    This report forms part of an independent review of the specifications, execution and results of Task 6 of the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, which is seeking to provide a bridge between site characterization and performance assessment approaches to solute transport in fractured rock. The present report is concerned solely with Tasks 6b, 6b and 6b which relate to the transport of tracers on a 5-metre scale in Feature A at the TRUE-1 site. The task objectives, specifications and individual modelling team results are summarised and reviewed, and an evaluation of the overall exercise is presented. The report concludes with assessments of what has been learnt, the implications for the Task 6 objectives, and some possible future directions

  1. A review on colloidal systems in general and in respect of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, Ulla


    Recently the possible importance of colloids in connection with nuclear waste disposal, especially in radionuclide migration has been emphasized. Several studies have been or are going to be initiated to investigate the occurrence of natural groundwater colloids and their properties as well as formation and properties of radiocolloids, especially pseudoradiocolloids. If colloids are found to be important, they also have to considered in the safety assessments of nuclear waste disposal. In order to do so, additional theory and equations have to be added to present codes and models. This study is a literature survey consisting first a general approach on colloidal systems and their properties. Then a review on natural groundwater colloids (clays and organs) is given following descriptions of several methods to study colloids. Lastly the role of colloids in nuclear waste disposal is discussed including especially some information about possible actinide colloids and some current research going on in this field. 96 refs

  2. Endocan and the respiratory system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechagia M


    Full Text Available Maria Kechagia,1,2 Ioannis Papassotiriou,2 Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis1 1Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, Larissa, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Endocan, formerly called endothelial cell-specific molecule 1, is an endothelial cell-associated proteoglycan that is preferentially expressed by renal and pulmonary endothelium. It is upregulated by proangiogenic molecules as well as by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and since it reflects endothelial activation and dysfunction, it is regarded as a novel tissue and blood-based relevant biomarker. As such, it is increasingly being researched and evaluated in a wide spectrum of healthy and disease pathophysiological processes. Here, we review the present scientific knowledge on endocan, with emphasis on the evidence that underlines its possible clinical value as a prognostic marker in several malignant, inflammatory and obstructive disorders of the respiratory system. Keywords: endocan, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, respiratory disorders

  3. Modelling of the chemical state in groundwater infiltration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysset, A.


    Groundwater is replenished by water stemming either from precipitations, lakes or rivers. The area where such an infiltration occurs is characterized by a change in the environmental conditions, such as a decrease of the flow velocity and an increase in the solid surface marking the boundary of the flow field. With these changes new chemical processes may become relevant to the transport behavior of contaminants. Since the rates of chemical processes usually are a function of the concentrations of several species, an understanding of infiltration sites may require a multicomponent approach. The present study aims at formulating a mathematical model together with its numerical solution for groundwater infiltration sites. Such a model should improve the understanding of groundwater quality changes related to infiltrating contaminants. The groundwater quality is of vital interest to men because at many places most of the drinking water originates from groundwater. In the first part of the present study two partial models are formulated: one accounting for the transport in a one-dimensional, homogeneous and saturated porous medium, the other accounting for chemical reactions. This second model is initially stated for general kinetic systems. Then, it is specified for two systems, namely for a system governed only by reactions which are fast compared to the transport processes and for a system with biologically mediated redox reactions of dissolved substrates. In the second part of the study a numerical solution to the model is developed. For this purpose, the two partial models are coupled. The coupling is either iterative as in the case of a system with fast reactions or sequential as in all other cases. The numerical solutions of simple test cases are compared to analytical solutions. In the third part the model is evaluated using observations of infiltration sites reported in the literature. (author) figs., tabs., 155 refs

  4. Numerical modeling of remediation of groundwater in a wellfield of in-situ leaching of uranium by pump-and-treat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Junwen; Shi Wenge; Yang Yong


    Based on the hydrogeological conditions at the investigated site, the coupled mathematic model about the flow and the contaminant transportation in groundwater was established. The software Visual MODflow, the most popular simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transportation, was used to study the contaminants distribution in groundwater during pumping at different pumping rates, and to determine the pumping well arrangement and optimal pumping rate, which directs the remediation of contaminated groundwater by the pump-and-treat system. (authors)

  5. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico) (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé


    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  6. Groundwater movements around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.


    Based on regional models of groundwater flow, the regional hydraulic gradient at depth is equal to the regional topographic gradient. As a result, the equipotentials are near vertical. The permeability distribution with depth influences the groundwater flow patterns. A zone of sluggish flows, the quiescent zone is developed when the permeability decreases with depth. This feature is accentuated when horizontal anisotropy, with the horizontal permeability higher then the vertical permeability, is included. The presence of an inactive zone will be a prerequesite for a satisfactory repository site. The effect of an inclined discontinuity representing a singular geological feature such as a fault plane or shear zone has been modelled. The quiescent zone does not appear to be unduly disturbed by such a feature. However, meaningful quantitative predictions related to the flows in a typical singular feature cannot be made without more specific data on their hydraulic properties. Two dimensional analysis has been made for a site specific section of a candidate repository site at Forsmark, Sweden. The lateral extent of the model was defined by major tectonic features, assumed vertical. Potential gradients and pore velocities have been computed for a range of boundary conditions and assumed material properties. The potential gradients for the model with anisotropic permeability approach the average potential gradient between the boundaries. The result of this study of the initial groundwater conditions will be used as input data for the analyses of the thermomechanical perturbations of the groundwater regime. In the long term, the groundwater flow will return to the initial conditions. The residual effects of the repository on the flow will be discussed in part 2 of this report. (author)

  7. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang


    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the influencing factors were analyzed, particularly the acknowledgment of farmers, the installation proportion of tube wells, the social benefits. Great achievements have been gained in the implementation, and the management targets have been achieved, including accurately metering overall irrigation groundwater production, assisting in the total amount control and quota management, reducing groundwater exploitation, and improving water use efficiency. However, shortcomings remain in the implementation process, such as single initial investment channels, imperfect policy system construction, a lack of retrieving and analyzing data, and the unbalanced development between areas. Countermeasures and suggestions for these problems are discussed in this article.

  8. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun


    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  9. Lithological and hydrological influences on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous carbonate-clay aquifer system (United States)

    Kauffman, S.J.; Herman, J.S.; Jones, B.F.


    The influence of clay units on ground-water composition was investigated in a heterogeneous carbonate aquifer system of Miocene age in southwest Florida, known as the Intermediate aquifer system. Regionally, the ground water is recharged inland, flows laterally and to greater depths in the aquifer systems, and is discharged vertically upward at the saltwater interface along the coast. A depth profile of water composition was obtained by sampling ground water from discrete intervals within the permeable carbonate units during coring and by squeezing pore water from a core of the less-permeable clay layers. A normative salt analysis of solute compositions in the water indicated a marine origin for both types of water and an evolutionary pathway for the clay water that involves clay diagenesis. The chemical composition of the ground water in the carbonate bedrock is significantly different from that of the pore water in the clay layers. Dissolution of clays and opaline silica results in high silica concentrations relative to water in other parts of the Intermediate aquifer system. Water enriched in chloride relative to the overlying and underlying ground water recharges the aquifer inland where the confining clay layer is absent, and it dissolves carbonate and silicate minerals and reacts with clays along its flow path, eventually reaching this coastal site and resulting in the high chloride and silica concentrations observed in the middle part of the Intermediate aquifer system. Reaction-path modeling suggests that the recharging surficial water mixes with sulfate-rich water upwelling from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and carbonate mineral dissolution and precipitation, weathering and exchange reactions, clay mineral diagenesis, clay and silica dissolution, organic carbon oxidation, and iron and sulfate reduction result in the observed water compositions.A study was conducted to clarify the influence of clay units on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous

  10. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.


    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  11. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is not being perceived as an important water resource and therefore has been given limited attention in South. Africa. This is reflected in general ... Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project to develop a Groundwater Management Framework that incorpo- rates all aspects of groundwater ...

  12. Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM) (United States)

    Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.


    The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior to 1920, most surface water flowed unimpeded from source areas in the mountains surrounding the Central Valley through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the Pacific Ocean, and groundwater largely flowed from recharge areas on the valley rim to discharge as evapotransipration in extensive marshes along the valley's axis. Rapid agricultural development led to increases in groundwater pumping from ~0.5 km3/yr in the early 1920's to 13-18 km3/yr in the 1940's to 1970's, resulting in strong vertical head gradients, significant head declines throughout the valley, and subsidence of >0.3 m over an area of 13,000 km2. Construction of numerous dams and development of an extensive surface water delivery network after 1950 altered the surface water flow regime and reduced groundwater pumping to the current ~10 km3/yr, increasing net recharge and leading to local head gradient reversals and water level recoveries. A model calibrated to the range of historical flow regimes in the Central Valley will provide robust estimations of stream-groundwater interactions for a range of projected future scenarios. C2VSIM uses the IWFM application to simulate a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process dynamically coupled with 1-D land surface, stream flow, lake and unsaturated zone processes. The groundwater flow system is represented with three layers each having 1393 elements. Land surface processes are simulated using 21 subregions corresponding to California DWR water-supply planning areas. The surface-water network is simulated using 431 stream nodes representing 72

  13. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico) (United States)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.


    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) were used to trace hydrological processes and tritium (3H) to evaluate the relative contribution of modern water in samples. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal groundwater, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3-type. It originates as recharge at "La Primavera" caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal groundwater is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na and HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed-HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural return flow. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Twenty-seven groundwater samples contain at least a small fraction of modern water. The application of a multivariate mixing model allowed the mixing proportions of hydrothermal fluids, polluted waters and cold groundwater in sampled water to be evaluated. This study will help local water authorities to identify and dimension groundwater contamination, and act accordingly. It may be broadly applicable to

  14. Groundwater impacts of foreseeable human activities on a HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.M.


    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has begun a program of Systematic Regulatory Analysis (SRA) to help ensure that all important technical issues related to the disposal of civilian, high-level nuclear wastes will be identified prior to the receipt of a license application. Large-scale groundwater withdrawals near a repository could have significant impacts on the groundwater flow system. Future large-scale withdrawals of groundwater could occur to support irrigation to growing population centers, such as Las Vegas. Various scenarios of groundwater withdrawals, along with other scenarios of future human activity, will need to be tested before evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site is complete

  15. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.


    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  16. Mobility of major and trace elements in a coupled groundwater-surface water system: Merced River, CA (United States)

    Wildman, R. A.; Domagalski, J. L.; Hering, J. G.


    Trace element transport in coupled surface water/groundwater systems is controlled not only by advective flow, but also by redox reactions that affect the partitioning of various elements between mobile and immobile phases. These processes have been examined in the context of a field project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The Merced River flows out of Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada foothills and into California's Central Valley, where it joins the San Joaquin River. Our field site is approximately twenty river kilometers from the confluence with the San Joaquin River. This deep alluvial plain has minimal topography. Agricultural development characterizes the land surrounding this reach of river; consequently, the hydrology is heavily influenced by irrigation. Riverbed groundwater samples were collected from ten wells aligned in two transects across the river located approximately 100 m apart. The wells were sampled from depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, and 3 m below the sediment-water interface. Groundwater flowpath samples were taken from wells positioned on a path perpendicular to the river and located 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m from the river. The saturated groundwater system exists from 7 to 40 m below the surface and is confined below by a clay layer. Each well location samples from 3-5 depths in this surface aquifer. Samples were collected in December 2003, March-April, June-July, and October 2004. This served to provide an evenly-spaced sampling frequency over the course of a year, and also to allow observation of trends coinciding with the onset of winter, the spring runoff, and early and late summer irrigation. An initial survey of the elements in the riverbed samples was conducted using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements for further study were selected based on variability in this survey, either with respect to depth or location, as well as to

  17. Knowledge base to develop expert system prototype for predicting groundwater pollution from nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta-oun, M.; Daud, M.; Bardaie, M.Z.; Jusop, S.


    An expert system for prediction the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution potential was established by using CLIPS (NASA's Jonson Space Centre). The knowledge base could be extracted from FAO reports, ministry of agriculture and rural development Malaysia report, established literature and domain expert for preparing an expert system skeleton. An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia and to identify potential groundwater quality problems. An n-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index produced b using the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution yields a more accurate screening toll for identifying potential pollution problems than by considering vulnerability alone. An expert system can predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and existing environments. (authors)

  18. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater (United States)

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto


    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D

  19. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems


    Xiaowei Wang; Jingli Shao; Frank van Steenbergen; Qiulan Zhang


    To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS) is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the inf...

  20. Understanding socio-groundwater systems: framework, toolbox, and stakeholders’ efforts for analysis and monitoring groundwater resources


    López Maldonado, Yolanda Cristina


    Groundwater, the predominant accessible reservoir of freshwater storage on Earth, plays an important role as a human-natural life sustaining resource. In recent decades there has been an increasing concern that human activities are placing too much pressure on the resource, affecting the health of the ecosystem. However, because groundwater it is out of sight, its monitoring on both global and local scales is challenging. In the field of groundwater monitoring, modelling tools have been devel...

  1. Linking Groundwater Use and Stress to Specific Crops Using the Groundwater Footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains Aquifer Systems, U.S. (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Esnault, L.; Gleeson, T.; Heinke, J.; Gerten, D.; Flanary, E.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, L. P.


    A number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly-developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

  2. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review. (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda


    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  3. Distributed parallel computing in stochastic modeling of groundwater systems. (United States)

    Dong, Yanhui; Li, Guomin; Xu, Haizhen


    Stochastic modeling is a rapidly evolving, popular approach to the study of the uncertainty and heterogeneity of groundwater systems. However, the use of Monte Carlo-type simulations to solve practical groundwater problems often encounters computational bottlenecks that hinder the acquisition of meaningful results. To improve the computational efficiency, a system that combines stochastic model generation with MODFLOW-related programs and distributed parallel processing is investigated. The distributed computing framework, called the Java Parallel Processing Framework, is integrated into the system to allow the batch processing of stochastic models in distributed and parallel systems. As an example, the system is applied to the stochastic delineation of well capture zones in the Pinggu Basin in Beijing. Through the use of 50 processing threads on a cluster with 10 multicore nodes, the execution times of 500 realizations are reduced to 3% compared with those of a serial execution. Through this application, the system demonstrates its potential in solving difficult computational problems in practical stochastic modeling. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater (United States)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong


    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

  5. Groundwater Sustainability through a Novel Dewatering Technology (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Holzbecher, E.; Ebneth, S.


    Groundwater plays a key role in the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem balances. Over the past decades, groundwater is intensively extracted in order to keep construction or mining sites dry. For the latter purpose the pumped water is usually discharged into a nearby surface water body or injected into an aquifer distant from the abstraction sites. As a result, aquifers are depleted and the local eco-system is disrupted as a consequence of falling groundwater tables. Given ongoing pressure on aquifer from abstraction sites, it is vital to bring up adequate attention on groundwater conservation. We demonstrate a novel technique, Düsensauginfiltration (DSI, translated as 'nozzel-suction-infiltration'), which avoids water conveyance but still lowers the groundwater table locally. The method combines abstraction of groundwater at the upper part of the aquifer with injection in the same borehole, but at a greater depth. Hence no water is withdrawn from the system. The method is already used practically in Germany, Netherlands, and China, however, it is not yet fully scientifically understood and evaluated. Currently, two tests sites in Germany, for single and multi well respectively, are selected, at which the DSI technology is currently examined. The project is cooperated with a leading dewatering company (Hoelscher Wasserbau GmbH) and funded by Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). To provide the basic principle of the method, we present numerical models solving the differential equation, which is derived from Darcy's Law and mass conservation, describing groundwater flow. We set up stationary numerical models in 2D (vertical cross section for single well case) and 3D (multi well case and/or when ambient groundwater flow is considered) using COMSOL Multiphysics. Since our model region only involves the saturated part of the unconfined aquifer, the numerical model solves a free boundary problem using hydraulic pressure as unknown variable. Two physical modes are included

  6. Use of a three-dimensional model for the analysis of the ground-water flow system in Parker Valley, Arizona and California (United States)

    Tucci, Patrick


    A three-dimensional, finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow conditions in Parker Valley. The study evaluated present knowledge and concepts of the ground-water system and the ability of the model to represent the system. Modeling assumptions and generalized physical parameters that were used may have transfer value in the construction and calibration of models of other basins along the lower Colorado River. The aquifer was simulated in two layers to represent the three-dimensional system. Ground-water conditions were simulated for 1940-41, the mid-1960's, and 1980. Overall model results generally compared favorably with available field information. The model results showed that for 1940-41 the Colorado River was a losing stream through out Parker Valley. Infiltration of surface water from the river was the major source of recharge. The dominant mechanism of discharge was evapotranspiration by phreatophytes. Agricultural development between 1941 and the mid-1960 's resulted in significant changes to the ground-water system. Model results for conditions in the mid-1960 's showed that the Colorado River had become a gaining stream in the northern part of the valley as a result of higher water levels. The rise in water levels was caused by infiltration of applied irrigation water. Diminished water-level gradients from the river in the rest of the valley reduced the amount of infiltration of surface water from the river. Models results for conditions in 1980 showed that ground-water level rises of several feet caused further reduction in the amount of surface-water infiltration from the river. (USGS)

  7. A synthesis of hydrochemistry with an integrated conceptual model for groundwater in the Hexi Corridor, northwestern China (United States)

    Wang, Liheng; Dong, Yanhui; Xu, Zhifang


    Although many studies have investigated the recharge and evolution of groundwater in the Hexi Corridor, northwestern (NW) China, they describe individual sites such as Jinchang, Jiuquan, Dunhuang, and others. Considering the similarity of these sites, a systematic review of the entire Hexi Corridor is lacking. This paper compares and summarizes previous studies in the Hexi Corridor to provide a regional perspective of the isotopic characteristics and hydrochemical composition of groundwater. In unconfined aquifers, groundwater is recharged by snow and ice melt water from the Qilian Mountains; local precipitation can be neglected. Therefore, the groundwater belongs to a unique hydrological cycle model in the Hexi Corridor, referred to as snow and ice melt water-groundwater system. The dominant anion species changes from HCO3- in front of the mountains to SO42- in the middle basin and Cl- at the basin boundary along the groundwater flow direction, and TDS increases gradually owing to evaporation. A major hydrogeochemical process is the dissolution of minerals from the aquifer in the recharge area changing to cation exchange reactions in the discharge area. Confined groundwater was recharged mainly in the late Pleistocene and middle Holocene at colder temperatures than those of modern times; thus, it is non-renewable. In addition to dissolution, the hydrochemical composition of confined groundwater is also affected by cation exchange reactions. The hydrogeochemical categories of the confined groundwater are simple and stable. In the present study, a conceptual model is established on the basis of the analyses presented, which has important implications for water resource management in the Hexi Corridor. The inter-basin water allocation program should continue in order to achieve optimal utilization of water resources, but groundwater exploitation should be limited as much as possible. Additionally, on the basis of the review and integration of previous research, the

  8. Effectiveness of household reverse-osmosis systems in a Western U.S. region with high arsenic in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Mark; Seiler, Ralph L.; Meinert, Michael


    It is well known to the public in Lahontan Valley in rural Nevada, USA, that local aquifers produce water with varied, but sometimes very high concentrations of arsenic (> 4 ppm). As a result, many residents of the area have installed household reverse-osmosis (RO) systems to produce drinking water. We examined performance of RO systems and factors associated with arsenic removal efficiency in 59 households in Lahontan Valley. The sampling results indicated that RO systems removed an average of 80.2% of arsenic from well water. In 18 of the 59 households, arsenic concentrations exceeded 10 ppb in treated water, with a maximum in treated water of 180 ppb. In 3 of the 59 households, RO treatment had little effect on specific conductance, indicating that the RO system was not working properly. Two main factors lead to arsenic levels in treated water exceeding drinking-water standards in the study area. First, arsenic concentrations were high enough in some Lahontan Valley wells that arsenic levels exceeded 10 ppb even though RO treatment removed more than 95% of the arsenic. Second, trivalent As +3 was the dominant arsenic species in approximately 15% of the wells, which significantly reduced treatment efficiency. Measurements of specific conductance indicated that efficiency in reducing arsenic levels did not always correlate with reductions in total dissolved solids. As a consequence, improvements in taste of the water or simple measurements of specific conductance made by technicians to test RO systems can mislead the public into assuming the water meets safety standards. Actual measurements of treated water are necessary to assure that household RO systems are reducing arsenic concentrations to safe levels, particularly in areas where groundwater has high arsenic concentrations or where As +3 is the dominant species

  9. The relationship of the Yucca Mountain repository block to the regional ground-water system: A geochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, N.A.; Hess, J.W.


    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being studied by the Department of Energy and the State of Nevada as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geochemical and isotopic modeling were used in this study to define the relationship of the volcanic tuff aquifers and aquitards to the underlying regional carbonate ground-water system. The chemical evolution of a ground water as it passes through a hypothetical tuffaceous aquifer was developed using computer models PHREEQE, WATEQDR and BALANCE. The tuffaceous system was divided into five parts, with specific mineralogies, reaction steps and temperatures. The initial solution was an analysis of a soil water from Rainier Mesa. The ending solution in each part became the initial solution in the next part. Minerals consisted of zeolites, smectites, authigenic feldspars and quartz polymorphs from described diagentic mineral zones. Reaction steps were ion exchange with zeolites. The solution from the final zone, Part V, was chosen as most representative, in terms of pH, element molalities and mineral solubilities, of tuffaceous water. This hypothetical volcanic water from Part V was mixed with water from the regional carbonate aquifer, and the results compared to analyses of Yucca Mountain wells. Mixing and modeling attempts were conducted on wells in which studies indicated upward flow

  10. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley


    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  11. Groundwater flow system in the fractured rock near a storage cavern at Yeosu area(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon


    - Upper part underground water cause hydraulic characteristics and distribution depth - Water pressure distributions underground a main insulation cause and a hydraulic characteristic - I cultivate underground water, and it is distribution reverse a district and an outlet - Natural contain ratio of underground water As the above-mentioned data difficult for being derived in basic investigation processes limited, I build an underground cavity, but can evaluate an underground water system characteristic more correct by the data interpretation that minuteness observes an underground water system change Ui is long term, and I regard by hydraulic tests field of actual scale, and to be happened during construction, and was derived

  12. First step to understand the importance of new deep aquifer pumping regime in groundwater system in a developing country, Kwale, Kenya. (United States)

    Ferrer, Nuria; Folch, Albert; Lane, Mike; Thomas, Mike; Sasaka, Willie; Wara, Calvince; Banje, Said; Olago, Dan; Katuva, Jacob; Thomson, Patrick; Hope, Rob


    The population growth in the world carries on the one hand, an increased demand of fresh water and on the other hand, a decrease of quality and quantity of this resource. To avoid this deterioration it is essential doing a good management of surface water and groundwater, specially the second one, which has become the major source of water supply for domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries (UNEP 1999). This groundwater management starts with an accurate hydrogeological characterization of aquifer systems, mainly in that aquifer systems in which is changing the abstraction regime. In this context of population growth and new abstraction regimes on aquifer system is where the project "Gro for Good: Groundwater Risk for Growth and Development" is founded by UPGro. This interdisciplinary project has the main goal to design, test and transfer to the society an innovative Groundwater Risk Management Tool to improve and get by new governance transformations the balance between economic growth, groundwater sustainability (in terms of quality and quantity) and human development ( The study area is located on the south eastern coast of Kenya, in Kwale County. The Kwale coastal groundwater system formed by a shallow and deep aquifer systems has long served urban water demands and an established tourism industry but now faces unprecedented ground and surface water resource demands especially from KISCOL's (5,500 hectares of irrigated sugarcane) and the country's largest mining operation (Base Titanium Ltd.). Despite both companies have drilled deep boreholes around the study area (416 km2) to extract groundwater from deep aquifer; no major pumping activity has started yet, allowing baseline evaluation. Scattered around the study are 440 handpumps providing drinking water to over 90,000 people. The relationship between the shallow and deep aquifers remains uncertain and so, the future influence on groundwater

  13. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.


