WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater system includes

  1. Groundwater hydrology instructional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ronald G.

    Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, is preparing for its third cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology, beginning January 15, 1986. The first cycle finished with an impressive completion ratio for registered participants, and the second cycle has currently been underway since July. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the Soil Conservation Service (of the U.S. Department of Agriculture) to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. Since its evolution into IRIS, an 80% participant completion rate has been recorded for the first cycle, which is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by correspondence courses. This excellent rate of success is the result of 2 years of refinement and demonstrates the progressive nature of the program. IRIS has met the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  2. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  4. A Numerical Study on System Performance of Groundwater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sang Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater heat pumps have energy saving potential where the groundwater resources are sufficient. System Coefficients of Performance (COPs are measurements of performance of groundwater heat pump systems. In this study, the head and power of submersible pumps, heat pump units, piping, and heat exchangers are expressed as polynomial equations, and these equations are solved numerically to determine the system performance. Regression analysis is used to find the coefficients of the polynomial equations from a catalog of performance data. The cooling and heating capacities of water-to-water heat pumps are determined using Energy Plus. Results show that system performance drops as the water level drops, and the lowest flow rates generally achieve the highest system performance. The system COPs are used to compare the system performance of various system configurations. The groundwater pumping level and temperature provide the greatest effects on the system performance of groundwater heat pumps along with the submersible pumps and heat exchangers. The effects of groundwater pumping levels, groundwater temperatures, and the heat transfer coefficient in heat exchanger on the system performance are given and compared. This analysis needs to be included in the design process of groundwater heat pump systems, possibly with analysis tools that include a wide range of performance data.

  5. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  6. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  7. Propagation of drought through groundwater systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.

    2003-01-01

    Index words: drought, groundwater, simulation, synthetic data, extreme events

    The transformation of droughts as a result of the propagation through groundwater systems is examined by comparing droughts in time

  8. Propagation of drought through groundwater systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.

    2003-01-01

    Index words: drought, groundwater, simulation, synthetic data, extreme events

    The transformation of droughts as a result of the propagation through groundwater systems is examined by comparing droughts in time se

  9. Evolution of Unsteady Groundwater Flow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing; Jin, Menggui; Niu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Natural groundwater flow is usually transient, especially in long time scale. A theoretical approach on unsteady groundwater flow systems was adopted to highlight some of the knowledge gaps in the evolution of groundwater flow systems. The specific consideration was focused on evolution of groundwater flow systems from unsteady to steady under natural and mining conditions. Two analytical solutions were developed, using segregation variable method to calculate the hydraulic head under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The impact of anisotropy ratio, hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific yield (μs) on the flow patterns were analyzed. The results showed that the area of the equal velocity region increased and the penetrating depth of the flow system decreased while the anisotropy ratio (ɛ = °Kx-/Kz--) increased. Stagnant zones were found in the flow field where the directions of streamlines were opposite. These stagnant zones moved up when the horizontal hydraulic conductivity increased. The results of the study on transient flow indicated a positive impact on hydraulic head with an increase of hydraulic conductivity, while a negative effect on hydraulic head was observed when the specific yield was enhanced. An unsteady numerical model of groundwater flow systems with annual periodic recharge was developed using MODFLOW. It was observed that the transient groundwater flow patterns were different from that developed in the steady flow under the same recharge intensity. The water table fluctuated when the recharge intensity altered. The monitoring of hydraulic head and concentration migration revealed that the unsteady recharge affected the shallow local flow system more than the deep regional flow system. The groundwater flow systems fluctuated with the action of one or more pumping wells. The comparison of steady and unsteady groundwater flow observation indicated that the unsteady flow patterns cannot be simulated by the steady model when the condition

  10. Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution Nitrogen Fertilizer Using Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Ta-oun, Mongkon; Daud, Mohamed; Bardaie, Mohd Zohadie

    2017-01-01

    An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia to identify potential groundwater quality problems. The expert system could predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and exiting environments. Four categories of groundwater pollution potential were identified base on an N-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index. A groundwater pol...

  11. Organic Carbon Fluxes in a Stressed Groundwater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A.; Graham, P. W.; Grbich, N.; Chinu, K.; Yu, D.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) flux in groundwater is poorly understood: influenced by recharge, extraction and surface processes. We reviewed existing datasets for DOC concentration and flux in Australian groundwater systems. In a temperate, semi-arid, Australian research site we measured variations in DOC content during a series of high intensity extraction and recovery events in the surrounding aquifer and abstracted groundwater. Groundwater was abstracted from a fractured basalt / metasediment aquifer overlain by residual soils and flanked by a Quaternary alluvial channel. Groundwater systems included the fractured rock system interconnected with the alluvial aquifer through a leaky aquitard and a perched aquifer held at the soil bedrock interface. Prior to and throughout the test, groundwater samples were collected from wells within the fractured rock, alluvial aquifer and soil bedrock interface and analysed for DOC. Initial DOC concentrations in the upper aquifer were ~2 mg/L, following pumping concentrations increased 36 mg/L (ave) peaking at 72 mg/L. In the lower aquifer initial TOC concentrations were ~1.6 mg/L, during pumping levels increased to 3.98 mg/L (ave) peaking at 14.32 mg/L. Results indicate the fractured rock aquifers ability to recharge was exceeded during intense pumping periods and a larger component of water was drawn from the upper aquifer. This increased the volume of water being drawn through the soil profile and increased DOC content in abstracted groundwater. Hydrological setting, well construction and pumping regime are likely to affect the concentration of DOC within abstracted groundwater. Further attention to abstracted groundwater as a component in terrestrial DOC fluxes is warranted.

  12. Multi-Objective Optimization with Function Approximation Including Application to Computationally Expensive Groundwater Remediation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, T.; Shoemaker, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    Water Resources design decisions frequently entail trade-offs between conflicting objectives, for instance cost minimization and contaminant(s) concentration minimization. Multi-objective optimization methods (including those based on evolutionary methods) typically require a very large number of simulations to find a solution. Many groundwater remediation problems are modeled by computationally intensive systems of Partial Differential Equations and simulations. Hence it is desirable that these models are calibrated via algorithms that require less number of simulations. A new strategy called Gap Optimized Multi-Objective Optimization using Response Surfaces (GOMORS) is proposed for multi-objective optimization of computationally expensive problems. A multi-objective management framework is devised to analyze the trade-offs between conflicting objectives. We will present applications to test functions and to a groundwater contamination problem. The pumping rates at different well locations and management periods are the decision variables, and cost and contaminant concentration are the objectives to be minimized. The optimization strategy is iterative and makes use of Radial Basic Functions to develop response surfaces as an approximation of the computationally expensive objectives. A novel method called the Gap Optimization method is introduced. The gap optimization method incorporates use of a multi-objective evolutionary optimization (MOEA) method that is applied to select the next point for expensive evaluation and consequent improvement of the surrogate model. In order to provide sound alternatives to the decision makers, the evaluation point selection procedure strives to ensure that the final trade-off curve generated from the algorithm is close to the true Pareto front and includes a diverse set of solutions. After the final iteration, a set of candidate solutions is selected via the iterative Gap Optimization procedure and the last MOEA iteration, and

  13. Groundwater system analysis of south Yishu geosyncline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-lei; CHI Bao-ming; YI Shu-ping; LI Zhi-jun

    2004-01-01

    South Yishu geosyncline is 50 km southeast of Changchun City of Jilin Province, where an aquifer is thick,surface runoff is abundant and it has potential to develop water resources preferably. By means of system analysis, the authors analyse the structural characteristics, I/O characteristics, function characteristics and boundary and environment characteristics of the groundwater system, so as to search for a way of optimizing water resources arrangement and enhancing water resources'bearing capacity. Based on the analysis results, the authors abstract conceptual model and mathematical model of the groundwater system. The simulation results certify and enrich the knowledge about south Yishu geosyncline.

  14. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  15. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  16. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  17. Simulation of the regional groundwater-flow system of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Dunning, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate the groundwater-flow system and groundwater/surface-water interactions within the Menominee Indian Reservation. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, to contribute to the fundamental understanding of the region’s hydrogeology. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the groundwater-flow system, including groundwater/surface-water interactions, and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate groundwater/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional groundwater-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate groundwater-flow patterns at multiple scales. Simulations made with the regional model reproduce groundwater levels and stream base flows representative of recent conditions (1970–2013) and illustrate groundwater-flow patterns with maps of (1) the simulated water table and groundwater-flow directions, (2) probabilistic areas contributing recharge to high-capacity pumped wells, and (3) estimation of the extent of infiltrated wastewater from treatment lagoons.

  18. Groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, 1900 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott C.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is an often overlooked freshwater resource compared to surface water, but groundwater is used widely across the United States, especially during periods of drought. If groundwater models can successfully simulate past conditions, they may be used to evaluate potential future pumping scenarios or climate conditions, thus providing a valuable planning tool for water-resource managers. Quantifying the groundwater-use component for a groundwater model is a vital but often challenging endeavor. This dataset includes groundwater withdrawal rates modeled for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (Ozark system) from 1900 to 2010 by groundwater model cell (2.6 square kilometers) for five water-use divisions—agriculture (including irrigation and aquaculture), livestock, public supply (including municipal and rural water districts), and non-agriculture (including thermoelectric power generation, mining, commercial, and industrial)—and by country for domestic (self-supplied) use. Two child items are included with the dataset: “Domestic groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, 1900 to 2010” and “Public supply, non-agriculture, livestock, and agriculture groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, 1900 to 2010”. The Ozark system is located in the central United States and is composed of interbedded Cambrian to Pennsylvanian clastic and carbonate lithologies. In stratigraphic order, the Ozark system includes the Basement confining unit, St. Francois aquifer, St. Francois confining unit, Ozark aquifer, Ozark confining unit, Springfield Plateau aquifer, and Western Interior Plains confining system. Generally, the lower portion of the Ozark aquifer is the primary source of groundwater across much of Missouri and the Springfield Plateau aquifer is used across northern Arkansas. A full description of the methods used to model groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ozark system are available in Knierim et al., IN

  19. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  20. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  1. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) were used to trace hydrological processes and tritium (3H) to evaluate the relative contribution of modern water in samples. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal groundwater, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3-type. It originates as recharge at "La Primavera" caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal groundwater is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na and HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed-HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural return flow. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Twenty-seven groundwater samples contain at least a small fraction of modern water. The application of a multivariate mixing model allowed the mixing proportions of hydrothermal fluids, polluted waters and cold groundwater in sampled water to be evaluated. This study will help local water authorities to identify and dimension groundwater contamination, and act accordingly. It may be broadly applicable to

  2. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  3. Documentation of a groundwater flow model developed to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability of the area and included an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time from stresses related to human uses and climate trends. The assessment was necessary because of the substantial dependency on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs in this area.

  4. Recent developments in modeling groundwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-05-20

    This paper reviews the developments in the mathematical modeling of groundwater systems over the past decde. The first part of the paper is devoted to a description of the physics of the different types of problems that are of interest in hydrogeology and a statement of the related initial-boundary-value problems. The various numerical techniques that have been employed to solve the governing equations are discussed in the second part. In the third section a few typical case histories are presented to illustrate the trend of progress that has occurred in the application of mathematical modeling to actual field problems.

  5. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

  6. Data fusion modeling for groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David W.; Gibbs, Bruce P.; Jones, Walter F.; Huyakorn, Peter S.; Hamm, L. Larry; Flach, Gregory P.

    2000-03-01

    Engineering projects involving hydrogeology are faced with uncertainties because the earth is heterogeneous, and typical data sets are fragmented and disparate. In theory, predictions provided by computer simulations using calibrated models constrained by geological boundaries provide answers to support management decisions, and geostatistical methods quantify safety margins. In practice, current methods are limited by the data types and models that can be included, computational demands, or simplifying assumptions. Data Fusion Modeling (DFM) removes many of the limitations and is capable of providing data integration and model calibration with quantified uncertainty for a variety of hydrological, geological, and geophysical data types and models. The benefits of DFM for waste management, water supply, and geotechnical applications are savings in time and cost through the ability to produce visual models that fill in missing data and predictive numerical models to aid management optimization. DFM has the ability to update field-scale models in real time using PC or workstation systems and is ideally suited for parallel processing implementation. DFM is a spatial state estimation and system identification methodology that uses three sources of information: measured data, physical laws, and statistical models for uncertainty in spatial heterogeneities. What is new in DFM is the solution of the causality problem in the data assimilation Kalman filter methods to achieve computational practicality. The Kalman filter is generalized by introducing information filter methods due to Bierman coupled with a Markov random field representation for spatial variation. A Bayesian penalty function is implemented with Gauss-Newton methods. This leads to a computational problem similar to numerical simulation of the partial differential equations (PDEs) of groundwater. In fact, extensions of PDE solver ideas to break down computations over space form the computational heart of DFM

  7. Groundwater dating for understanding nitrogen in groundwater systems - Time lag, fate, and detailed flow path ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Hadfield, John; Stenger, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a problem world-wide. Nitrate from land use activities can leach out of the root zone of the crop into the deeper part of the unsaturated zone and ultimately contaminate the underlying groundwater resources. Nitrate travels with the groundwater and then discharges into surface water causing eutrophication of surface water bodies. To understand the source, fate, and future nitrogen loads to ground and surface water bodies, detailed knowledge of the groundwater flow dynamics is essential. Groundwater sampled at monitoring wells or discharges may not yet be in equilibrium with current land use intensity due to the time lag between leaching out of the root zone and arrival at the sampling location. Anoxic groundwater zones can act as nitrate sinks through microbial denitrification. However, the effect of denitrification on overall nitrate fluxes depends on the fraction of the groundwater flowing through such zones. We will show results from volcanic aquifers in the central North Island of New Zealand where age tracers clearly indicate that the groundwater discharges into large sensitive lakes like Lake Taupo and Lake Rotorua are not yet fully realising current land use intensity. The majority of the water discharging into these lakes is decades and up to over hundred years old. Therefore, increases in dairy farming over the last decades are not yet reflected in these old water discharges, but over time these increased nitrate inputs will eventually work their way through the large groundwater systems and increasing N loads to the lakes are to be expected. Anoxic zones are present in some of these aquifers, indicating some denitrification potential, however, age tracer results from nested piezo wells show young groundwater in oxic zones indicating active flow in these zones, while anoxic zones tend to have older water indicating poorer hydraulic conductivity in these zones. Consequently, to evaluate the effect of denitrification

  8. Evolution of Quaternary groundwater system in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗祜; 施德鸿; 任福弘; 殷正宙; 孙继朝; 张翠云

    1997-01-01

    The Quaternary groundwater system in the North China Plain is formed mainly through the terrestrial water flow action on the united geological and tectonic backgrounds. The analysis of groundwater dynamic field, simulation of groundwater geochemistry, and the 14C dating and extraction of isotope information have provided more evidence for recognizing and assessing the evolution of groundwater circulation system and studying the past global changes. The exploitation and utilization of groundwater on a large scale and overexploitation have given rise to the decline of regional groundwater level, change of flow field, decrease of water resources and downward movement of saline water body. The water environment has entered a new evolution stage in which it is intensely disturbed by the mankind’s activities.

  9. Influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soil-groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Li, Jiale; Xu, Liang; Liu, Ming; Du, Bin; Wang, Yanxin

    2013-07-01

    Serious shortage of water resources is one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of cropland and pasture land in northern and northwestern China. Although the reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation becomes a well established practice in these regions, many contaminants have been also introduced into the soil-groundwater systems such as persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To study the influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems, the groundwater flow field was investigated and 31 topsoil samples, 9 boreholes, 11 sewage effluents and 34 groundwater samples were collected in Xiaodian, Taiyuan city, one of the largest sewage irrigation districts, China. During sampling, three representative types of regions were considered including effluent-irrigated area, groundwater-irrigated area served as the control field and no-irrigated area as reference "background". The results showed over-exploitation of groundwater had changed the flow field of groundwater and wherever in soil or in groundwater, the concentration of OCPs in effluent-irrigation area presented the highest value, which indicated that the sewage irrigation had a strong influence on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems. Principal component analysis for OCPs content in groundwater showed that the major influence factors on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in groundwater systems attribute to the flow field of groundwater and to the current pesticide use.

  10. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  11. A New Geochemical Reaction Model for Groundwater Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Through a survey of the literature on geology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, this paper presents a hydrogeochemical model for the groundwater system in a dross-dumping area of the Shandong Aluminium Plant. It is considered that the groundwater-bearing medium is a mineral aggregate and that the interactions between groundwater and the groundwater-bearing medium can be described as a series of geochemical reactions. On that basis, the principle of minimum energy and the equations of mass balance, electron balance and electric neutrality are applied to construct a linear programming mathematical model for the calculation of mass transfer between water and rock with the simplex method.

  12. Understanding similarity of groundwater systems with empirical copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Within the classification framework for groundwater systems that aims for identifying similarity of hydrogeological systems and transferring information from a well-observed to an ungauged system (Haaf and Barthel, 2015; Haaf and Barthel, 2016), we propose a copula-based method for describing groundwater-systems similarity. Copulas are an emerging method in hydrological sciences that make it possible to model the dependence structure of two groundwater level time series, independently of the effects of their marginal distributions. This study is based on Samaniego et al. (2010), which described an approach calculating dissimilarity measures from bivariate empirical copula densities of streamflow time series. Subsequently, streamflow is predicted in ungauged basins by transferring properties from similar catchments. The proposed approach is innovative because copula-based similarity has not yet been applied to groundwater systems. Here we estimate the pairwise dependence structure of 600 wells in Southern Germany using 10 years of weekly groundwater level observations. Based on these empirical copulas, dissimilarity measures are estimated, such as the copula's lower- and upper corner cumulated probability, copula-based Spearman's rank correlation - as proposed by Samaniego et al. (2010). For the characterization of groundwater systems, copula-based metrics are compared with dissimilarities obtained from precipitation signals corresponding to the presumed area of influence of each groundwater well. This promising approach provides a new tool for advancing similarity-based classification of groundwater system dynamics. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2015. Methods for assessing hydrogeological similarity and for classification of groundwater systems on the regional scale, EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2016. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs EGU General Assembly

  13. Pumpage for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents ground-water discharged from the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) through pumped wells. Pumping from wells in...

  14. Radionuclides in groundwater flow system understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erőss, Anita; Csondor, Katalin; Horváth, Ákos; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Surbeck, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Using radionuclides is a novel approach to characterize fluids of groundwater flow systems and understand their mixing. Particularly, in regional discharge areas, where different order flow systems convey waters with different temperature, composition and redox-state to the discharge zone. Radium and uranium are redox-sensitive parameters, which causes fractionation along groundwater flow paths. Discharging waters of regional flow systems are characterized by elevated total dissolved solid content (TDS), temperature and by reducing conditions, and therefore with negligible uranium content, whereas local flow systems have lower TDS and temperature and represent oxidizing environments, and therefore their radium content is low. Due to the short transit time, radon may appear in local systems' discharge, where its source is the soil zone. However, our studies revealed the importance of FeOOH precipitates as local radon sources throughout the adsorption of radium transported by the thermal waters of regional flow systems. These precipitates can form either by direct oxidizing of thermal waters at discharge, or by mixing of waters with different redox state. Therefore elevated radon content often occurs in regional discharge areas as well. This study compares the results of geochemical studies in three thermal karst areas in Hungary, focusing on radionuclides as natural tracers. In the Buda Thermal Karst, the waters of the distinct discharge areas are characterized by different temperature and chemical composition. In the central discharge area both lukewarm (20-35°C, 770-980 mg/l TDS) and thermal waters (40-65°C, 800-1350 mg/l TDS), in the South only thermal water discharge (33-43°C, 1450-1700 mg/l TDS) occur. Radionuclides helped to identify mixing of fluids and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members for the central discharge area. For the southern discharge zone mixing components could not be identified, which suggests different cave

  15. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, J.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. In particular the present invention relates to stabilizing toxic metals in groundwater and soil. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  16. Groundwater detection monitoring system design under conditions of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Landfills represent a wide-spread and significant threat to groundwater quality. In this thesis a methodology was developed for the design of optimal groundwater moni-toring system design at landfill sites under conditions of uncertainty. First a decision analysis approach was presented for optimal

  17. Is groundwater age the main control for slow turnover of nitrate in a fractured groundwater system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osenbrück, Karsten; Schwientek, Marc; Rügner, Hermann; Grathwohl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Slow transformation processes are known to control the chemical, isotopic, and redox evolution of large-scale aquifers (Edmunds et al., 1982; Katz et al., 1995). However, at the field scale some of the crucial biogeochemical processes governing pollutant turnover and their interrelations with hydrology are poorly understood. Particularly, only little is known about denitrification in fractured rock aquifers. Therefore, the main objective of the presented study is to assess where and how slow turnover of nitrate ans other pollutants in the deeper subsurface take place. The studied fractured and partly karstified aquifer consisting of Triassic black limestones and dolomites is located in the catchment of the Ammer river (ca. 350 km²) close to Tübingen in southern Germany. Near the recharge area, the aquifer is covered by loess allowing intensive agriculture. Further downgradient, the cover consist of a series of mudstones and sandstones of variable permeability. The aquifer is used for drinking water purposes by regional water suppliers. Land-use is dominated by agriculture with arable land covering nearly 50% of the catchment. Over the last years a variety of groundwater samples have been collected from the groundwater system including 6 water supply wells, 4 karstic springs, and 9 monitoring wells in the recharge area. This allowed to identify spatial and temporal patterns of water quality including concentrations of major ions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides), and environmental isotopes. Groundwater age distributions at most of these locations were derived from tritium, 3He, CFCs and SF6. Groundwaters in the recharge area show high concentrations of nutrients (e.g. 20-51 mg/L of nitrate and 0.2 to 0.05 µg/L of phosphate). Of special concern are disparate nitrate concentrations ranging from below 0.4 to 20 mg/L in water supply wells although screen depths of the production wells are similar. Concentrations of dissolved

  18. Onsite wastewater system nitrogen contributions to groundwater in coastal North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, C P; O'Driscoll, M A; Deal, N E; Lindbo, D L; Thieme, S C; Zarate-Bermudez, M A

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to evaluate the nitrogen contributions from two onsite wastewater systems (sites 1 and 2) to groundwater and adjacent surface waters in coastal Beaufort County, North Carolina. Groundwater levels and water quality parameters including total nitrogen, nitrogen species, temperature, and pH were monitored from October 2009 to May 2010. Nitrogen was also tested in groundwater from deeper irrigation or drinking water wells from the two sites and six additional neighboring residences. Mean total nitrogen concentrations in groundwater beneath onsite wastewater systems 1 and 2 were 34.3 +/- 16.7 mg/L and 12.2 +/- 2.9 mg/L, respectively, and significantly higher than background groundwater concentrations (Groundwater in the deeper wells appeared not to be influenced by the onsite systems. Groundwater nitrogen concentrations typically decreased with distance down-gradient from the systems, but were still elevated relative to background conditions more than 15 m from the systems and near the estuary. This was a pioneering effort to better understand the link of onsite systems, the fate of nitrogen in the environment, and public health.

  19. Sustainable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological cycle in the warm humid country, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, J.; Crest Kumamoto Groundwater Team

    2011-12-01

    The increase of precipitation variability with the global warming and the rapid population growth lead to the shortage of water resources on a global scale. Groundwater bocome attracted as a relatively stable water resource because of its larger reservoir and a longer residence time. As our country belongs to a warm humid climate with much precipitation and a steep topography, the regional hydrological cycle is extremely active. Surface water could be taken easily and was often used to a water supply until now, but recently groundwater is taking the place of surface water because of the stability of water supply. While in our hydro-climatic condition, the sustainable use of groundwater is possible under the appropriative management, that is, groundwater pumping rate does not exceed the recharge rate in a basin. For the sustainable use of groundwater resources, this project aims to develop new technologies relating to the quantity and quality aspects of groundwater resources. For the precise understanding of groundwater flow system, new technologies will be developed, like frequency changeable electric resistivity exploration method to evaluate an aquifer structure. There are many problems about groundwater quality including nitrate-nitrogen contamination and toxic substances from the domestic and industrial waste disposals. It is necessary to understand the production mechanism to prevent groundwater contamination and the degradation process of nitrate-nitrogen contamination to improve the water quality. Therefore this project will develop new technologies including the reduction of NO3=N and natural toxic substances loads before groundwater recharge, the on-site removal of contaminants from aquifers, and simple and effective equipment to improve groundwater quality after pumping. Furthermore, this project will also develop a new biological monitoring technique for local groundwater users to notice the contamination at a glance; change colar fish by specific ion

  20. Control of Groundwater Remediation Process as Distributed Parameter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of groundwater requires the implementation of appropriate solutions which can be deployed for several years. The case of local groundwater contamination and its subsequent spread may result in contamination of drinking water sources or other disasters. This publication aims to design and demonstrate control of pumping wells for a model task of groundwater remediation. The task consists of appropriately spaced soil with input parameters, pumping wells and control system. Model of controlled system is made in the program MODFLOW using the finitedifference method as distributed parameter system. Control problem is solved by DPS Blockset for MATLAB & Simulink.

  1. Microbial degradation of chloroethenes in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    The chloroethenes, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are among the most common contaminants detected in groundwater systems. As recently as 1980, the consensus was that chloroethene compounds were not significantly biodegradable in groundwater. Consequently, efforts to remediate chloroethene-contaminated groundwater were limited to largely unsuccessful pump-and-treat attempts. Subsequent investigation revealed that under reducing conditions, aquifer microorganisms can reductively dechlorinate PCE and TCE to the less chlorinated daughter products dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Although recent laboratory studies conducted with halorespiring microorganisms suggest that complete reduction to ethene is possible, in the majority of groundwater systems reductive dechlorination apparently stops at DCE or VC. However, recent investigations conducted with aquifer and stream-bed sediments have demonstrated that microbial oxidation of these reduced daughter products can be significant under anaerobic redox conditions. The combination of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE under anaerobic conditions followed by anaerobic microbial oxidation of DCE and VC provides a possible microbial pathway for complete degradation of chloroethene contaminants in groundwater systems. Résumé Les chloroéthanes, tétrachloroéthane (PCE) et trichloroéthane (TCE) sont parmi les polluants les plus communs trouvés dans les aquifères. Depuis les années 1980, on considère que les chloroéthanes ne sont pas significativement biodégradables dans les aquifères. Par conséquent, les efforts pour dépolluer les nappes contaminées par des chloroéthanes se sont limités à des tentatives de pompage-traitement globalement sans succès. Des travaux ultérieurs ont montré que dans des conditions réductrices, des micro-organismes présents dans les aquifères peuvent, par réduction, dégrader les PCE et TCE en composés moins chlorés, comme le dichlor

  2. [Groundwater organic pollution source identification technology system research and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wei, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Neng; Liu, Pei-Bin; Ji, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-02-01

    Groundwater organic pollutions are found in large amount of locations, and the pollutions are widely spread once onset; which is hard to identify and control. The key process to control and govern groundwater pollution is how to control the sources of pollution and reduce the danger to groundwater. This paper introduced typical contaminated sites as an example; then carried out the source identification studies and established groundwater organic pollution source identification system, finally applied the system to the identification of typical contaminated sites. First, grasp the basis of the contaminated sites of geological and hydrogeological conditions; determine the contaminated sites characteristics of pollutants as carbon tetrachloride, from the large numbers of groundwater analysis and test data; then find the solute transport model of contaminated sites and compound-specific isotope techniques. At last, through groundwater solute transport model and compound-specific isotope technology, determine the distribution of the typical site of organic sources of pollution and pollution status; invest identified potential sources of pollution and sample the soil to analysis. It turns out that the results of two identified historical pollution sources and pollutant concentration distribution are reliable. The results provided the basis for treatment of groundwater pollution.

  3. [Hydrogeochemical characteristics of a typical karst groundwater system in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping-Heng; Lu, Bing-Qing; He, Qiu-Fang; Chen, Xue-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The two-year hydrologic process, hydrochemistry, and a portion of deltaD, delta18O of both the surface water at the inlet and the groundwater at the outlet, were investigated to identify the spatial and temporal variations of hydrogeochemistry in the Qingmuguan karst groundwater system. Research results show that there are wet and dry periods in the groundwater system owing to the striking influence of seasonal rainfall. The evolution of the chemical compositions in the groundwater is significantly influenced by the water and rock interaction, anthropogenic activities and rainwater dilution. The variations of the chemical compositions in the groundwater exhibit obvious spatiality and temporality. The deltaD and delta18O of the surface water beneath the local Meteoric Water Line of Chonqing indicate that the surface water is strongly evaporated. Furthermore, the deltaD and delta18O of the surface water are more positive in the dry period than in the wet period, showing a distinct seasonal effect. The deltaD and delta18O of the groundwater are quite stable and much negative compared with those of the surface water, which suggests that the rainwater recharge the groundwater via two pathways, one directly through sinkholes and the other via the vadose zone.

  4. Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of residential water supply in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin. A regional three-dimensional groundwater-flow model and three associated demonstration inset models were developed to simulate the groundwater-flow systems in the three-county area. The models were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the three county governments. The objectives of the regional model of Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties were to improve understanding of the groundwaterflow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential water-management programs. The regional groundwater-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, groundwater/surface-water interactions, and groundwater withdrawals from high-capacity wells. Results from the regional model indicate that about 82 percent of groundwater in the three counties is from recharge within the counties; 15 percent is from surface-water sources, consisting primarily of recirculated groundwater seepage in areas with abrupt surface-water-level changes, such as near waterfalls, dams, and the downgradient side of reservoirs and lakes; and 4 percent is from inflow across the county boundaries. Groundwater flow out of the counties is to streams (85 percent), outflow across county boundaries (14 percent), and pumping wells (1 percent). These results demonstrate that the primary source of groundwater withdrawn by pumping wells is water that recharges within the counties and would otherwise discharge to local streams and lakes. Under current conditions, the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers are groundwater discharge locations (gaining reaches) and appear to function as 'fully penetrating' hydraulic boundaries such that groundwater does not cross between Wisconsin and Minnesota beneath them. Being hydraulic boundaries, however, they can change in response to

  5. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  6. Applying a System Dynamics Approach for Modeling Groundwater Dynamics to Depletion under Different Economical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Balali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, due to many different factors, including climate change effects towards be warming and lower precipitation, as well as some structural policies such as more intensive harvesting of groundwater and low price of irrigation water, the level of groundwater has decreased in most plains of Iran. The objective of this study is to model groundwater dynamics to depletion under different economic policies and climate change by using a system dynamics approach. For this purpose a dynamic hydro-economic model which simultaneously simulates the farmer’s economic behavior, groundwater aquifer dynamics, studied area climatology factors and government economical policies related to groundwater, is developed using STELLA 10.0.6. The vulnerability of groundwater balance is forecasted under three scenarios of climate including the Dry, Nor and Wet and also, different scenarios of irrigation water and energy pricing policies. Results show that implementation of some economic policies on irrigation water and energy pricing can significantly affect on groundwater exploitation and its volume balance. By increasing of irrigation water price along with energy price, exploitation of groundwater will improve, in so far as in scenarios S15 and S16, studied area’s aquifer groundwater balance is positive at the end of planning horizon, even in Dry condition of precipitation. Also, results indicate that climate change can affect groundwater recharge. It can generally be expected that increases in precipitation would produce greater aquifer recharge rates.

  7. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  8. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  9. Groundwater systems of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Sub-Continent is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world's land area. It encompasses some of the world's largest fluvial systems in the world (River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus Basins, which hosts some of the highest yielding aquifers in the world. The distribution of usable groundwater in the region varies considerably and the continued availability of safe water from many of these aquifers (e.g. Bengal Basin is constrained by the presence of natural contaminants. Further, the trans-boundary nature of the aquifers in the Indian Sub-Continent makes groundwater resource a potentially politically sensitive issue, particularly since this region is the largest user of groundwater resources in the world. Indeed, there is considerable concern regarding dwindling well yield and declining groundwater levels, even for the highly productive aquifers. Though irrigation already accounts for >85% of the total ground water extraction of the region, there is a mounting pressure on aquifers for food security of the region. Highly variable precipitation, hydrogeological conditions and predicted, impending climate change effects provide substantial challenges to groundwater management. The observed presence of natural groundwater contaminants together with the growing demand for irrigated food production and predicted climate change further complicate the development of strategies for using groundwater resources sustainably. We provide an introduction and overview of 11 articles, collated in this special issue, which describe the current condition of vulnerable groundwater resources across the Indian Sub-Continent.

  10. Badger Army Ammunition Plant groundwater data management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.P. [Olin Corp., Baraboo, WI (United States). Badger Army Ammunition Plant

    1994-12-31

    At the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (Badger), there are currently over 200 wells that are monitored on a quarterly basis. Badger has had three active production periods since its construction in 1942. During these periods, various nitrocellulose based propellants were produced including single base artillery propellants were produced including single base artillery propellant, double base rocket propellant and BALL POWDER{reg_sign} propellant. Intermediate materials used in the manufacture of these propellants were also produced, including nitroglycerine, and sulfuric and nitric acids. To meet the challenge of managing the data in-house, a groundwater data management system (GDMS) was developed. Although such systems are commercially available, they were not able to provide the specific capabilities necessary for data management and reporting at Badger. The GDMS not only provides the routine database capabilities of data sorts and queries, but has provided an automated data reporting system as well. The reporting function alone has significantly reduced the time and efforts that would normally be associated with this task. Since the GDMS was developed at Badger, the program can be continually adapted to site specific needs. Future planned modifications include automated reconciliation, improved transfer of data to graphics software, and statistical analysis and interpretation of the data.

  11. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  12. Permafrost thaw in a nested groundwater-flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jeffery M.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater flow in cold regions containing permafrost accelerates climate-warming-driven thaw and changes thaw patterns. Simulation analyses of groundwater flow and heat transport with freeze/thaw in typical cold-regions terrain with nested flow indicate that early thaw rate is particularly enhanced by flow, the time when adverse environmental impacts of climate-warming-induced permafrost loss may be severest. For the slowest climate-warming rate predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), once significant groundwater flow begins, thick permafrost layers can vanish in several hundred years, but survive over 1,000 years where flow is minimal. Large-scale thaw depends mostly on the balance of heat advection and conduction in the supra-permafrost zone. Surface-water bodies underlain by open taliks allow slow sub-permafrost flow, with lesser influence on regional thaw. Advection dominance over conduction depends on permeability and topography. Groundwater flow around permafrost and flow through permafrost impact thaw differently; the latter enhances early thaw rate. Air-temperature seasonality also increases early thaw. Hydrogeologic heterogeneity and topography strongly affect thaw rates/patterns. Permafrost controls the groundwater/surface-water-geomorphology system; hence, prediction and mitigation of impacts of thaw on ecology, chemical exports and infrastructure require improved hydrogeology/permafrost characterization and understanding

  13. Ecohydrological Investigations of a Groundwater-Lake System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mette Cristine Schou

    I). •Does dense bottom vegetation affect the small scale hydrology of the lake bed sediment? (Paper 2). •How can natural tracers (δ 18O) be used to quantify the temporal variation in groundwater seepage dynamics? (Paper 3). •Is it possible to combine ecological data of surface water chemistry...... and data on groundwater chemistry to stoichiometrically describe changes in the lake in a historical time frame? (Paper 4). he main conclusions from the study are: •When evaluating the ecology of a groundwater-lake system, both hydrological and biological parameters are needed to accurately describe...... by this. The reasons for the lowered hydraulic conductivity seems to be an combination of the organic content in the sediment (i.e. the roots of the plants) and a vegetation induced entrapment of fine particles in the sediment. Over the course of three years I followed the small scale variation...

  14. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  15. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  16. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  17. Steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Buto, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the construction, calibration, evaluation, and results of a steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system that was developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Census Initiative to evaluate the nation’s groundwater availability. The study area spans 110,000 square miles across five states. The numerical model uses MODFLOW-2005, and incorporates and tests complex hydrogeologic and hydrologic elements of a conceptual understanding of an interconnected groundwater system throughout the region, including mountains, basins, consolidated rocks, and basin fill. The level of discretization in this model has not been previously available throughout the study area.

  18. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater resources from alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin are critical for municipal, domestic, and agricultural uses in Colorado along the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains. Rapid and widespread urban development, primarily along the western boundary of the Denver Basin, has approximately doubled the population since about 1970, and much of the population depends on groundwater for water supply. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted groundwater-quality studies during 2003–5 in the Denver Basin aquifer system to characterize water quality of shallow groundwater at the water table and of the bedrock aquifers, which are important drinking-water resources. For the Denver Basin, water-quality constituents of concern for human health or because they might otherwise limit use of water include total dissolved solids, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, selenium, radon, uranium, arsenic, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. For the water-table studies, two monitoring-well networks were installed and sampled beneath agricultural (31 wells) and urban (29 wells) land uses at or just below the water table in either alluvial material or near-surface bedrock. For the bedrock-aquifer studies, domestic- and municipal-supply wells completed in the bedrock aquifers were sampled. The bedrock aquifers, stratigraphically from youngest (shallowest) to oldest (deepest), are the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers. The extensive dataset collected from wells completed in the bedrock aquifers (79 samples) provides the opportunity to evaluate factors and processes affecting water quality and to establish a baseline that can be used to characterize future changes in groundwater quality. Groundwater samples were analyzed for inorganic, organic, isotopic, and age-dating constituents and tracers. This report discusses spatial and statistical distributions of chemical constituents

  19. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D. Matthew; Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Vaccaro, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS), Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and to evaluate groundwater availability. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-resource managers and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies and assess the long‑term availability of groundwater. The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the CPRAS was completed with support from the Groundwater Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Groundwater.

  20. The groundwater buffering effect on heat waves and precipitation: coupled groundwater-atmosphere simulations over Europe and North America with a WRF-LEAFHYDRO system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Gómez, Breogán; Regueiro-Sanfiz, Sabela; Georgescu, Matei

    2016-04-01

    We present coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations with the WRF regional climate model and the LEAFHYDRO LSM, including groundwater dynamics. Simulations are carried out for the coupled system for the growing season (February to October) over Europe at 2.5km resolution over land and 20km over the atmosphere. Initial conditions for the land surface, groundwater and rivers are from 10 year off-line simulations, performed continuously over the same domain and period, forced by atmospheric data from the Earth2Observe FP7 project. We show that the presence of a shallow water table over portions of the European continent enhances evapotranspiration in dry periods under increasing atmospheric demand. The impact of the coupling between groundwater and the soil vegetation system on land surface fluxes results in decreases in air temperature and an increase in low level mixing ratios, which under certain convective regimes induces more precipitation. We illustrate for the heat wave of 2003 that models that do not include this groundwater buffering effect may enhance significantly the intensity of such temperature extreme cases. The effect on precipitation is mostly seen over inland areas where warm season convection is important. We show with results of additional simulations over North America, where summer convection over the interior of the continent is very relevant, that the effect of groundwater-enhanced evapotranspiration may have a sizeable impact on climate at the global scale.

  1. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    by USGS at the site and results from other studies support, and are consistent with, a conceptual model of a layered leaky aquifer where the dip of the beds has a strong control on hydraulic connections in the groundwater system. Connections within and (or) parallel to bedding tend to be greater than across bedding. Transmissivities of aquifer intervals isolated by packers ranged over three orders of magnitude [from about 2.8 to 2,290 square feet per day (ft2/d) or 0.26 to 213 square meters per day (m2/d)], did not appear to differ much by mapped geologic unit, but showed some relation to depth being relatively smaller in the shallowest and deepest intervals (0 to 50 ft and more than 250 ft below land surface, respectively) compared to the intermediate depth intervals (50 to 250 ft below land surface) tested. Transmissivities estimated from multiple-observation well aquifer tests ranged from about 700 to 2,300 ft2/d (65 to 214 m2/d). Results of chemical analyses of water from isolated intervals or monitoring wells open to short sections of the aquifer show vertical differences in concentrations; chloride and silica concentrations generally were greater in shallow intervals than in deeper intervals. Chloride concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per liter (mg/L), combined with distinctive chloride/bromide ratios, indicate a different source of chloride in the western part of North Penn Area 7 than elsewhere in the site. Groundwater flow at a regional scale under steady-state conditions was simulated by use of a numerical model (MODFLOW-2000) for North Penn Area 7 with different layers representing saprolite/highly weathered rock near the surface and unweathered competent bedrock. The sedimentary formations that underlie the study area were modeled using dipping model layers for intermediate and deep zones of unweathered, fractured rock. Horizontal cell model size was 100 meters (m) by 100 meters (328 ft by 328 ft), and model layer thickness ranged from 6 m (19

  2. Distributed parallel computing in stochastic modeling of groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhui; Li, Guomin; Xu, Haizhen

    2013-03-01

    Stochastic modeling is a rapidly evolving, popular approach to the study of the uncertainty and heterogeneity of groundwater systems. However, the use of Monte Carlo-type simulations to solve practical groundwater problems often encounters computational bottlenecks that hinder the acquisition of meaningful results. To improve the computational efficiency, a system that combines stochastic model generation with MODFLOW-related programs and distributed parallel processing is investigated. The distributed computing framework, called the Java Parallel Processing Framework, is integrated into the system to allow the batch processing of stochastic models in distributed and parallel systems. As an example, the system is applied to the stochastic delineation of well capture zones in the Pinggu Basin in Beijing. Through the use of 50 processing threads on a cluster with 10 multicore nodes, the execution times of 500 realizations are reduced to 3% compared with those of a serial execution. Through this application, the system demonstrates its potential in solving difficult computational problems in practical stochastic modeling. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Subregions of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the subregions of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS). Subregions are...

  4. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  5. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. The expected

  6. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  7. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Apperl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values, improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach, what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain, subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking

  8. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.

    1999-03-03

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells.

  9. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  10. Management of the Arsenic Groundwater System Lagunera - MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boochs, P. W.; Billib, M.; Aparicio, J.; Gutierrez, C.

    2007-05-01

    mixing of "young" water with less arsenic and "old" water with high arsenic was excluded, which results in the long term to higher arsenic concentrations in the groundwater. In order to understand the actual situation and to prognosticate the further development of the arsenic concentration in the Comarca Lagunera region, it was necessary to reproduce the historical development with a simulation model which includes the different anthropogenic impacts. For this purpose the groundwater model MODFLOW was used and the investigation area of about 7000 sq km was divided by a regular square grid with a mesh size of 1 km. The calibration of the model started with steady state conditions, using an assumed, uninfluenced "original status" of 1900. Subsequently, the influence of the immensely rising groundwater discharge beginning 1950 and the canalization of the river Nazas were simulated and the results were compared with measurements at selected times. The prognostic calculations showed, that the increase of the arsenic concentration will go on in the future under the present conditions of overpumping. Therefore, it has to be reduced. To control the arsenic migration towards the urban wells for dringking water supply artificial recharge can be done. Another possibility is a treatment, especially subterranean, of arsenic or to use surface water for drinking water purposes.