    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells

  14. Groundwater Monitoring and Engineered Geothermal Systems: The Newberry EGS Demonstration (United States)

    Grasso, K.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Garrison, G.


    Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) represent the next generation of geothermal energy development. Stimulation of multiple zones within a single geothermal reservoir could significantly reduce the cost of geothermal energy production. Newberry Volcano in central Oregon represents an ideal location for EGS research and development. As such, the goals of the Newberry EGS Demonstration, operated by AltaRock Energy, Inc., include stimulation of a multiple-zone EGS reservoir, testing of single-well tracers and a demonstration of EGS reservoir viability through flow-back and circulation tests. A shallow, local aquifer supplied the approximately 41,630 m3 (11 million gals) of water used during stimulation of NWG 55-29, a deep geothermal well on the western flank of Newberry Volcano. Protection of the local aquifer is of primary importance to both the Newberry EGS Demonstration and the public. As part of the Demonstration, AltaRock Energy, Inc. has developed and implemented a groundwater monitoring plan to characterize the geochemistry of the local aquifer before, during and after stimulation. Background geochemical conditions were established prior to stimulation of NWG 55-29, which was completed in 2012. Nine sites were chosen for groundwater monitoring. These include the water supply well used during stimulation of NWG 55-29, three monitoring wells, three domestic water wells and two hot seeps located in the Newberry Caldera. Together, these nine monitoring sites represent up-, down- and cross-gradient locations. Groundwater samples are analyzed for 25 chemical constituents, stable isotopes, and geothermal tracers used during stimulation. In addition, water level data is collected at three monitoring sites in order to better characterize the effects of stimulation on the shallow aquifer. To date, no significant geochemical changes and no geothermal tracers have been detected in groundwater samples from these monitoring sites. The Newberry EGS Demonstration groundwater

  15. Developing A National Groundwater-Monitoring Network In Korea (United States)

    Kim, N. J.; Cho, M. J.; Woo, N. C.


    Since the 1960's, the groundwater resources of Korea have been developed without a proper regulatory system for monitoring and preservation, resulting in significant source depletion, land subsidence, water contamination, and sea-water intrusion. With the activation of the "Groundwater Law" in June 1994, the government initiated a project to develop a groundwater-monitoring network to describe general groundwater quality, to define its long-term changes, and to identify major factors affecting changes in groundwater quality and yield. In selecting monitoring locations nationwide, criteria considered are 1) spatial distribution, 2) aquifer characteristics of hydrogeologic units, 3) local groundwater flow regime, 4) linkage with surface hydrology observations, 5) site accessibility, and 6) financial situations. A total of 310 sites in 78 small hydrologic basins were selected to compose the monitoring network. Installation of monitoring wells is scheduled to start in 1995 for 15 sites; the remainder are scheduled to be completed by 2001. At each site, a nest of monitoring wells was designed; shallow and deep groundwater will be monitored for water temperature, pH, EC, DO and TDS every month. Water-level fluctuations will also be measured by automatic recorders equipped with pressure transducers. As a next step, the government plans to develop a groundwater-database management system, which could be linked with surface hydrologic data.

  16. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.


    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. A map of the hydraulic-head distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two types: alluvial-volcanic, or carbonate. Both aquifer types are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater-flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours that were developed from the hydraulic-head distribution, are indicated on the maps and discussed for each of the regional aquifers and for selected local aquifers. Hydraulic heads vary across the study area and are interpreted to range in altitude from greater than 5,000 feet in a regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,300 feet in regional alluvial-volcanic and carbonate aquifers in the southwestern part of the study area. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly south-southwest with some local deviations. Vertical hydraulic

  17. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.


    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. A map of the hydraulic-head distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two types: alluvial-volcanic, or carbonate. Both aquifer types are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater-flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours that were developed from the hydraulic-head distribution, are indicated on the maps and discussed for each of the regional aquifers and for selected local aquifers. Hydraulic heads vary across the study area and are interpreted to range in altitude from greater than 5,000 feet in a regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,300 feet in regional alluvial-volcanic and carbonate aquifers in the southwestern part of the study area. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly south-southwest with some local deviations. Vertical hydraulic

  18. Technetium and neptunium reactions in basalt/groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kessler, J.H.; Clark, R.J.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Young, G.C.; Case, F.I.; Westmoreland, C.G.


    Sorption isotherms and apparent concentration limits for Tc(VII) and Np(V) for a variety of groundwater/basalt systems were determined using Grande Ronde basalt samples representative of the Hanford Site candidate high-level waste repository. Under oxic redox conditions (air present), little or no sorption of technetium was observed; neptunium exhibited low to moderate sorption ratios. Under anoxic redox conditions (oxygen-free), low to moderate sorption of technetium was often observed, but the extent of sorption was highly dependent upon the groundwater composition and the method of pretreatment (if any) of the basalt. Sorption isotherms for technetium under reducing redox conditions (hydrazine added) indicate an apparent concentration limit of approximately 10 -6 mol/l Tc. No apparent concentration limit was found for neptunium for concentrations in groundwater up to 10 -6 mol/l and 8 x 10 -7 mol/l under oxic and reducing (hydrazine added) redox conditions, respectively. Valence control and valence analysis experiments suggest that the sorption or precipitation of Tc and Np from groundwater in the presence of basalt may result from a heterogeneous reaction occurring on the surface of the basalt. One of the critical factors of this reduction reaction appears to be the accessibility of the reactive ferrous iron component of the basalt. The laboratory simulation of groundwater redox conditions representative of the repository environment through the use of solution phase redox reagents is of questionable validity, and information obtained by such experimental methods may not be defensible for site performance assessment calculations. Anoxic experiments conducted in an argon-filled glove box appear better suited for the laboratory simulation of in situ redox conditions. 15 references, 6 figures

  19. Technetium and neptunium reactions in basalt/groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Kelmers, A.D.; Kessler, J.H.; Clark, R.J.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Young, G.C.; Case, F.I.; Westmoreland, C.G.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee)


    Sorption isotherms and apparent concentration limits for Tc(VII) and Np(V) for a variety of groundwater/basalt systems were determined using Grande Ronde basalt samples representative of the Hanford Site candidate high-level waste repository. Under oxic redox conditions (air present), little or no sorption of technetium was observed; neptunium exhibited low to moderate sorption ratios. Under anoxic redox conditions (oxygen-free), low to moderate sorption of technetium was often observed, but the extent of sorption was highly dependent upon the groundwater composition and the method of pretreatment (if any) of the basalt. Sorption isotherms for technetium under reducing redox conditions (hydrazine added) indicate an apparent concentration limit of approximately 10 -6 mol/L Tc. No apparent concentration limit was found for neptunium for concentrations in groundwater up to approx. 10 -6 mol/L and 8 x 10 -7 mol/L under oxic and reducing (hydrazine added) redox conditions, respectively. Valence control and valence analysis experiments suggest that the sorption or precipitation of Tc and Np from groundwater in the presence of basalt may result from a heterogeneous reaction occurring on the surface of the basalt. One of the critical factors of this reduction reaction appears to be the accessibility of the reactive ferrous iron component of the basalt. The laboratory simulation of groundwater redox conditions representative of the repository environment through the use of solution phase redox reagents is of questionable validity, and information obtained by such experimental methods may not be defensible for site performance assessment calculations. Anoxic experiments conducted in an argon-filled glove box appear better suited for the laboratory simulation of in situ redox conditions. 15 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Nitrate pollution of a karstic groundwater system in Svaty Jan Pod Skalou, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, F.; Kadlecova, R.; Zak, K.


    Due to increasing agricultural activity after the 1960's both shallow and deep water resources in the Czech Republic including karstic systems have been contaminated by infiltrating nitrate. Nitrate content of one of the largest spring (19L/s) now varies from 50 to 60 mg/L. To specify the sources of nitrate pollution and collect sufficient data for the prediction of possible future development, flow dynamics, chemical and isotopic composition (δ 18 O in water, δ 15 N in nitrate) were monitored in the spring and precipitation together with potential sources of pollution (fertilizers, solutes in soil profile). Observed data were modelled by a simple mixing cell model to specify system parameters (volume and mean residence time). (author)

  1. A study on migration of contaminants and effect on the groundwater system at the Gemencheh domestic waste disposal site, Negeri Sembilan using integrated nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman


    The domestic waste disposal site at Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan has been in operation since 1981. Integration of three methods namely nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical were used to study the migration and effects of contaminants on the groundwater system at this particular site. Nuclear method was used to determine groundwater system flow velocity that delineates the migration pattern of contaminant species in the groundwater system at the study area. The groundwater flow velocity is found to be heterogeneous and depend on hydraulic conductivity caused by soil permeability except in the low-lying downstream area where the flow velocity is found to be low and constant at 2.0 x 10 -6 ms -1 . However, the flow velocity increases to as high as 17.8 x 10 -5 ms -1 during rainy season due to the influence of weather on hydraulic gradient. Weather condition also influences the flow direction, whereby during draught season, the groundwater flow direction at the middle of the study site moves from an area of high topography to the northeast and southeast of low topography areas. On the other hand, at the downstream the groundwater flows partially towards northeast and southeast whereas flow direction at the upstream is towards the east. A similar pattern was observed during rainy season in both upstream and downstream of the study site but at the middle, the flow is basically towards south-east with a side flow to the north-east and east direction. Geophysical method comprising geo electrical-imaging and electromagnetic transient techniques was used to determine the extent, depth and distribution of contamination in the groundwater system. This method shows that the most seriously contaminated areas at the middle and the downstream regions of the study site within the shallow depth of 3-6 metres. The distribution of the contaminants in groundwater is not widespread but confined within the study site only. Finally, hydrogeochemical method was used to determine the

  2. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, T.O.


    The purpose of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Management Plan is to define the function, organizational structure (including associated matrix organizations), interfaces, roles and responsibilities, authority, and relationship to the Department of Energy for the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO). GWPO is charged with the responsibility of coordinating all components of the groundwater program for Energy Systems. This mandate includes activities at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants

  3. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, T.O.


    The purpose of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Management Plan is to define the function, organizational structure (including associated matrix organizations), interfaces, roles and responsibilities, authority, and relationship to the Department of Energy for the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO). GWPO is charged with the responsibility of coordinating all components of the groundwater program for Energy Systems. This mandate includes activities at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants.

  4. Assessment of groundwater management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.


    A comprehensive review of the groundwater management and environmental monitoring programs at the Hanford reservation was initiated in 1973. A large number of recommendations made as a result of this review are summarized. The purpose of the Hanford Hydrology Program is to maintain a groundwater surveillance network to assess contamination of the natural water system. Potential groundwater contamination is primarily a function of waste management decisions. The review revealed that although the hydrology program would greatly benefit from additional improvements, it is adequate to predict levels of contaminants present in the groundwater system. Studies are presently underway to refine advanced mathematical models to use results of the hydrologic investigation in forecasting the response of the system to different long-term management decisions. No information was found which indicates that a hazard through the groundwater pathway presently exists as a result of waste operations at Hanford. (CH)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy


    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  6. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC


    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  7. Noble Gas Signatures in Groundwater and Rainwater on the Island of Maui, Hawaii - Developing a New Noble Gas Application in Fractured, Volcanic Systems (United States)

    Castro, M. C.; Niu, Y.; Warrier, R. B.; Hall, C. M.; Gingerich, S. B.; Scholl, M. A.; Bouvier, L.


    Recent work in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) in fractured groundwater systems reflect the temperature of the ground surface at the time of infiltration rather than the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) value as commonly assumed in sedimentary systems where NGTs are typically used as indicators of past climate. This suggests that noble gases in fractured areas may record seasonality, and thus, provide information about timing of recharge in addition to location. Calculation of NGTs assumes that rain-derived recharge at the water table is in equilibrium with ground air. Lack of noble gas equilibration with respect to surface conditions, however, was observed in high-altitude springs in the Galapagos Islands and in a rainwater pilot study in Michigan, supporting the NGT seasonality hypothesis. Developing this new NGT application will lead to a better understanding of fractured groundwater flow systems and will contribute to improved water resource management plans. This study, carried out on Maui, Hawaii, is meant to test these hypotheses while improving knowledge of this island's groundwater flow system where limited hydrologic data are available. Here, we present the first results of noble gas analyses from samples collected in springs, groundwater wells and rainwater on northeast Maui. Results show that like most Michigan rainwater samples, rainwater from Maui is in disequilibrium with surface conditions and follows a mass-dependent pattern. Spring samples follow a similar pattern to that of rainwater and suggest that spring water originates directly from rainfall. These findings further support the hypothesis of NGT seasonality. However, while the atmospheric composition of noble gases points to direct supply from rainfall to spring aquifer systems, a direct connection between spring water and deeper aquifer levels or the mantle is apparent from He isotopic ratios which display an almost pure He mantle component in some springs.

  8. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.


    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs

  9. A review of lateral driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, Martijn; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Arem, Bart; Tillema, Frans; Dailey, D.


    Lateral driver support systems have the potential to reduce the number of accidents associated with -both intentional and unintentional -lane departures. Additionally, such systems may increase driving comfort and stimulate a more efficient traffic flow, thereby reducing traffic emissions and the



    Palas Roy; Naba Kumar Mondal; Biswajit Das; Kousik Das


    High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India) has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Mul...

  11. Characterizing Groundwater Level and Flow Pattern in a Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study characterize groundwater yield and flow pattern on a shallow ... simple process of weathering, fractured fissure systems, networks of joints and ..... lowest yield in wells that are deeper than the mean well depth in the study area.

  12. Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems (United States)

    Kalf, Frans R. P.; Woolley, Donald R.


    There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all groundwater systems either are or can be made to be sustainable is invalid, (4) often there are an excessive number of factors bound up in the definition that are not easily quantifiable, (5) there is often confusion between production facility optimal yield and basin sustainable yield, (6) in many semi-arid and arid environments groundwater systems cannot be sensibly developed using a sustained yield policy particularly where ecological constraints are applied. Derivation of sustainable yield using conservation of mass principles leads to expressions for basin sustainable, partial (non-sustainable) mining and total (non-sustainable) mining yields that can be readily determined using numerical modelling methods and selected on the basis of applied constraints. For some cases there has to be recognition that the groundwater resource is not renewable and its use cannot therefore be sustainable. In these cases, its destiny should be the best equitable use. sostenible. Las razones son: (1) los conceptos y definiciones actuales son ambiguos y sin base física de modo que no pueden usarse para aplicación cuantitativa, (2) existe necesidad de eliminar interpretaciones variables y mal interpretaciones y aportar bases sanas para aplicación, (3) la noción de que todos los sistemas de aguas subterráneas son o pueden ser sostenibles no esvalida, (4) frecuentemente existen un numero excesivo de factores ligados a la definición de producción sostenible los cuales no son fácil de cuantificar, (5) frecuentemente existe confusión entre la producción optima de un establecimiento y la

  13. Internet Portal For A Distributed Management of Groundwater (United States)

    Meissner, U. F.; Rueppel, U.; Gutzke, T.; Seewald, G.; Petersen, M.

    The management of groundwater resources for the supply of German cities and sub- urban areas has become a matter of public interest during the last years. Negative headlines in the Rhein-Main-Area dealt with cracks in buildings as well as damaged woodlands and inundated agriculture areas as an effect of varying groundwater levels. Usually a holistic management of groundwater resources is not existent because of the complexity of the geological system, the large number of involved groups and their divergent interests and a lack of essential information. The development of a network- based information system for an efficient groundwater management was the target of the project: ?Grundwasser-Online?[1]. The management of groundwater resources has to take into account various hydro- geological, climatic, water-economical, chemical and biological interrelations [2]. Thus, the traditional approaches in information retrieval, which are characterised by a high personnel and time expenditure, are not sufficient. Furthermore, the efficient control of the groundwater cultivation requires a direct communication between the different water supply companies, the consultant engineers, the scientists, the govern- mental agencies and the public, by using computer networks. The presented groundwater information system consists of different components, especially for the collection, storage, evaluation and visualisation of groundwater- relevant information. Network-based technologies are used [3]. For the collection of time-dependant groundwater-relevant information, modern technologies of Mobile Computing have been analysed in order to provide an integrated approach in the man- agement of large groundwater systems. The aggregated information is stored within a distributed geo-scientific database system which enables a direct integration of simu- lation programs for the evaluation of interactions in groundwater systems. Thus, even a prognosis for the evolution of groundwater states

  14. Neural Network approach to assess the thermal affected zone around the injection well in a groundwater heat pump system (United States)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Verda, Vittorio


    The common use of well doublets for groundwater-sourced heating or cooling results in a thermal plume of colder or warmer re-injected groundwater known as the Thermal Affected Zone(TAZ). The plumes may be regarded either as a potential anthropogenic geothermal resource or as pollution, depending on downstream aquifer usage. A fundamental aspect in groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant design is the correct evaluation of the thermally affected zone that develops around the injection well. Temperature anomalies are detected through numerical methods. Crucial elements in the process of thermal impact assessment are the sizes of installations, their position, the heating/cooling load of the building, and the temperature drop/increase imposed on the re-injected water flow. For multiple-well schemes, heterogeneous aquifers, or variable heating and cooling loads, numerical models that simulate groundwater and heat transport are needed. These tools should consider numerous scenarios obtained considering different heating/cooling loads, positions, and operating modes. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are widely used in this field because they offer the opportunity to calculate the time evolution of the thermal plume produced by a heat pump, depending on the characteristics of the subsurface and the heat pump. Nevertheless, these models require large computational efforts, and therefore their use may be limited to a reasonable number of scenarios. Neural networks could represent an alternative to CFD for assessing the TAZ under different scenarios referring to a specific site. The use of neural networks is proposed to determine the time evolution of the groundwater temperature downstream of an installation as a function of the possible utilization profiles of the heat pump. The main advantage of neural network modeling is the possibility of evaluating a large number of scenarios in a very short time, which is very useful for the preliminary analysis of future multiple



    Harnish Patel; Upendra Patel; Hiren Kadikar; Bhavin Bhimani; Dhiren Daslaniya; Ghanshyam Patel


    Conventional oral drug delivery systems supply an instantaneous release of drug, which cannot control the release of the drug and effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the process of osmosis. Osmotic devices are the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. They are the most reliable con...

  16. Pilot study on arsenic removal from groundwater using a small-scale reverse osmosis system-Towards sustainable drinking water production. (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan-André; Gukelberger, Ephraim; Hermann, Mario; Fiedler, Florian; Großmann, Benjamin; Hoinkis, Jan; Ghosh, Ashok; Chatterjee, Debashis; Bundschuh, Jochen


    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is posing a serious challenge to drinking water supplies on a global scale. In India and Bangladesh, arsenic has caused the most serious public health issue in the world for nearly two decades. The aim of this work was to study an arsenic removal system based on reverse osmosis at pilot scale treating two different water sources from two different locations in the State of Bihar, India. For this purpose two villages, Bind Toli and Ramnagar in the Patna District were selected, both located very close to the river Ganga. The trials were conducted with aerated and non-aerated groundwater. It is the first time that the arsenic removal efficiency for aerated and non-aerated groundwater by reverse osmosis technology in combination with an energy-saving recovery system have been studied. As the principle of reverse osmosis requires a relatively high pressure, its energy demand is naturally high. By using an energy recovery system, this demand can be lowered, leading to an energy demand per liter permeate of 3-4Wh/L only. Due to high iron levels in the groundwater and as a consequence the precipitation of ferric (hydr)oxides, it was necessary to develop a granular media filter for the trials under aeration in order to protect the membrane from clogging. Two different materials, first locally available sand, and second commercially available anthracite were tested in the granular media filter. For the trials with aerated groundwater, total arsenic removal efficiency at both locations was around 99% and the arsenic concentration in permeate was in compliance with the WHO and National Indian Standard of 10μg/L. However, trials under anoxic conditions with non-aerated groundwater could not comply with this standard. Additionally a possible safe discharge of the reverse osmosis concentrate into an abandoned well was studied. It was observed that re-injection of reject water underground may offer a safe disposal option. However, long

  17. Study on a groundwater source heat pump cooling system in solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Lilong; Ma, Chengwei [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Coll. of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering. Dept. of Agricultural Structure and Bio-environmental Engineering], E-mail:


    This study aims at exploiting the potential of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology in cooling agricultural greenhouse, and advocating the use of renewable and clean energy in agriculture. GSHP has the multi-function of heating, cooling and dehumidifying, which is one of the fastest growing technologies of renewable energy air conditioning in recent years. The authors carried out experiment on the ground source heat pump system in cooling greenhouse in Beijing region during the summertime of 2007, and conducted analysis on the energy efficiency of the system by using coefficient of performance (COP). According to the data collected during Aug.13-18th, 2007, the coefficient of performance of GSHP system (COP{sub sys}) has reached 3.15 on average during the test. (author)

  18. Automated metabolic gas analysis systems: a review. (United States)

    Macfarlane, D J


    The use of automated metabolic gas analysis systems or metabolic measurement carts (MMC) in exercise studies is common throughout the industrialised world. They have become essential tools for diagnosing many hospital patients, especially those with cardiorespiratory disease. Moreover, the measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is routine for many athletes in fitness laboratories and has become a defacto standard in spite of its limitations. The development of metabolic carts has also facilitated the noninvasive determination of the lactate threshold and cardiac output, respiratory gas exchange kinetics, as well as studies of outdoor activities via small portable systems that often use telemetry. Although the fundamental principles behind the measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) have not changed, the techniques used have, and indeed, some have almost turned through a full circle. Early scientists often employed a manual Douglas bag method together with separate chemical analyses, but the need for faster and more efficient techniques fuelled the development of semi- and full-automated systems by private and commercial institutions. Yet, recently some scientists are returning back to the traditional Douglas bag or Tissot-spirometer methods, or are using less complex automated systems to not only save capital costs, but also to have greater control over the measurement process. Over the last 40 years, a considerable number of automated systems have been developed, with over a dozen commercial manufacturers producing in excess of 20 different automated systems. The validity and reliability of all these different systems is not well known, with relatively few independent studies having been published in this area. For comparative studies to be possible and to facilitate greater consistency of measurements in test-retest or longitudinal studies of individuals, further knowledge about the performance characteristics of these

  19. Unbalance on power systems: a general review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineri, Claudio A.; Gomez Targarona, Juan C.


    A general revision of different aspects in relation to the voltage unbalance in electric power systems is presented, that should necessarily be deeply known by technical operators and designers of facilities, installations, and electric equipment. Dissimilar unbalance definitions, unbalance measurement methods, their quantification and the interpretation of such magnitudes are revised. The causes of the unbalances in electric power systems were described and analyzed. The effects on power systems are also studied, specially those that have influence on: system operability, lost of efficiency of the three phase system and their impact in the definitions of traditional power. Similarly is studied the unbalance effect on certain loads, in particular: three-phase motors, power electronics and ASD's. Also methods to locate the origin of these problems, as well as the different normative or standards, and possible methods to mitigate their effects are deeply detailed. It is concluded in the necessity to deepen the study of the power system unbalance, because numerous non resolved aspects still exist whose solution requires of a deep knowledge on the part of the involved professionals. (author)

  20. A Review of Group Systems Theory (United States)

    Connors, Joanie V.; Caple, Richard B.


    The ability to see interpersonal and group processes beyond the individual level is an essential skill for group therapists (Crouch, Bloch & Wanlass, 1994; Dies, 1994; Fuhriman & Burlingame, 1994). In addition to interpersonal therapy models (e.g., Sullivan and Yalom), there are a number of systems theory models that offer a broad array of…

  1. Study on assessment scenarios of natural phenomena effected on groundwater flow system. Case study for the sea-level change (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo


    It is important to evaluate effects on the groundwater flow system by the natural phenomena in the safety assessment of geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety assessment is performed by using safety assessment methods, thus it is necessary to establish reasonable scenarios for safety assessment. In this report, we study change effecting on the groundwater flow system by literature reviews. The scenario of sea level change is expected to have a importance for a safety of disposal facility in coastal area. The recent information related to the groundwater flow condition in sedimentary rocks of sub-seabed coastal area shows that there are four groundwater domains as follows with depth; (1) modern meteoric water, (2) saline water in the transgression period, (3) paleo-fresh water which formed during the last glacial age when sea levels were lower than at present and (4) pre-glacial fossil saline water. This study suggests that the non-current (3) paleo-fresh water at present is possible to move to discharged area at sea floor in the next glacial period by denudation of marine-clay sediments and to become stagnant water again in the next interglacial period by deposition of marine-clay sediments in coastal region. Therefore it is important to predict the scenario considering the denudation and deposition correlated with transgression and regression that could affect the change of groundwater flow velocity, groundwater flow path and groundwater chemical characteristics during the glacial and interglacial period. (author)

  2. Adaptive Systems in Education: A Review and Conceptual Unification (United States)

    Wilson, Chunyu; Scott, Bernard


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the use of adaptive systems in education. It is intended to be a useful introduction for the non-specialist reader. Design/methodology/approach: A distinction is made between intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) and adaptive hypermedia systems (AHSs). The two kinds of system are defined, compared and…

  3. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi


    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  4. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi


    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  5. Current dental adhesives systems. A narrative review. (United States)

    Milia, Egle; Cumbo, Enzo; Cardoso, Rielson Jose A; Gallina, Giuseppe


    Adhesive dentistry is based on the development of materials which establish an effective bond with the tooth tissues. In this context, adhesive systems have attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Successful adhesive bonding depends on the chemistry of the adhesive, on appropriate clinical handling of the material as well as on the knowledge of the morphological changes caused on dental tissue by different bonding procedures. This paper outlines the status of contemporary adhesive systems, with particular emphasis on chemical characteristics and mode of interaction of the adhesives with enamel and dentinal tissues. Dental adhesives are used for several clinical applications and they can be classified based on the clinical regimen in "etch-and-rinse adhesives" and "self-etch adhesives". Other important considerations concern the different anatomical characteristics of enamel and dentine which are involved in the bonding procedures that have also implications for the technique used as well as for the quality of the bond. Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems generally perform better on enamel than self-etching systems which may be more suitable for bonding to dentine. In order to avoid a possible loss of the restoration, secondary caries or pulp damage due to bacteria penetration or due to cytotoxicity effects of eluted adhesive components, careful consideration of several factors is essential in selecting the suitable bonding procedure and adhesive system for the individual patient situation.

  6. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Waikhom


    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a fibrosing disorder of the skin that develops in patients with advanced renal failure. It mostly presents with progressive hardening or induration of the skin of the extremities. Systemic involvement is also known to occur in this entity. Exposure to gadolinium contrast for radiological evaluation has been identified as the offending agent. The condition is progressive and can be seriously disabling. Therapeutic options are limited and not rewarding in majority of the cases. Awareness of this entity is important so that proper precautionary measures can be taken at the earliest to ameliorate the condition.

  7. Local groundwater depression around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.


    Local Groundwater Depression around a Repository. A two-dimensional flow analysis was made to study the effect on the groundwater table due to drainage of the storage tunnels during the construction resp. operation period. The net accretion to the phreatic surface was assumed evenly distributed in space and time. Numerical examples with equipotentials and consecutive positions of the phreatic surface are presented

  8. A Study on the Surface and Subsurface Water Interaction Based on the Groundwater Recession Curve (United States)

    Wang, S. T.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.


    The interaction of surface to subsurface water is an important issue for groundwater resources assessment and management. The influences of surface water to groundwater are mainly through the rainfall recharge, river recharge and discharge and other boundary sources. During a drought period, the interaction of river and groundwater may be one of the main sources of groundwater level recession. Therefore, this study explores the interaction of surface water to groundwater via the groundwater recession. During drought periods, the pumping and river interaction together are the main mechanisms causing the recession of groundwater level. In principle, larger gradient of the recession curve indicates more groundwater discharge and it is an important characteristic of the groundwater system. In this study, to avoid time-consuming manual analysis, the Python programming language is used to develop a statistical analysis model for exploring the groundwater recession information. First, the slopes of the groundwater level hydrograph at every time step were computed for each well. Then, for each well, the represented slope to each groundwater level was defined as the slope with 90% exceedance probability. The relationship between the recession slope and the groundwater level can then be obtained. The developed model is applied to Choushui River Alluvial Fan. In most wells, the results show strong positive correlations between the groundwater levels and the absolute values of the recession slopes.

  9. Engineering Review Information System (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)


    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  10. Simulation of the impact of managed aquifer recharge on the groundwater system in Hanoi, Vietnam (United States)

    Glass, Jana; Via Rico, Daniela A.; Stefan, Catalin; Nga, Tran Thi Viet


    A transient numerical groundwater flow model using MODFLOW-NWT was set up and calibrated for Hanoi city, Vietnam, to understand the local groundwater flow system and to suggest solutions for sustainable water resource management. Urban development in Hanoi has caused a severe decline of groundwater levels. The present study evaluates the actual situation and investigates the suitability of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) to stop further depletion of groundwater resources. The results suggest that groundwater is being overexploited, as vast cones of depression exist in parts of the study area. Suitable locations to implement two MAR techniques—riverbank filtration and injection wells—were identified using multi-criteria decision analysis based on geographic information system (GIS). Three predictive scenarios were simulated. The relocation of pumping wells towards the Red River to induce riverbank filtration (first scenario) demonstrates that groundwater levels can be increased, especially in the depression cones. Groundwater levels can also be improved locally by the infiltration of surplus water into the upper aquifer (Holocene) via injection wells during the rainy season (second scenario), but this is not effective to raise the water table in the depression cones. Compared to the first scenario, the combination of riverbank filtration and injection wells (third scenario) shows a slightly raised overall water table. Groundwater flow modeling suggests that local overexploitation can be stopped by a smart relocation of wells from the main depression cones and the expansion of riverbank filtration. This could also avoid further land subsidence while the city's water demand is met.

  11. Photocatalytic Pre-Oxidation of Arsenic (III) in Groundwater by a Visible-Light-Driven System with Magnetic Separating Characteristic (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Liu, Y.; Peng, L.; Qin, Y.


    Arsenic was a typical toxic metalloid element and its contamination in groundwater was widely recognized as a global health problem, especially in north China, where people depended on groundwater as water resource. Arsenic was existed as As(III) in underground water, and has low affinity to the surface of various minerals and more toxic and more difficultly to be removed compared with As(V), so a pre-oxidation technology by transforming As (III) to As (V) is highly desirable. Electrochemical and oxidizing agents were traditional technology, which usually causes secondary pollution. A novel methodology is presented here, using prepared magnetic visible-light-driven nanomaterials as recyclable media to investigate As(III) pre-oxidation processing. Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were first synthesized by oxidation of Ag nanowires with moderate FeCl3, and exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity to As(III) with visible-light. The ratio of chloridization was proved to act as key effect on photocatalytic oxidation efficiency. Testing with simulated groundwater condition proved that pH, ionic strength and concentration of humic acid have obvious effects on Ag@AgCl photocatalytic ability. h+ and ·O2- were confirmed to be the main active species during the visible-light driven photocatalytic oxidation process for As(III) by trapping experiments with radical scavengers. Then Fe0 was introduced to prepare Fe-Ag nanowire and chloridized into Fe-Ag@AgCl to provide magnetic characteristic. The magnetic recycling and re-chloride experiments validated this visible-light-driven material has excellent stable and high reused ability as photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

  12. Buccal Drug Delivery System: A Review


    Parth S. Patel; Ashish M. Parmar; Nilang S. Doshi; Hardik V. Patel; Raxit R. Patel; Chetan Nayee


    Bioadhesion can be defined as a phenomenon of interfacial molecular attractive forces in the midst of the surfaces of the biological substrate and the natural or synthetic polymers, which allows the polymer to adhere to the biological surface for an extended period of time. Bioadhesive polymeric systems have been used since extent in the development of products for various biomedical applications which include denture adhesives and surgical glue.Considerable attention has been focused in rece...

  13. Review: Regional groundwater flow modeling in heavily irrigated basins of selected states in the western United States (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.


    Water resources in agriculture-dominated basins of the arid western United States are stressed due to long-term impacts from pumping. A review of 88 regional groundwater-flow modeling applications from seven intensively irrigated western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska and Texas) was conducted to provide hydrogeologists, modelers, water managers, and decision makers insight about past modeling studies that will aid future model development. Groundwater models were classified into three types: resource evaluation models (39 %), which quantify water budgets and act as preliminary models intended to be updated later, or constitute re-calibrations of older models; management/planning models (55 %), used to explore and identify management plans based on the response of the groundwater system to water-development or climate scenarios, sometimes under water-use constraints; and water rights models (7 %), used to make water administration decisions based on model output and to quantify water shortages incurred by water users or climate changes. Results for 27 model characteristics are summarized by state and model type, and important comparisons and contrasts are highlighted. Consideration of modeling uncertainty and the management focus toward sustainability, adaptive management and resilience are discussed, and future modeling recommendations, in light of the reviewed models and other published works, are presented.

  14. Advanced drug delivery systems: Nanotechnology of health design A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safari


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has finally and firmly entered the realm of drug delivery. Performances of intelligent drug delivery systems are continuously improved with the purpose to maximize therapeutic activity and to minimize undesirable side-effects. This review describes the advanced drug delivery systems based on micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, and dendrimers. Polymeric carbon nanotubes and many others demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties. This review emphasizes the main requirements for developing new nanotech-nology-based drug delivery systems.

  15. High Resolution Hydraulic Profiling and Groundwater Sampling using FLUTe™ System in a Fractured Limestone Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Christensen, Anders G.; Grosen, Bernt

    challeng-ing in deposit types as fractured limestone. The activities of a bulk distribution facility for perchloroe-thene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) at the Naverland site near Copenhagen, Denmark, has resulted in PCE and TCE DNAPL impacts to a fractured clay till and an underlying fractured limestone...

  16. A Review of the MLAS Parachute Systems (United States)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Kelley, Christopher; Magner, Eldred; Peterson, David; Hahn, Jeffrey; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is developing the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as a risk-mitigation design should problems arise with the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort design. The Max in MLAS is dedicated to Max Faget, the renowned NASA spacecraft designer. The MLAS flight test vehicle consists of boost skirt, coast skirt and the MLAS fairing which houses a full scale boilerplate Orion Crew Module (CM). The objective of the flight test is to prove that the CM can be released from the MLAS fairing during pad abort conditions without detrimental recontact between the CM and fairing, achieving performance similar to the Orion launch abort system. The boost and coast skirts provide the necessary thrust and stability to achieve the flight test conditions and are released prior to the test -- much like the Little Joe booster was used in the Apollo Launch Escape System tests. To achieve the test objective, two parachutes are deployed from the fairing to reorient the CM/fairing to a heatshield first orientation. The parachutes then provide the force necessary to reduce the total angle of attack and body angular rates required for safe release of the CM from the fairing. A secondary test objective after CM release from the fairing is to investigate the removal of the CM forward bay cover (FBC) with CM drogue parachutes for the purpose of attempting to synchronously deploying a set of CM main parachutes. Although multiple parachute deployments are used in the MLAS flight test vehicle to complete its objective, there are only two parachute types employed in the flight test. Five of the nine parachutes used for MLAS are 27.6 ft D(sub 0) ribbon parachutes, and the remaining four are standard G-12 cargo parachutes. This paper presents an overview of the 27.6 ft D(sub 0) ribbon parachute system employed on the MLAS flight test vehicle for coast skirt separation, fairing reorientation, and as drogue parachutes for the CM after separation from the fairing

  17. Management of Nitrate m Groundwater: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed


    Full Text Available Agriculture may cause nitrate and other chemicals to enter into groundwater systems. Nitrate in drinking water is considered a health hazard. A study was conducted to assess the extent of nitrate pollution of groundwater caused by agriculture and to evaluate the possibility of using the LEACHN model to manage nitrate entry into groundwater of agricultural areas of Al-Batinah, which is the most important agricultural region of Oman. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed to assess the problem and to detect possible trends. Soil sampling and analyses were done to demonstrate the difference in the nitrate concentration in agricultural and non-agricultural soils. A questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information on agricultural practices, fertilizer input, and other possible sources of nitrate pollution. Results from the study show that 23% of groundwater samples have a concentration of nitrate-N concentration of 10 mg/l and 34% samples exceed 8 mg/l. Agricultural soils have higher levels of nitrate compared to non- agricultural soils. Results also demonstrate that nitrate levels in groundwater in Al-Batinah are rising. Application of the ‘LEACHN’ model demonstrated its suitability for use as a management tool to reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater by controlling fertilizer and water input.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Michael Heitkamp, M; Gary Wein (NOEMAIL), G; Christopher Bagwell, C; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; Tyler Gilmore; Norman Cutshall; David Major; Mike Truex; Todd Wiedemeier; Francis H. Chapelle; Tom Early; Jody Waugh; David Peterson; Mark Ankeny; Claire H. Sink


    The objective of this document is to examine the use of a phased approach to characterizing and monitoring (C&M) natural attenuation processes and enhanced attenuation processes and to identify promising tools and techniques by which to accomplish the C&M. We will investigate developing techniques, such as molecular-based assessment tools, and existing tools that traditionally have not been used for monitoring the performance of environmental remediation technologies. Case studies will be used to provide examples of how non-traditional methods are being employed as characterization and monitoring tools to support MNA and EA. The document is not focused on a specific group of readers but rather is broadly directed with the intent that readers may gain information useful to their purposes. Thus, regulators may see some future characterization and monitoring techniques; end users may find novel ways to make MNA or EA more effective or efficient at their site; researchers may identify new areas for development or new and better combinations of existing methods. One consequence of this broad approach is that some readers may find certain sections either too rudimentary or too advanced for their needs. Hopefully, all will be able to use at least some of the document.

  19. A Reciprocal Peer Review System to Support College Students' Writing (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen


    As students' problem-solving processes in writing are rarely observed in face-to-face instruction, they have few opportunities to participate collaboratively in peer review to improve their texts. This study reports the design of a reciprocal peer review system for students to observe and learn from each other when writing. A sample of 95…

  20. Industrialised Building System in Malaysia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.


    Full Text Available The construction industry in Malaysia is experiencing a migration from conventional methods to a more systematic and mechanised method known as the Industrialised Building System (IBS. Each state in Malaysia is currently examining the developments of the IBS and its potential to overcome the shortages of housing accommodations in this country. The Malaysian government, involved through its agency, the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB has been persistently pushing the construction industry to utilise of the IBS method of construction since the year 2003. It is a part of an incorporated endeavour to further improve the aptitude, potential, effectiveness and competitiveness of the industry as well as to diminish the industry’s dependence on foreign labour. This is also an attempt in the Malaysian construction industry to encourage positive inroads in matters associated to construction-site safety with regards to a working environment which is cleaner, more convenient and more organized.

  1. A Multi-Methodology for improving Adelaide's Groundwater Management (United States)

    Batelaan, Okke; Banks, Eddie; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Breciani, Etienne; Cook, Peter; Cranswick, Roger; Smith, Stan; Turnadge, Chris; Partington, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Pool Ramirez, Maria; Werner, Adrian; Xie, Yueqing; Yang, Yuting


    Groundwater is a strategic and vital resource in South Australia playing a crucial role in sustaining a healthy environment, as well as supporting industries and economic development. In the Adelaide metropolitan region ten different aquifer units have been identified, extending to more than 500 m below sea level. Although salinity within most of these aquifers is variable, water suitable for commercial, irrigation and/or potable use is predominantly found in the deeper Tertiary aquifers. Groundwater currently contributes only 9000 ML/yr of Adelaide's total water consumption of 216,000 ML, while in the Northern Adelaide Plains 17000 ML/yr is used. However, major industries, market gardeners, golf courses, and local councils are highly dependent on this resource. Despite recent rapid expansion in managed aquifer recharge, and the potential for increased extraction of groundwater, particularly for the commercial and irrigation supplies, little is known about the sources and ages of Adelaide's groundwater. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a robust conceptualisation of Adelaide's groundwater system. The study focuses on three important knowledge gaps: 1. Does groundwater flow from the Adelaide Hills into the sedimentary aquifers on the plains? 2. What is the potential for encroachment of seawater if groundwater extraction increases? 3. How isolated are the different aquifers, or does water leak from one to the other? A multi-tool approach has been used to improve the conceptual understanding of groundwater flow processes; including the installation of new groundwater monitoring wells from the hills to the coast, an extensive groundwater sampling campaign of new and existing groundwater wells for chemistry and environmental tracers analysis, and development of a regional scale numerical model rigorously tested under different scenario conditions. The model allows quantification of otherwise hardly quantifiable quantities such as flow across fault zones and

  2. Predicting redox conditions in groundwater at a regional scale (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Terziotti, Silvia; Abrams, Daniel B.


    Defining the oxic-suboxic interface is often critical for determining pathways for nitrate transport in groundwater and to streams at the local scale. Defining this interface on a regional scale is complicated by the spatial variability of reaction rates. The probability of oxic groundwater in the Chesapeake Bay watershed was predicted by relating dissolved O2 concentrations in groundwater samples to indicators of residence time and/or electron donor availability using logistic regression. Variables that describe surficial geology, position in the flow system, and soil drainage were important predictors of oxic water. The probability of encountering oxic groundwater at a 30 m depth and the depth to the bottom of the oxic layer were predicted for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The influence of depth to the bottom of the oxic layer on stream nitrate concentrations and time lags (i.e., time period between land application of nitrogen and its effect on streams) are illustrated using model simulations for hypothetical basins. Regional maps of the probability of oxic groundwater should prove useful as indicators of groundwater susceptibility and stream susceptibility to contaminant sources derived from groundwater.

  3. Independent Technical Review of the X-740 Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.; Rhia, B.; Jackson, D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.


    Two major remedial campaigns have been applied to a plume of trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated groundwater near the former X-740 facility at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon Ohio. The two selected technologies, phytoremediation using a stand of hybrid poplar trees from 1999-2007 and in situ chemical oxidation using modified Fenton's Reagent from 2008-2009, have proven ineffective in achieving remedial action objectives (RAOs). The 'poor' performance of these technologies is a direct result of site specific conditions and the local contaminant hydrogeology. Key among these challenges is the highly heterogeneous subsurface geology with a thin contaminated aquifer zone (the Gallia) - the behavior of the contamination in the Gallia is currently dominated by slow release of TCE from the clay of the overlying Minford formation, from the sandstone of the underlying Berea formation, and from clayey layers within the Gallia itself. In response to the remediation challenges for the X-740 plume, the Portsmouth team (including the US Department of Energy (DOE), the site contractor (CDM), and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA)) is evaluating the feasibility of remediation at this site and identifying specific alternatives that are well matched to site conditions and that would maximize the potential for achieving RAOs. To support this evaluation, the DOE Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation (EM-32) assembled a team of experts to serve as a resource and provide input and recommendations to Portsmouth. Despite the challenging site conditions and the failure of the previous two remediation campaigns to adequately move the site toward RAOs, the review team was unanimous in the conclusion that an effective combination of cost effective technologies can be identified. Further, the team expressed optimism that RAOs can be achieved if realistic timeframes are accepted by all parties. The initial efforts of the review team focused on reviewing the

  4. Towards a method to characterize temporary groundwater dynamics during droughts (United States)

    Heudorfer, Benedikt; Stahl, Kerstin


    In order to improve our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in the development, propagation and termination of drought events, a major challenge is to grasp the role of groundwater systems. Research on how groundwater responds to meteorological drought events (i.e. short-term climate anomalies) is still limited. Part of the problem is that there is as yet no generic method to characterize the response of different groundwater systems to extreme climate anomalies. In order to explore possibilities for such a methodology, we evaluate two statistical approaches to characterize groundwater dynamics on short time scales by applying them on observed groundwater head data from different pre- and peri-mountainous groundwater systems in humid central Europe (Germany). The first method is based on the coefficient of variation in moving windows of various lengths, the second method is based on streamflow recession characteristics applied on groundwater data. With these methods, the gauges behavior during low head events and its response to precipitation was explored. Findings regarding the behavior of the gauges make it possible to distinguish between gauges with a dominance of cyclic patterns, and gauges with a dominance of patterns on seasonal or event scale (commonly referred to as slow/fast responding gauges, respectively). While some clues on what factors that might control these patterns are present, the specific controls are general unclear for the gauges in this study. However as the key conclusion stands the question if the variety of manifestations of groundwater dynamics, as they occur in real systems, is subsumable with one unique method. Further studies on the topic are in progress.