  11. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  12. Conjunctive management of multi-reservoir network system and groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, A.; Tsai, F. T. C.

    2015-12-01

    This study develops a successive mixed-integer linear fractional programming (successive MILFP) method to conjunctively manage water resources provided by a multi-reservoir network system and a groundwater system. The conjunctive management objectives are to maximize groundwater withdrawals and maximize reservoir storages while satisfying water demands and raising groundwater level to a target level. The decision variables in the management problem are reservoir releases and spills, network flows and groundwater pumping rates. Using the fractional programming approach, the objective function is defined as a ratio of total groundwater withdraws to total reservoir storage deficits from the maximum storages. Maximizing this ratio function tends to maximizing groundwater use and minimizing surface water use. This study introduces a conditional constraint on groundwater head in order to sustain aquifers from overpumping: if current groundwater level is less than a target level, groundwater head at the next time period has to be raised; otherwise, it is allowed to decrease up to a certain extent. This conditional constraint is formulated into a set of mixed binary nonlinear constraints and results in a mixed-integer nonlinear fractional programming (MINLFP) problem. To solve the MINLFP problem, we first use the response matrix approach to linearize groundwater head with respect to pumping rate and reduce the problem to an MILFP problem. Using the Charnes-Cooper transformation, the MILFP is transformed to an equivalent mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). The solution of the MILP is successively updated by updating the response matrix in every iteration. The study uses IBM CPLEX to solve the MILP problem. The methodology is applied to water resources management in northern Louisiana. This conjunctive management approach aims to recover the declining groundwater level of the stressed Sparta aquifer by using surface water from a network of four reservoirs as an

  13. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  14. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  15. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  16. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge...

  17. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Office. Annual report for fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-30

    This edition of the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO) for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater programs at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants (PGDP and PORTS, respectively.) This report describes the administrative framework of the GWPO including staffing, organization, and funding sources. In addition, summaries are provided of activities involving the Technical Support staff at the five facilities. Finally, the results of basic investigations designed to improve our understanding of the major processes governing groundwater flow and contaminant migration on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are reported. These investigations are conducted as part of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Studies (ORRHAGS) program. The relevance of these studies to the overall remediation responsibilities of Energy Systems is discussed.

  18. The 3D simulation and optimized management model of groundwater systems based on ecoenvironmental water demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Through the study of mutual process between groundwater systems and eco-environmental water demand, the eco-environmental water demand is brought into groundwater systems model as the important water consumption item and unification of groundwater's economic, environmental and ecological functions were taken into account. Based on eco-environmental water demand at Da'an in Jilin province, a three-dimensional simulation and optimized management model of groundwater systems was established. All water balance components of groundwater systems in 1998 and 1999 were simulated with this model and the best optimal exploitation scheme of groundwater systems in 2000 was determined, so that groundwater resource was efficiently utilized and good economic, ecologic and social benefits were obtained.

  19. Chase the direct impact of rainfall into groundwater in Mt. Fuji from multiple analyses including microbial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kenji; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki

    2016-04-01

    A huge amount of groundwater is stored in subsurface environment of Mt. Fuji, the largest volcanic mountain in Japan. Based on the concept of piston flow transport of groundwater an apparent residence time was estimated to ca. 30 years by 36Cl/Cl ratio (Tosaki et al., 2011). However, this number represents an averaged value of the residence time of groundwater which had been mixed before it flushes out. We chased signatures of direct impact of rainfall into groundwater to elucidate the routes of groundwater, employing three different tracers; stable isotopic analysis (delta 18O), chemical analysis (concentration of silica) and microbial DNA analysis. Though chemical analysis of groundwater shows an averaged value of the examined water which was blended by various water with different sources and routes in subsurface environment, microbial DNA analysis may suggest the place where they originated, which may give information of the source and transport routes of the water examined. Throughout the in situ observation of four rainfall events showed that stable oxygen isotopic ratio of spring water and shallow groundwater obtained from 726m a.s.l. where the average recharge height of rainfall was between 1500 and 1800 m became higher than the values before a torrential rainfall, and the concentration of silica decreased after this event when rainfall exceeded 300 mm in precipitation of an event. In addition, the density of Prokaryotes in spring water apparently increased. Those changes did not appear when rainfall did not exceed 100 mm per event. Thus, findings shown above indicated a direct impact of rainfall into shallow groundwater, which appeared within a few weeks of torrential rainfall in the studied geological setting. In addition, increase in the density of Archaea observed at deep groundwater after the torrential rainfall suggested an enlargement of the strength of piston flow transport through the penetration of rainfall into deep groundwater. This finding was

  20. Characterization of the shallow groundwater system in an alpine watershed: Handcart Gulch, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, K.G.; Ge, S.; Caine, J.S.; Manning, A.

    2008-01-01

    Water-table elevation measurements and aquifer parameter estimates are rare in alpine settings because few wells exist in these environments. Alpine groundwater systems may be a primary source of recharge to regional groundwater flow systems. Handcart Gulch is an alpine watershed in Colorado, USA comprised of highly fractured Proterozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks with wells completed to various depths. Primary study objectives include determining hydrologic properties of shallow bedrock and surficial materials, developing a watershed water budget, and testing the consistency of measured hydrologic properties and water budget by constructing a simple model incorporating groundwater and surface water for water year 2005. Water enters the study area as precipitation and exits as discharge in the trunk stream or potential recharge for the deeper aquifer. Surficial infiltration rates ranged from 0.1-6.2??0-5 m/s. Discharge was estimated at 1.28??10-3 km3. Numerical modeling analysis of single-well aquifer tests predicted lower specific storage in crystalline bedrock than in ferricrete and colluvial material (6.7??10-5-2.10??0-3 l/m). Hydraulic conductivity in crystalline bedrock was significantly lower than in colluvial and alluvial material (4.3??10-9 -2.0??10-4 m/s). Water budget results suggest that during normal precipitation and temperatures water is available to recharge the deeper groundwater flow system. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  1. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D

  2. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  3. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  4. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Stigter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  5. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Monteiro, J. P.; Nunes, L. M.; Vieira, J.; Cunha, M. C.; Ribeiro, L.; Nascimento, J.; Lucas, H.

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells. For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s-1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand), requiring only disinfection (900 l s-1) or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make the water supply system extremely vulnerable, with a high

  6. Groundwater flow and mixing in a wetland–stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms;

    2013-01-01

    We combined electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) on land and in a stream with zone-based hydraulic conductivities (from multi-level slug testing) to investigate the local geological heterogeneity of the deposits in a wetland–stream system. The detailed geology was incorporated into a numerical....... The presented approach of integrating such methods in groundwater–surface water exchange studies, proved efficient to obtain information of the controlling factors....... steady-state groundwater model that was calibrated against average head observations. The model results were tested against groundwater fluxes determined from streambed temperature measurements. Discharge varied up to one order of magnitude across the stream and the model was successful in capturing...... this variability. Water quality analyses from multi-level sampling underneath the streambed and in the wetland showed a stratification in groundwater composition with an aerobic shallow zone with oxygen and nitrate (top ∼3 m) overlying a reduced, anoxic zone. While NO3- concentrations up to 58 mg L−1 were found...

  7. Spatio-temporal impact of climate change on the groundwater system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dams

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of groundwater for food production and drinking water supply, but also for the survival of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs it is essential to assess the impact of climate change on this freshwater resource. In this paper we study with high temporal and spatial resolution the impact of 28 climate change scenarios on the groundwater system of a lowland catchment in Belgium. Our results show for the scenario period 2070–2101 compared with the reference period 1960–1991, a change in annual groundwater recharge between −20% and +7%. On average annual groundwater recharge decreases 7%. Seasonally, in most scenarios the recharge increases during winter but decreases during summer. The altered recharge patterns cause the groundwater level to decrease significantly from September to January. On average the groundwater level decreases about 7 cm with a standard deviation between the scenarios of 5 cm. Groundwater levels in interfluves and upstream areas are more sensitive to climate change than groundwater levels in the river valley. Groundwater discharge to GWDTEs is expected to decrease during late summer and autumn as much as 10%, though the discharge remains at reference-period level during winter and early spring. As GWDTEs are strongly influenced by temporal dynamics of the groundwater system, close monitoring of groundwater and implementation of adaptive management measures are required to prevent ecological loss.

  8. Spatio-temporal impact of climate change on the groundwater system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dams

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of groundwater for food production and drinking water supply, but also for the survival of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs it is essential to assess the impact of climate change on this freshwater resource. In this paper we study with high temporal and spatial resolution the impact of 28 climate change scenarios on the groundwater system of a lowland catchment in Belgium. Our results show for the scenario period 2070–2101 compared with the reference period 1960–1991, a change in annual groundwater recharge between −20% and +7%. On average annual groundwater recharge decreases 7%. In most scenarios the recharge increases during winter but decreases during summer. The altered recharge patterns cause the groundwater level to decrease significantly from September to January. On average the groundwater level decreases about 7 cm with a standard deviation between the scenarios of 5 cm. Groundwater levels in interfluves and upstream areas are more sensitive to climate change than groundwater levels in the river valley. Groundwater discharge to GWDTEs is expected to decrease during late summer and autumn as much as 10%, though the discharge remains at reference-period level during winter and early spring. As GWDTEs are strongly influenced by temporal dynamics of the groundwater system, close monitoring of groundwater and implementation of adaptive management measures are required to prevent ecological loss.

  9. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    Many water scarce regions possess brackish-water resources that can be desalted to provide alternative water supplies. Brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is less expensive than seawater systems because of reduced energy and pretreatment requirements and lesser volumes of concentrate that require disposal. Development of brackish groundwater wellfields include the same hydraulic issues that affect conventional freshwater wellfields. Managing well interference and prevention of adverse impacts such as land subsidence are important concerns. RO systems are designed to treat water whose composition falls within a system-specific envelope of salinities and ion concentrations. A fundamental requirement for the design of brackish groundwater RO systems is prediction of the produced water chemistry at both the start of pumping and after 10-20 years of operation. Density-dependent solute-transport modeling is thus an integral component of the design of brackish groundwater RO systems. The accuracy of groundwater models is dependent upon the quality of the hydrogeological data upon which they are based. Key elements of the aquifer characterization are the determination of the three-dimensional distribution of salinity within the aquifer and the evaluation of aquifer heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic conductivity. It is necessary to know from where in a pumped aquifer (or aquifer zone) water is being produced and the contribution of vertical flow to the produced water. Unexpected, excessive vertical migration (up-coning) of waters that are more saline has adversely impacted some RO systems because the salinity of the water delivered to the system exceeded the system design parameters. Improved aquifer characterization is possible using advanced geophysical techniques, which can, in turn, lead to more accurate solute-transport models. Advanced borehole geophysical logs, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, were run as part of the exploratory test

  10. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The areal concentration distribution of commonmineral constituents and properties of ground water in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system are described in this report. Maps depicting the water quality and the altitude of the water table are included. The shallow aquifer system in Wisconsin, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel and shallow bedrock, is the source of most potable ground-water supplies in the State. Most ground water in the shallow aquifer system moves in local flow systems, but it interacts with regional flow systems in some areas.

  11. An Integrated Approach on Groundwater Flow and Heat/Solute Transport for Sustainable Groundwater Source Heat Pump (GWHP) System Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Joun, W.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Park, I.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The GWHP system uses a stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as one of the most energy-saving and cost-efficient renewable energy techniques. A GWHP facility was installed at an island located at the confluence of North Han and South Han rivers, Korea. Because of well-developed alluvium, the aquifer is suitable for application of this system, extracting and injecting a large amount of groundwater. However, the numerical experiments under various operational conditions showed that it could be vulnerable to thermal interference due to the highly permeable gravel layer, as a preferential path of thermal plume migration, and limited space for well installation. Thus, regional groundwater flow must be an important factor of consideration for the efficient operation under these conditions but was found to be not simple in this site. While the groundwater level in this site totally depends on the river stage control of Paldang dam, the direction and velocity of the regional groundwater flow, observed using the colloidal borescope, have been changed hour by hour with the combined flows of both the rivers. During the pumping and injection tests, the water discharges in Cheongpyeong dam affected their respective results. Moreover, the measured NO3-N concentrations might imply the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality along the regional flow. It is obvious that the extraction and injection of groundwater during the facility operation will affect the fate of the agricultural contaminants. Particularly, the gravel layer must also be a main path for contaminant migration. The simulations for contaminant transport during the facility operation showed that the operation strategy for only thermal efficiency could be unsafe and unstable in respect of groundwater quality. All these results concluded that the integrated approach on groundwater flow and heat/solute transport is necessary

  12. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a

  13. Stygoregions – a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions. PMID:22993698

  14. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  15. Outline of the integrated simulation system (GEOMASS system) to evaluate groundwater flow and application to groundwater simulation in the Tono area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Kaoru; Saegusa, Hiromitsu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    2003-03-01

    The Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) has been developing the GEOMASS system since 1997 to evaluate the groundwater flow at depth in a rock mass. The system provides an integrated simulation system environment for both model development and groundwater flow simulations. The integrated simulation system allows users to use resources efficiently. The system also allows users to make rapid improvement of their models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulations due to the capability of modeling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock. TGC tested the operation and usefulness of the GEOMASS system by applying to groundwater flow simulations in the Tono area, Gifu Prefecture. TGC confirmed that the system is very useful for complex geological models and multiple modeling. (author)

  16. Migration of infiltrated NH4 and NO3 in a soil and groundwater system simulated by a soil tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; WANG Pei-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The infiltration of water contaminants into soil and groundwater systems can greatly affect the quality of groundwater.A laboratory-designed large soil tank with periodic and continuous infiltration models,respectively,was used to simulate the migration of the contaminants NHa and NO3 in a soil and groundwater system,including unsaturated and saturated zones.The unsaturated soil zone had a significant effect on removing NH4 and NO3 infiltrated from the surface water.The patterns of breakthrough curves of NH4 and NO3 in the unsaturated zone were related to the infiltration time.A short infiltration time resulted in a single sharp peak in the breakthrough curve,while a long infiltration time led to a plateau curve.When NHa and NO3 migrated from the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone,an interfacial retardation was formed,resulting in an increased contaminant concentration on the interface.Under the influence of horizontal groundwater movement,the infiltrated contaminants formed a contamination-prone area downstream.As the contaminants migrated downstream,their concentrations were significantly reduced.Under the same infiltration concentration,the concentration of NO3 was greater than that of NH4 at every corresponding cross-section in the soil and groundwater tank,suggesting that the removal efficiency of NH4 was greater than that of NO3 in the soil and groundwater system.

  17. Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalf, Frans R. P.; Woolley, Donald R.

    2005-03-01

    There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all groundwater systems either are or can be made to be sustainable is invalid, (4) often there are an excessive number of factors bound up in the definition that are not easily quantifiable, (5) there is often confusion between production facility optimal yield and basin sustainable yield, (6) in many semi-arid and arid environments groundwater systems cannot be sensibly developed using a sustained yield policy particularly where ecological constraints are applied. Derivation of sustainable yield using conservation of mass principles leads to expressions for basin sustainable, partial (non-sustainable) mining and total (non-sustainable) mining yields that can be readily determined using numerical modelling methods and selected on the basis of applied constraints. For some cases there has to be recognition that the groundwater resource is not renewable and its use cannot therefore be sustainable. In these cases, its destiny should be the best equitable use. producciones sostenibles en cuenca, minado parcial (no sostenible) y total (no sostenible) que pueden determinarse fácilmente utilizando métodos de modelos numéricos y seleccionados en base a restricciones aplicadas. En algunos casos tiene que reconocerse que el recurso de agua subterránea no es renovable y que por lo tanto su uso no puede ser sostenible. En estos casos su destino debe de ser el uso más equitativo.

  18. Limits to global groundwater consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest accessible freshwater resource worldwide and is of critical importance for irrigation, and so for global food security. For many regions of the world where groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge, persistent groundwater depletion occurs. A direct consequence of depletion is falling groundwater levels, reducing baseflows to rivers, harming ecosystems. Also, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence can occur. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable limits with all the associated problems. Here, we estimated past and future trends (1960-2050) in groundwater levels resulting from changes in abstractions and climate and predicted when limits of groundwater consumption are reached. We explored these limits by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that low that groundwater becomes unattainable for abstractions and how river flows are affected. Water availabilities, abstractions, and lateral groundwater flows are simulated (5 arcmin. resolution) using a coupled version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and a groundwater model based on MODFLOW. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of the worlds confined and unconfined aquifer systems, needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Results show that, next to the existing regions experiencing groundwater depletion (like India, Pakistan, Central Valley) new regions will develop, e.g. Southern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Using a limit that reflects present-day feasibility of groundwater abstraction, we estimate that in 2050 groundwater becomes unattainable for 20% of the global population, mainly in the developing countries and pumping cost will increase significantly. Largest impacts are found

  19. Modeling Multiple Stresses Placed Upon A Groundwater System In A Semi-Arid Brackish Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, M.; Salameh, E.; Sauter, M.

    2008-12-01

    geometry and composition is described with the help of geological, hydochemical, and geophysical methods. As far as the water budget is concerned, the recharge to the considered aquifer is estimated with geological methods and available data sets, while the abstraction from the aquifer is estimated with the help of remote sensing techniques. A historical approach is used to detect the general conditions under which the groundwater system has been in the past. Afterwards this information is implemented into a flow model. On the basis of the findings a numerical 3-D transient model integrating all important features of the hydrogeological system was developed.3 In order to be able to give reliable predictions about the impacts of climate change scenarios on the groundwater system the flow model was tested against stress periods depicted during the historical review of the test area (model period: 1955 - 2008). These stress periods include periods of intense rainfall, of drought, and of anthropogenic impacts, like building of storage dams and of violent conflicts. Recommendations for future sustainable groundwater abstractions are given.

  20. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  1. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  2. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; McMahon, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM−2), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM−2). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  3. Groundwater Flow Systems and Their Response to Climate Change: A Need for a Water-System View Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel J. Carrillo-Rivera

    2012-01-01

    managed leaning on groundwater functioning. There is increasing evidence that climate becoming more variable and key driver of ecosystem health. Even with climate stability, most developing countries will confront serious water problems by the mid-21st century due to an insufficient knowledge of the functioning of their groundwater sources representing ≈ 99% of available water. Conclusion: Many such problems may be adequately controlled when local flows are defined, since changes in climatic condition are more prone to affect local flows rather than intermediate and regional flows. The value of the flow systems arises from the fact that a wide system view analysis allows adequate crossed examination among relevant data from where water management proposals might more adequately represent field conditions. Examples of successful application of the groundwater flow systems in Mexico and Argentina will be presented including: induced fluoride control, subsidence response, desiccation of springs, flooding water origin definition, basement position in flow-system control, inter-basin flow.

  4. Golan Heights Groundwater Systems: Separation By REE+Y And Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Geyer, S.; Knoeller, K.; Roediger, T.; Weise, S.; Dulski, P.; Moeller, P.; Guttman, J.

    2008-12-01

    In a semi-arid to arid country like Israel, all freshwater resources are under (over-) utilization. Particularly, the Golan Heights rank as one of the most important extraction areas of groundwater of good quality and quantity. Additionally the mountain range feed to a high degree the most important freshwater reservoir of Israel, the Sea of Galilee. Hence, knowing the sources and characters of the Golan Heights groundwater systems is an instantaneous demand regarding sustainable management and protection. Within the "German-Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian Joint Research Program for the Sustainable Utilisation of Aquifer Systems", hundreds of water samples were taken from all over the Jordan-Dead Sea rift-system to understand groundwater flow-systems and salinisation. For that purpose, each sample was analysed for major and minor ions, rare earth elements including yttrium (REY) and stable isotopes of water (d18O, d2H). The REY distribution in groundwater is established during infiltration by the first water-rock interaction and consequently reflects the leachable components of sediments and rocks of the recharge area. In well- developed flow-systems, REY are adsorbed onto pore surfaces are in equilibrium with the percolating groundwater, even if the lithology changes (e.g. inter-aquifer flow). Thus, groundwater sampled from wells and springs still show the REY distribution pattern established in the recharge area. Since high temperatures do not occur in Golan Heights, d2H and d18O are less controlled by water-rock interaction than by climatic and geomorphological factors at the time of replenishment. Applying the REY signature as a grouping criterion of groundwaters, d18O vs. d2H plots yield a new dimension in interpreting isotope data. The combined use of hydrochemical and isotopic methods enabled us to contain the areas of replenishment and the flow-paths of all investigated groundwater in the Golan Heights. Despite location, salinity or temperature of spring or

  5. A research on grey numerical imitation and modeling of groundwater seepage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on grey set, grey numbers and their operation properties, the grey numerical model of groundwater seepage system was set up for the first time, the whole grey solving method of the model was given and it was proved that the common solving method of the model was only a special case of the grey solving methods. At the same time, the grey solving method was compared widely with common solving method, classical numerical method. The study shows that the grey solving method is better in depicting the procedure of transporting grey data of groundwater system. On the basis of the theoretical study, two basic kinds of cases about groundwater seepage were selected: the prediction of pit yield and the evaluation of groundwater resources on a groundwater basin. In the cases, systematical analyses were made for generalization and greylization of the hydrogeologic conditions, setting up of the grey model, identification and correction of the model as well as its prediction and evaluation. It was pointed out that when the grey numerical model is used to predict pit yield, the upper limit of the “grey band” of groundwater level cannot be higher than planed safe groundwater level, when evaluating the groundwater resource, the lower limit of the “grey band” of groundwater level cannot be lower than controlled level of groundwater.

  6. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  7. Ecohydrological Investigations of a Groundwater-Lake System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mette Cristine Schou

    are very dynamic systems on a spatial scale. Variability in meteorology can lead to variability in the hydrology, and in some cases ignite transient effects that are temporally distinct and difficult to capture. •To some extend the lakes acts as sentinel for all the in and out-puts to the system as well...... I). •Does dense bottom vegetation affect the small scale hydrology of the lake bed sediment? (Paper 2). •How can natural tracers (δ 18O) be used to quantify the temporal variation in groundwater seepage dynamics? (Paper 3). •Is it possible to combine ecological data of surface water chemistry...... by this. The reasons for the lowered hydraulic conductivity seems to be an combination of the organic content in the sediment (i.e. the roots of the plants) and a vegetation induced entrapment of fine particles in the sediment. Over the course of three years I followed the small scale variation...

  8. Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2002-05-01

    Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from

  9. Automated system for monitoring groundwater levels at an experimental low-level waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J.D.; Bogle, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    One of the major problems with disposing of low-level solid wastes in the eastern United States is the potential for water-waste interactions and leachate migration. To monitor groundwater fluctuations and the frequency with which groundwater comes into contact with a group of experimental trenches, work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Engineered Test Facility (ETF) has employed a network of water level recorders that feed information from 15 on-site wells to a centralized data recording system. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system being used and to document the computer programs that have been developed to process the data. Included in this report are data based on more than 2 years of water level information for ETF wells 1 through 12 and more than 6 months of data from all 15 wells. The data thus reflect both long-term trends as well as a large number of short-term responses to individual storm events. The system was designed to meet the specific needs of the ETF, but the hardware and computer routines have generic application to a variety of groundwater monitoring situations. 5 references.

  10. Do septic systems contribute micropollutants and their transformation products to shallow groundwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septic systems may contribute micropollutants to shallow groundwater and surface water. We constructed two in situ conventional drainfields (drip dispersal and gravel trench) and an advanced drainfield of septic systems to investigate the fate and transport of micropollutants to shallow groundwater....

  11. Effects of climate change on coastal groundwater systems: A modeling study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, Gualbert; Van Baaren, Esther S.; De Louw, Perry G.B.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change in combination with increased anthropogenic activities will affect coastal groundwater systems throughout the world. In this paper, we focus on a coastal groundwater system that is already threatened by a relatively high seawater level: the low‐lying Dutch Delta. Nearly one third of

  12. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernández-Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla Valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal water, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3 type. It originates as recharge at Primavera caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal water is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na, HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural practices. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Tritium method elucidated that practically all of the sampled groundwater contains at least a small fraction of modern water. The multivariate mixing model M3 indicates that the proportion of hydrothermal fluids in sampled well water is between 13 (local groundwater and 87% (hydrothermal water, and the proportion of polluted water in wells ranges from 0 to 63%. This study may help local water authorities to identify and quantify groundwater contamination and act accordingly.

  13. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

    2010-05-01

    In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the

  14. Detection of Septic System Waste in the Groundwaters of Southern California Using Emerging Contaminants and Isotopic Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Conkle, J.; Sickman, J. O.; Lucero, D.; Pang, F.; Gan, J.

    2011-12-01

    In California, groundwater supplies 30-40% of the State's water and in rapidly growing regions like the Inland Empire, groundwater makes up 80-90% of the municipal water supply. However, anthropogenic contamination could adversely affect groundwater quality and thereby reduce available supplies. Appropriate tracers are needed to identify groundwater contamination and protect human health. Stable isotopes δ15N and δ 18O offer unique information about the importance of nitrate sources and processes affecting nitrate in aquifers. We investigated the influence of septic systems on groundwater quality in and around the city of Beaumont, CA during 2010-11. Groundwater samples were collected from 38 active wells and 10 surface water sites in the region (urban and natural streams, agricultural drainage and groundwater recharge basins supplied by the California State Water Project). Stable isotopes and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed for all the water samples. The variations of δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate were 2 - 21 per mil and -4 - 9 per mil respectively. δ15N-NO3 values greater than 10 per mil have been associated with nitrate inputs from sewage and animal waste, but in the Beaumont wells, PPCP concentrations were at or below the detection limit in most wells with high isotope ratios. We also observed a strong linear relationship between δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate (slope of~ 0.5) in the vast majority of our samples including those with high isotope ratios. Our results suggest that denitrification was widespread in the Beaumont aquifer and strongly affected the isotope composition of nitrate. In some wells, PPCPs (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, primidone, meprobamate and diuron) and isotope measurements indicated inputs from human waste, but these sites were affected primarily by local waste-water treatment plant effluent. A mixing model was developed using multiple tracers to determine sources and contributions of groundwater

  15. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  16. Ground-Water Availability Assessment for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to gain a clearer understanding of the status of our water resources and the land-use, water-use, and climatic trends that affect them. The goal of the National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have now, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). Water availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water, and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The focus of the Columbia Plateau regional ground-water availability assessment is to improve fundamental knowledge of the ground-water balance of the region, including the flows, storage, and ground-water use by humans. An improved quantitative understanding of the region's water balance not only provides key information about water quantity, but also can serve as a fundamental basis for many analyses of water quality and ecosystem health.

  17. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  18. Development of dual-source hybrid heat pump system using groundwater and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Yujin; Ooka, Ryozo [Cw403 Institute of Industry Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Shiba, Yoshiro [Zeneral Heatpump Industry Co., Ltd., Nagoya 459-8001 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    To achieve high heat pump efficiency, groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system uses groundwater, which is relatively stable AT temperature compared with outdoor air, as a heat source. However, it is difficult to meet annual heating and cooling loads using only groundwater as a heat source. In order to optimize the operation method of GWHP systems, it is necessary to develop a system utilizing both groundwater and air sources according to the building load conditions. Furthermore, during intermediate seasons (such as spring and autumn) with reduced heating and cooling loads, GWHP system is less efficient than air source heat pump (ASHP) system according to temperature conditions. In order to more efficiently use GWHP systems, it is necessary to develop a system which utilizes both groundwater and air sources according to temperature conditions and building loads. This research has developed a GWHP system that employs a hybrid heat pump system with groundwater wells using dual groundwater and air heat sources. In this paper, the annual performance of the developed system has been calculated, and several case studies have been conducted on the effect of introduction location, refrigerant and pumping rate. Furthermore, the coefficient of system performance and the effects on underground environments have been evaluated by real-scale experiment using two wells. (author)

  19. Preliminary investigation of groundwater flow and trichloroethene transport in the Surficial Aquifer System, Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Davis, J. Hal

    2016-05-16

    Industrial practices at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota, caused soil and groundwater contamination. Some volatile organic compounds from the plant might have discharged to the Mississippi River, forced by the natural hydraulic gradient in the surficial aquifer system. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency included the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1989.

  20. The impact on climate of groundwater induced soil moisture memory : a study with a fully coupled WRF-LEAFHYDRO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Gómez, Breogán; Martínez-de la Torre, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater dynamics and its interactions with the land-atmosphere system are increasingly being taking into consideration in climate and ecosystem modeling studies. A shallow water table slows down drainage and affects soil moisture and potentially evapotranspiration (ET) and climate, particularly in water-limited environments. Our area of interest, the Iberian Peninsula, with a typical Mediterranean climate of dry growing season, is one of such regions where ET is largely constrained by water availability. We investigate how the induced memory on soil moisture by groundwater affects spring precipitation and summer temperatures there using a fully coupled WRF-LEAFHYDRO system. The LEAFHYDRO Land Surface Model includes groundwater dynamics with a realistic water table validated with hundreds of observations over Spain and Portugal. We perform two sets of long-term offline simulations, with and without groundwater forced by ERA-Interim and detailed precipitation analyses for the Iberian Peninsula. The corresponding fully coupled simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), using exactly the same grid, take initial conditions from the off-line simulations at the end of the winter and are run for spring and summer, when we expect the impact of ET on climate to be largest. After a dry winter, in the run with groundwater soils are considerably wetter in regions with shallow water table and WRF results indicate that during spring the impact on precipitation can be sizeable when synoptic conditions are favorable for convection. Increased ET in the summer due also to more moisture availability in the run with groundwater leads in general to cooler temperatures. These preliminary results highlight the important role of groundwater on climate and the advantages of a fully coupled hydrology-atmospheric modeling system.

  1. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An update of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system transient model, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Pavelko, Michael T.; Hill, Mary C.

    2017-01-19

    Since the original publication of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) numerical model in 2004, more information on the regional groundwater flow system in the form of new data and interpretations has been compiled. Cooperators such as the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Department of Energy, and Nye County, Nevada, recognized a need to update the existing regional numerical model to maintain its viability as a groundwater management tool for regional stakeholders. The existing DVRFS numerical flow model was converted to MODFLOW-2005, updated with the latest available data, and recalibrated. Five main data sets were revised: (1) recharge from precipitation varying in time and space, (2) pumping data, (3) water-level observations, (4) an updated regional potentiometric map, and (5) a revision to the digital hydrogeologic framework model.The resulting DVRFS version 2.0 (v. 2.0) numerical flow model simulates groundwater flow conditions for the Death Valley region from 1913 to 2003 to correspond to the time frame for the most recently published (2008) water-use data. The DVRFS v 2.0 model was calibrated by using the Tikhonov regularization functionality in the parameter estimation and predictive uncertainty software PEST. In order to assess the accuracy of the numerical flow model in simulating regional flow, the fit of simulated to target values (consisting of hydraulic heads and flows, including evapotranspiration and spring discharge, flow across the model boundary, and interbasin flow; the regional water budget; values of parameter estimates; and sensitivities) was evaluated. This evaluation showed that DVRFS v. 2.0 simulates conditions similar to DVRFS v. 1.0. Comparisons of the target values with simulated values also indicate that they match reasonably well and in some cases (boundary flows and discharge) significantly better than in DVRFS v. 1.0.

  3. Modelling groundwater systems: Understanding and improving groundwater quantity and quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebrahim, G.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources. It is the principal source of drinking water in rural and many urban cities, and widely used for irrigation in most arid and semi-arid countries. However, recently it has become apparent that many human activities are negatively impacting b

  4. Biogeochemical dynamics of pollutants in Insitu groundwater remediation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Millot, R.; Rose, J.; Négrel, P.; Battaglia-Brunnet, F.; Diels, L.

    2010-12-01

    Insitu (bio) remediation of groundwater contaminants has been area of potential research interest in last few decades as the nature of contaminant encountered has also changed drastically. This gives tough challenge to researchers in finding a common solution for all contaminants together in one plume. Redox processes play significant role in pollutant dynamics and mobility in such systems. Arsenic particularly in reduced environments can get transformed into its reduced form (As3+), which is apparently more mobile and highly toxic. Also parallel sulfate reduction can lead to sulfide production and formation of thioarsenic species. On the other hand heavy metals (Zn, Fe, and Cd) in similar conditions will favour more stable metal sulfide precipitation. In the present work, we tested Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) in handling such issues and found promising results. Although it has been well known for contaminants like arsenic and chlorinated compounds but not much explored for heavy metals. Its high available surface area supports precipitation and co -precipitation of contaminants and its highly oxidizing nature and water born hydrogen production helps in stimulation of microbial activities in sediment and groundwater. These sulfate and Iron reducing bacteria can further fix heavy metals as stable metal sulfides by using hydrogen as potential electron donor. In the present study flow through columns (biotic and control) were set up in laboratory to understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments, also the impact of microbiology on performance of ZVI was studied. These glass columns (30 x 4cm) with intermediate sampling points were monitored over constant temperature (20°C) and continuous groundwater (up)flow at ~1ml/hr throughout the experiment. Simulated groundwater was prepared in laboratory containing sulfate, metals (Zn,Cd) and arsenic (AsV). While chemical and microbial parameters were followed regularly over time, solid phase has been

  5. Development of a decision support system for groundwater pollution assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukuric, N.

    1999-01-01

    Computers have become the main tooi used in groundwater management. Computer software has been developed for storage, processing and presentation of information on groundwater pollution problems. Continuing demands for more efficiënt handling of information have resulted in increasing integration of

  6. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2017-06-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  7. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  8. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy including identification of uranium phases and hydrochemical characterisation of groundwater in borehole KFR106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Kersti [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    This report presents the fracture mineralogy and hydrochemistry of borehole KFR106. The most abundant fracture minerals in the examined drill core samples are clay minerals, calcite, quartz and adularia; chlorite is also common but is mostly altered and found interlayered with corrensite. The most common clay mineral is a mixed layer clay consisting of illite-smectite. Pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, barite (-celestine) and hematite are also commonly found in the fractures, but usually in trace amounts. Other minerals identified in the examined fractures are U-phosphate, pitchblende, U(Ca)-silicate, asphaltite, biotite, monazite, fluorite, titanite, sericite, xenotime, rutile and (Ca, REEs)-carbonate. Uranium has been introduced, mobilised and reprecipitated during at least four different episodes: 1) Originally, during emplacement of U-rich pegmatites, probably as uraninite. 2) At a second event, uranium was mobilised under brittle conditions during formation of breccia/cataclasite. Uraninite was altered to pitchblende and partly coffinitised. Mobilised uranium precipitated as pitchblende closely associated with hematite and chlorite in cataclasite and fracture sealings prior to 1,000 Ma. 3) During the Palaeozoic U was remobilised and precipitated as U-phosphate on open fracture surfaces. 4) An amorphous U-silicate has also been found in open fractures; the age of this precipitation is not known but it is inferred to be Palaeozoic or younger. Groundwater was sampled in two sections in borehole KFR106 with pumping sequences of about 6 days for each section. The samples from sections KFR106:1 and KFR106:2 (260-300 m and 143-259 m borehole length, i.e. -261 and -187 m.a.s.l. mid elevation of the section, respectively) were taken in November 2009 and yielded groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 3 and 5. In section KFR106:1 and KFR106:2, the chloride contents were 850 and 1,150 mg/L and the drilling water content 6 and 4%, respectively

  9. Groundwater impact on geothermal systems; Impacto del agua subterranea en los sistemas geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenbach, R.; Wagner, I. M.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal behavior of geothermal systems is influenced by the presence and the velocity of the groundwater. The impact has to be accounted for during the dimensioning as well as during the construction. it is shown that the impact on the interference with neigh bored installation has to be controlled, especially in case of groundwater flow. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from...

  11. Performance of in-situ soil and groundwater treatment systems at McClellan Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E. [BDM Federal, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Mook, P.H. Jr.; Wong, K.B. [Sm-ALC/EMR, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), located near Sacramento, California, is one of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s National Environmental Technology Test Sites. The US Air Force has evaluated, as part of the on-going environmental clean-up of McClellan AFB, several innovative and conventional in situ soil and groundwater technologies for the treatment of volatile organic compounds. This paper presents an overview and comparison of the performance and cost of three innovative technologies tested at McClellan AFB. Conventional groundwater extraction systems are effective but costly. Operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for treatment systems are increasingly becoming a major component of the environmental clean-up budget. The performance, limitations, costs, and lessons learned from the implementation of conventional soil vapor and groundwater extraction systems are compared with those of two innovative dual phase extraction systems. Both the Xerox 2-Phase{trademark} Extraction system and a standard dual phase extraction system are more effective than their conventional counterparts, but only over a discrete range of soil permeabilities. Discussions on McClellan AFB`s experiences with cometabolic bioremediation of groundwater and thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction systems are also included.

  12. Hydrogeological investigation of an oasis-system aquifer in arid southeastern Morocco by development of a groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaamlat, Ilias; Larabi, Abdelkader; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater of the Tafilalet oasis system (TOS) is an important water resource in the lower Ziz and Rheris valleys of arid southeastern Morocco. The unconfined aquifer is exploited for domestic consumption and irrigation. A groundwater flow model was developed to assess the impact of climatic variations and development, including the construction of hydraulic structures, on the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer. Numerical simulations were performed by implementing a spatial database within a geographic information system and using the Arc Hydro Groundwater tool with the code MODFLOW-2000. The results of steady-state and transient simulations between 1960 and 2011 show that the water table is at equilibrium between recharge, which is mainly by surface-water infiltration, and discharge by evapotranspiration. After the commissioning of the Hassan Addakhil dam in 1971, hydraulic heads became more sensitive to annual variations than to seasonal variations. Heads are also influenced by recurrent droughts and the highest water-level changes are recorded in irrigated areas. The model provides a way of managing groundwater resources in the TOS. It can be used as a tool to predict the impact of different management plans for the protection of groundwater against overexploitation and deterioration of water quality.

  13. Fingerprinting groundwater salinity sources in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ali H.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Young, Steve

    2017-07-01

    Understanding groundwater salinity sources in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System (GCAS) is a critical issue due to depletion of fresh groundwater and concerns for potential seawater intrusion. The study objective was to assess sources of groundwater salinity in the GCAS using ˜1,400 chemical analyses and ˜90 isotopic analyses along nine well transects in the Texas Gulf Coast, USA. Salinity increases from northeast (median total dissolved solids (TDS) 340 mg/L) to southwest (median TDS 1,160 mg/L), which inversely correlates with the precipitation distribution pattern (1,370- 600 mm/yr, respectively). Molar Cl/Br ratios (median 540-600), depleted δ2H and δ18O (-24.7‰, -4.5‰) relative to seawater (Cl/Br ˜655 and δ2H, δ18O 0‰, 0‰, respectively), and elevated 36Cl/Cl ratios (˜100), suggest precipitation enriched with marine aerosols as the dominant salinity source. Mass balance estimates suggest that marine aerosols could adequately explain salt loading over the large expanse of the GCAS. Evapotranspiration enrichment to the southwest is supported by elevated chloride concentrations in soil profiles and higher δ18O. Secondary salinity sources include dissolution of salt domes or upwelling brines from geopressured zones along growth faults, mainly near the coast in the northeast. The regional extent and large quantities of brackish water have the potential to support moderate-sized desalination plants in this location. These results have important implications for groundwater management, suggesting a current lack of regional seawater intrusion and a suitable source of relatively low TDS water for desalination.

  14. Organic Contaminants in Riverine and Groundwater Systems: Aspects of the Anthropogenic Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, Jan

    This book summarizes a selection of organic-geochemical investigations, which deal with the characterization and environmental behaviour of organic contaminations of German river and groundwater systems. The aim is to resume and present an overview of comprehensive current research activities, which have been published diversely in specialised scientific journals and, are therefore not easily available in a concise and clearly arranged way. Important topics include comprehensive non-target screening as well as isotope analysis of contaminants in water and sediments, detailed characterisation of bound residues, recording river ine pollution histories and an extensive application of the anthropogenic marker approach.

  15. Numerical modeling of geothermal groundwater flow in karst aquifer system in eastern Weibei, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; LI GuoMin; YANG Liao; DANG XueYa; ZHAO ChunHu; HOU GuangCai; ZHANG MaoSheng

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of geothermal water resources is important to the exploitation and utilization of geothermal resources. In the geothermal water systems the density of groundwater changes with the temperature, therefore the variations in hydraulic heads and temperatures are very complicated. A three-dimensional density-dependent model coupling the groundwater flow and heat transport is established and used to simulate the geothermal water flow in the karst aquifers in eastern Weibei,Shaanxi Province, China. The multilayered karst aquifer system in the study area is cut by some major faults which control the regional groundwater flow. In order to calibrate and simulate the effect of the major faults, each fault is discretized as a belt of elements with special hydrological parameters in the numerical model. The groundwater dating data are used to be integrated with the groundwater flow pattern and calibrate the model. Simulation results show that the calculated hydraulic heads and temperature fit with the observed data well.

  16. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain. The...

  17. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain....

  18. Groundwater status and trends for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Haynes, Jonathan V.; Waibel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Well information and groundwater-level measurements for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, were compiled from data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and seven other organizations. From the full set of about 60,000 wells and 450,000 water-level measurements a subset of 761 wells within the aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) then was used to develop a simple linear groundwater-level trend map for 1968–2009. The mean of the trends was a decline of 1.9 feet per year (ft/yr), with 72 percent of the water levels in wells declining. Rates of declines greater than 1.0 ft/yr were measured in 50 percent of wells, declines greater than 2.0 ft/yr in 38 percent of wells, declines greater than 4.0 ft/yr in 29 percent of wells, and declines greater than 8.0 ft/yr in 4 percent of wells. Water-level data were used to identify groups of wells with similar hydraulic heads and temporal trends to delineate areas of overall similar groundwater conditions. Discontinuities in hydraulic head between well groups were used to help infer the presence of barriers to groundwater flow such as changes in lithology or the occurrence of folds and faults. In areas without flow barriers, dissimilarities in response of well groups over time resulted from the formation of groundwater mounds caused by recharge from irrigation or regions of decline caused by pumping. The areas of focus for this analysis included the Umatilla area, Oregon, and the Palouse Slope/eastern Yakima Fold Belt in the Columbia Basin Ground Water Management Area (GWMA) consisting of Adams, Franklin, Grant, and Lincoln Counties, Washington. In the Umatilla area, water levels from 286 wells were used to identify multiple areas of high hydraulic gradient that indicate vertical and horizontal barriers to groundwater flow. These barriers divide the groundwater-flow system into several compartments with varying degrees of interconnection. Horizontal flow barriers commonly

  19. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  20. Nitrate removal from groundwater driven by electricity generation and heterotrophic denitrification in a bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yiran; He, Zhen

    2013-11-15

    This research aims to develop a new approach for in situ nitrate removal from groundwater by using a bioelectrochemical system (BES). The BES employs bioelectricity generated from organic compounds to drive nitrate moving from groundwater into the anode and reduces nitrate to nitrogen gas by heterotrophic denitrification. This laboratory study of a bench-scale BES demonstrated effective nitrate removal from both synthetic and actual groundwater. It was found that applying an electrical potential improved the nitrate removal and the highest nitrate removal rate of 208.2 ± 13.3g NO3(-)-Nm(-3) d(-1) was achieved at 0.8 V. Although the open circuit condition (no electricity generation) still resulted in a nitrate removal rate of 158.5 ± 4.2 gm(-3) d(-1) due to ion exchange, electricity production could inhibit ion exchange and prevent introducing other undesired ions into groundwater. The nitrate removal rate exhibited a linear relationship with the initial nitrate concentration in groundwater. The BES produced a higher current density of 33.4 Am(-3) and a higher total coulomb of 244.7 ± 9.1C from the actual groundwater than the synthetic groundwater, likely because other ions in the actual groundwater promoted ion movement to assist electricity generation. Further development of this BES will need to address several key challenges in anode feeding solution, ion competition, and long-term stability.