  5. Microbial DNA; a possible tracer of groundwater (United States)

    Sugiyama, Ayumi; Segawa, Takuya; Furuta, Tsuyumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji


    Though chemical analysis of groundwater shows an averaged value of chemistry of the examined water which was blended by various water with different sources and routes in subsurface environment, microbial DNA analysis may suggest the place where they originated, which may give information of the source and transport routes of the water examined. A huge amount of groundwater is stored in lava layer with maximum depth of 300m in Mt. Fuji (3,776m asl ), the largest volcanic mountain in Japan. Although the density of prokaryotes was low in the examined groundwater of Mt. Fuji, thermophilic prokaryotes as Thermoanaerobacterales, Gaiellales and Thermoplasmatales were significantly detected. They are optimally adapted to the temperature higher than 40oC. This finding suggests that at least some of the source of the examined groundwater was subsurface environment with 600m deep or greater, based on a temperature gradient of 4oC/100m and temperature of spring water ranges from 10 to 15oC in the foot of Mt. Fuji. This depth is far below the lava layer. Thus, the groundwater is not simply originated from the lava layer. In addition to those findings, we observed a very fast response of groundwater just a couple of weeks after the heavy rainfall exceeding 2 or 300 mm/event in Mt. Fuji. The fast response was suggested by a sharp increase in bacterial abundance in spring water located at 700m in height in the west foot of Mt. Fuji, where the average recharge elevation of groundwater was estimated to be 1,500m - 1,700m (Kato et. al. EGU 2016). This increase was mainly provided by soil bacteria as Burkholderiales, which might be detached from soil by strengthened subsurface flow caused by heavy rainfall. This suggests that heavy rainfall promotes shallow subsurface flow contributing to the discharge in addition to the groundwater in the deep aquifer. Microbial DNA, thus could give information about the route of the examined groundwater, which was never elucidated by analysis of

  6. Impact of irrigation with high arsenic burdened groundwater on the soil–plant system: Results from a case study in the Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidhardt, H.; Norra, S.; Tang, X.; Guo, H.; Stüben, D.


    Consequences of irrigation by arsenic (As) enriched groundwater were assigned in the Hetao Plain, part of Chinas’ Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Examinations followed the As flow path from groundwater to soil and finally plants. A sunflower and a maize field were systematically sampled, each irrigated since three years with saline well water, characterized by elevated As concentrations (154 and 238 μg L −1 ). The annual As input per m 2 was estimated as 120 and 186 mg, respectively. Compared to the geogenic background, As concentrations increased toward the surface with observed enrichments in topsoil being relatively moderate (up to 21.1 mg kg −1 ). Arsenic concentrations in plant parts decreased from roots toward leaves, stems and seeds. It is shown that the bioavailability of As is influenced by a complex interplay of partly counteracting processes. To prevent As enrichment and soil salinization, local farmers were recommended to switch to a less problematic water source. - Highlights: ► We examined influences of irrigation with As burdened water at two fields. ► As distribution within soil–plant system in Hetao Plain, PR China. ► Three years of flood irrigation with As containing groundwater. ► Annual As inputs per m 2 were estimated as 120 mg and 186 mg, respectively. ► Contents in topsoil and plants are partly elevated, but not critical yet. - Recent irrigation with groundwater raises the risk of As entering the local food chain in one of the oldest crop producing areas in the People’s Republic of China.

  7. A review of definitions and measures of system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyedmohsen; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.


    Modeling and evaluating the resilience of systems, potentially complex and large-scale in nature, has recently raised significant interest among both practitioners and researchers. This recent interest has resulted in several definitions of the concept of resilience and several approaches to measuring this concept, across several application domains. As such, this paper presents a review of recent research articles related to defining and quantifying resilience in various disciplines, with a focus on engineering systems. We provide a classification scheme to the approaches in the literature, focusing on qualitative and quantitative approaches and their subcategories. Addressed in this review are: an extensive coverage of the literature, an exploration of current gaps and challenges, and several directions for future research. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of definitions and measures of system resilience. • Focus given to resilience in engineering systems is provided. • Nearly 150 articles across several domains are reviewed. • Future directions in resilience research are discussed.

  8. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.


    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  9. Isotopic study of the effect of Tarbela reservoir on the groundwater system in the downstream areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Hussain, S.D.; Khan, I.H.; Ali, M.; Latif, Z.


    Isotopic studies were carried out on the right side of river Indus, downstream of Tarbela dam to study the effect of Tarbela Reservoir on the groundwater system. The main objectives of the study were to determine the hydraulic connection, if any, between the Tarbela Lake and the groundwater appearing in the ponds near Gadon Amazai, see the effect of Tarbela dam on the groundwater system in the downstream areas, compute the relative contribution of different recharge sources towards groundwater system and to estimate residence time of groundwater in the area. Isotopic data reveals that the ponds near Gadoon Amazai area are being recharged by local rains and there is no contribution of Tarbela lake. The area around Gadoon Amazai, Topi and Kalabat is solely recharged by local rains while the area around Swabi, Zaida and Lahor has mixed recharge with major contribution from local canal system. Tritium data suggests that the residence time of groundwater in the study area varies from a few years to 30 years. Te groundwater in the area has low dissolved salt contents and is, generally, of good quality. (author) 19 figs

  10. A comprehensive review on intelligent surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Warsono Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance system (ISS has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. ISS is able to automatically analyze image, video, audio or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. The recent developments in sensor devices, computer vision, and machine learning have an important role in enabling such intelligent system. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent surveillance system and discuss some possible sensor modalities and their fusion scenarios such as visible camera (CCTV, infrared camera, thermal camera and radar. This paper also discusses main processing steps in ISS: background-foreground segmentation, object detection and classification, tracking, and behavioral analysis.

  11. Arsenic in Groundwater: A Review of Current Knowledge and Relation to the CALFED Solution Area with Recommendations for Needed Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Welch


    Full Text Available Ground water with arsenic concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard exists throughout much of the CALFED solution area. These high concentrations are of con-cern from the standpoint of both existing water supply and development of conjunctive use projects. Much is known about arsenic mobility in ground water subject to different hydrologic and geochemical conditions. However, some important knowledge gaps exist that limit the ability to design water supply projects that could prevent arsenic mobilization or promote arsenic removal from ground water. A few well studied sys-tems could provide a much better understanding of methods for preventing or eliminating high arsenic problems. Within the context of the examination of a few detailed field studies, some important research needs include: 1. Determining the significance of metal-bridging aqueous complexes involving inorgan-ic arsenic and natural organic matter, 2. In the con-text of in situ remediation, determining whether of metal oxides. Little is known about the quantitative significance competition of inorganic arsenic with other inorganic aqueous species in natu-ral systems. Experiments should be conducted with actual aquifer materials, as the effects of aging on arsenic desorption in laboratory studies are quite sig-nificant. 3. Devise methods to detect and quantify rates of oxidation/reduction reactions of arsenic that are carried out by microorganisms at ambient concen-trations of arsenic and under in situ conditions. The findings from detailed field studies have the potential for greatly reducing the cost of meeting the new drinking-water standard for arsenic. The research would benefit a broad constituency.

  12. Control strategies for crane systems: A comprehensive review (United States)

    Ramli, Liyana; Mohamed, Z.; Abdullahi, Auwalu M.; Jaafar, H. I.; Lazim, Izzuddin M.


    Crane systems are tremendously utilised in numerous heavy load transportation industries, and therefore, the control of crane systems is a well-established research field. As the last review paper was published more than a decade ago, there is a lack of collected and organised information regarding the latest and the newest updates on control strategies for crane control systems. Hence, this paper presents a comprehensive review of crane control strategies discussing the latest research works during the years from 2000 to 2016. Various crane types and control issues are highlighted, followed by the main focus of this paper, an extensive review of the control schemes for diverse types of crane systems that have been carried out in the 21st century. A brief review on modelling of single-pendulum and double-pendulum crane systems is also given. In addition, anti-sway control systems for industrial cranes that are available on the market is described. This paper summarises most of the related work and also pays a special focus on research trends regarding the control of crane systems that have been previously published in the literature. It is envisaged that this review paper will be helpful to new researchers when identifying research directions for this particular area of interest.

  13. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China. (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang


    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33-521mg/L) in NO3(-) concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) analysis, (3)H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from -8.5 to -7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92-467years) and the NO3(-) concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8-411years) and the NO3(-) concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the complex carbonate

  14. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera


    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  15. A review of intelligent systems for heart sound signal analysis. (United States)

    Nabih-Ali, Mohammed; El-Dahshan, El-Sayed A; Yahia, Ashraf S


    Intelligent computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of physicians and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. CAD systems could provide physicians with a suggestion about the diagnostic of heart diseases. The objective of this paper is to review the recent published preprocessing, feature extraction and classification techniques and their state of the art of phonocardiogram (PCG) signal analysis. Published literature reviewed in this paper shows the potential of machine learning techniques as a design tool in PCG CAD systems and reveals that the CAD systems for PCG signal analysis are still an open problem. Related studies are compared to their datasets, feature extraction techniques and the classifiers they used. Current achievements and limitations in developing CAD systems for PCG signal analysis using machine learning techniques are presented and discussed. In the light of this review, a number of future research directions for PCG signal analysis are provided.

  16. Rationing in health systems: A critical review. (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi


    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  17. A Critical Review of the Impacts of Leaking CO2 Gas and Brine on Groundwater Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Christopher F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is a global carbon emission reduction strategy involving the capture of CO2 emitted from fossil fuel burning power plants, as well as the subsequent injection of the captured CO2 gas into deep saline aquifers or depleted oil and gas reservoirs. A critical question that arises from the proposed GCS is the potential impacts of CO2 injection on the quality of drinking-water systems overlying CO2 sequestration storage sites. Although storage reservoirs are evaluated and selected based on their ability to safely and securely store emplaced fluids, leakage of CO2 from storage reservoirs is a primary risk factor and potential barrier to the widespread acceptance of geologic CO2 sequestration (OR Harvey et al. 2013; Y-S Jun et al. 2013; DOE 2007). Therefore, a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage would affect the geochemistry of potable aquifers, and subsequently control or affect elemental and contaminant release via sequential and/or simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes and reactions is vital.

  18. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems. (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H; Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; McMahon, Peter B


    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM(-2)), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM(-2)). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review. (United States)

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N


    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.


    Groundwater is the sole source of residential water supply in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin. A regional three-dimensional groundwater-flow model and three associated demonstration inset models were developed to simulate the groundwater-flow systems in the three-county area. The models were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the three county governments. The objectives of the regional model of Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties were to improve understanding of the groundwaterflow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential water-management programs. The regional groundwater-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, groundwater/surface-water interactions, and groundwater withdrawals from high-capacity wells. Results from the regional model indicate that about 82 percent of groundwater in the three counties is from recharge within the counties; 15 percent is from surface-water sources, consisting primarily of recirculated groundwater seepage in areas with abrupt surface-water-level changes, such as near waterfalls, dams, and the downgradient side of reservoirs and lakes; and 4 percent is from inflow across the county boundaries. Groundwater flow out of the counties is to streams (85 percent), outflow across county boundaries (14 percent), and pumping wells (1 percent). These results demonstrate that the primary source of groundwater withdrawn by pumping wells is water that recharges within the counties and would otherwise discharge to local streams and lakes. Under current conditions, the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers are groundwater discharge locations (gaining reaches) and appear to function as 'fully penetrating' hydraulic boundaries such that groundwater does not cross between Wisconsin and Minnesota beneath them. Being hydraulic boundaries, however, they can change in response to

  1. Using a Three-Dimensional Hydrogeologic Framework to Investigate Potential Sources of Water Springs in the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Belcher, W. R.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C.


    The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system encompasses a proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, and National Park and BLM properties, and provides water for local communities. The model was constructed using a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework and has been used as a resource planning mechanism by the many stakeholders involved, including four United States (U.S) federal agencies (U.S. Department of Energy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) and local counties, towns, and residents. One of the issues in recent model development is simulation of insufficient water to regional discharge areas which form springs in valleys near the center of the system. Given what seems to be likely rock characteristics and geometries at depth, insufficient water is simulated to reach the discharge areas. This "surprise" thus challenges preconceived notions about the system. Here we use the hydrogeologic model to hypothesize alternatives able to produce the observed flow and use the groundwater simulation to test the hypotheses with other available data. Results suggest that the transmissivity measurements need to be used carefully because wells in this system are never fully penetrating, that multiple alternatives are able to produce the springflow, and that one most likely alternative cannot be identified given available data. Consequences of the alternatives are discussed.

  2. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; McMahon, Peter B.


    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM−2), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM−2). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  3. Occurrences of dissolved trace metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) in the Pearl River Estuary (China), a large river-groundwater-estuary system (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Lin, Wenfang; Yang, Xiqian; Zhai, Weidong; Dai, Minhan; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung


    This study for the first time examined dissolved metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) together with dissolved oxygen and carbonate system in the whole Pearl River Estuary system, from the upper rivers to the groundwater discharges until the estuarine zone, and explored their potential impacts in the adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) during May-August 2009. This river-groundwater-estuary system was generally characterized by low dissolved metal levels as a whole, whilst subject to severe perturbations locally. In particular, higher dissolved Cu and Cd occurred in the North River (as high as 60 nmol/L of Cu and 0.99 nmol/L of Cd), as a result of an anthropogenic source from mining activities there. Dissolved Cu levels were elevated in the upper estuary near the city of Guangzhou (Cu: ˜40 nmol/L), which could be attributable to sewage and industrial effluent discharges there. Elevated dissolved metal levels (Cu: ˜20-40 nmol/L; Cd: ˜0.2-0.8 nmol/L) also occurred in the groundwaters and parts of the middle and lower estuaries, which could be attributable to a series of geochemical reactions, e.g., chloride-induced desorption from the suspended sediments, oxidation of metal sulfides, and the partial dissolution of minerals. The high river discharge during our sampling period (May-August 2009) significantly diluted anthropogenic signals in the estuarine mixing zone. Of particular note was the high river discharge (which may reach 18.5 times as high as in the dry season) that transported anthropogenic signals (as indicated by dissolved Cu and Cd) into the adjacent shelf waters of the northern SCS, and might have led to the usually high phytoplankton productivity there (chlorophyll-a value >10 μg/L).

  4. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area (part 2). Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo


    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human environment through groundwater flow system. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has investigated a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture. The hydrological and geo-chemical approach is necessary for revealing the conditions of the groundwater flow system. For the purpose of establishing a methodology for these approach, investigations of flow rates and chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs were carried out in the 3 feeder streams as Urajiro, Imohara and Umegase river locating at the central part of the Yoro river basin. As a result, flow rates and chemical composition data suggested that considerable amount of ground water cultivated at the high permeable sand dominant layer (Daifuku Mt.) preferentially flows toward its strike direction discharging at the downstream region of Imohara and the Umegase river. The rest of the ground water was inferred to form different flowpath toward the dipping direction of bedrock more than 100m at depth and to upwell to the Urajiro River through the low permeable mud layer. Chemical composition and isotopic data indicated that most of the ground water in meteoric water origin is NaCa-HCO 3 type as represented by surface water or the evolved Ca-HCO 3 type water but the part of the upwelling water at the downstream region of Urajiro river is Na-HCO 3 type water with long residence time. This study shows that both hydrological and geo-chemical approach could be available to evaluate the relationships between shallow water and deep-seated groundwater, so it is necessary to apply this approach to regional ground water flow systems. (author)

  5. Comparison of a Conceptual Groundwater Model and Physically Based Groundwater Mode (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zammit, C.; Griffiths, J.; Moore, C.; Woods, R. A.


    Groundwater is a vital resource for human activities including agricultural practice and urban water demand. Hydrologic modelling is an important way to study groundwater recharge, movement and discharge, and its response to both human activity and climate change. To understand the groundwater hydrologic processes nationally in New Zealand, we have developed a conceptually based groundwater flow model, which is fully integrated into a national surface-water model (TopNet), and able to simulate groundwater recharge, movement, and interaction with surface water. To demonstrate the capability of this groundwater model (TopNet-GW), we applied the model to an irrigated area with water shortage and pollution problems in the upper Ruamahanga catchment in Great Wellington Region, New Zealand, and compared its performance with a physically-based groundwater model (MODFLOW). The comparison includes river flow at flow gauging sites, and interaction between groundwater and river. Results showed that the TopNet-GW produced similar flow and groundwater interaction patterns as the MODFLOW model, but took less computation time. This shows the conceptually-based groundwater model has the potential to simulate national groundwater process, and could be used as a surrogate for the more physically based model.

  6. A review on control system algorithm for building automation systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noubissie-Tientcheu, SI


    Full Text Available The building with its components such as Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and lighting constitute a bigger part of energy consumption in Southern Africa. Control system in a building reduced the energy consumption, according to different...

  7. A review of imaging techniques for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Ming J


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a review of imaging techniques and of their utility in system biology. During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology. In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, PET (Positron Emission Tomography, and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology. As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

  8. Assessing groundwater availability and the response of the groundwater system to intensive exploitation in the North China Plain by analysis of long-term isotopic tracer data (United States)

    Su, Chen; Cheng, Zhongshuang; Wei, Wen; Chen, Zongyu


    The use of isotope tracers as a tool for assessing aquifer responses to intensive exploitation is demonstrated and used to attain a better understanding of the sustainability of intensively exploited aquifers in the North China Plain. Eleven well sites were selected that have long-term (years 1985-2014) analysis data of isotopic tracers. The stable isotopes δ18O and δ2H and hydrochemistry were used to understand the hydrodynamic responses of the aquifer system, including unconfined and confined aquifers, to groundwater abstraction. The time series data of 14C activity were also used to assess groundwater age, thereby contributing to an understanding of groundwater sustainability and aquifer depletion. Enrichment of the heavy oxygen isotope (18O) and elevated concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and nitrate were found in groundwater abstracted from the unconfined aquifer, which suggests that intensive exploitation might induce the potential for aquifer contamination. The time series data of 14C activity showed an increase of groundwater age with exploitation of the confined parts of the aquifer system, which indicates that a larger fraction of old water has been exploited over time, and that the groundwater from the deep aquifer has been mined. The current water demand exceeds the sustainable production capabilities of the aquifer system in the North China Plain. Some measures must be taken to ensure major cuts in groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers after a long period of depletion.

  9. Public Health's Approach to Systemic Racism: a Systematic Literature Review. (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kerr, Jelani; Brooms, Derrick; Rollins, Aaron


    Recently, public health has acknowledged racism as a social determinant of health. Much evidence exists on the impact of individual-level racism and discrimination, with little to no examination of racism from the standpoint of systems and structures. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the extent to which public health currently addresses systemic racism in the published literature. Utilizing the PRISMA guidelines, this review examines three widely used databases to examine published literature covering the topic as well as implications for future research and practice. A total of 85 articles were included in the review analysis after meeting study criteria. Across numerous articles, the terms racism and systemic racism are largely absent. A critical need exists for an examination of the historical impact of systemic racism on the social determinants of health and health of marginalized populations.

  10. Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review (United States)

    Gosak, Marko; Markovič, Rene; Dolenšek, Jurij; Slak Rupnik, Marjan; Marhl, Marko; Stožer, Andraž; Perc, Matjaž


    Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present

  11. Extension systems in Southern African countries: A review | Oladele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews extension systems in selected southern African countries with a view of identifying the features of the systems and how they have been able to reach their target audience. Some of the features are use of committees for research and extension linkages, involvement of NGOs and private sector, the use ...

  12. Septic Systems Contribution to Phosphorus in Shallow Groundwater: Field-Scale Studies Using Conventional Drainfield Designs (United States)

    Mechtensimer, Sara


    Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P) in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench) to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide) with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm of gravel on top of 30.5 cm commercial sand and natural soil. Suction cup lysimeters were installed in the drainfields (at 30.5, 61, 106.7 cm below infiltrative surface) and piezometers were installed in the groundwater (>300 cm below infiltrative surface) to capture P dynamics from the continuum of unsaturated to saturated zones in the septic systems. Septic tank effluent (STE), soil-water, and groundwater samples were collected for 64 events (May 2012–Dec 2013) at 2 to 3 days (n = 13), weekly (n = 29), biweekly (n = 17), and monthly (n = 5) intervals. One piezometer was installed up-gradient of the drainfields to monitor background groundwater (n = 15). Samples were analyzed for total P (TP), orthophosphate-P (PO4–P), and other–P (TP—PO4-P). The gravel trench drainfield removed significantly (p300 cm in the groundwater, both systems had similar TP reductions of >97%. After 18 months of STE application, there was no significant increase in groundwater TP concentrations in both systems. We conclude that both drainfield designs are effective at reducing P transport to shallow groundwater. PMID:28107505

  13. Septic Systems Contribution to Phosphorus in Shallow Groundwater: Field-Scale Studies Using Conventional Drainfield Designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mechtensimer

    Full Text Available Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm of gravel on top of 30.5 cm commercial sand and natural soil. Suction cup lysimeters were installed in the drainfields (at 30.5, 61, 106.7 cm below infiltrative surface and piezometers were installed in the groundwater (>300 cm below infiltrative surface to capture P dynamics from the continuum of unsaturated to saturated zones in the septic systems. Septic tank effluent (STE, soil-water, and groundwater samples were collected for 64 events (May 2012-Dec 2013 at 2 to 3 days (n = 13, weekly (n = 29, biweekly (n = 17, and monthly (n = 5 intervals. One piezometer was installed up-gradient of the drainfields to monitor background groundwater (n = 15. Samples were analyzed for total P (TP, orthophosphate-P (PO4-P, and other-P (TP-PO4-P. The gravel trench drainfield removed significantly (p300 cm in the groundwater, both systems had similar TP reductions of >97%. After 18 months of STE application, there was no significant increase in groundwater TP concentrations in both systems. We conclude that both drainfield designs are effective at reducing P transport to shallow groundwater.

  14. On "enabling systems - A strategic review"

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    components that will help a Research Laboratory Infrastructure achieve its mission and goals. This paper addresses many relevant IT related issues and concerns, setting a direction for applications and services, and provides recommendations for technological...