  1. Net infiltration of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Recharge in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) was estimated from net infiltration simulated by Hevesi and others (2003) using a...

  2. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  3. Hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset represents the surface hydrogeology of an approximately 45,000 square-kilometer area of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  4. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  5. Groundwater Discharge Area for the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  6. Water Well Locations - MO 2010 Public Water System Wells 20 Year Groundwater Distance (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This shapefile represents the estimated distance groundwater around some public water system (PWS) wells will travel in a twenty-year period. See process description.

  7. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  8. Evapotranspiration Units for the Diamond Valley Flow System Groundwater Discharge Area, Central Nevada, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  9. Curricular Design for Intelligent Systems in Geosciences Using Urban Groundwater Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Pierce, S. A.; Fuentes-Pineda, G.; Arora, R.

    2016-12-01

    Geosciences research frequently focuses on process-centered phenomena, studying combinations of physical, geological, chemical, biological, ecological, and anthropogenic factors. These interconnected Earth systems can be best understood through the use of digital tools that should be documented as workflows. To develop intelligent systems, it is important that geoscientists and computing and information sciences experts collaborate to: (1) develop a basic understanding of the geosciences and computing and information sciences disciplines so that the problem and solution approach are clear to all stakeholders, and (2) implement the desired intelligent system with a short turnaround time. However, these interactions and techniques are seldom covered in traditional Earth Sciences curricula. We have developed an exchange course on Intelligent Systems for Geosciences to support workforce development and build capacity to facilitate skill-development at the undergraduate student-level. The first version of this course was offered jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México as an intensive, study-abroad summer course. Content included: basic Linux introduction, shell scripting and high performance computing, data management, experts systems, field data collection exercises and basics of machine learning. Additionally, student teams were tasked to develop a term projects that centered on applications of Intelligent Systems applied to urban and karst groundwater systems. Projects included expert system and reusable workflow development for subsidence hazard analysis in Celaya, Mexico, a classification model to analyze land use change over a 30 Year Period in Austin, Texas, big data processing and decision support for central Texas groundwater case studies and 3D mapping with point cloud processing at three Texas field sites. We will share experiences and pedagogical insights to improve future versions of this course.

  10. Documentation of a groundwater flow model developed to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability of the area and included an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time from stresses related to human uses and climate trends. The assessment was necessary because of the substantial dependency on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs in this area.The three-dimensional, groundwater flow model developed for this investigation used the numerical code MODFLOW–NWT to represent changes in groundwater pumping and aquifer recharge from predevelopment (before 1900) to future conditions, from 1900 to 2058. The model was constructed using existing hydrogeologic and geospatial information to represent the aquifer system geometry, boundaries, and hydraulic properties of the 19 separate regional aquifers and confining units within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system and was calibrated using an inverse modeling parameter-estimation (PEST) technique.The parameter estimation process was achieved through history matching, using observations of heads and flows for both steady-state and transient conditions. A total of 8,868 annual water-level observations from 644 wells from 1986 to 2008 were combined into 29 water-level observation groups that were chosen to focus the history matching on specific hydrogeologic units in geographic areas in which distinct geologic and hydrologic conditions were observed. In addition to absolute water-level elevations, the water-level differences between individual measurements were also included in the parameter estimation process to remove the systematic bias caused by missing hydrologic stresses prior to 1986. The total average residual of –1.7 feet was normally distributed for all head groups, indicating minimal bias. The average absolute residual value

  11. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Argue, Denise M.; Fisher, Irene J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Septic-system discharges can be an important source of micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine active compounds) to adjacent groundwater and surface water systems. Groundwater samples were collected from well networks tapping glacial till in New England (NE) and sandy surficial aquifer New York (NY) during one sampling round in 2011. The NE network assesses the effect of a single large septic system that receives discharge from an extended health care facility for the elderly. The NY network assesses the effect of many small septic systems used seasonally on a densely populated portion of Fire Island. The data collected from these two networks indicate that hydrogeologic and demographic factors affect micropollutant concentrations in these systems.

  12. Simulation of large-scale soil water systems using groundwater data and satellite based soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, Phillip; Meon, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Complex concepts for the physically correct depiction of dominant processes in the hydrosphere are increasingly at the forefront of hydrological modelling. Many scientific issues in hydrological modelling demand for additional system variables besides a simulation of runoff only, such as groundwater recharge or soil moisture conditions. Models that include soil water simulations are either very simplified or require a high number of parameters. Against this backdrop there is a heightened demand of observations to be used to calibrate the model. A reasonable integration of groundwater data or remote sensing data in calibration procedures as well as the identifiability of physically plausible sets of parameters is subject to research in the field of hydrology. Since this data is often combined with conceptual models, the given interfaces are not suitable for such demands. Furthermore, the application of automated optimisation procedures is generally associated with conceptual models, whose (fast) computing times allow many iterations of the optimisation in an acceptable time frame. One of the main aims of this study is to reduce the discrepancy between scientific and practical applications in the field of hydrological modelling. Therefore, the soil model DYVESOM (DYnamic VEgetation SOil Model) was developed as one of the primary components of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. DYVESOMs structure provides the required interfaces for the calibrations made at runoff, satellite based soil moisture and groundwater level. The model considers spatial and temporal differentiated feedback of the development of the vegetation on the soil system. In addition, small scale heterogeneities of soil properties (subgrid-variability) are parameterized by variation of van Genuchten parameters depending on distribution functions. Different sets of parameters are operated simultaneously while interacting with each other. The developed soil model is innovative regarding concept

  13. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2016-05-05

    ,905 acre-ft/yr (7 percent of total simulated inflow). Simulated outflow from the model primarily was through discharge to streams, lakes, springs, seeps, and Puget Sound (594,595 acre-ft/yr; 95 percent of total simulated outflow excluding changes in storage) and through withdrawals from wells (30,761 acre-ft/yr; 5 percent of total simulated outflow excluding changes in storage).Six scenarios were formulated with input from project stakeholders and were simulated using the calibrated model to provide representative examples of how the model could be used to evaluate the effects on water levels and stream baseflows of potential changes in groundwater withdrawals, in consumptive use, and in recharge. These included simulations of a steady-state system, no-pumping and return flows, 15-percent increase in current withdrawals in all wells, 80-percent decrease in outdoor water to simulate effects of conservation efforts, 15-percent decrease in recharge from precipitation to simulate a drought, and particle tracking to determine flow paths.Changes in water-level altitudes and baseflow amounts vary depending on the stress applied to the system in these various scenarios. Reducing recharge by 15 percent between 2005 and 2012 had the largest effect, with water-level altitudes declining throughout the model domain and baseflow amounts decreasing by as much as 18 percent compared to baseline conditions. Changes in pumping volumes had a smaller effect on the model. Removing all pumping and resulting return flows caused increased water-level altitudes in many areas and increased baseflow amounts of between 1 and 3 percent.

  14. A GIS-Enabled, Michigan-Specific, Hierarchical Groundwater Modeling and Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Mandle, R.; Simard, A.; Fisher, B.; Brown, E.; Ross, S.

    2005-12-01

    Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives. Many agencies in Michigan have spent several years compiling expensive and comprehensive surface water and groundwater inventories and other related spatial data that describe their respective areas of responsibility. However, most often this wealth of descriptive data has only been utilized for basic mapping purposes. The benefits from analyzing these data, using GIS analysis functions or externally developed analysis models or programs, has yet to be systematically realized. In this talk, we present a comprehensive software environment that allows Michigan groundwater resources managers and frontline professionals to make more effective use of the available data and improve their ability to manage and protect groundwater resources, address potential conflicts, design cleanup schemes, and prioritize investigation activities. In particular, we take advantage of the Interactive Ground Water (IGW) modeling system and convert it to a customized software environment specifically for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing the Michigan statewide groundwater database. The resulting Michigan IGW modeling system (IGW-M) is completely window-based, fully interactive, and seamlessly integrated with a GIS mapping engine. The system operates in real-time (on the fly) providing dynamic, hierarchical mapping, modeling, spatial analysis, and visualization. Specifically, IGW-M allows water resources and environmental professionals in Michigan to: * Access and utilize the extensive data from the statewide groundwater database, interactively manipulate GIS objects, and display and query the associated data and attributes; * Analyze and model the statewide groundwater database, interactively convert GIS objects into numerical model features

  15. Conceptual model and numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of Bainbridge Island, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna M.; Bachmann, Matthew P.; Sumioka, Steve S.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of drinking water for the population of Bainbridge Island. Increased use of groundwater supplies on Bainbridge Island as the population has grown over time has created concern about the quantity of water available and whether saltwater intrusion will occur as groundwater usage increases. A groundwater-flow model was developed to aid in the understanding of the groundwater system and the effects of groundwater development alternatives on the water resources of Bainbridge Island. Bainbridge Island is underlain by unconsolidated deposits of glacial and nonglacial origin. The surficial geologic units and the deposits at depth were differentiated into aquifers and confining units on the basis of areal extent and general water-bearing characteristics. Eleven principal hydrogeologic units are recognized in the study area and form the basis of the groundwater-flow model. A transient variable-density groundwater-flow model of Bainbridge Island and the surrounding area was developed to simulate current (2008) groundwater conditions. The model was calibrated to water levels measured during 2007 and 2008 using parameter estimation (PEST) to minimize the weighted differences or residuals between simulated and measured hydraulic head. The calibrated model was used to make some general observations of the groundwater system in 2008. Total flow through the groundwater system was about 31,000 acre-ft/ yr. The recharge to the groundwater system was from precipitation and septic-system returns. Groundwater flow to Bainbridge Island accounted for about 1,000 acre-ft/ yr or slightly more than 5 percent of the recharge amounts. Groundwater discharge was predominately to streams, lakes, springs, and seepage faces (16,000 acre-ft/yr) and directly to marine waters (10,000 acre-ft/yr). Total groundwater withdrawals in 2008 were slightly more than 6 percent (2,000 acre-ft/yr) of the total flow. The calibrated model was used to simulate predevelopment conditions

  16. Three-dimensional hydrostratigraphical modelling to support evaluation of recharge and saltwater intrusion in a coastal groundwater system in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vu Thanh; Batelaan, Okke; Le, Tran Thanh; Nhan, Pham Quy

    2014-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion is generally related to seawater-level rise or induced intrusion due to excessive groundwater extraction in coastal aquifers. However, the hydrogeological heterogeneity of the subsurface plays an important role in (non-)intrusion as well. Local hydrogeological conditions for recharge and saltwater intrusion are studied in a coastal groundwater system in Vietnam where geological formations exhibit highly heterogeneous lithologies. A three-dimensional (3D) hydrostratigraphical solid model of the study area is constructed by way of a recursive classification procedure. The procedure includes a cluster analysis which uses as parameters geological formation, lithological composition, distribution depth and thickness of each lithologically distinctive drilling interval of 47 boreholes, to distinguish and map well-log intervals of similar lithological properties in different geological formations. A 3D hydrostratigraphical fence diagram is then generated from the constructed solid model and is used as a tool to evaluate recharge paths and saltwater intrusion to the groundwater system. Groundwater level and chemistry, and geophysical direct current (DC) resistivity measurements, are used to support the hydrostratigraphical model. Results of this research contribute to the explanation of why the aquifer system of the study area is almost uninfluenced by saltwater intrusion, which is otherwise relatively common in coastal aquifers of Vietnam.

  17. Septic Systems Contribution to Phosphorus in Shallow Groundwater: Field-Scale Studies Using Conventional Drainfield Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtensimer, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P) in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench) to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide) with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm of gravel on top of 30.5 cm commercial sand and natural soil. Suction cup lysimeters were installed in the drainfields (at 30.5, 61, 106.7 cm below infiltrative surface) and piezometers were installed in the groundwater (>300 cm below infiltrative surface) to capture P dynamics from the continuum of unsaturated to saturated zones in the septic systems. Septic tank effluent (STE), soil-water, and groundwater samples were collected for 64 events (May 2012–Dec 2013) at 2 to 3 days (n = 13), weekly (n = 29), biweekly (n = 17), and monthly (n = 5) intervals. One piezometer was installed up-gradient of the drainfields to monitor background groundwater (n = 15). Samples were analyzed for total P (TP), orthophosphate-P (PO4–P), and other–P (TP—PO4-P). The gravel trench drainfield removed significantly (p300 cm in the groundwater, both systems had similar TP reductions of >97%. After 18 months of STE application, there was no significant increase in groundwater TP concentrations in both systems. We conclude that both drainfield designs are effective at reducing P transport to shallow groundwater. PMID:28107505

  18. Septic Systems Contribution to Phosphorus in Shallow Groundwater: Field-Scale Studies Using Conventional Drainfield Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtensimer, Sara; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-01-01

    Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P) in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench) to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide) with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm of gravel on top of 30.5 cm commercial sand and natural soil. Suction cup lysimeters were installed in the drainfields (at 30.5, 61, 106.7 cm below infiltrative surface) and piezometers were installed in the groundwater (>300 cm below infiltrative surface) to capture P dynamics from the continuum of unsaturated to saturated zones in the septic systems. Septic tank effluent (STE), soil-water, and groundwater samples were collected for 64 events (May 2012-Dec 2013) at 2 to 3 days (n = 13), weekly (n = 29), biweekly (n = 17), and monthly (n = 5) intervals. One piezometer was installed up-gradient of the drainfields to monitor background groundwater (n = 15). Samples were analyzed for total P (TP), orthophosphate-P (PO4-P), and other-P (TP-PO4-P). The gravel trench drainfield removed significantly (p300 cm in the groundwater, both systems had similar TP reductions of >97%. After 18 months of STE application, there was no significant increase in groundwater TP concentrations in both systems. We conclude that both drainfield designs are effective at reducing P transport to shallow groundwater.

  19. Groundwater flow system in the valley of Toluca, Mexico: an assay of natural radionuclide specific activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, N; Tamez, E; Peña, P; Carrillo, J; Acosta, E; Armienta, M A; Iturbe, J L

    1999-03-01

    Natural radionuclides and physicochemical parameters have been evaluated in groundwater samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system of the Toluca City, Mexico. The results obtained for radon and radium, together with the physicochemical parameters of the studied samples, indicate a fast and efficient recharge pattern. The presence of a local and a regional groundwater flows was also observed. The local flow belongs to shallower water, recognized by its low radon content and dissolved ions, as compared with the regional, deeper groundwater flow with a longer residence time.

  20. A generalized solution for groundwater head fluctuation in a tidal leaky aquifer system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mo-Hsiung Chuang; Hund-Der Yeh

    2011-12-01

    A new analytical solution is developed for describing groundwater level fluctuations in a coupled leaky confined aquifer system which consists of an unconfined aquifer, confined aquifer, and an aquitard in between. The aquifer system has a tidal boundary at the seashore, a no flow boundary at remote inland side, and a confined aquifer extending under the sea and terminated with an outlet-capping. This new solution has shown to be a generalisation of most existing analytical solutions for a tidal aquifer system which includes single confined and leaky confined aquifers. In addition, the solution is used to explore the influences of the dimensionless leakance of the outlet-capping, the dimensionless hydraulic diffusivities, and the leakages of the inland and offshore aquitards on the head responses in the leaky confined aquifer.

  1. 78 FR 68861 - Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems... the United States after importation of certain navigation products, including GPS devices, navigation... products, including GPS devices, navigation and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids,...

  2. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  3. A Modular Computer Code for Simulating Reactive Multi-Species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TP Clement

    1999-06-24

    RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in

  4. Complex groundwater flow systems as traveling agent models

    CERN Document Server

    López-Corona, Oliver; Escolero, Oscar; González, Tomás; Morales-Casique, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing field data from pumping tests, we show that as with many other natural phenomena, groundwater flow exhibits a complex dynamics described by 1/f power spectrum. This result is theoretically studied within an agent perspective. Using a traveling agent model, we prove that this statistical behavior emerges when the medium is complex. Some heuristic reasoning is provided to justify both spatial and dynamic complexity, as the result of the superposition of an infinite number of stochastic processes. Even more, we show that this implies that non-Kolmogorovian probability is needed for its study, and provide a set of new partial differential equations for groundwater flow.

  5. Hydrogeology, groundwater levels, and generalized potentiometric-surface map of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, 2010–14, in the northern Green River structural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Miller, Cheryl E.

    2015-07-14

    In cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, groundwater levels in wells located in the northern Green River Basin in Wyoming, an area of ongoing energy development, were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2010 to 2014. The wells were completed in the uppermost aquifers of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, which is a complex regional aquifer system that provides water to most wells in the area. Except for near perennial streams, groundwater-level altitudes in most aquifers generally decreased with increasing depth, indicating a general downward potential for groundwater movement in the study area. Drilled depth of the wells was observed as a useful indicator of depth to groundwater such that deeper wells typically had a greater depth to groundwater. Comparison of a subset of wells included in this study that had historical groundwater levels that were measured during the 1960s and 1970s and again between 2012 and 2014 indicated that, overall, most of the wells showed a net decline in groundwater levels.

  6. Climate impact on groundwater systems: the past is the key to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Cendón, Dioni; Haldorsen, Sylvi; Chen, Jinyao; Gurdak, Jason; Tujchneider, Ofelia; Vaikmäe, Rein; Purtschert, Roland; Chkir Ben Jemâa, Najiba

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater is a significant part of the global hydrological cycle and supplies fresh drinking water to almost half of the world's population. While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer time scales through changes in precipitation, ,evaporation, recharge rate, melting of glaciers or permafrost, vegetation, and land-use. Moreover, uncontrolled groundwater extraction has and will lead to irreversible depletion of fresh water resources in many areas. The impact of climate variability and groundwater extraction on the resilience of groundwater systems is still not fully understood (Green et al. 2011). Groundwater stores environmental and climatic information acquired during the recharge process, which integrates different signals, like recharge temperature, origin of precipitation, and dissolved constituents. This information can be used to estimate palaeo recharge temperatures, palaeo atmospheric dynamics and residence time of groundwater within the aquifer (Stute et al. 1995, Clark and Fritz 1997, Collon et al. 2000, Edmunds et al. 2003, Cartwright et al. 2007, Kreuzer et al. 2009, Currell et al. 2010, Raidla et al. 2012, Salem et al. 2012). The climatic signals incorporated by groundwater during recharge have the potential to provide a regionally integrated proxy of climatic variations at the time of recharge. Groundwater palaeoclimate information is affected by diffusion-dispersion processes (Davison and Airey, 1982) and/or water-rock interaction (Clark and Fritz, 1997), making palaeoclimate information deduced from groundwater inherently a low resolution record. While the signal resolution can be limited, recharge follows major climatic events, and more importantly, shows how those aquifers and their associated recharge varies under climatic forcing. While the characterization of groundwater resources, surface-groundwater interactions and their link to the global water cycle are an

  7. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  8. Altitudes of the top of model layers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the altitudes of the tops of 16 model layers simulated in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient flow...

  9. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  10. An interdisciplinary approach for groundwater management in area contaminated by fluoride in East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pelo, Stefania; Melis, M. Teresa; Dessì, Francesco; Pistis, Marco; Funedda, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Carletti, Alberto; Soler Gil, Albert; Barbieri, Manuela; Pittalis, Daniele; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    tectonic and volcanic processes. Data regarding geological and hydrogeological settings and the assessment of the vulnerability of groundwater bodies will constitute the necessary information for the implementation of a sustainable water management and for the proposal of sustainable and suitable strategies for water sanitation and agricultural system. Taking into account the vulnerability of the aquifers and groundwater circulation, innovative agricultural practices will be assessed too, aiming to mitigate the impacts of fluoride contamination of water and soil on productivity of selected food and forage crops and dairy cattle health and production. Innovative defluoridation technologies for the sanitation of drinking water, which mainly operate at rural area scale, will be tested and implemented, aiming at providing a sustainable and safe water supply. Furthermore, the development of an innovative and shared Geo-data system for the knowledge management will support the implementation of an integrated, sustainable and participative water and agriculture management system. Moreover, supported by the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), a developed market analysis for the proposed defluoridation technologies accounting also for the social and environmental factors will be included in the project.

  11. Enrichment and mechanisms of heavy metal mobility in a coastal quaternary groundwater system of the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Yongzhang

    2016-03-01

    The risks posed by heavy metal mobilization strongly depend on the pathways that the metals follow, with the sediment-water pathway representing a direct risk to groundwater contamination. Monitoring and sequential extraction experiments in the laboratory generally have limitations with respect to understanding the mechanisms of heavy metal mobilization in the field. The Quaternary coastal groundwater system of the Pearl River Delta, China was chosen as the study area to understand heavy metal enrichment and mobility. Heavy metals including V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Cd, Sr, Ga, Ge, Rb, and Cs in both sediments and groundwater were analyzed. Geochemical parameters including Fe2O3, MnO, sedimentary organic matter, and carbonate content as well as hydrochemical parameters including K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), SO4(2-), Cl(-), HCO3(-), pH, TDS, and dissolved organic carbon were also measured. The enrichment of heavy metals in the solid sediment phase as well as the mobilization mechanisms of heavy metals in groundwater are discussed as informed by Pearson's correlation analysis. Hydrochemical analyses demonstrated that the mobility of V, Ba, Cr, Rb, and Cs is closely related to the decomposition of buried sedimentary organic matter; the mobility of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd is closely linked with the reductive dissolution of Fe-Mn oxides; and the mobility of Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Sr and Ga is probably controlled by ion exchange processes. This study demonstrates that heavy metal mobility in the field is not entirely consistent with the potential mobility as indicated by sediment analysis, due to the complicated hydrogeochemical conditions in the groundwater system, and suggests that comprehensive geochemical and hydrochemical studies are useful ways to understand the mobility mechanisms of heavy metals in the field.

  12. Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Land, Michael; Densmore, Jill N.; Landrum, Michael T.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Macy, Jamie P.; Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Needles, began a study of the hydrogeology along the All-American Canal, which conveys water from the Colorado River to the Imperial Valley. The focus of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effect of lining the All-American Canal, and other management actions, on future total dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater pumped by Lower Colorado Water Supply Project wells that is delivered to the All-American Canal. The study included the compilation and evaluation of previously published hydrogeologic and geochemical information, establishment of a groundwater-elevation and groundwater-quality monitoring network, results of monitoring groundwater elevations and groundwater quality from 2009 to 2011, site-specific hydrologic investigations of the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project area, examination of groundwater salinity by depth by using time-domain electromagnetic surveys, and monitoring of groundwater-storage change by using microgravity methods. 

  13. [Study on geochemical susceptivity of groundwater system in representative karstic regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shou-yang; Zhu, Li-jun; Dong, Zhi-fen; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Xiao-hong

    2010-05-01

    We investigated geochemical susceptivity of groundwater in representative karst groundwater system. The results indicated that Ca2+ and Mg2+, correlative the average values of geochemical susceptivity index (GSI) were 0.73 and 0.19; HCO3- and SO4(2-), interrelated the average values of geochemical susceptivity index were 0.92 and 0.37, are the principal cations and anions in karstic groundwater system, respectively. And the major elements are obviously characterized by the geochemical susceptivity. The rank order of geochemical susceptivity for major elements in study region is HCO3- > Ca2+ > SO4(2+) > Mg2+ > Cl- > Na+ > NO3- > K+. The susceptive regions of groundwater system were zoned by the geochemical susceptivity index of HCO3- (GSI(HCO3-)), which classified as GSI(HCO3-) 1 is high-susceptivity zone, respectively. The groundwater systems in high-susceptivity zone may become as a collected and genetic room for pollutants. Furthermore, both continual or active exchange and mutual recharge between surface water and groundwater in high-susceptivity zones might induce intersectant pollution and serious cycle.

  14. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS{reg_sign}): Groundwater pathway formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sato, C. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the mathematical formulations used for contaminant fate and transport in the groundwater pathway of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). It is one in a series of reports that collectively describe the components of MEPAS. The groundwater component of the MEPAS methodology models solute transport through the groundwater environment (i.e., partially saturated and saturated zones). Specifically, this component provides estimates of groundwater contaminant fluxes at various transporting medium interfaces (e.g., water table or aquifer/river interface) and contaminant concentrations at withdrawal wells. Contaminant fluxes at transporting medium interfaces represent boundary conditions for the next medium in which contaminant migration and fate is to be simulated (e.g., groundwater contamination entering a surface-water environment). Contaminant concentrations at withdrawal wells provide contaminant levels for the exposure assessment component of MEPAS. A schematic diagram illustrating the groundwater environment is presented. The migration and fate of contaminants through the groundwater environment are described by the three-dimensional, advective-dispersive equation for solute transport. The results are based on semianalytical solutions (i.e., solutions that require numerical integration) that are well established in the scientific literature. To increase computational efficiency, limits of integration are also identified.

  15. Importance of including small-scale tile drain discharge in the calibration of a coupled groundwater-surface water catchment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Lausten; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun;

    2013-01-01

    the catchment. In this study, a coupled groundwater-surface water model based on the MIKE SHE code was developed for the 4.7 km2 Lillebæk catchment in Denmark, where tile drain flow is a major contributor to the stream discharge. The catchment model was calibrated in several steps by incrementally including...... the observation data into the calibration to see the effect on model performance of including diverse data types, especially tile drain discharge. For the Lillebæk catchment, measurements of hydraulic head, daily stream discharge, and daily tile drain discharge from five small (1–4 ha) drainage areas exist....... The results showed that including tile drain data in the calibration of the catchment model improved its general performance for hydraulic heads and stream discharges. However, the model failed to correctly describe the local-scale dynamics of the tile drain discharges, and, furthermore, including the drain...

  16. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L. [and others

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

  17. Design and testing of a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system for predicting concentrations of agrichemicals in groundwater across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E; Voss, Frank D.

    2016-03-29

    Efforts to assess the likelihood of groundwater contamination from surface-derived compounds have spanned more than three decades. Relatively few of these assessments, however, have involved the use of process-based simulations of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface, or compared the predictions from such models with measured data—especially over regional to national scales. To address this need, a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system was constructed to use transport-and-fate simulations to predict the concentration of any surface-derived compound at a specified depth in the vadose zone anywhere in the conterminous United States. The system was then used to simulate the concentrations of selected agrichemicals in the vadose zone beneath agricultural areas in multiple locations across the conterminous United States. The simulated concentrations were compared with measured concentrations of the compounds detected in shallow groundwater (that is, groundwater drawn from within a depth of 6.3 ± 0.5 meters [mean ± 95 percent confidence interval] below the water table) in more than 1,400 locations across the United States. The results from these comparisons were used to select the simulation approaches that led to the closest agreement between the simulated and the measured concentrations.The P-GWAVA system uses computer simulations that account for a broader range of the hydrologic, physical, biological and chemical phenomena known to control the transport and fate of solutes in the subsurface than has been accounted for by any other vulnerability assessment over regional to national scales. Such phenomena include preferential transport and the influences of temperature, soil properties, and depth on the partitioning, transport, and transformation of pesticides in the subsurface. Published methods and detailed soil property data are used to estimate a wide range of model input parameters for each site, including surface

  18. STATISTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE GROUNDWATER SYSTEM IN DARB EL-ARBAEIN, SOUTHWESTERN DESERT, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashouty Mohamed El

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Darb El Arbaein, the groundwater is the only water resources. The aquifer system starts from Paleozoic-Mesozoic to Upper Cretaceous sandstone rocks. They overlay the basement rocks and the aquifer is confined. In the present research, the performance of the statistical analyses to classify groundwater samples depending on their chemical characters has been tested. The hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data of 92 groundwater samples was obtained from the GARPAD authority in northern, central, and southern Darb El Arbaein. A robust classification scheme for partitioning groundwater chemistry into homogeneous groups was an important tool for the characterization of Nubian sandstone aquifer. We test the performance of the many available graphical and statistical methodologies used to classify water samples. R-mode, Q-mode, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis were investigated. All the methods were discussed and compared as to their ability to cluster, ease of use, and ease of interpretation. The correlation investigation clarifies the relationship among the lithology, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic. Factor investigation revealed three factors namely; the evaporation process-agriculturalimpact-lithogenic dissolution, the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer system, and the surface meteoric water that rechargethe aquifer system. Two main clusters that subdivided into four sub clusters were identified in groundwater system based on hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data. They reflect the impact of geomedia, hydrogeology, geographic position, and agricultural wastewater. The groundwater is undersaturated with respect to most selected minerals. The groundwater was supersaturated with respect to iron minerals in northern and southern Darb El Arbaein. The partial pressure of CO2 of the groundwater versus saturation index of calcite shows the gradual change in PCO2 from atmospheric to the present aquifer

  19. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation -- Assessing the potential for active groundwater flow and origin of the brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-08-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) contains contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater in the deep system is saline and has been considered to be stagnant in previous studies. This study was designed to address the following questions: is groundwater in the deep system stagnant; is contaminant migration controlled by diffusion only or is advection a viable mechanism; where are the potential outlet points? On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of saline groundwater flow and potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial and temporal temperature variations at depth, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. The observations suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active, freshwater-bearing units. Influx of recent water does occur. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow are likely to be small. The origin of the saline groundwater was assessed by using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model that best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated.

  20. Geographical Information System Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present paper tries to assess groundwater suitability for irrigation purpose in Damghan plain (5400 ha. Approach: Twenty four water samples were collected from the active wells. Parameters such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, were recorded in the field and major anions and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were analyzed in the laboratory. The data of water wells were imported into the GIS software and the different water quality maps were produced using point data. Then Suitability index of groundwater quality determined by overlaying of water quality maps. Results: Suitability index values revealed that the ground water in Amin Abad, Abdi, Abd Abad, Nasr Abad and parts of Shams Abad villages of study area had "Suitable" quality with the suitability index range between 75-100 and therefore can be used for irrigation usage. Suitability index of the groundwater in Hasnie, Gani Abad and parts of Shams Abad villages were "Moderate" quality with the range between 35-70 and Abas Abad, Abir Abad and Shaman villages had "unsuitable" quality and cannot be used for irrigation purposes. In respect of all evaluating criteria, villages of study areas that had "Suitable" and Moderate quality could safely be used for longterm irrigation purposes. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated high efficiency for GIS to analyze complex spatial data and groundwater quality suitability.

  1. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  2. Groundwater Nitrate Contamination Risk Assessment: A Comparison of Parametric Systems and Simulation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Sacco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater nitrate contamination is a source of rising concern that has been faced through the introduction of several regulations in different countries. However the methodologies used in the definition of Nitrate Vulnerable Zones are not included in the regulations. The aim of this work was to compare different methodologies, used to asses groundwater nitrate contamination risks, based on parametric systems or simulation modelling. The work was carried out in Piedmont, Italy, in an area characterised by intensive animal husbandry, high N load, a shallow water table and a coarse type of sub-soil sediments. Only N loads from agricultural non-point sources were considered. Different methodologies with different level of information have been compared to determine the groundwater nitrate contamination risk assessment: N load, IPNOA index, the intrinsic contamination risk from nitrates, leached N and N concentration of the soil solution estimated by the simulation model. The good correlation between the IPNOA index and the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk revealed that the parameters that describe the soil in this area did not lead to a different classification of the parcels. The intrinsic nitrate contamination risk was greatly influenced by N fertilisation, however the effect of the soils increased the variability in comparison to the IPNOA index. The leached N and N concentration in the leaching were closely correlated. The dilution effect of percolated water was almost negligible. Both methodologies were slightly correlated to the N fertilisation and the two indexes. The correlations related to the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk was higher than those related to IPNOA, and this means that the effect of taking into account soil parameters increases the correlation to the prediction of the simulation model.

  3. Aquifer-Circulating Water Curtain Cultivation System To Recover Groundwater Level And Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Chon, C.; Oh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater temperature, which generally ranges 14 to 16 degree of Celsius all year long, can be said to be 'constant' compared to the amplitude of daily variation of air temperature or surface water. Water curtain cultivating method utilizes this 'constant' groundwater temperature to warm up the inside of greenhouse during winter night by splash groundwater on the roof of inner greenhouse. The area of water curtain cultivation system have increased up to 107.5 square kilometers as of 2006 since when it is first introduced to South Korea in 1984. Groundwater shortage problem became a great issue in a concentrated water curtain cultivation area because the pumped and splashed groundwater is abandoned to nearby stream and natural recharge rate is reduced by greenhouses. The amount of groundwater use for water curtain cultivation system in South Korea is calculated to be 587 million cubic meters which is 35% of national agricultural use of groundwater. A new water curtain cultivation system coupled with aquifer circulating of the splashed groundwater and greenhouse roof-top rainwater harvesting is developed and applied to field site in Nonsan-si, Chungnam province to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. The aquifer circulating water curtain cultivation system is consist of a pumping well and a injection well of 80 m deep, groundwater transfer and splashing system, recovery tank and rainwater collecting waterway. The distance between injection and pumping well is 15 m and an observation well is installed in the middle of the wells. To characterize hydrogeological properties of this site, hydraulic test such as pumping tests and tracer tests with dye tracer, thermal tracer and ion tracer. Once the integrated system is constructed in this site, hydraulic head in all the wells and temperature of air, recovery tank and groundwater in all the wells are monitored during the operation for 3months in winter season. Hydraulic test and tracer

  4. Parabasal theory for plane-symmetric systems including freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H.; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    An extension of paraxial theory to systems with a single plane of symmetry is provided. This parabasal model is based on the evaluation of a differential region around the reference ray that is defined by the center of the object and the center of the stop. To include freeform surfaces in this model, the local curvatures at the intersection point of the reference ray and the surface are evaluated. As an application, a generalized Scheimpflug principle is presented. The validity of the derived formulas is tested for highly tilted surfaces and is in good agreement with the exact ray tracing results. The analytical expressions are used to provide a first-order layout design of a planar imaging system.

  5. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  6. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  7. An expert system supporting decision making process for sustainable groundwater use in main alluvial aquifers in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvent, Petra; Vižintin, Goran; Celarc, Sašo; Čenčur Curk, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The expert decision support system for groundwater management in the shallow alluvial aquifers was developed to assist the decision makers to quantify available groundwater for a given alluvial aquifer and provide additional information about quantity of groundwater available for water rights licensing. The system links numerical groundwater flow models with the water permits and concessions databases in a complex decision support system. Six regional stand-alone groundwater models are used in the process of the assessment of groundwater quantitative status as well as for assessing availability of groundwater resources during the period of maximum water consumption and minimum groundwater recharge. Model runs have been realized in a steady state and are calibrated to a medium-low hydrological field conditions, because water quantities for all already granted as well as to-be granted water rights have to be ensured in any time for several years. The major goal of the expert decision support system is therefore to provide control mechanisms in order to verify the water rights licensing for the sustainable use of groundwater resources. The system enables that the water quantity data from water permits and concessions in conjunction with the results of numerical groundwater modeling are used in the managing process of granting new water rights to users in terms of their long-term access to groundwater (sufficient quantity of groundwater) and in relation to the water rights of other users (co-impact of groundwater pumping). Also, groundwater access must be managed in such a way that it does not cause unacceptable local impacts (pumping must not lower the water level for more than 2/3 of water body in the medium-low hydrological conditions).

  8. Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Coastal Plain Aquifer System of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Charles E.; Pope, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater model documented in this report simulates the transient evolution of water levels in the aquifers and confining units of the Virginia Coastal Plain and adjacent portions of Maryland and North Carolina since 1890. Groundwater withdrawals have lowered water levels in Virginia Coastal Plain aquifers and have resulted in drawdown in the Potomac aquifer exceeding 200 feet in some areas. The discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and a revised conceptualization of the Potomac aquifer are two major changes to the hydrogeologic framework that have been incorporated into the groundwater model. The spatial scale of the model was selected on the basis of the primary function of the model of assessing the regional water-level responses of the confined aquifers beneath the Coastal Plain. The local horizontal groundwater flow through the surficial aquifer is not intended to be accurately simulated. Representation of recharge, evapotranspiration, and interaction with surface-water features, such as major rivers, lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean, enable simulation of shallow flow-system details that influence locations of recharge to and discharge from the deeper confined flow system. The increased density of groundwater associated with the transition from fresh to salty groundwater near the Atlantic Ocean affects regional groundwater flow and was simulated with the Variable Density Flow Process of SEAWAT (a U.S. Geological Survey program for simulation of three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and transport). The groundwater density distribution was generated by a separate 108,000-year simulation of Pleistocene freshwater flushing around the Chesapeake Bay impact crater during transient sea-level changes. Specified-flux boundaries simulate increasing groundwater underflow out of the model domain into Maryland and minor underflow from the Piedmont Province into the model domain. Reported withdrawals accounted for approximately

  9. Groundwater-flow model for the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason C.; Bartolino, James R.; Wylie, Allan H.; Sukow, Jennifer; McVay, Michael

    2016-06-27

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow was developed for the Wood River Valley (WRV) aquifer system, Idaho, to evaluate groundwater and surface-water availability at the regional scale. This mountain valley is located in Blaine County and has a drainage area of about 2,300 square kilometers (888 square miles). The model described in this report can serve as a tool for water-rights administration and water-resource management and planning. The model was completed with support from the Idaho Department of Water Resources, and is part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the WRV. A highly reproducible approach was taken for constructing the WRV groundwater-flow model. The collection of datasets, source code, and processing instructions used to construct and analyze the model was distributed as an R statistical-computing and graphics package.

  10. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Methods for Using Ground-Water Model Predictions to Guide Hydrogeologic Data Collection, with Applications to the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claire R. Tiedeman; M.C. Hill; F.A. D' Agnese; C.C. Faunt

    2001-07-31

    Calibrated models of ground-water systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions, by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow-system features that can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new ''value of improved information'' (VOII) method, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. The PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated using a model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The predictions of interest are advective-transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated, the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow-system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  12. Modelling climate change effects on a dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneca S̀anchez, M.; Gunnink, J.L.; Baaren, E.S. van; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; Louw, P.G.B. de

    2012-01-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being

  13. Classification as a generic tool for characterising status and changes of regional scale groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Haaf, Ezra

    2016-04-01

    Regional hydrogeology is becoming increasingly important, but at the same time, scientifically sound, universal solutions for typical groundwater problems encountered on the regional scale are hard to find. While managers, decision-makers and state agencies operating on regional and national levels have always shown a strong interest in regional scale hydrogeology, researchers from academia tend to avoid the subject, focusing instead on local scales. Additionally, hydrogeology has always had a tendency to regard every problem as unique to its own site- and problem-specific context. Regional scale hydrogeology is therefore pragmatic rather than aiming at developing generic methodology (Barthel, 2014; Barthel and Banzhaf, 2016). One of the main challenges encountered on the regional scale in hydrogeology is the extreme heterogeneity that generally increases with the size of the studied area - paired with relative data scarcity. Even in well-monitored regions of the world, groundwater observations are usually clustered, leaving large areas without any direct data. However, there are many good reasons for assessing the status and predicting the behavior of groundwater systems under conditions of global change even for those areas and aquifers without observations. This is typically done by using rather coarsely discretized and / or poorly parameterized numerical models, or by using very simplistic conceptual hydrological models that do not take into account the complex three-dimensional geological setup. Numerical models heavily rely on local data and are resource-demanding. Conceptual hydrological models only deliver reliable information on groundwater if the geology is extremely simple. In this contribution, we present an approach to derive statistically relevant information for un-monitored areas, making use of existing information from similar localities that are or have been monitored. The approach combines site-specific knowledge with conceptual assumptions on

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  15. Geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.; Shimada, J.

    2013-12-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area (103 Km2) in southern Japan. The modeling was based on flow paths proposed by different researcher using different techniques, and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in hydrochemical data of groundwater, mineralogical data, and saturation indices data of minerals in groundwater. Hydrochemical data from a total of 180 spring, river and well water samples were used to evaluate water quality and to determine processes that control groundwater chemistry. The samples from the area were classified as recharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 type), lateral flow to discharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 type) and stagnant zone water (Na-Cl type). The inverse geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive water chemistry in the area. The downstream changes in groundwater chemistry could be largely explained by the weathering of plagioclase to kaolinite, with possible contributions from weathering of biotite and pyroxene. In a broad sense, the reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the area fall into three categories (1) silicate weathering reactions (2) precipitation of amorphous silica and clay minerals and (3) Cation exchange reactions of Ca2+ to Na+.

  16. Geochemical characterization of ground-water flow in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2004-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were obtained from ground water and surface water throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB), New Mexico, and supplemented with selected data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and City of Albuquerque water-quality database in an effort to refine the conceptual model of ground-water flow in the basin. The ground-water data collected as part of this study include major- and minor-element chemistry (30 elements), oxygen-18 and deuterium content of water, carbon-13 content and carbon-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfur-34 content of dissolved sulfate, tritium, and dissolved atmospheric gases including nitrogen, argon, helium, chlorofluorocarbons,

  17. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  18. A decision analysis approach for optimal groundwater monitoring system design under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Yenigül

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination is the degradation of the natural quality of groundwater as a result of human activity. Landfills are one of the most common human activities threatening the groundwater quality. The objective of the monitoring systems is to detect the contaminant plumes before reaching the regulatory compliance boundary in order to prevent the severe risk to both society and groundwater quality, and also to enable cost-effective counter measures in case of a failure. The detection monitoring problem typically has a multi-objective nature. A multi-objective decision model (called MONIDAM which links a classic decision analysis approach with a stochastic simulation model is applied to determine the optimal groundwater monitoring system given uncertainties due to the hydrogeological conditions and contaminant source characteristics. A Monte Carlo approach is used to incorporate uncertainties. Hydraulic conductivity and the leak location are the random inputs of the simulation model. The design objectives considered in the model are: (1 maximizing the detection probability, (2 minimizing the contaminated area and, (3 minimize the total cost of the monitoring system. The results show that the monitoring systems located close to the source are optimal except for the cases with very high unit installation and sampling cost and/or very cheap unit remediation cost.

  19. High Resolution Hydraulic Profiling and Groundwater Sampling using FLUTe™ System in a Fractured Limestone Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Christensen, Anders G.; Grosen, Bernt;

    innovative investi-gation methods for characterization of the source zone hydrogeology and contamination, including FLUTe system hydraulic profiling and Water-FLUTe multilevel groundwater sampling, in fractured bryo-zoan limestone bedrock. High resolution hydraulic profiling was conducted in three cored......Characterization of the contaminant source zone architecture and the hydraulics is essential to develop accurate site specific conceptual models, delineate and quantify contaminant mass, perform risk as-sessment, and select and design remediation alternatives. This characterization is particularly...... challeng-ing in deposit types as fractured limestone. The activities of a bulk distribution facility for perchloroe-thene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) at the Naverland site near Copenhagen, Denmark, has resulted in PCE and TCE DNAPL impacts to a fractured clay till and an underlying fractured limestone...

  20. Geochemical properties of groundwater used to geothermal cooling and heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namju; Park, Youngyun; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Recently, geothermal cooling and heating system has been used in many countries to reduce emission of greenhouse gases such as water vapour and carbon dioxide (CO2). Especially, CO2 is emitted from combustion of fossil fuel used for cooling and heating of buildings. Therefore, many countries make an effort to reduce amount of CO2 emitted from use of fossil fuel. The geothermal cooling and heating system is good to reduce amount of CO2. Especially, open loop geothermal system shows good thermal efficiency. However, groundwater contaminations will be considered because groundwater is directly used in open loop geothermal system. This study was performed to examine chemical and isotope compositions of groundwater used in open loop geothermal system and to evaluate influence of the system on groundwater using hydrochemical modeling program (preequc). Water temperature of well used in the system (GH) and well around the system (GB) ranged from 8.4 to 17.0 ° and from 15.1 to 18.0 °, respectively. The water temperature in GH was lower than that in GB because of heating mode of the system. Also, EC in GH and GB showed significant difference. The variation trend of EC was different at each site where the system was installed. These results mean that main factors controlling EC in GH was not the system. Generally, EC of groundwater was influenced by water-rock interaction. However, DO and Eh hardly showed significant difference. The operation period of the system observed in this study was short than 5 years. Therefore, influence of the open loop geothermal system on groundwater did not shown significantly. However, while Fe2+ and Mn2+ were not observed in GB, these components were measured in GH. The concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+ in GH ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 mg/L and from 0.03 to 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These results mean that redox conditions of GH were changed by the system little by little. In this study, influence of the open loop geothermal system on groundwater

  1. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.

    2010-01-01

    of groundwater demands an improved understanding of the efficiency and limitations of microbially driven reactions on the degradation of pollutants in contaminated groundwater systems. In this context stable isotope approaches represent a powerful tool to evaluate and elucidate biogeochemical processes...... in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...... cycling processes in contaminated aquifers relative to their importance for the biodegradation. The results show that sulfur cycling is an important process driving microbial degradation of contaminants in porous groundwater systems. For the anoxic plume core it appears that elemental sulfur is a key...

  2. Ground-water hydrology of Ogden Valley and surrounding area, eastern Weber County, UT, and simulation of ground-water flow in the Valley-fill aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ground-water resources in Ogden Valley, eastern Weber County, Utah, were the subject of a study to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic system in the valley and to estimate the hydrologic effects of future ground-water development. The study area included the drainage basin of the Ogden River upstream from Pineview Reservoir dam and the drainage basin of Wheeler Creek. Ogden Valley and the surrounding area are underlain by rocks that range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary.The consolidated rocks that transmit and yield the most water in the area surrounding Ogden Valley are the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the Wasatch Formation of Tertiary age. Much of the recharge to the consolidated rocks is from snowmelt that infiltrates the Wasatch Formation, which underlies a large part of the study area. Discharge from the consolidated rocks is by streams, evapotranspiration, springs, subsurface outflow, and pumping from wells. Water in the consolidated rocks is a calcium bicarbonate type and has a dissolved-solids concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter.

  3. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Teeple, Andrew; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers, which include the Pecos Valley, Igneous, Dockum, Rustler, and Capitan Reef aquifers, was developed as the second phase of a groundwater availability study in the Pecos County region in west Texas. The first phase of the study was to collect and compile groundwater, surface-water, water-quality, geophysical, and geologic data in the area. The third phase of the study involves a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in order to simulate groundwater conditions based on various groundwater-withdrawal scenarios. Resource managers plan to use the results of the study to establish management strategies for the groundwater system. The hydrogeologic framework is composed of the hydrostratigraphy, structural features, and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. Well and geophysical logs were interpreted to define the top and base surfaces of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units. Elevations of the top and base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer generally decrease from the southwestern part of the study area to the northeast. The thicknesses of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units were calculated using the interpolated top and base surfaces of the hydrostratigraphic units. Some of the thinnest sections of the aquifer were in the eastern part of the study area and some of the thickest sections were in the Pecos, Monument Draw, and Belding-Coyanosa trough areas. Normal-fault zones, which formed as growth and collapse features as sediments were deposited along the margins of more resistant rocks and as overlying sediments collapsed into the voids created by the dissolution of Permian-age evaporite deposits, were delineated based on the interpretation of hydrostratigraphic cross sections. The lowest aquifer transmissivity values were measured in the eastern part of the study area; the highest transmissivity values were

  4. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  5. Geochemical Characterization of Groundwater in a Volcanic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Bellia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A geochemical investigation was undertaken at Mt. Etna Volcano to better define groundwater characteristics of its aquifers. Results indicate that the Na–Mg ± Ca–HCO3− ± (SO42− or Cl− type accounts for more than 80% of the groundwater composition in the volcano. The remaining 20% is characterized by elevated Ca2+. Waters along coastal areas are enriched in SO42− or Cl−, mainly due to mixing with seawater and anthropogenic effects. The majority of the samples showed values between −4‰ to −9‰ for δ18O and −19‰ to −53‰ for δ2H, suggesting that precipitation is the predominant source of recharge to the aquifers, especially in the west of the study area. The analysis of δ13C and pCO2 shows values 1 to 3 times higher than those expected for waters in equilibrium with the atmosphere, suggesting a partial gas contribution from deep sources. The diffusion of gasses is likely to be controlled by tectonic structures in the volcano. The ascent of deep brines is also reflected in the CO2 enrichment (up to 2.2 bars and enriched δ2H/δ18O compositions observed in the salt mounts of Paternò.

  6. Simulation of a Complex Groundwater System and an Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premchitt, Jerasak; Das Gupta, Ashim

    1981-06-01

    A hydrologic model of an extensive groundwater basin was developed for the study of land subsidence due to deep well pumping in Bangkok, Thailand. It is a quasi-three-dimensional flow model with relevant modifications to suit the hydrogeologic situations in the problem area. The troublesome effect of yield from aquitard is discarded, while the field information on subsurface strata is fully utilized to establish a realistic model. The subsurface is considered to be a single hydraulically connected body stratified into model layers for convenience in the simulation. Pumping can be imposed at any depth, and discharge rates can be arbitrary. Any number of model layers can be incorporated, with coupling being provided through the leakage flux. The power and flexibility of the model is demonstrated in the simulation of groundwater flow regime in the Lower Central Plain of Thailand for a time period of 45 years. At first the model is calibrated with available field measurements in the past, and it is then extended for the prediction of future situations. The model represents the actual field situation. The mathematical process is simple, and it would require less computing effort than the equivalent full three-dimensional model or the quasi-three-dimensional model with one-dimensional elements to represent aquitards.

  7. Multi-objective analysis of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in a multisource water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, João; da Conceição Cunha, Maria

    2017-04-01

    A multi-objective decision model has been developed to identify the Pareto-optimal set of management alternatives for the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater of a multisource urban water supply system. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, Borg MOEA, is used to solve the multi-objective decision model. The multiple solutions can be shown to stakeholders allowing them to choose their own solutions depending on their preferences. The multisource urban water supply system studied here is dependent on surface water and groundwater and located in the Algarve region, southernmost province of Portugal, with a typical warm Mediterranean climate. The rainfall is low, intermittent and concentrated in a short winter, followed by a long and dry period. A base population of 450 000 inhabitants and visits by more than 13 million tourists per year, mostly in summertime, turns water management critical and challenging. Previous studies on single objective optimization after aggregating multiple objectives together have already concluded that only an integrated and interannual water resources management perspective can be efficient for water resource allocation in this drought prone region. A simulation model of the multisource urban water supply system using mathematical functions to represent the water balance in the surface reservoirs, the groundwater flow in the aquifers, and the water transport in the distribution network with explicit representation of water quality is coupled with Borg MOEA. The multi-objective problem formulation includes five objectives. Two objective evaluate separately the water quantity and the water quality supplied for the urban use in a finite time horizon, one objective calculates the operating costs, and two objectives appraise the state of the two water sources - the storage in the surface reservoir and the piezometric levels in aquifer - at the end of the time horizon. The decision variables are the volume of withdrawals from

  8. Quantifying changes in water use and groundwater availability in a megacity using novel integrated systems modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, D. W.; Xu, T.; Deines, J. M.; Cao, G.; Nagelkirk, R.; Viña, A.; McConnell, W.; Basso, B.; Kendall, A. D.; Li, S.; Luo, L.; Lupi, F.; Ma, D.; Winkler, J. A.; Yang, W.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.

    2017-08-01

    Water sustainability in megacities is a growing challenge with far-reaching effects. Addressing sustainability requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach able to capture interactions among hydrology, population growth, and socioeconomic factors and to reflect changes due to climate variability and land use. We developed a new systems modeling framework to quantify the influence of changes in land use, crop growth, and urbanization on groundwater storage for Beijing, China. This framework was then used to understand and quantify causes of observed decreases in groundwater storage from 1993 to 2006, revealing that the expansion of Beijing's urban areas at the expense of croplands has enhanced recharge while reducing water lost to evapotranspiration, partially ameliorating groundwater declines. The results demonstrate the efficacy of such a systems approach to quantify the impacts of changes in climate and land use on water sustainability for megacities, while providing a quantitative framework to improve mitigation and adaptation strategies that can help address future water challenges.

  9. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was developed for the central Oahu flow system, which is the largest and most productive ground-water flow system on the island. The model is based on the computer code SHARP which simulates both freshwater and saltwater flow. The ground-water model was developed using average pumping and recharge conditions during the 1950's, which was considered to be a steady-state period. For 1950's conditions, model results indicate that 62 percent (90.1 million gallons per day) of the discharge from the Schofield ground-water area flows southward and the remaining 38 percent (55.2 million gallons per day) of the discharge from Schofield flows northward. Although the contribution of recharge from infiltration of rainfall and irrigation water directly on top of the southern and northern Schofield ground-water dams was included in the model, the distribution of natural discharge from the Schofield ground-water area was estimated exclusive of the recharge on top of the dams. The model was used to investigate the long-term effects of pumping under future land-use conditions. Future recharge was conservatively estimated by assuming no recharge associated with agricultural activities. Future pumpage used in the model was based on the 1995-allocated rates. Model results indicate that the long-term effect of pumping at the 1995-allocated rates will be a reduction of water levels from present (1995) conditions in all ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system. In the Schofield ground-water area, model results indicate that water levels could decline about 30 feet from the 1995 water-level altitude of about 275 feet. In the remaining ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system, water levels may decline from less than 1 foot to as much as 12 feet relative to 1995 water levels. Model results indicate that the bottoms of several existing deep wells in northern and southern Oahu extend below the model

  10. Vulnerability of topography-limited and recharge-limited groundwater systems to sea-level rise-induced salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H. A.; Byron, L. A.; Feinson, L. S.; Voss, C. I.; Russoniello, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of rising sea level on the hydraulic balance between aquifers and the ocean threaten freshwater resources and aquatic ecosystems along many world coastlines. Understanding both the vulnerability of groundwater systems to these changes and the primary factors that determine the magnitude of system response is critical to developing effective management plans in coastal zones. The rate and magnitude of salinization of fresh groundwater due to lateral seawater intrusion and changes in groundwater flow to the sea were assessed over a range of hydrogeologic settings. A primary factor affecting vulnerability is whether the system is recharge-limited or topography-limited. Results of two-dimensional variable-density groundwater-flow and salt-transport simulations indicate that the response of recharge-limited systems is largely minimal, whereas topography-limited systems are vulnerable for various combinations of permeability, vertical anisotropy in permeability, and recharge. World coastlines were classified according to system type as a vulnerability indicator. Results indicate that more than 50 percent of world coastlines are topography-limited over the range of cases tested. Central coastal Bangladesh is an example of a primarily topography-limited system that is highly vulnerable to impacts of sea-level rise as a result of its low elevation, dense population, and extensive groundwater use. Complexities of geologic heterogeneity and salinization processes, including storm-surge overtopping and accelerated salinization rates due to pumping, were considered. Results indicate that geologic heterogeneity has a strong control on the current and evolving pattern of salinity. The process of lateral intrusion can be slow, such that the current salinity distribution may still be changing in response to past sea-level rise. Vertical intrusion from above, where it occurs, is faster, and pumping can accelerate both mechanisms. Bangladesh vulnerability analyses are

  11. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater affected by human activities in Nandong underground river system, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yongjun, E-mail: jiangjyj@swu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Institute of Karst Environment and Rock Desertification Rehabilitation, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Spatio-temporal variations of Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition of groundwater were investigated in a karst underground river system. {yields} Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural Sr isotopic signature of karst groundwater. {yields} Sr in the carbonate aquifers was relatively non-radiogenic, with low Sr concentrations, while anthropogenic Sr correlated with agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents was relatively radiogenic, with higher Sr concentrations. {yields} {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios can provide key information for natural and anthropogenic sources in karst groundwater. - Abstract: The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst area dominated by agriculture in SE Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role in the social and economical development in the area. The effects of human activities (agriculture and sewage effluents) on the Sr isotope geochemistry were investigated in the NURS. Seventy-two representative groundwater samples, which were collected from different aquifers (calcite and dolomite), under varying land-use types, both in summer and winter, showed significant spatial differences and slight seasonal variations in Sr concentrations and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios signature of groundwater that was otherwise dominated by water-rock interaction. Three major sources of Sr could be distinguished by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in karst groundwater. Two sources of Sr are the Triassic calcite and dolomite aquifers, where waters have low Sr concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7075-0.7080 and 0.7080-0.7100, respectively); the third source is anthropogenic Sr from agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents with waters affected having radiogenic {sup 87

  12. The Resilience of Groundwater Remediation System in Response to Changing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have caused the contamination of groundwater resources at many locations. In an effort to protect human health and prevent further spreading of groundwater contamination, remediation systems have been or will be built at hundreds of thousands of sites. While the short term effectiveness has been the focus of past research and practice, the long-term effectiveness is increasingly scrutinized. When assessing the long-term effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems, it is important to examine how existing remediation systems respond to changing geophysical (e.g. climate change) and social (e.g. improved living standard and changing development needs) conditions. The resilience of remediation strategies, or their potential to adapt to future changes, is a critical sustainability consideration. We intend to examine the resilience of groundwater remediation systems in response to changing conditions. Among others, we explore the effects of sea level rise and changing hydroclimatic conditions on the life cycle impact of phytoremediation and bioremediation systems. The study was conducted in the San Francisco Bay area, where thousands of contaminated sites are located in an area that may be affected by sea level rise and changing hydroclimatic conditions.

  13. An innovative artificial recharge system to enhance groundwater storage in basaltic terrain: example from Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusari, Vijay; Katpatal, Y. B.; Kundal, Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    The management of groundwater poses challenges in basaltic terrain as its availability is not uniform due to the absence of primary porosity. Indiscriminate excessive withdrawal from shallow as well as deep aquifers for meeting increased demand can be higher than natural recharge, causing imbalance in demand and supply and leading to a scarcity condition. An innovative artificial recharge system has been conceived and implemented to augment the groundwater sources at the villages of Saoli and Sastabad in Wardha district of Maharashtra, India. The scheme involves resectioning of a stream bed to achieve a reverse gradient, building a subsurface dam to arrest subsurface flow, and installation of recharge shafts to recharge the deeper aquifers. The paper focuses on analysis of hydrogeological parameters like porosity, specific yield and transmissivity, and on temporal groundwater status. Results indicate that after the construction of the artificial recharge system, a rise of 0.8-2.8 m was recorded in the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater levels in 12 dug wells in the study area; an increase in the yield was also noticed which solved the drinking water and irrigation problems. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographic information system to demarcate the area of influence of the recharge system due to increase in yields of the wells. The study demonstrates efficacy, technical viability and applicability of an innovative artificial recharge system constructed in an area of basaltic terrain prone to water scarcity.

  14. Groundwater flow systems in the great Aletsch glacier region (Valais, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpiger, Andrea; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater flow systems in Alpine areas are often complex and challenging to investigate due to special topographic and climatic conditions governing groundwater recharge and bedrock flow. Studies seeking to characterize high-alpine groundwater systems remain rare, but are of high interest, e.g. for water supply, hydropower systems, traffic tunnels or rock slope deformation and landslide hazards. The goal of this study is to better understand the current and past groundwater flow systems of the UNESCO World Heritage mountain ridge separating the great Aletsch glacier and the Rhone valley, considering climatic and glacier fluctuations during the Lateglacial and Holocene periods. This ridge is crossed by a hydropower bypass drift (Riederhornstollen) and is composed of fractured crystalline rocks overlain by various types of landslides and glacial deposits. Surface hydrology observations (fracture properties, groundwater seepage, spring lines and physico-chemical parameters) and hydropower drift inflow measurements contributed to the characterization of bedrock hydraulic conductivities and preferential groundwater pathways. Basic conceptual hydrogeological models were tested with observed drift inflows and the occurrence of springs using free-surface, variably saturated, vertical 2D groundwater flow models (using the code SEEP/W from GeoStudio 2007). Already simple two-layer models, representing profile sections orthogonal to the mountain ridge, provided useful results. Simulations show that differences in the occurrence of springs on each side of the mountain ridge are likely caused by the occurrence of glacial till (generating perched groundwater), the deep-seated sagging landslide mass, faults and asymmetric ridge topography, which together force the main groundwater flow direction to be oriented towards the Rhone valley, even from beyond the mountain ridge. Surprisingly, the most important springs (those with high discharge rates) are located at high elevations

  15. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Helena M B; Santos, Cledir; Paterson, R Russell M; Gusmão, Norma B; Lima, Nelson

    2016-03-09

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively), followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each), Curvularia (5%) and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%). Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens.

  16. Groundwater Parameters and Flow Systems Near Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) averages 132 cm/yr. About 76 cm/yr of water is consumed by evapotranspiration. The natural streamflow, which averages 56 cm/yr of water, consists of overland flow (about 21 cm/yr) from water bodies, wetlands, and impervious areas of groundwater discharge (about 35 cm/yr of water). Groundwater occurs in a stormflow zone that extends from the land surface to a depth of 0.3-2 m and in shallow and deeper aquifers that extend from the water table to the base of fresh water. in the stormflow zone, most water flows through macropores and mesopores, which have a volumetric porosity of about 0.002. In the vadose zone and below the water table, water flows through fractures that have a volumetric porosity in the range 1 x 10{sup -5} to 0.02. Water inflow occurs by precipitation and infiltration. infiltration that exceeds the soil water deficit forms a perched water table in the stormflow zone at the level where infiltration rate exceeds vertical hydraulic conductivity. Some water percolates down to the water table but the majority flows downslope to the streams. Recharge of the shallow aquifer is only about 3.2 cm/yr of water or 5.7% of streamflow. Most of the water that recharges the shallow aquifer is discharged by evapotranspiration above the water table. The remainder is discharged at springs and streams where the water table is within the stormflow zone. Digital models that permit unsaturated conditions and transient flows may be more appropriate than steady-state models of saturated flow for the ORNL area.

  17. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of groundwater recharge in sedimentary rock aquifer systems in the Oti basin of Gushiegu District, Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifa, George Yamoah; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Chegbeleh, Larry Pax

    2017-07-01

    Sustainable development and the management of groundwater resources for optimal socio-economic development constitutes one of the most effective strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change in rural areas where poverty is a critical cause of environmental damage. This research assessed groundwater recharge and its spatial and temporal variations in Gushiegu District in the Northern Region of Ghana, where groundwater is the main source of water supply for most uses. Isotopic data of precipitation and groundwater were used to infer the origin of groundwater and the possible relationship between groundwater and surface water in the partially metamorphosed sedimentary aquifer system in the study area. Though the data do not significantly establish strong relation between groundwater and surface water, the study suggests that groundwater in the area is of meteoric origin. However, the data also indicate significant enrichment of the heavy isotopes (18O and 2H) in groundwater relative to rainwater in the area. The Chloride Mass Balance (CMB) and Water Table Fluctuations (WTF) techniques were used to quantitatively estimate the groundwater recharge in the area. The results suggest groundwater recharge in a range of 13.9 mm/y - 218 mm/y, with an average of 89 mm/yr, representing about 1.4%-21.8% (average 8.9%) of the annual precipitation in the area. There is no clearly defined trend in the temporal variations of groundwater recharge in the area, but the spatial variations are discussed in relation to the underlying lithologies. The results suggest that the fraction of precipitation that reaches the saturated zone as groundwater recharge is largely controlled by the vertical hydraulic conductivities of the material of the unsaturated zone. The vertical hydraulic conductivity coupled with humidity variations in the area modulates the vertical infiltration and percolation of precipitation.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 15 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 17 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area.

  20. Effects of sea-level rise on barrier island groundwater system dynamics: ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater system responds to increases of up to 60 cm in sea level. We found that a sea-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.

  1. Operational Linescan System (OLS) - Derived Products (including posters and slides)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and infrared imagery from DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS) instruments are used to monitor the global distribution of clouds and cloud top temperatures...

  2. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Thomas; F.C. Benedict, Jr.; T.P. Rose; R.L. Hershey; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman; I.M. Farnham; K.H. Johannesson; A.K. Singh; K.J. Stetzenbach; G.B. Hudson; J.M. Kenneally; G.F. Eaton; D.K. Smith

    2003-01-08

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  3. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile l

  4. Transport of reactive carriers and contaminants in groundwater systems : a dynamic competitive happening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport of contaminants constitutes a potential threat for public health and ecosystems. One of the potential pathways for contaminant transport in groundwater systems is transport adsorbed to carriers (colloidal particles, large molecules). Figure 1 shows a detail of a

  5. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile

  6. Transport of reactive carriers and contaminants in groundwater systems : a dynamic competitive happening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport of contaminants constitutes a potential threat for public health and ecosystems. One of the potential pathways for contaminant transport in groundwater systems is transport adsorbed to carriers (colloidal particles, large molecules). Figure 1 shows a detail of a grou

  7. Predicting groundwater flow system discharge in the river network at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between rivers and aquifers affects the quality and the quantity of surface and subsurface water since it plays a crucial role for solute transport, nutrient cycling and microbial transformations. The groundwater-surface water interface, better known as hyporheic zone, has a functional significance for the biogeochemical and ecological conditions of the fluvial ecosystem since it controls the flux of groundwater solutes discharging into rivers, and vice versa. The hyporheic processes are affected by the complex surrounding aquifer because the groundwater flow system obstructs the penetration of stream water into the sediments. The impact of large-scale stream-aquifer interactions on small scale exchange has generally been analyzed at local scales of a river reach, or even smaller. However, a complete comprehension of how hyporheic fluxes are affected by the groundwater system at watershed scale is still missing. Evaluating this influence is fundamental to predict the consequences of hyporheic exchange on water quality and stream ecology. In order to better understand the actual structure of hyporheic exchange along the river network, we firstly examine the role of basin topography complexity in controlling river-aquifer interactions. To reach this target, we focus on the analysis of surface-subsurface water exchange at the watershed scale, taking into account the river-aquifer interactions induced by landscape topography. By way of a mathematical model, we aim to improve the estimation of the role of large scale hydraulic gradients on hyporheic exchange. The potential of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of a benchmark case's study, which shows how the topographic conformation influences the stream-aquifer interaction and induces a substantial spatial variability of the groundwater discharge even among adjacent reaches along the stream. The vertical exchange velocity along the river evidences a lack of autocorrelation. Both the groundwater

  8. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. The flexible beams are modeled using a fully nonlinear theory which accounts for both finite rotations and large deformations. The present formulation incorporates physical measures of conjugate Cauchy stress and covariant strain increments. As a consequence, the beam model can easily be interfaced with real-time strain measurements and feedback control systems. A distinct feature of the present work is the computational preservation of total energy for undamped systems; this is obtained via an objective strain increment/stress update procedure combined with an energy-conserving time integration algorithm which contains an accurate update of angular orientations. The procedure is demonstrated via several example problems.

  9. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  10. Top 10 Threats to Computer Systems Include Professors and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    User awareness is growing in importance when it comes to computer security. Not long ago, keeping college networks safe from cyberattackers mainly involved making sure computers around campus had the latest software patches. New computer worms or viruses would pop up, taking advantage of some digital hole in the Windows operating system or in…

  11. Top 10 Threats to Computer Systems Include Professors and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    User awareness is growing in importance when it comes to computer security. Not long ago, keeping college networks safe from cyberattackers mainly involved making sure computers around campus had the latest software patches. New computer worms or viruses would pop up, taking advantage of some digital hole in the Windows operating system or in…

  12. Biofilms from a Brazilian water distribution system include filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, V M; Oliveira, H M B; Santos, C; Paterson, R R M; Gusmão, N B; Lima, N

    2013-03-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water can block water pipes, can cause organoleptic biodeterioration, and are a source of pathogens. There are increasing reports of the involvement of the organisms in biofilms. This present study describes a sampling device that can be inserted directly into pipes within water distribution systems, allowing biofilm formation in situ. Calcofluor White M2R staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization with morphological analyses using epifluorescent microscopy were used to analyse biofilms for filamentous fungi, permitting direct observation of the fungi. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) was applied to detect bacteria. Filamentous fungi were detected in biofilms after 6 months on coupons exposed to raw water, decanted water and at the entrance of the water distribution system. Algae, yeast, and bacteria were also observed. The role of filamentous fungi requires further investigations.

  13. Two stage sorption type cryogenic refrigerator including heat regeneration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Wen, Liang-Chi; Bard, Steven

    1989-01-01

    A lower stage chemisorption refrigeration system physically and functionally coupled to an upper stage physical adsorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Waste heat generated by the lower stage cycle is regenerated to fuel the upper stage cycle thereby greatly improving the energy efficiency of a two-stage sorption refrigerator. The two stages are joined by disposing a first pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a first refrigerant for the lower stage refrigeration cycle within a second pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a second refrigerant for the upper stage refrigeration cycle. The first pressurization chamber is separated from the second pressurization chamber by a gas-gap thermal switch which at times is filled with a thermoconductive fluid to allow conduction of heat from the first pressurization chamber to the second pressurization chamber.

  14. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  15. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  16. Overview of groundwater sources and water-supply systems, and associated microbial pollution, in Finland, Norway and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve, Bjørn; Kvitsand, Hanne Margrethe Lund; Pitkänen, Tarja; Gunnarsdottir, Maria J.; Gaut, Sylvi; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M.; Rossi, Pekka M.; Miettinen, Ilkka

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of groundwater systems and groundwater contamination in Finland, Norway and Iceland are presented, as they relate to outbreaks of disease. Disparities among the Nordic countries in the approach to providing safe drinking water from groundwater are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future. Groundwater recharge is typically high in autumn or winter months or after snowmelt in the coldest regions. Most inland aquifers are unconfined and therefore vulnerable to pollution, but they are often without much anthropogenic influence and the water quality is good. In coastal zones, previously emplaced marine sediments may confine and protect aquifers to some extent. However, the water quality in these aquifers is highly variable, as the coastal regions are also most influenced by agriculture, sea-water intrusion and urban settlements resulting in challenging conditions for water abstraction and supply. Groundwater is typically extracted from Quaternary deposits for small and medium municipalities, from bedrock for single households, and from surface water for the largest cities, except for Iceland, which relies almost entirely on groundwater for public supply. Managed aquifer recharge, with or without prior water treatment, is widely used in Finland to extend present groundwater resources. Especially at small utilities, groundwater is often supplied without treatment. Despite generally good water quality, microbial contamination has occurred, principally by norovirus and Campylobacter, with larger outbreaks resulting from sewage contamination, cross-connections into drinking water supplies, heavy rainfall events, and ingress of polluted surface water to groundwater.

  17. Overview of groundwater sources and water-supply systems, and associated microbial pollution, in Finland, Norway and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve, Bjørn; Kvitsand, Hanne Margrethe Lund; Pitkänen, Tarja; Gunnarsdottir, Maria J.; Gaut, Sylvi; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M.; Rossi, Pekka M.; Miettinen, Ilkka

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of groundwater systems and groundwater contamination in Finland, Norway and Iceland are presented, as they relate to outbreaks of disease. Disparities among the Nordic countries in the approach to providing safe drinking water from groundwater are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future. Groundwater recharge is typically high in autumn or winter months or after snowmelt in the coldest regions. Most inland aquifers are unconfined and therefore vulnerable to pollution, but they are often without much anthropogenic influence and the water quality is good. In coastal zones, previously emplaced marine sediments may confine and protect aquifers to some extent. However, the water quality in these aquifers is highly variable, as the coastal regions are also most influenced by agriculture, sea-water intrusion and urban settlements resulting in challenging conditions for water abstraction and supply. Groundwater is typically extracted from Quaternary deposits for small and medium municipalities, from bedrock for single households, and from surface water for the largest cities, except for Iceland, which relies almost entirely on groundwater for public supply. Managed aquifer recharge, with or without prior water treatment, is widely used in Finland to extend present groundwater resources. Especially at small utilities, groundwater is often supplied without treatment. Despite generally good water quality, microbial contamination has occurred, principally by norovirus and Campylobacter, with larger outbreaks resulting from sewage contamination, cross-connections into drinking water supplies, heavy rainfall events, and ingress of polluted surface water to groundwater.

  18. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  19. Distribution of atrazine in a crop-soil-groundwater system at Baiyangdian Lake area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the concentration distribution and environmentalfate of atrazine in a crop-soil-groundwater system at Baiyangdian Lake area of North China were studied. The concentration of the herbicide in spatial and vertical soils, and in roots, stem, leaf, corncob and kernel of corn, and in groundwater were measured by HPLC. The results showed that the variation of spatial concentration of atrazine in soil can be described by first-order kinetics equation which has a half-life of 360 days and a rate constant of 0.0019d-1. The vertical variation of atrazine concentration with soil depth follows the exponential decay law. After 120 days following atrazine application, the mass distributions of this herbicide in crop-soil-groundwater system are 71% in soil, 20% in groundwater and 1% in crop respectively, and 8% due to loss by degradation or often removal processes. The order of atrazine concentration in every part of corn crop is in roots>in corncob>in kernel of corn>in leaf.

  20. Research about the Control of Geological Structure on Karst Groundwater system in Zhangfang, Beijing,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate formations are intensively distributed throughout Zhangfang, fangshan, in West Mountain area in Beijing. Karst groundwater exits among the geological fracture network which is characterized by the different arrangements and levels in different types of fracture networks and structures. The influence of the tectonic environment on the dynamic change rule and the enrichment regulation of karst system is significant for the exploitation and protection of karst groundwater resources. From the control function of fault and fracture point of view, based on the developmental and distribution pattern of multi-episodic tectonism, this study analyzed fractures in the three-fold structural units characterized by NE-NW and NS trends and discussed the influence of multi-episodic tectonism on the groundwater flow system and rich water zones. The results showed that the geological fracture underwent two episodes of tectonism, thrusting nappe in the Jurassic and extension in the Cretaceous. The overprint of two episodes resulted in a number of faults with high hydraulic conductivity, which serve as conduits. The superiority joints groups are in the NE and NW directions, with conjugated characteristics. The high-angle or vertical dips directly benefit infiltration. The fractures in the intersection areas have formed groundwater runoff channels and strong space, controlling water-rich zones such as Baidai, Ganchi-Changgou and Gaozhuang-Shiwo. Magmatic rock and the aquiclude also contribute to the rich water zones and the location of springs, all of which have important significance for water supply. Keywords: system of Karst groundwater, geological structure, fracture network, hydrogeological flow field, Zhangfang karst area

  1. Simulation of groundwater flow in the glacial aquifer system of northeastern Wisconsin with variable model complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Clark, Brian R.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2017-05-04

    The U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment seeks to map estimated intrinsic susceptibility of the glacial aquifer system of the conterminous United States. Improved understanding of the hydrogeologic characteristics that explain spatial patterns of intrinsic susceptibility, commonly inferred from estimates of groundwater age distributions, is sought so that methods used for the estimation process are properly equipped. An important step beyond identifying relevant hydrogeologic datasets, such as glacial geology maps, is to evaluate how incorporation of these resources into process-based models using differing levels of detail could affect resulting simulations of groundwater age distributions and, thus, estimates of intrinsic susceptibility.This report describes the construction and calibration of three groundwater-flow models of northeastern Wisconsin that were developed with differing levels of complexity to provide a framework for subsequent evaluations of the effects of process-based model complexity on estimations of groundwater age distributions for withdrawal wells and streams. Preliminary assessments, which focused on the effects of model complexity on simulated water levels and base flows in the glacial aquifer system, illustrate that simulation of vertical gradients using multiple model layers improves simulated heads more in low-permeability units than in high-permeability units. Moreover, simulation of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields in coarse-grained and some fine-grained glacial materials produced a larger improvement in simulated water levels in the glacial aquifer system compared with simulation of uniform hydraulic conductivity within zones. The relation between base flows and model complexity was less clear; however, the relation generally seemed to follow a similar pattern as water levels. Although increased model complexity resulted in improved calibrations, future application of the models using simulated particle

  2. Reducing the predictive uncertainty associated with groundwater management decision-making in the Perth regional aquifer system of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Perth Regional Aquifer Model (PRAMS) framework has been used for about a decade now to evaluate the potential anthropogenic impacts associated with management decisions that affect Perth's groundwater resources. A great wealth of data, expertise and numerical analysis have gone into the development of PRAMS over the years. However, there has been little quantitative work conducted on systemically addressing the uncertainty in the model's structure and predictions. PRAMS is designed to make a variety of regional and local-scale predictions and, both the nature and magnitude of the uncertainty associated with these predictions can vary significantly. A primary prediction to be addressed using the PRAMS framework, will be the effects of various deep-aquifer groundwater management scenarios on both the environmental and social concerns surrounding the superficial aquifer, which supports sensitive wetlands, and the negative impacts of seawater intrusion into the deep aquifers. A particular model-structure component that greatly affects the predictions associated with deep-aquifer groundwater extraction is the characterization of the local fault structure, i.e., whether or not faults are acting as barriers to groundwater flow. Therefore, uncertainty in fault characterization can subsequently lead to significant predictive uncertainty. However, new observation data can be obtained to reduce this uncertainty. In this study, an experimental design methodology is employed to optimally acquire new observations of state in such a way as to maximize the information obtained about the hydraulic properties of faults. Various information criteria are employed to develop optimal locations of new observation wells. The A-optimality criterion was found to be the most effective for comparing sampling strategies given the design assumptions, which include the parameter sets employed, hydraulic forcing, temporal considerations, and the use of the existing observation network. A

  3. Effects of climate change on groundwater: observed and forecasted trends on Italian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveri, Marco; Menichini, Matia; Provenzale, Antonello; Scozzari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater represents the main source of water supply at global level. In Italy, as well as in most European countries, water needs are mainly covered by groundwater exploitation. The reliance on this resource is continuously growing, given the key role that groundwater plays for mitigating the climate change/variability and for addressing the significant increase in the global water demand. Despite this, and unlike surface waters, groundwater bodies have not been widely studied, and there is a general paucity of quantitative information, especially in relation to climate change. Although groundwater systems are more resilient to climate change than surface waters, they are affected both directly and indirectly. The estimation of the entity of these effects is mandatory for a reliable management of this crucial resource. The analysis of hydro-meteorological data over a few decades highlights that also the Italian territory is experiencing a change of the climate regime. Besides the increase of mean annual temperature, observed in particular since the early 1980s, longer and more frequent drought periods have been registered, as well as an increase of extreme events characterized by heavy rainfall. It is also noticeable a decrease in total rainfall, that is much more evident in the period from January to June. In addition to the reduced yearly inputs from precipitation, such trends determine also a lower snow accumulation and earlier snow melt in mountain areas, a general increase of evapotranspiration rates and an increased runoff fraction of the effective rainfall amount. As flood hydrographs of several major Italian rivers (e.g., Po, Brenta and Arno rivers) confirm, evident effects concern surface water resources. The main observed phenomena consist in the decline of mean annual discharge, the increase of extreme events with high discharge concentrated in short periods, and longer and earlier periods of low base flow. Impacts on groundwater recharge are not well

  4. Ground-water hydraulics, regional flow, and ground-water development of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Peter W.; Johnston, Richard H.

    1988-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is one of the major sources of groundwater supplies in the United States. This productive aquifer system underlies all of Florida, southeast Georgia, and small parts of adjoining Alabama and South Carolina, for a total area of about 100,000 square miles. About 3 billion gallons of water per day were withdrawn from the aquifer system in 1980, and in many areas the Floridan is the sole source of freshwater.

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Chemical and Isotopic Tracers for Characterization Of Groundwater Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Singleton, M J; Carle, S F; Esser, B K

    2007-09-13

    In many regions, three dimensional characterization of the groundwater regime is limited by coarse well spacing or borehole lithologic logs of low quality. However, regulatory requirements for drinking water or site remediation may require collection of extensive chemical and water quality data from existing wells. Similarly, for wells installed in the distant past, lithologic logs may not be available, but the wells can be sampled for chemical and isotopic constituents. In these situations, a thorough analysis of trends in chemical and isotopic constituents can be a key component in characterizing the regional groundwater system. On a basin or subbasin scale, especially in areas of intensive groundwater management where artificial recharge is important, introduction of an extrinsic tracer can provide a robust picture of groundwater flow. Dissolved gases are particularly good tracers since a large volume of water can be tagged, there are no real or perceived health risks associated with the tracer, and a very large dynamic range allows detection of a small amount of tagged water in well discharge. Recent applications of the application of extrinsic tracers, used in concert with intrinsic chemical and isotopic tracers, demonstrate the power of chemical analyses in interpreting regional subsurface flow regimes.

  6. 3D geological modeling of the Kasserine Aquifer System, Central Tunisia: New insights into aquifer-geometry and interconnections for a better assessment of groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Imen; Gibson, Helen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Negro, François; Rachid, Khanfir; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-08-01

    The challenge of this study was to create a 3D geological and structural model of the Kasserine Aquifer System (KAS) in central Tunisia and its natural extension into north-east Algeria. This was achieved using an implicit 3D method, which honors prior geological data for both formation boundaries and faults. A current model is presented which provides defendable predictions for the spatial distribution of geology and water resources in aquifers throughout the model-domain. This work has allowed validation of regional scale geology and fault networks in the KAS, and has facilitated the first-ever estimations of groundwater resources in this region by a 3D method. The model enables a preliminary assessment of the hydraulic significance of the major faults by evaluating their influence and role on groundwater flow within and between four compartments of the multi-layered, KAS hydrogeological system. Thus a representative hydrogeological model of the study area is constructed. The possible dual nature of faults in the KAS is discussed in the context that some faults appear to be acting both as barriers to horizontal groundwater flow, and simultaneously as conduits for vertical flow. Also discussed is the possibility that two flow directions occur within the KAS, at a small syncline area of near Feriana. In summary, this work evaluates the influence of aquifer connectivity and the role of faults and geology in groundwater flow within the KAS aquifer system. The current KAS geological model can now be used to guide groundwater managers on the best placement for drilling to test and further refine the understanding of the groundwater system, including the faults connectivity. As more geological data become available, the current model can be easily edited and re-computed to provide an updated model ready for the next stage of investigation by numerical flow modeling.

  7. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN OPEN-LOOP GROUND-WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEM IN AN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Baccino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multidisciplinary methodology for analyzing the opportunities for exploitation of open-loop groundwater heat pump is proposed. The approach starts from a model for calculation of a time profile of thermal requirements (heat and domestic hot water. This curve is then coupled with a model of the control system in order to determine the heat pump operation, which includes its energy performances (primary energy consumption as well as profiles of water discharge to the aquifer in terms of mass flow rate and temperature. Then the thermo-fluid dynamics of the aquifer is performed in order to determine the system impact on the environment as on possible other systems. The application to a case study in the Piedmont region, in Italy, is proposed. Energy analysis of the system shows that ground-water heat pumps constitute an interesting option in areas with small housing density, where there is not district heating. In comparison with typical heating/cooling systems, environmental benefits are related with reduction in global emissions. These benefits may be significantly enhanced using renewables as the primary energy source to produce electricity. The analysis also shows that possible issues related with the extension of the subsurface thermal plume may arise in the case of massive utilization of this technology.

  8. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in groundwater treatment and drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Voost, Stefan; van der Kooij, Dick

    2009-07-01

    The ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote (AOP) community in three groundwater treatment plants and connected distribution systems was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and sequence analysis targeting the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Results demonstrated that AOB and AOA numbers increased during biological filtration of ammonia-rich anoxic groundwater, and AOP were responsible for ammonium removal during treatment. In one of the treatment trains at plant C, ammonia removal correlated significantly with AOA numbers but not with AOB numbers. Thus, AOA were responsible for ammonia removal in water treatment at one of the studied plants. Furthermore, an observed negative correlation between the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the water and AOA numbers suggests that high DOC levels might reduce growth of AOA. AOP entered the distribution system in numbers ranging from 1.5 x 10(3) to 6.5 x 10(4) AOPs ml(-1). These numbers did not change during transport in the distribution system despite the absence of a disinfectant residual. Thus, inactive AOP biomass does not seem to be degraded by heterotrophic microorganisms in the distribution system. We conclude from our results that AOA can be commonly present in distribution systems and groundwater treatment, where they can be responsible for the removal of ammonia.