  15. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang


    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO_3"− concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ"1"8O, δ"2H) analysis, "3H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the

  16. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongmei [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cao, Guoliang [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McCallum, James [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)


    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) analysis, {sup 3}H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be

  17. Hydrochemistry of the groundwater flow systems in the Harwell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.


    A comprehensive range of geochemical and isotopic parameters were analysed in the groundwater samples taken from the high permeability formations in the Harwell region. These analyses were undertaken as part of a hydro-chemical validation of groundwater circulation patterns derived from potentiometric data. Hydro-chemical investigations were concentrated upon the Corallian and Great Oolite formations since these respectively overlie and underlie the Oxford Clay. (author)

  18. Detect groundwater flowing from riverbed using a drone (United States)

    Kato, Kenji; Takemon, Yasuhiro


    Estimate the direct flow of groundwater to river is an important step in understanding of hydrodynamics in river system. Function of groundwater in river system does not limit to the mass of water. Continuous supply with thermally stable water from riverbed produces a space with unique condition, which provides various functions for organisms inhabiting in river as a shelter avoiding large shift of temperature, or to maintain productivity for small scale ecosystem by supplying nutrient rich groundwater if it gushes out from the riverbed in a deep pool of river. This may contribute to biodiversity of river system. Such function of groundwater is more significant for rivers run in island and in mountain zone. To evaluate the function of groundwater flowing from riverbed we first try to find such site by using a drone equipped with a sensitive thermo-camera to detect water surface temperature. In the examined area temperature of the groundwater doesn't change much throughout a year at around 15 to 16 °C, while surface temperature of the examined river fluctuates from below 10 °C to over 25 °C throughout seasons. By using this difference in temperature between groundwater and river water we tried to find site where groundwater comes out from the riverbed. Obviously winter when surface temperature becomes below 10 °C is an appropriate season to find groundwater as it comes up to the surface of river with depth ranging from 1 to 3 m. Trial flight surveys of drone were conducted in Kano-river in Izu Peninsula located at southern foot of Mt. Fuji in central Japan. Employed drone was Inspire1 (DJI, China) equipped with a Thermal camera (Zenmuse XT ZXTA 19 FP, FLIR, USA) and operated by Kazuhide Juta (KELEK Co. Ltd., Japan) and Mitsuhiro Komiya (TAM.Co.,LTD). In contrast to the former cases with employing airplane for taking aerial photograph, drone takes photo while flying at a low-altitude. When it flies at 40m above the water surface of river, resolution is at an

  19. A key review of wastewater source heat pump (WWSHP) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepbasli, Arif; Biyik, Emrah; Ekren, Orhan; Gunerhan, Huseyin; Araz, Mustafa


    Highlights: • Comprehensively reviewing WWSHP systems for the first time. • Varying the COP values for heating of the reviewed systems between 1.77 and 10.63. • Ranging the COP values for cooling of the reviewed systems from 2.23 to 5.35. • Being the majority of the performance assessments on the energetic basis. - Abstract: Heat pumps (HPs) are part of the environmentally friendly technologies using renewable energy and have been utilized in the developed countries for years. Wastewater is seen as a renewable heat source for HPs. At the beginning of the 1980s, waste (sewage) water source heat pumps (WWSHPs) were widely applied in North European countries like Sweden and Norway and partially applied in China. In the past two decades, the WWSHP has become increasingly popular due to its advantages of relatively higher energy utilization efficiency and environmental protection. The present study comprehensively reviews WWSHP systems in terms of applications and performance assessments including energetic, exergetic, environmental and economic aspects for the first time to the best of the authors’ knowledge. In this context, a historical development of WWSHPs was briefly given first. Next, wastewater potential and its characteristics were presented while a WWSHP system was introduced. The previously conducted studies on WWSHPs were then reviewed and classified in a tabulated form. Finally, some concluding remarks were listed. The COP values of the reviewed studies ranged from 1.77 to 10.63 for heating and 2.23 to 5.35 for cooling based on the experimental and simulated values. The performance assessments are mostly made using energy analysis methods while the number of exergetic evaluations is very low and has not been comprehensively performed. It is expected that the comprehensive review here will be very beneficial to those dealing with the design, analysis, simulation and performance assessment of WWSHP systems

  20. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.


    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  1. A review on transient monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylac, G.


    A good design must be followed by the continuous verification during service of design basis hypotheses. Transient monitoring techniques described hereafter were developed to fulfill this very logical requirement. They are shown to be useful to improve the reliability, operability, inspection and lifetime of components of the Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary. 16 refs.

  2. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.


    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  3. Application of Fe-Cu/Biochar System for Chlorobenzene Remediation of Groundwater in Inhomogeneous Aquifers


    Xu Zhang; Yanqing Wu; Pingping Zhao; Xin Shu; Qiong Zhou; Zichen Dong


    Chlorobenzene (CB), as a typical Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC), is toxic, highly persistent and easily migrates in water, posing a significant risk to human health and subsurface ecosystems. Therefore, exploring effective approaches to remediate groundwater contaminated by CB is essential. As an enhanced micro-electrolysis system for CB-contaminated groundwater remediation, this study attempted to couple the iron-copper bimetal with biochar. Two series of columns using sands with differ...

  4. Residence time as a key for comprehensive assessment of the relationship between changing land use and nitrates in regional groundwater systems. (United States)

    Cao, Yingjie; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Yinghua


    In this study, an approach is put forward to study the relationship between changing land use and groundwater nitrate contamination in the Sanjiang Plain. This approach emphasizes the importance of groundwater residence time when relating the nitrates to the changing land use. The principles underlying the approach involve the assessment of groundwater residence time by CFCs and the Vogel age model and the reconstruction of the land use at the groundwater recharge time by interpolation. Nitrate trend analysis shows that nitrates have begun to leach into the aquifers since agricultural activities boomed after the 1950s. Hydrochemical analysis implies that the possible process relating to the nitrate reduction in the groundwater is the oxidation of Fe(ii)-silicates. However, the chemical kinetics of the oxidation of Fe(ii)-silicates is slow, so this denitrification process contributes little to the nitrate variations. Stepwise regression shows that the nitrate concentrations of samples had no direct relationship with the land use at the groundwater sampling time, but had a relatively strong relationship with the land use at the groundwater recharge time. Dry land is recognized as the dominant factor contributing to the elevated concentration of nitrates. The nitrogen isotope for nitrate (δ(15)N-NO3) gives a more direct result of the identification of nitrate sources: the use of manure in agricultural activities. Principle component (PC) regression shows that the process of the dry land exploitation is the major process that controls the nitrate contamination in the Sanjiang Plain.

  5. Human effects on the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, central Arizona, 1910–2005 and 2005–2110, using a regional groundwater flow model (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Pool, D.R.; Tillman, Fred D.; Forbes, Brandon T.


    Water budgets were developed for the Verde Valley of central Arizona in order to evaluate the degree to which human stresses have affected the hydrologic system and might affect it in the future. The Verde Valley is a portion of central Arizona wherein concerns have been raised about water availability, particularly perennial base flow of the Verde River. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater Flow Model (NARGFM) was used to generate the water budgets and was run in several configurations for the 1910–2005 and 2005–2110 time periods. The resultant water budgets were subtracted from one another in order to quantify the relative changes that were attributable solely to human stresses; human stresses included groundwater withdrawals and incidental and artificial recharge but did not include, for example, human effects on the global climate. Three hypothetical and varied conditions of human stresses were developed and applied to the model for the 2005–2110 period. On the basis of this analysis, human stresses during 1910–2005 were found to have already affected the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, and human stresses will continue to affect the hydrologic system during 2005–2110. Riparian evapotranspiration decreased and underflow into the Verde Valley increased because of human stresses, and net groundwater discharge to the Verde River in the Verde Valley decreased for the 1910–2005 model runs. The model also showed that base flow at the upstream end of the study area, as of 2005, was about 4,900 acre-feet per year less than it would have been in the absence of human stresses. At the downstream end of the Verde Valley, base flow had been reduced by about 10,000 acre-feet per year by the year 2005 because of human stresses. For the 2005–2110 period, the model showed that base flow at the downstream end of the Verde Valley may decrease by an additional 5,400 to 8,600 acre-feet per year because of past, ongoing, and hypothetical future human

  6. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review. (United States)

    Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T


    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. (United States)

    Rosiles-González, Gabriela; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A; Acosta-González, Gilberto; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D; Brown, Judith K; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Betancourt, Walter Q; Gerba, Charles P; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia


    The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.

  8. Response of the groundwater system in the Guanzhong Basin (central China) to climate change and human activities (United States)

    Wang, Wenke; Zhang, Zaiyong; Duan, Lei; Wang, Zhoufeng; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhang, Qian; Dai, Meiling; Liu, Huizhong; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yibo


    The Guanzhong Basin in central China features a booming economy and has suffered severe drought, resulting in serious groundwater depletion in the last 30 years. As a major water resource, groundwater plays a significant role in water supply. The combined impact of climate change and intensive human activities has caused a substantial decline in groundwater recharge and groundwater levels, as well as degradation of groundwater quality and associated changes in the ecosystems. Based on observational data, an integrated approach was used to assess the impact of climate change and human activities on the groundwater system and the base flow of the river basin. Methods included: river runoff records and a multivariate statistical analysis of data including historical groundwater levels and climate; hydro-chemical investigation and trend analysis of the historical hydro-chemical data; wavelet analysis of climate data; and the base flow index. The analyses indicate a clear warming trend and a decreasing trend in rainfall since the 1960s, in addition to increased human activities since the 1970s. The reduction of groundwater recharge in the past 30 years has led to a continuous depletion of groundwater levels, complex changes of the hydro-chemical environment, localized salinization, and a strong decline of the base flow to the river. It is expected that the results will contribute to a more comprehensive management plan for groundwater and the related eco-environment in the face of growing pressures from intensive human activities superimposed on climate change in this region.

  9. Groundwater-fed irrigation impacts spatially distributed temporal scaling behavior of the natural system: a spatio-temporal framework for understanding water management impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, Laura E; Maxwell, Reed M


    Regional scale water management analysis increasingly relies on integrated modeling tools. Much recent work has focused on groundwater–surface water interactions and feedbacks. However, to our knowledge, no study has explicitly considered impacts of management operations on the temporal dynamics of the natural system. Here, we simulate twenty years of hourly moisture dependent, groundwater-fed irrigation using a three-dimensional, fully integrated, hydrologic model (ParFlow-CLM). Results highlight interconnections between irrigation demand, groundwater oscillation frequency and latent heat flux variability not previously demonstrated. Additionally, the three-dimensional model used allows for novel consideration of spatial patterns in temporal dynamics. Latent heat flux and water table depth both display spatial organization in temporal scaling, an important finding given the spatial homogeneity and weak scaling observed in atmospheric forcings. Pumping and irrigation amplify high frequency (sub-annual) variability while attenuating low frequency (inter-annual) variability. Irrigation also intensifies scaling within irrigated areas, essentially increasing temporal memory in both the surface and the subsurface. These findings demonstrate management impacts that extend beyond traditional water balance considerations to the fundamental behavior of the system itself. This is an important step to better understanding groundwater’s role as a buffer for natural variability and the impact that water management has on this capacity. (paper)

  10. The Evolution of Cooperation in Managed Groundwater Systems: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach (United States)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.


    Human interactions with groundwater systems often exhibit complex features that hinder the sustainable management of the resource. This leads to costly and persistent conflicts over groundwater at the catchment scale. One possible way to address these conflicts is by gaining a better understanding of how social and groundwater dynamics coevolve using agent-based models (ABM). Such models allow exploring 'bottom-up' solutions (i.e., self-organised governance systems), where the behaviour of individual agents (e.g., farmers) results in the emergence of mutual cooperation among groundwater users. There is significant empirical evidence indicating that this kind of 'bottom-up' approach may lead to more enduring and sustainable outcomes, compared to conventional 'top-down' strategies such as centralized control and water right schemes (Ostrom 1990). New modelling tools are needed to study these concepts systematically and efficiently. Our model uses a conceptual framework to study cooperation and the emergence of social norms as initially proposed by Axelrod (1986), which we adapted to groundwater management. We developed an ABM that integrates social mechanisms and the physics of subsurface flow. The model explicitly represents feedback between groundwater conditions and social dynamics, capturing the spatial structure of these interactions and the potential effects on cooperation levels in an agricultural setting. Using this model, we investigate a series of mechanisms that may trigger norms supporting cooperative strategies, which can be sustained and become stable over time. For example, farmers in a self-monitoring community can be more efficient at achieving the objective of sustainable groundwater use than government-imposed regulation. Our coupled model thus offers a platform for testing new schemes promoting cooperation and improved resource use, which can be used as a basis for policy design. Importantly, we hope to raise awareness of agent-based modelling as

  11. Integrated groundwater data management (United States)

    Fitch, Peter; Brodaric, Boyan; Stenson, Matt; Booth, Nathaniel; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew


    The goal of a data manager is to ensure that data is safely stored, adequately described, discoverable and easily accessible. However, to keep pace with the evolution of groundwater studies in the last decade, the associated data and data management requirements have changed significantly. In particular, there is a growing recognition that management questions cannot be adequately answered by single discipline studies. This has led a push towards the paradigm of integrated modeling, where diverse parts of the hydrological cycle and its human connections are included. This chapter describes groundwater data management practices, and reviews the current state of the art with enterprise groundwater database management systems. It also includes discussion on commonly used data management models, detailing typical data management lifecycles. We discuss the growing use of web services and open standards such as GWML and WaterML2.0 to exchange groundwater information and knowledge, and the need for national data networks. We also discuss cross-jurisdictional interoperability issues, based on our experience sharing groundwater data across the US/Canadian border. Lastly, we present some future trends relating to groundwater data management.

  12. A Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Samples around a Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling station in Diobu area of Port Harcourt for four years at intervals of two years with a view to determine the level of groundwater pollution. It examines the physiochemical, major ions and heavy metal aspect of groundwater quality around the study ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashouty Mohamed El


    Full Text Available In Darb El Arbaein, the groundwater is the only water resources. The aquifer system starts from Paleozoic-Mesozoic to Upper Cretaceous sandstone rocks. They overlay the basement rocks and the aquifer is confined. In the present research, the performance of the statistical analyses to classify groundwater samples depending on their chemical characters has been tested. The hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data of 92 groundwater samples was obtained from the GARPAD authority in northern, central, and southern Darb El Arbaein. A robust classification scheme for partitioning groundwater chemistry into homogeneous groups was an important tool for the characterization of Nubian sandstone aquifer. We test the performance of the many available graphical and statistical methodologies used to classify water samples. R-mode, Q-mode, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis were investigated. All the methods were discussed and compared as to their ability to cluster, ease of use, and ease of interpretation. The correlation investigation clarifies the relationship among the lithology, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic. Factor investigation revealed three factors namely; the evaporation process-agriculturalimpact-lithogenic dissolution, the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer system, and the surface meteoric water that rechargethe aquifer system. Two main clusters that subdivided into four sub clusters were identified in groundwater system based on hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data. They reflect the impact of geomedia, hydrogeology, geographic position, and agricultural wastewater. The groundwater is undersaturated with respect to most selected minerals. The groundwater was supersaturated with respect to iron minerals in northern and southern Darb El Arbaein. The partial pressure of CO2 of the groundwater versus saturation index of calcite shows the gradual change in PCO2 from atmospheric to the present aquifer

  14. The impact of groundwater velocity fields on streamlines in an aquifer system with a discontinuous aquitard (Inner Mongolia, China) (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhao, Yingwang; Xu, Hua


    Many numerical methods that simulate groundwater flow, particularly the continuous Galerkin finite element method, do not produce velocity information directly. Many algorithms have been proposed to improve the accuracy of velocity fields computed from hydraulic potentials. The differences in the streamlines generated from velocity fields obtained using different algorithms are presented in this report. The superconvergence method employed by FEFLOW, a popular commercial code, and some dual-mesh methods proposed in recent years are selected for comparison. The applications to depict hydrogeologic conditions using streamlines are used, and errors in streamlines are shown to lead to notable errors in boundary conditions, the locations of material interfaces, fluxes and conductivities. Furthermore, the effects of the procedures used in these two types of methods, including velocity integration and local conservation, are analyzed. The method of interpolating velocities across edges using fluxes is shown to be able to eliminate errors associated with refraction points that are not located along material interfaces and streamline ends at no-flow boundaries. Local conservation is shown to be a crucial property of velocity fields and can result in more accurate streamline densities. A case study involving both three-dimensional and two-dimensional cross-sectional models of a coal mine in Inner Mongolia, China, are used to support the conclusions presented.

  15. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12 (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.


    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  16. Corneal manifestations of selected systemic diseases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D.H. Gillan


    Full Text Available The corneal manifestations of several selected systemic diseases are reviewed. Metabolic, immunologic and inflammatory and infectious diseases are included. A brief overview of each disease and how it manifests in the cornea is discussed. The importance of conducting a slit-lamp examination on every patient is emphasised.

  17. Information for consideration in reviewing groundwater protection plans for uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.


    Guidelines and acceptance criteria were developed for reviewing certain aspects of groundwater protection plans for uranium mill tailing sites. The aspects covered include: (1) leaching and long-term releases of hazardous and radioactive constituents from tailings and other contaminated materials, (2) attenuation of hazardous and radioactive constituents in groundwater under saturated and unsaturated conditions, (3) design and implementation of groundwater monitoring programs, (4) design and construction of groundwater protection barriers, and (5) efficiency and effectiveness of groundwater cleanup programs. The objective of these guidelines is to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in reviewing Remedial Action Plans for inactive waste sites and licensing application documents for active commercial uranium and thorium mills

  18. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi


    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  19. A review of studies on community based early warning systems


    Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari


    Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...

  20. Survey of faculty perceptions regarding a peer review system. (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ronald L; Cunningham, Meredith L; Siewert, Bettina; Kruskal, Jonathan B


    Virtually all radiologists participate in peer review, but to our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of their opinions toward various aspects of the process. The study qualified for quality assurance exemption from the institutional review board. A questionnaire sent to all radiology faculty at our institution assessed their views about peer review in general, as well as case selection and scoring, consensus section review for rating and presentation of errors, and impact on radiologist performance. Of 52 questionnaires sent, 50 were completed (response rate, 96.2%). Of these, 44% agreed that our RADPEER-like system is a waste of time, and 58% believed it is done merely to meet hospital/regulatory requirements. Conversely, 46% agreed that peer review improves radiologist performance, 32% agreed that it decreases medical error, and 42% believed that peer review results are valuable to protect radiologists in cases referred to the medical board. A large majority perform all peer reviews close to the deadline, and substantial minorities frequently or almost always select more than one previous examination for a single medical record number (28%), consciously select "less time intensive" cases (22%), and intentionally avoid cases requiring more time to peer review (30%). Almost one-half of respondents agreed that peer review has value, but as currently performed is a waste of time. The method for selecting cases raises serious questions regarding selection bias. A new approach is needed that stresses education of all radiologists by learning from the mistakes of others. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr., Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer


    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of

  2. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr, Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer


    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock's ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock's primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of stratigraphic

  3. Differentiation among Multiple Sources of Anthropogenic Nitrate in a Complex Groundwater System using Dual Isotope Systematics: A case study from Mortandad Canyon, New Mexico (United States)

    Larson, T. E.; Perkins, G.; Longmire, P.; Heikoop, J. M.; Fessenden, J. E.; Rearick, M.; Fabyrka-Martin, J.; Chrystal, A. E.; Dale, M.; Simmons, A. M.


    The groundwater system beneath Los Alamos National Laboratory has been affected by multiple sources of anthropogenic nitrate contamination. Average NO3-N concentrations of up to 18.2±1.7 mg/L have been found in wells in the perched intermediate aquifer beneath one of the more affected sites within Mortandad Canyon. Sources of nitrate potentially reaching the alluvial and intermediate aquifers include: (1) sewage effluent, (2) neutralized nitric acid, (3) neutralized 15N-depleted nitric acid (treated waste from an experiment enriching nitric acid in 15N), and (4) natural background nitrate. Each of these sources is unique in δ18O and δ15N space. Using nitrate stable isotope ratios, a mixing model for the three anthropogenic sources of nitrate was established, after applying a linear subtraction of the background component. The spatial and temporal variability in nitrate contaminant sources through Mortandad Canyon is clearly shown in ternary plots. While microbial denitrification has been shown to change groundwater nitrate stable isotope ratios in other settings, the redox potential, relatively high dissolved oxygen content, increasing nitrate concentrations over time, and lack of observed NO2 in these wells suggest minimal changes to the stable isotope ratios have occurred. Temporal trends indicate that the earliest form of anthropogenic nitrate in this watershed was neutralized nitric acid. Alluvial wells preserve a trend of decreasing nitrate concentrations and mixing models show decreasing contributions of 15N-depleted nitric acid. Nearby intermediate wells show increasing nitrate concentrations and mixing models indicate a larger component derived from 15N-depleted nitric acid. These data indicate that the pulse of neutralized 15N-depleted nitric acid that was released into Mortandad Canyon between 1986 and 1989 has infiltrated through the alluvial aquifer and is currently affecting two intermediate wells. This hypothesis is consistent with previous

  4. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc


    results. Also we discuss fundamental challenges in high resolution groundwater modeling and address various issues that range from computational challenges - e.g. computational time, memory, and parallelization issues - to lack of sufficient detail/fine information for model validation and parameterization - including atmospheric forcing and emergent scaling problems. References: de Graaf et al., Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2014), Dürr et al., Global Biogeochemical Cycles (2005), Gleeson et al., Geophysical Research Letter (2011), Gleeson et al., Geophysical Research Letter (2014), Harbaugh et al., MODFLOW-2000 (2000), Hartmann & Moosdorf, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems (2012), Sutanudjaja et al., Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2011), Sutanudjaja et al., Water Resources Research (2014a), Sutanudjaja et al., AGU Fall Meeting (2014b), see: van Beek et al., Water Resources Research (2011),

  5. Initial site characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume discharging to a surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, S.J.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water, Wembley, WA; Davis, G.B.; Rayner, J.L.; Fisher, S.J.; Clement, T.P.


    Preliminary characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume flowing towards a tidally- and seasonally-forced estuarine system has been completed at a site in Perth, Western Australia. Installation and sampling of multiport boreholes enabled fine scale (0.5-m) vertical definition of hydrocarbon concentrations. Vertical electrical conductivity profiles from multiport and spear probe sampling into the river sediments indicated that two groundwater/river water interfaces or dispersion zones are present: (a) an upper dispersion zone between brackish river water and groundwater, and (b) a lower interface between groundwater and deeper saline water. On-line water level loggers show that near-shore groundwater levels are also strongly influence by tidal oscillation. Results from the initial site characterisation will be used to plan further investigations of contaminated groundwater/surface water interactions and the biodegradation processes occurring at the site

  6. Optimal maintenance of multi-component systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Nicolai (Robin); R. Dekker (Rommert)


    textabstractIn this article we give an overview of the literature on multi-component maintenance optimization. We focus on work appearing since the 1991 survey "A survey of maintenance models for multi-unit systems" by Cho and Parlar. This paper builds forth on the review article by Dekker et al.

  7. Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Meta-Analytic Review (United States)

    Kulik, James A.; Fletcher, J. D.


    This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems. The median effect of intelligent tutoring in the 50 evaluations was to raise test scores 0.66 standard deviations over conventional levels, or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in…

  8. A Review of Decisions Support Systems for Manufacturing Systems


    Felsberger, Andreas; Oberegger, Bernhard; Reiner, Gerald


    In the field of manufacturing systems automated data acquisition and development of technological innovations like manufacturing execution systems (MES), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Advanced Planning Systems (APS) and new trends in Big Data and Business Intelligence (BI) have given rise to new applications and methods of existing decisionsupport technologies. Today manufacturers need an adaptive system that helps to react and adapt to the constantly changing business environment. The ...

  9. Effectiveness of nursing management information systems: a systematic review. (United States)

    Choi, Mona; Yang, You Lee; Lee, Sun-Mi


    The purpose of this study was to review evaluation studies of nursing management information systems (NMISs) and their outcome measures to examine system effectiveness. For the systematic review, a literature search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted to retrieve original articles published between 1970 and 2014. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms included informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, medical informatics application, and management information systems for information systems and evaluation studies and nursing evaluation research for evaluation research. Additionally, manag(*) and admin(*), and nurs(*) were combined. Title, abstract, and full-text reviews were completed by two reviewers. And then, year, author, type of management system, study purpose, study design, data source, system users, study subjects, and outcomes were extracted from the selected articles. The quality and risk of bias of the studies that were finally selected were assessed with the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS) criteria. Out of the 2,257 retrieved articles, a total of six articles were selected. These included two scheduling programs, two nursing cost-related programs, and two patient care management programs. For the outcome measurements, usefulness, time saving, satisfaction, cost, attitude, usability, data quality/completeness/accuracy, and personnel work patterns were included. User satisfaction, time saving, and usefulness mostly showed positive findings. The study results suggest that NMISs were effective in time saving and useful in nursing care. Because there was a lack of quality in the reviewed studies, well-designed research, such as randomized controlled trials, should be conducted to more objectively evaluate the effectiveness of NMISs.

  10. Application of a method for comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of a ground-water flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naymik, T.G.


    To evaluate the inability of a one-dimensional ground-water model to interact continuously with surrounding hydraulic head gradients, simulations using one-dimensional and two-dimensional ground-water flow models were compared. This approach used two types of models: flow-conserving one-and-two dimensional models, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional models designed to yield two-dimensional solutions. The hydraulic conductivities of controlling features were varied and model comparison was based on the travel times of marker particles. The solutions within each of the two model types compare reasonably well, but a three-dimensional solution is required to quantify the comparison

  11. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review. (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa


    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  12. Groundwater quality mapping using geographic information system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the corporation area of Gulbarga City located in the northern part of Karnataka State, India, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) technique. GIS, a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground ...

  13. A GIS/Remote Sensing-based methodology for groundwater potentiality assessment in Tirnavos area, Greece (United States)

    Oikonomidis, D.; Dimogianni, S.; Kazakis, N.; Voudouris, K.


    The aim of this paper is to assess the groundwater potentiality combining Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing with data obtained from the field, as an additional tool to the hydrogeological research. The present study was elaborated in the broader area of Tirnavos, covering 419.4 km2. The study area is located in Thessaly (central Greece) and is crossed by two rivers, Pinios and Titarisios. Agriculture is one of the main elements of Thessaly's economy resulting in intense agricultural activity and consequently increased exploitation of groundwater resources. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) were used in order to create a map that depicts the likelihood of existence of groundwater, consisting of five classes, showing the groundwater potentiality and ranging from very high to very low. The extraction of this map is based on the study of input data such as: rainfall, potential recharge, lithology, lineament density, slope, drainage density and depth to groundwater. Weights were assigned to all these factors according to their relevance to groundwater potential and eventually a map based on weighted spatial modeling system was created. Furthermore, a groundwater quality suitability map was illustrated by overlaying the groundwater potentiality map with the map showing the potential zones for drinking groundwater in the study area. The results provide significant information and the maps could be used from local authorities for groundwater exploitation and management.

  14. Estimation of groundwater recharge in sedimentary rock aquifer systems in the Oti basin of Gushiegu District, Northern Ghana (United States)

    Afrifa, George Yamoah; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Chegbeleh, Larry Pax


    Sustainable development and the management of groundwater resources for optimal socio-economic development constitutes one of the most effective strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change in rural areas where poverty is a critical cause of environmental damage. This research assessed groundwater recharge and its spatial and temporal variations in Gushiegu District in the Northern Region of Ghana, where groundwater is the main source of water supply for most uses. Isotopic data of precipitation and groundwater were used to infer the origin of groundwater and the possible relationship between groundwater and surface water in the partially metamorphosed sedimentary aquifer system in the study area. Though the data do not significantly establish strong relation between groundwater and surface water, the study suggests that groundwater in the area is of meteoric origin. However, the data also indicate significant enrichment of the heavy isotopes (18O and 2H) in groundwater relative to rainwater in the area. The Chloride Mass Balance (CMB) and Water Table Fluctuations (WTF) techniques were used to quantitatively estimate the groundwater recharge in the area. The results suggest groundwater recharge in a range of 13.9 mm/y - 218 mm/y, with an average of 89 mm/yr, representing about 1.4%-21.8% (average 8.9%) of the annual precipitation in the area. There is no clearly defined trend in the temporal variations of groundwater recharge in the area, but the spatial variations are discussed in relation to the underlying lithologies. The results suggest that the fraction of precipitation that reaches the saturated zone as groundwater recharge is largely controlled by the vertical hydraulic conductivities of the material of the unsaturated zone. The vertical hydraulic conductivity coupled with humidity variations in the area modulates the vertical infiltration and percolation of precipitation.

  15. Proceedings of the fifth international groundwater conference on the assessment and management of groundwater resources in hard rock systems with special reference to basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangarajan, M.; Mayilswami, C.; Kulkarni, P.S.; Singh, V.P.


    Groundwater resources in hard rock regions with limited renewable potential have to be managed judiciously to ensure adequate supplies of dependable quantity and quality. It is a natural resource with economic, strategic and environmental value, which is under stress both due to changing climatic and anthropogenic factors. Therefore the management strategies need to be aimed at sustenance of this limited resource. In India, and also elsewhere in the world major parts of the semi-arid regions are characterized by hard rocks and it is of vital importance to understand the nature of the aquifer systems and its current stress conditions. Though the achievements through scientific development in exploration and exploitation are commendable, it has adversely affected the hard rock aquifer system, both in terms of quantity and quality; which is of major concern today. In order to reverse the situation, better management strategy of groundwater resources needs to be devised for prevention of further degradation of quality and meeting out the future demand of quantity. This necessitates: understanding the flow mechanism, evaluating the potential and evolving optimal utilization schemes, and assessing and monitoring quality in the changing scenario of anthropogenically induced agricultural, urban, industrial and climatic change. The groundwater flow mechanism through fractures in hard rocks is yet to be fully understood in terms of fracture geometry and its relation to groundwater flow. The characterization of flow geometry in basaltic aquifer is yet to be fully explored. Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic factors is very slow process with long-term impacts on carbon cycle and global climatic change on one hand and quality on the other. It is generally recognized that the prevention of groundwater pollution is cheaper than its remedial measures in the long run. Furthermore, because of the nature of groundwater flow and the complexity and management uncertainty of

  16. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  17. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.


    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The US Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. 12 refs., 4 figs

  18. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.


    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The U.S. Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. Computer code used: SWIFT II (flow and transport code). 4 figs., 12 refs

  19. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali


    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  20. Climate proxy data as groundwater tracers in regional flow systems (United States)

    Clark, J. F.; Morrissey, S. K.; Stute, M.


    The isotopic and chemical signatures of groundwater reflect local climate conditions. By systematically analyzing groundwater and determining their hydrologic setting, records of past climates can be constructed. Because of their chemistries and relatively uncomplicated source functions, dissolved noble gases have yielded reliable records of continental temperatures for the last 30,000 to 50,000 years. Variations in the stable isotope compositions of groundwater due to long term climate changes have also been documented over these time scales. Because glacial - interglacial climate changes are relatively well known, these climate proxies can be used as "stratigraphic" markers within flow systems and used to distinguish groundwaters that have recharged during the Holocene from those recharged during the last glacial period, important time scales for distinguishing regional and local flow systems in many aquifers. In southern Georgia, the climate proxy tracers were able to identify leakage from surface aquifers into the Upper Floridan aquifer in areas previously thought to be confined. In south Florida, the transition between Holocene and glacial signatures in the Upper Floridan aquifer occurs mid-way between the recharge area and Lake Okeechobee. Down gradient of the lake, the proxies are uniform, indicating recharge during the last glacial period. Furthermore, there is no evidence for leakage from the shallow aquifers into the Upper Floridan. In the Lower Floridan, the climate proxies indicate that the saline water entered the aquifer after sea level rose to its present level.

  1. Association of Childhood Obesity and the Immune System: A Systematic Review of Reviews. (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Roufarshbaf, Mohammad; Soheili, Sina; Payghambarzadeh, Farzaneh; Masjedi, Mohsen


    The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a serious health problem over the past decades. As the immune system is greatly affected by excess weight, in this review of reviews, we discuss the findings of review articles about the relationship between childhood/maternal obesity and children's immune system. We searched English-language articles in PubMed, Scopus, ISI Thomson Reuters, and Google Scholar databases. All relevant reviews, either systematic or narrative, were retrieved. Then their quality was assessed by using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews and International Narrative Systematic Assessment tools, respectively. In the final step, 26 reviews were included. Our review suggests that childhood obesity is associated with extensive changes in the serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and proteins, as well as the number of immune cells and their behavior. Therefore, it might cause or exacerbate diseases such as asthma, allergy, atopic dermatitis (AD), and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Moreover, childhood obesity may reduce the immune system responsiveness to vaccines and microorganisms. Furthermore, studies suggest that maternal obesity increases the risk of asthma in offspring. Future studies are needed to determine different associations of childhood obesity with allergy, atophic dermatitis, and autoimmune diseases.

  2. Utilization threshold of surface water and groundwater based on the system optimization of crop planting structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang FU,Jiahong LI,Tianxiao LI,Dong LIU,Song CUI


    Full Text Available Based on the diversity of the agricultural system, this research calculates the planting structures of rice, maize and soybean considering the optimal economic-social-ecological aspects. Then, based on the uncertainty and randomness of the water resources system, the interval two-stage stochastic programming method, which introduces the uncertainty of the interval number, is used to calculate the groundwater exploitation and the use efficiency of surface water. The method considers the minimum cost of water as the objective of the uncertainty model for surface water and groundwater joint scheduling optimization for different planting structures. Finally, by calculating harmonious entropy, the optimal exploitation utilization interval of surface water and groundwater is determined for optimal cultivation in the Sanjiang Plain. The optimal matching of the planting structure under the economic system is suitable when the mining ratio of the surface is in 44.13%—45.45% and the exploitation utilization of groundwater is in 54.82%—66.86%, the optimal planting structure under the social system is suitable when surface water mining ratio is in 47.84%—48.04% and the groundwater exploitation threshold is in 67.07%—72.00%. This article optimizes the economic-social-ecological-water system, which is important for the development of a water- and food-conserving society and providing a more accurate management environment.

  3. Micropollutants in groundwater from septic systems: Transformations, transport mechanisms, and human health risk assessment. (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Wilson, P Chris; Williams, Clinton F


    Septic systems may contribute micropollutants to shallow groundwater and surface water. We constructed two in situ conventional drainfields (drip dispersal and gravel trench) and an advanced drainfield of septic systems to investigate the fate and transport of micropollutants to shallow groundwater. Unsaturated soil-water and groundwater samples were collected, over 32 sampling events (January 2013 to June 2014), from the drainfields (0.31-1.07 m deep) and piezometers (3.1-3.4 m deep). In addition to soil-water and groundwater, effluent samples collected from the septic tank were also analyzed for 20 selected micropollutants, including wastewater markers, hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), a plasticizer, and their transformation products. The removal efficiencies of micropollutants from septic tank effluent to groundwater were similar among three septic systems and were 51-89% for sucralose and 53->99% for other micropollutants. Even with high removal rates within the drainfields, six PPCPs and sucralose with concentrations ranging from septic systems to ecosystem and human health is warranted for the long-term sustainability of septic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A key review of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Biyik


    The two fundamental research areas in the BIPV and BIPVT systems are observed to be i improvements on system efficiency by ventilation, hence obtaining a higher yield with lowering the panel temperature ii new thin film technologies that are well suited for building integration. Several approaches to achieve these objectives are reported in the literature as presented in this paper. It is expected that this comprehensive review will be beneficial to researchers and practitioners involved or interested in the design, analysis, simulation, and performance evaluation, financial development and incentives, new methods and trends of BIPV systems.

  5. [Model-based biofuels system analysis: a review]. (United States)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhang, Xiliang; Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin


    Model-based system analysis is an important tool for evaluating the potential and impacts of biofuels, and for drafting biofuels technology roadmaps and targets. The broad reach of the biofuels supply chain requires that biofuels system analyses span a range of disciplines, including agriculture/forestry, energy, economics, and the environment. Here we reviewed various models developed for or applied to modeling biofuels, and presented a critical analysis of Agriculture/Forestry System Models, Energy System Models, Integrated Assessment Models, Micro-level Cost, Energy and Emission Calculation Models, and Specific Macro-level Biofuel Models. We focused on the models' strengths, weaknesses, and applicability, facilitating the selection of a suitable type of model for specific issues. Such an analysis was a prerequisite for future biofuels system modeling, and represented a valuable resource for researchers and policy makers.

  6. Power system stability enhancement using facts controllers: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abido, M. A


    In recent years, power demand has increased substantially while the expansion of power generation and transmission has been severely limited due to limited resources and environmental restrictions. As a consequence, some transmission lines are heavily loaded and the system stability becomes a power transfer-limiting factor. Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controllers have been mainly used for solving various power system steady state control problems. However, recent studies reveal that FACTS controllers could be employed to enhance power system stability in addition to their main function of power flow control. The literature shows an increasing interest in this subject for the last two decades, where the enhancement of system stability using FACTS controllers has been extensively investigated. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the research and developments in the power system stability enhancement using FACTS damping controllers. Several technical issues related to FACTS installations have been highlighted and performance comparison of different FACTS controllers has been discussed. In addition, some of the utility experience, real-world installations, and semiconductor technology development have been reviewed and summarized. Applications of FACTS to other power system studies have also been discussed. About two hundred twenty seven research publications have been classified and appended for a quick reference. (author)

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H


    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  8. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenauer, A.E.


    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs.

  9. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee


    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  10. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee


    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.

  11. A review of programmable systems associated with Fermilab experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.


    In this paper we review the design and application of programmable systems for Fermilab experiments. The high luminosity fixed target environment at Fermilab has been a very fertile ground for the development of sophisticated, powerful triggering systems. A few of these are integrated systems designed to be flexible and to have broad application. Many are dedicated triggers taking advantage of large scale integrated circuits to focus on the specific needs of one experiment. In addition, the data acquisition requirements of large detectors, existing and planned, are being met with programmable systems to process the data. Offline reconstruction of data places a very heavy load on large general purpose computers. This offers a potentially very fruitful area for new developments involving programmable dedicated systems. Some of the present thinking at Fermilab regarding offline reconstruction processors will be described. (orig.)

  12. Independent technical reviews for groundwater and soil remediation projects at US Department Of Energy sites - 59188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, Dawn S.; Chamberlain, Grover; Morse, John G.; Petersen, Scott W.


    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management has supported independent technical reviews of soil and groundwater projects at multiple DOE sites over the last 10 years. These reviews have resulted in significant design improvements to remedial plans that have accelerated cleanup and site closure. Many have also resulted in improved understanding of complex subsurface conditions, promoting better approaches to design and implementation of new technologies. Independent technical reviews add value, because they provide another perspective to problem solving and act as a check for especially challenging problems. By bringing in a team of independent experts with a broad experience base, alternative solutions are recommended for consideration and evaluation. In addition, the independence of the panel is significant, because it is able to address politically sensitive issues. The expert panel members typically bring lessons learned from other sites to help solve the DOE problems. In addition, their recommendations at a particular site can often be applied at other sites, making the review even more valuable. The review process can vary, but some common lessons ensure a successful review: - Use a multi-disciplinary broadly experienced team; - Engage the panel early and throughout the project; - Involve regulators and stakeholders in the workshop, if appropriate. - Provide sufficient background information; - Close the workshop with a debriefing followed by a written report. Many groundwater remediation challenges remain at DOE sites. Independent technical reviews have and will ensure that the best capabilities and experience are applied to reduce risks and uncertainties. Even though the groundwater remediation industry has developed significantly over the last twenty years, advancements are needed to address the complexities of the subsurface at the DOE sites. These advancements have tremendous potential to save millions of dollars and to accelerate the

  13. The occurrence of fluoride in South African groundwater: A water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluoride data were obtained by extracting fluoride groundwater quality data from DWAF's Water Management Systems (WMS) database. STATISTICA and ARCVIEW were used to process the data. The dental fluorosis data were obtained from a field study conducted by the Department of Health. The degree of dental ...

  14. Complex groundwater flow systems as traveling agent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver López Corona


    Full Text Available Analyzing field data from pumping tests, we show that as with many other natural phenomena, groundwater flow exhibits complex dynamics described by 1/f power spectrum. This result is theoretically studied within an agent perspective. Using a traveling agent model, we prove that this statistical behavior emerges when the medium is complex. Some heuristic reasoning is provided to justify both spatial and dynamic complexity, as the result of the superposition of an infinite number of stochastic processes. Even more, we show that this implies that non-Kolmogorovian probability is needed for its study, and provide a set of new partial differential equations for groundwater flow.

  15. Geochemical and isotopic determination of deep groundwater contributions and salinity to the shallow groundwater and surface water systems, Mesilla Basin, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico (United States)

    Robertson, A.; Carroll, K. C.; Kubicki, C.; Purtshert, R.


    The Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system, extending from southern New Mexico to Chihuahua, Mexico, is a priority transboundary aquifer under the 2006 United States­-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing groundwater use by municipal, industrial, and agricultural users on both sides of the international border raise concerns about long-term aquifer sustainability. Relative contributions of present-day and "paleo" recharge to sustainable fresh groundwater yields has not been determined and evidence suggests that a large source of salinity at the distal end of the Mesilla Basin is saline discharge from deep groundwater flow. The magnitude and distribution of those deep saline flow paths are not determined. The contribution of deep groundwater to discharge and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface water of the Mesilla Basin will be determined by collecting discrete groundwater samples and analyzing for aqueous geochemical and isotopic tracers, as well as the radioisotopes of argon and krypton. Analytes include major ions, trace elements, the stable isotopes of water, strontium and boron isotopes, uranium isotopes, the carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gas concentrations and helium isotope ratios. Dissolved gases are extracted and captured from groundwater wells using membrane contactors in a process known as ultra-trace sampling. Gas samples are analyzed for radioisotope ratios of krypton by the ATTA method and argon by low-level counting. Effectiveness of the ultra-trace sampling device and method was evaluated by comparing results of tritium concentrations to the krypton-85 content. Good agreement between the analyses, especially in samples with undetectable tritium, indicates that the ultra-trace procedure is effective and confirms that introduction of atmospheric air has not occurred. The geochemistry data indicate a complex system of geochemical

  16. Biogeochemical dynamics of pollutants in Insitu groundwater remediation systems (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Millot, R.; Rose, J.; Négrel, P.; Battaglia-Brunnet, F.; Diels, L.


    Insitu (bio) remediation of groundwater contaminants has been area of potential research interest in last few decades as the nature of contaminant encountered has also changed drastically. This gives tough challenge to researchers in finding a common solution for all contaminants together in one plume. Redox processes play significant role in pollutant dynamics and mobility in such systems. Arsenic particularly in reduced environments can get transformed into its reduced form (As3+), which is apparently more mobile and highly toxic. Also parallel sulfate reduction can lead to sulfide production and formation of thioarsenic species. On the other hand heavy metals (Zn, Fe, and Cd) in similar conditions will favour more stable metal sulfide precipitation. In the present work, we tested Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) in handling such issues and found promising results. Although it has been well known for contaminants like arsenic and chlorinated compounds but not much explored for heavy metals. Its high available surface area supports precipitation and co -precipitation of contaminants and its highly oxidizing nature and water born hydrogen production helps in stimulation of microbial activities in sediment and groundwater. These sulfate and Iron reducing bacteria can further fix heavy metals as stable metal sulfides by using hydrogen as potential electron donor. In the present study flow through columns (biotic and control) were set up in laboratory to understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments, also the impact of microbiology on performance of ZVI was studied. These glass columns (30 x 4cm) with intermediate sampling points were monitored over constant temperature (20°C) and continuous groundwater (up)flow at ~1ml/hr throughout the experiment. Simulated groundwater was prepared in laboratory containing sulfate, metals (Zn,Cd) and arsenic (AsV). While chemical and microbial parameters were followed regularly over time, solid phase has been

  17. Isotopes reveal dynamics of groundwater system in Region 2, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, N.D.S.; Racadio, C.D.T.; Sucgang, R.J.; Castañeda, S.S.


    Steady economic and population growth in Region 2 could lead to an exponential increase freshwater demand. However, region 2’s main source of freshwater is groundwater and, if not checked and managed carefully, it could eventually affect the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources in Water Resource Region 2 (WRR2). Stable isotopes along with Tritium analysis in different water bodies such as rain, shallow and deep groundwater, springs and rivers were used to gain insight about the hydrological process in WRR2. Local meteoric water line for WRR2 was found to be δ2H = 8.6 δ 18O + 13.3 (r = 0.98). The estimated annual mean, which was used as a local index was to be -7.1 ‰ δ “1”8O_v_s_m_o_w_-_s_l_a_p. Shallow wells (20 – 30 m) and production wells (multi-screened wells, max depth of about 100 – 120m) were found to exhibit relatively more enrich than the index (i.e. -7.1‰) with means of -6.2 ‰ (s.d. 1.1‰, n=19) and -6.6 ‰ (s.d. 0.9; n= 151), respectively, which was an indication of infiltration of evaporated waters possibly from river and irrigation waters. Tritium analysis were done on selected sites to identify groundwater age (GWA) and possibly track the flow of groundwater from recharge areas (such as in Nueva Vizcaya, GWA = 3 years) down to the plains (Tuguegarao, GWA range from 9 to 30 years). Groundwaters drawn from production wells in Tuguegarao with ages of more than 30 years suggest that more fraction of water were being drawn from deeper aquifers. Such scenario could mean that were less water in shallow aquifers (e.g. 30 m deep) which are typically younger in age than waters found at deeper aquifers (e.g. 100 m deep). (author)

  18. Human virus and microbial indicator occurrence in public-supply groundwater systems: meta-analysis of 12 international studies (United States)

    Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. This study examines data from 12 international groundwater studies (conducted 1992–2013). Sites were chosen from 718 public drinking-water systems with a range of hydrogeological conditions. Focus was on testing the value of indicato...