  9. Groundwater quality in Geauga County, Ohio: status, including detection frequency of methane in water wells, 2009, and changes during 1978-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Kula, Stephanie P.; Mailot, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic wells that are not safeguarded by regular water-quality testing provide drinking water for 79 percent of the residents of Geauga County, in northeastern Ohio. Since 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has worked cooperatively with the Board of Commissioners and Geauga County Planning Commission to monitor the quality of groundwater in four commonly used aquifers in county—the glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. A 33-percent growth in population from 1980 to 2009 increased the potential for humans to influence groundwater resources by withdrawing more groundwater, disposing of more human waste near the land surface, treating an expanded network of township roads with deicing salt, and likely using more solvents, pesticides, and other chemicals on the land surface than were used in preceding decades.

  10. Bibliography of groundwater resources of the glacial aquifer systems in Washington, Idaho, and northwestern Montana, 1905-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Futornick, Zoe O.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program is undertaking a series of regional groundwater availability studies to improve our understanding of groundwater availability in major aquifers across the Nation. One of the objectives of the Glacial Principal Aquifers study (proposed) is to provide information on the occurrence of groundwater in glacial aquifers in the United States, an area that includes parts of the northern continental States and much of Alaska. Toward this effort, a literature search was conducted to identify readily available documents that describe the occurrence of groundwater in glacial aquifers in the United States. This bibliography provides citations for documents, as well as codes indicating types of information available in each, for Washington, Idaho, and northwestern Montana—an area corresponding approximately to the southern extent of the Cordilleran ice sheet.

  11. EUGRIS: ''European Substainable Land and Groundwater Management Information System''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, J. [Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation outlines and Accompanying Measure with the FP 5 to develop an web based EUropean Sustainable Land and GRoundwater Management Information System information system (EUGRIS). The management of contaminated land and groundwater requires an interdisciplinary approach and a considerable amount of supporting technical information and knowledge. EUGRIS will provide a generally available comprehensive and overarching information and innovation resource, to support both research and practical contaminated land and groundwater management. EUGRI is a gateway to provide a 'one stop shop' for information provided by research projects, legislation, standards, best practice and other technical guidance and policy/regulatory publications from the EC, participating Member and Accession States and from various international networks dealing with groundwater and land management issues. Different types of user can access information through different windows according to their needs. EUGRIS will provide its visitors with summary information (digests) and links to sources of more detailed and/or original information in a scaleable holistic and contexturally meaningful way. EUGRIS is being built in three stages: the design of the information system, the development of its software implementation, and the population of the system with information. The presentation is focussed on the concept of the development of the information system with the individual work packages. In the second part of the lecture in particular the work procedures are presented for the content wise replenishment by EUGRIS. The data collation for the proven pilot countries and the production of a European research data base, which opens contents and results of European-wide locked and current projects, form the emphasis thereby. (orig.)

  12. Identifying three-dimensional nested groundwater flow systems in a Tóthian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Hailong; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wang, Junzhi; Ji, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Nested groundwater flow systems have been revealed in Tóth's theory as the structural property of basin-scale groundwater circulation but were only well known with two-dimensional (2D) profile models. The method of searching special streamlines across stagnation points for partitioning flow systems, which has been successfully applied in the 2D models, has never been implemented for three-dimensional (3D) Tóthian basins because of the difficulty in solving the dual stream functions. Alternatively, a new method is developed to investigate 3D nested groundwater flow systems without determination of stagnation points. Connective indices are defined to quantify the connection between individual recharge and discharge zones along streamlines. Groundwater circulation cells (GWCCs) are identified according to the distribution of the connective indices and then grouped into local, intermediate and regional flow systems. This method requires existing solution of the flow velocity vector and is implemented via particle tracking technique. It is applied in a hypothetical 3D Tóthian basin with an analytical solution of the flow field and in a real-world basin with a numerical modeling approach. Different spatial patterns of flow systems compared to 2D profile models are found. The outcrops boundaries of GWCCs on water table may significantly deviate from and are not parallel to the nearby water table divides. Topological network is proposed to represent the linked recharge-discharge zones through closed and open GWCCs. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the development of GWCCs depends on the basin geometry, hydraulic parameters and water table shape.

  13. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    five main sources (from largest to smallest): Silver Creek streamflow gain, ground-water pumpage, Big Wood River streamflow gain, direct evapotranspiration from riparian vegetation, and subsurface outflow (treated separately). Total estimated mean 1995-2004 annual outflow or discharge from the aquifer system is 250,000 acre-ft/yr (350 ft3/s). Estimated total discharge is 240,000 acre-ft/yr (330 ft3/s) for both the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001. The budget residual is the difference between estimated ground-water inflow and outflow and encompasses subsurface outflow, ground-water storage change, and budget error. For 1995-2004, mean annual inflow exceeded outflow by 20,000 acre-ft/yr (28 ft3/s); for the wet year 1995, mean annual inflow exceeded outflow by 30,000 acre-ft/yr (41 ft3/s); for the dry year 2001, mean annual outflow exceeded inflow by 20,000 acre-ft/yr (28 ft3/s). These values represent 8, 13, and 8 percent, respectively, of total outflows for the same periods. It is difficult to differentiate the relative contributions of the three residual components, although the estimated fluctuations between the wet and dry year budgets likely are primarily caused by changes in ground-water storage. The individual components in the wet and dry year ground-water budgets responded in a consistent manner to changes in precipitation and temperature. Although the ground-water budgets for the three periods indicated that ground-water storage is replenished in wet years, statistical analyses by Skinner and others (2007) suggest that such replenishment is not complete and over the long term more water is removed from storage than is replaced. In other words, despite restoration of water to ground-water storage in wet years, changes have occurred in either recharge and (or) discharge to cause ground-water storage to decline over time. Such changes may include, but are not limited to: lining or abandoning canals and ditches, conversion of surface-water irriga

  14. Transport of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems to Shallow Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge about the nutrients transport from the vadose zone of onsite wastewater treatment systems (commonly called septic systems) is crucial to protect groundwater quality as 25% of US population uses septic systems to discharge household wastewater. For example, our preliminary data showed that about 47% of applied water was recovered at 60-cm below drainfield of septic systems. This implies that contaminants present in wastewater, if not attenuated in the vadose zone, can be transported to shallow groundwater. This presentation will focus on the biophysical and hydrologic controls on the transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the vadose of two conventional (drip dispersal, gravel trench) and an advanced (with aerobic and anaerobic medias) system. These systems were constructed using two rows of drip pipe (37 emitters/mound) placed 0.3 m apart in the center of 6 m x 0.6 m drainfield. Each system received 120 L of wastewater per day. During 20-month period (May 2012 to December 2013), soil-water samples were collected from the vadose zone using suction cup lysimeters installed at 0.30, 0.60, and 1.05 m depth and groundwater samples were collected from piezometers installed at 3-3.30 m depth below the drainfield. A complimentary 1-year study using smaller drainfields (0.5 m long, 0.9 m wide, 0.9 m high) was conducted to obtain better insights in the vadose zone. A variety of instruments (multi-probe sensors, suction cup lysimeters, piezometers, tensiometers) were installed in the vadose zones. Results showed that nitrification controlled N evolution in drainfield and subsequent transport of N plumes (>10 mg/L) into groundwater. Most of the wastewater applied soluble inorganic P (>10 mg/L) was quickly attenuated in the drainfield due to fixation (sorption, precipitation) in the vadose zone (advanced system was extremely effective as it removed >95% N from wastewater, but was less effective at removing P. This presentation will conclude with

  15. Dynamic Vulnerability of Karst Systems: a Concept to understand qualitative and quantitative Aspects of Karst springs due to Changes in Groundwater Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggenberger, P.; Butscher, C.; Epting, J.; Auckenthaler, A.

    2015-12-01

    Karst groundwater resources represent valuable water resources, which may be affected by different types of pollution and changes of groundwater recharge by climate change. In many parts of Europe, it has been predicted that record-breaking heat waves, such as the one experienced in 2003 and 2015, will become more frequent. At the same time, even as summers become drier, the incidence of severe precipitation events could increase. What is the influence such changes to the quantitative and qualitative aspects of Karst groundwater systems? A factor to be considered in conjunction with groundwater quality is the vulnerability of the resource, which is defined as the sensitivity of a groundwater system to pollution. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to the sensitivity to pollution when considering only natural, geogenic conditions without the effects of human activities such as contaminant release. Intrinsic vulnerability depends on the recharge conditions, which are dependent on the surface and subsurface structure and on precipitation and evaporation patterns. The latter are highly time dependent. Therefore, our groundwater vulnerability concept also includes dynamic aspects of the system, the variations of spatial and temporal components. We present results of combined monitoring and modelling experiments of several types of Karst systems in the Tabular and the Folded Jura of NW Switzerland. The recharge, conduit flow, diffuse flow(RCD) rainfall-discharge model "RCD-seasonal" was used to simulate the discharge and substance concentration of several spring. This lumped parameter model include: the recharge system (soil and epikarst system), the conduit flow system, and the diffuse flow system. The numerically derived Dynamic Vulnerability Index (DVI) can indicate qualitative changes of spring water with sufficient accuracy to be used for drinking water management. In addition, the results obtained from the test sites indicate a decrease in short-lived contaminants in

  16. A downhole passive sampling system to avoid bias and error from groundwater sample handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Sanford L; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

    2010-07-01

    A new downhole groundwater sampler reduces bias and error due to sample handling and exposure while introducing minimal disturbance to natural flow conditions in the formation and well. This "In Situ Sealed", "ISS", or "Snap" sampling device includes removable/lab-ready sample bottles, a sampler device to hold double end-opening sample bottles in an open position, and a line for lowering the sampler system and triggering closure of the bottles downhole. Before deployment, each bottle is set open at both ends to allow flow-through during installation and equilibration downhole. Bottles are triggered to close downhole without well purging; the method is therefore "passive" or "nonpurge". The sample is retrieved in a sealed condition and remains unexposed until analysis. Data from six field studies comparing ISS sampling with traditional methods indicate ISS samples typically yield higher volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations; in one case, significant chemical-specific differentials between sampling methods were discernible. For arsenic, filtered and unfiltered purge results were negatively and positively biased, respectively, compared to ISS results. Inorganic constituents showed parity with traditional methods. Overall, the ISS is versatile, avoids low VOC recovery bias, and enhances reproducibility while avoiding sampling complexity and purge water disposal.

  17. Assessing the vulnerability of a karst groundwater system to contamination by pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies is a serious problem and a potential threat to public health. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products are identified as an environmental risk and concern has been raised about their environmental presence and fate. These compounds are present in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in concentrations of up to several µg/L, and they have frequently been detected in surface waters and groundwater systems. A popular method for wastewater disposal in karst areas is the injection of wastewater into open sinkholes. Subsequently, the wastewater infiltrates rapidly along conduits and through the fractured karst aquifer. This is a major contributing factor to the contamination of karst aquifers. To address the vulnerability of such systems against relatively mobile organic micropollutants, we investigated the occurrence of two pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen) in combination with the groundwater heterogeneity and flow pathways in the aquifer. Groundwater samples and effluents of three WWTPs were repeatedly collected during a field campaign in the Franconian Alb karst system which is located in southern Germany. These results were coupled with hydrogeological investigations such as tracer tests, application of environmental isotopes (3H), and modeling. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) both pharmaceuticals are mobile in the karst aquifer and thus represent a risk for contamination of karst water, (ii) the transport of pharmaceuticals in the fractured system with mean transit times of some years affects the karst groundwater contamination, and (iii) long-term wastewater injection containing organic micropollutants into karst ecosystems may contribute to water quality deterioration over years.

  18. MODFLOW-USG model of groundwater flow in the Wood River Valley aquifer system in Blaine County, Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW-USG) was developed for the Wood River Valley (WRV) aquifer system, south-central Idaho, to evaluate...

  19. Summer Mean Enhanced Vegetation Index for the Diamond Valley Flow System Groundwater Discharge Area, Central Nevada, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  20. The fluoride in the groundwater of Guarani Aquifer System: the origin associated with black shales of Paraná Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M. L.; Vieiro, A. P.; Machado, G.

    2008-09-01

    This work presents petrological and geochemical results of the black shales interval from Permian and Devonian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil and its relationships with fluoride of groundwater from Guarani Aquifer System. The Guarani Aquifer, located in South Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentine, presents contents of fluoride higher than the Brazilian accepted potability limits. Several hypotheses have been presented for the origin of the fluoride in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer. Microcrystalline fluorite was registered in black shales of Ponta Grossa and Irati formations from Paraná Basin. The results shown in this work suggest that fluoride present in groundwater of Guarani Aquifer can be originated in deeper groundwater that circulates in Ponta Grossa and Irati formations. The interaction of the groundwater coming from deeper black shales with the groundwater-bearing Aquifer Guarani System occurs through regional fragile structures (faults and fractures) that constitute excellent hydraulic connectors between the two sedimentary packages. The microcrystalline fluorite registered in Ponta Grossa and Irati Formations can be dissolved promoting fluoride enrichment in groundwater of these black shales and Guarani Aquifer System.

  1. Groundwater availability of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Kahle, S.C.; Ely, D.M.; Burns, E.R.; Snyder, D.T.; Haynes, J.V.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Morgan, D.S.

    2015-09-22

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers about 44,000 square miles of southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6-billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples, hops, and eight other commodities. Groundwater pumpage and surface-water diversions supply water to croplands that account for about 5 percent of the Nation’s irrigated lands. Groundwater also is the primary source of drinking water for the more than 1.3 million people in the study area. Increasing competitive demands for water for municipal, fisheries/ecosystems, agricultural, domestic, hydropower, and recreational uses must be met by additional groundwater withdrawals and (or) by changes in the way water resources are allocated and used throughout the hydrologic system. As of 2014, most surface-water resources in the study area were either over allocated or fully appropriated, especially during the dry summer season. In response to continued competition for water, numerous water-management activities and concerns have gained prominence: water conservation, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, pumpage effects on streamflow, and effects of climate variability and change. An integrated understanding of the hydrologic system is important in order to implement effective water-resource management strategies that address these concerns.

  2. Identifying key parameters to differentiate groundwater flow systems using multifactorial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Folch, Albert; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2012-11-01

    SummaryMultivariate techniques are useful in hydrogeological studies to reduce the complexity of large-scale data sets, and provide more understandable insight into the system hydrology. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used as an exploratory method to identify the key parameters that define distinct flow systems in the Selva basin (NE Spain). In this statistical analysis, all the information obtained in hydrogeological studies (that is, hydrochemical and isotopic data, but also potentiometric data) is used. Additionally, cluster analysis, based on PCA results, allows the associations between samples to be identified, and thus, corroborates the occurrence of different groundwater fluxes. PCA and cluster analysis reveal that two main groundwater flow systems exist in the Selva basin, each with distinct hydrochemical, isotopic, and potentiometric features. Regional groundwater fluxes are associated with high F- contents, and confined aquifer layers; while local fluxes are linked to nitrate polluted unconfined aquifers with a different recharge rates. In agreement with previous hydrogeological studies, these statistical methods stand as valid screening tools to highlight the fingerprint variables that can be used as indicators to facilitate further, more arduous, analytical approaches and a feasible interpretation of the whole data set.

  3. Assessment of On-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamar, Rafat; Jangam, C.; Veligeti, J.; Chintalapudi, P.; Janipella, R.

    2017-06-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of the On-site sanitation system on the groundwater sources in its vicinity. The study has been undertaken in the Agra city of Yamuna sub-basin. In this context, sampling sites (3 nos) namely Pandav Nagar, Ayodhya Kunj and Laxmi Nagar were selected for sampling. The groundwater samples were analyzed for major cations, anions and faecal coliform. Critical parameters namely chloride, nitrate and Faecal coliform were considered to assess the impact of the On-site sanitation systems. The analytical results shown that except for chloride, most of the samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standard limits for drinking water for all the other analyzed parameters, i.e., nitrate and faecal coliform in the first two sites. In Laxmi Nagar, except for faecal coliform, all the samples are below the BIS limits. In all the three sites, faecal coliform was found in majority of the samples. A comparison of present study indicates that the contamination of groundwater in alluvial setting is less as compared to hard rock where On-site sanitation systems have been implemented.

  4. Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.

    2006-12-01

    The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior to 1920, most surface water flowed unimpeded from source areas in the mountains surrounding the Central Valley through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the Pacific Ocean, and groundwater largely flowed from recharge areas on the valley rim to discharge as evapotransipration in extensive marshes along the valley's axis. Rapid agricultural development led to increases in groundwater pumping from ~0.5 km3/yr in the early 1920's to 13-18 km3/yr in the 1940's to 1970's, resulting in strong vertical head gradients, significant head declines throughout the valley, and subsidence of >0.3 m over an area of 13,000 km2. Construction of numerous dams and development of an extensive surface water delivery network after 1950 altered the surface water flow regime and reduced groundwater pumping to the current ~10 km3/yr, increasing net recharge and leading to local head gradient reversals and water level recoveries. A model calibrated to the range of historical flow regimes in the Central Valley will provide robust estimations of stream-groundwater interactions for a range of projected future scenarios. C2VSIM uses the IWFM application to simulate a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process dynamically coupled with 1-D land surface, stream flow, lake and unsaturated zone processes. The groundwater flow system is represented with three layers each having 1393 elements. Land surface processes are simulated using 21 subregions corresponding to California DWR water-supply planning areas. The surface-water network is simulated using 431 stream nodes representing 72

  5. Monitoring Groundwater Temperatures in a Shallow Urban Aquifer Before, During and After Installation of a Ground Source Heat System in Cardiff, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.; Farr, Gareth J.; Boon, David P.; James, David R.; Williams, Bernard; Tucker, David; Harcombe, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    Zone of Seasonal Fluctuation. In addition, six boreholes, including those used for the GSHP, have been telemetered, providing real-time temperature data. The aim of the monitoring network was to establish a baseline for groundwater temperatures in the shallow aquifer and to monitor local changes in temperatures close to the GSHP system. This study aimed to provide understanding of how GSHPs interact with the groundwater in order to confirm the sustainability of groundwater temperatures as a long-term thermal resource and provide planners with knowledge needed to develop sustainable wide-scale GSHP systems/networks. We present temperature data taken before and after installation.

  6. Evolution of the groundwater system under the impacts of human activities in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin (Northwest China) from 1985 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Lina; Xiao, Honglang; Zhang, Jianming; Yin, Zhenliang; Shen, Yongping

    2016-06-01

    Investigation of the evolution of the groundwater system and its mechanisms is critical to the sustainable management of water in river basins. Temporal and spatial distributions and characteristics of groundwater have undergone a tremendous change with the intensity of human activities in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), the second largest arid inland river basin in northwestern China. Based on groundwater observation data, hydrogeological data, meteorological data and irrigation statistical data, combined with geostatistical analyses and groundwater storage estimation, the basin-scaled evolution of the groundwater levels and storage (from 1985 to 2013) were investigated. The results showed that the unbalanced allocation of water sources and expanded cropland by policy-based human activities resulted in the over-abstraction of groundwater, which induced a general decrease in the water table and groundwater storage. The groundwater level has generally fallen from 4.92 to 11.49 m from 1985 to 2013, especially in the upper and middle parts of the alluvial fan (zone I), and reached a maximum depth of 17.41 m. The total groundwater storage decreased by 177.52 × 108 m3; zone I accounted for about 94.7 % of the total decrease. The groundwater balance was disrupted and the groundwater system was in a severe negative balance; it was noted that the groundwater/surface-water interaction was also deeply affected. It is essential to develop a rational plan for integration and management of surface water and groundwater resources in the HRB.

  7. Reconstruction of groundwater depletion using a global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Wada, Yoshi; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater forms an integral part of the global hydrological cycle and is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water to satisfy human water needs. It buffers variable recharge rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of drought as well as evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. Moreover, although lateral groundwater flows are often slow, they cross topographic and administrative boundaries at appreciable rates. Despite the importance of groundwater, most global scale hydrological models do not consider surface water-groundwater interactions or include a lateral groundwater flow component. The main reason of this omission is the lack of consistent global-scale hydrogeological information needed to arrive at a more realistic representation of the groundwater system, i.e. including information on aquifer depths and the presence of confining layers. The latter holds vital information on the accessibility and quality of the global groundwater resource. In this study we developed a high resolution (5 arc-minutes) global scale transient groundwater model comprising confined and unconfined aquifers. This model is based on MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) and coupled with the land-surface model PCR GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011) via recharge and surface water levels. Aquifers properties were based on newly derived estimates of aquifer depths (de Graaf et al., 2014b) and thickness of confining layers from an integration of lithological and topographical information. They were further parameterized using available global datasets on lithology (Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2011) and permeability (Gleeson et al., 2014). In a sensitivity analysis the model was run with various hydrogeological parameter settings, under natural recharge only. Scenarios of past groundwater abstractions and corresponding recharge (Wada et al., 2012, de Graaf et al. 2014a) were evaluated. The resulting estimates of groundwater depletion are lower than

  8. Groundwater Visualisation System (GVS): A software framework for integrated display and interrogation of conceptual hydrogeological models, data and time-series animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Malcolm E.; James, Allan; Hawke, Amy; Raiber, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Management of groundwater systems requires realistic conceptual hydrogeological models as a framework for numerical simulation modelling, but also for system understanding and communicating this to stakeholders and the broader community. To help overcome these challenges we developed GVS (Groundwater Visualisation System), a stand-alone desktop software package that uses interactive 3D visualisation and animation techniques. The goal was a user-friendly groundwater management tool that could support a range of existing real-world and pre-processed data, both surface and subsurface, including geology and various types of temporal hydrological information. GVS allows these data to be integrated into a single conceptual hydrogeological model. In addition, 3D geological models produced externally using other software packages, can readily be imported into GVS models, as can outputs of simulations (e.g. piezometric surfaces) produced by software such as MODFLOW or FEFLOW. Boreholes can be integrated, showing any down-hole data and properties, including screen information, intersected geology, water level data and water chemistry. Animation is used to display spatial and temporal changes, with time-series data such as rainfall, standing water levels and electrical conductivity, displaying dynamic processes. Time and space variations can be presented using a range of contouring and colour mapping techniques, in addition to interactive plots of time-series parameters. Other types of data, for example, demographics and cultural information, can also be readily incorporated. The GVS software can execute on a standard Windows or Linux-based PC with a minimum of 2 GB RAM, and the model output is easy and inexpensive to distribute, by download or via USB/DVD/CD. Example models are described here for three groundwater systems in Queensland, northeastern Australia: two unconfined alluvial groundwater systems with intensive irrigation, the Lockyer Valley and the upper Condamine

  9. Arsenic contamination of the soil-wheat system irrigated with high arsenic groundwater in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junting; Guo, Huaming; Wei, Chao

    2014-10-15

    As one of the most important crop in the world, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was irrigated with low As water and high As water. However, little is known about As cycling in the soil-wheat-water system. Two wheat fields (site G and site Y), irrigated with high dissolved As (178 μg L(-1)) groundwater and low dissolved As (8.2 μg L(-1)) surface water, respectively, were systematically sampled in the Hetao Basin, including irrigation water, soils and plants. The annual As (including dissolved As and suspended As) input per m(2) was estimated at 140 and 36.7 mg in site G and site Y, respectively. Topsoils of site G contained relatively higher As content (average 18.8 mg kg(-1)) than those of site Y (13.8 mg kg(-1)). Arsenic content of wheat grains in site G is systematically higher than in the site Y, which were positively correlated with non-specifically sorbed-As and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound As in topsoils. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater led to As accumulation in irrigated soils and the increase in As bioavailability, and subsequently resulted in the increase in As content of wheat grain. It suggested that less problematic water resources should be used for wheat irrigation in order to avoid As accumulation in the soil-plant system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Analytic Hierarchy Process, Catastrophe and Entropy techniques for evaluating groundwater prospect of hard-rock aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer, M. Annie; Jha, Madan K.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is a treasured underground resource, which plays a central role in sustainable water management. However, it being hidden and dynamic in nature, its sustainable development and management calls for precise quantification of this precious resource at an appropriate scale. This study demonstrates the efficacy of three GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques, viz., Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Catastrophe and Entropy in evaluating groundwater potential through a case study in hard-rock aquifer systems. Using satellite imagery and relevant field data, eight thematic layers (rainfall, land slope, drainage density, soil, lineament density, geology, proximity to surface water bodies and elevation) of the factors having significant influence on groundwater occurrence were prepared. These thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights based on the conceptual frameworks of AHP, Catastrophe and Entropy techniques and then they were integrated in the GIS environment to generate an integrated raster layer depicting groundwater potential index of the study area. The three groundwater prospect maps thus yielded by these MCDA techniques were verified using a novel approach (concept of 'Dynamic Groundwater Potential'). The validation results revealed that the groundwater potential predicted by the AHP technique has a pronounced accuracy of 87% compared to the Catastrophe (46% accuracy) and Entropy techniques (51% accuracy). It is concluded that the AHP technique is the most reliable for the assessment of groundwater resources followed by the Entropy method. The developed groundwater potential maps can serve as a scientific guideline for the cost-effective siting of wells and the effective planning of groundwater development at a catchment or basin scale.

  11. Groundwater flow model of the Estonian oil shale mining area towards to innovative system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, H. [Tallinn Univ. of Technology (Estonia). Dept. of Mining

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the Estonian groundwater regime are anticipated as oil shale deposits are mined. This paper described a dynamic groundwater flow model used to develop a 3-D groundwater elevation map of the Estonian oil shale mining area. The model was used to provide preliminary estimations of water inflow into the working underground mine areas. The model included 9 closed underground mines, 5 active mine sites, and 2 small open-cast sites. The closed mine sites were filled with water flowing in from the working mine sites. New mines and dewatering programs are planned for the future. A database from observation wells installed within the Keila-Kukruse aquifer was used to extract outputs and determine time steps. The model included 35 pumping stations from the active mine sites. The hydraulic properties for each model layer were defined in 4 model zones. Results of the model showed higher water in-flows from the closed underground sites than earlier predictions had anticipated. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. Groundwater quality in the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie; Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 6 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 13 percent. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 3 percent of the study area.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Coastal Lowlands aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 12 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 18 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high or moderate concentrations in the study area.

  14. Groundwater Characteristic and Fresh Water Supplying System of the East Slope Merapi Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Priyana

    2004-01-01

    The result of the study shows that the quality of groundwater in every morphological unit is good enough, but in general the contents of element Ca, Mg, N03, CI, SO4, HCO3 shows that the lower the region is, the higher the content of the element . But if it is seen from the depth of its groundwater, so that the fluvial volcanic plain is the shallowest, then the fluvial volcanic foot plain and the last the volcanic foot area. Supplying system of fresh water, which derived from the dominant of well water, is especially used in morphological unit in fluvial "volcanic foot plain. The spring water is used by the population in the morphological unit in volcanic foot plain and then in morphological unit of fluvial volcanic foot plain. The population uses much rainwater in the morphological unit of volcanic foot plain.

  15. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  16. LUMPED: a Visual Basic code of lumped-parameter models for mean residence time analyses of groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, N. N.; Bayari, C. S.

    2003-02-01

    A Microsoft ® Visual Basic 6.0 (Microsoft Corporation, 1987-1998) code of 15 lumped-parameter models is presented for the analysis of mean residence time in aquifers. Groundwater flow systems obeying plug and exponential flow models and their combinations of parallel or serial connection can be simulated by these steady-state models which may include complications such as bypass flow and dead volume. Each model accepts tritium, krypton-85, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) as environmental tracer. Retardation of gas tracers in the unsaturated zone and their degradation in the flow system may also be accounted for. The executable code has been tested to run under Windows 95 or higher operating systems. The results of comparisons between other comparable codes are discussed and the limitations are indicated.

  17. Connotation and denotation of the groundwater system%地下水系统的内涵与外延

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 贾晓鹏; 曹永国; 王秀辉

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of introducing general system theory and method, this paper analyzes the limitation of clas-sic groundwater aquifer system and groundwater flow system in their meaning and content. The concepts of groundwater aquifer system and the groundwater flow system manifest more the integrity and overall view of the system theory, and do not reflect the basic idea and method of the system theory. In view of this, the paper gives a reasonable groundwater system concept which can more conform to general system theory concept, so as to rede-fine the connotation and research content of groundwater system, therefore enriching and developing the ground-water system theory.%  在介绍一般系统论思想与方法的基础上,分析了经典的地下水含水系统与地下水流动系统在内涵与研究内容上的局限性。地下水含水系统和地下水流动系统的概念更多的体现了系统论中整体性和全局性的观点,并没有体现系统论的基本思想与方法。鉴此,给出了更符合一般系统论系统概念的地下水系统概念,以重新界定地下水系统的内涵与研究内容,从而丰富与发展地下水系统理论。

  18. Advances in Dynamic Transport of Organic Contaminants in Karst Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Vesper, D.; Alshawabkeh, A.; Hellweger, F.

    2011-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems develop in soluble rocks such as limestone, and are characterized by high permeability and well-developed conduit porosity. These systems provide important freshwater resources for human consumption and ecological integrity of streams, wetlands, and coastal zones. The same characteristics that make karst aquifers highly productive make them highly vulnerable to contamination. As a result, karst aquifers serve as an important route for contaminants exposure to humans and wildlife. Transport of organic contaminants in karst ground-water occurs in complex pathways influenced by the flow mechanism predominating in the aquifer: conduit-flow dominated systems tend to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge point without much attenuation; diffuse-flow systems, on the other hand, can cause significant solute retardation and slow movement. These two mechanisms represent end members of a wide spectrum of conditions found in karst areas, and often a combination of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms is encountered, where both flow mechanisms can control the fate and transport of contaminants. This is the case in the carbonate aquifers of northern Puerto Rico. This work addresses advances made on the characterization of fate and transport processes in karst ground-water systems characterized by variable conduit and/or diffusion dominated flow under high- and low-flow conditions. It involves laboratory-scale physical modeling and field-scale sampling and historical analysis of contaminant distribution. Statistical analysis of solute transport in Geo-Hydrobed physical models shows the heterogeneous character of transport dynamics in karstic units, and its variability under different flow regimes. Field-work analysis of chlorinated volatile organic compounds and phthalates indicates a large capacity of the karst systems to store and transmit contaminants. This work is part of the program "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination

  19. A method of groundwater quality assessment based on fuzzy network-CANFIS and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, V.; Khaleghi, M. R.; Sebghati, M.

    2016-12-01

    The process of water quality testing is money/time-consuming, quite important and difficult stage for routine measurements. Therefore, use of models has become commonplace in simulating water quality. In this study, the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was used to simulate groundwater quality. Further, geographic information system (GIS) was used as the pre-processor and post-processor tool to demonstrate spatial variation of groundwater quality. All important factors were quantified and groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed. The proposed model was trained and validated by taking a case study of Mazandaran Plain located in northern part of Iran. The factors affecting groundwater quality were the input variables for the simulation, whereas GWQI index was the output. The developed model was validated to simulate groundwater quality. Network validation was performed via comparison between the estimated and actual GWQI values. In GIS, the study area was separated to raster format in the pixel dimensions of 1 km and also by incorporation of input data layers of the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model; the geo-referenced layers of the effective factors in groundwater quality were earned. Therefore, numeric values of each pixel with geographical coordinates were entered to the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model and thus simulation of groundwater quality was accessed in the study area. Finally, the simulated GWQI indices using the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model were entered into GIS, and hence groundwater quality map (raster layer) based on the results of the network simulation was earned. The study's results confirm the high efficiency of incorporation of neuro-fuzzy techniques and GIS. It is also worth noting that the general quality of the groundwater in the most studied plain is fairly low.

  20. Groundwater flow dynamics in the complex aquifer system of Gidabo River Basin (Ethiopian Rift): a multi-proxy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechal, Abraham; Birk, Steffen; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra; Kebede, Seifu

    2017-03-01

    Hydrochemical and isotope data in conjunction with hydraulic head and spring discharge observations were used to characterize the regional groundwater flow dynamics and the role of the tectonic setting in the Gidabo River Basin, Ethiopian Rift. Both groundwater levels and hydrochemical and isotopic data indicate groundwater flow from the major recharge area in the highland and escarpment into deep rift floor aquifers, suggesting a deep regional flow system can be distinguished from the shallow local aquifers. The δ18O and δ2H values of deep thermal (≥30 °C) groundwater are depleted relative to the shallow (floor. Based on the δ18O values, the thermal groundwater is found to be recharged in the highland around 2,600 m a.s.l. and on average mixed with a proportion of 30 % shallow groundwater. While most groundwater samples display diluted solutions, δ13C data of dissolved inorganic carbon reveal that locally the thermal groundwater near fault zones is loaded with mantle CO2, which enhances silicate weathering and leads to anomalously high total dissolved solids (2,000-2,320 mg/l) and fluoride concentrations (6-15 mg/l) exceeding the recommended guideline value. The faults are generally found to act as complex conduit leaky barrier systems favoring vertical mixing processes. Normal faults dipping to the west appear to facilitate movement of groundwater into deeper aquifers and towards the rift floor, whereas those dipping to the east tend to act as leaky barriers perpendicular to the fault but enable preferential flow parallel to the fault plane.

  1. Interaction between shallow groundwater, saline surface water and nutrient discharge in a seasonal estuary: the Swan-Canning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderfelt, William R.; Turner, Jeffrey V.

    2001-09-01

    The Swan and Canning Rivers converge to form an estuary that is seasonally forced by wet winter and dry summer conditions. The estuary is also tidally forced due to its contact with the Indian Ocean. The perception that the occurrence of nuisance algal blooms has increased in frequency and severity in recent years has prompted the present investigation into the interaction of the shallow groundwater system with the Swan-Canning Estuary. The extent to which this interaction contributes to nutrient delivery to the river is a focus of the work.Groundwater interaction with the upper reaches of the Swan River is shown to occur at three length scales: (i) the scale of the river-bed sediments (i.e. 1000 m). Two-dimensional groundwater flow modelling in plan covering the regionally advected groundwater flow domain of the upper Swan River Estuary from the Causeway to Guildford shows that there is a net groundwater discharge to the Swan River of groundwater discharge of about 80 000 m3/day, or about 29 million m3/year. Between 1987 and 1996, the average surface tributary inflow to the Swan River was about 460 million m3/year. Thus groundwater discharge contributed approximately 6% of the total annual river flow. This percentage is clearly small in comparison to the total river flow. However, in the six months from November to April in summer, tributary flow into the Swan River declines sharply to an average total of approximately 12 million m3. Groundwater discharge during this six-month period is approximately 14 million m3 or about 55% of the surface tributary flow, and thus groundwater is a significant component of the total inflow to the Swan-Canning Estuary during this period. Nutrient concentrations, particularly ammonium, within the sediment pore fluids underlying the river are very high relative to concentrations in the river, such that groundwater discharge rates of this magnitude are capable of introducing significant nutrient loadings to the river. The nitrogen

  2. Groundwater Flow Model of Göksu Delta Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Çelik, Mehmet; Arslan, Şebnem; Engin, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    Like many other coastal areas, Göksu Delta (Mersin-Silifke, Southern Turkey) is a preferred place for human settlement especially due to its productive farmlands and water resources. The water dependent ecosystem in Göksu delta hosts about 332 different plant species and 328 different bird species besides serving for human use. Göksu Delta has been declared as Special Environmental Protection Zone, Wildlife Protection Area, and RAMSAR Convention for Wetlands of International Importance area. Unfortunately, rising population, agricultural and industrial activities cause degradation of water resources both by means of quality and quantity. This problem also exists for other wetlands around the world. It is necessary to prepare water management plans by taking global warming issues into account to protect water resources for next generations. To achieve this, the most efficient tool is to come up with groundwater management strategies by constructing groundwater flow models. By this aim, groundwater modeling studies were carried out for Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system. As a first and most important step in all groundwater modeling studies, geological and hydrogeological settings of the study area have been investigated. Göksu Delta, like many other deltaic environments, has a complex structure because it was formed with the sediments transported by Göksu River throughout the Quaternary period and shaped throughout the transgression-regression periods. Both due to this complex structure and the lack of observation wells penetrating deep enough to give an idea of the total thickness of the delta, it was impossible to reveal out the hydrogeological setting in a correct manner. Therefore, six wells were drilled to construct the conceptual hydrogeological model of Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system. On the basis of drilling studies and slug tests that were conducted along Göksu Delta, hydrostratigraphic units of the delta system have been obtained. According to

  3. Interests of long-term hydrogeological observatories for characterizing and modelling heterogeneous groundwater systems at multiple temporal and spatial scales: the example of Ploemeur, a crystalline rock aquifer (Brittany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Olivier; Longuervergne, Laurent; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Lavenant, Nicolas; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Schuite, Jonathan; Labasque, Thierry; Aquilina, Luc; Davy, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing groundwater flows and surface interactions in heterogeneous groundwater systems such as crystalline fractured rock is often extremely complex. In particular, hydraulic properties are highly variable while groundwater chemical properties may vary both in space and time, especially due to the impact of groundwater abstraction. Here, we show the interest of hydrological observatories and long-term monitoring for characterizing hydrological processes occurring in a crystalline rock aquifer. We present results from the site of Ploemeur (French Brittany) that belongs to the network of hydrogeological sites H+ and the research infrastructure OZCAR, and where interdisciplinary and integrated research at multiple temporal and spatial scales has been developed for almost twenty years. This outstandingly heterogeneous crystalline rock aquifer is also used for groundwater supply since 1991. In particular, we show how cross-borehole flowmeter tests, pumping tests and a frequency domain analysis of groundwater levels allow quantifying the hydraulic properties of the aquifer at different scales. In addition, groundwater temperature evolution was used as an excellent tracer for characterizing groundwater flow. At the site scale, measurements of ground surface deformation through long-base tiltmeters provide robust estimates of aquifer storage and allow identifying the active structures, including those acting during recharge process. Finally, a numerical model of the watershed scale that combines hydraulic data and groundwater ages confirms the geometry of this complex aquifer and the consistency of the different datasets. In parallel, this hydrological observatory is also used for developing hydrogeophysical methods and to characterize groundwater transport and biogeochemical reactivity in the sub-surface. The Ploemeur hydrogeological observatory is a good example of the interest of focusing research activities on a site during long-term as it provides a thorough

  4. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Brown, Dexter W.; Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    During March–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, collected source-water samples from 60 municipal supply wells in the Houston area. These data were collected as part of an ongoing study to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring contaminants (selected trace elements and radionuclides) in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. In the summers of 2007 and 2008, a reconnaissance-level survey of these constituents in untreated water from 28 municipal supply wells was completed in the Houston area. Included in this report are the complete analytical results for 47 of the 60 samples collected in 2010—those results which were received from the laboratories and reviewed by the authors as of December 31, 2010. All of the wells sampled were screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system; 22 were screened entirely in the Evangeline aquifer, and the remaining 25 wells contained screened intervals that intersected both Evangeline and Chicot aquifers. The data documented in this report were collected as part of an ongoing study to characterize source-water-quality conditions in untreated groundwater prior to drinking-water treatment. An evaluation of contaminant occurrence in source water provides background information regarding the presence of a contaminant in the environment. Because source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations, the water-quality results documented by this report represent the quality of the source water, not the quality of finished drinking water provided to the public.

  5. Multimedia model of atrazine in plant-soil-groundwater system with a fugacity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C M; Lei, Z F; Wang, X J; Gong, A J; Zheng, H H

    2001-10-01

    The application of atrazine in China during the last ten years has led to some environmental problems. In this paper, the multimedia model of atrazine in soil-plant-groundwater system at Baiyangdian Lake area in Northern China was established using a fugacity approach, and verified with observed values. The model involved 7 environmental compartments which are air, groundwater, soil, corn roots, corn stem, corn leaf and kernel of corn. The results showed that the relative errors between calculated and observed values have a mean value of 24.7%, the highest value is 48% and the lowest value is 1.4%. All these values indicated that this multimedia model can be used to simulate the environmental fate of atrazine. Both the calculated and observed values of concentrations of atrazine in plant compartments are in the following order: in corn roots > in corn stem > in kernel of corn > in corn leaf, it exhibited a good regularity. The prediction results indicated that concentrations of atrazine in the groundwater and kernel of corn will override the limitation of 3 micrograms/L and 0.05 mg/kg respectively.

  6. Using Decision Support System to Find Suitable Sites for Groundwater Artificial Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, D.; Winter, C. L.; Kheirkhah Zarkesh, M. M.; Moradi, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Some parts of Iran are considered as one of the driest regions of the world, where water is a limiting factor for lasting life therefore using seasonal floodwaters is very important in these arid regions. On the other hand, special attention has been paid to artificial groundwater recharge in these regions. Floodwater spreading on the permeable terrain is one of the flood control and utilization methods. Determination of appropriate site for water spreading is one of the most important stages of this project. Parameters considered in the selection of groundwater artificial recharge locations are diverse and complex. These factors consist of earth sciences (geology, geomorphology and soils), hydrology (runoff, sediment yield, infiltration and groundwater conditions) and socio-economic aspects (irrigated agriculture, flood damage mitigation, environment, job creation and so on). Hence, decision making depends on criteria of diverse nature. The goal of this study is defining a Decision Support System for floodwater site selection in Shahriary area. Four main criteria were selected in this research which are floodwater characters, infiltration, water applications and flood damage. In order to determine the weight of factors, Analytical Hierarchy Process was used. The results showed that soil texture and floodwater volume of infiltration are the most important factors. After providing output maps which had been defined in five scenarios, Kappa Index was used to evaluate the model. Based on the obtained results, the maps showed an acceptable agreement with control zones.

  7. A research on grey numerical imitation and modeling of groundwater seepage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qiang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Jiao Jiujiu, Grey hydrogeologic system analysis and time series model, Survey Science and Technology (in Chinese), 1987,(10): 39-43.[2]Li Shuwen, Wang Baolai, Xiao Guoqiang, A compound model of grey and periodic scrape and its application in groundwater prediction, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 246-251.[3]Wang Qingyin, Li Shuwen, Grey distributed parameter model and groundwater analog, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 66-70.[4]Guo Chunqing, Xia Riyuan, Liu Zhenglin, Gray Systematic Theory and Methodological Study of Krast Groundwater Resources Evaluation (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 3-60.[5]Wang Qingyin, Liu Kaidi, The Mathematical Method of Grey Systematic Theory and Its Application (in Chinese), Chengdu: Publishing House of Southwestern China University of Communication, 1990, 23-27.[6]Wang Qingyin, Wu Heqing, The concept of grey number and its property, in Proceedings of NAFIPS98, USA, 1998,45-49.[7]Givoli, D., Doukhovni, I., Finite element programming approach for contact problems with geometrical nonlinearity, Computers and Structures, 1996, (8): 31-41.[8]Li Shuwen, Wang Zhiqiang, Wu Qiang, The superiority of storage-centered finite element method in solving seepage problem, Coal Geology and Exploration (in Chinese), 1999, (5): 46-49.

  8. Regional Groundwater Processes and Flow Dynamics from Age Tracer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike K.; Matthews, Abby

    2016-04-01

    Age tracers are now used in New Zealand on regional scales for quantifying the impact and lag time of land use and climate change on the quantity and quality of available groundwater resources within the framework of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014. Age tracers provide measurable information on the dynamics of groundwater systems and reaction rates (e.g. denitrification), essential for conceptualising the regional groundwater - surface water system and informing the development of land use and groundwater flow and transport models. In the Horizons Region of New Zealand, around 200 wells have tracer data available, including tritium, SF6, CFCs, 2H, 18O, Ar, N2, CH4 and radon. Well depths range from shallower wells in gravel aquifers in the Horowhenua and Tararua districts, and deeper wells in the aquifers between Palmerston North and Wanganui. Most of the groundwater samples around and north of the Manawatu River west of the Tararua ranges are extremely old (>100 years), even from relatively shallow wells, indicating that these groundwaters are relatively disconnected from fresh surface recharge. The groundwater wells in the Horowhenua tap into a considerably younger groundwater reservoir with groundwater mean residence time (MRT) of 10 - 40 years. Groundwater along the eastern side of the Tararua and Ruahine ranges is significantly younger, typically groundwater recharge rates, as deduced from groundwater depth and MRT, are extremely low in the central coastal area, consistent with confined groundwater systems, or with upwelling of old groundwater close to the coast. Very low vertical recharge rates along the Manawatu River west of the Manawatu Gorge indicate upwelling groundwater conditions in this area, implying groundwater discharge into the river is more likely here than loss of river water into the groundwater system. High recharge rates observed at several wells in the Horowhenua area and in the area east of the Tararua and

  9. A studies on characteristics of groundwater system in discontinuous rockmass for evaluation of safety on disposal site of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Kim, Kyu Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Lee, Chee Hyeong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    This study contains the development of numerical model of groundwater system and its application for the evaluation of safety in disposal site of radioactive waste. Through the identification of hydraulic properties, characteristics of discontinuity and selection of discontinuity model around LPG underground storage facility, the application of continuum model and discrete fracture network model was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater flow and solute transport.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrostratigraphical modelling to support evaluation of recharge and saltwater intrusion in a coastal groundwater system in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion is generally related to seawater-level rise or induced intrusion due to excessive groundwater extraction in coastal aquifers. However, the hydrogeological heterogeneity of the subsurface plays an important role in (non-)intrusion as well. Local hydrogeological conditions for recharge and saltwater intrusion are studied in a coastal groundwater system in Vietnam where geological formations exhibit highly heterogeneous lithologies. A three-dimensional (3D) hydrostratigraphic...

  11. New insights into nitrate dynamics in a karst groundwater system gained from in situ high-frequency optical sensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, S. P.; Musgrove, M.; Slattery, R. N.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding nitrate dynamics in groundwater systems as a function of climatic conditions, especially during contrasting patterns of drought and wet cycles, is limited by a lack of temporal and spatial data. Nitrate sensors have the capability for making accurate, high-frequency measurements of nitrate in situ, but have not yet been evaluated for long-term use in groundwater wells. We measured in situ nitrate continuously in two groundwater monitoring wells -one rural and one urban-located in the recharge zone of a productive karst aquifer in central Texas in order to resolve changes that occur over both short-term (hourly to daily) and long-term (monthly to yearly) periods. Nitrate concentrations, measured as nitrate-nitrogen in milligrams per liter (mg/L), during drought conditions showed little or no temporal change as groundwater levels declined. During aquifer recharge, extremely rapid changes in concentration occurred at both wells as documented by hourly data. At both sites, nitrate concentrations were affected by recharging surface water as evidenced by nitrate concentrations in groundwater recharge (0.8-1.3 mg/L) that were similar to previously reported values for regional recharging streams. Groundwater nitrate concentrations responded differently at urban and rural sites during groundwater recharge. Concentrations at the rural well (approximately 1.0 mg/L) increased as a result of higher nitrate concentrations in groundwater recharge relative to ambient nitrate concentrations in groundwater, whereas concentrations at the urban well (approximately 2.7 mg/L) decreased as a result of the dilution of higher ambient nitrate concentrations relative to those in groundwater recharge. Notably, nitrate concentrations decreased to as low as 0.8 mg/L at the urban site during recharge but postrecharge concentrations exceeded 3.0 mg/L. A return to higher nitrate concentrations postrecharge indicates mobilization of a localized source of elevated nitrate within the

  12. Investigation of geochemical indicators to evaluate the connection between inland and coastal groundwater systems near Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.; Barber, Larry B.; Beisner, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) is a coastal sanctuary on the western side of the Island of Hawai‘i that was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities. KAHO contains a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources and water-related habitat for species that have been declared as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or are candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are dependent on coastal unconfined groundwater in a freshwater-lens system. The coastal unconfined-groundwater system is recharged by local infiltration of rainfall but also may receive recharge from an inland groundwater system containing groundwater impounded to high altitudes. The area inland of and near KAHO is being rapidly urbanized and increased groundwater withdrawals from the inland impounded-groundwater system may affect habitat and water quality in KAHO, depending on the extent of connection between the coastal unconfined groundwater and inland impounded-groundwater. An investigation of the geochemistry of surface-water and groundwater samples in and near KAHO was performed to evaluate the presence or absence of a connection between the inland impounded- and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems in the area. Analyses of major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, and strontium-isotope ratio results from ocean, fishpond, anchialine pool, and groundwater samples were consistent with a linear mixing process between the inland impounded and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems. Stable isotopes of water in many samples from the coastal unconfined-groundwater system require an aggregate recharge altitude that is substantially higher than the boundary between the coastal unconfined and inland impounded systems, a further indication of a hydrologic connection between the two systems. The stable isotope composition of the freshwater

  13. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we provid

  14. Geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems in an urban alluvial aquifer with evaporitic bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Schneider, Eduardo A. [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), C/ Manuel Lasala no. 44, 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); García-Gil, Alejandro, E-mail: agargil@unizar.es [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); GHS, Institute of Environmental Assessment & Water Research (IDAEA), CSIC, Jordi Girona 18–26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Vázquez-Suñè, Enric [GHS, Institute of Environmental Assessment & Water Research (IDAEA), CSIC, Jordi Girona 18–26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sánchez-Navarro, José Á. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    In the last decade, there has been an extensive use of shallow geothermal exploitations in urban environments. Although the thermal interference between exploitations has been recently studied, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the geochemical impacts of those systems on the aquifers where they are installed. Groundwater flow line scale and well-doublet scale research work has been conducted at city scale to quantify the geochemical interaction of shallow geothermal exploitations with the environment. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on data obtained from a monitoring network specifically designed to control and develop aquifer policies related to thermal management of the aquifer. The geochemical impacts were evaluated from a thermodynamic point of view by means of saturation index (SI) calculations with respect to the different mineral species considered in the system. The results obtained indicate limited geochemical interaction with the urban environment in most of the situations. However, there are some cases where the interaction of the groundwater heat pump installations with the evaporitic bedrock resulted in the total disablement of the exploitation system operation wells. The application of the tool proposed proved to be pragmatic in the evaluation of geochemical impacts. Injection of water into the aquifer can trigger an important bedrock gypsum and halite dissolution process that is partly responsible for scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain in the vicinity of injection wells. - Highlights: • We studied geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems. • We have sampled a monitoring network in an energetically exploited urban aquifer. • A limited geochemical interaction has been found in most of the exploitations. • Reinjection into the aquifer produces an important bedrock gypsum dissolution. • Scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain have been observed.

  15. Development of a numerical model to simulate groundwater flow in the shallow aquifer system of Assateague Island, Maryland and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Gesch, Dean B.; Carlson, Carl S.

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed for Assateague Island in eastern Maryland and Virginia to simulate both groundwater flow and solute (salt) transport to evaluate the groundwater system response to sea-level rise. The model was constructed using geologic and spatial information to represent the island geometry, boundaries, and physical properties and was calibrated using an inverse modeling parameter-estimation technique. An initial transient solute-transport simulation was used to establish the freshwater-saltwater boundary for a final calibrated steady-state model of groundwater flow. This model was developed as part of an ongoing investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey Climate and Land Use Change Research and Development Program to improve capabilities for predicting potential climate-change effects and provide the necessary tools for adaptation and mitigation of potentially adverse impacts.

  16. Hydrogeological Framework Model for Dhaka Regional Groundwater Flow System (DGFS), Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Abm; Marandi, Andres; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The hydrogeology of the Dhaka Regional Groundwater Flow System (DGFS) is located in central Bangladesh, consisting of sediment accumulates from the Ganges and Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) river systems. The DGFS system is stratigraphically and structurally complex and subjected to a variety of structural disruption. These sediment deposits form a complex, three-dimensional (3D) framework that can be subdivided into aquifers and confining units on the basis of their ability to store and transmit water. The aquifer systems in this region are geologically controlled and depend on the sedimentary characteristics of the depositional environment and related parameters. More than 20 years of ground-water flow modeling of the DGFS has produced a succession of models that represent the regional hydrogeology and groundwater flow system. However, incorporation of a geologic framework in the models with different geologic data sets or subsurface interpretation is often missing. Therefore, such incorporation of geological and sedimentological information within the modeling framework could increase model calibration. The separate geological structure of the Dhaka region is studied yet detailed spatial and depth variables of geological and sedimentological information is still not evident in the hydrogeological framework. In this background, the objective of the paper is therefore to incorporate the geological information into the hydrogeological framework model and advance the approach of hydrogeology for the DGFS. We have used the concept of the Hydrogeologic Unit (HGU) - the sediment and deposits formation of the hydrostratigraphic framework for a groundwater flow system. The quaternary sedimentation processes of DGFS were subdivided into different cycles based on sea-level changes and Carbon-14 dating. The subdivisions are called 1a, 1b, 2 and 3 which correspond to high stand fluvial sequences (10-0 ka BP), Transgressive Tract/ low stand (20-10 ka BP), pre lows stand deposits

  17. Uncertainty quantification of surface-water/groundwater exchange estimates in large wetland systems using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Metz, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Most watershed studies include observation-based water budget analyses to develop first-order estimates of significant flow terms. Surface-water/groundwater (SWGW) exchange is typically assumed to be equal to the residual of the sum of inflows and outflows in a watershed. These estimates of SWGW exchange, however, are highly uncertain as a result of the propagation of uncertainty inherent in the calculation or processing of the other terms of the water budget, such as stage-area-volume relations, and uncertainties associated with land-cover based evapotranspiration (ET) rate estimates. Furthermore, the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchanges can be magnified in large wetland systems that transition from dry to wet during wet periods. Although it is well understood that observation-based estimates of SWGW exchange are uncertain it is uncommon for the uncertainty of these estimates to be directly quantified. High-level programming languages like Python can greatly reduce the effort required to (1) quantify the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchange in large wetland systems and (2) evaluate how different approaches for partitioning land-cover data in a watershed may affect the water-budget uncertainty. We have used Python with the Numpy, Scipy.stats, and pyDOE packages to implement an unconstrained Monte Carlo approach with Latin Hypercube sampling to quantify the uncertainty of monthly estimates of SWGW exchange in the Floral City watershed of the Tsala Apopka wetland system in west-central Florida, USA. Possible sources of uncertainty in the water budget analysis include rainfall, ET, canal discharge, and land/bathymetric surface elevations. Each of these input variables was assigned a probability distribution based on observation error or spanning the range of probable values. The Monte Carlo integration process exposes the uncertainties in land-cover based ET rate estimates as the dominant contributor to the uncertainty in SWGW exchange estimates. We will discuss

  18. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.

  19. Study of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the DRASTIC method coupled with a geographic information system (GIS): application to groundwater Beni Amir, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouz, Najat; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is the condition of all life on Earth for its vital role in the survival of living beings and in the social, economic and technological development. The Groundwater, as the surface water, is increasingly threatened by agricultural and industrial pollution. In this respect, the groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution is a very valuable tool for resource protection, management of its quality and uses it in a sustainable way. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the study area, Beni Amir, located in the first irrigated perimeter of Morocco, Tadla, using the DRASTIC method (depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of Vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity), and assessing the impact of each parameter on the DRASTIC vulnerability index by a sensitivity analysis. This study also highlights the role of geographic information systems (GIS) in assessing vulnerability. The Vulnerability index is calculated as the sum of product of ratings and weights assigned to each of the parameter DRASTIC. The results revealed four vulnerability classes, 7% of the study area has a high vulnerability, 31% are moderately vulnerable, 57% have a low vulnerability and 5% are of very low vulnerability.

  20. Hydrological and geochemical processes constraining groundwater salinity in wetland areas related to evaporitic (karst) systems. A case study from Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Márquez, J. M.; Barberá, J. A.; Andreo, B.; Mudarra, M.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic evolution of groundwater in an evaporite karst plateau (including wetland areas and saline to hyper-saline springs) located at S Spain was studied. Physicochemical parameters, major ions and stable isotopes were analyzed in rain, brine spring, wetland and leakage water samples, from which the most common mineral saturation indexes were computed and geochemical and isotopic modelling were performed. Results show an apparent relationship between the elevation of brine springs and their water mineralization, indicating that drainage at higher altitude may be associated to gravity-driven flows, since brackish groundwater is isotopically fractionated due to evaporation. On the other hand, the lower altitude springs could drain deeper flows with longer residence time, resulting in highly mineralized and warmer (briny) groundwater. The dissolution of halite and gypsum has proved to be the main geochemical processes, which are favored by the great ionic strength of groundwater. Calcite precipitation occurs in brackish waters draining wetlands, being boosted by common ion effect (when CaSO4 waters are present) and solute concentration caused by evaporation. Modelling results strongly support the hypothesis that most of the selected springs geochemically evolve in a common (S-N) flowpath. The methods used in this research contribute to a better understanding of the hydrogeological processes occurring in the studied evaporitic system, but also in equivalent hydrological environments worldwide.

  1. Review: Satellite-based remote sensing and geographic information systems and their application in the assessment of groundwater potential, with particular reference to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Ismail; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2011-06-01

    Various hydrological, geological and geomorphological factors play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in different terrains. With advances in space technology and the advent of powerful personal computers, techniques for the assessment of groundwater potential have evolved, of which remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are of great significance. The application of these methods is comprehensively reviewed with respect to the exploration and assessment of groundwater potential in consolidated and unconsolidated formations in semi-arid regions, and specifically in India. The process of such assessment includes the collection of remotely sensed data from suitable sensors and the selection of thematic maps on rainfall, geology, lithology, geomorphology, soil, land use/land cover, drainage patterns, slope and lineaments. The data are handled according to their significance with the assignment of appropriate weights and integrated into a sophisticated GIS environment. The requisite remote sensing and GIS data, in conjunction with necessary field investigations, help to identify the groundwater potential zones effectively.

  2. Structure and application of an interface program between a geographic-information system and a ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A computer-program interface between a geographic-information system and a groundwater flow model links two unrelated software systems for use in developing the flow models. The interface program allows the modeler to compile and manage geographic components of a groundwater model within the geographic information system. A significant savings of time and effort is realized in developing, calibrating, and displaying the groundwater flow model. Four major guidelines were followed in developing the interface program: (1) no changes to the groundwater flow model code were to be made; (2) a data structure was to be designed within the geographic information system that follows the same basic data structure as the groundwater flow model; (3) the interface program was to be flexible enough to support all basic data options available within the model; and (4) the interface program was to be as efficient as possible in terms of computer time used and online-storage space needed. Because some programs in the interface are written in control-program language, the interface will run only on a computer with the PRIMOS operating system. (USGS)

  3. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  4. Simulation of Partially Saturated - Saturated Flow in the Caspar Creek E-Road Groundwater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J.; Fisher, J.

    2001-12-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Forest Service has monitored the subsurface hillslope flow of the E-Road swale. The swale is located in the Caspar Creek watershed near Fort Bragg, California. In hydrologic year 1990 a logging road was built across the middle section of the hillslope followed by a total clearcut of the area during the following year. Development of the logging road has resulted in a large build up of subsurface waters upslope of the road. The increase in pore pressures behind the road is of major concern for slope stability and road failure. A conceptual model is developed to describe the movement of water within the E-Road groundwater system. The two-dimensional SUTRA model is used to describe both saturated and partially saturated flow within the system. SUTRA utilizes a finite element and integrated finite difference method to approximate the governing equation for flow. The model appears to reproduce the uniquely different frequency responses within the E-Road groundwater system. A comparison of simulated and historical piezometric responses demonstrates the model's inability to reproduce historical drainage rates. The low rates of simulated drainage are attributed to the absence of pipeflow within the model. Finally, road consolidation is associated with increased water pressures beneath the road bed.

  5. Geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems in an urban alluvial aquifer with evaporitic bedrock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Schneider, Eduardo A; García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñè, Enric; Sánchez-Navarro, José Á

    2016-02-15

    In the last decade, there has been an extensive use of shallow geothermal exploitations in urban environments. Although the thermal interference between exploitations has been recently studied, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the geochemical impacts of those systems on the aquifers where they are installed. Groundwater flow line scale and well-doublet scale research work has been conducted at city scale to quantify the geochemical interaction of shallow geothermal exploitations with the environment. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on data obtained from a monitoring network specifically designed to control and develop aquifer policies related to thermal management of the aquifer. The geochemical impacts were evaluated from a thermodynamic point of view by means of saturation index (SI) calculations with respect to the different mineral species considered in the system. The results obtained indicate limited geochemical interaction with the urban environment in most of the situations. However, there are some cases where the interaction of the groundwater heat pump installations with the evaporitic bedrock resulted in the total disablement of the exploitation system operation wells. The application of the tool proposed proved to be pragmatic in the evaluation of geochemical impacts. Injection of water into the aquifer can trigger an important bedrock gypsum and halite dissolution process that is partly responsible for scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain in the vicinity of injection wells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Steroid estrogens, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other wastewater contaminants in groundwater affected by a residential septic system on cape cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Benotti, M.J.; Yin, H.; Barber, L.B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Rudel, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Septic systems serve approximately 25% of U.S. households and may be an important source of estrogenic and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWC) to groundwater. We monitored several estrogenic OWC, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol mono- and diethoxycarboxylates (NP1EC and NP2EC), the steroid hormones 17??-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, and other OWC such as methylene blue active substances (MBAS), caffeine and its degradation product paraxanthine, and two fluorescent whitening agents in a residential septic system and in downgradient groundwater. E1 and E2 were present predominantly as free estrogens in groundwater, and near-source groundwater concentrations of all OWC were highest in the suboxic to anoxic portion of the wastewater plume, where concentrations of most OWC were similar to those observed in the septic tank on the same day. NP and NP2EC were up to 6- to 30-fold higher, and caffeine and paraxanthine were each 60-fold lower than septic tank concentrations, suggesting net production and removal, respectively, of these constituents. At the most shallow, oxic depth, concentrations of all OWC except for NP2EC were substantially lower than in the tank and in deeper wells. Yet boron, specific conductance, and the sum of nitrate-and ammonia-nitrogen were highest at this shallow depth, suggesting preferential losses of OWC along the more oxic flow lines. As far as 6.0 m downgradient, concentrations of many OWC were within a factor of 2 of near-source concentrations. The results suggest that there is the potential for migration of these OWC, which are unregulated and not routinely monitored, in groundwater. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  7. Flow system boundary by D'Agnese and others (1997) for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the flow-system boundary encompassing the regional ground-water flow model by D'Agnese and others (1997). The boundary encompasses an...

  8. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  9. Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

  10. Analysis of groundwater dynamics in the complex aquifer system of Kazan Trona, Turkey, using environmental tracers and noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sebnem; Yazicigil, Hasan; Stute, Martin; Schlosser, Peter; Smethie, William M.

    2015-02-01

    The Eocene deposits of Kazan Basin in Turkey contain a rare trona mineral which is planned to be extracted by solution mining. The complex flow dynamics and mixing mechanisms as noted from previous hydraulic and hydrochemical data need to be augmented with environmental tracer and noble gas data to develop a conceptual model of the system for the assessment of the impacts of the mining and to develop sustainable groundwater management policies throughout the area. The tracers used include the stable isotopes of water (δ2H, δ18O), δ13C and 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), tritium (3H), the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12, and the noble gases He and Ne. The system studied consists of three aquifers: shallow, middle, and deep. CFC data indicate modern recharge in the shallow system. The estimates of ages through 14C dating for the deeper aquifer system are up to 34,000 years. Helium concentrations cover a wide range of values from 5 × 10-8 to 1.5 × 10-5 cm3 STP/g. 3He/4He ratios vary from 0.09RA to 1.29RA (where RA is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.384 × 10-6), the highest found in water from the shallow aquifer. Mantle-derived 3He is present in some of the samples indicating upward groundwater movement, possibly along a NE-SW-striking fault-like feature in the basin.

  11. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnecki, J.B. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Kroitoru, L. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Ronen, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)]|[Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel); Magaritz, M. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1992-10-01

    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient ({minus}0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient ({minus}0.10) and a 0. 83{minus}meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone.

  12. Shallow Groundwater Temperatures and the Urban Heat Island Effect: the First U.K City-wide Geothermal Map to Support Development of Ground Source Heating Systems Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.; Farr, Gareth J.; Boon, David P.; James, David R.; Williams, Bernard; Newell, Andrew J.

    2015-04-01

    The first UK city-wide heat map is described based on measurements of groundwater from a shallow superficial aquifer in the coastal city of Cardiff, Wales, UK. The UK Government has a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 (Climate Change Act 2008) and low carbon technologies are key to achieving this. To support the use of ground source heating we characterised the shallow heat potential of an urban aquifer to produce a baseline dataset which is intended to be used as a tool to inform developers and to underpin planning and regulation. We exploited an existing network of 168 groundwater monitoring boreholes across the city, recording the water temperature in each borehole at 1m depth intervals up to a depth of 20m. We recorded groundwater temperatures during the coldest part of 2014, and repeat profiling of the boreholes in different seasons has added a fourth dimension to our results and allowed us to characterise the maximum depth of seasonal temperature fluctuation. The temperature profiles were used to create a 3D model of heat potential within the aquifer using GOCAD® and the average borehole temperatures were contoured using Surfer® 10 to generate a 2D thermal resource map to support future assessment of urban Ground Source Heat Pumps prospectively. The average groundwater temperature in Cardiff was found to be above the average for England and Wales (11.3°C) with 90% of boreholes in excess of this figure by up to 4°C. The subsurface temperature profiles were also found to be higher than forecast by the predicted geothermal gradient for the area. Potential sources for heat include: conduction from buildings, basements and sub-surface infrastructure; insulation effects of the urban area and of the geology, and convection from leaking sewers. Other factors include recharge inhibition by drains, localised confinement and rock-water interaction in specific geology. It is likely to be a combination of multiple factors which we are hoping

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas, 1891-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In cooperation with the Harris–Galveston Subsidence District, Fort Bend Subsidence District, and Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and calibrated the Houston Area Groundwater Model (HAGM), which simulates groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2009. Withdrawal of groundwater since development of the aquifer system has resulted in potentiometric surface (hydraulic head, or head) declines in the Gulf Coast aquifer system and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments.

  14. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biase, Cecilia; Carminati, Andrea; Oswald, Sascha E; Thullner, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile

  15. Simulation of groundwater withdrawal scenarios for the Redwall-Muav and Coconino Aquifer Systems of northern and central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.

    2016-09-23

    The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater Flow Model was used to estimate the hydrologic changes, including water-level change and groundwater discharge to streams and springs, that may result from future changes in groundwater withdrawals in and near the Coconino Plateau Water Advisory Council study area, Coconino and Navajo Counties, Arizona. Three future groundwater withdrawal scenarios for tribal and nontribal uses were developed by the Coconino Plateau Water Advisory Council and were simulated for the period representing the years from 2006 through 2105. Scenario 1 assumes no major changes in groundwater use except for increased demand based on population projections. Scenario 2 assumes that a pipeline will provide a source of surface water from Lake Powell to areas near Cameron and Moenkopi that would replace local groundwater withdrawals. Scenario 3 assumes that the pipeline extends to the Flagstaff and Williams areas, and would replace groundwater demands for water in the area.The Coconino Plateau Water Advisory Council withdrawal scenarios primarily influence water levels and groundwater discharge in the Coconino Plateau basin, near the western margin of the Little Colorado River Plateau basin, and the Verde Valley subbasin. Simulated effects of the withdrawal scenarios are superimposed on effects of previous variations in groundwater withdrawals and artificial and incidental recharge. Pre-scenario variations include changes in water-levels in wells; groundwater storage; discharge to streams and springs; and evapotranspiration by plants that use groundwater. Future variations in groundwater discharge and water-levels in wells will continue to occur as a result of both the past and any future changes.Water-level variations resulting from post-2005 stresses, including groundwater withdrawals and incidental and artificial recharge, in the area of the withdrawal scenarios are primarily localized and superimposed on the regional changes caused by variations in

  16. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system in the 4,700 square-mile study area was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The model was developed to gain a better understanding of the groundwater system and to establish a scientific foundation for resource-management decisions. Data and information were collected or obtained from various sources to develop the model. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data were used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Groundwater-quality data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water and rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map, delineate regional groundwater divides, and describe regional groundwater-flow paths.

  17. A biotic Fe0-H2O system for nitrobenzene removal from groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jinhua; Yin, Weizhao; Gu, Jingjing;

    2013-01-01

    Batch experiment was conducted to evaluate the capability of a biotic Fe0-H2O for nitrobenzene (NB) removal from groundwater. In this study, iron dosage was 0.25gL-1 throughout the whole experiment and the Fe0-H2O system was amended with 180mgL-1 VSS of mixed culture. The biotic system was tested...... at low concentrations (50mgL-1 as COD) of organic substrates (e.g., ethanol, glucose and sodium acetate) and different concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and dissolved oxygen. The bio-iron system exhibited higher NB removal rate and more AN production. The increasing order of efficiency of tested......), and nitrate showed more significant suppression on NB removal as compared to sulfate. AN elimination occurred during both sulfate-reducing and nitrate-reducing processes and microorganisms got extra reduction capacity from the degradation of AN to reduce nitrate and sulfate, causing the mineralization of NB...

  18. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  19. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  20. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  1. An Aquifer Storage and Recovery system with reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater resources in El Paso, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhuping

    2005-06-01

    The traditional concept of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) has been emphasized and extensively applied for water resources conservation in arid and semi-arid regions using groundwater systems as introduced in Pyne's book titled Groundwater Recharge and Wells. This paper extends the ASR concept to an integrated level in which either treated or untreated surface water or reclaimed wastewater is stored in a suitable aquifer through a system of spreading basins, infiltration galleries and recharge wells; and part or all of the stored water is recovered through production wells, dual function recharge wells, or by streams receiving increased discharge from the surrounding recharged aquifer as needed. In this paper, the author uses the El Paso Water Utilities (EPWU) ASR system for injection of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer as an example to address challenges and resolutions faced during the design and operation of an ASR system under a new ASR system definition. This new ASR system concept consists of four subsystems: source water, storage space-aquifer, recharge facilities and recovery facilities. Even though facing challenges, this system has successfully recharged approximately 74.7 million cubic meters (19.7 billion gallons) of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer through 10 recharge wells in the last 18 years. This ASR system has served dual purposes: reuse of reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater, and restoration of groundwater by artificial recharge of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer.

  2. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  3. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow...

  4. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  5. Groundwater quality in the alluvial aquifer system of northwest India: New evidence of the extent of anthropogenic and geogenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D J; Krishan, G; MacDonald, A M; Rao, M S

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater depletion has been widely studied in northwest India, but water quality concerns are still poorly constrained. In this study, we explore the hydrochemistry of the top 160m of the aquifer system, through detailed field studies in the Bist-Doab region, considering both anthropogenic and geogenic controls. A detailed comparison is made between sites dominated by urban and agricultural landuse. Salinity, nitrate, chloride and lead concentrations are significantly higher in the shallow (0-50m) groundwater system due to surface anthropogenic contaminant loading from agricultural and urban sources. The widespread occurrence of oxic groundwater within the aquifer system means that denitrification potential is limited and also enhances the mobility of selenium and uranium in groundwater. Geogenic trace elements (e.g. As, Se, F), are generally found at concentrations below WHO guideline drinking water values, however elevated U concentrations (50-70μg/L) are found within the deeper part of the aquifer and shallow urban aquifers associated with higher bicarbonate waters. Higher concentration of Se (10-40μg/L) are found exclusively in the shallow groundwater system where Se is mobilised from soils and transported to depth in the shallow aquifer due to the prevailing oxidising aquifer conditions. New evidence from a range of environmental tracers shows elevated concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants in the deeper part of the aquifer (50-160m deep) and demonstrates vulnerability to vertical migration of contaminants. Continued intensive groundwater abstraction from >100m deep means that water quality risks to the deep aquifer system need to be considered together with water quantity constraints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Global assessment of vulnerability to sea-level rise in topography-limited and recharge-limited coastal groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holly A.; Russoniello, Christopher J.; Byron, Lindsay A.

    2013-04-01

    Impacts of rising sea level on the hydraulic balance between aquifers and the ocean threaten fresh water resources and aquatic ecosystems along many world coastlines. Understanding the vulnerability of groundwater systems to these changes and the primary factors that determine the magnitude of system response is critical to developing effective management and adaptation plans in coastal zones. We assessed the vulnerability of two types of groundwater systems, recharge-limited and topography-limited, to changes caused by sea-level rise over a range of hydrogeologic settings. Vulnerability in this context is defined by the rate and magnitude of salinization of coastal aquifers and changes in groundwater flow to the sea. Two-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport simulations indicate that the response of recharge-limited systems is largely minimal, whereas topography-limited systems are vulnerable for various combinations of permeability, vertical anisotropy in permeability, and recharge. World coastlines were classified according to system type as a vulnerability indicator. Results indicate that approximately 70% of world coastlines may be topography-limited, though variability in hydrogeologic conditions strongly affects classification. Future recharge and sea-level rise scenarios have much less influence on the proportion of vulnerable coastlines than differences in permeability, distance to a hydraulic divide, and recharge, indicating that hydrogeologic properties and setting are more important factors to consider in determining system type than uncertainties in the magnitude of sea-level rise and hydrologic shifts associated with future climate change.

  7. Multimedia model of atrazine in plant-soil-groundwater system with a fugacity approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The application of atrazine in China during the last ten years has led to some environmental problems. In this paper, the multimedia model of atrazine in soil-plant-groundwater system atBaiyangdian Lake area in Northern China was established using a fugacity approach, and verified with observed values. The model involved 7 environmental compartments which are air, groundwater, soil, corn roots, corn stem, corn leaf and kernel of corn. Theresults showed that the relative errors between calculated and observed values have a mean value of 24.7%, the highest value is 48% and the lowest value is 1.4%. All these values indicated thatthis multimedia model can be used to simulate the environmental fate of atrazine. Both the calculated and observed values of conce ntrations of atrazine in plant compartments are in the ollowing order: in corn roots > in corn stem > in kernel of corn > in corn leaf, it exhibited a good regularity. The prediction results indicated that concentrations of atrazine in the roundwater and kernel of corn will override the limitation of 3L and 0.05 mg/kg respectively.

  8. Locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems using embedded optimization and simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi-Azghadi, Seyyed Nasser; Kerachian, Reza

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for optimally locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems in order to identify an unknown pollution source using monitoring data. The methodology is comprised of two different single and multi-objective optimization models, a Monte Carlo analysis, MODFLOW, MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models and a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM). The single-objective optimization model, which uses the results of the Monte Carlo analysis and maximizes the reliability of contamination detection, provides the initial location of monitoring wells. The objective functions of the multi-objective optimization model are minimizing the monitoring cost, i.e. the number of monitoring wells, maximizing the reliability of contamination detection and maximizing the probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. The PSVMs are calibrated and verified using the results of the single-objective optimization model and the Monte Carlo analysis. Then, the PSVMs are linked with the multi-objective optimization model, which maximizes both the reliability of contamination detection and probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. To evaluate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed methodology, it is applied to Tehran Refinery in Iran.

  9. A reactive transport model for the quantification of risks induced by groundwater heat pump systems in urban aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Ayora, Carlos; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Huggenberger, Peter; Gimenez, Ana Cristina

    2016-11-01

    Shallow geothermal resource exploitation through the use of groundwater heat pump systems not only has hydraulic and thermal effects on the environment but also induces physicochemical changes that can compromise the operability of installations. This study focuses on chemical clogging and dissolution subsidence processes observed during the geothermal re-injection of pumped groundwater into an urban aquifer. To explain these phenomena, two transient reactive transport models of a groundwater heat pump installation in an alluvial aquifer were used to reproduce groundwater-solid matrix interactions occurring in a surrounding aquifer environment during system operation. The models couple groundwater flow, heat and solute transport together with chemical reactions. In these models, the permeability distribution in space changes with precipitation-dissolution reactions over time. The simulations allowed us to estimate the calcite precipitation rates and porosity variations over space and time as a function of existent hydraulic gradients in an aquifer as well as the intensity of CO2 exchanges with the atmosphere. The results obtained from the numerical model show how CO2 exolution processes that occur during groundwater reinjection into an aquifer and calcite precipitation are related to hydraulic efficiency losses in exploitation systems. Finally, the performance of reinjection wells was evaluated over time according to different scenarios until the systems were fully obstructed. Our simulations also show a reduction in hydraulic conductivity that forces re-injected water to flow downwards, thereby enhancing the dissolution of evaporitic bedrock and producing subsidence that can ultimately result in a dramatic collapse of the injection well infrastructure.

  10. Key Challenges and Opportunities for Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater in Mega-Irrigation Systems: Lower Indus, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the scope of conjunctive management in the Lower Indus part of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS, and the contribution this could make towards food security and socio-economic development. The total Gross Command Area (GCA of the Lower Indus is 5.92 Mha, with a cultivable command area (CCA of 5.43 Mha, most of which is in Sindh Province. There is a limited use of groundwater in Sindh (about 4.3 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM for two reasons: first, there is a large area where groundwater is saline; and second, there is a high surface irrigation supply to most of the canal commands, e.g., average annual supply to rice command is 1723 mm, close to the annual reference crop evapotranspiration for the area, while there is an additional annual rainfall of about 200 mm. These high irrigation allocations, even in areas where groundwater is fresh, create strong disincentives for farmers to use groundwater. Consequently, areas are waterlogged to the extent of 50% and 70% before and after the monsoon, respectively, which contributes to surface salinity through capillary rise. In Sindh, about 74%–80% of the available groundwater recharge is lost in the form of non-beneficial evaporation. This gives rise to low cropping intensities and yields compared to fresh groundwater areas elsewhere in the IBIS. The drought of 1999–2002 has demonstrated a reduction in waterlogging without any corresponding reduction in crop yields. Therefore, in order to efficiently meet current water requirements of all the sectors, i.e., agriculture, domestic and industrial, an ab initio level of water reallocation and efficient water management, with consideration to groundwater quality and its safe yield, in various areas are recommended. This might systematically reduce the waterlogged areas, support greater cropping intensity than is currently being practiced, and free up water for horizontal expansion, such as in the Thar Desert.

  11. An Improved GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Assimilation System For Estimating Large-Scale Soil Moisture and Shallow Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, M.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission is unique because it provides highly accurate column integrated estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. Major limitations of GRACE-based TWS observations are related to their monthly temporal and coarse spatial resolution (around 330 km at the equator), and to the vertical integration of the water storage components. These challenges can be addressed through data assimilation. To date, it is still not obvious how best to assimilate GRACE-TWS observations into a land surface model, in order to improve hydrological variables, and many details have yet to be worked out. This presentation discusses specific recent features of the assimilation of gridded GRACE-TWS data into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Catchment land surface model to improve soil moisture and shallow groundwater estimates at the continental scale. The major recent advancements introduced by the presented work with respect to earlier systems include: 1) the assimilation of gridded GRACE-TWS data product with scaling factors that are specifically derived for data assimilation purposes only; 2) the assimilation is performed through a 3D assimilation scheme, in which reasonable spatial and temporal error standard deviations and correlations are exploited; 3) the analysis step uses an optimized calculation and application of the analysis increments; 4) a poor-man's adaptive estimation of a spatially variable measurement error. This work shows that even if they are characterized by a coarse spatial and temporal resolution, the observed column integrated GRACE-TWS data have potential for improving our understanding of soil moisture and shallow groundwater variations.

  12. Spatial variability of the response to climate change in regional groundwater systems -- examples from simulations in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Michael S.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Chang, Heejun; Hulbe, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the spatial variability of the response of aquifer systems to climate change in and adjacent to the Cascade Range volcanic arc in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon using downscaled global climate model projections to drive surface hydrologic process and groundwater flow models. Projected warming over the 21st century is anticipated to shift the phase of precipitation toward more rain and less snow in mountainous areas in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in smaller winter snowpack and in a shift in the timing of runoff to earlier in the year. This will be accompanied by spatially variable changes in the timing of groundwater recharge. Analysis of historic climate and hydrologic data and modeling studies show that groundwater plays a key role in determining the response of stream systems to climate change. The spatial variability in the response of groundwater systems to climate change, particularly with regard to flow-system scale, however, has generally not been addressed in the literature. Here we simulate the hydrologic response to projected future climate to show that the response of groundwater systems can vary depending on the location and spatial scale of the flow systems and their aquifer characteristics. Mean annual recharge averaged over the basin does not change significantly between the 1980s and 2080s climate periods given the ensemble of global climate models and emission scenarios evaluated. There are, however, changes in the seasonality of groundwater recharge within the basin. Simulation results show that short-flow-path groundwater systems, such as those providing baseflow to many headwater streams, will likely have substantial changes in the timing of discharge in response changes in seasonality of recharge. Regional-scale aquifer systems with flow paths on the order of many tens of kilometers, in contrast, are much less affected by changes in seasonality of recharge. Flow systems at all spatial scales, however, are likely to reflect

  13. Groundwater-flow model and effects of projected groundwater use in the Ozark Plateaus Aquifer System in the vicinity of Greene County, Missouri - 1907-2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent and historical periods of rapid growth have increased the stress on the groundwater resources in the Ozark aquifer in the Greene County, Missouri area. Historical pumpage from the Ozark aquifer has caused a cone of depression beneath Springfield, Missouri. In an effort to ease its dependence on groundwater for supply, the city of Springfield built a pipeline in 1996 to bring water from Stockton Lake to the city. Rapid population growth in the area coupled with the expanding cone of depression raised concern about the sustainability of groundwater as a resource for future use. A groundwater-flow model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Greene County, Missouri, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to assess the effect that increased groundwater demand is having on the long-term availability of groundwater in and around Greene County, Missouri. Three hydrogeologic units were represented in the groundwater-flow model: the Springfield Plateau aquifer, the Ozark confining unit, and the Ozark aquifer. The Springfield Plateau aquifer is less than 350 feet thick in the model area and generally is a low yield aquifer suitable only for domestic use. The Ozark aquifer is composed of a more than 900-foot thick sequence of dolomite and sandstone in the model area and is the primary aquifer throughout most of southern Missouri. Wells open to the entire thickness of the Ozark aquifer typically yield 1,000 gallons per minute or more. Between the two aquifers is the Ozark confining unit composed of as much as 98 feet of shale and limestone. Karst features such as sinkholes, springs, caves, and losing streams are present in both aquifers, but the majority of these features occur in the Springfield Plateau aquifer. The solution-enlarged fracture and bedding plane conduits in the karst system, particularly in the Springfield Plateau aquifer, are capable of moving large quantities of groundwater through

  14. Sustainability of groundwater supplies in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.

    2016-08-31

    Groundwater is the Nation’s principal reserve of freshwater. It provides about half our drinking water, is essential to food production, and facilitates business and industry in developing economic well-being. Groundwater is also an important source of water for sustaining the ecosystem health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. The decreases in groundwater levels and other effects of pumping that result from large-scale development of groundwater resources have led to concerns about the future availability of groundwater to meet all our Nation’s needs. Assessments of groundwater availability provide the science and information needed by the public and decision makers to manage water resources and use them responsibly.

  15. Fluctuations in groundwater levels related to regional and local withdrawals in the fractured-bedrock groundwater system in northern Wake County, North Carolina, March 2008-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Almanaseer, Naser; McClenney, Bryce; Hinton, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    A study of dewatering of the fractured-bedrock aquifer in a localized area of east-central North Carolina was conducted from March 2008 through February 2009 to gain an understanding of why some privately owned wells and monitoring wells were intermittently dry. Although the study itself was localized in nature, the resulting water-resources data and information produced from the study will help enable resource managers to make sound water-supply and water-use decisions in similar crystalline-rock aquifer setting in parts of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces. In June 2005, homeowners in a subdivision of approximately 11 homes on lots approximately 1 to 2 acres in size in an unincorporated area of Wake County, North Carolina, reported extremely low water pressure and temporarily dry wells during a brief period. This area of the State, which is in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, is undergoing rapid growth and development. Similar well conditions were reported again in July 2007. In an effort to evaluate aquifer conditions in the area of intermittent water loss, a study was begun in March 2008 to measure and monitor water levels and groundwater use. During the study period from March 2008 through February 2009, regular dewatering of the fractured-bedrock aquifer was documented with water levels in many wells ranging between 100 and 200 feet below land surface. Prior to this period, water levels from the 1980s through the late 1990s were reported to range from 15 to 50 feet below land surface. The study area includes three community wells and more than 30 private wells within a 2,000-foot radius of the dewatered private wells. Although groundwater levels were low, recovery was observed during periods of heavy rainfall, most likely a result of decreased withdrawals owing to less demand for irrigation purposes. Similar areal patterns of low groundwater levels were delineated during nine water-level measurement periods from March 2008 through

  16. Chloride in Groundwater and Surface Water in Areas Underlain by the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.; Lorenz, David L.; Arntson, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    time periods from 1991-2004 from 100 basins dominated by forested, agricultural, or urban land in 15 states were analyzed to determine maximum measured chloride concentrations. Samples from 15 sites in east, central, and west-central areas, collected primarily in winter, had chloride concentrations higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended chronic criterion concentration for aquatic life of 230 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of chloride in base-flow samples were predictive of maximum measured chloride concentrations, indicating that inputs of chloride from groundwater and (or) point-source wastewater discharges increase the likelihood of samples exceeding the recommended chronic aquatic criterion. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the density of major roads, potential evapotranspiration, and the percentage of annual runoff from saturated overland flow were significant factors in describing the range of maximum measured chloride concentrations in the basins studied. Chloride loads and yields were determined at 95 surface-water-monitoring stations in basins dominated by forested, agricultural, or urban land. Annual chloride yield was largest in the urban basins (median of 88 tons per square mile) and smallest in the forested basins (median of 6.4 tons per square mile). The median chloride yield in the agricultural basins was 15.4 tons per square mile. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the density of highways (roads in U.S. highway system), the number of major wastewater discharges in the basin, potential evapotranspiration, and urban minus agricultural land area were significant factors in describing the range of average annual chloride yields. Upward trends in chloride loads were apparent in several urban basins for which additional long-term data were available. Increases in chloride loads over time may be related to a variety of factors, including increases in road area and consequent deicing, incr

  17. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  18. Assessment on seasonal variation of groundwater quality of phreatic aquifers - A river basin system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.

    suspended solids (TDS), fluoride and total iron content will help to identify the quality of ground water. Groundwater contamination can often have serious ill ef- fects on human health. Groundwater with low pH values can cause gastrointestinal disorders... is considered as an important parameter for irrigation and industrial purposes. Total dissolved solids help to identify the potability of groundwater. Total iron content may not have direct effects on human health but is of importance due to aesthetic reasons...