  19. Rhythms in the endocrine system of fish: a review. (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Azpeleta, Clara; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando


    The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day. We mainly focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which can be considered as the master axis of the endocrine system of vertebrates and regulates a great variety of functions, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis, stress response, and osmoregulation. In addition, the rhythms of other hormones, such as melatonin and the factors, produced in the gastrointestinal system of fish are reviewed.

  20. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems. (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida


    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work.

  1. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida


    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  2. A review of the National pharmacovigilance system in Malta - implementing and operating a pharmacovigilance management system. (United States)

    Tanti, Amy; Micallef, Benjamin; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Borg, John-Joseph


    Regulatory authorities have a legal mandate to implement and maintain a Pharmacovigilance System designed to monitor the safety of authorised medicinal products and detect any change to their risk-benefit balance. Areas covered: This review maps the implementation of pharmacovigilance activities in Malta since accession in the EU in mid 2004 and discusses the challenges the Maltese Regulator encountered while setting up adequate and effective systems to fulfil its legal mandate. Areas reviewed are those around ADR reporting, promotion and safety communications including rapid alerts and recalls, direct healthcare professional communications, risk minimisation measures and safety circulars and quality systems. Expert opinion: Within a ten year period, 3 EU directives on pharmacovigilance were implemented by our agency. Despite limitations to resources, based on a prioritised implementation, the legislation provisions are now fully operational with a good level of sustainability. Lessons learnt from this process are discussed in this review. The coming years will involve strengthening and consolidation of existing processes.

  3. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis. (United States)


    A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate meaningful learning outcomes

  4. Thiophene Scaffold as Prospective Central Nervous System Agent: A Review. (United States)

    Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Aggarwal, Swati; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Arun K


    Heterocyclic compounds are extensively dispersed in nature and are vital for life. Various investigational approaches towards Structural Activity Relationship that focus upon the exploration of optimized candidates have become vastly important. Literature studies tell that for a series of compounds that are imperative in industrial and medicinal chemistry, thiophene acts as parent. Among various classes of heterocyclic compounds that have potential central nervous system activity, thiophene is the most important one. In the largely escalating chemical world of heterocyclic compounds showing potential pharmacological character, thiophene nucleus has been recognized as the budding entity. Seventeen Papers were included in this review article to define the central nervous system potential of thiophene. This review article enlightens the rationalized use and scope of thiophene scaffold as novel central nervous system activity such as anticonvulsant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5/p25) inhibitors, CNS depressant, capability to block norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake by their respective transporters etc. The Finding of this review confirm the importance of thiophene scaffold as potential central nervous system agents. From this outcome, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to the novel derivatives with better constructive pharmacological potential may be derived.

  5. Frameworks to assess health systems governance: a systematic review. (United States)

    Pyone, Thidar; Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke


    Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal-agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North's institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for problems identified

  6. Mining Environmental Data from a Coupled Modelling System to Examine the Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Groundwater and Air Quality (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.; Hayes, B.; Murphy, M. S.; Bash, J. O.


    Excess nitrogen (N) resulting from current agricultural management practices can leach into sources of drinking water as nitrate, increasing human health risks of 'blue baby syndrome', hypertension, and some cancers and birth defects. Nitrogen also enters the atmosphere from land surfaces forming air pollution increasing human health risks of pulmonary and cardio-vascular disease. Characterizing and attributing nitrogen from agricultural management practices is difficult due to the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with the nitrogen cascade. Coupled physical process-based models, however, present new opportunities to investigate relationships among environmental variables on new scales; particularly because they link emission sources with meteorology and the pollutant concentration ultimately found in the environment. In this study, we applied a coupled meteorology (NOAA-WRF), agricultural (USDA-EPIC) and air quality modelling system (EPA-CMAQ) to examine the impact of nitrogen inputs from corn production on ecosystem and human health and wellbeing. The coupled system accounts for the nitrogen flux between the land surface and air, and the soil surface and groundwater, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effect of management practices such as type and timing of fertilization, tilling and irrigation on both groundwater and air quality across the conterminous US. In conducting the study, we first determined expected relationships based on literature searches and then identified model variables as direct or surrogate variables. We performed extensive and methodical multi-variate regression modelling and variable selection to examine associations between agricultural management practices and environmental condition. We then applied the regression model to predict and contrast pollution levels between two corn production scenarios (Figure 1). Finally, we applied published health functions (e.g., spina bifida and cardio

  7. Association between Systemic Diseases and Endodontic Outcome: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Aminoshariae, Anita; Kulild, James C; Mickel, Andre; Fouad, Ashraf F


    To date, the relationships between systemic diseases and endodontic treatment outcomes remain poorly studied. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the relationship between host-modifying factors and their association with endodontic outcomes. Two reviewers independently conducted a comprehensive literature search. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and PubMed databases were searched. In addition, the bibliographies and gray literature of all relevant articles and textbooks were manually searched. There was no disagreement between the 2 reviewers. Sixteen articles met the inclusion criteria with moderate to high risk of bias. There was no article with low risk of bias. Available scientific evidence remains inconclusive as to whether diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease(s) may be associated with endodontic outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus and oral bisphosphonate did not appear to be associated with endodontic outcomes. Although additional well-designed longitudinal clinical studies are needed, the results of this systematic review suggest that some systemic diseases may be correlated with endodontic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating a spatial approach to groundwater quantity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... balance' volumetric method. Using South Africa as a case study, the radius of influence methodology was shown to be scientifically practical, to provide plausible results, and to be permissible under the country's water laws. The approach also provides better indicators for institutions involved in groundwater management, ...

  9. Identification of anthropogenic and natural inputs of sulfate into a karstic coastal groundwater system in northeast China: evidence from major ions, δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4 (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Song, Xianfang; Currell, Matthew J.


    The hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater evolution in the Daweijia area of Dalian, northeast China, were characterised using hydrochemistry and isotopes of carbon and sulfur (δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4). The aim was to distinguish anthropogenic impacts as distinct from natural processes, with a particular focus on sulfate, which is found at elevated levels (range: 54.4 to 368.8 mg L-1; mean: 174.4 mg L-1) in fresh and brackish groundwater. The current investigation reveals minor seawater intrusion impact (not exceeding 5 % of the overall solute load), in contrast with extensive impacts observed in 1982 during the height of intensive abstraction. This indicates that measures to restrict groundwater abstraction have been effective. However, hydrochemical facies analysis shows that the groundwater remains in a state of ongoing hydrochemical evolution (towards Ca-Cl type water) and quality degradation (increasing nitrate and sulfate concentrations). The wide range of NO3 concentrations (74.7-579 mg L-1) in the Quaternary aquifer indicates considerable input of fertilisers and/or leakage from septic systems. Both δ13C (-14.5 to -5.9 permil) and δ34SSO4 (+5.4 to +13.1 permil) values in groundwater show increasing trends along groundwater flow paths. While carbonate minerals may contribute to increasing δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4 values in deep karstic groundwater, high loads of agricultural fertilisers reaching the aquifer via irrigation return flow are likely the main source of the dissolved sulfate in Quaternary groundwater, as shown by distinctive isotopic ratios and a lack of evidence for other sources in the major ion chemistry. According to isotope mass balance calculations, the fertiliser contribution to overall sulfate has reached an average of 62.1 % in the Quaternary aquifer, which has a strong hydraulic connection to the underlying carbonate aquifer. The results point to an alarming level of impact from the local intensive agriculture on the groundwater

  10. Application of BCI systems in neurorehabilitation: a scoping review. (United States)

    Bamdad, Mahdi; Zarshenas, Homayoon; Auais, Mohammad A


    To review various types of electroencephalographic activities of the brain and present an overview of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems' history and their applications in rehabilitation. A scoping review of published English literature on BCI application in the field of rehabilitation was undertaken. IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus databases were searched since inception up to August 2012. All experimental studies published in English and discussed complete cycle of the BCI process was included in the review. In total, 90 articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Various approaches that improve the accuracy and performance of BCI systems were discussed. Based on BCI's clinical application, reviewed articles were categorized into three groups: motion rehabilitation, speech rehabilitation and virtual reality control (VRC). Almost half of the reviewed papers (48%) concentrated on VRC. Speech rehabilitation and motion rehabilitation made up 33% and 19% of the reviewed papers, respectively. Among different types of electroencephalography signals, P300, steady state visual evoked potentials and motor imagery signals were the most common. This review discussed various applications of BCI in rehabilitation and showed how BCI can be used to improve the quality of life for people with neurological disabilities. It will develop and promote new models of communication and finally, will create an accurate, reliable, online communication between human brain and computer and reduces the negative effects of external stimuli on BCI performance. Implications for Rehabilitation The field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) is rapidly advancing and it is expected to fulfill a critical role in rehabilitation of neurological disorders and in movement restoration in the forthcoming years. In the near future, BCI has notable potential to become a major tool used by people with disabilities to control locomotion and communicate with surrounding

  11. A review of gas tariff systems in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, L.; Swagerman, D.


    This review of the gas tariff systems in Europe did not confirm the previously established opinion that there is a large difference between the situation in Western Europe and the Central and Eastern Europe. The differences are not as great as the differences inside Western Europe and inside the Central and Eastern Europe countries. This overview was done according to the UN Gas centre questionnaire that was sent to all the countries with economies in transition and the information Gasunie has about he tariff system in western Europe

  12. geochemical studies of groundwater systems of semiarid yola area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    formula: SAR= NA/Ca[(Ca + Mg)/2]0.5. The sodium adsorption ratio gives a clear idea about the adsorption of sodium by soil. It is the proportion of sodium to calcium and magnesium which affect the availability of the water to the crop. The sodium adsorption ratio of both surface water and groundwater obtained in the ...

  13. Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the leachate from the landfill has a minimal impact on the groundwater resource and this can be attributed to the existing soil stratigraphy at the site consisting of clay which is deduced to have a significant influence on the natural attenuation of leachate into groundwater. Keywords: Groundwater ...

  14. Organic No-Till Systems in Eastern Canada: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Halde


    Full Text Available For more than a decade, studies have aimed to adapt the agronomy of organic no-till systems for the environmental conditions of Eastern Canada. Most research on organic no-till practices in Eastern Canada has been conducted in the province of Québec, where 4% of farms are certified organic, and results from these trials have been published in technical reports available in French. The objective of this review was to revisit previous research work on organic farming in Eastern Canada—the majority of which has been published as technical reports in the French language—in order to highlight important findings and to identify information gaps. Cover crop-based rotational no-till systems for organic grain and horticultural cropping systems will be the main focus of this review. Overall, a few trials have demonstrated that organic rotational no-till can be successful and profitable in warmer and more productive regions of Eastern Canada, but its success can vary over years. The variability in the success of organic rotational no-till systems is the reason for the slow adoption of the system by organic farmers. On-going research focuses on breeding early-maturing fall rye, and terminating cover crops and weeds with the use of bioherbicides.

  15. Groundwater biofilm dynamics grown in situ along a nutrient gradient. (United States)

    Williamson, Wendy M; Close, Murray E; Leonard, Margaret M; Webber, Judith B; Lin, Susan


    This paper describes the in situ response of groundwater biofilms in an alluvial gravel aquifer system on the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. Biofilms were developed on aquifer gravel, encased in fine mesh bags and suspended in protective columns in monitoring wells for at least 20 weeks. Four sites were selected in the same groundwater system where previous analyses indicated a gradient of increasing nitrate down the hydraulic gradient from Sites 1 to 4. Measurements during the current study classified the groundwater as oligotrophic. Biofilm responses to the nutrient gradients were assessed using bioassays, with biomass determined using protein and cellular and nucleic acid staining and biofilm activity using enzyme assays for lipid, carbohydrate, phosphate metabolism, and cell viability. In general, biofilm activity decreased as nitrate levels increased from Sites 1 to 4, with the opposite relationship for carbon and phosphorus concentrations. These results showed that the groundwater system supported biofilm growth and that the upper catchment supported efficient and productive biofilms (high ratio of activity per unit biomass). © 2012, Institute of Environmental Science & Research Ltd (ESR). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.


    by USGS at the site and results from other studies support, and are consistent with, a conceptual model of a layered leaky aquifer where the dip of the beds has a strong control on hydraulic connections in the groundwater system. Connections within and (or) parallel to bedding tend to be greater than across bedding. Transmissivities of aquifer intervals isolated by packers ranged over three orders of magnitude [from about 2.8 to 2,290 square feet per day (ft2/d) or 0.26 to 213 square meters per day (m2/d)], did not appear to differ much by mapped geologic unit, but showed some relation to depth being relatively smaller in the shallowest and deepest intervals (0 to 50 ft and more than 250 ft below land surface, respectively) compared to the intermediate depth intervals (50 to 250 ft below land surface) tested. Transmissivities estimated from multiple-observation well aquifer tests ranged from about 700 to 2,300 ft2/d (65 to 214 m2/d). Results of chemical analyses of water from isolated intervals or monitoring wells open to short sections of the aquifer show vertical differences in concentrations; chloride and silica concentrations generally were greater in shallow intervals than in deeper intervals. Chloride concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per liter (mg/L), combined with distinctive chloride/bromide ratios, indicate a different source of chloride in the western part of North Penn Area 7 than elsewhere in the site. Groundwater flow at a regional scale under steady-state conditions was simulated by use of a numerical model (MODFLOW-2000) for North Penn Area 7 with different layers representing saprolite/highly weathered rock near the surface and unweathered competent bedrock. The sedimentary formations that underlie the study area were modeled using dipping model layers for intermediate and deep zones of unweathered, fractured rock. Horizontal cell model size was 100 meters (m) by 100 meters (328 ft by 328 ft), and model layer thickness ranged from 6 m (19

  17. Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review. (United States)

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Mohan, C O; Srinivasa Gopal, T K


    Changes in consumer preference for safe food have led to innovations in packaging technologies. This article reviews about different smart packaging systems and their applications in food packaging, packaging research with latest innovations. Active and intelligent packing are such packaging technologies which offer to deliver safer and quality products. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into the package with the aim of maintaining or extending the product quality and shelf life. The intelligent systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged food to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transportation and storage. These technologies are designed to the increasing demand for safer foods with better shelf life. The market for active and intelligent packaging systems is expected to have a promising future by their integration into packaging materials or systems.

  18. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5 (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.


    Groundwater resources from alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin are critical for municipal, domestic, and agricultural uses in Colorado along the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains. Rapid and widespread urban development, primarily along the western boundary of the Denver Basin, has approximately doubled the population since about 1970, and much of the population depends on groundwater for water supply. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted groundwater-quality studies during 2003–5 in the Denver Basin aquifer system to characterize water quality of shallow groundwater at the water table and of the bedrock aquifers, which are important drinking-water resources. For the Denver Basin, water-quality constituents of concern for human health or because they might otherwise limit use of water include total dissolved solids, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, selenium, radon, uranium, arsenic, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. For the water-table studies, two monitoring-well networks were installed and sampled beneath agricultural (31 wells) and urban (29 wells) land uses at or just below the water table in either alluvial material or near-surface bedrock. For the bedrock-aquifer studies, domestic- and municipal-supply wells completed in the bedrock aquifers were sampled. The bedrock aquifers, stratigraphically from youngest (shallowest) to oldest (deepest), are the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers. The extensive dataset collected from wells completed in the bedrock aquifers (79 samples) provides the opportunity to evaluate factors and processes affecting water quality and to establish a baseline that can be used to characterize future changes in groundwater quality. Groundwater samples were analyzed for inorganic, organic, isotopic, and age-dating constituents and tracers. This report discusses spatial and statistical distributions of chemical constituents

  19. Insights from a reliability review of digital plant protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Hwang, S.W.; Kim, B.S.; Jeong, C.H.; Oh, S.H.


    The full text follows: As part of the design efforts for Ulchin nuclear power plant units 5 and 6 of Korea, a reliability analysis of digital plant protection system (DPPS) was performed by ABB-CE. An independent review of the DPPS reliability analysis was undertaken by Hanyang University to assist Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), the nuclear regulatory body of Korea, in evaluating the design acceptability of the digital system. The DPPS is designed to encompass both reactor trip function and ESFAS (engineered safety feature actuation system) initiation function. The major methods used by the ABB-CE to assess the Ulchin 5-6 DPPS reliability are failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis. Hence, our independent review was conducted focusing on: -) the establishment of review criteria based on various sources, such as the standard review plan of KINS, 10CFR50 Appendix A, IEEE standards 279, 577, and 603; -) the suitability of the FMEA and fault tree analysis for the Ulchin 5-6 DPPS, including the specific methods used (e.g., for human reliability analysis and common-cause failure analysis), the assumptions made (e.g., with respect to test frequency and watchdog timer coverage), and the data employed (e.g., CCF parameter, human error probability, and processor failure rate); and -) the design acceptability of the DPPS especially as compared to the analog plant protection system from a reliability and safety perspective. The paper shall also discuss key issues requiring further in-depth investigation, such as reliability of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), coverage factor of watchdog timers, and susceptibility of redundant digital units to common cause failure. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to investigate the impact of several parameters of special interest, like the coverage factor of watchdog timer and human error probability (e.g. an operator error to manually trip the reactor, or to mis-calibrate the trip parameters) on

  20. Microgrids research: A review of experimental microgrids and test systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidula, N.W.A.; Rajapakse, A.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 75A Chancellor' s Circle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 5V6 (Canada)


    A microgrid is particularly a portion of the power distribution system that comprises distributed generation, energy storage and loads. To be capable of operating in parallel to the grid, as an autonomous power island and in transition modes, microgrids must be robust in controlling the local voltage and frequency, and protecting the network and equipment connected to the microgrid. It also needs to facilitate demand side management and resynchronization. This paper presents a review of existing microgrid test networks around the world (North America, Europe and Asia) and some significantly different microgrid simulation networks present in the literature. Paper is focused on the test systems and available microgrid control options. A summary table comparing and contrasting the existing test systems is presented. The paper is concluded highlighting the worthy findings and possible areas of research that would enhance practical use of microgrid facilities. (author)

  1. Logistics Best Practices for Regional Food Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Mittal


    Full Text Available The modern industrial food supply system faces many major environmental and social sustainability challenges. Regional food systems, in which consumers prefer geographically proximate food producers, offer a response to these challenges. However, the costs associated with distributing food from many small-scale producers to consumers have been a major barrier to long-term regional food system success. Logistics best practices from conventional supply chains have the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of regional food supply chains (RFSCs. This paper provides a structured and in-depth review of the existing literature on RFSC logistics, including recommended and implemented best practices. The purpose of the review is to provide RFSC researchers and practitioners with convenient access to valuable information and knowledge derived from years of experimentation and research. This information will help to inform practitioners’ implementation decisions and to increase researchers’ awareness of the existing work on RFSC logistics, the unmet needs of practitioners, and topics that have not been fully explored, yielding insights into potential future directions for RFSC research. The overarching aim of the paper is to facilitate improvements in RFSC logistics, thereby improving regional food system viability.

  2. Applying systems ergonomics methods in sport: A systematic review. (United States)

    Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M


    As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future

  3. Assessment of the groundwater chemistry of a complex aquifer system in the context of urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa: case study in semiarid southwest Niger (United States)

    Boubakar Hassane, A.; Favreau, G.; Leduc, C.; Ousmane, B.; Soumaila, A.


    The groundwater chemistry in the local vicinity of the city of Niamey was investigated in order to identify the origin of the groundwater mineralization and, in particular, to elucidate the impact of urbanization on the groundwater resources. Sources of pollution of concern in the urban area are solid waste and material deposited on the ground and latrines. Contaminants from these sources are mobilized and transported by recharge and lixiviation from rising groundwater levels. Piezometric data monitoring at 70 sites was conducted monthly from March 2004 to February 2005 to evaluate the seasonal variability of groundwater levels. Groundwater samples for chemical data were collected from the major aquifers in 74 dug wells, 14 boreholes and 1 spring for 2 years (232 samples in 4 campaigns). Data were also compiled from previous studies on groundwater, rain water, surface waters, latrines and soils. Geochemical data (major ions) are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the study area, and to evaluate their origin. We combined multivariate statistical methods, scatter diagrams, ionic ratios, and Piper diagrams to decipher the processes affecting the water chemistry at large (Niamey) and local (wells) scale. The piezometric time series revealed seasonal variability in all wells indicating that the study area is a recharge zone, which enhances the transfer of contaminants from the surface. The geochemical monitoring revealed high spatial and temporal variability in chemical parameters. Processes controlling the groundwater chemistry at large scales in the aquifers include atmospheric inputs (rainfall and dust) in the poorly mineralized formations, evapotranspiration in the soil layers, and alteration of silicates. Processes specific to individual wells are production of weak acids (H2CO3) and bases (HCO3-) in soil layers near pollutant sources, leaching of ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-) from pollutants, ion exchange

  4. Evaluating Management Information Systems, A Protocol for Automated Peer Review Systems


    Black, Gordon C.


    This paper discusses key issues in evaluating an automated Peer Review System. Included are the conceptual base, design, steps in planning structural components, operation parameters, criteria, costs and a detailed outline or protocol for use in the evaluation.

  5. Assessment of groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System, Brazil (United States)

    Rabelo, Jorge Luiz; Wendland, Edson


    The groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil were assessed through a numeric model. The study area (6,748 km2) comprises Jacaré-Guaçú and Jacaré-Pepira River watersheds, tributaries of the Tietê River in the central region of the state. GIS based tools were used in the storage, processing and analysis of data. Main hydrologic phenomena were selected, leading to a groundwater conceptual model, taking into account the significant outcrops occurring in the study area. Six recharge zones were related to the geologic formation and structures of the semi-confined and phreatic aquifer. The model was calibrated against the baseflows and static water levels of the wells. The results emphasize the strong interaction of groundwater flows between watersheds and the groundwater inflow into the rivers. It has been concluded that lateral groundwater exchanges between basins, the deep discharges to the regional system, and well exploitation were not significant aquifer outflows when compared to the aquifer recharge. The results have shown that the inflows from the river into the aquifer are significant and have the utmost importance since the aquifer is potentially more vulnerable in these places.

  6. Boundary delineation for regional groundwater flow through geographic information system (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Tadashi; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo; Hyodo, Hiroshi


    Radionuclide migration toward the human environment is to be assessed as the part of long-term safety assessments of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. Geologic processes, which include volcanic activity, hydrothermal activity, seismicity and deformation, bring about hydrogeologic changes in the regional groundwater flow system around a repository site. Groundwater flow systems in Japan have been studied in several sites such as Tono mine, Kamaishi mine and Horonobe area, but methodology of studies in these sites does not have fully developed. This study was conducted to develop methodologies of boundary delineation for regional groundwater flow systems. Geographic Information System, GIS, was applied using available topographic, hydrologic and geologic data for an area of interest. Miyakoji in the Abukuma Mountains was selected as the area, for the reason of its simple geologic setting formed by granitic rocks and topographically gentle hills of drainage basin. Data used in this study cover topographic sheets, digital elevation model, satellite imagery, geologic maps, topographic classification maps, soil distribution maps and landuse maps. Through the GIS techniques using these data, thematic maps on topographic features, surface conditions, land coverage, geology and geologic structure and weathered crust were developed, and these thematic maps were further applied to extract four factors affecting the regional groundwater flows: topographic condition, precipitation recharge, fracture characteristics and potential flows. The present study revealed that, taking the potential groundwater flows and characteristics of fractured zones in the area into consideration, the groundwater flow system in Miyakoji drainage basin should be bounded by the Otakine Mountain and the northern part of Tokoha Drainage Basin. The delineated area is larger than understood before. (author)

  7. Management Control in Enterprise System Enabled Organizations: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Rohde, C.; Rom, A.


    The objective of this paper is to add to the limited body of knowledge on the relationship between enterprise systems (ES) and management control. Based on a literature review, we describe and classify studies that empirically address this relationship. Apart from not being extensive, the research...... done so far primarily addresses the relationship between management control and ES based on a limited number of methodologies and approaches. We argue that there seems to be a need for more research done from functionalistic and critical perspectives, as well which employs a greater variety...

  8. A Review of Tribomaterial Technology for Space Nuclear Power Systems (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently proposed a nuclear closed-cycle electric power conversion system for generation of 100-kW of electrical power for space exploration missions. A critical issue is the tribological performance of sliding components within the power conversion unit that will be exposed to neutron radiation. This paper presents a review of the main considerations that have been made in the selection of solid lubricants for similar applications in the past as well as a recommendations for continuing development of the technology.

  9. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries. (United States)

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M


    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. Overview of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Glasser, Allison M; Collins, Lauren; Pearson, Jennifer L; Abudayyeh, Haneen; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B; Villanti, Andrea C


    Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS. The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches. Included studies presented empirical findings and were coded to at least one of nine topics: (1) Product Features; (2) Health Effects; (3) Consumer Perceptions; (4) Patterns of Use; (5) Potential to Induce Dependence; (6) Smoking Cessation; (7) Marketing and Communication; (8) Sales; and (9) Policies; reviews and commentaries were excluded. Data from included studies were extracted by multiple coders (October 2015 to August 2016) into a standardized form and synthesized qualitatively by topic. There were 687 articles included in this systematic review. The majority of studies assessed patterns of ENDS use and consumer perceptions of ENDS, followed by studies examining health effects of vaping and product features. Studies indicate that ENDS are increasing in use, particularly among current smokers, pose substantially less harm to smokers than cigarettes, are being used to reduce/quit smoking, and are widely available. More longitudinal studies and controlled trials are needed to evaluate the impact of ENDS on population-level tobacco use and determine the health effects of longer-term vaping. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a systematic review of the Essure system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurskainen, Ritva; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Gissler, Mika


    OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence of the efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Female sterilization has undergone changes in the last decade. Besides laparoscopic tubal occlusion, the Essure system is now a viable option, with about 200,000 women sterilized using this method. DESIGN: The review...... in ambulatory settings. However, sterilization is not immediate and women must use additional contraception for 3 months until permanent tubal occlusion is verified by transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosalpingosonography, hysterosalpingography, or pelvic radiography. The evidence on efficacy and safety is mainly...... sterilization, but more information on the total cost is needed. CONCLUSION(S): The Essure system appears to be safe, permanent, irreversible, and a less invasive method of contraception compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published...

  12. Nanostructured delivery systems with improved leishmanicidal activity: a critical review. (United States)

    Bruni, Natascia; Stella, Barbara; Giraudo, Leonardo; Della Pepa, Carlo; Gastaldi, Daniela; Dosio, Franco


    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania , which are responsible for numerous clinical manifestations, such as cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, depending on the site of infection for particular species. These complexities threaten 350 million people in 98 countries worldwide. Amastigotes living within macrophage phagolysosomes are the principal target of antileishmanial treatment, but these are not an easy target as drugs must overcome major structural barriers. Furthermore, limitations on current therapy are related to efficacy, toxicity, and cost, as well as the length of treatment, which can increase parasitic resistance. Nanotechnology has emerged as an attractive alternative as conventional drugs delivered by nanosized carriers have improved bioavailability and reduced toxicity, together with other characteristics that help to relieve the burden of this disease. The significance of using colloidal carriers loaded with active agents derives from the physiological uptake route of intravenous administered nanosystems (the phagocyte system). Nanosystems are thus able to promote a high drug concentration in intracellular mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)-infected cells. Moreover, the versatility of nanometric drug delivery systems for the deliberate transport of a range of molecules plays a pivotal role in the design of therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis. This review discusses studies on nanocarriers that have greatly contributed to improving the efficacy of antileishmaniasis drugs, presenting a critical review and some suggestions for improving drug delivery.

  13. A groundwater mass flux model for screening the groundwater-to-indoor-air exposure pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, T.; Blanc, P.C. de; Connor, J. [Groundwater Services Inc, Houston, TX (United States)


    The potential for human exposure via volatilisation of groundwater contaminants into indoor air has been a focus of increasing concern in recent years. At a small number of sites, elevated indoor vapour concentrations have been measured within buildings overlying shallow groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, causing public concern over the potential for similar problems at other corrective action sites. In addition, use of the screening-levelmodel developed by Johnson and Ettinger (1991) for the groundwater-to-indoor-air exposure pathway has suggested that low microgram per litre (ug/L)-range concentrations of either chlorinated or non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds dissolved in groundwater could result in indoor vapour concentrations in excess of applicable risk-based exposure limits. As an alternative screening tool, this paper presents a groundwater mass flux model for evaluation of transport to indoor air. The mass flux model is intended to serve as a highly conservative screening tool that over-predicts groundwater-to-indoor-air mass flux, yet still provides sufficient sensitivity to identify sites for which the groundwater-to-indoor air exposure pathway is not a concern. (orig.)

  14. Land-Based Mobile Laser Scanning Systems: a Review (United States)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Arias, P.; Armesto, J.


    Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.

  15. Laboratory Modelling of Volcano Plumbing Systems: a review (United States)

    Galland, Olivier; Holohan, Eoghan P.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Burchardt, Steffi


    Earth scientists have, since the XIX century, tried to replicate or model geological processes in controlled laboratory experiments. In particular, laboratory modelling has been used study the development of volcanic plumbing systems, which sets the stage for volcanic eruptions. Volcanic plumbing systems involve complex processes that act at length scales of microns to thousands of kilometres and at time scales from milliseconds to billions of years, and laboratory models appear very suitable to address them. This contribution reviews laboratory models dedicated to study the dynamics of volcano plumbing systems (Galland et al., Accepted). The foundation of laboratory models is the choice of relevant model materials, both for rock and magma. We outline a broad range of suitable model materials used in the literature. These materials exhibit very diverse rheological behaviours, so their careful choice is a crucial first step for the proper experiment design. The second step is model scaling, which successively calls upon: (1) the principle of dimensional analysis, and (2) the principle of similarity. The dimensional analysis aims to identify the dimensionless physical parameters that govern the underlying processes. The principle of similarity states that "a laboratory model is equivalent to his geological analogue if the dimensionless parameters identified in the dimensional analysis are identical, even if the values of the governing dimensional parameters differ greatly" (Barenblatt, 2003). The application of these two steps ensures a solid understanding and geological relevance of the laboratory models. In addition, this procedure shows that laboratory models are not designed to exactly mimic a given geological system, but to understand underlying generic processes, either individually or in combination, and to identify or demonstrate physical laws that govern these processes. From this perspective, we review the numerous applications of laboratory models to

  16. The use and re-use of unsustainably mined groundwater: A global budget (United States)

    Grogan, D. S.; Prousevitch, A.; Wisser, D.; Lammers, R. B.; Frolking, S. E.


    Many of the world's major groundwater aquifers are rapidly depleting due to unsustainable groundwater pumping, while demand for food production - and therefore demand for irrigation water ­- is increasing. While it is likely that groundwater users will be impacted by the future's inevitable reduction in groundwater availability, there is a major gap in our understanding of potential impacts downstream of pumping sites. Due to inefficiencies in irrigation systems, significant amounts of abstracted groundwater become runoff, entering surface waters and flowing downstream to be re-abstracted and used again. In this study, we use a gridded water balance model to calculate the amount of unsustainably pumped groundwater that enters surface water systems by way of irrigation runoff, and quantify the additional irrigation water supplied by the re-use of this water. We assess the global budget of unsustainable groundwater sources and sinks, including downstream re-use, groundwater recharge, and flow to the oceans. Globally, we find that 80% of unsustainable groundwater is re-abstracted for irrigation either downstream or locally from groundwater recharge. This re-abstracted water contributes the water equivalent needed to irrigate 200,000 km2 of cropland globally. Including irrigation runoff reuse in an assessment of irrigation efficiency, we see that the traditional concept of irrigation efficiency (net irrigation/gross irrigation) significantly overestimates water "waste". We define a basin efficiency for unsustainable groundwater use that includes re-use, and see that while global irrigation efficiency is often estimated at 50%, global average unsustainable water use efficiency is > 60%. Losing this re-use resource by increasing irrigation efficiency does little to alleviate unsustainable groundwater demands.

  17. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.


    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  18. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.


    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  19. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.


    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. The expected


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtaruzzaman


    Full Text Available Rehabilitation engineering plays an important role in designing various autonomous robots to provide better therapeutic exercise to disabled patients. Hence it is necessary to study human musculoskeletal system and also needs to be presented in scientific manner in order to describe and analyze the biomechanics of human body motion. This review focuses on lower appendicular musculoskeletal structure of human body to represent joints and links architectures; to identify muscle attachments and functions; and to illustrate muscle groups which are responsible for a particular joint movement. Firstly, human lower skeletal structure, linking systems, joint mechanisms, and their functions are described with a conceptual representation of joint architecture of human skeleton. This section also represents joints and limbs by comparing with mechanical systems. Characteristics of ligaments and their functions to construct skeletal joints are also discussed briefly in this part. Secondly, the study focuses on muscular system of human lower limbs where muscle structure, functions, roles in moving endoskeleton structure, and supporting mechanisms are presented ellaborately. Thirdly, muscle groups are tabulated based on functions that provide mobility to different joints of lower limbs. Finally, for a particular movement action of lower extremity, muscles are also grouped and tabulated to have a better understanding on functions of individual muscle. Basically the study presents an overview of the structure of human lower limbs by characterizing and classifying skeletal and muscular systems.KEYWORDS:   Musculoskeletal system; Human lower limbs; Muscle groups; Joint motion; Biomechatronics; Rehabilitation.

  1. Sedimentological analysis of a contaminated groundwater aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.


    The use of sedimentological reservoir analysis techniques adapted from standard oilfield practice can improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of the evaluation of groundwater aquifers and the design of restoration programs. An evaluation/restoration program at a site in California drilled over 200 test wells in about 750 ac. All wells were logged lithologically and with wireline. The shallow aquifer is a complex braided alluvial floodplain deposit of Late Quaternary age. Analysis demonstrates depositional and erosional responses to periodic hinterland uplifts and to changing climatic conditions. Channel, overbank, lacustrine, and minor deltaic deposits can be recognized. The aquifer architecture has been interpreted to explain the movement of fuel and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents in the sediments and water. Routine engineering geology techniques and hydrologic tests were used to evaluate contamination and to design experimental restoration processes. As demonstrated here, sedimentological techniques show promise in reducing the costs and time required for this type of study. The abundant detailed data will be used in an attempt to develop a microcomputer-based expert system for rapid preliminary analyses of similar aquifers or reservoirs

  2. Retention systems for extraoral maxillofacial prosthetic implants: a critical review. (United States)

    Cobein, M V; Coto, N P; Crivello Junior, O; Lemos, J B D; Vieira, L M; Pimentel, M L; Byrne, H J; Dias, R B


    We describe the techniques available for retention of implant-supported prostheses: bar-clips, O-rings, and magnets. We present reported preferences and, although this is limited by the heterogeneity of methods used and patients studied, we hope we have identified the best retention systems for maxillofacial prosthetic implants. If practitioners know the advantages and disadvantages of each system, they can choose the most natural and comfortable prosthesis. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases, and restricted our search to papers published 2001-13. MeSH terms used were Maxillofacial prosthesis and Craniofacial prosthesis OR Craniofacial prostheses. We found a total of 2630 papers, and after duplicates had been removed we analysed the rest and found 25 papers for review. Of these, 12 were excluded because they were case reports or non-systematic reviews. Of the remaining 13, 10 described group analyses and seemed appropriate to find practitioner's choices, as cited in the abstract (n=1611 prostheses). Three papers did not mention the type of prosthetic connection used, so were excluded. The most popular choices for different conditions were analysed, though the sites and retention systems were not specified in all 10 papers. The bar-clip system was the most used in auricular (6/10 papers) and nasal prostheses (4/10). For the orbital region, 6/10 favoured magnets. Non-osseointegrated mechanical or adhesive retention techniques are the least expensive and have no contraindications. When osseointegrated implants are possible, each facial region has a favoured system. The choice of system is influenced by two factors: standard practice and the abilities of the maxillofacial surgeon and maxillofacial prosthetist. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic in groundwater of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC), India: Critical review and modes of mitigation. (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Das, Bhaskar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Nayak, Bishwajit; Pal, Arup; Sengupta, Mrinal K; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, Md Amir; Chowdhury, Uttam K; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Dutta, R N


    This study represents the first comprehensive report of groundwater arsenic contamination status in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC). During the past 23 years, 4210 groundwater samples were analysed from all 141 wards in the KMC: 14.2% and 5.2% samples had arsenic >10 μg/l and >50 μg/l, respectively, representing 77 and 37 wards. The study shows that the number of arsenic contaminated samples (and wards) in the southern part of the KMC exceeds that of other parts of the city. The daily intake of arsenic from drinking water was estimated as 0.95 μg per kg bw and the cancer risk was estimated as 1425/10 6 . Analyses of biological samples (hair, nail and urine) showed elevated concentrations of arsenic indicating the presence of subclinical arsenic poisoning, predicting an enhanced lifetime cancer risk for the population in southern part of the KMC. In the KMC, groundwater is not a sustainable source of freshwater due to arsenic, high iron, hardness and total dissolved solids. Its continued use is impelled by the lack of an adequate infrastructure to treat and supply surface water and in some wards the unaccounted for water (UFW) is even >45% incurred during distribution. The rare imposition of a water tax makes the water supply systems unsustainable and fosters indifference to water conservation. To mitigate the arsenic problem, continuous groundwater monitoring for pollutants, a treated surface water supply with strict policy implications, rainwater harvesting in the urban areas and introduction of water taxes seem to be long-term visible solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Literature Review on Recommender Systems Algorithms, Techniques and Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Madadipouya


    Full Text Available One of the most crucial issues, nowadays, is to provide personalized services to each individual based on their preferences. To achieve this goal, recommender system could be utilized as a tool to help the users in decision-making process offering different items and options. They are utilized to predict and recommend relevant items to end users. In this case an item could be anything such as a document, a location, a movie, an article or even a user (friend suggestion. The main objective of the recommender systems is to suggest items which have great potential to be liked by users. In modern recommender systems, various methods are combined together with the aim of extracting patterns in available datasets. Combination of different algorithms make prediction more convoluted since various parameters should be taken into account in providing recommendations. Recommendations could be personalized or non-personalized. In non-personalized type, selection of the items for a user is based on the number of the times that an item has been visited in the past by other users. However, in the personalized type, the main objective is to provide the best items to the user based on her taste and preferences. Although, in many domains recommender systems gained significant improvements and provide better services for users, it still requires further research to improve accuracy of recommendations in many aspects. In fact, the current available recommender systems are far from the ideal model of the recommender system. This paper reviews state of art in recommender systems algorithms and techniques which is necessary to identify the gaps and improvement areas. In addition to that, we provide possible solutions to overcome shortages and known issues of recommender systems as well as discussing about recommender systems evaluation methods and metrics in details.

  5. A synopsis of climate change effects on groundwater recharge (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.


    Six review articles published between 2011 and 2016 on groundwater and climate change are briefly summarized. This synopsis focuses on aspects related to predicting changes to groundwater recharge conditions, with several common conclusions between the review articles being noted. The uncertainty of distribution and trend in future precipitation from General Circulation Models (GCMs) results in varying predictions of recharge, so much so that modelling studies are often not able to predict the magnitude and direction (increase or decrease) of future recharge conditions. Evolution of modelling approaches has led to the use of multiple GCMs and hydrologic models to create an envelope of future conditions that reflects the probability distribution. The choice of hydrologic model structure and complexity, and the choice of emissions scenario, has been investigated and somewhat resolved; however, recharge results remain sensitive to downscaling methods. To overcome uncertainty and provide practical use in water management, the research community indicates that modelling at a mesoscale, somewhere between watersheds and continents, is likely ideal. Improvements are also suggested for incorporating groundwater processes within GCMs.

  6. A review on optical actuators for microfluidic systems (United States)

    Yang, Tie; Chen, Yue; Minzioni, Paolo


    During the last few decades microfluidic systems have become more and more popular and their relevance in different fields is continually growing. In fact, the use of microchannels allows a significant reduction of the required sample-volume and opens the way to a completely new set of possible investigations, including the study of the properties of cells, the development of new cells’ separation techniques and the analysis of single-cell proteins. One of the main differences between microscopic and macroscopic systems is obviously dictated by the need for suitable actuation mechanisms, which should allow precise control of microscopic fluid volumes and of micro-samples inside the fluid. Even if both syringe-pump and pneumatic-pump technologies significantly evolved and they currently enable sub-μL samples control, completely new approaches were recently developed for the manipulation of samples inside the microchannel. This review is dedicated to describing different kinds of optical actuators that can be applied in microfluidic systems for sample manipulation as well as for pumping. The basic principles underlying the optical actuation mechanisms will be described first, and then several experimental demonstrations will be reviewed and compared.

  7. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils (United States)

    Corey, John C.; Kaback, Dawn S.; Looney, Brian B.


    A method and system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants.

  8. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoyana, Robert B.; Smith, Timothy F.


    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: → Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. →Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. → Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  9. A review of dynamic characteristics of magnetically levitated vehicle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.


    The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.

  10. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater affected by human activities in Nandong underground river system, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yongjun, E-mail: [School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Institute of Karst Environment and Rock Desertification Rehabilitation, Chongqing 400715 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} Spatio-temporal variations of Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition of groundwater were investigated in a karst underground river system. {yields} Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural Sr isotopic signature of karst groundwater. {yields} Sr in the carbonate aquifers was relatively non-radiogenic, with low Sr concentrations, while anthropogenic Sr correlated with agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents was relatively radiogenic, with higher Sr concentrations. {yields} {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios can provide key information for natural and anthropogenic sources in karst groundwater. - Abstract: The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst area dominated by agriculture in SE Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role in the social and economical development in the area. The effects of human activities (agriculture and sewage effluents) on the Sr isotope geochemistry were investigated in the NURS. Seventy-two representative groundwater samples, which were collected from different aquifers (calcite and dolomite), under varying land-use types, both in summer and winter, showed significant spatial differences and slight seasonal variations in Sr concentrations and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios signature of groundwater that was otherwise dominated by water-rock interaction. Three major sources of Sr could be distinguished by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in karst groundwater. Two sources of Sr are the Triassic calcite and dolomite aquifers, where waters have low Sr concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7075-0.7080 and 0.7080-0.7100, respectively); the third source is anthropogenic Sr from agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents with waters affected having radiogenic {sup 87

  11. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel


    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  12. Groundwater movements around a repository. Phase 1, State of the art and detailed study plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.


    The report was prepared as the first phase of a study of the groundwater movements around a repository for spent nuclear fuel in the precambrian bedrock of Sweden. The objectives of these studies are to provide a state of the art review of groundwater slow in the region of a repository in granitic rock, in order to provide a basis for long term containment assessments and to prepare a detailed study plan for the continuation of the project. The different processes affecting the groundwater situation for containment are given. A state of the art review of the fluid flow, geochemical, heat transfer and rock mechanics processes as they relate to containment is presented. A detailed study plan to provide a comprehensive assessment of the hydrogeological regime around the repository during its lifetime is also presented. The groundwater flow fields will provide a basis for subsequent long term containment studies. (L.B.)

  13. Advances in understanding river-groundwater interactions (United States)

    Brunner, Philip; Therrien, René; Renard, Philippe; Simmons, Craig T.; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks


    River-groundwater interactions are at the core of a wide range of major contemporary challenges, including the provision of high-quality drinking water in sufficient quantities, the loss of biodiversity in river ecosystems, or the management of environmental flow regimes. This paper reviews state of the art approaches in characterizing and modeling river and groundwater interactions. Our review covers a wide range of approaches, including remote sensing to characterize the streambed, emerging methods to measure exchange fluxes between rivers and groundwater, and developments in several disciplines relevant to the river-groundwater interface. We discuss approaches for automated calibration, and real-time modeling, which improve the simulation and understanding of river-groundwater interactions. Although the integration of these various approaches and disciplines is advancing, major research gaps remain to be filled to allow more complete and quantitative integration across disciplines. New possibilities for generating realistic distributions of streambed properties, in combination with more data and novel data types, have great potential to improve our understanding and predictive capabilities for river-groundwater systems, especially in combination with the integrated simulation of the river and groundwater flow as well as calibration methods. Understanding the implications of different data types and resolution, the development of highly instrumented field sites, ongoing model development, and the ultimate integration of models and data are important future research areas. These developments are required to expand our current understanding to do justice to the complexity of natural systems.

  14. Groundwater flow systems in the great Aletsch glacier region (Valais, Switzerland) (United States)

    Alpiger, Andrea; Loew, Simon


    Groundwater flow systems in Alpine areas are often complex and challenging to investigate due to special topographic and climatic conditions governing groundwater recharge and bedrock flow. Studies seeking to characterize high-alpine groundwater systems remain rare, but are of high interest, e.g. for water supply, hydropower systems, traffic tunnels or rock slope deformation and landslide hazards. The goal of this study is to better understand the current and past groundwater flow systems of the UNESCO World Heritage mountain ridge separating the great Aletsch glacier and the Rhone valley, considering climatic and glacier fluctuations during the Lateglacial and Holocene periods. This ridge is crossed by a hydropower bypass drift (Riederhornstollen) and is composed of fractured crystalline rocks overlain by various types of landslides and glacial deposits. Surface hydrology observations (fracture properties, groundwater seepage, spring lines and physico-chemical parameters) and hydropower drift inflow