  19. Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Lansdale, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial supply. In 1979, ground water in the Lansdale area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and other man-made organic compounds, and in 1989, the area was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) National Priority List as the North Penn Area 6 site. To assist the USEPA in the hydrogeological assessment of the site, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to describe the ground-water system and to determine the effects of changes in the well pumping patterns on the direction of ground-water flow in the Lansdale area. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1995-98 and on results of the simulation of the regional ground-water-flow system by use of a numerical model.Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicate that the sedimentary rock beds strike generally northeast and dip at angles less than 30 degrees to the northwest. The ground-water system is confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths; depth to bedrock commonly is less than 20 feet (6 meters); and depth to water commonly is about 15 to 60 feet (5 to 18 meters) below land surface. Single-well, aquifer-interval-isolation (packer) tests indicate that vertical permeability of the sedimentary rocks is low. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate that the system is heterogeneous and that flow appears primarily in discrete zones parallel to bedding. Preferred horizontal flow along strike was not observed in the aquifer tests for wells open to the pumped interval. Water levels in wells that are open to the pumped interval, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells that do not intersect the pumped interval. A regional potentiometric map based on measured water levels indicates that ground water flows from Lansdale towards discharge

  20. Assessment of hydrochemical processes and groundwater hydrodynamics in a multilayer aquifer system under long-term irrigation condition: A case study of Nefzaoua basin, southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarki, M; Ben Hammadi, M; El Mejri, H; Dassi, L

    2016-04-01

    The hydrochemical and isotopic investigation of the Nefzaoua aquifer system demonstrates that groundwater mineralization in is controlled by natural and anthropogenic processes including water-rock interaction and irrigation return flow. It identifies all of the water bodies that flow within the aquifer system and their circulation patterns. The isotopically depleted paleowaters, identified within the deep and intermediate aquifers, undergo significant enrichment by evaporation during irrigation and recharged the shallow aquifer by return flow. Subsequently, they infiltrate to the intermediate aquifer which receives also rainfall modern recharge.

  1. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  2. Characterizing a shallow groundwater system beneath irrigated sugarcane with electrical resistivity and radon (Rn-222), Puunene, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we use a combination of electrical resistivity profiling and radon (222Rn) measurements to characterize a shallow groundwater system beneath the last remaining, large-scale sugarcane plantation on Maui, Hawaii. Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company has continuously operated a sugarcane...

  3. The backend design of an environmental monitoring system upon real-time prediction of groundwater level fluctuation under the hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Chun; Hong, Yao-Ming; Kan, Yao-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater level represents a critical factor to evaluate hillside landslides. A monitoring system upon the real-time prediction platform with online analytical functions is important to forecast the groundwater level due to instantaneously monitored data when the heavy precipitation raises the groundwater level under the hillslope and causes instability. This study is to design the backend of an environmental monitoring system with efficient algorithms for machine learning and knowledge bank for the groundwater level fluctuation prediction. A Web-based platform upon the model-view controller-based architecture is established with technology of Web services and engineering data warehouse to support online analytical process and feedback risk assessment parameters for real-time prediction. The proposed system incorporates models of hydrological computation, machine learning, Web services, and online prediction to satisfy varieties of risk assessment requirements and approaches of hazard prevention. The rainfall data monitored from the potential landslide area at Lu-Shan, Nantou and Li-Shan, Taichung, in Taiwan, are applied to examine the system design.

  4. Simulation of the shallow groundwater-flow system near Mole Lake, Forest County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Juckem, Paul F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2011-01-01

    The shallow groundwater system near Mole Lake, Forest County, Wis. was simulated using a previously calibrated regional model. The previous model was updated using newly collected water-level measurements and refinements to surface-water features. The updated model was then used to calculate the area contributing recharge for one existing and two proposed pumping locations on lands of the Sokaogon Chippewa Community. Delineated 1-, 5-, and 10-year areas contributing recharge for existing and proposed wells extend from the areas of pumping to the northeast of the pumping locations. Steady-state pumping was simulated for two scenarios: a base pumping scenario using pumping rates that reflect what the Tribe expects to pump and a high pumping scenario, in which the rate was set to the maximum expected from wells installed in this area. In the base pumping scenario, pumping rates of 32 gallons per minute (gal/min; 46,000 gallons per day (gal/d)) from the existing well and 30 gal/min (43,000 gal/d) at each of the two proposed wells were simulated. The high pumping scenario simulated a rate of 70 gal/min (101,000 gal/d) from each of the three pumping wells to estimate of the largest areas contributing recharge that might be expected given what is currently known about the shallow groundwater system. The areas contributing recharge for both the base and high pumping scenarios did not intersect any modeled surface-water bodies; however, the high pumping scenario had a larger areal extent than the base pumping scenario and intersected a septic separator.

  5. Controls on permafrost thaw in a coupled groundwater-flow and heat-transport system: Iqaluit Airport, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojae Ghias, Masoumeh; Therrien, René; Molson, John; Lemieux, Jean-Michel

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and heat transport are used to provide insight into the interaction between shallow groundwater flow and thermal dynamics related to permafrost thaw and thaw settlement at the Iqaluit Airport taxiway, Nunavut, Canada. A conceptual model is first developed for the site and a corresponding two-dimensional numerical model is calibrated to the observed ground temperatures. Future climate-warming impacts on the thermal regime and flow system are then simulated based on climate scenarios proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Under climate warming, surface snow cover is identified as the leading factor affecting permafrost degradation, including its role in increasing the sensitivity of permafrost degradation to changes in various hydrogeological factors. In this case, advective heat transport plays a relatively minor, but non-negligible, role compared to conductive heat transport, due to the significant extent of low-permeability soil close to surface. Conductive heat transport, which is strongly affected by the surface snow layer, controls the release of unfrozen water and the depth of the active layer as well as the magnitude of thaw settlement and frost heave. Under the warmest climate-warming scenario with an average annual temperature increase of 3.23 °C for the period of 2011-2100, the simulations suggest that the maximum depth of the active layer will increase from 2 m in 2012 to 8.8 m in 2100 and, over the same time period, thaw settlement along the airport taxiway will increase from 0.11 m to at least 0.17 m.

  6. Controls on permafrost thaw in a coupled groundwater-flow and heat-transport system: Iqaluit Airport, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojae Ghias, Masoumeh; Therrien, René; Molson, John; Lemieux, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and heat transport are used to provide insight into the interaction between shallow groundwater flow and thermal dynamics related to permafrost thaw and thaw settlement at the Iqaluit Airport taxiway, Nunavut, Canada. A conceptual model is first developed for the site and a corresponding two-dimensional numerical model is calibrated to the observed ground temperatures. Future climate-warming impacts on the thermal regime and flow system are then simulated based on climate scenarios proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Under climate warming, surface snow cover is identified as the leading factor affecting permafrost degradation, including its role in increasing the sensitivity of permafrost degradation to changes in various hydrogeological factors. In this case, advective heat transport plays a relatively minor, but non-negligible, role compared to conductive heat transport, due to the significant extent of low-permeability soil close to surface. Conductive heat transport, which is strongly affected by the surface snow layer, controls the release of unfrozen water and the depth of the active layer as well as the magnitude of thaw settlement and frost heave. Under the warmest climate-warming scenario with an average annual temperature increase of 3.23 °C for the period of 2011-2100, the simulations suggest that the maximum depth of the active layer will increase from 2 m in 2012 to 8.8 m in 2100 and, over the same time period, thaw settlement along the airport taxiway will increase from 0.11 m to at least 0.17 m.

  7. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  8. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-01-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  9. Is artificial recharge promoting microbial activity and biodegradation processes in groundwater systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Ferrer, Carme; Folch, Albert; Gaju, Núria; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Carrasquilla, Marc; Grau-Martínez, Alba; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) represents a strategic tool for managing water resources, especially during scarce periods. On one hand, it can increase water stored in aquifers and extract it when weather conditions do not permit exclusive exploitation of surface resources. On the other, it allows improve water quality due the processes occurring into the soil whereas water crosses vadose zone. Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) conurbation is suffering significant quantitative and qualitative groundwater disturbances. For this reason, Sant Vicenç MAR system, constituted by a sedimentation and an infiltration pond, was constructed in 2009 as the strategic water management infrastructure. Compared with other MAR facilities, this infiltration pond has a reactive bed formed by organic compost and local material. The objective is to promote different redox states allowing more and different degradation of chemical compounds than regular MAR systems. In previous studies in the site, physical and hydrochemical parameters demonstrated that there was indeed a degradation of different pollutants. However, to go a step further understanding the different biogeochemical processes and the related degradation processes occurring in the system, we studied the existing microbial communities. So, molecular techniques were applied in water and soil samples in two different scenarios; the first one, when the system was fully operating and the second when the system was not operating during some months. We have specifically compared microbial diversity and richness indexes and both cluster dendrograms obtained from DGGEs analysis made in each sampling campaign.

  10. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  11. A preliminary analysis of the hydrogeological conditions and groundwater flow in some parts of a crystalline aquifer system: Afigya Sekyere South District, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidana, Sandow Mark; Essel, Stephen Kwaku; Addai, Millicent Obeng; Fynn, Obed Fiifi

    2015-04-01

    A steady state groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate the complex groundwater flow pattern in some crystalline aquifer systems in north-central Ghana. The objective was to develop the general geometry of the groundwater system and also estimate spatial variations in the hydraulic conductivity field as part of efforts to thoroughly investigate the general hydrogeology and groundwater conditions of aquifers in the area. The calibrated model was used in a limited fashion to simulate some scenarios of groundwater development in the terrain. The results suggest the dominance of local groundwater flow systems resulting from local variabilities in the hydraulic conductivity field and the topography. Estimated horizontal hydraulic conductivities range between 1.04 m/d and 15.25 m/d, although most of the areas consist of hydraulic conductivities in the range of 1.04 m/d and 5.5 m/d. Groundwater flow is apparently controlled by discrete entities with limited spatial interconnectivities. Recharge rates estimated at calibration range between 4.3% and 13% of the annual rainfall in the terrain. The analysis suggests that under the current recharge rates, the system can sustain increasing groundwater abstraction rates by up to 50% with minimal drawdown in the hydraulic head for the entire terrain. However, with decreasing groundwater recharge as would be expected in the wake of climate change/variability in the area, increased groundwater abstraction by up to 50% can lead to drastic drawdowns by more than 25% if recharge reduces by up to 50% of the current levels. This study strongly recommend the protection of some of the local groundwater recharge areas identified in this study and the promotion of local recharge through the development of dugouts and other conduits to encourage recharge.

  12. Simulation of groundwater flow and hydrologic effects of groundwater withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the Pinelands of southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Emmanuel G.; Nicholson, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system is an important source of present and future water supply in southern New Jersey. Because this unconfined aquifer system also supports sensitive wetland and aquatic habitats within the New Jersey Pinelands (Pinelands), water managers and policy makers need up-to-date information, data, and projections that show the effects of potential increases in groundwater withdrawals on these habitats. Finite-difference groundwater flow models (MODFLOW) were constructed for three drainage basins (McDonalds Branch Basin, 14.3 square kilometers (km2); Morses Mill Stream Basin, 21.63 km2; and Albertson Brook Basin, 52.27 km2) to estimate the effects of potential increases in groundwater withdrawals on water levels and the base-flow portion of streamflow, in wetland and aquatic habitats. Three models were constructed for each drainage basin: a transient model consisting of twenty-four 1-month stress periods (October 2004 through September 2006); a transient model to simulate the 5- to 10-day aquifer tests that were performed as part of the study; and a high-resolution, steady-state model used to assess long-term effects of increased groundwater withdrawals on water levels in wetlands and on base flow. All models were constructed with the same eight-layer structure. The smallest horizontal cell dimensions among the three model areas were 150 meters (m) for the 24-month transient models, 10 m for the steady-state models, and 3 m for the transient aquifer-test models. Boundary flows of particular interest to this study and represented separately are those for wetlands, streams, and evapotranspiration. The final variables calibrated from both transient models were then used in steady-state models to assess the long-term effects of increased groundwater withdrawals on water levels in wetlands and on base flow. Results of aquifer tests conducted in the three study areas illustrate the effects of withdrawals on water levels in wetlands and on base

  13. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  14. Estimated 2008 groundwater potentiometric surface and predevelopment to 2008 water-level change in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Sarah E.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico have historically been met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Previous studies have indicated that the large quantity of groundwater withdrawal relative to recharge has resulted in water-level declines in the aquifer system throughout the metropolitan area. Analysis of the magnitude and pattern of water-level change can help improve understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies' efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, presents the estimated groundwater potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of the 2008 water year and the estimated changes in water levels between predevelopment and water year 2008 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque and surrounding metropolitan and military areas. Hydrographs from selected wells are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were measured in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone-the interval of the aquifer, about 300 feet below land surface to 1,100 feet or more below land surface, in which production wells generally are screened. Water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The 2008 water year potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level elevation from predevelopment to water year 2008 was calculated. The 2008 water-level contours indicate that the general direction of

  15. Model-data integration for predictive assessment of groundwater reactive transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carniato, L.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the evolution of groundwater contamination is a major concern for society, in particular when investments are made to remediate the contamination. Groundwater reactive transport models are valuable tools to integrate the available measurements in a consistent framework, improving our unde

  16. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  17. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  18. The impact of low-temperature seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) systems on chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater: Modeling of spreading and degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Hartog, N.; Valstar, J.; Post, V.E.A.; Breukelen, B.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater systems are increasingly used for seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) for periodic heating and cooling of buildings. Its use is hampered in contaminated aquifers because of the potential environmental risks associated with the spreading of contaminated groundwater, but positi

  19. An Update on ConSys Including a New LabVIEW FPGA Based LLRF System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Torben; Nielsen, Jørgen S.

    . This system use a National Instruments NI-PCIe7852R DAQ card, which includes an on-board FPGA and are hosted in a standard PC. The fast (50 kHz) amplitude loop has been implemented on the FPGA, whereas the slower tuning and phase loops are implemented in the real-time system. An operator interface including...

  20. Surface water, groundwater and unified 3D-crack network as a triple coupling dynamic system for a river watershed functioning - manifestation in catastrophic floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Tulenev, Nikita; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Arakelian, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    stimulating a trigger mechanism for releasing of groundwater; (ii) the crackness/fracturing structure as a characteristic property for all rocks, being dissecting by totality of cracks/fissures and along which (in the case when a good development crack becomes a fault) a vertical and/or lateral movement (of both groundwater and surface water mass) occurs as a result of excessive strain; (iii) areas of formation and modification in time of groundwater transit system, and especially the modalities for it exit on surface by different factors including tectonic processes under adjustable conditions for both localization of earthquake epicenters/volcanos activity areas and occurring floods in respect of propagating of seismic waves and dislocation of border for lithospheric plates/magma objects in the river basin region; (iv) the way of distribution over surface for water flows/fronts in the further, which can be described by nonlinear hydrodynamic approach, e.g. by different classes of solutions for Korteweg-de Vries equation, associated with observable natural phenomena. 4. Monitoring in dynamics of state of hydrostatic/hydrodynamic pressures in underground aquifers (e.g. by artesian wells in comparison with two databases: before and after the events) is an important factor in assessing of acceptable risk for the events. Combining it with monitoring of seismic activity should allow to make a more detailed forecasting and zoning of potentially dangerous areas for such natural disasters.

  1. Groundwater dynamics in the complex aquifer system of Gidabo River Basin, southern Main Ethiopian Rift: Evidences from hydrochemistry and isotope hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, Abraham; Birk, Steffen; Dietzel, Martin; Winkler, Gerfried; Moggessie, Aberra

    2014-05-01

    Located in the tectonically active Main Ethiopian Rift system, the Gidabo River Basin in Ethiopia has a complex hydrogeological setting. The strong physiographic variation from highland to rift floor, variability in volcanic structures and disruption of lithologies by cross-cutting faults contribute for their complex nature of hydrogeology in the area. Until now, the groundwater dynamics and the impact of the tectonic setting on groundwater flow in this region are not well understood, though the local population heavily depends on groundwater as the major water supply. A combined approach based on hydrochemical and isotopic data was applied to investigate the regional flow dynamics of the groundwater and the impact of tectonic setting. Groundwater evolves from slightly mineralized Ca-Mg-HCO3 on the highland to highly mineralized Na-HCO3 dominating type in the deep rift floor aquifers. δ18O and δD composition of groundwater show a general progressive enrichment from the highland to the rift floor, except in thermal and deep rift floor aquifers. Relatively the thermal and deep rift floor aquifers are depleted and show similar signature to the groundwaters of highland, indicating groundwater inflow from the highland. Correspondingly, rising HCO3 and increasingly enriched signatures of δ 13C points to hydrochemical evolution of DIC and diffuse influx of mantle CO2 into the groundwater system. Thermal springs gushing out along some of the fault zones, specifically in the vicinity of Dilla town, display clear influence of mantle CO2 and are an indication of the role of the faults acting as a conduit for deep circulating thermal water to the surface. By considering the known geological structures of the rift, hydrochemical and isotopic data we propose a conceptual groundwater flow model by characterizing flow paths to the main rift axis. The connection between groundwater flow and the impact of faults make this model applicable to other active rift systems with similar

  2. Mercury speciation and transport via submarine groundwater discharge at a southern California coastal lagoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P.M.; Conaway, C.H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Izbicki, J.A.; Flegal, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    We measured total mercury (Hg T) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in coastal groundwater and seawater over a range of tidal conditions near Malibu Lagoon, California, and used 222Rn-derived estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to assess the flux of mercury species to nearshore seawater. We infer a groundwater-seawater mixing scenario based on salinity and temperature trends and suggest that increased groundwater discharge to the ocean during low tide transported mercury offshore. Unfiltered Hg T (U-Hg T) concentrations in groundwater (2.2-5.9 pM) and seawater (3.3-5.2 pM) decreased during a falling tide, with groundwater U-Hg T concentrations typically lower than seawater concentrations. Despite the low Hg T in groundwater, bioaccumulative MMHg was produced in onshore sediment as evidenced by elevated MMHg concentrations in groundwater (0.2-1 pM) relative to seawater (???0.1 pM) throughout most of the tidal cycle. During low tide, groundwater appeared to transport MMHg to the coast, resulting in a 5-fold increase in seawater MMHg (from 0.1 to 0.5 pM). Similarly, filtered Hg T (F-Hg T) concentrations in seawater increased approximately 7-fold during low tide (from 0.5 to 3.6 pM). These elevated seawater F-Hg T concentrations exceeded those in filtered and unfiltered groundwater during low tide, but were similar to seawater U-Hg T concentrations, suggesting that enhanced SGD altered mercury partitioning and/or solubilization dynamics in coastal waters. Finally, we estimate that the SGD Hg T and MMHg fluxes to seawater were 0.41 and 0.15 nmol m -2 d -1, respectively - comparable in magnitude to atmospheric and benthic fluxes in similar environments. ?? 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Groundwater assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Madan K.; Chowdary, V. M.; Chowdhury, Alivia

    2010-11-01

    An approach is presented for the evaluation of groundwater potential using remote sensing, geographic information system, geoelectrical, and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. The approach divides the available hydrologic and hydrogeologic data into two groups, exogenous (hydrologic) and endogenous (subsurface). A case study in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India), uses six thematic layers of exogenous parameters and four thematic layers of endogenous parameters. These thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights which were normalized by analytic hierarchy process and eigenvector techniques. The layers were then integrated using ArcGIS software to generate two groundwater potential maps. The hydrologic parameters-based groundwater potential zone map indicated that the `good' groundwater potential zone covers 27.14% of the area, the `moderate' zone 45.33%, and the `poor' zone 27.53%. A comparison of this map with the groundwater potential map based on subsurface parameters revealed that the hydrologic parameters-based map accurately delineates groundwater potential zones in about 59% of the area, and hence it is dependable to a certain extent. More than 80% of the study area has moderate-to-poor groundwater potential, which necessitates efficient groundwater management for long-term water security. Overall, the integrated technique is useful for the assessment of groundwater resources at a basin or sub-basin scale.

  4. Fostering assumption-based stress-test thinking in managing groundwater systems: learning to avoid failures due to basic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; El Sawah, Sondoss

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable groundwater resource management can only be achieved if planning processes address the basic dynamics of the groundwater system. Conceptual and distributed groundwater models do not necessarily translate into an understanding of how a plan might operate in reality. Prompted by Australian experiences, `iterative closed-question modelling' has been used to develop a process of iterative dialogue about management options, objectives and knowledge. Simple hypothetical models of basic system dynamics that satisfy agreed assumptions are used to stress-test the ability of a proposed management plan to achieve desired future conditions. Participants learn from models in which a plan succeeds and fails, updating their assumptions, expectations or plan. Their new understanding is tested against further hypothetical models. The models act as intellectual devices that confront users with new scenarios to discuss. This theoretical approach is illustrated using simple one and two-cell groundwater models that convey basic notions of capture and spatial impacts of pumping. Simple extensions can address uncertain climate, managed-aquifer recharge and alternate water sources. Having learnt to address the dynamics captured by these models, participants may be better placed to address local conditions and develop more effective arrangements to achieve management outcomes.

  5. Hydroeconomic modeling of sustainable groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Duncan; Cayar, Mesut; Taghavi, Ali; Mitchell, David; Hatchett, Steve; Howitt, Richard

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, California passed legislation requiring the sustainable management of critically overdrafted groundwater basins, located primarily in the Central Valley agricultural region. Hydroeconomic modeling of the agricultural economy, groundwater, and surface water systems is critically important to simulate potential transition paths to sustainable management of the basins. The requirement for sustainable groundwater use by 2040 is mandated for many overdrafted groundwater basins that are decoupled from environmental and river flow effects. We argue that, for such cases, a modeling approach that integrates a biophysical response function from a hydrologic model into an economic model of groundwater use is preferable to embedding an economic response function in a complex hydrologic model as is more commonly done. Using this preferred approach, we develop a dynamic hydroeconomic model for the Kings and Tulare Lake subbasins of California and evaluate three groundwater management institutions—open access, perfect foresight, and managed pumping. We quantify the costs and benefits of sustainable groundwater management, including energy pumping savings, drought reserve values, and avoided capital costs. Our analysis finds that, for basins that are severely depleted, losses in crop net revenue are offset by the benefits of energy savings, drought reserve value, and avoided capital costs. This finding provides an empirical counterexample to the Gisser and Sanchez Effect.

  6. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the

  7. 32 CFR 37.710 - What standards do I include for purchasing systems of nonprofit organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems of nonprofit organizations? 37.710 Section 37.710 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF... standards do I include for purchasing systems of nonprofit organizations? (a) So as not to force system... governmental organization. (2) 32 CFR 32.40 through 32.49 if the participant is a nonprofit organization...

  8. Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the

  9. Groundwater circulation and utilisation in an unconfined carbonate system - revealing the potential effect of climate change and humankind activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Mádl-Szönyi, Judit

    2016-04-01

    Characteristics of gravitational groundwater flow systems in carbonate regions were presented by Mádl-Szönyi & Tóth (2015) based on theoretical considerations, identification and classification of groundwater flow-related field phenomena and numerical simulation. It was revealed that the changes of flow pattern in carbonate framework attributed to groundwater utilization and/or climate change are more apparent due to the effective hydraulic conductivity of carbonates. Consequently, natural or artificial disturbances of water level propagate farther, deeper and faster in carbonates than in siliciclastic basins. These changes could result in degradation and reorganization of hierarchical flow systems, modification of recharge and discharge areas and even alteration of physicochemical parameters (Mádl-Szönyi & Tóth, 2015). This paper presents the application of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept to the hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary, depicting the flow pattern of the area and to a practical problem of a local study area, conflicts of interest of water supply and water use of a golf course. The question is how will the natural discharge on the golf course be influenced by the planned karst drinking water production well. In addition, the effects of climate change on this conflict were evaluated. We demonstrate the importance of the understanding the appropriate scale in karst studies and illustrate how the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept can help to determine it. For this purpose, the hydrogeological conditions of the study site were examined at different scales. The goals were to define the appropriate scale and reveal the effects of tectonic structures; and give prognoses for the possible impact of a planned drinking water well and climate change on the golf course based on numerical simulation. The study also showed the low geothermal potential of the area.

  10. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  11. Groundwater vulnerability to drought in agricultural watersheds, S. Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jin-Sung; Lee, Byungsun

    2017-04-01

    Drought can be generally defined by a considerable decrease in water availability due to a deficit in precipitation during a significant period over a large area. In South Korea, the severe drought occurred over late spring to early summer during from 2012 to 2015. In this period, precipitation decreased up to 10-40% compared with a normal one, resulting in reduction of stream flow and reservoir water over the country. It led to a shortage of irrigation water that caused great damage to grow rice plants on early stage. Furthermore, drought resulted in a negative effect on groundwater system with decline of its level. Change of the levels significantly reflects intrinsic characteristics of aquifer system. Identifying drought effects on groundwater system is very difficult because change of groundwater level after hydrological events tends to be delayed. Therefore, quantitative assessment on decline of groundwater level in agricultural watersheds plays an essential role to make customized policies for water shortage since groundwater system is directly affected by drought. Furthermore, it is common to analyze the time-series groundwater data from monitoring wells including hydrogeological characteristics in company with meteorological data because drought effects on groundwater system is site-specific. Currently, a total of 364 groundwater monitoring wells including 210 wells for rural groundwater management network(RGMN) and 154 wells for seawater intrusion monitoring network (SIMN) have been operating in agricultural watersheds in S. Korea. To estimate the effect of drought on groundwater system, monthly mean groundwater level data were obtained from RGMN and SIMN during the periods of 2012 to 2015. These data were compared to their past data in company with rainfall data obtained from adjacent weather stations. In 2012 and 2014, mean groundwater level data in the northern part of the country during irrigation season(April to June), when precipitation was recorded

  12. A remotely operated, field deployable tritium analysis system for surface and groundwater measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, P.R.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Beals, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Collins, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.; Neary, M.P. [Center for Applied Isotope Studies, Athens, GA (United States); Peterson, R. [Sampling Systems, Inc., Old Ocean, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A prototype system for the remote, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground waters has been developed at the Savannah River Site through the combined efforts of university, private industry, and government laboratory personnel under a project funded by the DOE/OTD. Using automated liquid scintillation counting techniques, the Field Deployable Tritium Analysis System (FDTAS) has been shown in laboratory and limited field tests to have sufficient sensitivity to measure tritium in water samples at environmental levels (10 Bq/L [{approximately}300 pCi/L] for a 100-minute count) on a near-real time basis. These limits are well below the EPA drinking water standard for tritium at 740 Bq/L (1) and lower than the normal upstream Savannah River tritium concentration of {approximately}40 Bq/L (2). The FDTAS consists of a fixed volume sampler (50 mL), an on-line water purification system, and a stop-flow liquid scintillation counter for detecting tritium in the purified sample. All operations are controlled and monitored by a remote computer using standard telephone line modem communications. The FDTAS offers a cost-effective alternative to the expensive and time-consuming methods of field sample collection and laboratory analyses for tritium in contaminated groundwater.

  13. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dickson, John O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-12

    A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

  14. Simulation of groundwater flow and hydrologic effects of groundwater withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the Pinelands of southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Emmanuel G.; Nicholson, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system is an important source of present and future water supply in southern New Jersey. Because this unconfined aquifer system also supports sensitive wetland and aquatic habitats within the New Jersey Pinelands (Pinelands), water managers and policy makers need up-to-date information, data, and projections that show the effects of potential increases in groundwater withdrawals on these habitats. Finite-difference groundwater flow models (MODFLOW) were constructed for three drainage basins (McDonalds Branch Basin, 14.3 square kilometers (km2); Morses Mill Stream Basin, 21.63 km2; and Albertson Brook Basin, 52.27 km2) to estimate the effects of potential increases in groundwater withdrawals on water levels and the base-flow portion of streamflow, in wetland and aquatic habitats. Three models were constructed for each drainage basin: a transient model consisting of twenty-four 1-month stress periods (October 2004 through September 2006); a transient model to simulate the 5- to 10-day aquifer tests that were performed as part of the study; and a high-resolution, steady-state model used to assess long-term effects of increased groundwater withdrawals on water levels in wetlands and on base flow. All models were constructed with the same eight-layer structure. The smallest horizontal cell dimensions among the three model areas were 150 meters (m) for the 24-month transient models, 10 m for the steady-state models, and 3 m for the transient aquifer-test models. Boundary flows of particular interest to this study and represented separately are those for wetlands, streams, and evapotranspiration. The final variables calibrated from both transient models were then used in steady-state models to assess the long-term effects of increased groundwater withdrawals on water levels in wetlands and on base flow. Results of aquifer tests conducted in the three study areas illustrate the effects of withdrawals on water levels in wetlands and on base

  15. Including natural systems into the system engineering process: benefits to spaceflight and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George

    2014-03-01

    How did we get to the point where we don't have time to be inspired by the wonders of Nature? Our office walls, homes and city streets are so plain that even when we do escape to a retreat with nature all around us, we may be blind to its magnificence. Yet there are many who have applied what can be known of natural systems (NS) to create practical solutions, but often definite applications for them are lacking. Mimicry of natural systems is not only more possible than ever before, but the education and research programs in many major universities are churning out graduates with a real appreciation for Nature's complex integrated systems. What if these skills and perspectives were employed in the teams of systems engineers and the technology developers that support them to help the teams think "outside-the-box" of manmade inventions? If systems engineers (SE) and technology developers regularly asked the question, "what can we learn from Nature that will help us?" as a part of their processes, they would discover another set of potential solutions. Biomimicry and knowledge of natural systems is exploding. What does this mean for systems engineering and technology? Some disciplines such as robotics and medical devices must consider nature constantly. Perhaps it's time for all technology developers and systems engineers to perceive natural systems experts as potential providers of the technologies they need.

  16. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    OpenAIRE

    Venedam, Richard J.; Hartman, Mary J.; Hoffman, Dave A.; Scott R. Burge

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analytical sensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expanded in this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene in monitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfaced with chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installed adjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Si...

  17. Vulnerability of deep groundwater in the Bengal Aquifer System to contamination by arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W.G.; Hoque, M.A.; Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.; Breit, G.N.; Ahmed, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shallow groundwater, the primary water source in the Bengal Basin, contains up to 100 times the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water guideline of 10g l 1 arsenic (As), threatening the health of 70 million people. Groundwater from a depth greater than 150m, which almost uniformly meets the WHO guideline, has become the preferred alternative source. The vulnerability of deep wells to contamination by As is governed by the geometry of induced groundwater flow paths and the geochemical conditions encountered between the shallow and deep regions of the aquifer. Stratification of flow separates deep groundwater from shallow sources of As in some areas. Oxidized sediments also protect deep groundwater through the ability of ferric oxyhydroxides to adsorb As. Basin-scale groundwater flow modelling suggests that, over large regions, deep hand-pumped wells for domestic supply may be secure against As invasion for hundreds of years. By contrast, widespread deep irrigation pumping might effectively eliminate deep groundwater as an As-free resource within decades. Finer-scale models, incorporating spatial heterogeneity, are needed to investigate the security of deep municipal abstraction at specific urban locations. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Ground-Water Capture Zone Delineation of Hypothetical Systems: Methodology Comparison and Real-World Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, J. A.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2003-12-01

    A capture zone is the aquifer volume through which ground-water flows to a pumping well over a given time of travel. Determining a well's capture zone aids in water-supply management by creating an awareness of the water source. This helps ensure sustainable pumping operations and outlines areas where protection from contamination is critical. We are delineating the capture zones of hypothetical conceptual models that resemble the Fairbanks, Alaska floodplain both in aquifer parameters and boundary conditions. We begin with a very simple hydrogeologic system and gradually add complexity such as heterogeneity, anisotropy, multiple wells, and zones of permafrost. Commonly-used delineation methods are applied to each case. These include calculated fixed-radius, analytical and numerical models. The calculated fixed-radius method uses a mathematical equation with several simplifying assumptions. Analytical techniques employ a series of equations that likewise assume simple conditions, although to a lesser degree than the fixed-radius method. Our chosen numerical model is MODFLOW-2000, which offers a particle-tracking package (MODPATH) for delineating recharge areas. The delineations are overlayed for each conceptual model in order to compare the capture zones produced by the different methods. Contrasts between capture zones increase with the complexity of the hydrogeology. Simpler methods are restricted by their underlying assumptions. When methods can no longer account for complexities in the conceptual model, the resulting delineations remain similar to those of simpler models. Meanwhile, the zones generated by more sophisticated methods are able to change with changes to the conceptual model. Hence, the simpler methods now lack accuracy and credibility. We have found that these simpler techniques tend to overestimate the capture zone. Water-supply managers must consider such inaccuracies when evaluating the costs of each method. In addition to comparing delineation

  19. GRACE-Based Analysis of Total Water Storage Trends and Groundwater Fluctuations in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer in Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, K. A.; Milewski, A.

    2013-12-01

    -derived soil moisture and evapotranspiration values with GRACE-based TWSC. Initial results suggest CSR-processed datasets as being most representative of TWSC/GWSC values in the NWSAS, given groundwater abstraction estimates of 2.5 BCM/year, a conservative estimate considering it does not include unaccounted abstractions or increased consumption in recent years. Conversely, high abstraction rates and negligibly low recharge rates indicate the positive TWSC/GWSC values generated from JPL-processed datasets are not accurately representative of hydrologic changes in NWSAS. Consistently positive TWSC/GWSC values for the Tindouf Aquifer System, by JPL, CSR, and GFZ datasets are indicative of sustainable groundwater abstraction levels (recharge rate > abstraction rate). GWSC time series, computed for each of the three different processed datasets (JPL, CSR, GFZ), account for significant withdrawals in groundwater in both NWSAS (February 2006 and from August 2008 to January 2009) and Tindouf Aquifer System (November/October 2003, February/March 2006, and September/October 2010).

  20. Refining previous estimates of groundwater outflows from the Medina/Diversion Lake system, San Antonio area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Richard N.; Asquith, William H.; Gordon, John D.

    2017-02-15

    IntroductionIn 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, began a study to refine previously derived estimates of groundwater outflows from Medina and Diversion Lakes in south-central Texas near San Antonio. When full, Medina and Diversion Lakes (hereinafter referred to as the Medina/Diversion Lake system) (fig. 1) impound approximately 255,000 acre-feet and 2,555 acre-feet of water, respectively.Most recharge to the Edwards aquifer occurs as seepage from streams as they cross the outcrop (recharge zone) of the aquifer (Slattery and Miller, 2017). Groundwater outflows from the Medina/Diversion Lake system have also long been recognized as a potentially important additional source of recharge. Puente (1978) published methods for estimating monthly and annual estimates of the potential recharge to the Edwards aquifer from the Medina/Diversion Lake system. During October 1995–September 1996, the USGS conducted a study to better define short-term rates of recharge and to reduce the error and uncertainty associated with estimates of monthly recharge from the Medina/Diversion Lake system (Lambert and others, 2000). As a followup to that study, Slattery and Miller (2017) published estimates of groundwater outflows from detailed water budgets for the Medina/Diversion Lake system during 1955–1964, 1995–1996, and 2001–2002. The water budgets were compiled for selected periods during which time the water-budget components were inferred to be relatively stable and the influence of precipitation, stormwater runoff, and changes in storage were presumably minimal. Linear regression analysis techniques were used by Slattery and Miller (2017) to assess the relation between the stage in Medina Lake and groundwater outflows from the Medina/Diversion Lake system.

  1. A proposed Fast algorithm to construct the system matrices for a reduced-order groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Timothy T.; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2017-04-01

    Past research has demonstrated that a reduced-order model (ROM) can be two-to-three orders of magnitude smaller than the original model and run considerably faster with acceptable error. A standard method to construct the system matrices for a ROM is Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), which projects the system matrices from the full model space onto a subspace whose range spans the full model space but has a much smaller dimension than the full model space. This projection can be prohibitively expensive to compute if it must be done repeatedly, as with a Monte Carlo simulation. We propose a Fast Algorithm to reduce the computational burden of constructing the system matrices for a parameterized, reduced-order groundwater model (i.e. one whose parameters are represented by zones or interpolation functions). The proposed algorithm decomposes the expensive system matrix projection into a set of simple scalar-matrix multiplications. This allows the algorithm to efficiently construct the system matrices of a POD reduced-order model at a significantly reduced computational cost compared with the standard projection-based method. The developed algorithm is applied to three test cases for demonstration purposes. The first test case is a small, two-dimensional, zoned-parameter, finite-difference model; the second test case is a small, two-dimensional, interpolated-parameter, finite-difference model; and the third test case is a realistically-scaled, two-dimensional, zoned-parameter, finite-element model. In each case, the algorithm is able to accurately and efficiently construct the system matrices of the reduced-order model.

  2. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data of groundwater of a multi-aquifer system: Northern Gafsa basin - Central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokadem, Naziha; Demdoum, Abedslem; Hamed, Younes; Bouri, Salem; Hadji, Rihab; Boyce, Adrian; Laouar, Rabah; Sâad, Abedaziz

    2016-02-01

    The hydrodynamic of the multi-aquifer system (the Continental Intercalaire " C.I " and the Complex Terminal " C.T ") of the North Gafsa basin is largely determined by tectonics (Tebessa - Gafsa fault). The composition of groundwater is controlled by complex reactions at gas-liquid-solid "mineralogical composition of associated rocks" interfaces, which depend on the natural surrounding and potential anthropogenic impact. The hydrochemical data (major ion geochemistry) indicate that these groundwaters are characterized by the dominance a Ca-Mg-HCO3/SO4 and Na-Cl-NO3 water types. Geochemical pattern is mainly controlled by the dissolution of halite, gypsum and/or anhydrite as well as by the incongruent dissolution of carbonate minerals. The pH of these samples range from 6.54 to 8.89, supporting the conclusion that the H2CO3/HCO3 couple control pH buffering. Oxygen-18 (δ18O‰SMOW) and deuterium (dD‰SMOW) isotopic data show the exchange between the groundwater and the rock (water-rock interaction) and the evaporation effect. The isotopic content of the boreholes waters is of mixed Mediterranean - Atlantic origin and is opposite to the quantity of rainwater distribution, both in space and time in the study area. This is due to its geographical situation in the southern and south-western of the Mediterranean Sea and between the Atlas area and the Sahara Platform. The concentrations of the isotopic composition of the groundwater are significantly higher than the rainwater. This is indicative of the dissolution of salts and other processes modifying the rainwater geochemical composition during infiltration into the vadose zone. The hydraulic interconnection of these components of the system has led to the evolution of these interesting groundwater types.

  3. Study of the water-rock interaction in Tsengwenshi groundwater system (southern Taiwan) using BCR sequential extraction procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The heavy metals in groundwater seriously risk the human wealth, agriculture and the aquaculture, especially, if the water is the major source of daily use. Generally, in spite of anthropogenic source, the heavy metals in groundwater are released during water-rock interaction. However, there are many mineral phases being capable of releasing heavy metals. It would need a sequential extraction procedure to identify the source mineral phase in the aquifer. In addition, the geochemical reactions after the release of heavy metals are also important to modify the concentrations. In this study, the rare earth elements are used to be a natural tracer for this purpose. The study area, Tsengwenshi watershed in southern Taiwan, is an alluvial fan with all kinds of land uses and is notorious of arsenic contamination. The groundwaters sampled in this study show that arsenic is enriched in deep aquifer (depth>150m), which is composed of sediments deposited in the last glacial period (18 ka). Based on this conceptual model, the results of BCR sequential extraction procedure are categorized into shallow aquifer (depthheavy metals in two groups can be subsequently obtained to take account of extensive water-rock interaction in the groundwater system. The results show that arsenic and other heavy metals are mostly binding with Fe-Mn oxides. To compare the ratios between deep and shallow aquifers for all heavy metals, the pattern of groundwaters does not show the similar type with those of extracted phases from soils. It is believed that the released heavy metals were strongly modified by the geochemical reactions during the transportation in the groundwater system. In addition, the analysis results of the rare earth elements demonstrates that almost all groundwaters with high arsenic do not have Ce negative anomaly; and, on the contrary, those with low arsenic are generally characterized by strong negative anomaly. Generally, the Ce negative anomaly is a prominent indicator of

  4. Boundary of the ground-water flow model by IT Corporation (1996), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the steady-state ground-water flow model built by IT Corporation (1996). The regional, 20-layer ground-water flow model...

  5. Groundwater protection of minimal water supply systems integrating simple hydrogeological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Rodrigo-Clavero, María Elena

    2016-04-01

    According to the current EU environmental legislation, groundwater protection is one of the key issues to be addressed when new industrial activities have to be authorised. This work shows a simple methodology that could be used by local and environmental authorities in order to analyse the potential risk caused by an industrial spill on a natural environment. The methodology leads to the determination of the protection area around an extraction well system using the information given by: i) a set of local piezometers, ii) the chemical nature of the industrial spill and iii) the hydrogeological parameters of the local aquifer. The exact location of the contaminant source is not needed for the analysis. The flow equation is afterwards solved using a finite-difference approximation scheme under stationary conditions. Finally, the capture zones for different times are computed by a simple upstream advective transport model. Results on the determination of the perimeter protection area definition of a water supply system in the municipality of L'Alcora (Castellón) in Spain are shown.

  6. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  7. 75 FR 448 - In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution...

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the thick regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system of Indian Creek basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Smith, Douglas G.; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    1997-01-01

    The Indian Creek Basin in the southwestern Piedmont of North Carolina is one of five type areas studied as part of the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System analysis. Detailed studies of selected type areas were used to quantify ground-water flow characteristics in various conceptual hydrogeologic terranes. The conceptual hydrogeologic terranes are considered representative of ground-water conditions beneath large areas of the three physiographic provinces--Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont--that compose the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis area. The Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study area extends over approximately 142,000 square miles in 11 states and the District of Columbia in the Appalachian highlands of the Eastern United States. The Indian Creek type area is typical of ground-water conditions in a single hydrogeologic terrane that underlies perhaps as much as 40 percent of the Piedmont physiographic province. The hydrogeologic terrane of the Indian Creek model area is one of massive and foliated crystalline rocks mantled by thick regolith. The area lies almost entirely within the Inner Piedmont geologic belt. Five hydrogeologic units occupy major portions of the model area, but statistical tests on well yields, specific capacities, and other hydrologic characteristics show that the five hydrogeologic units can be treated as one unit for purposes of modeling ground-water flow. The 146-square-mile Indian Creek model area includes the Indian Creek Basin, which has a surface drainage area of about 69 square miles. The Indian Creek Basin lies in parts of Catawba, Lincoln, and Gaston Counties, North Carolina. The larger model area is based on boundary conditions established for digital simulation of ground-water flow within the smaller Indian Creek Basin. The ground-water flow model of the Indian Creek Basin is based on the U.S. Geological Survey?s modular finite

  9. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset was used to create graphics associated with manuscript: Garcia et al., Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a...

  10. Modelling electrical conductivity of groundwater using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tutmez (Bulent); Z. Hatipoglu (Z.); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractElectrical conductivity is an important indicator for water quality assessment. Since the composition of mineral salts affects the electrical conductivity of groundwater, it is important to understand the relationships between mineral salt composition and electrical conductivity. In this

  11. Quantifying the Groundwater Mixing Processes under the Land-Use Change and Anthropogenic Impact: A Case Study of the Quaternary Groundwater System underlying the New Reclaimed Lands, the Eastern Fringe of the Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. M. A. M.; Tokunaga, T.; Massoud, U. S.

    2015-12-01

    The stable (δ2H, δ18O and δ13C) and radiocarbon (14C) isotopic compositions of water and hydrochemical information were analyzed and used to quantify the contribution of different sources, i.e., groundwater in the original Quaternary and the Miocene aquifers, surface water in the Ismailia canal and wastewater, to the Quaternary aquifer system. 14C activities and isotope data suggest that about 52% of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer is derived from the past rainfall, i.e., presumably 5000-7800 years B.P. Northward (EC 6000 µS/cm, low HCO3- concentration, δ13C-enriched, δ18O/δ2H-depleted, and 14C ≤ 42 pMC) spatial changes in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer are attributed to the contributions of the Ismailia canal in the north and the groundwater of the Miocene aquifer in the south, respectively. Temporal changes of isotopic composition of the Nile water in response to the construction of the Aswan High Dam are also detected and the information is used to evaluate the groundwater recharge processes from the Ismailia canal. Current contribution from the Ismailia canal (25%) is considered to be greatly enhanced through surface water diversion and related irrigation practices, i.e., freshwater ponds. Contribution of the groundwater from the Miocene aquifer was also detected locally, and it was thought to be related to the excessive pumping. Increase in nitrate concentrations, change in the stable isotopic composition of groundwater from wells adjacent to wastewater ponds, along with the information obtained from the analysis of city water balance and recent geophysical data show that local recharge from wastewater ponds (4%) occurs to the Quaternary aquifer system. The results are expected to be helpful for formulating appropriate protection and sustainable water management strategies.

  12. Development of a system for "in situ" determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Boutsiadou, Xanthippe; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and especially chlorinated hydrocarbons, are common groundwater contaminants. Efficient monitoring that can be conducted directly in the field is needed to detect a possible pollution by organic contaminants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons. The general aim of this project is to develop a portable instrument for the in situ measurement of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater. The instrument relies on the transfer of volatile organic compounds to the gas p...

  13. Cascade Controller Including Back-stepping for Hydraulic-Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choux, Martin; Hovland, Geir; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants of an adapt...

  14. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  15. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  16. Low-cost control of discontinuous systems including impacts and friction

    OpenAIRE

    Svahn, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    For a successful design of an engineering system it is essential to pay careful attention to its dynamic response. This is particularly true, in the case of nonlinear systems, since they can exhibit very complex dynamic behaviour, including multiple co-existing stable solutions and chaotic motions, characterized by large sensitivity to initial conditions. In some systems nonlinear characteristics are desired and designed for, but in other cases they are unwanted and can cause fatigue and fail...

  17. Preliminary Assessment of the Hydrogeology and Groundwater Availability in the Metamorphic and Siliciclastic Fractured-Rock Aquifer Systems of Warren County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Moberg, Roger M.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding development and the prolonged drought from 1999 to 2002 drew attention to the quantity and sustainability of the groundwater resources in Warren County, Virginia. The groundwater flow systems of the county are complex and are controlled by the extremely folded and faulted geology that underlies the county. A study was conducted between May 2002 and October 2008 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Warren County, Virginia, to describe the hydrogeology of the metamorphic and siliciclastic fractured-rock aquifers and groundwater availability in the county and to establish a long-term water monitoring network. The study area encompasses approximately 170 square miles and includes the metamorphic rocks of the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province and siliciclastic rocks of the Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province. Well depths tend to be shallowest in the siliciclastic rock unit (predominantly in the Martinsburg Formation) where 75 percent of the wells are less than 200 feet deep. Median depths to bedrock are generally less than 40 feet across the county and vary in response to the presence of surficial deposits, faults, siliciclastic rock type, and topographic setting. Water-bearing zones are generally within 200 feet of land surface; median depths, however, are slightly deeper for the hydrogeologic units of the Blue Ridge Province than for those of the Great Valley section of the county. Median well yields for the different rock units generally range from 10 to 20 gallons per minute. High-yielding wells tend to cluster along faults, along the eastern contact of the Martinsburg Formation, and within potential lineament zones. Specific capacity is relatively low and ranges from 0.003 to 1.43 gallons per minute per foot with median values from 0.12 to 0.24 gallon per minute per foot. Transmissivity values derived from specific capacity data range over four orders of magnitude from 0.6 to 380 feet squared per day

  18. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations, including projections oriented relative to pylons, and associated systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter. Projections near a support pylon and/or associated heat shield can have particular configurations, including greater flow immersion than other projections.

  19. Study of groundwater-quarry interactions in the context of energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Angélique; goderniaux, Pascal; de dreuzy, Jean-Raynald

    2016-04-01

    distance of influence may increase by more than one order of magnitude, depending on the fracture and matrix hydraulic properties. In this study, we have focused on the impact assessment of pump/storage operations on aquifers. However, the actual field monitoring of groundwater levels fluctuations around a pump/storage system would also allow constitute an efficient characterization tool, by inversion of collected data.

  20. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-05-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  1. Effects of residential wastewater treatment systems on ground-water quality in west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dennis C.; Hillier, D.E.; Nickum, Edward; Dorrance, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of residential wastewater-treatment systems in Evergreen Meadows, Marshdale, and Herzman Mesa, Colo., has degraded ground-water quality to some extent in each community. Age of community; average lot size; slope of land surface; composition, permeability, and thickness of surficial material; density, size , and orientation of fractures; maintenance of wastewater-treatment systems; and presence of animals are factors possibly contributing to the degradation of ground-water quality. When compared with effluent from aeration-treatment tanks, effluent fom septic-treatment tanks is characterized by greater biochemical oxygen demand and greater concentrations of detergents. When compared with effluent from septic-treatment tanks, effluent from aeration-treatment tanks is characterized by greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved solids. (USGS)

  2. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 control and aircraft systems. A limited human-in-the-loop pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  3. Prediction of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination using Geographic Information System and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moqbul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water arsenic contamination is a well known health and environmental problem in Bangladesh. Sources of this heavy metal are known to be geogenic, however, the processes of its release into groundwater are poorly understood phenomena. In quest of mitigation of the problem it is necessary to predict probable contamination before it causes any damage to human health. Hence our research has been carried out to find the factor relations of arsenic contamination and develop an arsenic contamination prediction model. Researchers have generally agreed that the elevated concentration of arsenic is affected by several factors such as soil reaction (pH, organic matter content, geology, iron content, etc. However, the variability of concentration within short lateral and vertical intervals, and the inter-relationships of variables among themselves, make the statistical analyses highly non-linear and difficult to converge with a meaningful relationship. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN comes in handy for such a black box type problem. This research uses Back propagation Neural Networks (BPNN to train and validate the data derived from Geographic Information System (GIS spatial distribution grids. The neural network architecture with (6-20-1 pattern was able to predict the arsenic concentration with reasonable accuracy.

  4. Using a Three-Dimensional Hydrogeologic Framework to Investigate Potential Sources of Water Springs in the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Belcher, W. R.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system encompasses a proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, and National Park and BLM properties, and provides water for local communities. The model was constructed using a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework and has been used as a resource planning mechanism by the many stakeholders involved, including four United States (U.S) federal agencies (U.S. Department of Energy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) and local counties, towns, and residents. One of the issues in recent model development is simulation of insufficient water to regional discharge areas which form springs in valleys near the center of the system. Given what seems to be likely rock characteristics and geometries at depth, insufficient water is simulated to reach the discharge areas. This "surprise" thus challenges preconceived notions about the system. Here we use the hydrogeologic model to hypothesize alternatives able to produce the observed flow and use the groundwater simulation to test the hypotheses with other available data. Results suggest that the transmissivity measurements need to be used carefully because wells in this system are never fully penetrating, that multiple alternatives are able to produce the springflow, and that one most likely alternative cannot be identified given available data. Consequences of the alternatives are discussed.

  5. Challenges for creating a site-specific groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrologic budgets to determine groundwater availability are important tools for water-resource managers. One challenging component for developing hydrologic budgets is quantifying water use through time because historical and site-specific water-use data can be sparse or poorly documented. This research developed a groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010 that related county-level aggregated water-use data to site-specific well locations and aquifer units. A simple population-based linear model, constrained to 0 million liters per day in 1900, provided the best means to extrapolate groundwater-withdrawal rates pre-1950s when there was a paucity of water-use data. To disaggregate county-level data to individual wells across a regional aquifer system, a programmatic hierarchical process was developed, based on the level of confidence that a well pumped groundwater for a specific use during a specific year. Statistical models tested on a subset of the best-available site-specific water-use data provided a mechanism to bracket historic groundwater use, such that groundwater-withdrawal rates ranged, on average, plus or minus 38% from modeled values. Groundwater withdrawn for public supply and domestic use accounted for between 48 and 74% of total groundwater use since 1901, highlighting that groundwater provides an important drinking-water resource. The compilation, analysis, and spatial and temporal extrapolation of water-use data remain a challenging task for water scientists, but is of paramount importance to better quantify groundwater use and availability.

  6. Challenges for creating a site-specific groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott C.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrologic budgets to determine groundwater availability are important tools for water-resource managers. One challenging component for developing hydrologic budgets is quantifying water use through time because historical and site-specific water-use data can be sparse or poorly documented. This research developed a groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010 that related county-level aggregated water-use data to site-specific well locations and aquifer units. A simple population-based linear model, constrained to 0 million liters per day in 1900, provided the best means to extrapolate groundwater-withdrawal rates pre-1950s when there was a paucity of water-use data. To disaggregate county-level data to individual wells across a regional aquifer system, a programmatic hierarchical process was developed, based on the level of confidence that a well pumped groundwater for a specific use during a specific year. Statistical models tested on a subset of the best-available site-specific water-use data provided a mechanism to bracket historic groundwater use, such that groundwater-withdrawal rates ranged, on average, plus or minus 38% from modeled values. Groundwater withdrawn for public supply and domestic use accounted for between 48 and 74% of total groundwater use since 1901, highlighting that groundwater provides an important drinking-water resource. The compilation, analysis, and spatial and temporal extrapolation of water-use data remain a challenging task for water scientists, but is of paramount importance to better quantify groundwater use and availability.

  7. Contamination of Groundwater Systems in the US and Canada by Enteric Pathogens, 1990–2013: A Review and Pooled-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Paul Dylan; Thomas, M. Kate; Pintar, Katarina Dorothy Milena

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 150 million North Americans currently use a groundwater system as their principal drinking water source. These systems are a potential source of exposure to enteric pathogens, contributing to the burden of waterborne disease. Waterborne disease outbreaks have been associated with US and Canadian groundwater systems over the past two decades. However, to date, this literature has not been reviewed in a comprehensive manner. Methods and Principal Findings A combined review and pooled-analysis approach was used to investigate groundwater contamination in Canada and the US from 1990 to 2013; fifty-five studies met eligibility criteria. Four study types were identified. It was found that study location affects study design, sample rate and studied pathogen category. Approximately 15% (316/2210) of samples from Canadian and US groundwater sources were positive for enteric pathogens, with no difference observed based on system type. Knowledge gaps exist, particularly in exposure assessment for attributing disease to groundwater supplies. Furthermore, there is a lack of consistency in risk factor reporting (local hydrogeology, well type, well use, etc). The widespread use of fecal indicator organisms in reported studies does not inform the assessment of human health risks associated with groundwater supplies. Conclusions This review illustrates how groundwater study design and location are critical for subsequent data interpretation and use. Knowledge gaps exist related to data on bacterial, viral and protozoan pathogen prevalence in Canadian and US groundwater systems, as well as a need for standardized approaches for reporting study design and results. Fecal indicators are examined as a surrogate for health risk assessments; caution is advised in their widespread use. Study findings may be useful during suspected waterborne outbreaks linked with a groundwater supply to identify the likely etiological agent and potential transport pathway. PMID:24806545

  8. Developing an Analysis Program to Estimate and Prediction Groundwater Droughts in Korea from Groundwater Time-Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study is aimed at developing process to analyze and predict groundwater drought potentials for Winter and Spring droughts in Korea using a long-term groundwater monitoring data. So far, most drought researches have been focused on precipitation and stream-flow data, although these data are considered to be non-linear. Subsequently, the prediction of drought events has been very difficult in practice. In this study, we targets to analyze the groundwater system as an intermediate stage between precipitation and stream-flow, but still has semi-linear characteristics. By the analysis of past trends of groundwater time-series compared with drought events, we will identify characteristics of fluctuation between groundwater-level and precipitation of the year before the droughts. Then, the characteristics will be tested with recent drought events in Korea. For this analysis, The updated ATGT (Analysis Tool for Groundwater Time-series data program version 1.0 based on JAVA), that was developed for analyzing and presenting groundwater time-series data, basically to identify abnormal changes in groundwater fluctuations, will be presented with additional functions including cross-correlation between groundwater and drought based on the PYTHON language.

  9. Impact of artificial recharge and drought in Tafilalet Oasis system: First investigation by GIS and groundwater modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaamlat, I.; Larabi, A.; Faouzi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The geographical location of Tafilalet oasis system (TOS) in the south of the valley of Ziz (Morocco) offers him a particular advantage on the plane of water potential. The surface water which comes from humid regions of the High Atlas and intercepted by a dam then converged through the watercourse of Ziz towards the plain of the TOS, have created the conditions for the formation of a water table relatively rich with regard to the local climatic conditions (arid climate with recurrent drought). Because of this situation, the region has one of the largest palms of North Africa. Thus there is an agricultural activity that is practiced in a 21 irrigation areas whose size rarely exceeds 2,000 hectare. Given the role of the water table in the economic development of the region, a hydrogeological study was conducted to understand the impact of artificial recharge and recurrent droughts on the development of the groundwater reserves of TOS. In this study, a three-dimensional model of groundwater flow was developed for the Tafilalet oasis system aquifer, to assist the decision makers as a "management tool" in order to assess alternative schemes for development and exploitation of groundwater resources based on the variation of artificial recharge and drought, using for the first time the Modflow code. This study takes into account the most possible real hydrogeological conditions and using the geographical information system (GIS) for the organisation and treatment of data and applying a multidisciplinary approach combining geostatistical and hydrogeological modeling. The results from this numerical investigation of the TOS aquifer shows that the commissioning of the dam to control the flows of extreme flood and good management of water releases, has avoided the losses of irrigation water and consequently the non-overexploitation of the groundwater. So that with one or two water releases per year from the dam of flow rate more than 14 million m3/year it is possible to

  10. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  11. Estimated potentiometric surface by D'Agnese and others (1998), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — D'Agnese and others (1998) developed a potentiometric surface to conceptualize the regional ground-water flow system and to construct numerical flow models of the...

  12. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  13. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  14. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Ultrasonic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Roberts, Scott N. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using ultrasonic welding. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: ultrasonically welding at least one ribbon to a surface; where at least one ribbon that is ultrasonically welded to a surface has a thickness of less than approximately 150.mu.m; and where at least one ribbon that is ultrasonically welded to a surface includes a metallic glass-based material.

  15. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Forsmark area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Forsmark area during the period November 2002 - March 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. Results from surface waters are not presented in this report since these were treated in a recently published report. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams, coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells, sampled up to four times per year. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data; Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for shallow groundwater); Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the

  16. A transient energy function for power systems including the induction motor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A construction method for power system transient energy function is studied in the paper, which is simple and universal, and can unify the forms of some current energy functions. A transient energy function including the induction motor model is derived using the method. The unintegrable term is dealt with to get an approximate energy function. Simulations in a 3-bus system and in the WSCC 4-generator system verify the validity of the proposed energy function. The function can be applied to direct transient stability analysis of multi-machine large power systems and provides a tool for analysis of the interaction between the generator angle stability and the load voltage stability.

  17. Thermal Insulation System for Non-Vacuum Applications Including a Multilayer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the present invention is for non-vacuum applications and is specifically tailored to the ambient pressure environment with any level of humidity or moisture. The thermal insulation system includes a multilayered composite including i) at least one thermal insulation layer and at least one compressible barrier layer provided as alternating, successive layers, and ii) at least one reflective film provided on at least one surface of the thermal insulation layer and/or said compressible barrier layer. The different layers and materials and their combinations are designed to provide low effective thermal conductivity for the system by managing all modes of heat transfer. The thermal insulation system includes an optional outer casing surrounding the multilayered composite. The thermal insulation system is particularly suited for use in any sub-ambient temperature environment where moisture or its adverse effects are a concern. The thermal insulation system provides physical resilience against damaging mechanical effects including compression, flexure, impact, vibration, and thermal expansion/contraction.

  18. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  19. The influence of fish ponds and salinization on groundwater quality in the multi-layer coastal aquifer system in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, A.; Weinstein, Y.; Yechieli, Y.; Borisover, M.

    2017-08-01

    This study focuses on the impact of surface reservoirs (fish ponds) on a multi aquifer coastal system, and the relation between the aquifer and the sea. The study was conducted in an Israeli Mediterranean coastal aquifer, which includes a sandy phreatic unit and two confined calcareous sandstone units. The geological description is based on 52 wells, from which 33 samples were collected for stable isotope analysis and 25 samples for organic and inorganic parameters. Hydraulic head and chemical measurements suggest that there is an hydraulic connection between the fish ponds above the aquifer and the phreatic unit, whereas the connection with the confined units is very limited. The phreatic unit is characterized by a low concentration of oxygen and high concentrations of ammonium and phosphate, while the confined units are characterized by higher oxygen and much lower ammonium and phosphate concentrations. Organic matter fluorescence was found to be a tool to distinguish the contribution of the pond waters, whereby a pond water signature (characterized by proteinaceous (tryptophan-like) and typical humic-matter fluorescence) was found in the phreatic aquifer. The phreatic unit is also isotopically enriched, similar to pond waters, with δ18O of -1‰ and δD of -4.6‰, indicating enhanced evaporation of the pond water before infiltration, whereas there is a depleted isotopic composition in the confined units (δ18O = -4.3‰, δD = -20.4‰), which are also OM-poor. The Phreeqc model was used for quantitative calculation of the effect of pond losses on the different units. The Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the upper unit increases downstream from the ponds toward the sea, probably due to organic matter degradation, suggesting contribution of DIN from shallow groundwater flow to the sea. 87Sr/86Sr and Mg/Ca in the brackish and saline groundwater of the lower confined units increase toward seawater value, suggesting that the salinization process in the region

  20. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  1. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  2. Initial hydraulic heads for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the hydraulic-head values in 16 model layers used to initiate the transient simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  3. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  4. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  5. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  6. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...

  7. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  8. Watermark: An Application and Methodology and Application for Interactive and intelligent Decision Support for Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.; Wagner, K.; Schwartz, S.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Critical water resources face the effects of historic drought, increased demand, and potential contamination, the need has never been greater to develop resources to effectively communicate conservation and protection across a broad audience and geographical area. The Watermark application and macro-analysis methodology merges topical analysis of context rich corpus from policy texts with multi-attributed solution sets from integrated models of water resource and other subsystems, such as mineral, food, energy, or environmental systems to construct a scalable, robust, and reproducible approach for identifying links between policy and science knowledge bases. The Watermark application is an open-source, interactive workspace to support science-based visualization and decision making. Designed with generalization in mind, Watermark is a flexible platform that allows for data analysis and inclusion of large datasets with an interactive front-end capable of connecting with other applications as well as advanced computing resources. In addition, the Watermark analysis methodology offers functionality that streamlines communication with non-technical users for policy, education, or engagement with groups around scientific topics of societal relevance. The technology stack for Watermark was selected with the goal of creating a robust and dynamic modular codebase that can be adjusted to fit many use cases and scale to support usage loads that range between simple data display to complex scientific simulation-based modelling and analytics. The methodology uses to topical analysis and simulation-optimization to systematically analyze the policy and management realities of resource systems and explicitly connect the social and problem contexts with science-based and engineering knowledge from models. A case example demonstrates use in a complex groundwater resources management study highlighting multi-criteria spatial decision making and uncertainty comparisons.

  9. Submarine groundwater discharge in the Sarasota Bay system: Its assessment and implications for the nearshore coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwashote, B. M.; Murray, M.; Burnett, W. C.; Chanton, J.; Kruse, S.; Forde, A.

    2013-02-01

    A study was conducted from July 2002 through June 2006 in order to assess the significance of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to Sarasota Bay (SB), Florida. The assessment approaches used in this study included manual seepage meters, geochemical tracers (radon, 222Rn and methane, CH4), and subseafloor resistivity measurements. The estimated SGD advection rates in the SB system were found to range from 0.7 to 24.0 cm/day, except for some isolated hot spot occurrences where higher rates were observed. In general, SGD estimates were relatively higher (5.9-24.0 cm/day) in the middle and south regions of the bay compared to the north region (0.7-5.9 cm/day). Average dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations within the SB water column ranged: 0.1-11 μM (NO2+NO3), 0.1-9.1 μM (NH4) and 0.2-1.4 μM (PO4). The average N/P ratio was higher in the north compared to the middle and south regions of the bay. On average, we conservatively estimate that about 27% of the total N in the SB system was derived via SGD. The prevalence of shallow embayed areas in the SB system and the presence of numerous septic tanks in the surrounding settlements enhanced the potential effects of nutrient rich seepages. Statistical comparison of the quantitative approaches revealed a good agreement between SGD estimates from manual seepage meters and those derived from the 222Rn model (p=0.67; α=0.05; n=18). CH4 was found to be useful for qualitative SGD assessments. CH4 and 222Rn were correlated (r2=0.31; α=0.05; n=54). Large scale resistivity surveys showed spatial variability that correlates more clearly with lithology than with SGD patterns.

  10. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  11. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  12. Numerical simulation of seepage flow field in groundwater source heat pump system and its influence on temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihua HU; Yanjun ZHANG; Danyan DU; Gang WU; Ziwang YU; Chen WANG; Fuquan NI

    2008-01-01

    Energy utilization in the aquifers is a new technology closely related to development of heat pump technique. It is significant for the flow distribution to be predicted in the aquifer surrounding the Groundwater Source Heat Pump System (GSHPS). The authors presented a new concept of "flow transfixion" by analyzing general features of aquifers, and then discussed interaction of the flow transfixion with the heat transfixion, which has practical significance to projects. A numerical model of groundwater flow was established based on the basic tenets of water-heat transferring in the aquifer. On this basis the flow field and the temperature field of GSHPS for a site in Shenyang City were numerically simulated. The basis of the flow transfixion was obtained; it was discussed for the influence of the flow transfixion on the heat transfixion. To a certain extent, the study offers some reference for the projects' design of GSHP in the studied area.

  13. Subsurface thermal regime to delineate the paleo-groundwater flow system in an arid area, Al Kufra, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenhom El-Said Salem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand the groundwater flow system in Al Kufra basin, Libya, as a case study of arid areas using subsurface temperature. The temperature-depth profiles and water levels were measured in eight boreholes in the area. Well 6 is considered a recharge type profile with low geothermal gradient (0.0068 °C/m and an estimated paleo-temperature around 19.5 °C. The other profiles are of discharge type with higher geothermal gradient (0.0133 to 0.0166 °C/m. The constructed horizontal 2D distribution maps of the hydraulic heads and the subsurface temperature measurements reveal that the main recharge area is located to the south with low temperature while the main discharge area is located to the north with higher temperature. Vertical 2D distribution maps show that location of well 4 has low hydraulic heads and higher temperature indicating that the fault defined in the area may have affected the groundwater flow system. The estimated groundwater flux ranges from 0.001 to 0.1 mm/day for the recharge area and from −0.3 to −0.7 mm/day in average in the discharge area.

  14. The Impact of Integrated Aquifer Storage and Recovery and Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (ASRRO on a Coastal Groundwater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Eugenius Marijnus Ros

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR of local, freshwater surpluses is a potential solution for freshwater supply in coastal areas, as is brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO of relatively shallow groundwater in combination with deeper membrane concentrate disposal. A more sustainable and reliable freshwater supply may be achieved by combining both techniques in one ASRRO system using multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW. The impact of widespread use of ASRRO on a coastal groundwater system was limited based on regional groundwater modelling but it was shown that ASRRO decreased the average chloride concentration with respect to the autonomous scenario and the use of BWRO. ASRRO was successful in mitigating the local negative impact (saltwater plume formation caused by the deep disposal of membrane concentrate during BWRO. The positive impacts of ASRRO with respect to BWRO were observed in the aquifer targeted for ASR and brackish water abstraction (Aquifer 1, but foremost in the deeper aquifer targeted for membrane concentrate disposal (Aquifer 2. The formation of a horizontal freshwater barrier was found at the top of both aquifers, reducing saline seepage. The disposal of relatively fresh concentrate in Aquifer 2 led to brackish water outflow towards the sea. The net abstraction in Aquifer 1 enforced saltwater intrusion, especially when BWRO was applied. The conclusion of this study is that ASRRO can provide a sustainable alternative for BWRO.

  15. Speleothems in the desert: Glimpses of the Pleistocene history of the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph; Dublyansky, Yuri; Moseley, Gina; Wendt, Kathleen; Edwards, Larry; Scholger, Robert; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Death Valley in eastern California holds North Americás record for the deepest, hottest and driest place. Despite these unfavourable boundary conditions speleothems are present in this hyperarid depression and the surrounding deserts and provide unique insights into long-term regional climate change and landscape evolution of this tectonically and geomorphologically highly active region. Most of the speleothems are inactive and exposed due to tectonic uplift and erosion. They differ from common speleothems, because the majority formed under phreatic conditions as part of a regional groundwater flow system that is still active today. Data from three sites will be discussed illustrating the spectrum of speleothem deposits and their modes of formation. At Devils Hole, the thermal aquifer and the associated subaqueous and water-table speleothems can be directly accessed and provide a record reaching back about 1 million years. At Travertine Point, close to modern discharge points of this large groundwater flow system, phreatic speleothems form near-vertical veins up to about 2 m wide showing evidence of high flow rates along these fractures, which are connected to fossil spring tufa deposits. Finally, outcrops along Titus Canyon expose several generations of speleothems documenting the progressive lowering of the regional groundwater table. The youngest calcite generation records the transition towards vadose conditions 500-400 ka ago.

  16. Subsurface thermal regime to delineate the paleo-groundwater flow system in an arid area, Al Kufra, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom El-Said

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the groundwater flow system in Al Kufra basin, Libya, as a case study of arid areas using subsurface temperature. The temperature-depth profiles and water levels were measured in eight boreholes in the area. Well 6 is considered a recharge type profile with low geothermal gradient (0.0068 °C/m) and an estimated paleo-temperature around 19.5 °C. The other profiles are of discharge type with higher geothermal gradient (0.0133 to 0.0166 °C/m). The constructed horizontal 2D distribution maps of the hydraulic heads and the subsurface temperature measurements reveal that the main recharge area is located to the south with low temperature while the main discharge area is located to the north with higher temperature. Vertical 2D distribution maps show that location of well 4 has low hydraulic heads and higher temperature indicating that the fault defined in the area may have affected the groundwater flow system. The estimated groundwater flux ranges from 0.001 to 0.1 mm/day for the recharge area and from -0.3 to -0.7 mm/day in average in the discharge area.

  17. Systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Anyin; Luo, Qingjie

    2017-08-01

    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.

  18. Systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Anyin; Luo, Qingjie

    2017-01-24

    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.

  19. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  20. General design, construction, and operation guidelines: Constructed wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small users including individual residences. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, G.R.; Watson, J.T.

    1993-05-01

    One of the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA`s) major goals is cleanup and protection of the waters of the Tennessee River system. Although great strides have been made, point source and nonpoint source pollution still affect the surface water and groundwater quality in the Tennessee Valley and nationally. Causes of this pollution are poorly operating wastewater treatment systems or the lack of them. Practical solutions are needed, and there is great interest and desire to abate water pollution with effective, simple, reliable and affordable wastewater treatment processes. In recognition of this need, TVA began demonstration of the constructed wetlands technology in 1986 as an alternative to conventional, mechanical processes, especially for small communities. Constructed wetlands can be downsized from municipal systems to small systems, such as for schools, camps and even individual homes.

  1. River-groundwater connectivity in a karst system, Wellington, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mohammadreza; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of river-aquifer connectivity in karst environments is difficult due to the presence of conduits and caves. This work demonstrates how geophysical imaging combined with hydrogeological data can improve the conceptualization of surface-water and groundwater interactions in karst terrains. The objective of this study is to understand the association between the Bell River and karst-alluvial aquifer at Wellington, Australia. River and groundwater levels were continuously monitored, and electrical resistivity imaging and water quality surveys conducted. Two-dimensional resistivity imaging mapped the transition between the alluvium and karst. This is important for highlighting the proximity of the saturated alluvial sediments to the water-filled caves and conduits. In the unsaturated zone the resistivity imaging differentiated between air- and sediment-filled karst features, and in the saturated zone it mapped the location of possible water- and sediment-filled caves. Groundwater levels are dynamic and respond quickly to changes in the river stage, implying that there is a strong hydraulic connection, and that the river is losing and recharging the adjacent aquifer. Groundwater extractions (1,370 ML, megalitres, annually) from the alluvial aquifer can cause the groundwater level to fall by as much as 1.5 m in a year. However, when the Bell River flows after significant rainfall in the upper catchment, river-leakage rapidly recharges the alluvial and karst aquifers. This work demonstrates that in complex hydrogeological settings, the combined use of geophysical imaging, hydrograph analysis and geochemical measurements provide insights on the local karst hydrology and groundwater processes, which will enable better water-resource and karst management.

  2. River-groundwater connectivity in a karst system, Wellington, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mohammadreza; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2016-12-01

    The characterization of river-aquifer connectivity in karst environments is difficult due to the presence of conduits and caves. This work demonstrates how geophysical imaging combined with hydrogeological data can improve the conceptualization of surface-water and groundwater interactions in karst terrains. The objective of this study is to understand the association between the Bell River and karst-alluvial aquifer at Wellington, Australia. River and groundwater levels were continuously monitored, and electrical resistivity imaging and water quality surveys conducted. Two-dimensional resistivity imaging mapped the transition between the alluvium and karst. This is important for highlighting the proximity of the saturated alluvial sediments to the water-filled caves and conduits. In the unsaturated zone the resistivity imaging differentiated between air- and sediment-filled karst features, and in the saturated zone it mapped the location of possible water- and sediment-filled caves. Groundwater levels are dynamic and respond quickly to changes in the river stage, implying that there is a strong hydraulic connection, and that the river is losing and recharging the adjacent aquifer. Groundwater extractions (1,370 ML, megalitres, annually) from the alluvial aquifer can cause the groundwater level to fall by as much as 1.5 m in a year. However, when the Bell River flows after significant rainfall in the upper catchment, river-leakage rapidly recharges the alluvial and karst aquifers. This work demonstrates that in complex hydrogeological settings, the combined use of geophysical imaging, hydrograph analysis and geochemical measurements provide insights on the local karst hydrology and groundwater processes, which will enable better water-resource and karst management.

  3. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source Right Solutions, Concord, California, Now Located... 5, 2012, applicable to workers of Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care...

  4. Specifications and design criteria for innovative corrosion monitoring and (downhole) sensor systems, including sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Kermen. E.

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the corrosion monitoring and corrosion sensor systems, for use in CO2 storage wells, including a sensitivity analysis. The feasibility for using new sensors to measure well integrity based on electrochemical principles is investigated. The use of corrosion sensors in CO2 stora

  5. Multi-Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Microgrid Systems Including Vehicle-to-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of electric vehicles (EVs, this paper establishes the load models of EVs under the autonomous charging mode and the coordinated charging and discharging mode. Integrating the EVs into a microgrid system which includes wind turbines (WTs, photovoltaic arrays (PVs, diesel engines (DEs, fuel cells (FCs and a storage battery (BS, this paper establishes multi-objective economic dispatch models of a microgrid, including the lowest operating cost, the least carbon dioxide emissions, and the lowest pollutant treatment cost. After converting the multi-objective functions to a single objective function by using the judgment matrix method, we analyze the dynamic economic dispatch of the microgrid system including vehicle-to-grid (V2G with an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm under different operation control strategies. With the example system, the proposed models and strategies are verified and analyzed. Simulation results show that the microgrid system with EVs under the coordinated charging and discharging mode has better operation economics than the autonomous charging mode. Meanwhile, the greater the load fluctuation is, the higher the operating cost of the microgrid system is.

  6. Modeling of Groundwater Quantity and Quality Management, Nile Valley, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, R.; Fogg, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater levels have been rising in the Luxor area of Egypt due to increased agricultural irrigation following the construction of the Aswan High Dam (AHD) in 1970. This has led to soil and groundwater salinity problems caused by increasing evapotranspiration from shallower water table, as well as the degradation of historical monuments whose foundations are weakening by capillary rise of water into the columns and stonework. While similar salinity problems exist elsewhere in the world (e.g., San Joaquin Valley of California), we hypothesize that as long as groundwater discharge to the Nile River continues and serves as a sink for the salt, the regional salt balance will be manageable and will not lead to irreversible salinization of soils. Further, we hypothesize that if a groundwater system such as this one becomes overdrafted, thereby cutting off groundwater discharge to the River, the system salt balance will be less manageable and possibly non-sustainable. With groundwater flow modeling we are investigating approaches for managing the irrigation and groundwater levels so as to eliminate water stresses on Egyptian monuments and antiquities. Consequences of possible actions for managing the water table through groundwater pumping and alternative irrigation practices will be presented. Moreover, through the use of high resolution modeling of system heterogeneity, we will simulate the long term salt balance of the system under various scenarios, including the overdraft case. The salt source will be a function of groundwater discharge to the surface via bare-soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The built-in heterogeneity will account for dispersion, fast transport in connected media and slow mass transfer between aquifer and aquitard materials. Key Words: Groundwater, modeling, water quality, sustainability, salinity, irrigated agriculture, Nile aquifer.

  7. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  8. Controls on selenium distribution and mobilization in an irrigated shallow groundwater system underlain by Mancos Shale, Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Taylor J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Thomas, Judith; Keith, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water and groundwater have become a concern in areas of the Western United States due to the deleterious effects of Se on aquatic ecosystems. Elevated Se concentrations are most prevalent in irrigated alluvial valleys underlain by Se-bearing marine shales where Se can be leached from geologic materials into the shallow groundwater and surface water systems. This study presents groundwater chemistry and solid-phase geochemical data from the Uncompahgre River Basin in Western Colorado, an irrigated alluvial landscape underlain by Se-rich Cretaceous marine shale. We analyzed Se species, major and trace elements, and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate in groundwater and aquifer sediments to examine processes governing selenium release and transport in the shallow groundwater system. Groundwater Se concentrations ranged from below detection limit (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) to 4070 μg L{sup −1}, and primarily are controlled by high groundwater nitrate concentrations that maintain oxidizing conditions in the aquifer despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations. High nitrate concentrations in non-irrigated soils and nitrate isotopes indicate nitrate is largely derived from natural sources in the Mancos Shale and alluvial material. Thus, in contrast to areas that receive substantial NO{sub 3} inputs through inorganic fertilizer application, Se mitigation efforts that involve limiting NO{sub 3} application might have little impact on groundwater Se concentrations in the study area. Soluble salts are the primary source of Se to the groundwater system in the study area at-present, but they constitute a small percentage of the total Se content of core material. Sequential extraction results indicate insoluble Se is likely composed of reduced Se in recalcitrant organic matter or discrete selenide phases. Oxidation of reduced Se species that constitute the majority of the Se pool in the study area could be a potential

  9. S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.

  10. Recent flow regime and sedimentological evolution of a fluvial system as the main factors controlling spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater (Red River, Vietnam)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Larsen, F.; Jakobsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a relationship between geological history, groundwater flow paths and the spatial distribution of arsenic in aquifers of the upper part of the Red River delta in Vietnam. Hydrogeological conditions in the research area are complex. The fining upward sequence of Pleistocene alluvial...... sediments was partially eroded during the Holocene and covered by sand and clay deposited in fluvial environments. Sedimentary processes lead to the development of two flow systems. Shallow groundwater discharges either to the local surface water bodies or, in the areas where low permeable sediments...... isolating Pleistocene and Holocene aquifers were eroded, to the deep groundwater flow system discharging to Red River. Previously reported pattern of arsenic groundwater concentrations decreasing with an increasing sediment age is modified by the observed flow regime. Connection of the younger and older...

  11. Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiles-González, Gabriela; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A; Acosta-González, Gilberto; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D; Brown, Judith K; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Betancourt, Walter Q; Gerba, Charles P; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia

    2017-06-23

    The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.

  12. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  13. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2017-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  14. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2015-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  15. Sensitivity to long-term climate change of subpermafrost groundwater systems in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldorsen, S.; Heim, M.; Dale, A.; Landvik, J.Y.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Leijnse, A.; Salvigsen, O.; Ove Hagen, J.; Banks, D.

    2010-01-01

    Deep subpermafrost aquifers are highly climate-dependent, with the permafrost as an aquitard preventing groundwater recharge and discharge. A study from the high-arctic island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, shows that during a glacial to interglacial phase, both the permafrost and the glacier regime will

  16. Reducing nitrate leaching to groundwater in an intensive dairy farming system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.; Boumans, L.J.M.; Keulen, van H.; Oenema, J.; Hilhorst, G.J.; Aarts, H.F.M.; Sebek, L.B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Dairy farming is one of the main contributors to nitrate leaching to groundwater, particularly on soils that are susceptible to leaching, such as light well-drained sandy soils. In the Netherlands, as in many other European countries, these soils are predominantly used for dairy farming. A prototype

  17. Risk assessment of three fluoroquinolone antibiotics in the groundwater recharge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoli; Liu, Xiang; Tartakevosky, Daniel; Li, Miao

    2016-11-01

    Three fluoroquinolone antibiotics agents (FQs) in groundwater and reclaimed water have been investigated in Changzhou and Beijing, China. The occurrence of ofloxacin (OFL), enrofloxacin (ENR) and norfloxacin (NOR) is in nanograms per liter and has 100% frequency. The concentration order of FQs in reclaimed water is NOR>OFL>ENR, whilst the order in groundwater is NOR>ENR>OFL. And then the single and mixture adsorption-desorption have been studied and showed that (i) silty clay loam has higher sorption capacity than loamy sand, (ii) competitive adsorption exists when the three selected FQs coexist, (iii) ENR has a significantly priority sorption to NOR, whilst OFL has a least sorption among the mixture, (iv) there is no significant difference between the desorption results of mixture and the indivdual compound in relatively low concentration, (v) the formed chemical bonds and the irreversible combination of adsorption point are the significant influential factors for explaining desorption hysteresis of the selected FQs. Based on the above study, transport model and risk quotient have been performed, and the calculated risk quotient reveals that: (i) the selected FQs risk order in reclaimed water is OFL>ENR>NOR, (ii) in groundwater, OFL and ENR pose a higher risk than NOR no matter whether considering the long time groundwater recharge. This study will help policy makers to decide which FQs need to be covered in the priority substance lists defined in legislative frameworks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Sensitivity to long-term climate change of subpermafrost groundwater systems in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldorsen, S.; Heim, M.; Dale, A.; Landvik, J.Y.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Leijnse, A.; Salvigsen, O.; Ove Hagen, J.; Banks, D.

    2010-01-01

    Deep subpermafrost aquifers are highly climate-dependent, with the permafrost as an aquitard preventing groundwater recharge and discharge. A study from the high-arctic island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, shows that during a glacial to interglacial phase, both the permafrost and the glacier regime will

  19. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  20. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnese, Frank A.; O'Brien, G. M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this 'second-generation' regional model was to enhance the knowledge an understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-state representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is situated within the southern Great Basin, a subprovince of the Basin and Range physiographic province, bounded by latitudes 35 degrees north and 38 degrees 15 minutes north and by longitudes 115 and 118 degrees west. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the arid climatic conditions and the complex geology. Ground-water flow generally can be described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as

  1. Effect of groundwater recycle system on nitrate load distribution in an agricultural island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J.; Onodera, S. I.; Jin, G.; Saito, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Matsumori, K.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the major elements for crops, nitrogen directly affects the agricultural production. However, the excess application of fertilizers leads to a lot of environmental problems such as groundwater and surface water contamination. Especially, groundwater contamination by nitrate (NO3-) has been an important issue in agriculture areas. Ikuchijima Island, located on the Seto Inland Sea of western Japan is one of the most famous and important agricultural island in Japan, with citrus groves cover 42% of the island. Groundwater is one of important water resources in the area because of low annual rainfall and relatively high risk of drought in the area. To maintain and improve crop yields, nitrogen fertilizer is applied over the whole year at a rate of 2,400 kg ha-1 yr-1. Consequently, most of the groundwater of the agricultural area are significantly contaminated by NO3-, and are considered in "eutrophic" condition. Therefore, the recycle of high NO3- groundwater to the irrigation on the catchment scale is effective strategy for saving both fertilizer usage and groundwater resource in the area. In this study, we estimated nitrogen load from the catchments in Ikuchijima Island using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Especially, we tried to simulate the effect of reducing fertilizer application on nitrogen load assumed the recycle of NO3- in groundwater. The results showed that NO3- loads were highest near the coastal areas, which is related to the distribution of citrus farms. 42% of nitrogen load was from citrus farms in the north region of the island, and it ups to 60 % in the south reg